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Sample records for biocompatible materials

  1. Biocompatibility of prosthodontic materials and test methods

    OpenAIRE

    İrem Türkcan; Asude Dilek Nalbant

    2016-01-01

    Various materials with different features and content are widely used in dentistry. While fulfilling their aesthetic and functional tasks, these materials are in contact with oral tissues and fluids. Therefore, besides physical and mechanical properties, biocompatibility also is a required property for these materials. Biomaterials are non-vital materials placed on or inside the human body, and interact with biological systems. Dental materials placed in the mouth are also considered as bioma...

  2. [Biocompatibility of dental materials: Part 2. Materials with mucosal contact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klötzer, W T; Reuling, N

    1990-08-01

    Dental materials which are supposed to contact the oral, mucous membranes during their intended dental use may affect our patients health in different ways. Their local and systemic toxicity, and their allergenic and tumorigenic potential are reviewed and methods of biocompatibility testing discussed. Special emphasis is placed on impression materials, denture base resins and dental alloys. PMID:2269166

  3. Material Biocompatibility for PCR Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2010-04-23

    As part of the current miniaturization trend, biological reactions and processes are being adapted to microfluidics devices. PCR is the primary method employed in DNA amplification, its miniaturization is central to efforts to develop portable devices for diagnostics and testing purposes. A problem is the PCR-inhibitory effect due to interaction between PCR reagents and the surrounding environment, which effect is increased in high-surface-are-to-volume ration microfluidics. In this study, we evaluated the biocompatibility of various common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, whereas they did show noticeable interaction with the DNA polymerase. Our test, instead of using microfluidic devices, can be easily conducted in common PCR tubes using a standard bench thermocycler. Our data supports an overview of the means by which the materials most bio-friendly to microfluidics can be selected.

  4. BIOCOMPATIBLE FLUORESCENT MICROSPHERES: SAFE PARTICLES FOR MATERIAL PENETRATION STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquar, G; Leif, R

    2009-07-15

    Biocompatible polymers with hydrolyzable chemical bonds have been used to produce safe, non-toxic fluorescent microspheres for material penetration studies. The selection of polymeric materials depends on both biocompatibility and processability, with tailored fluorescent properties depending on specific applications. Microspheres are composed of USFDA-approved biodegradable polymers and non-toxic fluorophores and are therefore suitable for tests where human exposure is possible. Micropheres were produced which contain unique fluorophores to enable discrimination from background aerosol particles. Characteristics that affect dispersion and adhesion can be modified depending on use. Several different microsphere preparation methods are possible, including the use of a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG), a Sono-Tek atomizer, an emulsion technique, and inkjet printhead. Applications for the fluorescent microspheres include challenges for biodefense system testing, calibrants for biofluorescence sensors, and particles for air dispersion model validation studies.

  5. Analyze of histopathelogical for medical devices and biological material on biocompatibility evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Wei; JIANG Hua; WANG Li; GUAN Jing-fang; SHI Hong-dao

    2001-01-01

    @@ The toxicity and biocompatibility of medical devices and biological material areprominent facts in evaluation of the material. There are two major methods to evaluate the biocompatibility of biological materials . one kind is to do vivo. The materialor extracts are used to study the effect of the material on the growth, metabolismand proliferation of the histocyte.

  6. Fabrication of Biocompatible, Vibrational Magnetoelastic Materials for Controlling Cellular Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak M. Rajachar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the functionalization of magnetoelastic (ME materials with Parylene-C coating to improve the surface reactivity to cellular response. Previous study has demonstrated that vibrating ME materials were capable of modulating cellular adhesion when activated by an externally applied AC magnetic field. However, since ME materials are not inherently biocompatible, surface modifications are needed for their implementation in biological settings. Here, the long-term stability of the ME material in an aqueous and biological environment is achieved by chemical-vapor deposition of a conformal Parylene-C layer, and further functionalized by methods of oxygen plasma etching and protein adsorption. In vitro cytotoxicity measurement and characterization of the vibrational behavior of the ME materials showed that Parylene-C coatings of 10 µm or greater could prevent hydrolytic degradation without sacrificing the vibrational behavior of the ME material. This work allows for long-term durability and functionality of ME materials in an aqueous and biological environment and makes the potential use of this technology in monitoring and modulating cellular behavior at the surface of implantable devices feasible.

  7. Effect of microwave power on EPR spectra of natural and synthetic dental biocompatible materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczyk Jakub

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paramagnetic centers in the two exemplary synthetic and natural dental biocompatible materials applied in implantology were examined by the use of an X-band (9.3 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. The EPR spectra were measured in the range of microwave power 2.2–70 mW. The aims of this work were to compare paramagnetic centers concentrations in different dental biocompatible materials and to determine the effect of microwave power on parameters of their EPR spectra. It is the very first and innovatory examination of paramagnetic centers in these materials. It was pointed out that paramagnetic centers existed in both natural (~1018 spin/g and synthetic (~1019 spin/g dental biocompatible materials, but the lower free radical concentration characterized the natural sample. Continuous microwave saturation of EPR spectra indicated that faster spin-lattice relaxation processes existed in synthetic dental biocompatible materials than in natural material. Linewidths (ΔBpp of the EPR spectra of the natural dental material slightly increased for the higher microwave powers. Such effect was not observed for the synthetic material. The broad EPR lines (ΔBpp: 2.4 mT, 3.9 mT, were measured for the natural and synthetic dental materials, respectively. Probably strong dipolar interactions between paramagnetic centers in the studied samples may be responsible for their line broadening. EPR spectroscopy is the useful experimental method in the examination of paramagnetic centers in dental biocompatible materials.

  8. Biocompatibility of coronary stent materials: effect of electrochemical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheerder, I. de [University Hospital Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Cardiology; Sohier, J.; Froyen, L.; Humbeeck, J. van [Louvain Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; Verbeken, E. [University Hospital Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Pathology

    2001-02-01

    Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Revascularization (PTCR) is now a widely accepted treatment modality for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Current multicenter randomized trials comparing PTCR with the more invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting could not show long-term significant survival differences. During the last two decades progress has been made to further optimize PTCR. The most logic approach to treat atherosclerotic coronary narrowings is to remove the atherosclerotic material using especially developed devices. Several trials, however, could not show a significant beneficial outcome after use of these devices compared to plain old balloon angioplasty. Another approach was to implant a coronary prothesis (stent), scaffolding the diseased coronary artery after PTCA. This approach resulted in a decreased restenosis rate at follow-up. The beneficial effects of stenting, however, was not found to be related to the inhibition of the neointimal cellular proliferation after vascular injury, but simply to be the mechanical result of overstretching of the treated vessel segment. The most important remaining clinical problem after stenting remains the neointimal hyperplasia within the stent, resulting in a significant stent narrowing in 13 to 30% of patients. Further efforts to improve the clinical results of coronary stenting should focus on the reduction of this neointimal hyperplasia. Neointimal hyperplasia after stent implantation results from (1) a healting response to the injury caused by the stent implantation and (2) a foreign body response to the stent itself. Factors that seem to influence the neointimal hyperplastic response are genetic, local disease related, stent delivery related and stent related factors. Biocompatibilisation of coronary stents by looking for more biocompatible metal alloys, optimized surface characteristics and optimized stent designs should result in a better late patency. Furthermore drug eluting and radioactive stents

  9. The Use of Nanoscaled Fibers or Tubes to Improve Biocompatibility and Bioactivity of Biomedical Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibers and nanotubes have recently gained substantial interest for potential applications in tissue engineering due to their large ratio of surface area to volume and unique microstructure. It has been well proved that the mechanical property of matrix could be largely enhanced by the addition of nanoscaled fibers or tubes. At present, more and more researches have shown that the biocompatibility and bioactivity of biomedical materials could be improved by the addition of nanofibers or nanotubes. In this review, the efforts using nanofibers and nanotubes to improve biocompatibility and bioactivity of biomedical materials, including polymeric nanofibers/nanotubes, metallic nanofibers/nanotubes, and inorganic nanofibers/nanotubes, as well as their researches related, are demonstrated in sequence. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of improving biocompatibility and bioactivity of biomedical materials by nanofibers or nanotubes has been speculated to be that the specific protein absorption on the nanoscaled fibers or tubes plays important roles.

  10. Biocompatibility of dental materials used in contemporary endodontic therapy: a review. Part 2. Root-canal-filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauman, C H J; Love, R M

    2003-03-01

    Root-canal-filling materials are either placed directly onto vital periapical tissues or may leach through dentine. The tissue response to these materials therefore becomes important and may influence the outcome of endodontic treatment. This paper is a review of the biocompatibility of contemporary orthograde and retrograde root-canal-filling materials.

  11. Tissue reaction to sealing materials: different view at biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanaati S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biodegradability of root canal sealers in areas other than the root canal system is crucial to the overall success rate of endodontic treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate, the cell and tissue reaction to GuttaFlow and AHPlus, both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments the materials were incubated with Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts and cell proliferation and cytotoxicity analyses were performed. Additional fluorescence-microscope stainings were carried out in order to visualize cell growth and morphology. For assessment of the tissue reaction to the materials a subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats was employed and the inflammatory response to the materials was visualized by means of general and specific histology after 6 weeks. Human gingival fibroblasts proliferation seemed to be dependent upon dental material and cultivation time. After an incubation period of 96 hrs AHPlus proved to be significantly (p

  12. Novel Biocompatible Material Based on Solid-State Modified Chitosan for Laser Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    P.S. Timashev; K.N. Bardakova; Т.S. Demina; G.I. Pudovkina; М.М. Novikov; М.А. Markov; D.S. Asyutin; L.F. Pimenova; Е.А. Svidchenko; А.М. Ermakov; I. I. Selezneva; V.К. Popov; N.А. Konovalov; Т.А. Akopova; А.B. Solovieva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to develop a novel biodegradable material based on chitosan synthesized by solid-state technoogy, and to create based on biocompatible three-dimensional cell-carrying scaffolds using laser stereolithography. Materials and Methods. Reactive systems were developed based on chitosan grafted with allyl, polyethylene glycol diacrylate, and the photoinitiator Irgacure 2959. The structures were obtained using laser stereolithography setting LS-120 (Institute on L...

  13. Biocompatibility of Tri-block Bone-matrix Material in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Deyu; ZHENG Qixin; HAO Jie; GUO Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility of poly(lactic acid/glycolic acid/ asparagic acid-copolyethylene glycol)(PLGA-[ASP-PEG]) tri-block copolymer in vitro, L929 fibroblast was co-cultured with the copolymer for cytotoxicity, hemolysis and pyrogen tests. And, compared with PLGA, the adhesiveness rate of the copolymer was calculated. The experimental results show that the toxicity gradation of the material was 0-1; L929 fibroblasts had a good cell morphology and proliferated rapidly on the surface of the material; hemolysis ratio was 3.08%; there was no pyrogen reaction. The adhesiveness of PLGA-[ASP-PEG] was better than that of the PLGA's(P<0.05). The results confirm that the PLGA-[ASP-PEG] has a good biocompatibility.

  14. Novel Biocompatible Material Based on Solid-State Modified Chitosan for Laser Stereolithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Timashev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to develop a novel biodegradable material based on chitosan synthesized by solid-state technoogy, and to create based on biocompatible three-dimensional cell-carrying scaffolds using laser stereolithography. Materials and Methods. Reactive systems were developed based on chitosan grafted with allyl, polyethylene glycol diacrylate, and the photoinitiator Irgacure 2959. The structures were obtained using laser stereolithography setting LS-120 (Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia. Results. Partial replacement of chitosan amino groups by allyl groups (CТ-А and the introduction of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA as a crosslinking agent were found not to reduce the material biocompatibility. The metabolic activity determination of NCTC L929 cells using MTT assay showed that the samples under study to contain none water-soluble components toxic to mammalian cells. The samples based on CT-A and CT-A with a crosslinking agent PEG-DA are biocompatible and are able to support adhesion, spreading and proliferative activity of human mesenchymal stromal cells, but have significant differences in the extent and nature of the expression activation of gene markers for osteogenic differentiation path.

  15. Research on the preparation, biocompatibility and bioactivity of magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsheng, Li; Guoxiang, Lin; Lihui, Li

    2016-08-12

    In this paper, magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite composite material was prepared by electrophoretic deposition method. The optimal process parameters of electrophoretic deposition were HA suspension concentration of 0.02 kg/L, aging time of 10 days and voltage of 60 V. Animal experiment and SBF immersion experiment were used to test the biocompatibility and bioactivity of this material respectively. The SD rats were divided into control group and implant group. The implant surrounding tissue was taken to do tissue biopsy, HE dyed and organizational analysis after a certain amount of time in the SD rat body. The biological composite material was soaked in SBF solution under homeothermic condition. After 40 days, the bioactivity of the biological composite material was evaluated by testing the growth ability of apatite on composite material. The experiment results showed that magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite biological composite material was successfully prepared by electrophoretic deposition method. Tissue hyperplasia, connective tissue and new blood vessels appeared in the implant surrounding soft tissue. No infiltration of inflammatory cells of lymphocytes and megakaryocytes around the implant was found. After soaked in SBF solution, a layer bone-like apatite was found on the surface of magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite biological composite material. The magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite biological composite material could promot calcium deposition and induce bone-like apatite formation with no cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility and bioactivity.

  16. Research on the preparation, biocompatibility and bioactivity of magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsheng, Li; Guoxiang, Lin; Lihui, Li

    2016-08-12

    In this paper, magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite composite material was prepared by electrophoretic deposition method. The optimal process parameters of electrophoretic deposition were HA suspension concentration of 0.02 kg/L, aging time of 10 days and voltage of 60 V. Animal experiment and SBF immersion experiment were used to test the biocompatibility and bioactivity of this material respectively. The SD rats were divided into control group and implant group. The implant surrounding tissue was taken to do tissue biopsy, HE dyed and organizational analysis after a certain amount of time in the SD rat body. The biological composite material was soaked in SBF solution under homeothermic condition. After 40 days, the bioactivity of the biological composite material was evaluated by testing the growth ability of apatite on composite material. The experiment results showed that magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite biological composite material was successfully prepared by electrophoretic deposition method. Tissue hyperplasia, connective tissue and new blood vessels appeared in the implant surrounding soft tissue. No infiltration of inflammatory cells of lymphocytes and megakaryocytes around the implant was found. After soaked in SBF solution, a layer bone-like apatite was found on the surface of magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite biological composite material. The magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite biological composite material could promot calcium deposition and induce bone-like apatite formation with no cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility and bioactivity. PMID:27567779

  17. [Electrochemical properties of biocompatible material hardness modifications on titanium and steel under mechanical loads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, W; Walter, U; Holbein, R; Thull, R

    2005-04-01

    Friction corrosion may appear between different implant components or between implant and hard tissue. The sliding micro movements induce fretting wear corrosion and have been recently reported as a cause of joint prostheses failure. A surface coating is desirable, that retains the mechanical properties of the substrate, offers good biocompatibility and improves the fretting corrosion resistance. In this study it could be demonstrated that tantalum and niobium coatings fulfill the requirements. On titanium substrates the coating decreases the abrasion against PMMA, an orthopedic relevant material. Furthermore, in the case of medical steel substrates the biocompatibility and the corrosion properties are improved. The better abrasion-resistance is minimizing the release of allergological critical particles like nickel and chromium. PMID:15884706

  18. Dissolution chemistry and biocompatibility of single-crystalline silicon nanomembranes and associated materials for transient electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Suk-Won; Park, Gayoung; Edwards, Chris; Corbin, Elise A; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Cheng, Huanyu; Song, Jun-Kyul; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Yu, Sooyoun; Ng, Joanne; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Jiyoung; Yee, Cassian; Bhaduri, Basanta; Su, Yewang; Omennetto, Fiorenzo G; Huang, Yonggang; Bashir, Rashid; Goddard, Lynford; Popescu, Gabriel; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Rogers, John A

    2014-06-24

    Single-crystalline silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) represent a critically important class of material for high-performance forms of electronics that are capable of complete, controlled dissolution when immersed in water and/or biofluids, sometimes referred to as a type of "transient" electronics. The results reported here include the kinetics of hydrolysis of Si NMs in biofluids and various aqueous solutions through a range of relevant pH values, ionic concentrations and temperatures, and dependence on dopant types and concentrations. In vitro and in vivo investigations of Si NMs and other transient electronic materials demonstrate biocompatibility and bioresorption, thereby suggesting potential for envisioned applications in active, biodegradable electronic implants.

  19. Biocompatibilidade dos materiais em Ortodontia: mito ou realidade? Biocompatibility of orthodontic materials: myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Macedo de Menezes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma revisão sobre os conceitos relacionados à biocompatibilidade dos materiais empregados em Ortodontia. Fatos relacionados às reações de hipersensibilidade aos diversos materiais ortodônticos são discutidos, sendo apresentadas as condutas recomendáveis nestas situações.The aim of this paper is to present a review on the biocompatibility of orthodontic materials. Hypersensitivity reactions to these materials are discussed and the recommended conduct in this kind of situation are presented.

  20. Biocompatible self-assembly of nano-materials for Bio-MEMS and insect reconnaissance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozik, Susan Marie; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Dunphy, Darren Robert; Sinclair, Michael B.; Manginell, Monica; Ashley, Carlee E. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Werner-Washburne, Margaret C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Calvert, Paul Davidson (University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth, Dartmouth, MA); Hartenberger, Tamara N.; Flemming, Jeb Hunter; Baca, Helen Kennicott (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the development of new biocompatible self-assembly procedures enabling the immobilization of genetically engineered cells in a compact, self-sustaining, remotely addressable sensor platform. We used evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) to immobilize cells within periodic silica nanostructures, characterized by unimodal pore sizes and pore connectivity, that can be patterned using ink-jet printing or photo patterning. We constructed cell lines for the expression of fluorescent proteins and induced reporter protein expression in immobilized cells. We investigated the role of the abiotic/biotic interface during cell-mediated self-assembly of synthetic materials.

  1. Use of cortical neuronal networks for in vitro material biocompatibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkhkar, Hamid; Frewin, Christopher; Nezafati, Maysam; Knaack, Gretchen L; Peixoto, Nathalia; Saddow, Stephen E; Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2014-03-15

    Neural interfaces aim to restore neurological function lost during disease or injury. Novel implantable neural interfaces increasingly capitalize on novel materials to achieve microscale coupling with the nervous system. Like any biomedical device, neural interfaces should consist of materials that exhibit biocompatibility in accordance with the international standard ISO10993-5, which describes in vitro testing involving fibroblasts where cytotoxicity serves as the main endpoint. In the present study, we examine the utility of living neuronal networks as functional assays for in vitro material biocompatibility, particularly for materials that comprise implantable neural interfaces. Embryonic mouse cortical tissue was cultured to form functional networks where spontaneous action potentials, or spikes, can be monitored non-invasively using a substrate-integrated microelectrode array. Taking advantage of such a platform, we exposed established positive and negative control materials to the neuronal networks in a consistent method with ISO 10993-5 guidance. Exposure to the negative controls, gold and polyethylene, did not significantly change the neuronal activity whereas the positive controls, copper and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), resulted in reduction of network spike rate. We also compared the functional assay with an established cytotoxicity measure using L929 fibroblast cells. Our findings indicate that neuronal networks exhibit enhanced sensitivity to positive control materials. In addition, we assessed functional neurotoxicity of tungsten, a common microelectrode material, and two conducting polymer formulations that have been used to modify microelectrode properties for in vivo recording and stimulation. These data suggest that cultured neuronal networks are a useful platform for evaluating the functional toxicity of materials intended for implantation in the nervous system.

  2. Biocompatibility of dental materials used in contemporary endodontic therapy: a review. Part 1. Intracanal drugs and substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauman, C H J; Love, R M

    2003-02-01

    Irrigation solutions and intracanal medicaments are used within the root canal to clean and aid in disinfecting the dentinal walls. Although these materials are intended to be contained within the root canal, they invariably contact the periapical tissues, either through inadvertent extrusion through the apex or leaching. This paper is a review on the methodology involved in biocompatibility testing followed by a discussion on biocompatibility of contemporary intracanal drugs and substances used in endodontics.

  3. "Green" electronics: biodegradable and biocompatible materials and devices for sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia-Vladu, Mihai

    2014-01-21

    "Green" electronics represents not only a novel scientific term but also an emerging area of research aimed at identifying compounds of natural origin and establishing economically efficient routes for the production of synthetic materials that have applicability in environmentally safe (biodegradable) and/or biocompatible devices. The ultimate goal of this research is to create paths for the production of human- and environmentally friendly electronics in general and the integration of such electronic circuits with living tissue in particular. Researching into the emerging class of "green" electronics may help fulfill not only the original promise of organic electronics that is to deliver low-cost and energy efficient materials and devices but also achieve unimaginable functionalities for electronics, for example benign integration into life and environment. This Review will highlight recent research advancements in this emerging group of materials and their integration in unconventional organic electronic devices.

  4. Biocompatible medical implant materials with binding sites for a biodegradable drug-delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dubai H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Haifa Al-Dubai1, Gisela Pittner1, Fritz Pittner1, Franz Gabor21Max F Perutz Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: Feasibility studies have been carried out for development of a biocompatible coating of medical implant materials allowing the binding of biodegradable drug-delivery systems in a way that their reloading might be possible. These novel coatings, able to bind biodegradable nanoparticles, may serve in the long run as drug carriers to mediate local pharmacological activity. After biodegradation of the nanoparticles, the binding sites could be reloaded with fresh drug-delivering particles. As a suitable receptor system for the nanoparticles, antibodies are anchored. The design of the receptor is of great importance as any bio- or chemorecognitive interaction with other components circulating in the blood has to be avoided. Furthermore, the binding between receptor and the particles has to be strong enough to keep them tightly bound during their lifetime, but on the other hand allow reloading after final degradation of the particles. The nanoparticles suggested as a drug-delivery system for medical implants can be loaded with different pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics, growth factors, or immunosuppressives. This concept may enable the changing of medication, even after implantation of the medical device, if afforded by patients’ needs.Keywords: antibody immobilization, biocompatible coating, chitosan nanoparticles, drug targeting, medical device

  5. Entrapping quercetin in silica/polyethylene glycol hybrid materials: Chemical characterization and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona; Pacifico, Severina

    2016-11-01

    Sol-gel synthesis was exploited to entrap quercetin, a natural occurring antioxidant polyphenol, in silica-based hybrid materials, which differed in their polyethylene glycol (PEG) content (6, 12, 24 and 50wt%). The materials obtained, whose nano-composite nature was ascertained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were chemically characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopies. The results prove that a reaction between the polymer and the drug occurred. Bioactivity tests showed their ability to induce hydroxyapatite nucleation on the sample surfaces. The direct contact method was applied to screen the cytotoxicity of the synthetized materials towards fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells, commonly used for in vitro biocompatibility studies, and three nervous system cell lines (neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, glioma U251, and pheochromocytoma PC12 cell lines), adopted as models in oxidative stress related studies. Using the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay NIH 3T3 proliferation was assessed and the morphology was not compromised by direct exposure to the materials. Analogously, PC-12, and U-251 cell lines were not affected by new materials. SH-SY5Y appeared to be the most sensitive cell line with cytotoxic effects of 20-35%. PMID:27524014

  6. Reducing the cytotoxicity of inhalable engineered nanoparticles via in situ passivation with biocompatible materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The cytotoxicity of model welding particles was modulated through in situ passivation. • Model welding particles were incorporated with chitosan nanoparticles for passivation. • In vitro assay revealed that the passivated particles had a lower cytotoxicity. • Passivation with chitosan adhesive or graphite paste could also reduce cytotoxicity. • This method would be suitable for efficient reduction of inhalable toxic components. - Abstract: The cytotoxicity of model welding nanoparticles was modulated through in situ passivation with soluble biocompatible materials. A passivation process consisting of a spark discharge particle generator coupled to a collison atomizer as a co-flow or counter-flow configuration was used to incorporate the model nanoparticles with chitosan. The tested model welding nanoparticles are inhaled and that A549 cells are a human lung epithelial cell line. Measurements of in vitro cytotoxicity in A549 cells revealed that the passivated nanoparticles had a lower cytotoxicity (>65% in average cell viability, counter-flow) than the untreated model nanoparticles. Moreover, the co-flow incorporation between the nanoparticles and chitosan induced passivation of the nanoparticles, and the average cell viability increased by >80% compared to the model welding nanoparticles. As a more convenient way (additional chitosan generation and incorporation devices may not be required), other passivation strategies through a modification of the welding rod with chitosan adhesive and graphite paste did also enhance average cell viability (>58%). The approach outlined in this work is potentially generalizable as a new platform, using only biocompatible materials in situ, to treat nanoparticles before they are inhaled

  7. Reducing the cytotoxicity of inhalable engineered nanoparticles via in situ passivation with biocompatible materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon, E-mail: postjb@yu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Iowa, IA 52242 (United States); Roberts, Jeffrey T., E-mail: jtrob@purdue.edu [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The cytotoxicity of model welding particles was modulated through in situ passivation. • Model welding particles were incorporated with chitosan nanoparticles for passivation. • In vitro assay revealed that the passivated particles had a lower cytotoxicity. • Passivation with chitosan adhesive or graphite paste could also reduce cytotoxicity. • This method would be suitable for efficient reduction of inhalable toxic components. - Abstract: The cytotoxicity of model welding nanoparticles was modulated through in situ passivation with soluble biocompatible materials. A passivation process consisting of a spark discharge particle generator coupled to a collison atomizer as a co-flow or counter-flow configuration was used to incorporate the model nanoparticles with chitosan. The tested model welding nanoparticles are inhaled and that A549 cells are a human lung epithelial cell line. Measurements of in vitro cytotoxicity in A549 cells revealed that the passivated nanoparticles had a lower cytotoxicity (>65% in average cell viability, counter-flow) than the untreated model nanoparticles. Moreover, the co-flow incorporation between the nanoparticles and chitosan induced passivation of the nanoparticles, and the average cell viability increased by >80% compared to the model welding nanoparticles. As a more convenient way (additional chitosan generation and incorporation devices may not be required), other passivation strategies through a modification of the welding rod with chitosan adhesive and graphite paste did also enhance average cell viability (>58%). The approach outlined in this work is potentially generalizable as a new platform, using only biocompatible materials in situ, to treat nanoparticles before they are inhaled.

  8. Novel biocompatible polymeric blends for bone regeneration: Material and matrix design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Meng

    The first part of the work presented in this dissertation is focused on the design and development of novel miscible and biocompatible polyphosphazene-polyester blends as candidate materials for scaffold-based bone tissue engineering applications. Biodegradable polyesters such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) are among the most widely used polymeric materials for bone tissue engineering. However, acidic degradation products resulting from the bulk degradation mechanism often lead to catastrophic failure of the structure integrity, and adversely affect biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. One promising approach to circumvent these limitations is to blend PLAGA with other macromolecules that can buffer the acidic degradation products with a controlled degradation rate. Biodegradable polyphosphazenes (PPHOS), a new class of biomedical materials, have proved to be superior candidate materials to achieve this objective due to their unique buffering degradation products. A highly practical blending approach was adopted to develop novel biocompatible, miscible blends of these two polymers. In order to achieve this miscibility, a series of amino acid ester, alkoxy, aryloxy, and dipeptide substituted PPHOS were synthesized to promote hydrogen bonding interactions with PLAGA. Five mixed-substituent PPHOS compositions were designed and blended with PLAGA at different weight ratios producing candidate blends via a mutual solvent method. Preliminary characterization identified two specific side groups namely glycylglycine dipeptide and phenylphenoxy that resulted in improved blend miscibility and enhanced in vitro osteocompatibility. These findings led to the synthesis of a mixed-substituent polyphosphazene poly[(glycine ethyl glycinato)1(phenylphenoxy)1phosphazene] (PNGEGPhPh) for blending with PLAGA. Two dipeptide-based blends having weight ratios of PNGEGPhPh to PLAGA namely 25:75 (Matrix1) and 50:50 (Matrix2) were fabricated. Both of the blends were

  9. Ultrashort pulse laser processing of hard tissue, dental restoration materials, and biocompatibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, A.; Strassl, M.; Beer, F.; Verhagen, L.; Wittschier, M.; Wintner, E.

    2007-07-01

    During the last few years, ultra-short laser pulses have proven their potential for application in medical tissue treatment in many ways. In hard tissue ablation, their aptitude for material ablation with negligible collateral damage provides many advantages. Especially teeth representing an anatomically and physiologically very special region with less blood circulation and lower healing rates than other tissues require most careful treatment. Hence, overheating of the pulp and induction of microcracks are some of the most problematic issues in dental preparation. Up till now it was shown by many authors that the application of picosecond or femtosecond pulses allows to perform ablation with very low damaging potential also fitting to the physiological requirements indicated. Beside the short interaction time with the irradiated matter, scanning of the ultra-short pulse trains turned out to be crucial for ablating cavities of the required quality. One main reason for this can be seen in the fact that during scanning the time period between two subsequent pulses incident on the same spot is so much extended that no heat accumulation effects occur and each pulse can be treated as a first one with respect to its local impact. Extension of this advantageous technique to biocompatible materials, i.e. in this case dental restoration materials and titanium plasma-sprayed implants, is just a matter of consequence. Recently published results on composites fit well with earlier data on dental hard tissue. In case of plaque which has to be removed from implants, it turns out that removal of at least the calcified version is harder than tissue removal. Therefore, besides ultra-short lasers, also Diode and Neodymium lasers, in cw and pulsed modes, have been studied with respect to plaque removal and sterilization. The temperature increase during laser exposure has been experimentally evaluated in parallel.

  10. Enhanced biocompatibility and antibacterial property of polyurethane materials modified with citric acid and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Ming; Wu, Xing-Ze; Qiu, Yun-Ren

    2016-08-01

    Citric acid (CA) and chitosan (CS) were covalently immobilized on polyurethane (PU) materials to improve the biocompatibility and antibacterial property. The polyurethane pre-polymer with isocyanate group was synthesized by one pot method, and then grafted with citric acid, followed by blending with polyethersulfone (PES) to prepare the blend membrane by phase-inversion method so that chitosan can be grafted from the membrane via esterification and acylation reactions eventually. The native and modified membranes were characterized by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle measurement, and tensile strength test. Protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, hemolysis assay, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, thrombin time, and adsorption of Ca(2+) were executed to evaluate the blood compatibility of the membranes decorated by CA and CS. Particularly, the antibacterial activities on the modified membranes were evaluated based on a vitro antibacterial test. It could be concluded that the modified membrane had good anticoagulant property and antibacterial property. PMID:27102367

  11. Fine structure analysis of biocompatible ceramic materials based hydroxyapatite and metallic biomaterials 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghelina, F.V.; Ungureanu, D.N.; Bratu, V. [Faculty of Materials Engineering and Mechanics, Valahia University of Targoviste, 18-24 Unirii Bd., 130082 (Romania); Popescu, I.N., E-mail: pinicoleta24@yahoo.com [Faculty of Materials Engineering and Mechanics, Valahia University of Targoviste, 18-24 Unirii Bd., 130082 (Romania); Rusanescu, C.O. [Politehnica University, 060042 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this paper was to obtain and characterize (surface morphology and fine structure) two types of materials: Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} hydroxyapatite powder (HAp) as biocompatible ceramic materials and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steels as metallic biomaterials, which are the components of the metal–ceramic composites used for medical implants in reconstructive surgery and prosthetic treatment. The HAp was synthesized by coprecipitation method, heat treated at 200 °C, 800 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The stainless steel 316L type was made by casting, annealing and machined with a low speed (100 mm/s) in order to obtain a smooth surface and after that has been studied from residual stresses point of view in three polishing regimes conditions: at low speed polishing (150 rpm), at high speed polishing (1500 rpm) and high speed-vibration contact polishing (1500 rpm) using wide angle X-ray diffractions (WAXD). The chemical compositions of AISI 316 steel samples were measured using a Foundry Master Spectrometer equipped with CCD detector for spectral lines and the sparking spots of AISI 316L samples were analyzed using SEM. By XRD the phases of HAp powders have been identified and also the degree of crystallinity and average size of crystallites, and with SEM, we studied the morphology of the HAp. It has been found from XRD analysis that we obtained HAp with a high degree of crystallinity at 800 °C and 1200 °C, no presence of impurity and from SEM analysis we noticed the influence of heat treatment on the ceramic particles morphology. From the study of residual stress profiles of 316L samples were observed that it differs substantially for different machining regimes and from the SEM analysis of sparking spots we revealed the rough surfaces of stainless steel rods necessary for a better adhesion of HAp on it.

  12. Fine structure analysis of biocompatible ceramic materials based hydroxyapatite and metallic biomaterials 316L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to obtain and characterize (surface morphology and fine structure) two types of materials: Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 hydroxyapatite powder (HAp) as biocompatible ceramic materials and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steels as metallic biomaterials, which are the components of the metal–ceramic composites used for medical implants in reconstructive surgery and prosthetic treatment. The HAp was synthesized by coprecipitation method, heat treated at 200 °C, 800 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The stainless steel 316L type was made by casting, annealing and machined with a low speed (100 mm/s) in order to obtain a smooth surface and after that has been studied from residual stresses point of view in three polishing regimes conditions: at low speed polishing (150 rpm), at high speed polishing (1500 rpm) and high speed-vibration contact polishing (1500 rpm) using wide angle X-ray diffractions (WAXD). The chemical compositions of AISI 316 steel samples were measured using a Foundry Master Spectrometer equipped with CCD detector for spectral lines and the sparking spots of AISI 316L samples were analyzed using SEM. By XRD the phases of HAp powders have been identified and also the degree of crystallinity and average size of crystallites, and with SEM, we studied the morphology of the HAp. It has been found from XRD analysis that we obtained HAp with a high degree of crystallinity at 800 °C and 1200 °C, no presence of impurity and from SEM analysis we noticed the influence of heat treatment on the ceramic particles morphology. From the study of residual stress profiles of 316L samples were observed that it differs substantially for different machining regimes and from the SEM analysis of sparking spots we revealed the rough surfaces of stainless steel rods necessary for a better adhesion of HAp on it.

  13. One-step synthesis of graphene/polypyrrole nanofiber composites as cathode material for a biocompatible zinc/polymer battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Shu, Kewei; Zhao, Chen; Wang, Caiyun; Guo, Zaiping; Wallace, Gordon; Liu, Hua Kun

    2014-10-01

    The significance of developing implantable, biocompatible, miniature power sources operated in a low current range has become manifest in recent years to meet the demands of the fast-growing market for biomedical microdevices. In this work, we focus on developing high-performance cathode material for biocompatible zinc/polymer batteries utilizing biofluids as electrolyte. Conductive polymers and graphene are generally considered to be biocompatible and suitable for bioengineering applications. To harness the high electrical conductivity of graphene and the redox capability of polypyrrole (PPy), a polypyrrole fiber/graphene composite has been synthesized via a simple one-step route. This composite is highly conductive (141 S cm(-1)) and has a large specific surface area (561 m(2) g(-1)). It performs more effectively as the cathode material than pure polypyrrole fibers. The battery constructed with PPy fiber/reduced graphene oxide cathode and Zn anode delivered an energy density of 264 mWh g(-1) in 0.1 M phosphate-buffer saline.

  14. In vitro biocompatibility evaluation of ePTFE graft with controlled release of heparin from mesoporous material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Zhou, Yu; Yang, Jia yuan; Zhu, Jian hua; Liu, Chang jian

    2012-02-01

    Heparin-loaded mesoporous-expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (ePTFE) vascular prosthesis (HMVP-n) are prepared and the biocompatibility is studied by contact angle, heparin release, platelet resistance, chromogenic assay, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) proliferation and produced-NO function, in order to illustrate the relationship between the performance of artificial vessels and their mesostructure. Through in situ synthesis of mesoporous silica on ePTFE grafts, different mesoporous silica materials can be uniformly coated on the surface as well as the internal fibers of the artificial vessels to give various mesoporous vascular prosthesis, named as MVP-n. Structure analysis through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) analysis and nitrogen sorption experiment indicates that different MVP-n series own the similar nF/nSi ratio of both surface and cross-section, large Brunauer-Emmett-Tellerand (BET) surface area and average pore size located in meso range but different textural properties. Owning to the existence of mesostucture, controlled release and high bioactivity of heparin can be achieved, and the biocompatibility greatly enhance: surface hydrophilicity increases; no adherent platelet was observed on the surface of HMVP-n when they contacted with platelet-enriched plasma; endothelial progenitor cells proliferous potential and produced-NO function exhibit better endothelial coverage of grafts. And the performance is closely related to the mesostructure, suggesting a new way to improve the biocompatibility of biomaterials through controlling their mesostructure.

  15. In vitro biocompatibility evaluation of ePTFE graft with controlled release of heparin from mesoporous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Kun [Department of Vascular Surgery, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhou Yu; Yang Jia yuan; Zhu Jianhua [Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu Changjian, E-mail: cjliu1331@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2012-02-01

    Heparin-loaded mesoporous-expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (ePTFE) vascular prosthesis (HMVP-n) are prepared and the biocompatibility is studied by contact angle, heparin release, platelet resistance, chromogenic assay, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) proliferation and produced-NO function, in order to illustrate the relationship between the performance of artificial vessels and their mesostructure. Through in situ synthesis of mesoporous silica on ePTFE grafts, different mesoporous silica materials can be uniformly coated on the surface as well as the internal fibers of the artificial vessels to give various mesoporous vascular prosthesis, named as MVP-n. Structure analysis through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) analysis and nitrogen sorption experiment indicates that different MVP-n series own the similar n{sub F}/n{sub Si} ratio of both surface and cross-section, large Brunauer-Emmett-Tellerand (BET) surface area and average pore size located in meso range but different textural properties. Owning to the existence of mesostucture, controlled release and high bioactivity of heparin can be achieved, and the biocompatibility greatly enhance: surface hydrophilicity increases; no adherent platelet was observed on the surface of HMVP-n when they contacted with platelet-enriched plasma; endothelial progenitor cells proliferous potential and produced-NO function exhibit better endothelial coverage of grafts. And the performance is closely related to the mesostructure, suggesting a new way to improve the biocompatibility of biomaterials through controlling their mesostructure.

  16. Biocompatibility and characterisation of a candidate microelectrode material for biosensor applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cyster, L A

    2001-01-01

    TiN films. Results demonstrated how the deposition parameters could influence the crystallographic nature of TiN films. The 0.2 and 1.0 mu m Type I TiN and both Type II TiN films were selected to allow comparison oj the influence of surface chemistry versus topography on the biocompatibility of TiN films. Biocompatibility testing using 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and C6 Glial cells showed that at early time points TiN films with increased surface interstitial nitrogen content were more favourable for the attachment of increased numbers of cells. At later time points increased cell spreading was observed on the Type II TiN films indicating that increased grain size and topographical features resulted in increased cell spreading. Investigation of the biocompatibility of the 0.2 and 1.0 mu m Type I TiN films and both Type II TiN films with primary hippocampal neurones showed that surface chemistry with predominantly interstitial nitrogen resulted in neuronal network formation similar to the control substrate. Increased n...

  17. Biocompatibility of intraocular lens materials%人工晶体材料的生物相容性特征★

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洋; 韩宏光

    2013-01-01

      BACKGROUND: The visual recovery and complications of the cataract patients are various after different intraocular lens materials implantation, so the selection of appropriate intraocular lens materials is the key of the research. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the properties and biocompatibility of intraocular lens materials. METHODS: The materials were classified according to the hardness and location of the intraocular lens after implantation in order to analyze the pros and cons of the intraocular lens thus guiding the patients to select the appropriate intraocular lens for implantation. The properties and biocompatibility of the commonly used intraocular lens materials were evaluated. RESUTLS AND CONCLUSION: Polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens is the first choice of rigid material, but it cannot tolerate autoclaving. Acrylic intraocular lens is the soft and foldable intraocular lens that has the similar optical and biological properties with polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens, and it can improve the visual acuity after implantation with less complications. Posterior capsular opacification is the most important indicator for biocompatibility evaluation which is related with the material and design of intraocular lens. The stability of intraocular lens in the capsular bag is also the indicator to evaluate the biocompatibility. The material properties, biocompatibility, and visual function should be taking into consideration in the design and selection of intraocular lens materials. Guarantee the efficacy after intraocular lens implantation and reduce the incidence of complications, so that to get vision rehabilitation for the cataract patients.%  背景:白内障患者植入不同材料人工晶体治疗后的视力恢复情况和并发症有所不同,选择适宜的人工晶体材料是研究的关键。目的:探讨人工晶体材料的特征和生物相容性。方法:按人工晶体的硬度和植入后不同位置将材料进行分类

  18. Novel POSS-PCU Nanocomposite Material as a Biocompatible Coating for Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sarwat B; Yang, Shi Yu; Green, Mark; Keshtgar, Mo; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2015-12-16

    Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent nanoparticles with unique photophysical properties that enable them to potentially replace traditional organic dyes and fluorescent proteins in various bioimaging applications. However, the inherent toxicity of their cores based on cadmium salts limits their widespread biomedical use. We have developed a novel nanocomposite polymer emulsion based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) that can be used to coat quantum dots to nullify their toxicity and enhance photostability. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a novel POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer emulsion and describe its application for coating QDs for biological application. The polymer was synthesized by a process of emulsion polymerization and formed stable micelles of ∼33 nm in diameter. CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs were efficiently stabilized by the polymer emulsion through encapsulation within the polymer micelles. Characterization studies showed no significant change in the unique photophysical properties of QDs after coating. The polymer was biocompatible to HepG2, HUVECs, and mouse skeletal muscle cells at 2.5% after 24 h exposure on in vitro testing. Polymer encapsulated QDs showed enhanced photostability on exposure to high degrees of UV irradiation and air as well as significantly reduced cytotoxicity on exposure to HepG2 cells at 30 μg/mL for 24 h. We have therefore concluded that the POSS-PCU polymer emulsion has the potential to make a biocompatible and photostable coating for QDs enabling a host of biomedical applications to take this technology to the next level. PMID:26439600

  19. Surface engineering of stainless steel materials by covalent collagen immobilization to improve implant biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rainer; Abke, Jochen; Schnell, Edith; Macionczyk, Frank; Gbureck, Uwe; Mehrl, Robert; Ruszczak, Zbigniev; Kujat, Richard; Englert, Carsten; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2005-12-01

    It was shown recently that the deposition of thin films of tantalum and tantalum oxide enhanced the long-term biocompatibility of stainless steel biomaterials due to an increase in their corrosion resistance. In this study, we used this tantalum oxide coating as a basis for covalent immobilization of a collagen layer, which should result in a further improvement of implant tissue integration. Because of the high degradation rate of natural collagen in vivo, covalent immobilization as well as carbodiimide induced cross-linking of the protein was performed. It was found that the combination of the silane-coupling agent aminopropyl triethoxysilane and the linker molecule N,N'-disulphosuccinimidyl suberate was a very effective system for collagen immobilizing. Mechanical and enzymatic stability testing revealed a higher stability of covalent bound collagen layers compared to physically adsorbed collagen layers. The biological response induced by the surface modifications was evaluated by in vitro cell culture with human mesenchymal stem cells as well as by in vivo subcutaneous implantation into nude mice. The presence of collagen clearly improved the cytocompatibility of the stainless steel implants which, nevertheless, significantly depended on the cross-linking degree of the collagen layer. PMID:15967497

  20. Trehalose and Trehalose-based Polymers for Environmentally Benign, Biocompatible and Bioactive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Shibata

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide that is found in many organisms but not in mammals. This sugar plays important roles in cryptobiosis of selaginella mosses, tardigrades (water bears, and other animals which revive with water from a state of suspended animation induced by desiccation. The interesting properties of trehalose are due to its unique symmetrical low-energy structure, wherein two glucose units are bonded face-to-face by 1→1-glucoside links. The Hayashibara Co. Ltd., is credited for developing an inexpensive, environmentally benign and industrial-scale process for the enzymatic conversion of α-1,4-linked polyhexoses to α,α-D-trehalose, which made it easy to explore novel food, industrial, and medicinal uses for trehalose and its derivatives. Trehalosechemistry is a relatively new and emerging field, and polymers of trehalose derivatives appear environmentally benign, biocompatible, and biodegradable. The discriminating properties of trehalose are attributed to its structure, symmetry, solubility, kinetic and thermodynamic stability and versatility. While syntheses of trehalose-based polymer networks can be straightforward, syntheses and characterization of well defined linear polymers with tailored properties using trehalose-based monomers is challenging, and typically involves protection and deprotection of hydroxyl groups to attain desired structural, morphological, biological, and physical and chemical properties in the resulting products. In this review, we will overview known literature on trehalose’s fascinating involvement in cryptobiology; highlight its applications in many fields; and then discuss methods we used to prepare new trehalose-based monomers and polymers and explain their properties.

  1. Venom conjugated polylactide applied as biocompatible material for passive and active immunotherapy against scorpion envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayari-Riabi, Sana; Trimaille, Thomas; Mabrouk, Kamel; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Benlasfar, Zakaria; Zaghmi, Ahlem; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Elayeb, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Scorpion envenoming represents a public health issue in subtropical regions of the world. Treatment and prevention need to promote antitoxin immunity. Preserving antigenic presentation while removing toxin effect remains a major challenge in toxin vaccine development. Among particulate adjuvant, particles prepared with poly (D,L-lactide) polymer are the most extensively investigated due to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. The aim of this study is to develop surfactant-free PLA nanoparticles that safely deliver venom toxic fraction to enhance specific immune response. PLA nanoparticles are coated with AahG50 (AahG50/PLA) and BotG50 (BotG50/PLA): a toxic fraction purified from Androctonus australis hector and Buthus occitanus tunetanus venoms, respectively. Residual toxicities are evaluated following injections of PLA-containing high doses of AahG50 (or BotG50). Immunization trials are performed with the detoxified fraction administered alone without adjuvant. A comparative study of the effect of Freund is also included. The neutralizing capacity of sera is determined in naive mice. Six months later, immunized mice are challenged subcutaneously with increased doses of AahG50. Subcutaneous lethal dose 50 (LD50) of AahG50 and BotG50 is of 575 μg/kg and 1300 μg/kg respectively. By comparison, BotG50/PLA is totally innocuous while 50% of tested mice survive 2875 μg AahG50/kg. Alhydrogel and Freund are not able to detoxify such a high dose. Cross-antigenicity between particulate and soluble fraction is also, ensured. AahG50/PLA and BotG50/PLA induce high antibody levels in mice serum. The neutralizing capacity per mL of anti-venom was 258 μg/mL and 186 μg/mL calculated for anti-AahG50/PLA and anti-BotG50/PLA sera, respectively. Animals immunized with AahG50/PLA are protected against AahG50 injected dose of 3162 μg/kg as opposed all non-immunized mice died at this dose. We find that the detoxification approach based PLA nanoparticles, benefit

  2. Selection of Easily Accessible PCR- and Bio-Compatible Materials for Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Kang

    2013-10-30

    Conventional fabrication of microfluidic chip is a complicated and time, effort and material consuming process. Consequently, due to high expenses, it has poor applicability for performing mass biological analysis by microfluidics. In this study, we repor

  3. Physical properties and biocompatibility of UHMWPE-derived materials modified by synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Iu; Weinhardt, V; Kashkarova, A; Lebedev, S; Baumbach, T; Pichugin, V; Zaitsev, K; Khlusov, I

    2014-08-01

    The applications of synchrotron radiation (SR) in medical imaging have become of great use, particularly in angiography, bronchography, mammography, computed tomography, and X-ray microscopy. Thanks to recently developed phase contrast imaging techniques non-destructive preclinical testing of low absorbing materials such as polymers has become possible. The focus of the present work is characterization and examination of UHMWPE-derived materials widely used in medicine, before and after their exposure to SR during such testing. Physical properties, such as wettability, surface energy, IR-spectroscopy, roughness, optical microscopy, microhardness measurements of UHMWPE samples were studied before and after SR. The relationship between a growth of UHMWPE surface hydrophilicity after SR and surface colonization by stromal cells was studied in vitro. Obtained results demonstrate that SR may be used as prospective direction to examine bulk (porous) structure of polymer materials and/or to modify polymer surface and volume for tissue engineering.

  4. Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Functionalized Nanocellulose Materials and Their Biocompatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Daniel O.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose has received considerable interest during the last decade because it is renewable and biodegradable, and has excellent mechanical properties, nanoscale dimensions and wide functionalization possibilities. It is considered to be a unique and versatile platform on which new functional materials can be based. This thesis focuses on nanocellulose from wood (NFC) and from Cladophora algae (CNC), functionalized with surface charges or coated with the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PP...

  5. Improve the physical and chemical properties of biocompatible polymer material by MeV He ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a high interest in improving the hydrophilicity of polymer surfaces due to their wide use for technological purposes. In this study Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) as a biocompatible material was bombarded with 1 MeV He ions to the fluences ranging from 1×1013 to 5×1014 cm−2. The pristine and ion beam modified samples were investigated by photoluminescence (PL), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The changes of wettability and surface free energy were determined by the contact angle measurements. The obtained results showed that the ion bombardment induced decrease in integrated luminescence intensity and decrease in the transmittance with increase of ion fluence as well. This is might be attributed to degradation of polymer surface and/or creation of new electronic levels in the forbidden gap. The FTIR spectral studies indicate that the ion beam induces chemical modifications within the bombarded UHMWPE. Formation of carbonyl groups (C=O) on the polymer surface was studied. Direct relationship of the wettability and surface free energy of the bombarded polymer with the ion fluences was observed. - Highlights: ► Effect of 1 MeV He-ion bombardment on the surface properties of UHMWPE was studied. ► Change in the surface layer composition of UHMWPE due ion beam has been investigated. ► Ion beam bombardment improves the surface free energy of UHMWPE.

  6. PCR biocompatibility of lab-on-a-chip and MEMS materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T. B.; Pedersen, C. M.; Gröndahl, K. G.; Jensen, T. G.; Sekulovic, A.; Bang, D. D.; Wolff, A.

    2007-08-01

    DNA amplification using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an important tool in biotechnology, pathogen surveillance in food, medical and forensic science etc. The PCR technique is now an important part of the research in and development of miniaturized biochemical analysis systems. However, reduced or no DNA amplification at all is an important challenge for microfabricated PCR devices due to a negative interaction between PCR chemicals and the surrounding environment, i.e. the materials encapsulating the PCR mix. Materials of special interest regarding PCR compatibility are silicon, glass and polymers, which are important in the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), micro total analysis systems (µTAS) and lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems. The PCR inhibition effect is a particularly important phenomenon in microsystems due to an increased surface-to-volume ratio which enhances the possibility of interaction between the surfaces and ingredients in the PCR mixture. By proper surface treatment the PCR reaction can be facilitated and in this paper we present a systematic and quantitative study of the impact on the PCR compatibility of a chemical and a biological surface treatment. The chemical treatments are based on the silanizing agent dichlordimethylsilane [(CH3)2SiCl2

  7. Biodeuterated microbial chitosan for characterisation by neutron scattering and development of new biocompatible materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan is one of the most abundant natural polysaccharides on earth and has found a wide range of applications in biomedical and environmental fields. The most common source of commercially available chitosan is produced through the deacetylation of chitin from crustacean (mostly shrimp) shells. However, chitosan (along with chitin) is also a major component of the cell walls of a range of fungi, which can be grown and processed under controlled conditions to influence the degree of deacetylation and molecular weight of the extracted chitosan. We have selected the single cell yeast Pichia pastoris, which can also be used for recombinant expression of biodeuterated proteins. P. pastoris was cultivated in a bioreactor using deuterated methanol (CD3OD,) as sole carbon source in the growth medium and heavy water (D20) as the solvent. NMR and mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the complete deuteration of the non-exchangeable protons in the extracted chitosan molecule. Further tuning of the level of deuteration may be achieved by changing the H/D content in the growth medium. Apart from limited reports of partially deuterated chitosan through functional groups or exchangeable protons using deuterated solvent, there are no examples of biosynthesised deuterated chitosan in the literature. This capability, developed at the National Deuteration Facility, ANSTO, provides a range of possibilities for characterising chitosan materials using isotope-sensitive techniques.

  8. Ex vivo and in vitro synchrotron-based micro-imaging of biocompatible materials applied in dental surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, A.; Stiller, M.; Nelson, K.; Knabe, C.; Rack, T.; Zabler, S.; Dalügge, O.; Riesemeier, H.; Cecilia, A.; Goebbels, J.

    2010-09-01

    Biocompatible materials such as porous bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics or titanium are regularly applied in dental surgery: ceramics are used to support the local bone regeneration in a given defect, afterwards titanium implants replace lost teeth. The current gold standard for bone reconstruction in implant dentistry is the use of autogenous bone grafts. But the concept of guided bone regeneration (GBR) has become a predictable and well documented surgical approach using biomaterials (bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics) which qualify as bone substitutes for this kind of application as well. We applied high resolution synchrotron microtomography and subsequent 3d image analysis in order to investigate bone formation and degradation of the bone substitute material in a three-dimensional manner, extending the knowledge beyond the limits of classical histology. Following the bone regeneration, titanium-based implants to replace lost teeth call for high mechanical precision, especially when two-piece concepts are used in order to guaranty leak tightness. Here, synchrotron-based radiography in comparison with classical laboratory radiography yields high spatial resolution in combination with high contrast even when exploiting micro-sized features in these kind of highly attenuating objects. Therefore, we could study micro-gap formation at interfaces in two-piece dental implants with the specimen under different mechanical load. We could prove the existence of micro-gaps for implants with conical connections as well as to study the micromechanical behavior of the mating zone of conical implants during loading. The micro-gap is a potential issue of failure, i. e. bacterial leakage which can induce an inflammatory process.

  9. Phase III study on surface construction and biocompatibility of polymer materials as cardiovascular devices:coagulant and anti-coagulant surface modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bao-lin; Wang Dong-an

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the cardiovascular device, biomaterials applied under the blood-contact conditions should have anti-thrombotic, anti-biodegradable and anti-infective properties. OBJECTIVE: To develop novel polymer materials for implantation and intervention in cardiovascular tissue engineering and to explore the biocompatibility, blood compatibility and cytocompatibility of the surface-modified polymer biomaterials based on the coagulant and anti-coagulant coating modification. METHODS:We retrieved PubMed and WanFang databases for relevant articles publishing from 1983 to 2014. The key words were "biocompatibility, blood compatibility, biomedical materials, biomedical polymer materials" in English and Chinese, respectively. Those unrelated, outdated and repetitive papers were excluded. Literatures addressing the blood compatibility of biomedical polymer materials were summarized. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The blood-implant interaction and the anti-coagulant surface modification of biomaterials were analyzed. The biocompatibility, blood compatibility and cytocompatibility of the surface-modified polymer biomaterials were determined based on the coagulant and anti-coagulant coating modification. The coagulant and anti-coagulant surface modification of polymer biomaterials and the research on their biocompatibility and endothelial cel compatibility are crucial for developing novel polymer materials for implantation and intervention in cardiovascular tissue engineering. Through in-depth studies of the types and applications of polymer biomaterials, cardiovascular medical devices and implantable soft tissue substitutes, the differences between the surface and the body wil be reflected in the many layers of molecules extending from the surface to the body. Two major factors, surface energy and molecular mobility, determine the body/surface behaviors that include body/surface differences and phase separation. Considering the difference between the body/surface composition

  10. Indium arsenide as a material for biological applications: Assessment of surface modifications, toxicity, and biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Scott A.

    III-V semiconductors such as InAs have recently been employed in a variety of applications where the electronic and optical characteristics of traditional, silicon-based materials are inadequate. InAs has a narrow band gap and very high electron mobility in the near-surface region, which makes it very attractive for high performance transistors, optical applications, and chemical sensing. However, InAs forms an unstable surface oxide layer in ambient conditions, which can corrode over time and leach toxic indium and arsenic components. Current research has gone into making InAs more attractive for biological applications through passivation of the surface by adlayer adsorption. In particular, wet-chemical methods are current routes of exploration due to their simplicity, low cost, and flexibility in the type of passivating molecule. This dissertation focuses on surface modifications of InAs using wet-chemical methods in order to further its use in biological applications. First, the adsorption of collagen binding peptides and mixed peptide/thiol adlayers onto InAs was assessed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) along with atomic force microscopy (AFM) data suggested that the peptides successfully adsorbed onto InAs, but were only able to block oxide regrowth to a relatively low extent. This low passivation ability is due to the lack of covalent bonds of the peptide to InAs, which are necessary to effectively block oxide regrowth. The addition of a thiol, in the form of mixed peptide/thiol adlayers greatly enhanced passivation of InAs while maintaining peptide presence on the surface. Thiols form tight, covalent bonds with InAs, which prevents oxide regrowth. The presence of the collagen-binding peptide on the surface opens the door to subsequent modification with collagen or polyelectrolyte-based adlayers. Next, the stability and toxicity of modified InAs substrates were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and zebrafish

  11. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10 cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  12. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  13. Biocompatibility of Dental Amalgams

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdanur Uçar; Brantley, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this review paper is to review the literature regarding the toxicology of mercury from dental amalgam and evaluate current statements on dental amalgam. Materials and Methods. Two key-words “dental amalgam” and “toxicity” were used to search publications on dental amalgam biocompatibility published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. Manual search was also conducted. The most recent declarations and statements were evaluated using information available on ...

  14. Electrospinning of Biodegradable and Biocompatible Nanofiber Patches from Solutions of ``Green'' Materials for Plant Protection against Fungi Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Soumyadip; Lee, Minwook; Yarin, Alexander; Moghadam, S. M. Alavi; Meinke, Matthias; Schroeder, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Biodegradable and biocompatible soy protein/petroleum-derived polymer monolithic fibers containing adhesives were electrospun on commercial rayon pads. The polymers used, PVA and PCL, are widely used in the biomedical industry, including such applications as drug delivery and scaffold manufacturing. Soy protein is an abundant waste of SoyDiesel production, and is widely used as a nutrient. The soy content in our fibers was as high as 40% w/w. Four different adhesives, including ordinary wood glue, repositionable glue and FDA-approved pressure-sensitive glue were used for electrospinning and electrospraying. The normal and shear adhesive strengths of the patches developed in this work were measured and compared. The adhesive strength was sufficient enough to withstand normal atmospheric conditions. These biodegradable and biocompatible nano-textured patches are ready to be used on prune locations without being carried away by wind and will protect plants against fungi attack at these locations, preventing diseases like Vine Decline.

  15. Coatings of titanium substrates with xCaO · (1 - x)SiO2 sol-gel materials: characterization, bioactivity and biocompatibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, M; Papale, F; Bollino, F

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study has been to develop low temperature sol-gel coatings to modify the surface of commercially pure titanium grade 4 (a material generally used in dental application) and to evaluate their bioactivity and biocompatibility on the substrate. Glasses of composition expressed by the following general formula xCaO · (1 - x)SiO2 (0.0sol-gel route starting from tetraethyl orthosilicate and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate. Those materials, still in the sol phase, have been used to coat titanium substrates by means of the dip-coating technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) allowed the materials to be characterized and a microstructural analysis of the coatings obtained was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The potential applications of the coatings in the biomedical field were evaluated by bioactivity and biocompatibility tests. The coated titanium was immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 21 days and the hydroxyapatite deposition on its surface was subsequently evaluated via SEM-EDXS analysis, as an index of bone-bonding capability. To investigate cell-material interactions, mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (3T3) were seeded onto the specimens and the cell viability was evaluated by a WST-8 assay.

  16. Biocompatibility of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mostafa Mousavinasab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concerns about their degradation and substances which may be segregated into oral cavity.

  17. Investigation on biocompatibility of biliary stent materials%胆道支架材料生物相容性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恒全; 黄楠; 冷永祥; 骆乐; 于海亮; 李可洲

    2011-01-01

    The newly developed biliary stent should have good mechanical properties, as well as excellent biocompatibility in order to meet the needs of reducing immunological reaction in vivo. In this work, Ti-0 film was deposited on 316L stainless steel (316L SS) by unbalanced magnetron sputtering device, and the structure of Ti-O film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The interaction of Ti-0 film and bile was also investigated by incubating in human fresh bile. The results showed that the surface of Ti-0 film could reduce bacteria adherence and form bacterial biofilm owing to more surface energy. The mesobilirubin reducing and the change of the stability of bile are other factors of evaluating biocompatibility. It's important to develop new biliary stent materials based on its biocompatibility.%胆道支架不仅要求具备优异的力学性能,更重要的是材料在胆道环境中具有良好的生物相容性.采用非平衡磁控溅射设备在不锈钢基体上制备了Ti-O薄膜,研究了其结构及与病人胆汁相互作用.结果表明,Ti-O膜表面具有较高的表面能,不利于细菌粘附及生物膜形成,胆汁稳定性和胆红素变化也是影响支架材料相容性的主要原因,这对开发新型胆道支架材料提供了研究依据.

  18. Fiscal 1998 regional consortium R and D project (Regional consortium field). Report on R and D of production technology of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials (1st fiscal year); 1998 nendo chiiki konsoshiamu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki konsoshiamu bun'ya (hybrid gata seitai yugo kinosei kososhiki daitai sozai seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This project aims at development of high-strength high- biocompatible {beta}-type Ti alloy with lower modulli of elasticity composed of non-toxic elements, phosphate calcium ceramics for improving the biocompatibility and coating technology, and establishment of production technology of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials. In fiscal 1998, the project promoted the following: Design of high-biocompatible {beta}-type Ti alloy materials, development of thermomechanical treatment for improving dynamic characteristics of such alloy, survey on practical melting and casting technologies and dental precision casting process, evaluation of the biocompatibility of the alloy by cytotoxicity, selection of tools for precision machining and surface finishing, control of contents, orientation and precipitation of biocompatible crystals such as {beta}- Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} fibers for further improvement of the biocompatibility. This paper also outlines the survey results on the market needs, market size and market share for the feasibility of these materials. (NEDO)

  19. 人角膜接触镜材料生物相容性的研究%Studies on biocompatibility of contact lens material for human cornea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文渊; 刘正堂; 崔英德; 黎新明

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study the biocompatibility of contact lens material for human cornea prepared in our department. Methods Biological properties of the material were assessed by cytotoxicity,haemolysis and protein aggradation. Results The material had no toxicity for HEFC. The haemolysis rate was eligibility(1.62%). Anti-protein-aggradation was quite good. Conclusion The contact lens material by our department possesses quite good biological properties.%目的 研究本室制备的人角膜接触镜材料的生物性能.方法 采用细胞毒性试验、红细胞溶血试验以及蛋白质沉积试验方法.结果 所制备的人角膜接触镜材料对人胚肺纤维细胞(HEFC)毒性评价为1级无毒性;红细胞溶血率为1.62%合格;在体温范围内抗蛋白质沉积作用较好.结论 本室制备的人角膜接触镜材料具有较好的生物相容性.

  20. Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Olivares-Navarrete

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainless steel substrates and tissue culture plastic were also studied, in order to give comparative information. No toxic response was observed for any of the surfaces, indicating that the Nb coatings act as a biocompatible, bioinert material. Cell morphology was also studied by immune-fluorescence and the results confirmed the healthy state of the cells on the Nb surface. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating shows that the film is polycrystalline with a body centered cubic structure. The surface composition and corrosion resistance of both the substrate and the Nb coating were also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiodynamic tests. Water contact angle measurements showed that the Nb surface is more hydrophobic than the SS substrate.

  1. Biocompatible polysaccharide-based cryogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, Senta, E-mail: senta.reichelt@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Becher, Jana; Weisser, Jürgen [Innovent e.V., Pruessingstr. 27B, 07745 Jena (Germany); Prager, Andrea; Decker, Ulrich [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Möller, Stephanie; Berg, Albrecht; Schnabelrauch, Matthias [Innovent e.V., Pruessingstr. 27B, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    This study focuses on the development of novel biocompatible macroporous cryogels by electron-beam assisted free-radical crosslinking reaction of polymerizable dextran and hyaluronan derivatives. As a main advantage this straightforward approach provides highly pure materials of high porosity without using additional crosslinkers or initiators. The cryogels were characterized with regard to their morphology and their basic properties including thermal and mechanical characteristics, and swellability. It was found that the applied irradiation dose and the chemical composition strongly influence the material properties of the resulting cryogels. Preliminary cytotoxicity tests illustrate the excellent in vitro-cytocompatibility of the fabricated cryogels making them especially attractive as matrices in tissue regeneration procedures. - Graphical abstract: Electron-beam initiated synthesis of biocompatible cryogels based on natural polymers. - Highlights: • Successful electron-beam induced synthesis of dextran and hyaluronan cryogels. • Mechanical and thermal stable cryogels were obtained. • Excellent cytocompatibility of the materials was proven. • Promising materials for tissue engineering were developed.

  2. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone (PGC25 3-0 and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data.

  3. Cytotoxicity and Initial Biocompatibility of Endodontic Biomaterials (MTA and Biodentine™ Used as Root-End Filling Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Escobar-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and cellular adhesion of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA and Biodentine (BD on periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL. Methods. PDL cells were obtained from nonerupted third molars and cultured; MTS cellular profusion test was carried out in two groups: MTA and BD, with respective controls at different time periods. Also, the LIVE/DEAD assay was performed at 24 h. For evaluation of cellular adhesion, immunocytochemistry was conducted to discern the expression of Integrin β1 and Vinculin at 12 h and 24 h. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results. MTA and BD exhibited living cells up to 7 days. More expressions of Integrin β1 and Vinculin were demonstrated in the control group, followed by BD and MTA, which also showed cellular loss and morphological changes. There was a significant difference in the experimental groups cultured for 5 and 7 days compared with the control, but there was no significant statistical difference between both cements. Conclusions. Neither material was cytotoxic during the time evaluated. There was an increase of cell adhesion through the expression of focal contacts observed in the case of BD, followed by MTA, but not significantly.

  4. Cytotoxicity and Initial Biocompatibility of Endodontic Biomaterials (MTA and Biodentine™) Used as Root-End Filling Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-García, Diana María; Aguirre-López, Eva; Méndez-González, Verónica; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and cellular adhesion of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine (BD) on periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL). Methods. PDL cells were obtained from nonerupted third molars and cultured; MTS cellular profusion test was carried out in two groups: MTA and BD, with respective controls at different time periods. Also, the LIVE/DEAD assay was performed at 24 h. For evaluation of cellular adhesion, immunocytochemistry was conducted to discern the expression of Integrin β1 and Vinculin at 12 h and 24 h. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results. MTA and BD exhibited living cells up to 7 days. More expressions of Integrin β1 and Vinculin were demonstrated in the control group, followed by BD and MTA, which also showed cellular loss and morphological changes. There was a significant difference in the experimental groups cultured for 5 and 7 days compared with the control, but there was no significant statistical difference between both cements. Conclusions. Neither material was cytotoxic during the time evaluated. There was an increase of cell adhesion through the expression of focal contacts observed in the case of BD, followed by MTA, but not significantly.

  5. Bioglass: A novel biocompatible innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancement of materials technology has been immense, especially in the past 30 years. Ceramics has not been new to dentistry. Porcelain crowns, silica fillers in composite resins, and glass ionomer cements have already been proved to be successful. Materials used in the replacement of tissues have come a long way from being inert, to compatible, and now regenerative. When hydroxyapatite was believed to be the best biocompatible replacement material, Larry Hench developed a material using silica (glass as the host material, incorporated with calcium and phosphorous to fuse broken bones. This material mimics bone material and stimulates the regrowth of new bone material. Thus, due to its biocompatibility and osteogenic capacity it came to be known as "bioactive glass-bioglass." It is now encompassed, along with synthetic hydroxyapatite, in the field of biomaterials science known as "bioactive ceramics." The aim of this article is to give a bird′s-eye view, of the various uses in dentistry, of this novel, miracle material which can bond, induce osteogenesis, and also regenerate bone.

  6. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenesis of graphene-reinforced nanohydroxyapatite polyamide66 ternary biocomposite as orthopedic implant material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiyang; Yang, Qiming; Zhao, Weikang; Qiao, Bo; Cui, Hongwang; Fan, Jianjun; Li, Hong; Tu, Xiaolin; Jiang, Dianming

    2016-01-01

    Graphene and its derivatives have been receiving increasing attention regarding their application in bone tissue engineering because of their excellent characteristics, such as a vast specific surface area and excellent mechanical properties. In this study, graphene-reinforced nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (nHA/PA66) bone screws were prepared. The results of scanning electron microscopy observation and X-ray diffraction data showed that both graphene and nHA had good dispersion in the PA66 matrix. In addition, the tensile strength and elastic modulus of the composites were significantly improved by 49.14% and 21.2%, respectively. The murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 exhibited better adhesion and proliferation in graphene reinforced nHA/PA66 composite material compared to the nHA/PA66 composites. The cells developed more pseudopods, with greater cell density and a more distinguishable cytoskeletal structure. These results were confirmed by fluorescent staining and cell viability assays. After C3H10T1/2 cells were cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium for 7 and 14 days, the bone differentiation-related gene expression, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin were significantly increased in the cells cocultured with graphene reinforced nHA/PA66. This result demonstrated the bone-inducing characteristics of this composite material, a finding that was further supported by alizarin red staining results. In addition, graphene reinforced nHA/PA66 bone screws were implanted in canine femoral condyles, and postoperative histology revealed no obvious damage to the liver, spleen, kidneys, brain, or other major organs. The bone tissue around the implant grew well and was directly connected to the implant. The soft tissues showed no obvious inflammatory reaction, which demonstrated the good biocompatibility of the screws. These observations indicate that graphene-reinforced nHA/PA66 composites have great potential for application in bone tissue

  7. A biocompatible magnetic film: synthesis and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Jhunu; Haik, Yousef; Chen, Ching Jen

    2004-01-01

    Background Biotechnology applications of magnetic gels include biosensors, targeted drug delivery, artificial muscles and magnetic buckles. These gels are produced by incorporating magnetic materials in the polymer composites. Methods A biocompatible magnetic gel film has been synthesized using polyvinyl alcohol. The magnetic gel was dried to generate a biocompatible magnetic film. Nanosized iron oxide particles (γ-Fe2O3, ~7 nm) have been used to produce the magnetic gel. Results The surface ...

  8. Biocompatibility of different post-core materials in molar repairing%不同桩核修复磨牙的生物相容性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡娟; 郁章欣; 吴金枝; 刘新庆

    2013-01-01

      背景:磨牙是主要的功能牙齿,磨牙的修复应能改善其生物功能和具有坚固的组织学效果。目的:评价不同桩核材料在磨牙修复中的应用效果。方法:对应用银汞桩核、铸造桩核和纤维桩核修复磨牙缺损的患者进行随访观察,检查修复体松动、折断、脱落以及牙周炎和牙龈炎等发生情况,X 射线检查桩核冠修复体与牙体间的结合情况以及根管折断情况和根尖根周牙槽骨吸收情况,评价不同桩核材料修复磨牙的生物相容性并进行比较。结果与结论:银汞桩核、铸造桩核和纤维桩核修复磨牙均可以获得较好的治疗效果,但是,与铸造桩核相比较,银汞桩核和纤维桩核的生物性能更好,修复体松动、折断和脱落的发生率更低,根尖根周等炎性并发症的发生率也更低,并且组织学坚固效果更好,是磨牙修复中首选的桩核材料。%BACKGROUND: Molars are the main functional teeth, and molar repairing is able to improve the biological function of molars and has the sturdy histological effect. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the application effect of different post-core materials in molar repairing. METHODS: The patients received molar repairing with amalgam post-core, cast post-core and fiber post-core were fol owed-up to observe the incidence of prosthesis loosening, fracture, loss, periodontitis and gingivitis. The combination between post-core crown prosthesis and dental body, broken root canal and the resorption of alveolar bone of root tip and root body were tested with X-ray film. The biocompatibility of different post-core materials used for molar repairing was evaluated and compared.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The amalgam post-core, cast post-core and fiber post-core have good effects for the repair of molars. But compared with cast post-core, the amalgam post-core and fiber post-core have better biocompatibility, lower incidence of prosthesis

  9. Effects of surface texturing on the performance of biocompatible UHMWPE as a bearing material during in vitro lubricated sliding/rolling motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cervantes, Adrián; Domínguez-López, Iván; Barceinas-Sánchez, José Dolores Oscar; García-García, Adrián Luis

    2013-04-01

    The effect of surface texturing on the performance of biocompatible ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) as a bearing material has been investigated using the kinematic range of motions reported for a knee-joint replacement. An experimental apparatus consisting of a ball and a disk rotating independently from each other was used to compare the performance of UHMWPE textured versus plain surfaces, under different combinations of sliding and rolling motion, better known as sliding-to-rolling ratio (SRR). Performance was evaluated through the coefficient of traction of a tribosystem comprising a steel ball on a flat UHMWPE disk and distilled water at 36°C, acting as lubricant. A square array of cavities with diameter D=0.397mm and center-to-center spacing of 1.5D was machined on UHMWPE disks. The experimental design considered two levels for cavity depth, D and D/2, and two for the applied load, 17 and 25N. The SRR was varied from 1 to 11% and the mean speed range was set from 5 to 55mm/s, covering the kinematics and contact pressure conditions of a sauntering cycle on a knee-joint replacement. Stribeck curves of the plain and textured surfaces were obtained and compared against one another. The results demonstrate that the proposed surface pattern reduces the coefficient of traction of the tribological system for the 17N load in the entire kinematic range explored, while for the 25N load the effects were more noticeable at low mean speed and SRR, corresponding to the beginning of motion.

  10. Biocompatibility of plasma nanostructured biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slepičková Kasálková, N. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Slepička, P., E-mail: petr.slepicka@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Bačáková, L. [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic); Sajdl, P. [Department of Power Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-15

    Many areas of medicine such as tissue engineering requires not only mastery of modification techniques but also thorough knowledge of the interaction of cells with solid state substrates. Plasma treatment can be used to effective modification, nanostructuring and therefore can significantly change properties of materials. In this work the biocompatibility of the plasma nanostructured biopolymers substrates was studied. Changes in surface chemical structure were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology pristine and modified samples were determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface wettability was determined by goniometry from contact angle. Biocompatibility was determined by in vitro tests, the rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cultivated on the pristine and plasma modified biopolymer substrates. Their adhesion, proliferation, spreading and homogeneous distribution on polymers was monitored. It was found that the plasma treatment leads to rapid decrease of contact angle for all samples. Contact angle decreased with increasing time of modification. XPS measurements showed that plasma treatment leads to changes in ratio of polar and non-polar groups. Plasma modification was accompanied by a change of surface morphology. Biological tests found that plasma treatment have positive effect on cells adhesion and proliferation cells and affects the size of cell’s adhesion area. Changes in plasma power or in exposure time influences the number of adhered and proliferated cells and their distribution on biopolymer surface.

  11. The Biocompatibility of Wool Keratin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mei; YU Wei-dong; WANG Xue-lei

    2007-01-01

    Keratin is the major structural fibrous protein providing outer covering such as hair, wool, feathers, etc. When being used as a kind of biomaterials, the biocompatibility of wool keratin is one of the most critical questions. By now, there has not been systemic study on the biocompatibiiity of keratin. Therefore, in this article we used the procedures of skin irritation, haemolysis and subcutaneous implantation according to ISO 10993 to study it. Moreover, the Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was utilized to analyse the impurity and structure modification of wool keratin film. The part of the animal tests showed that the wool keratin films prepared by authors were biocompatible. But the residual of sodium dodecyi sulfate (SDS) affected the results of other tests. Consequently, the wool keratin membrane is one kind of favourable and promising biomaterial for biomedical and histological utilization. The residual SDS used as an agent should be eliminated from the keratin solution or membrane completely if for biological usage. In conclusion, wool keratin, as a kind of natural protein, prospectively could be applied in biomedical materials and scaffolds of tissue engineering.

  12. Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    René Olivares-Navarrete; Jhon Jairo Olaya; Claudia Ramírez; Sandra Elizabeth Rodil

    2011-01-01

    Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS) substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainles...

  13. 生物珊瑚人工骨支架材料生物相容性检测%Biocompatibility test of biological coral artificial bone as scaffold materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄涛; 孟志斌; 金大地; 付昆; 刘建航; 宋策; 贾丙申

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价生物珊瑚人工骨( BCAB)材料作为骨组织工程支架材料与小鼠胚胎干细胞(MESCs)构建组织工程骨的有效性及材料生物相容性.方法 设MESCs与BCAB支架材料混合黏附培养为实验组,单纯MESCs培养为对照组,分别于第2、4、6、8天进行MTT法检测细胞增殖活性,特异性胚胎抗原-1检测细胞对材料的黏附性.于第8日对接种细胞材料片行成骨诱导,诱导培养10d后行茜素红染色及电镜扫描检测成骨诱导及体外组织工程骨构建情况.取12只大鼠,脊柱左侧皮下植入空白BCAB支架片状材料,右侧植入黏附细胞BCAB片状材料,随机分4、8、12周3组行影像学检查,并取双侧标本行病理切片观察局部炎症反应,四环素标记下荧光显微镜观察成骨情况.第12周组取心、肝、肾病理切片及评估心、肝、肾毒性反应.结果 MTT法检测细胞增殖活性结果显示,在培养2d和4d时实验组与对照组间MTT值差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),在6d及8d时实验组MTT值明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).特异性胚胎抗原-1检测证实MESCs对BCAB支架材料具有良好的黏附性,在其三维微孔隙内能较快增殖.茜素红染色及电镜扫描检测证实黏附细胞材料成骨诱导有效,体外组织工程骨构建成功.材料植入局部组织炎症反应轻,空白支架材料于第8周开始降解,12周达初步降解,无异位成骨;黏附细胞支架材料则有明显异位成骨现象,且较对侧空白支架材料降解时效延长.第12周组实验动物心、肝、肾标本病理切片未见异常损害.结论 BCAB支架材料具有良好的生物相容性,其降解周期与新骨重建周期大致相当,是一种良好的骨组织工程支架材料.%[Objective] To test the biocompatibility of biological coral artificial bone (BCAB) and the efrect of tissue engineered bone construction using BCAB scaffolds with mouse embryonic stem cells (MESCs

  14. 镍铬合金材料与口腔软组织的生物相容性%Biocompatibility of Ni-Cr alloy materials and oral soft tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金芮竹; 赵驰

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ni-Cr alloy ceramic materials are accepted by the majority of patients due to the low prices, and more than 50% of patients choose the Ni-Cr alloy porcelain teeth. Due to the materials persisting in the electrolyte environment, precipitation of nickel ions can cause allergy in some patients. How to improve the biological safety of Ni-Cr alloy materials arises more attention. OBJECTIVE: Using CNKI database literature search and the depth of analysis capabilities, to explore the literature data trends in the study of biocompatibility of Ni-Cr alloy materials and oral soft tissue. DESIGN: Bibliometric data analysis.DATA RETRIEVAL: A search of related literature of biocompatibility of Ni-Cr alloy materials and oral soft tissue was performed in CNKI database using the key words of "Ni-Cr alloy", "biomaterials" and "biocompatibility", during 2002-01 to 2011-12. Own database analysis capabilities and Excel charting functions were used to retrieve literature analysis; through the form of text and charts, the data were analyzed to describe the distribution characteristics.SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusive criteria: ?Basic research papers related to Ni-Cr alloy materials. ?Papers related to the clinical application of Ni-Cr alloy materials. ?Research papers related to biocompatibility of Ni-Cr alloy materials. Exclusive criteria: ?Literature has nothing to do with the purpose of this review. ?Duplication of research literature. ?Journal's own information. ?Unpublished papers. ?The article need telephone follow up to analyze and manual searches. ?Year book. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: In CNKI database, academic journal articles published year, literature number, subject category, research institutions, source journals, literature citations, literature download frequency, associated literature, distribution of the author, distribution of the fund and major keywords were analyzed, the Ph.D. Thesis, outstanding master's degree papers, conference papers, patented

  15. Biocompatibility and Bioactivity of Magnesium Matrix Hydroxyapatite Material%镁合金基HA材料生物相容性及生物活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林国湘; 薛顺; 李林升; 葛丽婧

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite biological composite material was prepared by electrophoretic deposition method, and the biocompatibility and biological activity of this material was discussed. Animal experiment and SBF immersion experiment were selected separately to test the biocompatibility and bioactivity. The SD rats were divided into con-trast group and implant group. The implant material surrounding tissue was taken to do Tis-sue biopsy,HE dyed and organizational analysis after a certain amount of time in the SD body. Under homeothermic condition,the biological composite material was soaked in SBF solution. After four weeks,the bioactivity of the biological composite material was evaluated by testing the growth ability of hydroxyapatite on composite material. The experiment re-sults showed that the implant material surrounding appeared tissue hyperplasia,connective tissue and new blood vessels,but no obvious tissue inflammation,no infiltrating inflammato-ry cells such as multinuclear giant cells and neutrophils cells. After the biological compos-ite material was soaked in SBF solution,a layer Bone-Like Apatite was found on its sur-face. The results showed that Magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite biological composite materi-al have no cytotoxicity,induction bone formation,good biocompatibility and bioactivity.%采用电泳沉积法制备了镁合金基羟基磷灰石表面涂层生物复合材料。利用动物体内埋植实验和SBF浸泡实验分别对复合材料生物相容性及生物活性进行研究。将SD大鼠分为对照组和植入组,植入一定的时间后,取植入物周围组织进行切片、HE染色和组织分析;将复合材料恒温浸泡于SBF溶液四周后取出,通过检测复合材料表面生长磷灰石的能力作为评价该材料的生物活性。实验结果是植入物周围出现组织增生,有结缔组织及新生血管的形成,未见明显的组织炎症反应,无多核的巨细胞、淋巴细胞和中性

  16. FABRICATION AND BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF CELL OUTER MEMBRANE MIMETIC SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-ming Zong; Yong-kuan Gong

    2011-01-01

    The surface design used for improving biocompatibility is one of the most important issues for the fabrication of medical devices. For mimicking the ideal surface structure of cell outer membrane, a large number of polymers bearing phosphorylcholine (PC) groups have been employed to modify the surfaces of biomaterials and medical devices. It has been demonstrated that the biocompatibility of the modified materials whose surface is required to interact with a living organism has been obviously improved by introducing PC groups. In this review, the fabrication strategies of cell outer membrane mimetic surfaces and their resulted biocompatibilities were summarized.

  17. Biocompatibility and osteogenic properties of porous tantalum

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Hui; LI, QIJIA; Ye,Lei; GAN, HONGQUAN; Liu, Yingjie; Wang, Hui; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Porous tantalum has been reported to be a promising material for use in bone tissue engineering. In the present study, the biocompatibility and osteogenic properties of porous tantalum were studied in vitro and in vivo. The morphology of porous tantalum was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Osteoblasts were cultured with porous tantalum, and cell morphology, adhesion and proliferation were investigated using optical microscopy and SEM. In addition, porous tantalum rods were i...

  18. Cellular biocompatibility of various electrospun nPCL/HA scaffold materials%不同配比纳米羟基磷灰石/聚己内酯复合材料细胞相容性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家锋; 万美蓉; 管海虹; 贺文鹏; 张红闯; 张扬; 陈丽娟

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察不同配比nPCL/HA电纺纤维取向薄膜材料的细胞相容性.方法:将人骨髓间充质干细胞(hBMSCs)体外诱导培养为成骨细胞;并经传代培养第5代的人骨髓间充质干细胞,以2×105cm2的密度与不同配比nPCL/HA电纺纤维取向薄膜支架在培养板内共培养,同时以nPCL电纺纤维非取向薄膜材料作为对照,初步观察hBMSCs在不同配比nPCL/HA支架材料上复合培养,对其细胞相容性进行评价.结果:hBMSCs与3种电纺薄膜支架材料均有细胞相容性,细胞能在不同材料表面黏附生长、分化增殖.但是PCL/HA的配比为20∶1电纺纤维取向薄膜材料黏附率(35.3±2.6)%,为3中材料中黏附率最高的一种,材料表面细胞生长良好,体积变大,有伪足生长.结论:PCL/HA的配比为20∶1电纺纤维取向薄膜材料,较适合作为支架材料应用于hBMSCs 为种子细胞的组织工程构建.%Objective To investigate cellular biocompatibility of different nPCL/HA scaffold materials. Methods Electrostatic spinning or electrospinning is an interesting method for producing nonwoven fibers with diameters of submicrometers down to nanometers. Nanofibrous membranes were used in many biomedical applications including drug delivery, wound healing and scaffolding for tissue engineering. Novel bone-scaffolding materials were successfully fabricated by electrospinning from polycaprolactone (PCL) solutions containing nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite (HA). In intro cultured hBMSCs (5th generation) were seeded at the density of 2×105 cell/cm2 onto scaffolds of nPCL/HA and nPCL as control. The cell-material complex was observed in order to evaluate the cellular biocompatibility between cells and materials. Results HBMSCs were shown good adhesion to all 3 types of scaffolds after seeding. The cellular biocompatibility of nPCL/HA (20:1) (35.3±2.6)% was higher than the others. Conclusion Nano-PCL/HA (20:1) was shown significantly higher adhesion rate to h

  19. Biocompatibility of Schwann Cells with PDLLA/CS/CHS Self-assembled Composite Materials%雪旺细胞与PDLLA/CS/CHS自组装复合材料生物相容性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利剑; 梅玉峰; 徐海星

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biocompatibility of self-cultured Schwann cells with polylactic acid/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan(PDLLA/CS/CHS) composite material with good biodegradability, and evaluate the possibility of the PDLLA/CS/CHS material applied to the repair of peripheral nerve. Methods By using pairs of differential adhesion,Schwann cells were cultured and purified. The growth curve of Schwann cells was drawn,and their phenotypes were examined by using HF staining and immunohistochemical staining. The purified Schwann cells were seeded in the PDLLA/CS/CHS composite materials and the biocompatibility was studied by using MTT method and environmental scanning electron microscopy. Results The growth platform period of Schwann cells was 1 day,the logarithmic period was 5-7 days, and the doubling time was 5 days with the purity of more than 90 %. MTT assay revealed that at 0,2nd,4th day after inoculation.The absorbance(A)values in PDLLA group,CHS group,and PDLLA/CS/CHS group were lower than in control group. At the 7th and lOth day, the A values in PDLLA and CHS groups were also lower than in control group,and those in PDLLA/CS/CHS group were higher than in control group with no significant difference(P>0. 05). But there was significant difference in the A values between PDLLA/CS/CHS group and PDLLA group(P<0. 05). Conclusion PDLLA/CS/CHS composite is biological materials with ideal biocompatibility and good material-cell interface.and facilitates the adhesion,growth and proliferation of Schwann cells.%目的 利用自行培养的雪旺细胞(SCs)与具有良好可生物降解性的高分子聚乳酸/硫酸软骨素/壳聚糖(PDLLA/CS/CHS)复合材料进行生物相容性研究,评价该材料应用于周围神经修复的可能性.方法 利用双差速贴壁法进行SCs的培养与纯化,并观察其生长曲线,苏木精-伊红染色和免疫组织化学染色观察细胞表征;将纯化后的SCs接种在PDLLA/CS/CHS复合材料上进行材料生物

  20. A biocompatible magnetic film: synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Jhunu; Haik, Yousef; Chen, Ching Jen

    2004-01-01

    Background Biotechnology applications of magnetic gels include biosensors, targeted drug delivery, artificial muscles and magnetic buckles. These gels are produced by incorporating magnetic materials in the polymer composites. Methods A biocompatible magnetic gel film has been synthesized using polyvinyl alcohol. The magnetic gel was dried to generate a biocompatible magnetic film. Nanosized iron oxide particles (γ-Fe2O3, ~7 nm) have been used to produce the magnetic gel. Results The surface morphology and magnetic properties of the gel films were studied. The iron oxide particles are superparamagnetic and the gel film also showed superparamagnetic behavior. Conclusion Magnetic gel made out of crosslinked magnetic nanoparticles in the polymer network was found to be stable and possess the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. PMID:14761251

  1. Electrospinning of Biocompatible Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Andrew J.; Queen, Hailey A.; McCullen, Seth D.; Krause, Wendy E.

    2006-03-01

    Artificial scaffolds for growing cells can have a wide range of applications including wound coverings, supports in tissue cultures, drug delivery, and organ and tissue transplantation. Tissue engineering is a promising field which may resolve current problems with transplantation, such as rejection by the immune system and scarcity of donors. One approach to tissue engineering utilizes a biodegradable scaffold onto which cells are seeded and cultured, and ideally develop into functional tissue. The scaffold acts as an artificial extracellular matrix (ECM). Because a typical ECM contains collagen fibers with diameters of 50-500 nm, electrostatic spinning (electrospinning) was used to mimic the size and structure of these fibers. Electrospinning is a novel way of spinning a nonwoven web of fibers on the order of 100 nm, much like the web of collagen in an ECM. We are investigating the ability of several biocompatible polymers (e.g., chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol) to form defect-free nanofiber webs and are studying the influence of the zero shear rate viscosity, molecular weight, entanglement concentration, relaxation time, and solvent on the resulting fiber size and morphology.

  2. Biocompatibility and clinical safety of artificial esophagus materials%人工食管材料生物相容性及其临床应用的安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金雄

    2009-01-01

    尽管人工食管在治疗恶性食管狭窄和食管瘘等疾病取得了一定的疗效,但是这些方法手术打击大,术后并发症多,如吻合口瘘,狭窄,坏死,反流等,并且它们都以牺牲部分消化道为代价,常常造成消化功能紊乱和营养吸收障碍.在材料的选择,如何减少并发症以及解决生物组织相容性和力学相容性等方面仍颇有争议,文章从材料选取和安全性角度来探讨人工食管的应用和发展方向.%Although artificial esophagus has displayed some efficacy in treating malignant esophageal stenosis and esophageal fistula, it has great complications, such as anastomotic stoma fistula, stenosis, necrosis and regurgitation. Moreover, this treatment may sacrifice some digestive tracts, leading to digestive functional disorder and nutrition malabsorption. In selection of materials, the problems to reduce complication and solve biocompatibility and mechanical compatibility remain controversial. This paper explored the application and development of artificial esophagus from aspects of material selection and safety.

  3. Synthetic cornea: biocompatibility and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Kaminski, Stefan; Fernandez, Viviana; Alfonso, E.; Lamar, Peggy; Lacombe, Emmanuel; Duchesne, Bernard; Dubovy, Sander; Manns, Fabrice; Rol, Pascal O.

    2002-06-01

    Purpose. Experimentally find a method to provide a safe surgical technique and an inexpensive and long lasting mesoplant for the restoration of vision in patients with bilateral corneal blindness due to ocular surface and stromal diseases. Methods. Identify the least invasive and the safest surgical technique for synthetic cornea implantation. Identify the most compatible biomaterials and the optimal shape a synthetic cornea must have to last a long time when implanted in vivo. Results. Penetrating procedures were deemed too invasive, time consuming, difficult and prone to long term complications. Therefore a non-penetrating delamination technique with central trephination was developed to preserve the integrity of Descemet's membrane and the anterior segment. Even though this approach limits the number of indications, it is acceptable since the majority of patients only have opacities in the stroma. The prosthesis was designed to fit in the removed tissue plane with its skirt fitted under the delaminated stroma. To improve retention, the trephination wall was made conical with the smallest opening on the anterior surface and a hat-shaped mesoplant was made to fit. The skirt was perforated in its perimeter to allow passage of nutrients and tissues ingrowths. To simplify the fabrication procedure, the haptic and optic were made of the same polymer. The intrastromal biocompatibility of several hydrogels was found superior to current clinically used PMMA and PTFE materials. Monobloc mesoplants made of 4 different materials were implanted in rabbits and followed weekly until extrusion occurred. Some remained optically clear allowing for fundus photography. Conclusions. Hydrogel synthetic corneas can be made to survive for periods longer than 1 year. ArF excimer laser photoablation studies are needed to determine the refractive correction potential of these mesoplants. A pilot FDA clinical trial is needed to assess the mesoplant efficacy and very long-term stability.

  4. Commonly used prosthetic materials for artificial knee joint and their biocompatibility%人工膝关节常用假体材料及其生物相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃小东; 李朝健; 符俏

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ideal prosthetic materials are important to the function and prognosis of artificial knee joint. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the properties, application and biocompatibility of biomaterials for artificial knee joint, and to search ideal knee substitutes. METHODS: A computer-based search of Wanfang database (1999-01/2009-12) was performed for articles regarding biomaterials used in artificial knee joint using the keywords of “tissue engineering, artificial knee joint, biomaterials” in Chinese. Repetitive studies, review and Meta analysis were excluded, and finally 17 articles were included in result analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Traditional metal and bone cement materials are still widely used in the knee prosthesis. With the development of medicine and tissue engineering technology, various synthetic biomaterials have appeared. Recently, bio-ceramic and polymer composites with good biocompatibility have been found, but easy to wear is a disadvantage for the bio-ceramic and polymer composites. To modify the above-mentioned materials and seek the ideal knee prosthesis materials is one of the hot spots in the current biomedical engineering research. Although traditional metal, bone cement, bio-ceramic and polymer composites are widely used in clinical artificial knee, the ideal knee prosthesis materials need further studies because of their inevitable shortcomings.%背景:理想的假体材料对人工膝关节的功能、预后至关重要.目的:评价各种人工膝关节生物材料的性能、应用及其生物相容性,寻找合理的膝关节替代物.方法:采用电子检索的方式,在万方数据库(http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/)中检索1999-01/2009-12有关生物材料应用于人工膝关节的研究文章,关键词为"组织工程,人工膝关节,生物材料".排除重复研究、普通综述或Meta分析类文章,筛选纳入17篇文献进行评价.结果与结论:传统的金属和骨水泥材料仍广泛运用于人工膝关节假

  5. 新型淀粉基止血材料的制备及生物相容性研究%Fabrication and Biocompatibility Investigation of a Novel Hemostatic Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳玲; 刘光万; 吴丽娟; 曲洪媛; 赵芳; 杨光; 吴昌琳

    2015-01-01

    以马铃薯淀粉为主要原料,同时添加少量透明质酸和三偏磷酸钠并通过冷冻干燥技术制备一种新型淀粉基止血材料。利用电子显微镜观察其微观结构,用 XRD 测定其晶体结构,用 DSC 测定其热稳定性,同时还根据国家标准 GB /T16886医疗器械生物学评价标准对其进行生物相容性研究。研究结果表明,此新型淀粉基止血材料呈现三维网络状结构,交联反应发生在非晶区且具有良好的热稳定性。动物实验表明该材料无皮内刺激反应、无致敏、无全身急性毒性及细胞毒性,具有良好的生物相容性。结果表明:该新型淀粉基止血材料在临床应用上具有广阔的前景。%The novel hemostatic material was fabricated from starch,hyaluronic acid and STMP with freeze -drying technique. The microstructure,crystalline structure and thermal stability of the material were studied by SEM,XRD and DSC respectively.And the biocompatibility of this material was investigated by subcutaneous reactivity,sensitization,acute systemic toxicity and cytotoxicity tests described in GB/T16886.The results showed that the crosslinking reaction occurred in amorphous area and this novel hemostatic material presented three -dimensional network structure which was of favourable thermal stability.Animal experiments indicated that the material had no subcutaneous reactivity,no sensitization,no acute systemic reaction and no cytotoxicity.It is concluded that this novel hemostatic material shows promise for clinical applications.

  6. In vivo biocompatibility of nanostructured Chitosan/Peo membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.S. Vulcani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning is a technique that allows the preparation of nanofibers from various materials. Chitosan is a natural and abundant easily obtained polymer, which, in addition to those features, proved to be biocompatible. This work used nanostructured chitosan and polyoxyethylene membranes as subcutaneous implants in Wistar rats to evaluate the biocompatibility of the material. Samples of the material and tissues adjacent to the implant were collected 7, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days post-implantation. Macroscopic integration of the material to the tissues was observed in the samples and slides for histopathological examination that were prepared. It was noticed that the material does not stimulate the formation of adherences to the surrounding tissues and that there is initial predominance of neutrophilia and lymphocytosis, with a declining trend according to the increase of time, featuring a non-persistent acute inflammatory process. However, the material showed fast degradation, impairing the macroscopic observation after fifteen days of implantation. It was concluded that the material is biocompatible and that new studies should be conducted, modifying the time of degradation by changes in obtaining methods and verifying the biocompatibility in specific tissues for biomedical applications.

  7. Biocompatibility of poly-L-lactic acid, a new synthetic material for skin burn%聚L-乳酸合成新型烧伤材料的生物相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓立欢

    2015-01-01

    背景:最近有研究表明,高分子聚合物聚L-乳酸具有很好的生物相容性,可直接参与人体代谢且无任何不良反应,是一种可用作生物支架的高分子材料。目的:验证高分子聚合物聚L-乳酸的生物相容性。方法:检测胶原复合物及聚L-乳酸的吸湿性能。分别以正常HDMEM培养基、HDMEM培养基+二甲基亚砜、HDMEM培养基+胶原复合物浸提液、HDMEM培养基+聚L-乳酸浸提液培养C3H10T1/2细胞,72 h后观察细胞形态变化。MTT法检测聚L-乳酸浸提液、二甲基亚砜、胶原复合物浸提液对C3H10T1/2细胞的毒性。在兔血中分别加入生理盐水、蒸馏水、聚L-乳酸浸提液及胶原复合物浸提液,检测溶血度。通过兔耳缘静脉分别注射生理盐水、聚L-乳酸浸提液、二甲基亚砜及胶原复合物浸提液,观察过敏反应、热源反应。将胶原复合物及聚L-乳酸分别植入兔背部皮下,4周后检测血清中炎性因子白细胞介素10和白细胞介素23的水平。结果与结论:胶原复合材料单位质量和单位面积的吸湿率均明显低于聚L-乳酸材料(P <0.05)。在聚L-乳酸浸提液中培养的C3H10T1/2细胞生长状态良好,细胞相对增殖率高,材料毒性为1级;聚L-乳酸材料溶血率较低,无过敏反应及热源反应,植入体内后的炎症反应低于胶原复合材料(P<0.05)。证实聚L-乳酸新型皮肤烧伤支架材料具有良好的吸收伤口液体性能及生物相容性。%BACKGROUND:Recent studies have shown that poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) polymer has good biocompatibility and can be directly involved in human metabolism without any side effects, which is a polymer material that can be used as bioscaffolds. OBJECTIVE:To explore the biocompatibility of PLLA. METHODS:The moisture absorption rate of colagen composite and PLLA was detected. Cel morphology observation was carried to detect the growth state of C3H10T1/2 cels that grew in

  8. Biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite coated titanium alloy material%羟基磷灰石涂层钛合金材料生物相容性研究初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽丽; 姜华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨一种新型的代骨材料--羟基磷灰石涂层的钛合金材料的生物相容性。方法制备羟基磷灰石涂层钛合金材料浸提液后,采用细胞毒性实验以观察实验样品浸提液对L929小鼠成纤维细胞的毒性反应;通过对小鼠尾静脉及腹腔注射试验样品浸提液后,观察其对小鼠的急性全身毒性反应;Ames实验及迟发型超敏反应实验对其遗传毒性及致敏性进行安全性评价。结果羟基磷灰石涂层钛合金材料浸提液对L929小鼠成纤维细胞的相对增殖率(RGR)为96.9%,细胞毒性反应为1级,无细胞毒性反应;对小鼠亦无明显的急性全身毒性作用,实验样品组与阴性对照组动物体质量差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);遗传毒性Ames实验表明,在活化与非活化条件下,该材料浸提液对鼠伤寒沙门氏菌株的回变菌落数与对照组比均未增加2倍,对该菌株无诱变性;迟发型超敏反应实验显示,该材料浸提液无潜在的皮肤接触致敏性。结论羟基磷灰石涂层的钛合金材料具有良好的生物相容性。%Objective To investigate the biocompatibility of newly type bone-substitute material, titanium alloy with hydroxyapatite coating. Methods The extract of hydroxyapatite coated titanium material was prepared, and its cytotoxicity against L929 cells was tested. The extract was injected into mice by intravenous and intraperitineal route to observe the acute systemic toxicity. Ames test and delayed-type hypersensitivity were used to evaluate gene toxicity and its sensitization. Results The relative growth rate(RGR) of L929 cells treated with the extract of the material was 96.9%, and the cytotoxicity reaction was grade 1(non-toxic)(P>0.05). Ames test showed that no more than 2-fold increase(as compared with the control) was observed in the revertant colonies of Salmonella typhimurim strain after treated with the extract either under activated or non

  9. Biocompatibility of polymethylmethacrylate resins used in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Rupali; Singh, Raghuwar D; Sharma, Vinod P; Siddhartha, Ramashanker; Chand, Pooran; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-07-01

    Biocompatibility or tissue compatibility describes the ability of a material to perform with an appropriate host response when applied as intended. Poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) based resins are most widely used resins in dentistry, especially in fabrication of dentures and orthodontic appliances. They are considered cytotoxic on account of leaching of various potential toxic substances, most common being residual monomer. Various in vitro and in vivo experiments and cell based studies conducted on acrylic based resins or their leached components have shown them to have cytotoxic effects. They can cause mucosal irritation and tissue sensitization. These studies are not only important to evaluate the long term clinical effect of these materials, but also help in further development of alternate resins. This article reviews information from scientific full articles, reviews, or abstracts published in dental literature, associated with biocompatibility of PMMA resins and it is leached out components. Published materials were searched in dental literature using general and specialist databases, like the PubMED database. PMID:22454327

  10. 骨盆并髋臼骨折内固定材料的生物相容性%Materials biocompatibility in the internal fixation of pelvic fracture combined with acetabular fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明杰; 陶杰; 周孜辉; 杜琳

    2015-01-01

    背景:骨盆骨折合并髋臼骨折多由高能量暴力伤所致,常伴严重并发症,往往需要外科内固定治疗。目的:探讨骨盆骨折合并髋臼骨折内固定治疗以及材料的生物相容性。方法:以“骨盆骨折,髋臼骨折,内固定,材料;pelvis fracture,acetabulum fracture,internal fixators, materials”为关键词,应用计算机检索2005至2014年万方数据库、清华知网数据库和PubMed数据库,选取有关骨盆骨折合并髋臼骨折内固定治疗以及材料生物相容性研究的文献,同一领域文献选择权威杂志或发表时间为近期的文章,依据纳入排除标准选取29篇文献进行归纳分析。结果与结论:对于骨盆骨折合并髋臼骨折临床多采用重建钢板或拉力螺钉内固定,常用于内固定的重建钢板材料是钛板,弹性模量接近骨的弹性模量,生物相容性好,可在置入前预先弯曲塑形,使之与骨折部位骨面相匹配。可吸收螺钉具有良好的组织相容性,无毒副反应,避免金属螺钉的电解与腐蚀,在内固定早期保持一定的强度,随着时间的推移骨折逐渐愈合,材料强度也缓慢降低,材料最终降解为水和二氧化碳,治疗效果满意。以三维重建技术定制钢板固定和微创内固定是目前骨折治疗的重大进展,临床应用前景广阔。%BACKGROUND:Pelvic fractures combined with acetabular fractures are mostly caused by high-energy violence, often accompanied by severe complications and high mortality, and surgical fixation is preferred in most cases. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the internal fixation of pelvic fracture combined with acetabular fracture and to analyze the material biocompatibility. METHODS:A computer-based search of Wanfang, CNKI and PubMed databases was performed for articles related to the internal fixation of pelvic fracture combined with acetabular fracture and material biocompatibility published

  11. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  12. Adhesion of biocompatible and biodegradable micropatterned surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, J.S.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Souza, E.J.; Schick, B.; Arzt, E.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of pillar dimensions and stiffness of biocompatible and biodegradable micropatterned surfaces on adhesion on different compliant substrates. The micropatterned adhesives were based on biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PL

  13. BIOCOMPATIBILITY EVALUATION OF XANTHAN/CHONDROITIN SULFATE HYDROGELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Oprea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of xanthan/chondroitin sulfate hydrogels (X/CS in differentmixing ratios was investigated. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation was performed by a chemiluminescent assayusing microorganisms such as Saccharomyces pombe. The cellular growth of S. pombe in presence of thexanthan/chondroitin sulfate hydrogels containing up to 20 % chondroitin sulfate was examinated comparatively withxanthan hydrogel.The in vivo evaluation was performed by toxicity test and subcutaneously implantation in rats. It has been establisheda lethal dose (LD50 bigger than 3200 mg/kg for all studied hydrogels, therefore they are nontoxic materials.The in vivo 30 days testing performed by subcutaneous implantation showed that the X/CS matrices were easilyabsorbed without side-effects, demonstrating their biocompatibility and effectiveness as potential drug delivery systems.

  14. Biocompatible and Bioeliminable Hydrophilic Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo; FerrutiUniversità

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction This presentation will report on some recent results obtained in Milan on two polymer families of biomedical interest, namely poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) and polyamidoamines. 2 Results and DiscussionPoly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) (PVP) is a well known bioactive and biocompatible polymer. In its soluble form, it is largely used as excipient of oral pharmaceutical formulations, especially for its high water solubilising power.In its crosslinked form, it plays a relevant role as biomateria...

  15. Jet blown PTFE for control of biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibner, Evan Scott

    The development of fully hemocompatible cardiovascular biomaterials will have a major impact on the practice of modern medicine. Current artificial surfaces, unlike native vascular surfaces, are not able to control clot and thrombus formation. Protein interactions are an important component in hemocompatibility and can result in decreased patency due to thrombus formation or surface passivation which can improve endothelization. It is believed that controlling these properties, specifically the nanometer sizes of the fibers on the material's surface, will allow for better control of biological responses. The biocompatibility of Teflon, a widely used polymer for vascular grafts, would be improved with nanostructured control of surface features. Due to the difficultly in processing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), it has not been possible to create nanofibrous PTFE surfaces. The novel technique of Jet Blowing allows for the formation of nanostructured PTFE (nPTFE). A systematic investigation into controlling polymer properties by varying the processing conditions of temperature, pressure, and gas used in the Jet Blowing allows for an increased understanding of the effects of plasticization on the material's properties. This fundamental understanding of the material science behind the Jet Blowing process has enabled control of the micro and nanoscale structure of nPTFE. While protein adsorption, a key component of biocompatibility, has been widely studied, it is not fully understood. Major problems in the field of biomaterials include a lack of standard protocols to measure biocompatibility, and inconstant literature on protein adsorption. A reproducible protocol for measuring protein adsorption onto superhydrophobic surfaces (ePTFE and nPTFE) has been developed. Both degassing of PBS buffer solutions and evacuation of the air around the expanded PTFE (ePTFE) prior to contact with protein solutions are essential. Protein adsorption experiments show a four

  16. 磷酸钙骨水泥/骨形态发生蛋白复合人工骨的生物相容性%Biocompatibility of calcium phosphate cement/BMP composite as bone graft material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明林; 胡蕴玉; 贾新斌; 李丹; 刘忠湘; 朱德生

    2001-01-01

    AIM To construct CPC/BMP composite by combining CPC with BMP, and to detect their biocompatibity. METHODS The toxicity, pyrogen, hemolytic activities and immunogen were detected by means of animal test, cell culture, hemolysis test and histochemical technique. RESULTS The composites were found no toxicity and no pyrogen by animal test, no hemolytic activities and couldn't influence the coagulate of blood in vitro. When the materials were grafted into the muscle pounches in the thigh of mice or rabbits, no obvious specific antibodies produced were detected in serum by ELISA, nor were significant immune reaction of foreign body observed by histochemistry technique. The composites were also testified no cytotoxicity in vitor for the proliferation of cultured cells couldn' be inhibited. CONCLUSION The CPC/BMP composite might have good biocompatibility and be safe for clinical use.%目的将自行合成的磷酸钙骨水泥(CPC)作为载体与BMP复合成人工骨,检测其生物相容性. 方法制备CPC/BMP及CPC骨块,通过体外实验、细胞培养、动物实验等方法观察其毒性、免疫原性、对血液系统的影响等生物相容性指标. 结果动物实验表明材料属无毒级,不含致热原,体外试验不引起溶血反应,对凝血功能无明显影响. 植入兔或小鼠肌袋内未检测出特异性抗体. 组织学检查未见免疫排斥反应,对肌肉无刺激作用.对体外培养的细胞增殖没有明显抑制作用.结论材料有较好的生物相容性,临床使用安全.

  17. Biocompatibility of polytetrafluoroethylene combined with type I collagen as a nose filler material%聚四氟乙烯联合Ⅰ型胶原作为隆鼻高分子材料的生物相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹中普; 孙晓

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTEE) as a nose filer material has advantages on the resistant to corrosion, chemical stability and so on. However, its linear expansion coefficient is large easily leading to infection and rejection, and its application has some limitations. OBJECTIVE:To compare the cel toxicity, inflammatory infiltrates and biocompatibility indexesin vivo between PTEE and PTEE combined with type Ⅰ colagen. METHODS: MTT method was used to detect the relative proliferation rate of L929 cels cultured with PTEE extract or PTEE combined with type Ⅰ colagen extract; an electron microscope was used to observe the cel growth. PTEE or PTEE combined with type Ⅰ colagen was embedded under the nasal dorsal fascia of New Zealand white rabbits for 7 days, and hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to detect whether nasal mucosa epithelial tissue had inflammatory infiltration. Systemic toxicity, alergies, pyrogen reaction and deaths of rabbits were observed after injection of two kinds of material extracts by ear vein. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The cytotoxicity and inflammatory infiltration were milder in PTEE combined with type Ⅰ colagen group than PTEE group (P < 0.05). The alergic reactions and pyrogen reactions were fewer in PTEE combined with type Ⅰ colagen group than PTEE group (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that PTEE combined with type Ⅰ colagen as the nose filer material has better biocompatibility.%背景:高分子材料聚四氟乙烯膨体作为隆鼻填充材料具有耐腐蚀、化学性质稳定等优点,但其线膨胀系数较大,易引发感染及排异反应,故应用有一定局限性.目的:对比聚四氟乙烯和聚四氟乙烯联合Ⅰ型胶原作为隆鼻填充材料的细胞毒性、埋植后的炎性浸润及体内生物相容性.方法:采用MTT法检测聚四氟乙烯浸提液和聚四氟乙烯联合Ⅰ型胶原浸提液培养L929细胞的细胞增殖.采用电子显微镜观察聚四氟乙烯浸提液和聚四氟乙

  18. Nanocellulose for Biomedical Applications : Modification, Characterisation and Biocompatibility Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade there has been increasing interest in exploring the use of nanocellulose in medicine. However, the influence of the physicochemical properties of nanocellulose on the material´s biocompatibility has not been fully investigated.  In this thesis, thin films of nanocellulose from wood (NFC) and from Cladophora algae (CC) were modified by the addition of charged groups on their surfaces and the influence of these modifications on the material´s physicochemical properties and on...

  19. The quantification of biocompatibility: toward a new definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Buddy

    2008-03-01

    Implantable medical devices, and the biomaterials that comprise them, form a 100B business worldwide. Medical devices save lives and/or improve the quality of life for millions. Tissue engineering also makes extensive use of biomaterials -- biomaterials are an enabling technology for tissue engineering. A central word to understanding the effectiveness of such materials and devices is biocompatibility. The word ``biocompatible'' is widely used in reference to biomaterials and medical devices and most everyone has some value understanding of its meaning. Many formal definitions have been proposed for this word, but it is still largely used in an imprecise manner. Four descriptions or definitions of biocompatibility will be reviewed: a widely adopted definition from a consensus conference, a surgeon's perspective on this word, the regulatory agency view and the factors that clearly influence biocompatibility. In this talk, the classical definition of biocompatibility will be contrasted to a newer definition embracing molecular concepts and the understanding of normal wound healing. The biological data on the in vivo healing responses of mammals to implants will be described. A strategy to improve the healing of biomaterials will be presented. It is based upon surface molecular engineering. First, non-specific protein adsorption must be inhibited. Strategies to achieve this design parameter will be presented. Then methods to deliver the specific protein signals will be addressed. Matricellular proteins such as osteopontin, thrombospondin 2 and SPARC will be introduced with an emphasis on exploiting the special reactivity of such proteins. A discussion of the influence of surface textures and porosities will also be presented. Finally a new scheme based upon macrophage phenotypic pathways will be proposed that may allow a quantitative measure of extent of biocompatibility.

  20. Biocompatibility of acrylic resin after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Hendrijatini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acrylic resin as basic material for denture will stay on oral mucosa for a very long time. The polymerization of acrylic resin can be performed by conventional method and microwave, both produce different residual monomer at different toxicity. Acrylic resin can absorb solution, porous and possibly absorb disinfectantt as well, that may have toxic reaction with the tissue. Sodium Hypochlorite as removable denture disinfectant can be expected to be biocompatible to human body. The problem is how biocompatible acrylic resin which has been processed by conventional method and microwave method after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite solution. Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand in vitro biocompatibility of acrylic resin which has polimerated by conventional method and microwave after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite using tissue culture. Methods: Four groups of acrylic resin plate were produced, the first group was acrylic resin plate with microwave polymeration and soaked in sodium hypochlorite, the second group was acrylic resin plate with microwave polymeration but not soaked, the thirdwas one with conventional method and soaked and the last group was one with conventional method but not soaked, and in 1 control group. Each group consists of 7 plates. Biocompatibility test was performed in-vitro on each material using fibroblast tissue culture (BHK-21 cell-line. Result: The percentage between living cells and dead cells from materials which was given acrylic plate was wounted. The data was analyzed statistically with T test. Conclusion: The average value of living cells is higher in acrylic resin poimerization using microwave method compared to conventional method, in both soaked and non soaked (by sodium hypochlorite group. This means that sodium hypochlorite 0.5% was biocompatible to the mouth mucosa as removable denture disinfectant for 10 minutes soaking and washing afterwards.

  1. Biostability and biocompatibility of modified polyurethane elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Elizabeth Marie

    Several strategies have been employed to increase the biostability of medical grade polyurethanes while maintaining the desirable properties of current poly(ether urethanes). It was hypothesized that polyurethane surface chemistry controls biodegradation/biostability that can lead to ultimate failure/success of these materials in clinical applications. Chemical modification or replacement of the susceptible soft segment was evaluated as a design strategy to increase the biostability of medical grade polyurethanes. The effect of soft segment chemistry on the phase morphology, mechanical properties and in vivo response of commercial polyurethanes were compared. Poly(ether urethane) (PEU), silicone-modified poly(ether urethane) (PEU-S), poly(carbonate urethane) (PCU) and silicone-modified poly(carbonate urethane) (PCU-S) elastomers were investigated. AFM phase imaging indicated that the overall two-phase morphology of poly(ether urethanes), necessary for its thermoplastic elastomeric properties, was not disrupted by changing the soft segment chemistry. All of the polyurethanes exhibited thermoplastic elastomeric behavior similar to that of the poly(ether urethane). Following material characterization, the biocompatibility of the polyurethane elastomers was evaluated using a subcutaneous cage implant protocol. All of the polyurethanes tested retained the excellent biocompatibility typical of poly(ether urethane) elastomers. Overall, the candidate polyurethanes were concluded to be suitable replacements of current poly(ether urethane) elastomers in medical applications. The results from the cage implant study and cell culture experiments indicated that monocytes adhere, differentiate and fuse to form foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) on all of the polyurethane specimens. It is now generally accepted that the reactive oxygen species released by these adherent macrophages and FBGCs initiate PEU biodegradation. ATR-FTIR analysis of explanted samples provided evidence of

  2. Biocompatibility of Compounds of Extracellular Matrix and Thermally Reversible Hydrogel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new scaffold material composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) and thermal sensitive hydrogel (HG), and evaluated its biocompatibility were investigated. We cultured bladder smooth muscle cells with this compound material, and then observed with phase contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to assess the cell growth and morphology. The cell adhesion and proliferation were detected with MTT assay and cell count. Results show the ECM/HG compounds appeared as a net-like and red-stained construction with enough meshes and without any cellular fragments. 6 h after implantation, cells were observed adhere on the compounds and extend spurious along the fibers 12 h later. Under SEM even some ECM was observed to be secreted. MTT assay shows there was obvious statistic difference among 3 groups (P<0.05).ECM/HG compound materials show a good biocompatibility, which confirms that it would be an ideal tissue engineering scaffolds.

  3. Forsterite Nanopowder: Structural Characterization and Biocompatibility Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.A.Naghiu; M.Gorea; E.Mutch; F.Kristaly; M.Tomoaia-Cotisel

    2013-01-01

    Forsterite,a new biocompatible material was synthesized from Mg(NO3)2·6H20 and TEOS by using the sol-gel method.The material was then heated at 800,900 and 1000 ℃.The forsterite was noticed as the main crystalline phase in the material fired at 900 and 1000 ℃,while periclase (MgO) was present in all the samples.The tests confirm that in the first two samples forsterite is present as crystallites <60 nm,while in the sample synthesized at 1000 ℃ it forms aggregates of micrometre-sized grains.In vitro test was performed by immersing the forsterite powder in the simulating body fluids (SBF) and hydroxyapatite formation on the surface was investigated.We could evidence the formation of hydroxyapatite on the forsterite surface after 7 days of immersion.The MTT test confirmed that forsterite powders dissolution promote osteoblast proliferation of the human-type osteoblasts with no significant cytotoxicity effects.

  4. Biocompatibility of polymethylmethacrylate as a polymer material for dental implants%牙种植高分子材料聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯的生物相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小东; 李新梅; 孙晓晨; 孙翔

    2015-01-01

    反应以及生物相容性方面均优于纯钛。%BACKGROUND:As a kind of dental implant material, the application of titanium has certain restrictions because of its higher probability of postoperative bleeding rate, infection and gingival hyperplasia. Studies have shown that polymethylmethacrylate has been used in artificial joints and artificial bones, but rarely reported to be used as dental implant material. OBJECTIVE:To explore the biocompatibility indexes such as cytotoxicity, cel adhesion rate, relative cel proliferation rate and post-implantation inflammatory response of human osteoblasts when pure titanium and polymethylmethacrylate are used as dental implant materials, so as to provide certain reference basis for the clinical usage of polymethylmethacrylate as the dental implant material. METHODS:Human osteoblasts were cultured in vitro. Three groups were divided as folows: control group (cels cultured normaly), pure titanium group (cels cultured with titanium extract) and polymethylmethacrylate group (cels cultured with polymethylmethacrylate extract). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Compared with the control group, the cel adhesion rate was significantly decreased after 2, 4, 8 and 16 hours of culture with pure titanium and polymethylmethacrylate extracts (P < 0.05); the cel adhesion rate in the polymethylmethacrylate group was higher than that in the pure titanium group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the cels were sparse and grew slowly after 2 days of culture with pure titanium and polymethylmethacrylate extracts. Cels in the polymethylmethacrylate group grew faster with fusiform distribution and obvious drawing phenomenon. Compared with the control group, the relative cel proliferation rate was significantly decreased after 2 days of culture with pure titanium and polymethylmethacrylate extracts (P < 0.05); the relative cel proliferation rate of polymethylmethacrylate group was higher than that of the pure titanium group (P < 0.05). The

  5. Frontiers in biomaterials the design, synthetic strategies and biocompatibility of polymer scaffolds for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Frontiers in Biomaterials: The Design, Synthetic Strategies and Biocompatibility of Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application, Volume 1" highlights the importance of biomaterials and their interaction with biological system. The need for the development of biomaterials as scaffold for tissue regeneration is driven by the increasing demands for materials that mimic functions of extracellular matrices of body tissues.This ebook covers the latest challenges on the biocompatibility of scaffold overtime after implantation and discusses the requirement of innovative technologies and strategies f

  6. Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond electrodes for neural interfaces: In vivo biocompatibility evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    María eAlcaide; Andrew eTaylor; Morten eFjorback; Vladimir eZachar; Cristian Pablo Pennisi

    2016-01-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDD) electrodes have recently attracted attention as materials for neural electrodes due to their superior physical and electrochemical properties, however their biocompatibility remains largely unexplored. In this work, we aim to investigate the in vivo biocompatibility of BDD electrodes in relation to conventional titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes using a rat subcutaneous implantation model. High quality BDD films were synthesized on electrodes intended ...

  7. Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Electrodes for Neural Interfaces: In vivo Biocompatibility Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaide, María; Taylor, Andrew; Fjorback, Morten; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian P.

    2016-01-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDD) electrodes have recently attracted attention as materials for neural electrodes due to their superior physical and electrochemical properties, however their biocompatibility remains largely unexplored. In this work, we aim to investigate the in vivo biocompatibility of BDD electrodes in relation to conventional titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes using a rat subcutaneous implantation model. High quality BDD films were synthesized on electrodes intended ...

  8. Tantalum, Niobium and Titanium Coatings for Biocompatibility Improvement of Dental Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Vajihesadat Mortazavi; Mohammad Hossein Fathi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Metals have a wide range of applications in implant and prosthetic materials in dentistry.Corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of metals should be improved in order to utilizethem as biomaterials. The aim of this work was to prepare metallic coatings on 316L stainless steel dental implants, to evaluate the corrosion characteristics of the uncoated and metallic coated dentalimplants as an indication of biocompatibility and, to compare the effect of the type of the coatings o...

  9. Biocompatibility of nanostructured boron doped diamond for the attachment and proliferation of human neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alice C.; Vagaska, Barbora; Edgington, Robert; Hébert, Clément; Ferretti, Patrizia; Bergonzo, Philippe; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. We quantitatively investigate the biocompatibility of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) after the inclusion of boron, with and without nanostructuring. The nanostructuring method involves a novel approach of growing NCD over carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that act as a 3D scaffold. This nanostructuring of BNCD leads to a material with increased capacitance, and this along with wide electrochemical window makes BNCD an ideal material for neural interface applications, and thus it is essential that their biocompatibility is investigated. Approach. Biocompatibility was assessed by observing the interaction of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) with a variety of NCD substrates including un-doped ones, and NCD doped with boron, which are both planar, and nanostructured. hNSCs were chosen due to their sensitivity, and various methods including cell population and confluency were used to quantify biocompatibility. Main results. Boron inclusion into NCD film was shown to have no observable effect on hNSC attachment, proliferation and viability. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of nanostructured boron-doped NCD is increased upon nanostructuring, potentially due to the increased surface area. Significance. Diamond is an attractive material for supporting the attachment and development of cells as it can show exceptional biocompatibility. When boron is used as a dopant within diamond it becomes a p-type semiconductor, and at high concentrations the diamond becomes quasi-metallic, offering the prospect of a direct electrical device-cell interfacing system.

  10. Biodegradable/biocompatible coated metal implants for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohamed M; Touny, A H; Al-Omair, Mohammed A; Saleh, M M

    2016-05-12

    Biocompatible metals have been suggested as revolutionary biomaterials for bone-grafting therapies. Although metals and their alloys are widely and successfully used in producing biomedical implants due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, they have a lack in bioactivity. Therefore coating of the metal surface with calcium phosphates (CaP) is a benign way to achieve well bioactivity and get controlled corrosion properties. The biocompatibility and bioactivity calcium phosphates (CaP) in bone growth were guided them to biomedical treatment of bone defects and fractures. Many techniques have been used for fabrication of CaP coatings on metal substrates such as magnesium and titanium. The present review will focus on the synthesis of CaP and their relative forms using different techniques especially electrochemical techniques. The latter has always been known of its unique way of optimizing the process parameters that led to a control in the structure and characteristics of the produced materials. PMID:27175470

  11. Biocompatibility of chemical-vapour-deposited diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; Tsai, C; Gerberich, W W; Kruckeberg, L; Kania, D R

    1995-04-01

    The biocompatibility of chemical-vapour-deposited (CVD) diamond surfaces has been assessed. Our results indicate that CVD diamond is as biocompatible as titanium (Ti) and 316 stainless steel (SS). First, the amount of adsorbed and 'denatured' fibrinogen on CVD diamond was very close to that of Ti and SS. Second, both in vitro and in vivo there appears to be less cellular adhesion and activation on the surface of CVD diamond surfaces compared to Ti and SS. This evident biocompatibility, coupled with the corrosion resistance and notable mechanical integrity of CVD diamond, suggests that diamond-coated surfaces may be highly desirable in a number of biomedical applications. PMID:7654876

  12. Biocompatibility of crystalline opal nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Ortiz Marlen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silica nanoparticles are being developed as a host of biomedical and biotechnological applications. For this reason, there are more studies about biocompatibility of silica with amorphous and crystalline structure. Except hydrated silica (opal, despite is presents directly and indirectly in humans. Two sizes of crystalline opal nanoparticles were investigated in this work under criteria of toxicology. Methods In particular, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects caused by opal nanoparticles (80 and 120 nm were evaluated in cultured mouse cells via a set of bioassays, methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU. Results 3T3-NIH cells were incubated for 24 and 72 h in contact with nanocrystalline opal particles, not presented significant statistically difference in the results of cytotoxicity. Genotoxicity tests of crystalline opal nanoparticles were performed by the BrdU assay on the same cultured cells for 24 h incubation. The reduction of BrdU-incorporated cells indicates that nanocrystalline opal exposure did not caused unrepairable damage DNA. Conclusions There is no relationship between that particles size and MTT reduction, as well as BrdU incorporation, such that the opal particles did not induce cytotoxic effect and genotoxicity in cultured mouse cells.

  13. 3D structuring of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers via stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Andrew A; Claeyssens, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    The production of user-defined 3D microstructures from biocompatible and biodegradable materials via free-form fabrication is an important step to create off-the-shelf technologies to be used as tissue engineering scaffolds. One method of achieving this is the microstereolithography of block copolymers, allowing high resolution microstructuring of materials with tuneable physical properties. A versatile protocol for the production and photofunctionalisation of pre-polymers for microstereolithography is presented along with a discussion of the possible microstereolithography set-ups and previous work in the field.

  14. Material characteristics and biocompatibility of plastic and metal biliary stents%塑料与金属胆管支架的材料特征及其生物相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬梅; 蒋丹娜; 刘侠

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implantation of plastic and metal biliary stent under digestive endoscopy is an effective means in the treatment of benign and malignant bile duct obstruction. Particularly stent implantation provides great clinical application value for high biliary obstruction in biliary cancer patients who are not suitable for surgical treatment and need to eliminate jaundice,accommodate physiologic d rainage, prolong survival, and improve quality of life.OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical effects of endoscopic implantation of plastic and metal biliary stents in the treatment of benign and malignant bile duct obstruction, and to explore the biocompatibility of plastic and metal biliary stents with the host.METHODS: Using "bile duct obstruction, plastic biliary stent, metal biliary stent, biocompatibility" in Chinese and "cerebrovascular disease, stent, biocompatibility" in English as the key words, China Academic Journal Full-text Database (CNKI:1989/2009) and Medline (1989/2009) database were searched online by the first author. Meta analysis and repeatable studies were excluded. Totally 35 studies were screened and evaluated, focusing on the research progress, complications, and biocompatibility in treatment of plastic and metal biliary stent.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Endoscopic biliary stent implantation is the principal means in the treatment of benign and malignant biliary obstruction. Biliary stent includes metal stent and plastic stent. Metal stents have exhibited great advantages in preventing the growth of bacteria and maintaining stent patency, but the price is expensive. Plastic stents are easy for bacterial attachment, biliary sludge deposition causes stent obstruction, but they are easy to replace and low price. The biocompatibility of plastic and metal biliary stents needs to be improved, for patients with malignant biliary obstruction, bile duct stent implantation in combined with radiation therapy will help to prevent stent obstruction. Further

  15. Clinical verification of biocompatibility of different dental materials and three filling materials on the interproximal caries of permanent molars%不同口腔修复材料生物相容性及3种材料充填恒磨牙邻面龋的临床验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖伟; 周年苟; 扈祚文; 高军

    2011-01-01

    背景:高强度、良好的适合性、可以接受的美学效果等都是牙科固定修复体所必须的.在材料的具体选择上应根据牙齿缺损的部位、范围以及有无龋坏组织等具体情况去选择.那么,哪一种材料更具有良好的性能及生物相容性呢?目的:从材料学及临床应用方面总结不同口腔修复材料的生物相容性,并评价了玻璃离子水门汀、银汞合金、光固化复合树脂充填恒磨牙邻面龋的临床疗效.方法:以"口腔修复;材料;陶瓷;合金;相容性"为中文关键词;以"interproximal caries; permanent molar; filling" 为英文关键词,采用计算机检索2000-01/2010-10相关文章.纳入与不同材料在口腔修复中的应用及相容性分析相关的文章;排除重复研究或Meta分析类文章.以25篇文献为主重点分析对象讨论了口腔不同修复材料性能的重要性.结果与结论:传统的合金类修复材料普遍存在硬度高、耐磨损等缺点,但因依靠机械固位,且修复洞缘微漏现象明显,必须严格制备洞型;而陶瓷类或粉剂类有黏着性,但硬度低,边缘密台性差.而随着纳米材料与技术的兴起和迅速发展,将口腔材料与纳米材料技术相结合,在引进改性和创新中,形成一种全新的理念、新的材料技术模式,必将在口腔医学领域中取得突破性进展.%BACKGROUND: High strength, good aptness, and acceptable aesthetic effect are all necessary for fixed partial denture (FPD).The specific choice of materials should be based on the site of tooth defects, scope and have or not carious organizations.Therefore, which kind of materials has good performance and biocompatibility?OBJECTIVE: To summarize the biocompatibility of different dental materials from the aspect of hylology and clinical application,and to evaluate the clinical effect of radiopaque glass lonomer luting cement, silver amalgam, light-cured composite filling materials on the interproximal caries of

  16. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of composite scaffold material of polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin%多孔聚乙烯醇/明胶软骨组织工程支架复合材料的制备及其生物相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭涛; 韩志; 杨天府; 李玉宝; 苑天红; 肖杰; 陈艺新

    2011-01-01

    背景:以明胶为基体制备的组织工程支架材料具有良好的生物相容性和生物降解性能,但存在力学性能低,降解速率难以控制的缺陷.目的:制备一种软骨组织工程支架材料多孔聚乙烯醇/明胶复合物,并检测其理化性能和生物相容性.方法:采用乳化发泡法制备聚乙烯醇/明胶多孔支架,并通过电镜分析、力学测试、皮下植入实验,检测材料孔径和孔隙率、IR光谱、力学性能和生物相容性.结果与结论:多孔材料内部呈三维网状多孔结构,孔径均匀,有相似的孔隙率61.8%,含水率44.6%,抗拉强度为(5.01± 0.03) MPa,抗压强度为(1.47±0.36) MPa,有较好的力学性能,IR光谱分析表明材料内部结构均匀.皮下植入后,炎症反应逐渐减轻,囊壁逐渐变薄,并趋于稳定,提示多孔聚乙烯醇/明胶支架材料具有较好的生物相容性和力学性能.%BACKGROUND: The tissue engineered scaffolds prepared with gelatin as base have good biocompatibility and biodegradability,but low mechanical properties and difficulty to control degradation rate are their shortcomings.OBJECTIVE: To prepare a new type of composite scaffold material of polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin and to evaluate the biocompatibility of composite scaffold.METHODS: New type composite materials (polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin) were prepared by foaming method. The pore size and porosity, IR spectroscopy, mechanical performance and biocompatibility were detected by using scanning electron microscope,mechanical test and subcutaneous implantation test.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Composite materials (polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin) were three-dimensional porous structure. The pore size was even, and the porosity was 61.8%. The water content rate of the composite materials was 44.6%. The tensile strength was (5.01±0.03) MPa, and the compressive strength was (1.47±0.36) MPa. The new type composite materials have been proved to have good biocompatibility and biomechanical

  17. Biocompatible two-layer tantalum/titania-polymer hybrid coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortecchia, Elisa; Pacilli, Annalisa; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Scandola, Mariastella

    2010-09-13

    Using a two-step procedure, radiopaque and biocompatible coatings were obtained, consisting of a tantalum layer deposited by sputtering technique and of an upper organic-inorganic hybrid layer synthesized via sol-gel. As shown by radiographic images, tantalum confers to plastic substrates good X-ray visibility, adjustable via control of deposition time, but its adhesion to the substrate is poor and manipulation easily damages the metal layer. Polymer-titania hybrid coatings, synthesized using poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) or carboxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as organic precursors, were applied on the metal layer as biocompatible protective coatings. Biocompatibility is demonstrated by cytotoxicity tests conducted using vascular wall resident-mesenchymal stem cells (VW-MSCs). Both coatings show very good adhesion to the substrate, showing no sign of detachment upon large substrate deformations. Under such conditions, SEM observations show that the PCL-containing hybrid forms cracks, whereas the PDMS-based hybrid does not crack, suggesting possible applications of the latter material as a protective layer of sputtered tantalum radiopaque markers for flexible medical devices. PMID:20831278

  18. Biocompatibility of Chitosan Carriers with Application in Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grenha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is one of the most used polysaccharides in the design of drug delivery strategies for administration of either biomacromolecules or low molecular weight drugs. For these purposes, it is frequently used as matrix forming material in both nano and micron-sized particles. In addition to its interesting physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, which include high mucoadhesion and a great capacity to produce drug delivery systems, ensuring the biocompatibility of the drug delivery vehicles is a highly relevant issue. Nevertheless, this subject is not addressed as frequently as desired and even though the application of chitosan carriers has been widely explored, the demonstration of systems biocompatibility is still in its infancy. In this review, addressing the biocompatibility of chitosan carriers with application in drug delivery is discussed and the methods used in vitro and in vivo, exploring the effect of different variables, are described. We further provide a discussion on the pros and cons of used methodologies, as well as on the difficulties arising from the absence of standardization of procedures.

  19. Biocompatibility of Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta, a new beta-titanium alloy, as joint prosthesis material%新型β钛合金Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta在人工关节假体应用中的生物相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段永刚; 丁英奇; 张龙; 刘玉章; 唐晓龙

    2015-01-01

    背景:目前被广泛应用于人体关节置换的钛合金为Ti6Al4V,但其弹体模量高于人体骨,导致人工关节假体的稳定性差。而新型β钛合金Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta弹性模量较低,或许能成为新一代生物相容性较好的人体关节假体材料。目的:探讨新型β钛合金Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta在人工关节假体应用的生物相容性。方法:应用计算机检索自万方数据库、中国知网和PubMed文献数据库,检索时间范围2010至2015年,以“新型β钛合金;人工关节假体;生物相容性”为检索词,检索医用人工关节假体材料的应用现状及新型β钛合金Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta在人工关节假体应用的生物相容性的研究。结果与结论:与Ti6Al4V相比,Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta表面粗糙度较高,表面接触角较小,碱性磷酸酶活性以及成骨细胞的钙沉积量明显高于Ti6Al4V,具有良好的生物相容性,可以考虑在人工关节假体领域中进一步广泛应用。%BACKGROUND:Ti6Al4V is a titanium aloy that is widely used in human joint replacement, but its modulus of elasticity is greater than human bone, resulting in the bad stability of the prosthesis. Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta, a new βtitanium aloy, has a lower modulus of elasticity, and maybe becomes a new-generation human joint prosthesis material that has a better biocompatibility. OBJECTIVE:To study the biocompatibility of Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta in prosthesis. METHODS:Wanfang, CNKI and PubMed databases were retrieved using a computer with “new β titanium;prosthesis; biocompatible” as keywords, and the retrieval time ranged from 2010 to 2015. Articles focusing on current application status for medical prosthesis materials and the biocompatibility of Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta in prosthesis were selected. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Compared with Ti6Al4V, Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta has higher surface roughness and smaler surface contact angle; the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposits in osteoblasts cultured at Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta

  20. Clinical verification of biocompatibility of different dental materials and three kinds of material filling molar caries%不同口腔修复材料生物相容性及3种材料充填恒磨牙邻面龋的临床验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨3种不同口腔修复材料用于恒磨牙邻面龋填充的临床疗效。方法选取390例恒磨牙邻面龋患者作为研究对象,随机分为A、B、C三组(各130例),3组分别采用银汞合金、玻璃离子水门汀和光固化复合树脂等3种材料进行治疗。同时使用计算机检索口腔修复材料生物相容性相关文献,检索文献年限范围为2011年1月~2013年10月。根据检索出来的相关文献对不同口腔修复材料的生物相容性进行分析。结果1年复查显示,A组的治疗成功率为91.17%,B组为87.32%,C组为92.81%;3年复查显示,A组的治疗成功率为92.53%,B组为68.75%,C组为87.59%。结论传统合金材料存在硬度高、耐磨损等缺点,而陶瓷类或粉剂类材料有硬度低、边缘密合性差等缺点。而随着医疗技术和纳米技术的飞速发展,为结合纳米材料治疗提供了一种新途径。%Objective To discuss the clinical curative effect of three kinds of different dental materials used for molar caries filling. Methods 390 cases of molar caries patients were selected and randomly divided them into A,B,C three groups(each group of 130 cases).3 groups of patients were treated respectively with silver amalgam,glass incomer cement and light cured composite resin.At the same time,the literature of dental restorative materials biological compatibility was searched by computer(retrieval time:January 2011 to October 2013).According to the related literature retrieval,the biocompatibilities of different dental materials were analyzed. Results After 1 year,the treatment success rate of group A, group B,and group C was 91.17%,87.32%,and 92.81% respectively.After 3 years,the treatment success rate of group A,group B,and group C was 92.53%,68.75%,and 87.59%. Conclusion The traditional alloy material is disadvantageous in high hardness and abrasion resistance.Ceramic or powder material has low hardness and marginal fitness

  1. [Study on biocompatibility of titanium alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, T

    1989-06-01

    The biocompatibility of two different titanium alloys, Ti-6Al-4V ELI and Ti-5Al-2, 5Fe, and pure titanium were evaluated. The results were as follows: 1) Titanium alloys were implanted into the dorsal subcutaneous tissues of the Hartley guinea-pig for 12 weeks, immersed in calf serum or in Ringer's solution for 8 weeks. The surface changes of the titanium alloys were observed by SEM and the chemical composition was analyzed by XMA. No evident surface changes were found. 2) Three hundred mg, 200 mg and 100 mg of the powders of the tested materials were immersed in 2ml of Eagle's MEM, incubated for 1-7 days, 8-21 days and 22-70 days at 37 C degrees. The amount of metallic elements dissolved in the solutions was measured by ICP and AAS. The detected corrosion rates of V and Al contained in the solution, in which Ti-6Al-4V ELI 100 mg was immersed for 1-7 days, were 194.3 +/- 17.6 and 73.0 +/- 28, 1 pg/mg alloy/day, respectively. V was released more than Al. The amount of Ti was below the detectable limit. The solution Ti-5Al-2.5 Fe 100 mg immersed for 1-7 days contained 31.9 +/- 34.4 pg/mg alloy/day Fe and 25.7 +/- 6.3 pg/mg alloy/day Al. Only in the solution 300 mg immersed for 1-7 days was Ti detected at 1.4 pg/mg alloy/day. 3) By the bacterial mutation assay of Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA, the solutions, in which the tested materials were immersed, were not found to be mutagenic. 4) By the UDS assay, the grain counts on autoradiography with the solutions, in which the tested materials were immersed, were not greater than the negative control. The results suggest an excellent corrosion resistance of the titanium alloys. Mutagenicity was negative by these mutation assays, indicating that the tested alloys and pure titanium are safe for humans and animals.

  2. In-situ biopreparation of biocompatible bacterial cellulose/graphene oxide composites pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenkun, E-mail: zhuwenkun@swust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Li, Wei [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); He, Yi; Duan, Tao [Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • The in situ vibration method was used to synthetize BC/GO composite. • The cytotoxicity assays of BC/GO showed a better biocompatibility. • It is first time to use BC/GO composite for drug delivery. - Abstract: In the present work, a composite material formed by bacterial cellulose (BC) and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and characterized. GO was added in the bacteria culture media and then the bacteria was inoculated. The BC/GO pellets composite was prepared into the bacteria culture media and vibrated in Erlenmeyer flask. Characterization of the BC/GO composite showed GO nanosheets embedded in the nanofibers network of BC. The experiments in this study demonstrated BC and GO effectively interacted by hydrogen bonding. Moreover, the cytotoxicity assays showed the material had a better biocompatibility than the counterparts and promoted the cell proliferation excellently. The biocompatibility of BC/GO has the potential to be used for drug delivery.

  3. Fabrication and biocompatibility of polyethyleneimine/heparin self-assembly coating on NiTi alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Ping [Center of Materials Physics and Chemistry, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China); Hao Weichang [Center of Materials Physics and Chemistry, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: cmpc@buaa.edu.cn; Wang Xu; Wang Tianmin [Center of Materials Physics and Chemistry, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-06-30

    NiTi alloy has been used widely as biomaterials. But because of toxic effects possibly caused by excess Ni ions released during the corrosion process in the physiological environment, it is still a controversial material. Fabricating medicine-loaded coating, which is expected to decrease the release of Ni ions and improve the biocompatibility of the materials, is a potential way to solve the problem. In this paper, NiTi alloy is coated by polyethyleneimine/heparin films via layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly method. UV-Vis, FT-IR, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements are used to characterize the microstructure of coatings and select the best fabrication conditions. Potentiodynamic polarization researches in sodium chloride and dynamic clotting time experiment are utilized to study its corrosion resistance capability and biocompatibility of coatings, respectively. The results indicate that PEI/heparin multilayer coating can improve the biocompatibility of NiTi alloy surface.

  4. A pore way to heal and regenerate: 21st century thinking on biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Buddy D

    2016-06-01

    This article raises central questions about the definition of biocompatibility, and also about how we assess biocompatibility. We start with the observation that a porous polymer where every pore is spherical, ∼40 microns in diameter and interconnected, can heal into vascularized tissues with little or no fibrosis and good restoration of vascularity (i.e., little or no foreign body reaction). The same polymer in solid form will trigger the classic foreign body reaction characterized by a dense, collagenous foreign body capsule and low vascularity. A widely used definition of biocompatibility is 'the ability of a material to perform with an appropriate host response in a specific application'. With precision-porous polymers, in direct comparison with the same polymer in solid form, we have the same material, in the same application, with two entirely different biological reactions. Can both reactions be 'biocompatible?' This conundrum will be elaborated upon and proposals will be made for future considerations and measurement of biocompatibility. PMID:27047676

  5. Biocompatibility of microplates for culturing epithelial renal cells evaluated by a microcalorimetric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y; DePierre, J W; Nässberger, L

    2000-09-01

    In the present study we have developed a microcalorimetric procedure which allows convenient investigation of biocompatibility in a microsystem. We examined the biocompatibility of a porcine renal epithelial tubule cell line LLC-PK1 and a human primary renal epithelial tubule cell (RPTEC) with microplates composed of three different materials, i.e. Thermanox, transparent film and titanium. All three materials showed equal biocompatibility with LLC-PK1 cells, judging from the attainment of steady-state power curves and the same rate of heat production per cell (2.5 microW / microg DNA). The human renal cells were poorly biocompatible with the Thermanox and transparent film. However, on titanium the RPTEC cell did adhere, as demonstrated by a steady-state power curve. The human cells also showed a higher metabolic activity (3.0 microW / microg DNA), than did LLC-PK1 cells cultured on the same type of microplates. In research on biocompatibility there is a need for alternatives to experimental animal investigations. The present technique allows studies of cellular interactions with different biomaterials in a rapid and standardized manner and may therefore prove to be a useful screening procedure. PMID:15348389

  6. [Neon-colored plastics for orthodontic appliances. Biocompatibility studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, K U; Erdinger, L; Komposch, G; Sonntag, H G

    1995-01-01

    Public concern and issues of liability have made product safety a major concern throughout the medical field including orthodontics. The purpose of this study was to test the biocompatibility of the new neon colored plastic materials to be used for removable orthodontic appliances before they reach the market and are used in patient treatment. In addition, eight modifications of this synthetic material, which has been used in appliances for many years, were examined without neon color. The procedures established tested for: 1. mutagenicity, 2. toxicity, and 3. irritation of the mucous membrane. As alternatives to using animals the Ames Test, the Agar Overlay Assay, and the HET-CAM Test were employed to test for these properties. The tests revealed that, when the manufacturer's instructions are followed, neither the polymerized materials as used in patient appliances nor the shavings resulting from the orthodontist or the technician grinding the appliance exhibit mutagenic, toxic, or irritating properties.

  7. Comparison of in vivo biocompatibilities between parylene-C and polydimethylsiloxane for implantable microelectronic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dong Sup Lee; Su Jin Kim; Eun Bi Kwon; Cheol Whee Park; Su Min Jun; Bumkyoo Choi; Sae Woong Kim

    2013-11-01

    Implantable devices are often composed of or coated with different biologically compatible materials based on their requirements. Selecting a surface material for an implantable device is not an easy task, and it is necessary to compare the biocompatibilities of the available surface materials. In this study, we perform a comparison of the in vivo biocompatibilities of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and para-xylyene polymer (parylene-C) as they are considered to be candidates for a coating material for implantable microelectronic devices. For in vivo biocompatibility testing, fifty four male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for testing, and they were divided into three groups (PDMS, parylene-C and a positive control). At one, four and twelve weeks after implantation of the test object, the density of inflammatory cells and the granulation layer thickness were recorded for each group and compared with other groups using visible light and fluorescence microscopy. The thickness of the granulation layer tended to decrease over time for all of the experimental groups, whereas the granulation layer thickness remained constant in the positive control group. The thinnest capsular layer was observed for the parylene-C group and fewest inflammatory cells were observed in this group during the entire experimental period. Macrophage infiltration was minimal, even at one week, and was not observed thereafter. The parylene-C group showed better biocompatibility than the PDMS groups, both for acute and chronic implantation. Thus, parylene-C is the best candidate of the tested materials for applications involving permanent implantable micro-devices.

  8. Three-dimensional biocompatible matrix for reconstructive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetov, I. V.; Starceva, O. I.; Istranov, A. L.; Vorona, B. N.; Lyundup, A. V.; Gulyaev, I. V.; Melnikov, D. V.; Shtansky, D. V.; Sheveyko, A. N.; Andreev, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    A study into the development of an original bioengineered structure for reconstruction of hollow organs is presented. The basis for the structure was the creation of a mesh matrix made from titanium nickelide (NiTi), which has sufficient elasticity and shape memory for the reconstruction of hollow tubular orgrans. In order to increase the cell adhesion on the surface of the matrix, the grid needed to be cleaned of impurities, for which we used an ionic cleaning method. Additional advantages also may enable the application of the bioactive component to grid surface. These features of the matrix may improve the biocompatibility properties of the composite material. In the first stage, a mesh structure was made from NiTi fibers. The properties of the resulting mesh matrix were studied. In the second stage, the degrees of adhesion and cell growth rates in the untreated matrix, the matrix after ionic cleaning and the matrix after ionic cleaning and the application of the bioactive component were compared. The results showed more significant biocompatibility of the titanium nickelide matrix after its ionic cleaning. The ionic cleaning ensures the removal of toxic contaminants, which are a consequence of the technological production process of the material and provide optimal adhesion properties for the fiber surface. The NiTi net matrix with TiCaPCON coating may be the optimal basis for making the hollow elastic organs.

  9. Biocompatibility of beta-stabilizing elements of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, E; Velten, D; Müller, M; Thull, R; Breme, J

    2004-11-01

    In comparison to the presently used alpha + beta titanium alloys for biomedical applications, beta-titanium alloys have many advantageous mechanical properties, such as an improved wear resistance, a high elasticity and an excellent cold and hot formability. This will promote their future increased application as materials for orthopaedic joint replacements. Not all elements with beta-stabilizing properties in titanium alloys are suitable for biomaterial applications-corrosion and wear processes cause a release of these alloying elements to the surrounding tissue. In this investigation, the biocompability of alloying elements for beta- and near beta-titanium alloys was tested in order to estimate their suitability for biomaterial components. Titanium (grade 2) and the implant steel X2CrNiMo18153 (AISI 316 L) were tested as reference materials. The investigation included the corrosion properties of the elements, proliferation, mitochondrial activity, cell morphology and the size of MC3T3-E1 cells and GM7373 cells after 7 days incubation in direct contact with polished slices of the metals. The statistical significance was considered by Weir-test and Lord-test (alpha = 0.05). The biocompatibility range of the investigated metals is (decreasing biocompatibility): niobium-tantalum, titanium, zirconium-aluminium-316 L-molybdenum.

  10. Detecção da citotoxicidade de materiais biocompatíveis nas linhagens celulares MRC-5, HeLa e RC-IAL MRC-5, HeLa and RC-IAL cell lines sensitivity for detection of cytotoxicity of biocompatible materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea S. Cruz

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensibilidade de uma linhagem celular diplóide e duas heteroplóides, para a detecção de citotoxicidade através do método de difusão em camada de ágar sobre culturas celulares, foi avaliada experimentalmente com solução de ácido ascórbico em diferentes concentrações e, na prática, frente a 562 amostras de 21 diferentes materiais industriais enviados para análise na Seção de Culturas Celulares do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. A linhagem celular heteroplóide designada RC-IAL apresentou, em relação às linhagens MRC-5 e HeLa, maior sensibilidade porque revelou a presença de efeito citotóxico nas menores concentrações utilizadas (10 e 25 ug/ml do ácido ascórbico e apresentou maior diâmetro do halo citotóxico em 15 amostras e igual diâmetro em 16 das 43 amostras (7,6% que resultaram positivas. Nas 43 amostras positivas, a linhagem MRC-5 não revelou citotoxicidade em 3 amostras de espuma e 1 de resina acrílica. O polivinilcloreto (PVC e o polietileno, raramente revelaram positividade, enquanto plástico, algodão e resinas acrílicas revelaram citotoxicidade ao redor de 5%. Em vista dos resultados é discutida a proposta da utilização da linhagem RC-IAL e HeLa para a continuidade das futuras análises solicitadas ao Instituto Adolfo LutzThe sensitivity of diploid and heteroploid cell lines for detection of cytotoxicity using the agar diffusion method on cell culture, was tested with ascorbic acid solution of different concentrations. A total of 562 samples of 21 various materials were tested. The heteroploid cell line, RC-IAL, showed in relation to the MRC-5 and HeLa cell lines, greater sensitivity because it showed the presence of cytotoxic effect with the lowest concentration used (10 and 25ug/ml of ascorbic acid and showed greater diameter of cytotoxic halo in 15 samples and equal diameter in 16 of the 43 positive samples (7.6%. Out of 43 positive samples, the MRC-5 line did not show cytotoxicity in 3 sponge samples and

  11. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-01-01

    Background Graphene is a single-atom thick, two-dimensional sheet of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms isolated from its three-dimensional parent material, graphite. One of the most common methods for preparation of graphene is chemical exfoliation of graphite using powerful oxidizing agents. Generally, graphene is synthesized through deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO) by using hydrazine, which is one of the most widespread and strongest reducing agents. Due to the high toxicity of hydrazine, it is not a promising reducing agent in large-scale production of graphene; therefore, this study focused on a green or sustainable synthesis of graphene and the biocompatibility of graphene in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (PMEFs). Methods Here, we demonstrated a simple, rapid, and green chemistry approach for the synthesis of reduced GO (rGO) from GO using triethylamine (TEA) as a reducing agent and stabilizing agent. The obtained TEA reduced GO (TEA-rGO) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)–visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results The transition of graphene oxide to graphene was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. XRD and SEM were used to investigate the crystallinity of graphene and the surface morphologies of prepared graphene respectively. The formation of defects further supports the functionalization of graphene as indicated in the Raman spectrum of TEA-rGO. Surface morphology and the thickness of the GO and TEA-rGO were analyzed using AFM. The presented results suggest that TEA-rGO shows significantly more biocompatibility with PMEFs cells than GO. Conclusion This is the first report about using TEA as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent for the preparation of biocompatible graphene. The proposed safe and green method offers substitute routes for large-scale production of graphene

  12. In vitro biocompatibility assessment of Co-Cr-Mo dental cast alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Dimić Ivana; Cvijović-Alagić Ivana; Obradović Nataša; Petrović Jelena; Putić Slaviša; Rakin Marko; Bugarski Branko

    2015-01-01

    Metallic materials, such as Co-Cr-Mo alloys, are exposed to aggressive conditions in the oral cavity which represents ideal environment for metallic ion release and biodegradation. The released metallic ions from dental materials can cause local and/or systemic adverse effects in the human body. Therefore, the dental materials are required to possess appropriate mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties. The biocompatibility of metallic mater...

  13. Influence of mechanical instruments on the biocompatibility of titanium dental implants surfaces: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Louropoulou; D.E. Slot; F. van der Weijden

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of mechanical instruments on the biocompatibility of titanium dental implant surfaces. Materials and methods MEDLINE, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched up to December 2013, to identify controlled studies o

  14. Mechanical strength and biocompatibility of ultrafine-grained commercial purity titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrin, Yuri; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Lapovok, Rimma; Ng, Hoi Pang; Jo, Ji-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The effect of grain refinement of commercial purity titanium by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) on its mechanical performance and bone tissue regeneration is reported. In vivo studies conducted on New Zealand white rabbits did not show an enhancement of biocompatibility of ECAP-modified titanium found earlier by in vitro testing. However, the observed combination of outstanding mechanical properties achieved by ECAP without a loss of biocompatibility suggests that this is a very promising processing route to bioimplant manufacturing. The study thus supports the expectation that commercial purity titanium modified by ECAP can be seen as an excellent candidate material for bone implants suitable for replacing conventional titanium alloy implants. PMID:23936857

  15. Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Poly(vinyl alcohol)/N,O-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Tunku Kamarul; Krishnamurithy, G.; Salih, Noman D.; Nurul Syuhada Ibrahim; Hanumantha Rao Balaji Raghavendran; Abdul Razzaq Suhaeb; D. S. K. Choon

    2014-01-01

    The in vivo biocompatibility and toxicity of PVA/NOCC scaffold were tested by comparing them with those of a biocompatible inert material HAM in a rat model. On Day 5, changes in the blood parameters of the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats were significantly higher than those of the control. The levels of potassium, creatinine, total protein, A/G, hemoglobulin, erythrocytes, WBC, and platelets were not significantly altered in the HAM-implanted rats, when compared with those in the control. On Day 10,...

  16. Biocompatibility of magnesium implants in primary human reaming debris-derived cells stem cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Charyeva, Olga; Dakischew, Olga; Sommer, Ursula; Heiss, Christian; Schnettler, Reinhard; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Use of magnesium for resorbable metal implants is a new concept in orthopaedic and dental medicine. The majority of studies on magnesium’s biocompatibility in vitro have assessed the short-term effect of magnesium extract on cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of direct exposure to magnesium alloys on the bioactivity of primary human reaming debris-derived (HRD) cells. Materials and methods Pure Mg, Mg2Ag, WE43 and Mg10Gd were tested for biocompatibility. The...

  17. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Supramolecular Polymers and their Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lewis R; Li, Siwei; Sturgess, Craig; Wildman, Ricky; Jones, Julian R; Hayes, Wayne

    2016-02-10

    A series of polymers capable of self-assembling into infinite networks via supramolecular interactions have been designed, synthesized, and characterized for use in 3D printing applications. The biocompatible polymers and their composites with silica nanoparticles were successfully utilized to deposit both simple cubic structures, as well as a more complex twisted pyramidal feature. The polymers were found to be not toxic to a chondrogenic cell line, according to ISO 10993-5 and 10993-12 standard tests and the cells attached to the supramolecular polymers as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Silica nanoparticles were then dispersed within the polymer matrix, yielding a composite material which was optimized for inkjet printing. The hybrid material showed promise in preliminary tests to facilitate the 3D deposition of a more complex structure.

  18. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Supramolecular Polymers and their Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lewis R; Li, Siwei; Sturgess, Craig; Wildman, Ricky; Jones, Julian R; Hayes, Wayne

    2016-02-10

    A series of polymers capable of self-assembling into infinite networks via supramolecular interactions have been designed, synthesized, and characterized for use in 3D printing applications. The biocompatible polymers and their composites with silica nanoparticles were successfully utilized to deposit both simple cubic structures, as well as a more complex twisted pyramidal feature. The polymers were found to be not toxic to a chondrogenic cell line, according to ISO 10993-5 and 10993-12 standard tests and the cells attached to the supramolecular polymers as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Silica nanoparticles were then dispersed within the polymer matrix, yielding a composite material which was optimized for inkjet printing. The hybrid material showed promise in preliminary tests to facilitate the 3D deposition of a more complex structure. PMID:26766139

  19. Shape memory alloys: metallurgy, biocompatibility, and biomechanics for neurosurgical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Daniel J; Hoh, Brian L; Amar, Arun P; Wang, Michael Y

    2009-05-01

    SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS possess distinct dynamic properties with particular applications in neurosurgery. Because of their unique physical characteristics, these materials are finding increasing application where resiliency, conformation, and actuation are needed. Nitinol, the most frequently manufactured shape memory alloy, responds to thermal and mechanical stimuli with remarkable mechanical properties such as shape memory effect, super-elasticity, and high damping capacity. Nitinol has found particular use in the biomedical community because of its excellent fatigue resistance and biocompatibility, with special interest in neurosurgical applications. The properties of nitinol and its diffusionless phase transformations contribute to these unique mechanical capabilities. The features of nitinol, particularly its shape memory effect, super-elasticity, damping capacity, as well as its biocompatibility and biomechanics are discussed herein. Current and future applications of nitinol and other shape memory alloys in endovascular, spinal, and minimally invasive neurosurgery are introduced. An understanding of the metallurgic properties of nitinol provides a foundation for further exploration of its use in neurosurgical implant design.

  20. Preparation of biocompatible structural gradient coatings on pure titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Guang-xin; ZHANG Ren-ji; YAN Yong-nian

    2004-01-01

    In order to overcome the poor osteo-inductive properties of titanium implant, some methods have been used. The efforts to improve implant biocompatibility and durability by applying a hybrid technique of composite oxidation (pre-anodic and micro-arc oxidation) and hydrothermal treatment were described. Pure titanium was used as the substrate material. An oxalic acid was used as the electrolyte for the pre-anodic oxidation. A calcium and phosphate salt solution was acted as the electrolyte of micro-arc oxidation and the common pure water was used for hydrothermal treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to investigate the microstructure and morphology of the coatings. The results show that a compact TiO2 film can be made by pre-anodic oxidation, which is effective as chemical barriers against the in-vivo release of metal ions from the implants. A porous TiO2 coating can be produced by micro-arc oxidation on titanium plate, which is beneficial to bone tissue growth and enhancing anchorage of implant to bone. De-calcium HA can be formed on the coating using hydrothermal treatment, which is similar with the primary component of bone and has a very good osteo-inductivity.The porous gradient titania coating made by the hybrid oxidation and hydrothermal treatment should show good biocompatibility in the environment of the human body.

  1. Biocompatible coating of encapsulated cells using ionotropic gelation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Ehrhart

    Full Text Available The technique of immunoisolated transplantation has seen in the last twenty years improvements in biocompatibility, long term stability and methods for avoidance of fibrosis in alginate capsules. However, two major problems are not yet solved: living cellular material that is not centered in the capsule is not properly protected from the hosts' immune system and the total transplant volume needs to be reduced. To solve these problems, we present a method for applying fully biocompatible alginate multilayers to a barium-alginate core without the use of polycations. We report on the factors that influence layer formation and stability and can therefore provide data for full adjustability of the additional layer. Although known for yeast and plant cells, this technique has not previously been demonstrated with mammalian cells or ultra-high viscous alginates. Viability of murine insulinoma cells was investigated by live-dead staining and live cell imaging, for murine Langerhans' islets viability and insulin secretion have been measured. No hampering effects of the second alginate layer were found. This multi-layer technique therefore has great potential for clinical and in vitro use and is likely to be central in alginate matrix based immunoisolated cell therapy.

  2. Metallic zinc exhibits optimal biocompatibility for bioabsorbable endovascular stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Patrick K; Guillory, Roger J; Shearier, Emily R; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Bocks, Martin; Zhao, Feng; Goldman, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    Although corrosion resistant bare metal stents are considered generally effective, their permanent presence in a diseased artery is an increasingly recognized limitation due to the potential for long-term complications. We previously reported that metallic zinc exhibited an ideal biocorrosion rate within murine aortas, thus raising the possibility of zinc as a candidate base material for endovascular stenting applications. This study was undertaken to further assess the arterial biocompatibility of metallic zinc. Metallic zinc wires were punctured and advanced into the rat abdominal aorta lumen for up to 6.5months. This study demonstrated that metallic zinc did not provoke responses that often contribute to restenosis. Low cell densities and neointimal tissue thickness, along with tissue regeneration within the corroding implant, point to optimal biocompatibility of corroding zinc. Furthermore, the lack of progression in neointimal tissue thickness over 6.5months or the presence of smooth muscle cells near the zinc implant suggest that the products of zinc corrosion may suppress the activities of inflammatory and smooth muscle cells.

  3. Metallic Zinc Exhibits Optimal Biocompatibility for Bioabsorbable Endovascular Stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Patrick K.; Guillory, Roger J.; Shearier, Emily R.; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Bocks, Martin; Zhao, Feng; Goldman, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Although corrosion resistant bare metal stents are considered generally effective, their permanent presence in a diseased artery is an increasingly recognized limitation due to the potential for long-term complications. We previously reported that metallic zinc exhibited an ideal biocorrosion rate within murine aortas, thus raising the possibility of zinc as a candidate base material for endovascular stenting applications. This study was undertaken to further assess the arterial biocompatibility of metallic zinc. Metallic zinc wires were punctured and advanced into the rat abdominal aorta lumen for up to 6.5 months. This study demonstrated that metallic zinc did not provoke responses that often contribute to restenosis. Low cell densities and neointimal tissue thickness, along with tissue regeneration within the corroding implant, point to optimal biocompatibility of corroding zinc. Furthermore, the lack of progression in neointimal tissue thickness over 6.5 months or the presence of smooth muscle cells near the zinc implant suggest that the products of zinc corrosion may suppress the activities of inflammatory and smooth muscle cells. PMID:26249616

  4. Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Nanoparticles and Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nanoparticles (NPs have increasingly found practical applications in technology, research, and medicine. The small particle size coupled with their unique chemical and physical properties is thought to underline their exploitable biomedical activities. Its form may be latex body, polymer, ceramic particle, metal particles, and the carbon particles. Due to their small size and physical resemblance to physiological molecules such as proteins, NPs possess the capacity to revolutionise medical imaging, diagnostics, therapeutics, as well as carry out functional biological processes. But these features may also underline their toxicity. Indeed, a detailed assessment of the factors that influence the biocompatibility and toxicity of NPs is crucial for the safe and sustainable development of the emerging NPs. Due to the unique structure, size, and shape, much effort has been dedicated to analyzing biomedical applications of nanotubes.This paper focuses on the current understanding of the biocompatibility and toxicity of NPs with an emphasis on nanotubes.

  5. In vivo qualitative analysis of the biocompatibility of different cyanoacrylate-based adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Tobias Moretti Neto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanocrylates have been widely used in the medical and dental fields for several years. In Dentistry, cyanoacrylates have been used for suturing, pulp capping, as retrofilling material in endodontic surgeries, and as cervical plug for pulpless teeth bleaching. The biocompatibility of these adhesives has been the topic of many researches and subcutaneous implantation is an effective methodology for these studies. The present study evaluated the biocompatibility of three different cyanoacrylate-based adhesives. Thirty-six Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups of 9 animals each: A (control - distilled water, B - cyanoacrylate ester (Super Bonder, C - n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl and D - alpha-cyanoacrylate (Three Bond. The materials were dispensed in sponges of polyvinyl chloride, the animals were incised and the sponges were inserted in the subcutaneous tissue and sutured. Each group was sub-divided according to the time of sacrifice of the animals: 7, 21 and 45 days. Subjective analysis of the histologic material showed that all groups presented some degree of irritability, but the inflammatory reaction decreased with the experimental time in all groups. Group D showed an inflammatory reaction which was closer to that of the control group and was considered to have good biocompatibility. Groups B and C were similar and presented more aggressive inflammatory reactions when compared to the control group. Based on the results, it was concluded that alpha-cyanoacrylate (Three Bond was the most biocompatible adhesive because it caused the lowest levels of inflammation.

  6. A biocompatible model for evaluation of the responses of rat periapical tissue to a new zinc oxide-eugenol sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Noriko; Tani-Ishii, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to establish an experimental animal model to evaluate materials for endodontic therapy. We focused on the biocompatibility of new paste-type zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) sealer. The results of this sealer were compared with those of conventional powder/liquid ZOE and eugenol-free sealers. The molars of Wistar rats were extracted and repositioned in the original socket after application of the sealers on the root apices. Mild inflammation occurred in the periapical tissue of the replanted teeth with both ZOE sealers on day 7, whereas the eugenol-free sealer induced severe inflammation. On day 14, the lesions induced by all types of sealers were healed and replaced predominantly by fibrous connective tissue. Thus, all endodontic materials showed high biocompatibility, although the extent of inflammatory reactions during the early stages varied depending on the types of materials. We demonstrated that our animal model was useful for the assessment of the biocompatibility of endodontic materials.

  7. Effect of Processing on Silk-Based Biomaterials: Reproducibility and Biocompatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Lindsay S.; Hu, Xiao; Gallego, Jabier; Georgakoudi, Irene; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Schmidt, Daniel; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Silk fibroin has been successfully used as a biomaterial for tissue regeneration. In order to prepare silk fibroin biomaterials for human implantation a series of processing steps are required to purify the protein. Degumming to remove inflammatory sericin is a crucial step related to biocompatibility and variability in the material. Detailed characterization of silk fibroin degumming is reported. The degumming conditions significantly affected cell viability on the silk fibroin material and ...

  8. Motion Control of Urea-Powered Biocompatible Hollow Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing; Wang, Xu; Hahn, Kersten; Sánchez, Samuel

    2016-03-22

    The quest for biocompatible microswimmers powered by compatible fuel and with full motion control over their self-propulsion is a long-standing challenge in the field of active matter and microrobotics. Here, we present an active hybrid microcapsule motor based on Janus hollow mesoporous silica microparticles powered by the biocatalytic decomposition of urea at physiological concentrations. The directional self-propelled motion lasts longer than 10 min with an average velocity of up to 5 body lengths per second. Additionally, we control the velocity of the micromotor by chemically inhibiting and reactivating the enzymatic activity of urease. The incorporation of magnetic material within the Janus structure provides remote magnetic control on the movement direction. Furthermore, the mesoporous/hollow structure can load both small molecules and larger particles up to hundreds of nanometers, making the hybrid micromotor an active and controllable drug delivery microsystem. PMID:26863183

  9. In-plane biocompatible microfluidic interconnects for implantable microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dean G; Frisina, Robert D; Borkholder, David A

    2011-04-01

    Small mammals, particularly mice, are very useful animal models for biomedical research. Extremely small anatomical dimensions, however, make design of implantable microsystems quite challenging. A method for coupling external fluidic systems to microfluidic channels via in-plane interconnects is presented. Capillary tubing is inserted into channels etched in the surface of a Si wafer with a seal created by Parylene-C deposition. Prediction of Parylene-C deposition into tapered channels based on Knudsen diffusion and deposition characterizations allows for design optimization. Low-volume interconnects using biocompatible, chemical resistant materials have been demonstrated and shown to withstand pressure as high as 827 kPa (120 psi) with an average pull test strength of 2.9 N. Each interconnect consumes less than 0.018 mm3 (18 nL) of volume. The low added volume makes this an ideal interconnect technology for medical applications where implant volume is critical.

  10. Current and future biocompatibility aspects of biomaterials for hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Aherwar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of biomaterials has turn into an electrifying area because these materials improve the quality and longevity of human life. The first and foremost necessity for the selection of the biomaterial is the acceptability by human body. However, the materials used in hip implants are designed to sustain the load bearing function of human bones for the start of the patient’s life. The most common classes of biomaterials used are metals, polymers, ceramics, composites and apatite. These five classes are used individually or in combination with other materials to form most of the implantation devices in recent years. Numerous current and promising new biomaterials i.e. metallic, ceramic, polymeric and composite are discussed to highlight their merits and their frailties in terms of mechanical and metallurgical properties in this review. It is concluded that current materials have their confines and there is a need for more refined multi-functional materials to be developed in order to match the biocompatibility, metallurgical and mechanical complexity of the hip prosthesis.

  11. Effect of chitosan/type I collagen/gelatin composites in biocompatibility and nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wang; Xiaolei Yang; Ming Ren; Yulin Hu; Qiang Chen; Lei Xing; Chunyang Meng; Tiemei Liu

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan, collagen I and gelatin were mixed in appropriate quantities to develop a new nerve repair material, with good arrangement and structure, as well as even aperture size. The composite material was sterilized by 60Co irradiation for 24 hours prior to implantation in the right thigh of rats following sciatic nerve damage. Results showed that the material was nontoxic to the kidneys and the liver, and did not induce an inflammatory response in the muscles. The composite material enhanced the recovery of sciatic nerve damage in rats. These experimental findings indicate that the composite material offers good biocompatibility and has a positive effect on injured nerve rehabilitation.

  12. Titanium nanostructural surface processing for improved biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incident x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to evaluate the effect of titanium hydride on the formation of nanoporous TiO2 on Ti during anodization. Nano-titanium-hydride was formed cathodically before anodizing and served as a sacrificial nanoprecipitate during anodization. Surface oxidation occurred and a multinanoporous structure formed after cathodic pretreatments followed by anodization treatment. The sacrificial nanoprecipitate is directly dissolved and the Ti transformed to nanoporous TiO2 by anodization. The formation of sacrificial nanoprecipitates by cathodic pretreatment and of the multinanostructure by anodization is believed to improve biocompatibility, thereby promoting osseointegration

  13. High hardness in the biocompatible intermetallic compound β-Ti3Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevsi; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Wang, Jiakui K.; Radhakrishnan, Sruthi; Mani, Sendurai; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Morosan, E.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging, but strongly motivated by the vast application potential such materials hold. Ti3Au exhibits high hardness values (about four times those of pure Ti and most steel alloys), reduced coefficient of friction and wear rates, and biocompatibility, all of which are optimal traits for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications. In addition, the ability of this compound to adhere to ceramic parts can reduce both the weight and the cost of medical components. The fourfold increase in the hardness of Ti3Au compared to other Ti–Au alloys and compounds can be attributed to the elevated valence electron density, the reduced bond length, and the pseudogap formation. Understanding the origin of hardness in this intermetallic compound provides an avenue toward designing superior biocompatible, hard materials.

  14. High hardness in the biocompatible intermetallic compound β-Ti3Au.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M Fevsi; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Wang, Jiakui K; Radhakrishnan, Sruthi; Mani, Sendurai; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Morosan, E

    2016-07-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging, but strongly motivated by the vast application potential such materials hold. Ti3Au exhibits high hardness values (about four times those of pure Ti and most steel alloys), reduced coefficient of friction and wear rates, and biocompatibility, all of which are optimal traits for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications. In addition, the ability of this compound to adhere to ceramic parts can reduce both the weight and the cost of medical components. The fourfold increase in the hardness of Ti3Au compared to other Ti-Au alloys and compounds can be attributed to the elevated valence electron density, the reduced bond length, and the pseudogap formation. Understanding the origin of hardness in this intermetallic compound provides an avenue toward designing superior biocompatible, hard materials. PMID:27453942

  15. High hardness in the biocompatible intermetallic compound β-Ti3Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevsi; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Wang, Jiakui K.; Radhakrishnan, Sruthi; Mani, Sendurai; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Morosan, E.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging, but strongly motivated by the vast application potential such materials hold. Ti3Au exhibits high hardness values (about four times those of pure Ti and most steel alloys), reduced coefficient of friction and wear rates, and biocompatibility, all of which are optimal traits for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications. In addition, the ability of this compound to adhere to ceramic parts can reduce both the weight and the cost of medical components. The fourfold increase in the hardness of Ti3Au compared to other Ti–Au alloys and compounds can be attributed to the elevated valence electron density, the reduced bond length, and the pseudogap formation. Understanding the origin of hardness in this intermetallic compound provides an avenue toward designing superior biocompatible, hard materials. PMID:27453942

  16. Physicochemical characterization and biocompatibility of alginate-polycation microcapsules designed for islet transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Susan Kimberly

    Microencapsulation represents a method for immunoprotecting transplanted therapeutic cells or tissues from graft rejection using a physical barrier. This approach is advantageous in that it eliminates the need to induce long-term immunosuppression and allows the option of transplanting non-cadaveric cell sources, such as animal cells and stem cell-derived tissues. The microcapsules that we have investigated are designed to immunoprotect islets of Langerhans (i.e. clusters of insulin-secreting cells), with the goal of treating insulin-dependent diabetes. With the aid of techniques for physicochemical analysis, this research focused on understanding which properties of the microcapsule are the most important for determining its biocompatibility. The objective of this work was to elucidate correlations between the chemical make-up, physicochemical properties, and in vivo biocompatibility of alginate-based microcapsules. Our approach was based on the hypothesis that the immune response to the microcapsules is governed by, and can therefore be controlled by, specific physicochemical properties of the microcapsule and its material components. The experimental work was divided into five phases, each associated with a specific aim : (1) To prove that immunoglobulins adsorb to the surface of alginate-polycation microcapsules, and to correlate this adsorption with the microcapsule chemistry. (2) To test interlaboratory reproducibility in making biocompatible microcapsules, and evaluate the suitability of our materials and fabrication protocols for subsequent studies. (3) To determine which physicochemical properties of alginates affect the in vivo biocompatibility of their gels. (4) To determine which physiochemical properties of alginate-polycation microcapsules are most important for determining their in vivo biocompatibility (5) To determine whether a modestly immunogenic membrane hinders or helps the ability of the microcapsule to immunoprotect islet xenografts in

  17. Physicochemical characterization and biocompatibility of alginate-polycation microcapsules designed for islet transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Susan Kimberly

    Microencapsulation represents a method for immunoprotecting transplanted therapeutic cells or tissues from graft rejection using a physical barrier. This approach is advantageous in that it eliminates the need to induce long-term immunosuppression and allows the option of transplanting non-cadaveric cell sources, such as animal cells and stem cell-derived tissues. The microcapsules that we have investigated are designed to immunoprotect islets of Langerhans (i.e. clusters of insulin-secreting cells), with the goal of treating insulin-dependent diabetes. With the aid of techniques for physicochemical analysis, this research focused on understanding which properties of the microcapsule are the most important for determining its biocompatibility. The objective of this work was to elucidate correlations between the chemical make-up, physicochemical properties, and in vivo biocompatibility of alginate-based microcapsules. Our approach was based on the hypothesis that the immune response to the microcapsules is governed by, and can therefore be controlled by, specific physicochemical properties of the microcapsule and its material components. The experimental work was divided into five phases, each associated with a specific aim : (1) To prove that immunoglobulins adsorb to the surface of alginate-polycation microcapsules, and to correlate this adsorption with the microcapsule chemistry. (2) To test interlaboratory reproducibility in making biocompatible microcapsules, and evaluate the suitability of our materials and fabrication protocols for subsequent studies. (3) To determine which physicochemical properties of alginates affect the in vivo biocompatibility of their gels. (4) To determine which physiochemical properties of alginate-polycation microcapsules are most important for determining their in vivo biocompatibility (5) To determine whether a modestly immunogenic membrane hinders or helps the ability of the microcapsule to immunoprotect islet xenografts in

  18. In vitro biocompatibility assessment of Co-Cr-Mo dental cast alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic materials, such as Co-Cr-Mo alloys, are exposed to aggressive conditions in the oral cavity which represents ideal environment for metallic ion release and biodegradation. The released metallic ions from dental materials can cause local and/or systemic adverse effects in the human body. Therefore, the dental materials are required to possess appropriate mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties. The biocompatibility of metallic materials is very important for dental applications. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine metallic ion release and cytotoxicity of Co-30Cr-5Mo cast alloy as the initial phase of biocompatibility evaluation. Determination of human (MRC-5 and animal (L929 fibroblast cells viability was conducted using three in vitro test methods: colorimetric methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT test, dye exclusion test (DET and agar diffusion test (ADT. Furthermore, the cells morphology and growth were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The obtained results indicated that Co-30Cr-5Mo alloy did not release harmful elements in high concentrations that could cause detrimental effects on human and animal fibroblasts under the given experimental conditions. Moreover, the fibroblast cells showed good adhesion on the Co-30Cr-5Mo alloy surface. Therefore, it can be concluded that Co-30Cr-5Mo alloy is biocompatible material which can be safely used in dentistry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 i br. ON 174004

  19. Synthesis of biocompatible polymers by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work biocompatible polymers were synthesized by plasma based on pyrrole, ethyleneglycol and allylamine. These monomers are biologically important because they contain oxygen and nitrogen in their structure and they form bonding like; N-H, C-N, C-O and O-H that are also in the human system. The polymers were synthesized with splendor electric discharges to 13.5 MHz, among 10 and 100 W, resistive coupling, pressure of 10-1 mbar and 180 minutes of reaction. The interaction of the biological systems with biomaterials depends in many cases of the properties that present the surfaces, because the rough and/or porous surfaces favor the adherence of cells. The results indicate that the ruggedness of the polymers can be controlled with the synthesis energy, since when modifying it flat and/or rough surfaces they are obtained. The compatibility of water with other solutions that it is a form of increasing the adhesion of cells with biopolymers. The affinity with water and solutions is evaluated calculating the contact angle of the polymers surface with drops of concentration solutions and similar composition to the extracellular liquid of the spinal marrow of the human body. The solutions that were proven were based on NaCl, NaCl-MgSO4, and a mixture Krebs-Ringer that has chemical composition and similar concentration to that of the fluids of the spinal marrow. In the Poly pyrrole (PPy)/Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) copolymer, the biggest angles corresponded to the Krebs-Ringer solution, in the interval of 18 to 14 degrees and those lowest to the NaCl solution, of 14.5 at 11 degrees. The Poly allylamine had the more high values with water in the interval of 16.5 to 12.5 degrees and those lowest with the NaCl solution, of 13 at 9.5 degrees. On the other hand, in the derived polymers of pyrrole the more high values corresponded to the treatment with water, until 37, and those lowest to the NaCl-MgSO4 solution, up to 10. The solutions where participated NaCl its produced the

  20. Composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  1. Biocompatible Peritoneal Dialysis Fluids: Clinical Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeoungjee Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal dialysis (PD is a preferred home dialysis modality and has a number of added advantages including improved initial patient survival and cost effectiveness over haemodialysis. Despite these benefits, uptake of PD remains relatively low, especially in developed countries. Wider implementation of PD is compromised by higher technique failure from infections (e.g., PD peritonitis and ultrafiltration failure. These are inevitable consequences of peritoneal injury, which is thought to result primarily from continuous exposure to PD fluids that are characterised by their “unphysiologic” composition. In order to overcome these barriers, a number of more biocompatible PD fluids, with neutral pH, low glucose degradation product content, and bicarbonate buffer have been manufactured over the past two decades. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated their benefit in terms of improvement in host cell defence, peritoneal membrane integrity, and cytokine profile. This paper aims to review randomised controlled trials assessing the use of biocompatible PD fluids and their effect on clinical outcomes.

  2. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurunathan S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jae Woong Han, Jin-Hoi Kim Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea Background: Graphene is a single-atom thick, two-dimensional sheet of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms isolated from its three-dimensional parent material, graphite. One of the most common methods for preparation of graphene is chemical exfoliation of graphite using powerful oxidizing agents. Generally, graphene is synthesized through deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO by using hydrazine, which is one of the most widespread and strongest reducing agents. Due to the high toxicity of hydrazine, it is not a promising reducing agent in large-scale production of graphene; therefore, this study focused on a green or sustainable synthesis of graphene and the biocompatibility of graphene in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (PMEFs. Methods: Here, we demonstrated a simple, rapid, and green chemistry approach for the synthesis of reduced GO (rGO from GO using triethylamine (TEA as a reducing agent and stabilizing agent. The obtained TEA reduced GO (TEA-rGO was characterized by ultraviolet (UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, particle size dynamic light scattering (DLS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Results: The transition of graphene oxide to graphene was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. XRD and SEM were used to investigate the crystallinity of graphene and the surface morphologies of prepared graphene respectively. The formation of defects further supports the functionalization of graphene as indicated in the Raman spectrum of TEA-rGO. Surface morphology and the thickness of the GO and TEA-rGO were analyzed using AFM. The presented results suggest that TEA-rGO shows significantly more biocompatibility with PMEFs cells than GO. Conclusion: This is the first report about using TEA as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent for the

  3. Tantalum, Niobium and Titanium Coatings for Biocompatibility Improvement of Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihesadat Mortazavi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metals have a wide range of applications in implant and prosthetic materials in dentistry.Corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of metals should be improved in order to utilizethem as biomaterials. The aim of this work was to prepare metallic coatings on 316L stainless steel dental implants, to evaluate the corrosion characteristics of the uncoated and metallic coated dentalimplants as an indication of biocompatibility and, to compare the effect of the type of the coatings on biocompatibility.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro evaluation, three types of metallic coatings including tantalum, niobium and titanium coatings were compared using a physical vapor deposition process on 316L stainless steel dental implants. Structural characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were utilized to investigatethe microstructure and morphology of the coatings. Electrochemical potentiodynamic tests were performed in two types of physiological solutions at 37±1°C in order to determine and compare the corrosioncurrent density and corrosion potential characteristics. The mean values were statistically compared by ANOVA at a 95% level of confidence.Results: the findings showed that all of the three types of metallic coatings had a positive effect on improvement of the corrosion behavior. The coatings could increase the corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel and this trend was independent of the type of physiological environment.Conclusion: The biocompatible metallic coatings could decrease the corrosion current density and is a distinct advantage for prevention of ion release. Decreasing ion release can improve the biocompatibility of the dental implant, and consequently can prevent tissue damage, tissue inflammation and irritation, and can also lead to obtaining a desirable histopathological response.

  4. Synthesis of microbial elastomers based on soybean oily acids. Biocompatibility studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazer, Derya Burcu [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Hazer, Baki [Department of Chemistry, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey); Kaymaz, Figen, E-mail: burcuhazer@hotmail.co, E-mail: bkhazer@karaelmas.edu.t [Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    Biocompatibility studies of the autoxidized and unoxidized unsaturated medium-long chain length (m-lcl) co-poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (m-lclPHAs) derived from soya oily acids have been reported. Pseudomonas oleovorans was grown on a series of mixtures of octanoic acid (OA) and soya oily acids (Sy) with weight ratios of 20:80, 28:72 and 50:50 in order to obtain unsaturated m-lcl copolyesters coded PHO-Sy-2080, PHO-Sy-2872 and PHO-Sy-5050, respectively. The PHA films were obtained by solvent cast from CHCl{sub 3}. They were all originally sticky and waxy except PHO-Sy-5050. Autoxidation of the unsaturated copolyester films was carried out on exposure to air at room temperature in order to obtain crosslinked polymers. They became a highly flexible elastomer after being autoxidized (about 40 days of autoxidation). The in vivo tissue reactions of the autoxidized PHAs were evaluated by subcutaneous implantation in rats. The rats appeared to be healthy throughout the implantation period. No symptom such as necrosis, abscess or tumorigenesis was observed in the vicinity of the implants. Retrieved materials varied in their physical appearance after 6 weeks of implantation. In vivo biocompatibility studies of the medical applications indicated that the microbial copolyesters obtained were all biocompatible and especially the PHOSy series of copolyesters had the highest biocompatibility among them.

  5. Nanocomposite coatings on biomedical grade stainless steel for improved corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Srinivasan; Mohana, Marimuthu; Sudhagar, Pitchaimuthu; Raman, Vedarajan; Nishimura, Toshiyasu; Kim, Sanghyo; Kang, Yong Soo; Rajendran, Nallaiyan

    2012-10-24

    The 316 L stainless steel is one of the most commonly available commercial implant materials with a few limitations in its ease of biocompatibility and long-standing performance. Hence, porous TiO(2)/ZrO(2) nanocomposite coated over 316 L stainless steels was studied for their enhanced performance in terms of its biocompatibility and corrosion resistance, following a sol-gel process via dip-coating technique. The surface composition and porosity texture was studied to be uniform on the substrate. Biocompatibility studies on the TiO(2)/ZrO(2) nanocomposite coatings were investigated by placing the coated substrate in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The immersion procedure resulted in the complete coverage of the TiO(2)/ZrO(2) nanocomposite (coated on the surface of 316 L stainless steel) with the growth of a one-dimensional (1D) rod-like carbonate-containing apatite. The TiO(2)/ZrO(2) nanocomposite coated specimens showed a higher corrosion resistance in the SBF solution with an enhanced biocompatibility, surpassing the performance of the pure oxide coatings. The cell viability of TiO(2)/ZrO(2) nanocomposite coated implant surface was examined under human dermal fibroblasts culture, and it was observed that the composite coating enhances the proliferation through effective cellular attachment compared to pristine 316 L SS surface. PMID:22967070

  6. Biocompatible Polymeric Materials Intended for Drug Delivery and Therapeutic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Bednarek, Melania;

    2007-01-01

    water soluble polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) with good mycoadhesive properties, are all prepared by living/controlled polymerization techniques. These techniques, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and ring opening polymerization (ROP), ensure at the same time...

  7. Biocompatibility of Advanced Manufactured Titanium Implants—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred T. Sidambe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium (Ti and its alloys may be processed via advanced powder manufacturing routes such as additive layer manufacturing (or 3D printing or metal injection moulding. This field is receiving increased attention from various manufacturing sectors including the medical devices sector. It is possible that advanced manufacturing techniques could replace the machining or casting of metal alloys in the manufacture of devices because of associated advantages that include design flexibility, reduced processing costs, reduced waste, and the opportunity to more easily manufacture complex or custom-shaped implants. The emerging advanced manufacturing approaches of metal injection moulding and additive layer manufacturing are receiving particular attention from the implant fabrication industry because they could overcome some of the difficulties associated with traditional implant fabrication techniques such as titanium casting. Using advanced manufacturing, it is also possible to produce more complex porous structures with improved mechanical performance, potentially matching the modulus of elasticity of local bone. While the economic and engineering potential of advanced manufacturing for the manufacture of musculo-skeletal implants is therefore clear, the impact on the biocompatibility of the materials has been less investigated. In this review, the capabilities of advanced powder manufacturing routes in producing components that are suitable for biomedical implant applications are assessed with emphasis placed on surface finishes and porous structures. Given that biocompatibility and host bone response are critical determinants of clinical performance, published studies of in vitro and in vivo research have been considered carefully. The review concludes with a future outlook on advanced Ti production for biomedical implants using powder metallurgy.

  8. Viability of biocompatible and biodegradable seeds production with incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aims the development of radioactive seeds, biocompatible and biodegradable, with the objective of adding options in the cancer treatment. The work focus on the production of seeds biodegradable that incorporate radioisotopes with half life inferior than the degradation time of the material. The idea of producing devices with biodegradable materials impregnated with radioisotopes of short half life will offer new possibilities in the cancer treatment, since they can be used following the same procedures of the permanent interstitial brachytherapy, but using degradable materials compatible with the physiological environment. It will be discussed in particular the possible application of these seeds in the treatment of prostate cancer. A review of the subject and a preliminary evaluation of the viability of production of the seeds will be presented. The method of production of the seeds is based on the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium in glass matrixes obtained by sol-gel processing. X-ray fluorescence was done in the samples produced and the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium atoms was confirmed. (author)

  9. Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Electrodes for Neural Interfaces: In vivo Biocompatibility Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, María; Taylor, Andrew; Fjorback, Morten; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian P

    2016-01-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDD) electrodes have recently attracted attention as materials for neural electrodes due to their superior physical and electrochemical properties, however their biocompatibility remains largely unexplored. In this work, we aim to investigate the in vivo biocompatibility of BDD electrodes in relation to conventional titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes using a rat subcutaneous implantation model. High quality BDD films were synthesized on electrodes intended for use as an implantable neurostimulation device. After implantation for 2 and 4 weeks, tissue sections adjacent to the electrodes were obtained for histological analysis. Both types of implants were contained in a thin fibrous encapsulation layer, the thickness of which decreased with time. Although the level of neovascularization around the implants was similar, BDD electrodes elicited significantly thinner fibrous capsules and a milder inflammatory reaction at both time points. These results suggest that BDD films may constitute an appropriate material to support stable performance of implantable neural electrodes over time. PMID:27013949

  10. Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond electrodes for neural interfaces: In vivo biocompatibility evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María eAlcaide

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDD electrodes have recently attracted attention as materials for neural electrodes due to their superior physical and electrochemical properties, however their biocompatibility remains largely unexplored. In this work, we aim to investigate the in vivo biocompatibility of BDD electrodes in relation to conventional titanium nitride (TiN electrodes using a rat subcutaneous implantation model. High quality BDD films were synthesized on electrodes intended for use as an implantable neurostimulation device. After implantation for 2 and 4 weeks, tissue sections adjacent to the electrodes were obtained for histological analysis. Both types of implants were contained in a thin fibrous encapsulation layer, the thickness of which decreased with time. Although the level of neovascularization around the implants was similar, BDD electrodes elicited significantly thinner fibrous capsules and a milder inflammatory reaction at both time points. These results suggest that BDD films may constitute an appropriate material to support stable performance of implantable neural electrodes over time.

  11. In vitro calcification and in vivo biocompatibility of the cross-linked polypentapeptide of elastin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vitro calcifiability and molecular weight dependence of calcification of the polypentapeptide, (L X Val1-L X Pro2-Gly3-L X Val4-Gly5)n, which had been gamma-irradiation cross-linked have been determined when exposed to dialyzates of normal, nonaugmented fetal bovine serum. The material was found to calcify: calcifiability was found to be highly molecular weight dependent and to be most favored when the highest molecular weight polymers (n approximately equal to 240) had been used for cross-linking. The in vivo biocompatibility, biodegradability, and calcifiability of the gamma-irradiation cross-linked polypentapeptide were examined in rabbits in both soft and hard tissue sites. The material was found to be biocompatible irrespective of its physical form and to be biodegradable but with n of 200 or less it was not shown to calcify or ossify in the rabbit tibial nonunion model

  12. In-situ biopreparation of biocompatible bacterial cellulose/graphene oxide composites pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenkun; Li, Wei; He, Yi; Duan, Tao

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, a composite material formed by bacterial cellulose (BC) and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and characterized. GO was added in the bacteria culture media and then the bacteria was inoculated. The BC/GO pellets composite was prepared into the bacteria culture media and vibrated in Erlenmeyer flask. Characterization of the BC/GO composite showed GO nanosheets embedded in the nanofibers network of BC. The experiments in this study demonstrated BC and GO effectively interacted by hydrogen bonding. Moreover, the cytotoxicity assays showed the material had a better biocompatibility than the counterparts and promoted the cell proliferation excellently. The biocompatibility of BC/GO has the potential to be used for drug delivery.

  13. Biocompatibility Assessment of PLCL-Sericin Copolymer Membranes Using Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kewalin Inthanon; Donraporn Daranarong; Pimwalan Techaikool; Winita Punyodom; Vorathep Khaniyao; Audrey M Bernstein; Weerah Wongkham

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells based tissue engineering requires biocompatible materials, which allow the cells to adhere, expand, and differentiate in a large scale. An ideal biomaterial for clinical application should be free from mammalian products which cause immune reactivities and pathogen infections. We invented a novel biodegradable poly(L-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone)-sericin (PLCL-SC) copolymer membrane which was fabricated by electrospinning. Membranes with concentrations of 2.5 or 5% (w/v) SC exhibited q...

  14. Biomedical-Grade Chitosan in Wound Management and Its Biocompatibility In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Lim, Chin Keong

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan and chitosan-based derivatives have various medical applications. It is wellknown that chitosan possesses medicinal properties that accelerate wound healing and tissue regeneration. Chitosan is a natural product. It is biocompatible and biodegradable, enabling it to be used for wound dressing material. However, the practical use of chitosan is restricted to the unmodified forms, as these are water-insoluble and have high viscosity and the tendency to coagulate with proteins at high p...

  15. Novel biocompatible nanocapsules for slow release of fragrances on the human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Callewaert, Chris; Vanbeveren, Nelleke; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for fragranced products, but due to the poor aqueous solubility and instability of fragrance molecules, their use is limited. Nowadays, fragrance encapsulation in biocompatible nanocontainer material is emerging as a novel strategy to overcome the evaporation of volatile molecules and to prolong the sensory characteristics of fragrance molecules and the longevity of perfumes. The objective of this study was to develop an innovative sustained release system of perfume...

  16. Rational Design and Enhanced Biocompatibility of a Dry Adhesive Medical Skin Patch

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Moon Kyu

    2011-07-28

    A new type of medical skin patch is developed that contains high-density, mushroom-like micropillars. Such dry-adhesive micropillars are highly biocompatible, have minimized side effects, and provide reasonable normal adhesion strength. To arrive at optimal conditions for the dry adhesive skin patch, the proper design of various structural and material parameters of micropillars is investigated. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Mechanical Properties and Biocompatibility of a Biomaterial Based on Deproteinized Hydroxyapatite and Endodentine Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupeks Lauris

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite is used for bone reconstruction, in order to improve its mechanical properties different substances can be added. In our study new biomaterial is created from deproteinised hydroxyaptite and endodentic cement, its mechanical properties were tested. Material was implanted subcutaneous in rats, then histological and biocompatability tests were performed. Results indicate that stuff has good mechanical properties, short setting time and gradual resorption creating porosity and ability to integrate in bone.

  18. Effect of Surface Modification on Microbiol Polyhydroxyalkanoate Films on Biocompatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霰霜; 赵锴; 陈金春; 夏彩虹; 陈国强

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro biocompatibility of a new type of polymer, polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hexanoate (PHBHHx). The hydrophilicity and biocompatibility were studied with two kinds of enzymes, amylase BAN480L and lipase Novozym388. The degree of hydrophilicity was observed using contact angle measurements. In vitro biocompatibility evaluations were carried out by direct incubation of mouse fibroblast cell line L929 on the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) films. The samples treated with BAN480L showed that the PHA biocompatibility increased while the hydrophilicity decreased. Relative to untreated samples, the number of cells on the Novozym388 modified PHBHHx significant decrease as the hydrophilicity also decreased. The results indicated that other surface characteristics besides hydrophilicity influence the biocompatibility of PHBHHx films.

  19. Biocompatibility of low molecular weight polymers for two-phase partitioning bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jesse; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Two phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) improve the efficiency of fermentative processes by limiting the exposure of microorganisms to toxic solutes by sequestering them into a non-aqueous phase (NAP). A potential limitation of this technology, when using immiscible organic solvents as the NAP, is the cytoxicity that these materials may exert on the microbes. An improved TPPB configuration is one in which polymeric NAPs are used to replace organic solvents in order to take advantage of their low cost, improved handling qualities, and biocompatibility. A recent study has shown that low molecular weight polymers may confer improved solute uptake relative to high molecular weight polymers (i.e., have higher partition coefficients), but it is unknown whether sufficiently low molecular weight polymers may inhibit cell growth. This study has investigated the biocompatibility of a range of low molecular weight polymers, and compared trends in biocompatibility to the well-established "critical log P" concept. This was achieved by determining the biocompatibility of polypropylene glycol polymers over a molecular weight (MW) range of 425-4,000 to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas putida, two organisms which have been previously used in TPPB systems. The lower MW polymers were shown to have lower average log P values, and showed more cytotoxicity than polymers of the same structure but with higher molecular weight. Since polymers are generally polydisperse (i.e., polymer samples contain a distribution of MWs), removal of the lower MW fractions via water washing was found to result in improved polymer biocompatibility. These results suggest that the critical log P concept remains useful for describing the toxicity of polymeric substances of different MWs, although it is complicated by the presence of the low MW fractions in the polymers arising from polydispersity.

  20. Development of a curved, stratified, in vitro model to assess ocular biocompatibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron K Postnikoff

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To further improve in vitro models of the cornea, this study focused on the creation of a three-dimensional, stratified, curved epithelium; and the subsequent characterization and evaluation of its suitability as a model for biocompatibility testing. METHODS: Immortalized human corneal epithelial cells were grown to confluency on curved cellulose filters for seven days, and were then differentiated and stratified using an air-liquid interface for seven days before testing. Varying concentrations of a commercial ophthalmic solution containing benzalkonium chloride (BAK, a known cytotoxic agent, and two relevant ocular surfactants were tested on the model. A whole balafilcon A lens soaked in phosphate buffered saline (BA PBS was also used to assess biocompatibility and verify the validity of the model. Viability assays as well as flow cytometry were performed on the cells to investigate changes in cell death and integrin expression. RESULTS: The reconstructed curved corneal epithelium was composed of 3-5 layers of cells. Increasing concentrations of BAK showed dose-dependent decreased cell viability and increased integrin expression and cell death. No significant change in viability was observed in the presence of the surfactants. As expected, the BA PBS combination appeared to be very biocompatible with no adverse change in cell viability or integrin expression. CONCLUSIONS: The stratified, curved, epithelial model proved to be sensitive to distinct changes in cytotoxicity and is suitable for continued assessment for biocompatibility testing of contact lenses. Our results showed that flow cytometry can provide a quantitative measure of the cell response to biomaterials or cytotoxic compounds for both the supernatant and adherent cell populations. As a specifically designed in vitro model of the corneal epithelium, this quantitative model for biocompatibility at the ocular surface may help improve our understanding of cell-material

  1. Biocompatibility evaluation in vitro. Part II: Functional expression of human and animal osteoblasts on the biomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    DNA synthesis and collagen formations on the implant material by cell culture in vitro are the most important phenotypical expression to estimate the biocompatibility. In this part, DNA synthesis and collagen formation on implant materials were quantitatively and qualitatively estimated by radioactive isotope H+-thymidine to incorporate into DNA chains, H+-proline to incorporate into type I collagen proteins followed by scin-tillation counting and antibody-antigen immunocytochemistry staining, respectively. Research results demonstrate that hydroxyapatite (HA) stimulates DNA synthesis and collagen formation on the material whereas this stimulation is restricted by adding spinel to the materials. There are statistical differences between the influences of material components on both DNA synthesis and collagen formation. It is supposed that porous materials can supply more platforms for cell anchoring, and more DNA and collagen are synthesised on the porous materials. Immersion in culture medium results in new HA crystal formation on the porous HA materials.

  2. Effect of plasma surface modification on the biocompatibility of UHMWPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaklamani, G; Chen, J; Dong, H; Stamboulis, A [School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Mehrban, N; Bowen, J; Grover, L, E-mail: a.stamboulis@bham.ac.u [School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-01

    In this paper active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) is used to chemically modify the surface of UHMWPE. This is an unexplored and new area of research. ASPN allows the homogeneous treatment of any shape or surface at low temperature; therefore, it was thought that ASPN would be an effective technique to modify organic polymer surfaces. ASPN experiments were carried out at 120 {sup 0}C using a dc plasma nitriding unit with a 25% N{sub 2} and 75% H{sub 2} atmosphere at 2.5 mbar of pressure. UHMWPE samples treated for different time periods were characterized by nanoindentation, FTIR, XPS, interferometry and SEM. A 3T3 fibroblast cell line was used for in vitro cell culture experiments. Nanoindentation of UHMWPE showed that hardness and elastic modulus increased with ASPN treatment compared to the untreated material. FTIR spectra did not show significant differences between the untreated and treated samples; however, some changes were observed at 30 min of treatment in the range of 1500-1700 cm{sup -1} associated mainly with the presence of N-H groups. XPS studies showed that nitrogen was present on the surface and its amount increased with treatment time. Interferometry showed that no significant changes were observed on the surfaces after the treatment. Finally, cell culture experiments and SEM showed that fibroblasts attached and proliferated to a greater extent on the plasma-treated surfaces leading to the conclusion that ASPN surface treatment can potentially significantly improve the biocompatibility behaviour of polymeric materials.

  3. Fabrication and Biocompatibility of Electrospun Silk Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ick-Soo Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Silk fibroin has attracted great interest in tissue engineering because of its outstanding biocompatibility, biodegradability and minimal inflammatory reaction. In this study, two kinds of biocomposites based on regenerated silk fibroin are fabricated by electrospinning and post-treatment processes, respectively. Firstly, regenerated silk fibroin/tetramethoxysilane (TMOS hybrid nanofibers with high hydrophilicity are prepared, which is superior for fibroblast attachment. The electrospinning process causes adjacent fibers to ‘weld’ at contact points, which can be proved by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The water contact angle of silk/tetramethoxysilane (TMOS composites shows a sharper decrease than pure regenerated silk fibroin nanofiber, which has a great effect on the early stage of cell attachment behavior. Secondly, a novel tissue engineering scaffold material based on electrospun silk fibroin/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA biocomposites is prepared by means of an effective calcium and phosphate (Ca–P alternate soaking method. nHA is successfully produced on regenerated silk fibroin nanofiber within several min without any pre-treatments. The osteoblastic activities of this novel nanofibrous biocomposites are also investigated by employing osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cell line. The cell functionality such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity is ameliorated on mineralized silk nanofibers. All these results indicate that this silk/nHA biocomposite scaffold material may be a promising biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

  4. Metallic ion release from biocompatible cobalt-based alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Ivana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials, which are mainly used for the damaged hard tissue replacements, are materials with high strength, excellent toughness and good wear resistance. The disadvantages of metals as implant materials are their susceptibility to corrosion, the elastic modulus mismatch between metals and human hard tissues, relatively high density and metallic ion release which can cause serious health problems. The aim of this study was to examine metallic ion release from Co-Cr-Mo alloy in artificial saliva. In that purpose, alloy samples were immersed into artificial saliva with different pH values (4.0, 5.5 and 7.5. After a certain immersion period (1, 3 and 6 weeks the concentrations of released ions were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS. The research findings were used in order to define the dependence between the concentration of released metallic ions, artificial saliva pH values and immersion time. The determined released metallic ions concentrations were compared with literature data in order to describe and better understand the phenomenon of metallic ion release from the biocompatible cobalt-based alloy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 i br. ON 174004

  5. Towards a biocompatible artificial lung: Covalent functionalization of poly(4-methylpent-1-ene (TPX with cRGD pentapeptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Möller

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Covalent multistep coating of poly(methylpentene, the membrane material in lung ventilators, by using a copper-free “click” approach with a modified cyclic RGD peptide, leads to a highly biocompatible poly(methylpentene surface. The resulting modified membrane preserves the required excellent gas-flow properties while being densely seeded with lung endothelial cells.

  6. Wettability and biocompatibility of nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon films: Effect of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous carbon films have been applied in biomedical fields as potential biocompatible materials with wettability that can be adjusted by doping with other elements, including F, Si, Ti, O and N. In this study, nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:N) films were deposited by PIII-D using C2H2 + N2 gas mixtures. The biocompatibility and anti-thrombotic properties of the films were assessed in vitro. The surface morphology and surface wettability of the films were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a contact angle method. The results show no cytotoxicity for all films, and films with appropriate nitrogen doping possess much better endothelial cell growth and anti-thrombotic properties

  7. Mechanical Strength and Biocompatibility of Ultrafine-Grained Commercial Purity Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Estrin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of grain refinement of commercial purity titanium by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP on its mechanical performance and bone tissue regeneration is reported. In vivo studies conducted on New Zealand white rabbits did not show an enhancement of biocompatibility of ECAP-modified titanium found earlier by in vitro testing. However, the observed combination of outstanding mechanical properties achieved by ECAP without a loss of biocompatibility suggests that this is a very promising processing route to bioimplant manufacturing. The study thus supports the expectation that commercial purity titanium modified by ECAP can be seen as an excellent candidate material for bone implants suitable for replacing conventional titanium alloy implants.

  8. Development of a hydrophobic polymer composition with improved biocompatibility for making foldable intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, R. S.; Chauhan, R.; Kapoor, K.; Niyogi, U. K.

    2014-05-01

    A hydrophobic composition for foldable intraocular lenses was developed by copolymerizing phenyl ethyl acrylate, phenyl ethyl methacrylate and butanediol diacrylate by gamma irradiation. Aqueous solution of heparin, a biocompatibilizer absorbed in hydroxyethyl methacrylate was added to the monomer mixture before irradiation to impart desired level of hydrophilicity and improved biocompatibility to the hydrophobic composition. Ketorolac tromethamine, an anti-inflammatory agent and L-glutathione, an antioxidant were added to the composition as functional additive for exhibiting improved performance while in use. Concentrations of monomers, biocompatibilizer and functional additives were optimized to develop an advanced material for foldable intraocular lenses. Transmittance, refractive index, Abbe number, hardness, tensile strength, flexibility and foldability were studied on the final composition. Scanning electron microscopic study, differential scanning calorimetric analysis, leachability and viscometry confirmed the permanent incorporation of additives into the polymer. Results of haemocompatibility, tissue implantation and cytotoxicity confirm that the biocompatibility of the base polymer was improved by incorporation of heparin.

  9. Biocompatible Single-Crystal Selenium Nanobelt Based Nanodevice as a Temperature-Tunable Photosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshan Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium materials are widely used in photoelectrical devices, owing to their unique semiconductive properties. Single-crystal selenium nanobelts with large specific surface area, fine photoconductivity, and biocompatibility provide potential applications in biomedical nanodevices, such as implantable artificial retina and rapid photon detector/stimulator for optogenetics. Here, we present a selenium nanobelt based nanodevice, which is fabricated with single Se nanobelt. This device shows a rapid photo response, different sensitivities to visible light of variable wave length, and temperature-tunable property. The biocompatibility of the Se nanobelts was proved by MTT test using two cell lines. Our investigation introduced a photosensor that will be important for multiple potential applications in human visual system, photocells in energy or MEMS, and temperature-tunable photoelectrical device for optogenetics research.

  10. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of resin-based root canal sealers in rat periapical tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Noriko; Satoh, Takenori; Watabe, Hirotaka; Tani-Ishii, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the biocompatibility of resin-based root canal sealers (RCSs) in the periapical tissues of rats. Wistar rats underwent tooth replantation for reproducing the response of periapical tissue with RCSs. The resin-based Epipany SE, AH Plus Jet, the eugenol-based sealer (Canals) and a control group were employed. The upper right first molar was extracted and applied with RCSs on apices, and then the tooth was repositioned. Histological evaluation demonstrated that mild inflammation occurred in the periapical tissue with Epiphany and AH Plus Jet sealers on day 7, whereas Canals induced severe-to-moderate inflammation. The statistical analyses demonstrated that the significant differences were observed between Canals and the other groups on day 7 regarding inflammatory response. On day 14, the lesions induced by all sealers were healed and replaced predominantly by fibrous connective tissue. Our results suggest that Epiphany SE and AH Plus Jet are good biocompatible materials.

  11. Enhanced mechanical performance of biocompatible hemicelluloses-based hydrogel via chain extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xian-Ming; Chen, Ge-Gu; Gong, Xiao-Dong; Fu, Gen-Que; Niu, Ya-Shuai; Bian, Jing; Peng, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Hemicelluloses are widely used to prepare gel materials because of their renewability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. Here, molecular chain extension of hemicelluloses was obtained in a two-step process. Composite hydrogels were prepared via free radical graft copolymerization of crosslinked quaternized hemicelluloses (CQH) and acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of crosslinking agent N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA). This chain extension strategy significantly improved the mechanical performance of the resulting hydrogels. The crosslinking density, compression modulus, and swelling capacities of hydrogels were tuned by changing the AA/CQH and MBA/CQH contents. Moreover, the biocompatibility test suggests that the hemicelluloses-based hydrogels exhibited no toxicity to cells and allowed cell growth. Taken together, these properties demonstrated that the composite hydrogels have potential applications in the fields of water absorbents, cell culture, and other functional biomaterials. PMID:27634095

  12. Biocompatibility and preliminary clinical application of HA/HDPE nanocomposites synthetic auditory ossicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shai-hong; WANG Guo-hui; ZHAO Yan-zhong; QI You-fei; ZHOU Ke-chao; HUANG Su-ping; LI Zhi-you; HUANG Bai-yun

    2006-01-01

    The biocompatibility of the hydroxyapatite/high density polyethtlene(HA/HDPE) nanocomposites synthetic auditory ossicle was evaluated, the percentage of S-period cells was detected by flow cytometry after L929 incubated with extraction of the HA/HDPE nanocomposites, titanium materials of clinical application as the control. Both of them were implanted in the animals and the histopathological evaluations were carried out, and the preliminary clinical trials about HA/HDPE nanocomposites synthetic auditory ossicles were also carried out. The statistical analysis show that there are no statistically significant differences between HA/HDPE test groups and control groups (P>0.05), which demonstrates that the HA/HDPE nanocomposites synthetic auditory ossicle has a good biocompatibility and clinical application outlook.

  13. Enhanced mechanical performance of biocompatible hemicelluloses-based hydrogel via chain extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xian-Ming; Chen, Ge-Gu; Gong, Xiao-Dong; Fu, Gen-Que; Niu, Ya-Shuai; Bian, Jing; Peng, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Hemicelluloses are widely used to prepare gel materials because of their renewability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. Here, molecular chain extension of hemicelluloses was obtained in a two-step process. Composite hydrogels were prepared via free radical graft copolymerization of crosslinked quaternized hemicelluloses (CQH) and acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of crosslinking agent N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA). This chain extension strategy significantly improved the mechanical performance of the resulting hydrogels. The crosslinking density, compression modulus, and swelling capacities of hydrogels were tuned by changing the AA/CQH and MBA/CQH contents. Moreover, the biocompatibility test suggests that the hemicelluloses-based hydrogels exhibited no toxicity to cells and allowed cell growth. Taken together, these properties demonstrated that the composite hydrogels have potential applications in the fields of water absorbents, cell culture, and other functional biomaterials. PMID:27634095

  14. Overview of Stabilizing Ligands for Biocompatible Quantum Dot Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Clapp

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent colloidal quantum dots (QDs possess numerous advantages as fluorophores in biological applications. However, a principal challenge is how to retain the desirable optical properties of quantum dots in aqueous media while maintaining biocompatibility. Because QD photophysical properties are directly related to surface states, it is critical to control the surface chemistry that renders QDs biocompatible while maintaining electronic passivation. For more than a decade, investigators have used diverse strategies for altering the QD surface. This review summarizes the most successful approaches for preparing biocompatible QDs using various chemical ligands.

  15. Particle morphology influence on mechanical and biocompatibility properties of injection molded Ti alloy powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülsoy, H Özkan; Gülsoy, Nagihan; Calışıcı, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    Titanium and Titanium alloys exhibits properties that are excellent for various bio-applications. Metal injection molding is a processing route that offers reduction in costs, with the added advantage of near net-shape components. Different physical properties of Titanium alloy powders, shaped and processed via injection molding can achieve high complexity of part geometry with mechanical and bioactivity properties, similar or superior to wrought material. This study describes that the effect of particle morphology on the microstructural, mechanical and biocompatibility properties of injection molded Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy powder for biomaterials applications. Ti64 powders irregular and spherical in shape were injection molded with wax based binder. Binder debinding was performed in solvent and thermal method. After debinding the samples were sintered under high vacuum. Metallographic studies were determined to densification and the corresponding microstructural changes. Sintered samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) with elemental concentrations that were comparable to those of human blood plasma for a total period of 15 days. Both materials were implanted in fibroblast culture for biocompatibility evaluations were carried out. The results show that spherical and irregular powder could be sintered to a maximum theoretical density. Maximum tensile strength was obtained for spherical shape powder sintered. The tensile strength of the irregular shape powder sintered at the same temperature was lower due to higher porosity. Finally, mechanical tests show that the irregular shape powder has lower mechanical properties than spherical shape powder. The sintered irregular Ti64 powder exhibited better biocompatibility than sintered spherical Ti64 powder. Results of study showed that sintered spherical and irregular Ti64 powders exhibited high mechanical properties and good biocompatibility properties. PMID:25201399

  16. In vivo biocompatibility of Resilon compared with gutta-percha in a pre-clinical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo biocompatibility of Resilon, compared with gutta-percha, at short and long-term following implantation in a rat subcutaneous implantation model. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were implanted subcutaneously with either Resilon or gutta-percha or were sham controls. Tissues were harvested at 8 days or 60 days after implantation and were evaluated histologically for inflammation and fibrous encapsulation. The severity of histologic injury, scored on a scale of 0-4 and quantitative analysis of the capsule wall thickness were determined for statistical analysis. Data were analyzed by Student t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis or Mann-Whitney′s tests as appropriate. A value of P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: No behavioral changes or visible signs of physical impairment were observed at 8 days or 60 days post-implantation. Histopathologic observation of the implanted sites at each time-point showed that both Resilon and gutta-percha implants induced foreign body reaction, showing minimal to mild inflammatory reactions in most cases, which diminished significantly with time. Compared with gutta-percha, the capsule wall was thinner (P > 0.05 after Resilon implantation at day 8 and significantly (P = 0.01 thicker at day 60. In addition, capsule wall thickness showed a trend to increase with time after implantation in the Resilon groups (P > 0.05, opposed to the significant decrease (P = 0.016 observed after implantation in the gutta-percha groups, suggesting lesser long-term biocompatibility of Resilon. Conclusion: Our findings validate Resilon as an in vivo biocompatible material. However, our data suggest that long-term biocompatibility of Resilon, despite validated, is inferior to that of gutta-percha control.

  17. Tribological study of lubricious DLC biocompatible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, M; Garcia-Luis, A; Viviente, J L; Braceras, I; Oñate, J I

    2002-12-01

    DLC (diamond-like carbon) coatings have remarkable tribological properties due mainly to their good frictional behavior. These coatings can be applied in many industrial and biomedical applications, where sliding can generate wear and frictional forces on the components, such as orthopaedic metal implants. This work reports on the development and tribological characterization of functionally gradient titanium alloyed DLC coatings. A PVD-magnetron sputtering technique has been used as the deposition method. The aim of this work was to study the tribological performance of the DLC coating when metal to metal contact (cobalt chromium or titanium alloys) takes place under dry and lubricated test conditions. Prior work by the authors demonstrates that the DLC coating reduced considerably the wear of the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The DLC coating during mechanical testing exhibited a high elastic recovery (65%) compared to the values obtained from Co-Cr-Mo (15%) and Ti-6Al-4V (23%). The coating exhibited an excellent tribo-performance against the Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo alloys, especially under dry conditions presenting a friction value of 0.12 and almost negligible wear. This coating has passed biocompatibility tests for implant devices on tissue/bone contact according to international standards (ISO 10993). PMID:15348654

  18. Eicosanoid release as laboratory indicator of biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiout, A; Jörres, A; Schultze, G; Meinhold, H; Kessel, M

    1989-06-01

    Biocompatibility evaluation of extracorporeal devices requires the establishment of sensitive indicators of blood cells/surface interactions. Among others, arachidonic acid derivatives, such as prostaglandins and thromboxanes, play an important role in the cell control systems. Hence, the release of eicosanoids during blood exposure to dialyzer membranes was investigated. Experiments included in vitro incubation of human blood with flat membranes (FM), as well as ex vivo perfusion of hollow fiber membranes (HFM) with blood from healthy volunteers in single-pass fashion. In both models, a significant release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) was detected. In addition, the amount of eicosanoid release depended on the type of membrane tested. After a 10-min FM incubation with fresh blood, plasma concentrations of TXB2 and PGE2 were pronounced by polycarbonate when compared to Cuprophan and polyacrylonitrile. During 10 min of open loop perfusion of HFM, polymethylmethacrylate was the most active biomaterial, whereas the reactivity of Cuprophan was significantly lower. Among HFM, Hemophan was by far the less active. These results indicate that the release of eicosanoids represents a sensitive parameter of blood cells/membrane reactivity. Thus, the question arises as to whether or not the extracorporeal process of cyclooxygenase activity could contribute to the clinical side effects of chronical hemodialysis.

  19. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL, hydroxyapatite (HAp, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD and usnic acid (UA. The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  20. Evaluation of iron oxide nanoparticle biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanini, Amel; Schmitt, Alain; Kacem, Kamel; Chau, François; Ammar, Souad; Gavard, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting field of investigation for the development of new treatments for many human diseases. However, it is necessary to assess the biocompatibility of nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo before considering clinical applications. Our characterization of polyol-produced maghemite γ-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles showed high structural quality. The particles showed a homogeneous spherical size around 10 nm and could form aggregates depending on the dispersion conditions. Such nanoparticles were efficiently taken up in vitro by human endothelial cells, which represent the first biological barrier to nanoparticles in vivo. However, γ-Fe(2)O(3) can cause cell death within 24 hours of exposure, most likely through oxidative stress. Further in vivo exploration suggests that although γ-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles are rapidly cleared through the urine, they can lead to toxicity in the liver, kidneys and lungs, while the brain and heart remain unaffected. In conclusion, γ-Fe(2)O(3) could exhibit harmful properties and therefore surface coating, cellular targeting, and local exposure should be considered before developing clinical applications. PMID:21589646

  1. Femtosecond pulsed laser deposition of biological and biocompatible thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, B. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)]. E-mail: bhopp@physx.u-szeged.hu; Smausz, T. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Kecskemeti, G. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Klini, A. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (I.E.S.L.), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (F.O.R.T.H.), P.O. Box 1527, GR-711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Bor, Zs. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2007-07-31

    In our study we investigate and report the femtosecond pulsed laser deposition of biological and biocompatible materials. Teflon, polyhydroxybutyrate, polyglycolic-acid, pepsin and tooth in the form of pressed pellets were used as target materials. Thin layers were deposited using pulses from a femtosecond KrF excimer laser system (FWHM = 450 fs, {lambda} = 248 nm, f = 10 Hz) at different fluences: 0.6, 0.9, 1.6, 2.2, 2.8 and 3.5 J/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Potassium bromide were used as substrates for diagnostic measurements of the films on a FTIR spectrometer. The pressure in the PLD chamber was 1 x 10{sup -3} Pa, and in the case of tooth and Teflon the substrates were heated at 250 deg. C. Under the optimized conditions the chemical structure of the deposited materials seemed to be largely preserved as evidenced by the corresponding IR spectra. The polyglycolic-acid films showed new spectral features indicating considerable morphological changes during PLD. Surface structure and thickness of the layers deposited on Si substrates were examined by an atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a surface profilometer. An empirical model has been elaborated for the description of the femtosecond PLD process. According to this the laser photons are absorbed in the surface layer of target resulting in chemical dissociation of molecules. The fast decomposition causes explosion-like gas expansion generating recoil forces which can tear off and accelerate solid particles. These grains containing target molecules without any chemical damages are ejected from the target and deposited onto the substrate forming a thin layer.

  2. Biocompatibility and bioactivity of calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers in human dental pulp cells

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Boldrin MESTIERI; GOMES-CORNÉLIO, Ana Lívia; RODRIGUES, Elisandra Márcia; SALLES, Loise Pedrosa; BOSSO-MARTELO, Roberta; Juliane Maria GUERREIRO-TANOMARU; TANOMARU-FILHO, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate-based material. New sealers have been developed based on calcium silicate as MTA Fillapex and MTA Plus. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate biocompatibility and bioactivity of these two calcium silicate-based sealers in culture of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). Material and Methods The cells were isolated from third molars extracted from a 16-year-old patient. Pulp tissue was sectioned into fragments with approximately 1 mm3...

  3. Self-assembly of supramolecular triarylamine nanowires in mesoporous silica and biocompatible electrodes thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licsandru, Erol-Dan; Schneider, Susanne; Tingry, Sophie; Ellis, Thomas; Moulin, Emilie; Maaloum, Mounir; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Barboiu, Mihail; Giuseppone, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Biocompatible silica-based mesoporous materials, which present high surface areas combined with uniform distribution of nanopores, can be organized in functional nanopatterns for a number of applications. However, silica is by essence an electrically insulating material which precludes applications for electro-chemical devices. The formation of hybrid electroactive silica nanostructures is thus expected to be of great interest for the design of biocompatible conducting materials such as bioelectrodes. Here we show that we can grow supramolecular stacks of triarylamine molecules in the confined space of oriented mesopores of a silica nanolayer covering a gold electrode. This addressable bottom-up construction is triggered from solution simply by light irradiation. The resulting self-assembled nanowires act as highly conducting electronic pathways crossing the silica layer. They allow very efficient charge transfer from the redox species in solution to the gold surface. We demonstrate the potential of these hybrid constitutional materials by implementing them as biocathodes and by measuring laccase activity that reduces dioxygen to produce water.Biocompatible silica-based mesoporous materials, which present high surface areas combined with uniform distribution of nanopores, can be organized in functional nanopatterns for a number of applications. However, silica is by essence an electrically insulating material which precludes applications for electro-chemical devices. The formation of hybrid electroactive silica nanostructures is thus expected to be of great interest for the design of biocompatible conducting materials such as bioelectrodes. Here we show that we can grow supramolecular stacks of triarylamine molecules in the confined space of oriented mesopores of a silica nanolayer covering a gold electrode. This addressable bottom-up construction is triggered from solution simply by light irradiation. The resulting self-assembled nanowires act as highly conducting

  4. Ti1-xAux Alloys: Hard Biocompatible Metals and Their Possible Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevzi; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Morosan, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Furthermore, using materials for biomedical applications calls for alloys with high biocompatibility which are even more sparse. The Ti1-xAux (0 . 22 dental, and prosthetic applications, where they could be used as both permanent and temporary components. Additionally, the ability of Ti1-xAux alloys to adhere to ceramic parts could reduce the weight and cost of these components. The work at Rice was supported by NSF DMR 0847681 (E.M. and E.S.).

  5. Histopathology of biocompatible hydroxylapatite-polyethylene composite in ossiculoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, AGW; Segenhout, HM; Albers, FWJ; van de Want, HJL

    2002-01-01

    The biocompatibility of hydroxylapatite-polyethylene composite implants (HAPEX, Smith and Nephew) was investigated in this study. Eleven middle ear prostheses, removed during revision surgery, have been examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Biocompatibility of new Ti-Nb-Ta base alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdelrahman H; Gepreel, Mohamed A-H; Gouda, Mohamed K; Hefnawy, Ahmad M; Kandil, Sherif H

    2016-04-01

    β-type titanium alloys are promising materials in the field of medical implants. The effect of β-phase stability on the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and cytotoxicity of a newly designed β-type (Ti77Nb17Ta6) biocompatible alloys are studied. The β-phase stability was controlled by the addition of small quantities of Fe and O. X-ray diffraction and microstructural analysis showed that the addition of O and Fe stabilized the β-phase in the treated solution condition. The strength and hardness have increased with the increase in β-phase stability while ductility and Young's modulus have decreased. The potentio-dynamic polarization tests showed that the corrosion resistance of the new alloys is better than Ti-6Al-4V alloy by at least ten times. Neutral red uptake assay cytotoxicity test showed cell viability of at least 95%. The new alloys are promising candidates for biomedical applications due to their high mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and reduced cytotoxicity. PMID:26838885

  7. Large-scale production and characterization of biocompatible colloidal nanoalumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, W A W; Sreenivasan, V K A; Goldys, E M; Zvyagin, A V

    2014-12-23

    The rapid uptake of nanomaterials in life sciences calls for the development of universal, high-yield techniques for their production and interfacing with biomolecules. Top-down methods take advantage of the existing variety of bulk and thin-film solid-state materials for improved prediction and control of the resultant nanomaterial properties. We demonstrate the power of this approach using high-energy ball milling (HEBM) of alumina (Al2O3). Nanoalumina particles with a mean size of 25 nm in their most stable α-crystallographic phase were produced in gram quantities, suitable for biological and biomedical applications. Nanomaterial contamination from zirconia balls used in HEBM was reduced from 19 to 2% using a selective acid etching procedure. The biocompatibility of the milled nanomaterial was demonstrated by forming stable colloids in water and physiological buffers, corroborated by zeta potentials of +40 mV and -40 mV and characterized by in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Finally, the feasibility of a milled nanoalumina surface in anchoring a host of functional groups and biomolecules was demonstrated by the functionalization of their surface using facile silane chemistry, resulting in the decoration of the nanoparticle surface with amino groups suitable for further conjugation of biomolecules. PMID:25434921

  8. Reinforcement of bacterial cellulose aerogels with biocompatible polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pircher, N; Veigel, S; Aigner, N; Nedelec, J M; Rosenau, T; Liebner, F

    2014-10-13

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) aerogels, which are fragile, ultra-lightweight, open-porous and transversally isotropic materials, have been reinforced with the biocompatible polymers polylactic acid (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), cellulose acetate (CA), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), respectively, at varying BC/polymer ratios. Supercritical carbon dioxide anti-solvent precipitation and simultaneous extraction of the anti-solvent using scCO2 have been used as core techniques for incorporating the secondary polymer into the BC matrix and to convert the formed composite organogels into aerogels. Uniaxial compression tests revealed a considerable enhancement of the mechanical properties as compared to BC aerogels. Nitrogen sorption experiments at 77K and scanning electron micrographs confirmed the preservation (or even enhancement) of the surface-area-to-volume ratio for most of the samples. The formation of an open-porous, interpenetrating network of the second polymer has been demonstrated by treatment of BC/PMMA hybrid aerogels with EMIM acetate, which exclusively extracted cellulose, leaving behind self-supporting organogels.

  9. Impact of trace elements on biocompatibility of titanium scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A titanium oxide scaffold has recently been reported with high compressive strength (>2 MPa) which may allow its use in bone. However, would it be possible to enhance the scaffolds' performance by selecting a titanium oxide raw material without elemental contamination? Elements in implant surfaces have been reported to provoke implant failure. Thus, this study aims to compare different commercial titanium dioxide powders in order to choose the appropriate powder for scaffold making. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis identified the trace elements, mainly Al, Si, C, Ca and P. Cellular response was measured by cytotoxic effect, cell growth and cytokine secretion from murine preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) in vitro. The XPS data showed that traces of carbon-based molecules, silicon, nitrogen and aluminium in the powder were greatly reduced after cleaning in 1 M NaOH. As a result, reduction in cytotoxicity and inflammatory response was observed. Carbon contamination seemed to have a minor effect on the cellular response. Strong correlations were found between Al and Si contamination levels and the inflammatory response and cytotoxic effect. Thus, it is suggested that the concentration of these elements should be reduced in order to enhance the scaffolds' biocompatibility.

  10. Characterization and biocompatibility of fluoridated biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.L. [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Yu, H.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)], E-mail: yhyang6812@tfol.com; Zeng, Q. [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); He, H.W. [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP) has been widely used in tooth and bone implants due to its excellent biocompatibility. Incorporation of fluorine ions in BCP has drawn much attention because of the beneficial role played by the fluorine ions in bone and tooth growth. The aim of this study was to obtain fluoridated biphasic calcium phosphate (FBCP) by immersing BCP into saturated ZnF{sub 2} solution with F{sup -} concentration of 3500 mg/l at different times. The phase and incorporation of fluoride into BCP were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The biomineralization and influence of FBCP on osteoblastic behavior were evaluated and compared with that of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). The results exhibited that the phase evolution of the BCP was affected by the fluoride incorporation and the FBCP significantly improved the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. These findings suggest that the FBCP would be very useful as a bone reconstructive material.

  11. In vitro biocompatibility evaluation of surface-modified titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, Cristina; Martinesi, Maria; Stio, Maria; Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Jiménez, José Antonio; López, María Francisca

    2010-03-15

    The present work is aimed to evaluate the effects of a surface modification process on the biocompatibility of three vanadium-free titanium alloys with biomedical applications interest. Chemical composition of alloys investigated, in weight %, were Ti-7Nb-6Al, Ti-13Nb-13Zr, and Ti-15Zr-4Nb. An easy and economic method intended to improve the biocompatibiblity of these materials consists in a simple thermal treatment at high temperature, 750 degrees C, in air for different times. The significance of modification of the surface properties to the biological response was studied putting in contact both untreated and thermally treated alloys with human cells in culture, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) and Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC). The TNF-alpha release data indicate that thermal treatment improves the biological response of the alloys. The notable enhancement of the surface roughness upon oxidation could be related with the observed reduction of the TNF-alpha levels for treated alloys. A different behavior of the two cell lines may be observed, when adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVEC, ICAM-1, and LFA-1 in PBMC) were determined, PBMC being more sensitive than HUVEC to the contact with the samples. The data also distinguish surface composition and corrosion resistance as significant parameters for the biological response.

  12. Biocompatibility of new Ti-Nb-Ta base alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdelrahman H; Gepreel, Mohamed A-H; Gouda, Mohamed K; Hefnawy, Ahmad M; Kandil, Sherif H

    2016-04-01

    β-type titanium alloys are promising materials in the field of medical implants. The effect of β-phase stability on the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and cytotoxicity of a newly designed β-type (Ti77Nb17Ta6) biocompatible alloys are studied. The β-phase stability was controlled by the addition of small quantities of Fe and O. X-ray diffraction and microstructural analysis showed that the addition of O and Fe stabilized the β-phase in the treated solution condition. The strength and hardness have increased with the increase in β-phase stability while ductility and Young's modulus have decreased. The potentio-dynamic polarization tests showed that the corrosion resistance of the new alloys is better than Ti-6Al-4V alloy by at least ten times. Neutral red uptake assay cytotoxicity test showed cell viability of at least 95%. The new alloys are promising candidates for biomedical applications due to their high mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and reduced cytotoxicity.

  13. Synthesis of biocompatible polymers by plasma; Sintesis de polimeros biocompatibles por plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin O, E

    2007-07-01

    In this work biocompatible polymers were synthesized by plasma based on pyrrole, ethyleneglycol and allylamine. These monomers are biologically important because they contain oxygen and nitrogen in their structure and they form bonding like; N-H, C-N, C-O and O-H that are also in the human system. The polymers were synthesized with splendor electric discharges to 13.5 MHz, among 10 and 100 W, resistive coupling, pressure of 10{sup -1} mbar and 180 minutes of reaction. The interaction of the biological systems with biomaterials depends in many cases of the properties that present the surfaces, because the rough and/or porous surfaces favor the adherence of cells. The results indicate that the ruggedness of the polymers can be controlled with the synthesis energy, since when modifying it flat and/or rough surfaces they are obtained. The compatibility of water with other solutions that it is a form of increasing the adhesion of cells with biopolymers. The affinity with water and solutions is evaluated calculating the contact angle of the polymers surface with drops of concentration solutions and similar composition to the extracellular liquid of the spinal marrow of the human body. The solutions that were proven were based on NaCl, NaCl-MgSO{sub 4}, and a mixture Krebs-Ringer that has chemical composition and similar concentration to that of the fluids of the spinal marrow. In the Poly pyrrole (PPy)/Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) copolymer, the biggest angles corresponded to the Krebs-Ringer solution, in the interval of 18 to 14 degrees and those lowest to the NaCl solution, of 14.5 at 11 degrees. The Poly allylamine had the more high values with water in the interval of 16.5 to 12.5 degrees and those lowest with the NaCl solution, of 13 at 9.5 degrees. On the other hand, in the derived polymers of pyrrole the more high values corresponded to the treatment with water, until 37, and those lowest to the NaCl-MgSO{sub 4} solution, up to 10. The solutions where participated Na

  14. Synthesis of biocompatible polymers by plasma; Sintesis de polimeros biocompatibles por plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin O, E

    2007-07-01

    In this work biocompatible polymers were synthesized by plasma based on pyrrole, ethyleneglycol and allylamine. These monomers are biologically important because they contain oxygen and nitrogen in their structure and they form bonding like; N-H, C-N, C-O and O-H that are also in the human system. The polymers were synthesized with splendor electric discharges to 13.5 MHz, among 10 and 100 W, resistive coupling, pressure of 10{sup -1} mbar and 180 minutes of reaction. The interaction of the biological systems with biomaterials depends in many cases of the properties that present the surfaces, because the rough and/or porous surfaces favor the adherence of cells. The results indicate that the ruggedness of the polymers can be controlled with the synthesis energy, since when modifying it flat and/or rough surfaces they are obtained. The compatibility of water with other solutions that it is a form of increasing the adhesion of cells with biopolymers. The affinity with water and solutions is evaluated calculating the contact angle of the polymers surface with drops of concentration solutions and similar composition to the extracellular liquid of the spinal marrow of the human body. The solutions that were proven were based on NaCl, NaCl-MgSO{sub 4}, and a mixture Krebs-Ringer that has chemical composition and similar concentration to that of the fluids of the spinal marrow. In the Poly pyrrole (PPy)/Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) copolymer, the biggest angles corresponded to the Krebs-Ringer solution, in the interval of 18 to 14 degrees and those lowest to the NaCl solution, of 14.5 at 11 degrees. The Poly allylamine had the more high values with water in the interval of 16.5 to 12.5 degrees and those lowest with the NaCl solution, of 13 at 9.5 degrees. On the other hand, in the derived polymers of pyrrole the more high values corresponded to the treatment with water, until 37, and those lowest to the NaCl-MgSO{sub 4} solution, up to 10. The solutions where participated Na

  15. Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic Acid Base Biocompatible Gel for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing P. Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique for synthesizing biocompatible hydrogels by cross-linking calcium-form poly(γ-glutamic acid, alginate sodium, and Pluronic F-127 was created, in which alginate can be cross-linked by Ca2+ from Ca–γ-PGA directly and γ-PGA molecules introduced into the alginate matrix to provide pH sensitivity and hemostasis. Mechanical properties, swelling behavior, and blood compatibility were investigated for each hydrogel compared with alginate and for γ-PGA hydrogel with the sodium form only. Adding F-127 improves mechanical properties efficiently and influences the temperature-sensitive swelling of the hydrogels but also has a minor effect on pH-sensitive swelling and promotes anticoagulation. MG-63 cells were used to test biocompatibility. Gelation occurred gradually through change in the elastic modulus as the release of calcium ions increased over time and caused ionic cross-linking, which promotes the elasticity of gel. In addition, the growth of MG-63 cells in the gel reflected nontoxicity. These results showed that this biocompatible scaffold has potential for application in bone materials.

  16. Effect of calcium and phosphorus ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, D; Baszkiewicz, J; Kozubowski, J A; Lewandowska-Szumieł, M; Barcz, A; Sobczak, J W; Biliński, A; Rajchel, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium after surface modification by the ion implantation of calcium or phosphorus or calcium + phosphorus. Calcium and phosphorus ions were implanted in a dose of 10(17) ions/cm(2). The ion beam energy was 25 keV. The microstructure of the implanted layers was examined by TEM. The chemical composition of the surface layers was determined by XPS and SIMS. The corrosion resistance was examined by electrochemical methods in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at a temperature of 37 degrees C. The biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro. As shown by TEM results, the surface layers formed during calcium, phosphorus and calcium + phosphorus implantation were amorphous. The results of the electrochemical examinations (Stern's method) indicate that the calcium, phosphorus and calcium + phosphorus implantation into the surface of titanium increases its corrosion resistance in stationary conditions after short- and long-term exposures in SBF. Potentiodynamic tests show that the calcium-implanted samples undergo pitting corrosion during anodic polarisation. The breakdown potentials measured are high (2.5 to 3 V). The good biocompatibility of all the investigated materials was confirmed under the specific conditions of the applied examination, although, in the case of calcium implanted titanium it was not as good as that of non-implanted titanium.

  17. MeV ion beam lithography of biocompatible halogenated Parylenes using aperture masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Harry J.; Norarat, Rattanaporn; Roccio, Marta; Jeanneret, Patrick; Guibert, Edouard; Bergamin, Maxime; Fiorucci, Gianni; Homsy, Alexandra; Laux, Edith; Keppner, Herbert; Senn, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    Parylenes are poly(p-xylylene) polymers that are widely used as moisture barriers and in biomedicine because of their good biocompatibility. We have investigated MeV ion beam lithography using 16O+ ions for writing defined patterns in Parylene-C, which is evaluated as a coating material for the Cochlear Implant (CI) electrode array, a neuroprosthesis to treat some forms of deafness. Parylene-C and -F on silicon and glass substrates as well as 50 μm thick PTFE were irradiated to different fluences (1 ×1013 - 1 ×1016 1 MeV 16O+ ions cm-2) through aperture masks under high vacuum and a low pressure (<10-3 mbar) oxygen atmosphere. Biocompatibility of the irradiated and unirradiated surfaces was tested by cell-counting to determine the proliferation of murine spiral ganglion cells. The results reveal that an oxygen ion beam can be used to pattern Parylene-C and -F without using a liquid solvent developer in a similar manner to PTFE but with a ∼25× smaller removal rate. Biocompatibility tests showed no difference in cell adhesion between irradiated and unirradiated areas or ion fluence dependence. Coating the Parylene surface with an adhesion-promoting protein mixture had a much greater effect on cell proliferation.

  18. The mechanics and biocompatibility characteristics of carbon nanotubes-polyurethane composite membranes:a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the mechanics and biocompatibility characteristics of carbon nanotubes-polyurethane composite membranes. Methods: The mechanics property of carbon nanotubes-polyurethane composite membranes with different carbon nanotubes contents were tested by universal material testing machine. The surface of the membranes was observed by electron microscope when the stent was bent 90 degree. And its cytotoxicity was tested by cultivating study with 7721 cell. The metallic stent that was covered with carbon nanotubes-polyurethane composite membrane by using dip-coating method was inserted in rabbit esophagus in order to evaluate its biocompatibility in vivo. Results: Composite membranes tensile strength (MPa) and elongation at break (%) were 4.62/900, 6.05/730, 8.26/704 and 5.7/450 when the carbon nanotubes contents were 0%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5%, respectively. If the stent was bent at 90 degree, its surface was still smooth without any fractures when it was scanned by electron microscope.Composite membranes had critical cytotoxicity when its carbon nanotubes content was up to 0.5% and 1.0%. No fissure nor degradation of composite membranes occurred at 30 days after composite membrane covered metallic stent was inserted in rabbit esophagus. Conclusion: When moderate carbon nanotubes are added into polyurethane composite membrane, the mechanics and biocompatibility characteristics of the polyurethane composite membrane can be much improved. (authors)

  19. Biocompatibility Evaluation of Dental Luting Cements Using Cytokine Released from Human Oral Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Kwon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental luting cements are commonly used in dentistry for cementation of prosthetic restoration. Many previous studies focused on the measurement of the cell viability as the method of cytotoxicity evaluation during biocompatibility study for the material. In this study, the biocompatibility of various dental luting cements were evaluated using the new method of cytokine release measurement in order to better simulate inflammatory reactions in animal or clinical model using two different oral cells; immortalized human gingival fibroblast and immortalized human oral keratinocytes. Cells were exposed to extractions of various commercially available dental luting cements for different durations. Cytokines of IL-1α and IL-8 were measured from the supernatants of the cells and the results were then compared to the conventional MTT viability test. The result from the conventional cell viability study showed a relatively simple and straight forward indication that only one of the dental luting cements tested in this study was cytotoxic with increasing duration of exposure for both cells. Meanwhile, the result from the cytokine measurement study was much more complex at the time point they were measured, type of cells used for the study and the type of cytokines measured, all of which influenced the interpretation of the results. Hence, the better understanding of the cytokine release would be required for the application in biocompatibility evaluation.

  20. Effects of graphene plates’ adoption on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vivo biocompatibility of calcium silicate coating

    OpenAIRE

    Xie YT; Li HQ; Ding CX; Zheng XB; Li K

    2015-01-01

    Youtao Xie, Hongqin Li, Chuanxian Ding, Xuebin Zheng, Kai Li Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Calcium silicate (CS) ceramic is a good coating candidate for biomedical implants to improve biocompatibility and accelerate early osseo-integration. However, the poor fracture toughness and wear resistance of this ceramic material restricts the long-term performance of impl...

  1. Biocompatibility assessment of rice husk-derived biogenic silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshatwi, Ali A., E-mail: alshatwi@ksu.edu.sa; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic forms of silica have low biocompatibility, whereas biogenic forms have myriad beneficial effects in current toxicological applications. Among the various sources of biogenic silica, rice husk is considered a valuable agricultural biomass material and a cost-effective resource that can provide biogenic silica for biomedical applications. In the present study, highly pure biogenic silica nanoparticles (bSNPs) were successfully harvested from rice husks using acid digestion under pressurized conditions at 120 °C followed by a calcination process. The obtained bSNPs were subjected to phase identification analysis using X-ray diffraction, which revealed the amorphous nature of the bSNPs. The morphologies of the bSNPs were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed spherical particles 10 to 30 nm in diameter. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the bSNPs with human lung fibroblast cells (hLFCs) was investigated using a viability assay and assessing cellular morphological changes, intracellular ROS generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and oxidative stress-related gene expression. Our results revealed that the bSNPs did not have any significant incompatibility in these in vitro cell-based approaches. These preliminary findings suggest that bSNPs are biocompatible, could be the best alternative to synthetic forms of silica and are applicable to food additive and biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Simple, rapid and convenient process • Amorphous and spherical with 10–30 nm size SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were fabricated. • Biogenic silica nanoparticles showed biocompatibility. • bSNPs are an alternative to synthetic forms of silica.

  2. Polymer surface adsorption as a strategy to improve the biocompatibility of graphene nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Artur M; Moreira, J Agostinho; Magalhães, Fernão D; Gonçalves, Inês C

    2016-10-01

    The biointeractions of graphene-based materials depend on their physico-chemical properties. These properties can be manipulated by polymer adsorption. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNP-C) were modified with PVA, HEC, PEG, PVP, chondroitin, glucosamine, and hyaluronic acid. These materials were characterized by SEM, DLS, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, and TGA. Surface adsorption was confirmed for all polymers. Biocompatibility evaluation showed that all of these materials induced low haemolysis (PVA and GNP-C-HEC presented the lowest haemolysis percentages and were therefore more thoroughly studied. The morphology of HFF-1 cells was investigated by microscopy (optical, fluorescence, TEM) in order to evaluate interactions with GNP materials. Small GNP-C nanoplatelets were observed to enter cells independently of the surface treatment. For pristine GNP-C at a concentration of 50μgmL(-1), ROS production increased 4.4-fold. This effect is lower for GNP-C-PVA (3.3-fold) and higher for GNP-C-HEC (5.1-fold). Resazurin assays showed that GNP-C caused toxicity in HFF-1 cells at concentrations above 20μgmL(-1) at 24h, which decreased at 48 and 72h. PVA surface adsorption rendered GNP-C non-toxic at concentrations up to 50μgmL(-1). LIVE/DEAD assays showed that at 20 and 50μgmL(-1) cell death is significantly lower for GNP-C-PVA compared to pristine GNP-C. Modification of nanoplatelets with HEC resulted in no benefit in terms of biocompatibility, whereas PVA considerably improved the biocompatibility. PMID:27451370

  3. Evaluation of biocompatibility of Targis Dentin and Artglass by using subcutaneous implantation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonmez Nalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biocompatibility of a crown-bridge material is as important as its physical and mechanical properties. It is also one of the most important factors for the long-lasting clinical success of that restoration. It directly contacts the vital prepared tooth and that is the reason it has to be nontoxic to the local tissues, such as the pulp, gingiva, or the rest of the body. Materials with different physical properties are used in the conventional fixed prosthodontic restorations. Recently, metal-free systems that are reinforced with fibers have been improved for crown and bridge restorations. These new composite systems have the advantages of both ceramic and polymer chemistry. Materials and Methods: In this research, biocompatibility of two ceramic-polymer-based prosthetic materials (Targis Dentin® and Artglass Dentin® was studied using a subcutaneous implantation test on rats. Initially (15 th day mild inflammatory reactions were observed in tissues, which directly contacted the Artglass, Targis, and control tubes. These probably originated from the surgical traumas. After the 90th day of implantation, these reactions resolved and healthy, well-organized fibrous connective capsules were seen around the implants. Results: Initially (15 th day mild inflammatory reactions were observed in tissues, which directly contacted the Artglass, Targis, and control tubes. These probably originated from the surgical traumas. After the 90 th day of implantation, these reactions resolved and healthy, well-organized fibrous connective capsules were seen around the implants. Conclusion: At the end of the study, according to the FDI and ISO-7405 standards, Targis and Artglass indicated biocompatibility with the subcutaneous connective tissue of the rat.

  4. Biocompatibility evaluation in vitro. Part Ⅲ: Cytotoxicity expression of human and animal osteoblasts on the biomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Exclusion and imflammation in the clinic are observed for various reasons including material chemical composition, physical properties as well as macro- and micro-structure of the implants, surface condition of the implants, and also patient dependent factors. Cytotoxicity expression of cells is a central issue in current biocompatibility to screen the potential implant materials and drugs. This study was aimed at investigation reaction between the potential implant materials and surround tissue. Cytotoxicity of human and mt osteoblast in the material extracts was determinated by testing standards such as GHS assay, MTI assay, alkaline phosphatase activity assay, LDH assay, and Lowry assay. Research results demonstrated that compared with the control condition polystyrene culture plate both human and rat osteoblast cells have normal phenotypie expression in hydroxyapatite extract, and this expression was statistically restricted in hydroxyapatite-spinel extract. However, this restrict, e.g. cytotoxicity could be partially eliminated by immersion treatment of the materials in culture medium.

  5. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the biocompatibility of Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are being widely investigated for their potential use as resorbable biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. However, the natural corrosion of the metals results in potentially harmful perturbations to the physiological environment, which requires a comprehensive understanding of their biocompatibility. Currently, most investigations proceed directly from in vitro biocompatibility studies to intraosseous implantation. However, this can result in the unnecessary elimination of appropriate materials due to over sensitive in vitro methods or the implantation of potentially harmful materials. This study involved the development of a relevant in vitro cell culture method, and an in vivo soft tissue implantation technique to provide an intermediate step between basic cell culture methods and large animal intraosseous investigations. A Live/Dead fluorescent assay was used to investigate the viability of both L929 and SaOS-2 cells exposed to Mg alloys, with the results compared to those seen with the intramuscular implantation of the same materials in Lewis rats. These methods were able to successfully provide data on the corrosion of Mg alloys, allowing the identification of slowly and safely corroding materials that may be used in future intraosseous investigations. (paper)

  6. An estimate of the prevalence of biocompatible and habitable planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, M J

    1992-01-01

    A Monte Carlo computer model of extra-solar planetary formation and evolution, which includes the planetary geochemical carbon cycle, is presented. The results of a run of one million galactic disc stars are shown where the aim was to assess the possible abundance of both biocompatible and habitable planets. (Biocompatible planets are defined as worlds where the long-term presence of surface liquid water provides environmental conditions suitable for the origin and evolution of life. Habitable planets are those worlds with more specifically Earthlike conditions). The model gives an estimate of 1 biocompatible planet per 39 stars, with the subset of habitable planets being much rarer at 1 such planet per 413 stars. The nearest biocompatible planet may thus lie approximately 14 LY distant and the nearest habitable planet approximately 31 LY away. If planets form in multiple star systems then the above planet/star ratios may be more than doubled. By applying the results to stars in the solar neighbourhood, it is possible to identify 28 stars at distances of < 22 LY with a non-zero probability of possessing a biocompatible planet.

  7. In vitro biocompatibility evaluation of silk-fibroin/polyurethane membrane with cultivation of HUVECs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei; Wang, Wei-Ci; Liao, Yong-Gui; Liu, Wen-Qi; Yu, Miao; Ouyang, Chen-Xi

    2014-03-01

    In order to investigate the in vitro biocompatibility of a novel polyurethane (PU) membrane modified by incorporation of superfine silk-fibroin powder (SFP), which was prepared for small-diameter vascular grafts, with the cultivation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), PU and SFP were mixed with the ratios of 9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7 (PU:SFP) to make four composite materials. Unmodified PU and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were added as control groups. CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of these biomaterials. Data were processed using SPSS, and P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Adherence and spreading of HUVECs on the surface of specimens was observed using direct contact cultivation. The toxicity ratings of the novel composites were grade 0-1, which is in the acceptable range. In all the experimental groups except control, SFP/PU with ratio of 1:9 had the least cytotoxicity property, and more content of SFP in the composite showed no improvement of the biocompatibility. HUVECs strongly attached to and grew on the surface of the biomaterials, and proliferated rapidly. The proliferation ability increased with increased proportion of SFP; however the cell quantity on the surface of the materials decreased when the proportion of SFP was equal to or larger than that of PU in the composite. It is concluded that this novel material has excellent cellular affinity with no cytotoxicity to HUVECs. Adding SFP gives PU better biocompatibility, while further research on optimum blend ratios is still needed.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility evaluation of hydroxyapatite - gelatin polyLactic acid ternary nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Nabipour; M.S. Nourbakhsh; M. Baniasadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The current study reports the production and biocompatibility evaluation of a ternary nanocomposite consisting of HA, PLA, and gelatin for biomedical application.Materials and Methods: Hydroxyapatite nanopowder (HA: Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) was produced by burning the bovine cortical bone within the temperature range of 350-450 oC followed by heating in an oven at 800. Synthesis of the ternary nanocomposite was carried out in two steps: synthesis of gelatin-hydroxyapatite binary nanocom...

  9. Enhancement of biocompatibility of nickel-titanium by laser surface modification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ka Wai

    Nickel Titanium is a relatively new biomaterial that has attracted research interest for biomedical application. The good biocompatibility with specific functional properties of shape memory effect and superelasticity creates a smart material for medical applications. However, there are still concerns on nickel ion release of this alloy if it is going to be implanted for a long time. Nickel ion is carcinogenic and also causes allergic response and degeneration of muscle tissue. The subsequent release of Ni+ ions into the body system is fatal for the long term application of this alloy in the human body. To improve the long term biocompatibility and corrosion properties of NiTi, different surface treatment techniques have been investigated but no optimum technique has been established yet. This project will investigate the feasibility of applying laser surface alloying technique to improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of NiTi in simulated body fluid condition. This thesis summarizes the result of laser surface modification of NiTi with Mo, Nb and Co using CO2 laser. The modified layer, which is free of microcracks and pores, acts as physical barrier to reduce nickel release and enhance the surface properties. The hardness values of the Mo-alloyed NiTi, Nb-alloyed NiTi and Co-alloyed NiTi surface were found to be three to four times harder than the NiTi substrate. Corrosion polarization tests also showed that the alloyed NiTi are significantly more resistant than the NiTi alloy. The release of Ni ions can be greatly reduced after laser surface alloying NiTi with Mo, Nb and Co. The improvement in wettability characteristics, the growth of the apatite on the specimen's surface and the adhesion of cell confirm the good biocompatibility after laser surface alloying. It is concluded that laser surface alloying is one of the potential technique not only to improve the corrosion resistance with low nickel release rate, but also retain the good

  10. Solubility of dense CO2 in two biocompatible acrylate copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. C. Duarte

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible polymers and copolymers are frequently being used as part of controlled delivery systems. These systems can be prepared using a "clean and environment friendly" technology like supercritical fluids. One great advantage of this process is that compressed carbon dioxide has excellent plasticizing properties and can swell most biocompatible polymeric matrixes, thus promoting drug impregnation processes. Mass sorption of two acrylate biocompatible copolymers contact with supercritical carbon dioxide is reported. Equilibrium solubility of dense carbon dioxide in poly(methylmethacrylate-co-ethylhexylacrylate and poly(methylmethacrylate-co-ethylhexylacrylate-co-ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate was studied by a static method at 10.0 MPa and 313 K. The reticulated copolymer had Fickean behavior and its diffusion coefficient was calculated, under operating conditions.

  11. Cysteine modified polyaniline films improve biocompatibility for two cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on one of the most exciting application areas of conjugated conducting polymers, which is cell culture and tissue engineering. To improve the biocompatibility of conducting polymers we present an easy method that involves the modification of the polymer backbone using L-cysteine. In this publication, we show the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) films supported onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and modified using cysteine (PANI-Cys) in order to generate a biocompatible substrate for cell culture. The PANI-Cys films are characterized by Fourier Transform infrared and UV–visible spectroscopy. The changes in the hydrophilicity of the polymer films after and before the modification were tested using contact angle measurements. After modification the contact angle changes from 86° ± 1 to 90° ± 1, suggesting a more hydrophylic surface. The adhesion properties of LM2 and HaCaT cell lines on the surface of PANI-Cys films in comparison with tissue culture plastic (TCP) are studied. The PANI-Cys film shows better biocompatibility than PANI film for both cell lines. The cell morphologies on the TCP and PANI-Cys film were examined by florescence and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microscopic observations show normal cellular behavior when PANI-Cys is used as a substrate of both cell lines (HaCaT and LM2) as when they are cultured on TCP. The ability of these PANI-Cys films to support cell attachment and growth indicates their potential use as biocompatible surfaces and in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A new surface PANI-Cys was produced on films of polyethylene terephthalate. • The relationship between surface characteristics and biocompatibility is analyzed. • The PANI-Cys film presents good biocompatibility for two cell lines

  12. Cysteine modified polyaniline films improve biocompatibility for two cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yslas, Edith I., E-mail: eyslas@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina); Cavallo, Pablo; Acevedo, Diego F.; Barbero, César A. [Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina); Rivarola, Viviana A. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina)

    2015-06-01

    This work focuses on one of the most exciting application areas of conjugated conducting polymers, which is cell culture and tissue engineering. To improve the biocompatibility of conducting polymers we present an easy method that involves the modification of the polymer backbone using L-cysteine. In this publication, we show the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) films supported onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and modified using cysteine (PANI-Cys) in order to generate a biocompatible substrate for cell culture. The PANI-Cys films are characterized by Fourier Transform infrared and UV–visible spectroscopy. The changes in the hydrophilicity of the polymer films after and before the modification were tested using contact angle measurements. After modification the contact angle changes from 86° ± 1 to 90° ± 1, suggesting a more hydrophylic surface. The adhesion properties of LM2 and HaCaT cell lines on the surface of PANI-Cys films in comparison with tissue culture plastic (TCP) are studied. The PANI-Cys film shows better biocompatibility than PANI film for both cell lines. The cell morphologies on the TCP and PANI-Cys film were examined by florescence and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microscopic observations show normal cellular behavior when PANI-Cys is used as a substrate of both cell lines (HaCaT and LM2) as when they are cultured on TCP. The ability of these PANI-Cys films to support cell attachment and growth indicates their potential use as biocompatible surfaces and in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A new surface PANI-Cys was produced on films of polyethylene terephthalate. • The relationship between surface characteristics and biocompatibility is analyzed. • The PANI-Cys film presents good biocompatibility for two cell lines.

  13. Overcoming foreign-body reaction through nanotopography: Biocompatibility and immunoisolation properties of a nanofibrous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Hou, Wen-Da; Wang, Xi; Han, Chengsheng; Vuletic, Ivan; Su, Ni; Zhang, Wen-Xi; Ren, Qiu-Shi; Chen, Liangyi; Luo, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Implantable immunoisolation membranes need to possess superior biocompatibility to prohibit the fibrotic deposition that would reduce the nutrient supply and impair the viability/function of the encapsulated cells. Here, electrospun membranes based on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) were fabricated to contain microfibers (PU-micro) or nanofibers (PU-nano). The two types of membranes were compared in terms of their interaction with macrophage cells and the host tissues. It was found that the fibrous membranes of different topographies possess distinct material properties: PU-nano caused minimal macrophage responses in vitro and in vivo and induced only mild foreign body reactions compared to PU-micro membranes. A flat macroencapsulation device was fabricated using PU-nano membranes and its immunoisolation function investigated in subcutaneous transplantation models. The nanofibrous device demonstrated the capability to effectively shield the allografts from the immune attack of the host. Nanotopography may confer biocompatibility to materials and nanofibrous materials warrant further study for development of "invisible" immunoisolation devices for cell transplantation. PMID:27344368

  14. Biocompatible Metal-Oxide Nanoparticles: Nanotechnology Improvement of Conventional Prosthetic Acrylic Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S. Acosta-Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most products for dental restoration are produced from acrylic resins based on heat-cured Poly(Methyl MethAcrylate (PMMA. The addition of metal nanoparticles to organic materials is known to increase the surface hydrophobicity and to reduce adherence to biomolecules. This paper describes the use of nanostructured materials, TiO2 and Fe2O3, for simultaneously coloring and/or improving the antimicrobial properties of PMMA resins. Nanoparticles of metal oxides were included during suspension polymerization to produce hybrid metal oxides-alginate-containing PMMA. Metal oxide nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, and X-ray diffraction. Physicochemical characterization of synthesized resins was assessed by a combination of spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, viscometry, porosity, and mechanical tests. Adherence of Candida albicans cells and cellular compatibility assays were performed to explore biocompatibility and microbial adhesion of standard and novel materials. Our results show that introduction of biocompatible metal nanoparticles is a suitable means for the improvement of conventional acrylic dental resins.

  15. Biocompatibility Studies on Fibrin Glue Cultured with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方煌; 彭松林; 陈安民; 黎逢峰; 任凯; 胡宁

    2004-01-01

    Summary: By culturing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of rabbits with fibrin glue in vitro,the biocompatibility of fibrin glue was investigated to study whether this material can be used as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. After 2-months old New Zealand rabbits had been anesthetized, about 4-6 ml of bone marrow were aspirated from rabbit femoral trochanter. The monocytes suspension was aspirated after bone marrow was centrifuged with lymphocyte separating medium and cultured primarily. Then the cells were divided into two groups: one was cultured with complete medium and the other with induced medium. The cells of the two groups were collected and inoculated to the culture plate containing fibrin glue. In the control group, cells were inoculated without fibrin glue. The implanted cells and materials were observed at different stages under a phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. MTT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grew on the surface of fibrin glue and adhered to it gradually. Cells light absorption value (A value) and the ALP content showed no significant difference. Fibrin glue had no inhibitory effect on cell morphology, growth, proliferation and differentiation. It has good biocompatibility and can be used as scaffold materials for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in bone tissue engineering.

  16. Sterilization, toxicity, biocompatibility and clinical applications of polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, K A; Niederauer, G G; Agrawal, C M

    1996-01-01

    This is a review of salient studies of sterilization, toxicity, biocompatibility, clinical applications and current work in the field of orthopaedics, using implants made of polylactic acid (PLA), polyglycolic acid (PGA) and their copolymers. The intrinsic nature of these biomaterials renders them suitable for applications where temporally slow releases of bioactive agents in situ may be required. They are also desirable as fixation devices of bone, because they can virtually eliminate osteopenia associated with stress shielding or additional surgery. The majority of currently available sterilization techniques are not suitable for these thermoplastic materials and it may be desirable to develop new sterilization standards, which can account for the special character of PLA-PGA materials. Biocompatibility and toxicity studies suggest that, overall, PLA-PGA biomaterials may be suitable for orthopaedic applications, although certain problems, especially pertaining to reduction in cell proliferation, have been reported. Clinical applications are also promising, albeit not without problems usually associated with transient tissue inflammation. The future of these materials appears bright, especially in soft tissues. They may be used to address the exceedingly complex problem of osteochondral repair, but also as a means to enhance fixation and repair processes in tendons and ligaments. PMID:8624401

  17. Interaction of derived polymers from pyrrole with biocompatible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a study about the synthesis by plasma, the electric properties and superficial interaction of polymers derived from pyrrole doped with Iodine with potential use as bio material. Poly-pyrrole is a semiconductor and biocompatible polymer with potential application in the development of artificial muscles and implants where the electric interaction between cells and material is an important variable. The syntheses were made at 13.5 MHz in a glass tubular reactor of 1500 cm3 with electrodes of 6.5 cm diameter and stainless steel flanges. An electrode was connected to the RF terminal of the power supply that is combined with a matching coupling resistance. The monomer and dopant used in this work were pyrrole and Iodine respectively, in closed containers. They were vaporized and injected separately into the reactor at room temperature and 0.1 mbar. The vapors of the reagents mixed freely in the reactor. The synthesis time was 240 min at 40, 60, 80 and 100 W. The polymers were obtained as thin films adhered to the reactor walls. The films were washed and swollen with distilled water and removed from the reactor walls with a small spatula. The polymers were irradiated with gamma rays at 18 and 22 KGy. Due to the fact that the doses are cumulative, the final dose applied was 40 KGy. The polymers characterization was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, electrical conductivity and X-ray diffraction. The analyses indicates that the polymers have very similar structure in almost the entire power range, showing C-O, C=C, C-H, O-H, N-H bonds with a predominantly amorphous structure. The TGA analyses showed that the material has 4 or 5 loses of material. The first one starts after that 115 C except for the material irradiated at 40 KGy, this one begins in 87 C, the second one is in the interval of 196 and 295 C, the third one between 311 and 500 C, and the last

  18. Biocompatible fluorescence-enhanced ZrO{sub 2}-CdTe quantum dot nanocomposite for in vitro cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Zhisong; Zhu Zhihong; Zheng Xinting; Qiao Yan; Li Changming [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, 637457 (Singapore); Guo Jun, E-mail: ecmli@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-04-15

    With advances of quantum dots (QDs) in bioimaging applications, various materials have been used to coat QDs to reduce their nanotoxicity; however, the coating could introduce new toxic sources and quench the fluorescence in bioimaging applications. In this work, ZrO{sub 2}, an excellent ceramic material with low extinction coefficient and good biocompatibility, is utilized to coat CdTe QDs for the first time. Experimental results show that ZrO{sub 2}-QD nanocomposites with the size of {approx} 30 nm possess enhanced fluorescence emission, lower nanotoxicity and gradually increased fluorescence under 350 nm light illumination. After functionalization with folic acid, they were applied to label cultured HeLa cells effectively. Therefore, the ZrO{sub 2}-QD nanocomposites could be promising biocompatible nanomaterials with strong fluorescence emission to replace or complement QDs in biomedical applications.

  19. Clinical analysis of biocompatibility of different dental restorative materials and 3 kinds of materials to ifll the proximal dental caries of accessional teeth%不同牙科修复材料生物相容性及3种材料充填恒磨牙邻面龋的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海英

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo analyze the clinical effect of different dental restorative materials on the proximal dental caries of accessional teeth.MethodA retrospective analysis of clinical data of 444 patients with proximal dental caries of accessional teeth treated in our hospital from May 2010 to May 2012 was performed, according to the different iflling materials, the patients were divided into group A (glass-ionomer cement), group B (light-cured composite resin) and group C (silver amalgam), analyzed the success rate of different dental restorative materials.ResultFollowed-up 1 and 3 years respectively, the success rate of group A was signiifcantly lower than that of group B and group C (P0.05); after 3 years of restoration, the success rate of group B was higher than group C (P<0.05).ConclusionLight-cured composite resin is helpful to improve the success rate of proximal dental caries of accessional teeth, and it is worth to be popularized in clinic.%目的:研究并分析不同牙科修复材料充填恒磨牙邻面龋的临床效果。方法回顾性分析2010年5月至2012年5月收治的444例恒磨牙邻面龋患者的临床资料。按照充填材料不同将入选患者分为A组(玻璃离子水门汀充填)、B组(光固化复合树脂充填)、C组(银汞合金充填),分析不同牙科修复材料对患牙的修复成功率。结果修复后1年和3年复诊,A组患牙修复成功率明显低于B组和C组(P<0.05)。修复后1年,B组与C组患牙修复成功率比较差异无显著性(P>0.05);修复后3年,B组患牙修复成功率高于C组(P<0.05)。结论光固化复合树脂有助于提高恒磨牙邻面龋的修复成功率,值得临床推广。

  20. Interaction of derived polymers from pyrrole with biocompatible solutions; Interaccion de polimeros derivados de pirrol con soluciones biocompatibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez G, O. G.

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a study about the synthesis by plasma, the electric properties and superficial interaction of polymers derived from pyrrole doped with Iodine with potential use as bio material. Poly-pyrrole is a semiconductor and biocompatible polymer with potential application in the development of artificial muscles and implants where the electric interaction between cells and material is an important variable. The syntheses were made at 13.5 MHz in a glass tubular reactor of 1500 cm{sup 3} with electrodes of 6.5 cm diameter and stainless steel flanges. An electrode was connected to the RF terminal of the power supply that is combined with a matching coupling resistance. The monomer and dopant used in this work were pyrrole and Iodine respectively, in closed containers. They were vaporized and injected separately into the reactor at room temperature and 0.1 mbar. The vapors of the reagents mixed freely in the reactor. The synthesis time was 240 min at 40, 60, 80 and 100 W. The polymers were obtained as thin films adhered to the reactor walls. The films were washed and swollen with distilled water and removed from the reactor walls with a small spatula. The polymers were irradiated with gamma rays at 18 and 22 KGy. Due to the fact that the doses are cumulative, the final dose applied was 40 KGy. The polymers characterization was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, electrical conductivity and X-ray diffraction. The analyses indicates that the polymers have very similar structure in almost the entire power range, showing C-O, C=C, C-H, O-H, N-H bonds with a predominantly amorphous structure. The TGA analyses showed that the material has 4 or 5 loses of material. The first one starts after that 115 C except for the material irradiated at 40 KGy, this one begins in 87 C, the second one is in the interval of 196 and 295 C, the third one between 311 and 500 C, and the

  1. Autologous Endothelial Progenitor Cell-Seeding Technology and Biocompatibility Testing For Cardiovascular Devices in Large Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jantzen, Alexandra E.; Lane, Whitney O.; Gage, Shawn M.; Haseltine, Justin M; Galinat, Lauren J; Jamiolkowski, Ryan M.; Lin, Fu-Hsiung; Truskey, George A.; Achneck, Hardean E.

    2011-01-01

    Implantable cardiovascular devices are manufactured from artificial materials (e.g. titanium (Ti), expanded polytetrafluoroethylene), which pose the risk of thromboemboli formation1,2,3. We have developed a method to line the inside surface of Ti tubes with autologous blood-derived human or porcine endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs)4. By implanting Ti tubes containing a confluent layer of porcine EPCs in the inferior vena cava (IVC) of pigs, we tested the improved biocompatibility of the cel...

  2. Effect of biocompatibility of different dental restorative materials and 3 kinds of materials on the surface caries of permanent molars%不同口腔修复材料生物相容性及3种材料充填恒磨牙邻面龋的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐梦柏

    2015-01-01

    目的对比分析在恒磨牙邻面龋填充中应用3种不同的口腔修复材料的疗效。方法选取2011年6月~2012年6月我院收治的恒磨牙邻面龋患者150例作为研究对象,依据所使用口腔修复材料的不同,将其分为甲、乙、丙三组,各50例。治疗中,甲组使用银汞合金,乙组使用玻璃离子水门汀,丙组使用光固化复合树脂。结果治疗1年后,甲、丙两组的有效率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但均明显高于乙组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗3年后,甲组的有效率显著高于丙组,丙组的有效率显著高于乙组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在口腔修复治疗中,银汞合金的修复效果显著,值得临床推广。%ObjectiveTo comparison and analysis on permanent molar caries fi lling in the application of three different specifi c effect of oral repair material.MethodsChoose 150 cases of permanent molar caries patients, on the basis of the use of oral repair material is different in its list of a, b, c three groups, each group of 50 cases, treatment, students' use of silver amalgam, use glass ion cement b, c group with light-cured composite resin.Results1 year after treatment, two groups of efficient comparison: a, c, there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05), but were significantly higher than group b, the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05); Treatment after three years, students' effective to significantly higher than that of c group, effi cient is signifi cantly higher than group b, c group differences were statistically signifi cant (P<0.05). ConclusionIn the oral cavity repair treatment, silver amalgam restoration effect is good, can be promoted.

  3. Chemical design of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Daishun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2013-05-27

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are one of the most versatile and safe nanomaterials used in medicine. Recent progress in nanochemistry enables fine control of the size, crystallinity, uniformity, and surface properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. In this review, the synthesis of chemically designed biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles with improved quality and reduced toxicity is discussed for use in diverse biomedical applications.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of biocompatible hydroxyapatite coated ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Deb; J Giri; S Dasgupta; D Datta; D Bahadur

    2003-12-01

    Ferrite particles coated with biocompatible phases can be used for hyperthermia treatment of cancer. We have synthesized substituted calcium hexaferrite, which is not stable on its own but is stabilized with small substitution of La. Hexaferrite of chemical composition (CaO)0.75(La2O3)0.20(Fe2O3)6 was prepared using citrate gel method. Hydroxyapatite was prepared by precipitating it from aqueous solution of Ca(NO3)2 and (NH4)2HPO4 maintaining pH above 11. Four different methods were used for coating of hydroxyapatite on ferrite particles. SEM with EDX and X-ray diffraction analysis shows clear evidence of coating of hydroxy-apatite on ferrite particles. These coated ferrite particles exhibited coercive field up to 2 kOe, which could be made useful for hysteresis heating in hyperthermia. Studies by culturing BHK-21 cells and WBC over the samples show evidence of biocompatibility. SEM micrographs and cell counts give clear indication of cell growth on the surface of the sample. Finally coated ferrite particle was implanted in Kasaulli mouse to test its biocompatibility. The magnetic properties and biocompatibility studies show that these hydroxyapatite coated ferrites could be useful for hyperthermia.

  5. Biocompatibility of phosphorylcholine coated stents in normal porcine coronary arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Whelan (Deirdre); S.C. Krabbendam; P.D. Verdouw (Pieter); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); E.A. van Vliet (Erwin); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim); H.M.M. van Beusekom (Heleen)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To improve the biocompatibility of stents using a phosphorylcholine coated stent as a form of biomimicry. INTERVENTIONS: Implantation of phosphorylcholine coated (n = 20) and non-coated (n = 21) stents was performed in the coronary arteries of 25 pigs. The an

  6. Biocompatibility studies of polyacrylonitrile membranes modified with carboxylated polyetherimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, S.; Rajesh, S.; Jayalakshmi, A.; Mohan, D., E-mail: mohantarun@gmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Poly (ether-imide) (PEI) was carboxylated and used as the hydrophilic modification agent for the preparation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. Membranes were prepared with different blend compositions of PAN and CPEI by diffusion induced precipitation. The modified membranes were characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurement to understand the influence of CPEI on the properties of the membranes. The biocompatibility studies exhibited reduced plasma protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and thrombus formation on the modified membrane surface. The complete blood count (CBC) results of CPEI incorporated membranes showed stable CBC values and significant decrease in the complement activation were also observed. In addition to good cytocompatibility, monocytes cultured on these modified membranes exhibited improved functional profiles in 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Thus it could be concluded that PAN/CPEI membranes with excellent biocompatibility can be useful for hemodialysis. Highlights: • Carboxylated PEI was prepared and utilized as hydrophilic modification agent. • CPEI incorporated into PAN to improved biocompatibility and cyto compatibility • Biocompatibility of membranes was correlated with morphology and hydrophilicity. • Antifouling studies of the PAN/CPEI membranes was studied by BSA as model foulant.

  7. Biocompatibility and anti-microbiological activity characterization of novel coatings for dental implants: A primer for non-biologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K Monsees

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With regard to biocompatibility, the cardinal requirement for dental implants and other medical devices that are in long-term contact with tissue is that the material does not cause any adverse effect to the patient. To warrant stability and function of the implant, proper osseointegration is a further prerequisite. Cells interact with the implant surface as the interface between bulk material and biological tissue. Whereas structuring, deposition of a thin film or other modifications of the surface are crucial parameters in determining favorable adhesion of cells, corrosion of metal surfaces and release of ions can affect cell viability. Both parameters are usually tested using in vitro cytotoxicity and adhesion assays with bone or fibroblasts cells. For bioactive surface modifications, further tests should be considered for biocompatibility evaluation. Depending on the type of modification, this may include analysis of specific cell functions or the determination of antimicrobial activities. The latter is of special importance as bacteria and yeast present in the oral cavity can be introduced during the implantation process and this may lead to chronic infections and implant failure. An antimicrobial coating of the implant is a way to avoid that. This review describes the essential biocompatibility assays for evaluation of new implant materials required by ISO 10993 and also gives an overview on recent test methods for specific coatings of dental implants.

  8. Nanocrystalline β-Ti alloy with high hardness, low Young's modulus and excellent in vitro biocompatibility for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High strength, low Young's modulus and good biocompatibility are desirable but difficult to simultaneously achieve in metallic implant materials for load bearing applications, and these impose significant challenges in material design. Here we report that a nano-grained β-Ti alloy prepared by high-pressure torsion exhibits remarkable mechanical and biological properties. The hardness and modulus of the nano-grained Ti alloy were respectively 23% higher and 34% lower than those of its coarse-grained counterpart. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were enhanced, demonstrating good in vitro biocompatibility of the nano-grained Ti alloy, consistent with demonstrated increased nano-roughness on the nano-grained Ti alloy. Results suggest that the nano-grained β-Ti alloy may have significant application as an implant material in dental and orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • A bulk nanocrystalline β-Ti alloy was produced by high-pressure torsion processing. • Excellent mechanical properties for biomedical implants were obtained. • Enhanced in vitro biocompatibility was also demonstrated

  9. Biocompatibility and bioactivity of calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers in human dental pulp cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Boldrin MESTIERI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA is a calcium silicate-based material. New sealers have been developed based on calcium silicate as MTA Fillapex and MTA Plus.Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate biocompatibility and bioactivity of these two calcium silicate-based sealers in culture of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs.Material and Methods The cells were isolated from third molars extracted from a 16-year-old patient. Pulp tissue was sectioned into fragments with approximately 1 mm3 and kept in supplemented medium to obtain hDPCs adherent cultures. Cell characterization assays were performed to prove the osteogenic potential. The evaluated materials were: MTA Plus (MTAP; MTA Fillapex (MTAF and FillCanal (FC. Biocompatibility was evaluated with MTT and Neutral Red (NR assays, after hDPCs exposure for 24 h to different dilutions of each sealer extract (1:2, 1:3 and 1:4. Unexposed cells were the positive control (CT. Bioactivity was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymatic assay in cells exposed for one and three days to sealer extracts (1:4 dilution. All data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post-test (p≤0.05%.Results MTT and NR results showed suitable cell viability rates for MTAP at all dilutions (90-135%. Cells exposed to MTAF and FC (1:2 and 1:4 dilutions showed significant low viability rate when compared to CT in MTT. The NR results demonstrated cell viability for all materials tested. In MTAP group, the cells ALP activity was similar to CT in one and three days of exposure to the material. MTAF and FC groups demonstrated a decrease in ALP activity when compared to CT at both periods of cell exposure.Conclusions The hDPCs were suitable for the evaluation of new endodontic materialsin vitro. MTAP may be considered a promising material for endodontic treatments.

  10. Biocompatibility of mineral trioxide aggregate and three new endodontic cements: An animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ghasem Aminozarbian

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of the current study, biocompatibility of CAAC and WOLCA cement were comparable with that of MTA, but CAAC Plus induced an inflammatory response higher than MTA, therefore is not biocompatible.

  11. Effect of phosphorus-ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, D; Baszkiewicz, J; Kozubowski, J A; Barcz, A; Sobczak, J W; Biliński, A; Lewandowska-Szumieł, M; Rajchel, B

    2002-08-01

    This work presents data on the structure and corrosion resistance of titanium after phosphorus-ion implantation with a dose of 10(17)P/cm2. The ion energy was 25keV. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure of the implanted layer. The chemical composition of the surface layer was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The corrosion resistance was examined by electrochemical methods in a simulated body fluid at a temperature of 37 C. Biocompatibility tests in vitro were performed in a culture of human derived bone cells in direct contact with the materials tested. Both, the viability of the cells determined by an XTT assay and activity of the cells evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity measurements in contact with implanted and non-implanted titanium samples were detected. The morphology of the cells spread on the surface of the materials examined was also observed. The results confirmed the biocompatibility of both phosphorus-ion-implanted and non-implanted titanium under the conditions of the experiment. As shown by transmission electron microscope results, the surface layer formed during phosphorus-ion implantation was amorphous. The results of electrochemical examinations indicate that phosphorus-ion implantation increases the corrosion resistance after short-term as well as long-term exposures.

  12. Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Poly(vinyl alcohol/N,O-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunku Kamarul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo biocompatibility and toxicity of PVA/NOCC scaffold were tested by comparing them with those of a biocompatible inert material HAM in a rat model. On Day 5, changes in the blood parameters of the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats were significantly higher than those of the control. The levels of potassium, creatinine, total protein, A/G, hemoglobulin, erythrocytes, WBC, and platelets were not significantly altered in the HAM-implanted rats, when compared with those in the control. On Day 10, an increase in potassium, urea, and GGT levels and a decrease in ALP, platelet, and eosinophil levels were noted in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, when compared with control. These changes were almost similar to those noted in the HAM-implanted rats, except for the unaltered potassium and increased neutrophil levels. On Day 15, the total protein, A/G, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil levels remained unaltered in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, whereas urea, A/G, WBC, lymphocyte, and monocyte levels remained unchanged in the HAM-implanted rats. Histology and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed inflammatory infiltration in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, but not in the HAM-implanted rats. Although a low toxic tissue response was observed in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, further studies are necessary to justify the use of this material in tissue engineering applications.

  13. Fabrication and biocompatibility in vitro of potassium titanate biological thin film/titanium alloy biological composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Yumin; HE Yun; CUI Chunxiang; LIU Shuangjin; WANG Huifen

    2007-01-01

    A potassium titanate biological thin film/titanium alloy biological composite was fabricated by way of bionic chemistry.The biocompatibility fn vitro of Ti-15Mo-3Nb and the potassium titanate biological thin film/titanium alloy was studied using simulated body fluid cultivation,kinetic clotting of blood and osteoblast cell cultivation experiments in vitro.By comparing the biological properties of both materials,the following conclusions can be obtained:(1)The deposition of a calcium phosphate layer was not found on the surface of Ti-15Mo-3Nb,so it was bioinert.Because the network of potassium titanate biological thin film could induce the deposition of a calcium phosphate layer,this showed that it had excellent bioactivity.(2)According to the values of kinetic clotting,the blood coagulation time of the potassium titanate biological thin film was more than that of Ti-15Mo-3Nb.It was obvious that the potassium titanate biological thin film possessed good hemocompatibility.(3)The cell compatibility of both materials was very good.However,the growth trend and multiplication of osteoblast cells on the surface of potassium titanate biological thin film was better,which made for the concrescence of wounds during the earlier period.As a result,the potassium titanate biological thin film/titanium alloy showed better biocompatibility and bioactivity.

  14. Biomimetic synthesis and biocompatibility evaluation of carbonated apatites template-mediated by heparin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Studies, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun, Yuhua [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Studies, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Chen, Xiaofang [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Peizhi, E-mail: pzzhu@umich.edu [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Wei, Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Studies, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of carbonated apatites with good biocompatibility is a promising strategy for the broadening application of apatites for bone tissue engineering. Most researchers were interested in collagen or gelatin-based templates for synthesis of apatite minerals. Inspired by recent findings about the important role of polysaccharides in bone biomineralization, here we reported that heparin, a mucopolysaccharide, was used to synthesize carbonated apatites in vitro. The results indicated that the Ca/P ratio, carbon content, crystallinity and morphology of the apatites varied depending on the heparin concentration and the initial pH value. The morphology of apatite changed from flake-shaped to needle-shaped, and the degree of crystallinity decreased with the increasing of heparin concentration. Biocompatibility of the apatites was tested by proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. The results suggested that carbonated apatites synthesized in the presence of heparin were more favorable to the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells compared with traditional method. In summary, the heparin concentration and the initial pH value play a key role in the chemical constitution and morphology, as well as biological properties of apatites. These biocompatible nano-apatite crystals hold great potential to be applied as bioactive materials for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Heparin was used as a template to synthesize needle-shaped nano-apatite. • Changing the pH value and concentration led to different properties of apatite. • Apatite prepared by heparin was more favorable to the osteogenic differentiation. • Possible synthesis mechanism of apatite templated by heparin was described.

  15. Preliminary study towards photoactivity enhancement using a biocompatible titanium dioxide/carbon nanotubes composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Scheme demonstrating the experimental steps toward the formation of titania/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (TiO2-MWCNTs) from multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). - Highlights: • Easy and efficient method of impregnation carbon nanotubes with titania. • High photoactivity. • Correlation between the interaction of carbon nanotubes with titania on the photocatalytic properties. • High biocompatibility of the nanotubes. - Abstract: Recent research is focused on the enhancement in photoactivity of titanium dioxide/carbon nanotubes through formation of novel nanocomposites that exhibit a high specific surface area, remarkable electron transfer and biocompatibility. Here, we explore a new synthesis route in the system composed of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide supported on external walls and inner space of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The advantages of this method are: its simplicity, direct fusion of titanium dioxide particles on the carbon material, and formation of chemical bond Ti–O–C between TiO2 and MWCNT. Photocatalytic performance of this system has been compared to a commercial catalyst (Degussa P25) in a model reaction of phenol decomposition in/under UV light. The efficiency of the process increased by the factor of 2.5 when the TiO2–MWCNT photocatalyst was utilized. Further, the photoactive nanocomposite was analysed towards its biocompatibility in order to establish a safe dose of the catalyst. Its influence on the cells viability was studied on mouse fibroblasts and human liver tissue cells, in the range from 0 to 100 μg/mL. This has revealed that the composite in concentrations up to 25 μg/mL exerted low toxicity, which allowed for finding a compromise between the highest safe dose and acceptable photoactivity of the catalyst

  16. The Comparison of Biocompatibility Properties between Ti Alloys and Fluorinated Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavin Jongwannasiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium and titanium alloys have found several applications in the biomedical field due to their unique biocompatibility. However, there are problems associated with these materials in applications in which there is direct contact with blood, for instance, thrombogenesis and protein adsorption. Surface modification is one of the effective methods used to improve the performance of Ti and Ti alloys in these circumstances. In this study, fluorinated diamond-like carbon (F-DLC films are chosen to take into account the biocompatible properties compared with Ti alloys. F-DLC films were prepared on NiTi substrates by a plasma-based ion implantation (PBII technique using acetylene (C2H2 and tetrafluoromethane (CF4 as plasma sources. The structure of the films was characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The contact angle and surface energy were also measured. Protein adsorption was performed by treating the films with bovine serum albumin and fibrinogen. The electrochemical corrosion behavior was investigated in Hanks’ solution by means of a potentiodynamic polarization technique. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using MTT assay and dyed fluorescence. The results indicate that F-DLC films present their hydrophobic surfaces due to a high contact angle and low surface energy. These films can support the higher albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio as compared to Ti alloys. They tend to suppress the platelet adhesion. Furthermore, F-DLC films exhibit better corrosion resistance and less cytotoxicity on their surfaces. It can be concluded that F-DLC films can improve the biocompatibility properties of Ti alloys.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility evaluation of hydroxyapatite - gelatin polyLactic acid ternary nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nabipour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The current study reports the production and biocompatibility evaluation of a ternary nanocomposite consisting of HA, PLA, and gelatin for biomedical application.Materials and Methods: Hydroxyapatite nanopowder (HA: Ca10(PO46(OH2 was produced by burning the bovine cortical bone within the temperature range of 350-450 oC followed by heating in an oven at 800. Synthesis of the ternary nanocomposite was carried out in two steps: synthesis of gelatin-hydroxyapatite binary nanocomposite and addition of poly lactic acid with different percentages to the resulting composition. The crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, while major elements and impurities of hydroxyapatite were identified by elemental analysis of X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Functional groups were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Morphology and size of the nanocomposites were evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM.Biocompatibility of nanocomposites was investigated by MTT assay. Results: XRD patterns verified the ideal crystal structure of the hydroxyapatite, which indicated an appropriate synthesis process and absence of disturbing phases. Results of FTIR analysis determined the polymers’ functional groups, specified formation of the polymers on the hydroxyapatite surface, and verified synthesis of nHA/PLA/Gel composite. FESEM images also indicated the homogeneous structure of the composite in the range of 50 nanometers. MTT assay results confirmed the biocompatibility of nanocomposite samples.Conclusion: This study suggested that the ternary nanocomposite of nHA/PLA/Gel can be a good candidate for biomedical application such as drug delivery systems, but for evaluation of its potential in hard tissue replacement, mechanical tests should be performed.

  18. Biomimetic synthesis and biocompatibility evaluation of carbonated apatites template-mediated by heparin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomimetic synthesis of carbonated apatites with good biocompatibility is a promising strategy for the broadening application of apatites for bone tissue engineering. Most researchers were interested in collagen or gelatin-based templates for synthesis of apatite minerals. Inspired by recent findings about the important role of polysaccharides in bone biomineralization, here we reported that heparin, a mucopolysaccharide, was used to synthesize carbonated apatites in vitro. The results indicated that the Ca/P ratio, carbon content, crystallinity and morphology of the apatites varied depending on the heparin concentration and the initial pH value. The morphology of apatite changed from flake-shaped to needle-shaped, and the degree of crystallinity decreased with the increasing of heparin concentration. Biocompatibility of the apatites was tested by proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. The results suggested that carbonated apatites synthesized in the presence of heparin were more favorable to the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells compared with traditional method. In summary, the heparin concentration and the initial pH value play a key role in the chemical constitution and morphology, as well as biological properties of apatites. These biocompatible nano-apatite crystals hold great potential to be applied as bioactive materials for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Heparin was used as a template to synthesize needle-shaped nano-apatite. • Changing the pH value and concentration led to different properties of apatite. • Apatite prepared by heparin was more favorable to the osteogenic differentiation. • Possible synthesis mechanism of apatite templated by heparin was described

  19. Self-Healing of biocompatible polymeric nanocomposities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Omar; Chipara, Dorina

    2014-03-01

    Polymers are vulnerable to damage in form of cracks deep within the structure, where detection is difficult and repair is near to impossible. These cracks lead to mechanical degradation of the polymer. A method has been created to solve this problem named polymeric self healing. Self healing capabilities implies the dispersion within the polymeric matrix of microcapsules filled with a monomer and of catalyst. Poly urea-formaldehyde microcapsules used in this method are filled with dicyclopentadiene that is liberated after being ruptured by the crack propagation in the material. Polymerization is assisted by a catalyst FGGC that ignites the self healing process. Nanocomposites, such as titanium oxide, will be used as an integration of these polymers that will be tested by rupturing mechanically slowly. In order to prove the self healing process, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, and SEM are used.

  20. Development and testing of new biologically-based polymers as advanced biocompatible contact lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2000-06-01

    Nature has evolved complex and elegant materials well suited to fulfill a myriad of functions. Lubricants, structural scaffolds and protective sheaths can all be found in nature, and these provide a rich source of inspiration for the rational design of materials for biomedical applications. Many biological materials are based in some fashion on hydrogels, the crosslinked polymers that absorb and hold water. Biological hydrogels contribute to processes as diverse as mineral nucleation during bone growth and protection and hydration of the cell surface. The carbohydrate layer that coats all living cells, often referred to as the glycocalyx, has hydrogel-like properties that keep cell surfaces well hydrated, segregated from neighboring cells, and resistant to non-specific protein deposition. With the molecular details of cell surface carbohydrates now in hand, adaptation of these structural motifs to synthetic materials is an appealing strategy for improving biocompatibility. The goal of this collaborative project between Prof. Bertozzi's research group, the Center for Advanced Materials at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sunsoft Corporation was the design, synthesis and characterization of novel hydrogel polymers for improved soft contact lens materials. Our efforts were motivated by the urgent need for improved materials that allow extended wear, and essential feature for those whose occupation requires the use of contact lenses rather than traditional spectacles. Our strategy was to transplant the chemical features of cell surface molecules into contact lens materials so that they more closely resemble the tissue in which they reside. Specifically, we integrated carbohydrate molecules similar to those found on cell surfaces, and sulfoxide materials inspired by the properties of the carbohydrates, into hydrogels composed of biocompatible and manufacturable substrates. The new materials were characterized with respect to surface and bulk hydrophilicity

  1. Influence of Oxygen Content and Microstructure on the Mechanical Properties and Biocompatibility of Ti–15 wt%Mo Alloy Used for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. S. Martins, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ti–15Mo alloy has its mechanical properties strongly altered by heat treatments and by addition of interstitial elements, such as, oxygen, for example. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of the introduction of oxygen in selected mechanical properties and the biocompatibility of Ti–15Mo alloy. The samples used in this study were prepared by arc-melting and characterized by density measurements, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, microhardness, modulus of elasticity, and biocompatibility tests. Hardness measurements were shown to be sensitive to concentration of oxygen. The modulus results showed interstitial influence in value; this was verified under several conditions to which the samples were exposed. Cytotoxicity tests conducted in vitro showed that the various processing conditions did not alter the biocompatibility of the material.

  2. Biocompatible multi-walled carbon nanotube–CdTe quantum dot–polymer hybrids for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baslak, Canan, E-mail: cananbaslak@gmail.com [Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Demirel Kars, Meltem, E-mail: dmeltem@yahoo.com [Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Sarayonu Vocational High School, Selcuk University, 42430 Konya (Turkey); Karaman, Mustafa; Kus, Mahmut [Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Cengeloglu, Yunus; Ersoz, Mustafa [Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey)

    2015-04-15

    Herein we report the synthesis of polymer coated quantum dots (QDs)–carbon nanotube composite material with high biocompatibility and low cellular toxicity. The synthesized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)–QD-(-poly(glycidyl methacrylate)) (pGMA) hybrids were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that quantum dots were well-distributed on nanotube surfaces in high density. The toxicological assessments of QDs and MWCNT–QD–polymer hybrids in human mammary carcinoma cells and their fluorescence imaging in living cell system were carried out. MWCNT–QD–polymer hybrids possess intense red fluorescence signal under confocal microscopy and good fluorescence stability over 6-h exposure in living cell system. The toxicity comparison of QDs and MWCNT–QD–polymer hybrids has shown that the existence of PGMA thin coating on MWCNT–QD hybrid surface decreased the cellular toxicity and increased biocompatibility. - Highlights: • We report that polymer coating of QDs on CNTs increased their biocompatibility by decreasing cellular toxicity. • QD–CNT polymer hybrid material may be proposed as a good diagnostic agent to visualize cancer cells which may be improved as a therapeutic carrier in future. • Coating QDs with polymer seems to be a right choice to be used in medicinal applications both for diagnosis and for therapy.

  3. Effect of coupling asynchronous acoustoelectric effects on the corrosion behavior, microhardness and biocompatibility of biomedical titanium alloy strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoxin; Tang, Guoyi

    2015-01-01

    The coupling asynchronous acoustoelectric effects (CAAE) of the high-energy electropulsing treatment (EPT) technique and ultrasonic surface strengthening modification (USSM) are innovatively combined in improving the surface microhardness, corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of the pre-deformed titanium alloy strips. Experimental results show that EPT and USSM processes facilitate the surface grain refining and USSM brings in the micro-dimples on the materials surface, which is attributed to the atoms diffusion acceleration under EPT and severe surface plastic deformation under USSM. These microstructure changes can not only enhance the corrosion resistance in the acidic simulated body fluids and fluoridated acidic artificial saliva but also improve the biocompatibility of the titanium alloy strip materials. Moreover, the surface microhardness of the titanium alloy strips is enhanced to improve the wear resistance. Therefore, CAAE processing is a high-efficiency and energy-saving method for obtaining biomedical titanium alloys with superior anti-corrosion performance, microhardness and biocompatibility, which can be widely applied in dental implants and artificial joint.

  4. Reengineered graft copolymers as a potential alternative for the bone tissue engineering application by inducing osteogenic markers expression and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, Muthukumar; R Narasimha, Raghavan; Adithan, Aravinthan; A, Chandrasekaran; Jong-Hoon, Kim; Thotapalli Parvathaleswara, Sastry

    2016-07-01

    Composite scaffolds of nano-hydroxyapatite with demineralized bone matrix were prepared and they were graft copolymerized for better bone regeneration and drug delivery applications. The graft copolymers were characterized for their physiochemical properties using conventional methods like FTIR, TGA, XRD and SEM. The scaffolds were seeded with 3T3 and MG63 cells for studying their biocompatibility and their temporal expression of ALP activity, the rate of calcium deposition and their gene expression of collagen type I (Coll-1), osteopontin (OP), osteonectin (ON), and osteocalcin (OC) were studied. In vivo studies were conducted using sub-cutaneous implantation models in male Wister rats for 6 months. Periodic radiography and post-autopsy histopathology was analysed at 15days, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months. The obtained in vitro results clearly confirm that the bone scaffolds prepared in this study are biocompatible, superior osteoinductivity, capable of supporting growth, maturation of MG 63 osteoblast like cells; the gene expression profile revealed that the material is capable of supporting the in vitro growth and maturation of osteoblast-like cells and maturation. The in vivo results stand a testimony to the in vitro results in proving the biocompatibility and osteoinductivity of the materials.

  5. Biocompatible multi-walled carbon nanotube–CdTe quantum dot–polymer hybrids for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein we report the synthesis of polymer coated quantum dots (QDs)–carbon nanotube composite material with high biocompatibility and low cellular toxicity. The synthesized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)–QD-(-poly(glycidyl methacrylate)) (pGMA) hybrids were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that quantum dots were well-distributed on nanotube surfaces in high density. The toxicological assessments of QDs and MWCNT–QD–polymer hybrids in human mammary carcinoma cells and their fluorescence imaging in living cell system were carried out. MWCNT–QD–polymer hybrids possess intense red fluorescence signal under confocal microscopy and good fluorescence stability over 6-h exposure in living cell system. The toxicity comparison of QDs and MWCNT–QD–polymer hybrids has shown that the existence of PGMA thin coating on MWCNT–QD hybrid surface decreased the cellular toxicity and increased biocompatibility. - Highlights: • We report that polymer coating of QDs on CNTs increased their biocompatibility by decreasing cellular toxicity. • QD–CNT polymer hybrid material may be proposed as a good diagnostic agent to visualize cancer cells which may be improved as a therapeutic carrier in future. • Coating QDs with polymer seems to be a right choice to be used in medicinal applications both for diagnosis and for therapy

  6. Reengineered graft copolymers as a potential alternative for the bone tissue engineering application by inducing osteogenic markers expression and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, Muthukumar; R Narasimha, Raghavan; Adithan, Aravinthan; A, Chandrasekaran; Jong-Hoon, Kim; Thotapalli Parvathaleswara, Sastry

    2016-07-01

    Composite scaffolds of nano-hydroxyapatite with demineralized bone matrix were prepared and they were graft copolymerized for better bone regeneration and drug delivery applications. The graft copolymers were characterized for their physiochemical properties using conventional methods like FTIR, TGA, XRD and SEM. The scaffolds were seeded with 3T3 and MG63 cells for studying their biocompatibility and their temporal expression of ALP activity, the rate of calcium deposition and their gene expression of collagen type I (Coll-1), osteopontin (OP), osteonectin (ON), and osteocalcin (OC) were studied. In vivo studies were conducted using sub-cutaneous implantation models in male Wister rats for 6 months. Periodic radiography and post-autopsy histopathology was analysed at 15days, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months. The obtained in vitro results clearly confirm that the bone scaffolds prepared in this study are biocompatible, superior osteoinductivity, capable of supporting growth, maturation of MG 63 osteoblast like cells; the gene expression profile revealed that the material is capable of supporting the in vitro growth and maturation of osteoblast-like cells and maturation. The in vivo results stand a testimony to the in vitro results in proving the biocompatibility and osteoinductivity of the materials. PMID:26998863

  7. Tissue biocompatibility of kevlar aramid fibers and polymethylmethacrylate, composites in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J D; Mullarky, R H; Ryan, D E

    1987-01-01

    Two groups of female NZW rabbits were implanted in the paravertebral muscles with aramid (du Pont Kevlar aramid 49) fibers and aramid-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) composites for 14 and 28 days. Rabbits were killed at these times periods, necropsies performed, sites scored for gross tissue response, and tissue specimens containing the implants removed for histopathological evaluation. A mild fibrous tissue reaction was observed around all implants containing aramid fiber similar to that observed around the silicone control implant. Some foreign body giant cells were also present adjacent to the fibers. An intense necrotic inflammatory reaction was present around the positive control material (PVC Y-78). The tissue response to implantation of aramid fiber and fiber-PMMA composites indicates that aramid is a biocompatible material.

  8. Photophysical properties and biocompatibility of Photoluminescent Y2O3:Eu nanoparticles in polymethylmetacrylate matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shigeaki; Hamba, Yusuke; Iwadera, Nobuki; Yamagata, Shuichi; Yawaka, Yasutaka; Uo, Motohiro; Iida, Junichiro; Kiba, Takayuki; Murayama, Akihiro; Watari, Fumio

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we produced europium-doped yttoria (Y2O3:Eu) nanoparticles and investigated their photoluminescent properties and biocompatibility. The Y2O3:Eu nanoparticles showed excellent photoluminescent properties and cytocompatibility. We also analyzed the photophysical properties of the nanoparticles in PMMA films. When the Y2O3:Eu nanoparticles were incorporated in the polymer film, they showed a strong red emission spectrum, similar to that seen with the particles alone. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements indicated that the particles were distributed homogeneously in the PMMA film. Such materials could be applied not only to optoelectronic devices but also to biomedical applications such as bioimaging tools or luminescent medical/dental adhesive materials. PMID:24734706

  9. Dissolution chemistry and biocompatibility of silicon- and germanium-based semiconductors for transient electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Kyun; Park, Gayoung; Kim, Kyungmin; Hwang, Suk-Won; Cheng, Huanyu; Shin, Jiho; Chung, Sangjin; Kim, Minjin; Yin, Lan; Lee, Jeong Chul; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Rogers, John A

    2015-05-01

    Semiconducting materials are central to the development of high-performance electronics that are capable of dissolving completely when immersed in aqueous solutions, groundwater, or biofluids, for applications in temporary biomedical implants, environmentally degradable sensors, and other systems. The results reported here include comprehensive studies of the dissolution by hydrolysis of polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, silicon-germanium, and germanium in aqueous solutions of various pH values and temperatures. In vitro cellular toxicity evaluations demonstrate the biocompatibility of the materials and end products of dissolution, thereby supporting their potential for use in biodegradable electronics. A fully dissolvable thin-film solar cell illustrates the ability to integrate these semiconductors into functional systems.

  10. Simple replica micromolding of biocompatible styrenic elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borysiak, Mark D; Bielawski, Kevin S; Sniadecki, Nathan J; Jenkel, Colin F; Vogt, Bryan D; Posner, Jonathan D

    2013-07-21

    In this work, we introduce a simple solvent-assisted micromolding technique for the fabrication of high-fidelity styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) microfluidic devices with high polystyrene (PS) content (42 wt% PS, SEBS42). SEBS triblock copolymers are styrenic thermoplastic elastomers that exhibit both glassy thermoplastic and elastomeric properties resulting from their respective hard PS and rubbery ethylene/butylene segments. The PS fraction gives SEBS microdevices many of the appealing properties of pure PS devices, while the elastomeric properties simplify fabrication of the devices, similar to PDMS. SEBS42 devices have wettable, stable surfaces (both contact angle and zeta potential) that support cell attachment and proliferation consistent with tissue culture dish substrates, do not adsorb hydrophobic molecules, and have high bond strength to wide range of substrates (glass, PS, SEBS). Furthermore, SEBS42 devices are mechanically robust, thermally stable, as well as exhibit low auto-fluorescence and high transmissivity. We characterize SEBS42 surface properties by contact angle measurements, cell culture studies, zeta potential measurements, and the adsorption of hydrophobic molecules. The PS surface composition of SEBS microdevices cast on different substrates is determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The attractive SEBS42 material properties, coupled with the simple fabrication method, make SEBS42 a quality substrate for microfluidic applications where the properties of PS are desired but the ease of PDMS micromolding is favoured. PMID:23670166

  11. Structural and degradation studies of a biocompatible Zn-L-tartrate metal–organic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palǒić, Ana; Puškarić, Andreas [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Mazaj, Matjaž, E-mail: matjaz.mazaj@ki.si [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Žunkoviǒ, Emanuela; Logar, Nataša Zabukovec [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bronić, Josip [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-05-15

    New anhydrous Zn-L-tratrate was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Crystal structure which was solved by powder X-ray diffraction data from monoclinic unit cell (I{sub 2}, a=11.7557(1), b=9.0319(1), c=5.0750(1), β=91.920(1)) consists of the three-dimensional framework where each Zn atom coordinates four tartrate ligands in distorted octahedral geometry. Due to its biocompatible components, the degradation of material was studied in aqueous media under different pH values (pH=1–7) and in the simulated body fluid (pH=7.4) performed by the measurement of the released Zn{sup 2+} concentrations at thermostatic conditions (37 °C). The results showed that under acidic conditions approximately 60% of Zn{sup 2+} is released from the investigated material after 6 h of degradation process. With the increase of the solution’s pH, the rate of degradation gradually decreases. XRD and SEM analyses indicate that in aqueous media the compound slowly disintegrates and does not undergo hydrolysis process regardless of pH. Biocompatibility of the compound and its controllable rate of degradation even in acid conditions open its potential use in the fields of bio-applications. - Graphical abstract: The degradation kinetics of Zn-L-tar MOF material in aqueous media at different pH conditions. - Highlights: • Anhydrous chiral Zn-L-tratrate was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. • 3-D framework consists of Zn atoms, each chelating four tartrate ligands. • Degradation of material was studied in aqueous media at different pH values. • The compound disintegrates in controllable manner in aqueous solutions. • The rate compound degradation is increasing with increased acidity of solution.

  12. Comparison of biocompatibility and adsorption properties of different plastics for advanced microfluidic cell and tissue culture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Midwoud, Paul M; Janse, Arnout; Merema, Marjolijn T; Groothuis, Geny M M; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2012-05-01

    Microfluidic technology is providing new routes toward advanced cell and tissue culture models to better understand human biology and disease. Many advanced devices have been made from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) to enable experiments, for example, to study drug metabolism by use of precision-cut liver slices, that are not possible with conventional systems. However, PDMS, a silicone rubber material, is very hydrophobic and tends to exhibit significant adsorption and absorption of hydrophobic drugs and their metabolites. Although glass could be used as an alternative, thermoplastics are better from a cost and fabrication perspective. Thermoplastic polymers (plastics) allow easy surface treatment and are generally transparent and biocompatible. This study focuses on the fabrication of biocompatible microfluidic devices with low adsorption properties from the thermoplastics poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) as alternatives for PDMS devices. Thermoplastic surfaces were oxidized using UV-generated ozone or oxygen plasma to reduce adsorption of hydrophobic compounds. Surface hydrophilicity was assessed over 4 weeks by measuring the contact angle of water on the surface. The adsorption of 7-ethoxycoumarin, testosterone, and their metabolites was also determined after UV-ozone treatment. Biocompatibility was assessed by culturing human hepatoma (HepG2) cells on treated surfaces. Comparison of the adsorption properties and biocompatibility of devices in different plastics revealed that only UV-ozone-treated PC and COC devices satisfied both criteria. This paper lays an important foundation that will help researchers make informed decisions with respect to the materials they select for microfluidic cell-based culture experiments.

  13. Size-Dependent Photodynamic Anticancer Activity of Biocompatible Multifunctional Magnetic Submicron Particles in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyong-Hoon; Nam, Ki Chang; Malkinski, Leszek; Choi, Eun Ha; Jung, Jin-Seung; Park, Bong Joo

    2016-09-06

    In this study, newly designed biocompatible multifunctional magnetic submicron particles (CoFe₂O₄-HPs-FAs) of well-defined sizes (60, 133, 245, and 335 nm) were fabricated for application as a photosensitizer delivery agent for photodynamic therapy in cancer cells. To provide selective targeting of cancer cells and destruction of cancer cell functionality, basic cobalt ferrite (CoFe₂O₄) particles were covalently bonded with a photosensitizer (PS), which comprises hematoporphyrin (HP), and folic acid (FA) molecules. The magnetic properties of the CoFe₂O₄ particles were finely adjusted by controlling the size of the primary CoFe₂O₄ nanograins, and secondary superstructured composite particles were formed by aggregation of the nanograins. The prepared CoFe₂O₄-HP-FA exhibited high water solubility, good MR-imaging capacity, and biocompatibility without any in vitro cytotoxicity. In particular, our CoFe₂O₄-HP-FA exhibited remarkable photodynamic anticancer efficiency via induction of apoptotic death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells in a particle size- and concentration-dependent manner. This size-dependent effect was determined by the specific surface area of the particles because the number of HP molecules increased with decreasing size and increasing surface area. These results indicate that our CoFe₂O₄-HP-FA may be applicable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a PS delivery material and a therapeutic agent for MR-imaging based PDT owing to their high saturation value for magnetization and superparamagnetism.

  14. Biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of zinc(II doped hydroxyapatite, synthesized by hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain multifunctional materials with good biocompatibility and antimicrobial effect, hydroxyapatite (HAp doped with Zn2+ was synthesized by hydrothermal method. Powders with different content of zinc ions were synthesized and compared with undoped HAp to investigation of Zn2+ ion influence on the antimicrobial activity of HAp. Analyses of undoped and Zn2+-doped powders before and after thermal treatment at 1200ºC were performed by SEM and XRD. Antimicrobial effects of powders were examined in relation to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans in liquid medium. The results showed that the obtained powders have good antimicrobial activity, but higher antimicrobial activities of powders doped with Zn2+ were observed after annealing at 1200°C. For powders annealed at 1200°C in vitro biocompatibility tests MTT and DET with MRC-5 fibroblast cells in liquid medium were carried out. Based on MTT and DET tests it was shown that powders do not have a significant cytotoxic effect, which was confirmed by SEM analysis of MRC-5 fibroblast cells after theirs in vitro contact with powders. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019 and FP7-REGPOT-2009-1 NANOTECH FTM

  15. Size-Dependent Photodynamic Anticancer Activity of Biocompatible Multifunctional Magnetic Submicron Particles in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyong-Hoon; Nam, Ki Chang; Malkinski, Leszek; Choi, Eun Ha; Jung, Jin-Seung; Park, Bong Joo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, newly designed biocompatible multifunctional magnetic submicron particles (CoFe₂O₄-HPs-FAs) of well-defined sizes (60, 133, 245, and 335 nm) were fabricated for application as a photosensitizer delivery agent for photodynamic therapy in cancer cells. To provide selective targeting of cancer cells and destruction of cancer cell functionality, basic cobalt ferrite (CoFe₂O₄) particles were covalently bonded with a photosensitizer (PS), which comprises hematoporphyrin (HP), and folic acid (FA) molecules. The magnetic properties of the CoFe₂O₄ particles were finely adjusted by controlling the size of the primary CoFe₂O₄ nanograins, and secondary superstructured composite particles were formed by aggregation of the nanograins. The prepared CoFe₂O₄-HP-FA exhibited high water solubility, good MR-imaging capacity, and biocompatibility without any in vitro cytotoxicity. In particular, our CoFe₂O₄-HP-FA exhibited remarkable photodynamic anticancer efficiency via induction of apoptotic death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells in a particle size- and concentration-dependent manner. This size-dependent effect was determined by the specific surface area of the particles because the number of HP molecules increased with decreasing size and increasing surface area. These results indicate that our CoFe₂O₄-HP-FA may be applicable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a PS delivery material and a therapeutic agent for MR-imaging based PDT owing to their high saturation value for magnetization and superparamagnetism. PMID:27607999

  16. Stability and biocompatibility of photothermal gold nanorods after lyophilization and sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Leyre [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanoscience Institute of Aragon (INA), C/ Mariano Esquillor, R and D Building, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, Virginia [CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain); Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); Martin-Saavedra, Francisco [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain); Arruebo, Manuel, E-mail: arruebom@unizar.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanoscience Institute of Aragon (INA), C/ Mariano Esquillor, R and D Building, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain); Vilaboa, Nuria [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain); Santamaria, Jesus, E-mail: Jesus.Santamaria@unizar.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanoscience Institute of Aragon (INA), C/ Mariano Esquillor, R and D Building, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Morphological changes are observed for CTABr capped gold nanorods over time. • Polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) coated nanorods are stable. • Re-suspendible and sterilizable colloids are prepared using those capping agents. • Those materials are efficient heat sinks potentially used in photothermal therapy. - Abstract: Suspensions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) of gold nanorods stabilized with cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTABr), polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and methyl-polyethyleneglycol-thiol (m-PEG-SH) have been prepared and the evolution of their colloidal stability and plasmonic response over time has been evaluated. Their performance after lyophilization, alcoholic sterilization and resuspension has also been characterized. Sub-cytotoxic doses on HeLa cells were calculated for the three surface functionalizations used. Their heating efficiency at different exposure times was also evaluated after being irradiated with near infrared light. The best results were obtained for m-PEG-SH stabilized rods, which were not only stable, sterilizable and lyophilizable, but also biocompatible at all doses tested, showing potential as a stable, re-suspendible and biocompatible hyperthermic agent.

  17. Lipid diffusion and swelling in a phase separated biocompatible thermoplastic elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittipaldi, Mauro; Grace, Landon R

    2016-12-01

    Lipid uptake was analyzed via gravimetric measurements in a biocompatible poly(styrene-block-isobutylene-block-styrene) (SIBS) copolymer. Absorption followed Fickian diffusion behavior very closely, although some deviation was noticed once saturation was reached. Diffusion parameters of three different SIBS formulations were calculated and used to predict the behavior of a fourth type based on molecular weight and relative polystyrene content. SIBS with lower polystyrene content and molecular weight showed lower physical stability and developed surface cracks that propagated with exposure to the lipid medium. Saturation lipid content varied from 45% to 63% by weight and was inversely related to polystyrene content, suggesting most of the plasticization is occurring in the isobutylene phase of SIBS. Moreover, swelling of specimens was monitored throughout the immersion in the lipid medium and ranged from 32% to 58%. Swelling in formulations with lower hard phase (polystyrene) was significantly higher than the swelling in SIBS with higher hard phase content. This is consistent with lipid-induced plasticization occurring in the soft (polyisobutylene) segments, relaxing the polymer network and leading to increased swelling and lipid uptake. The biocompatibility and tailorability of SIBS through control of hard/soft phase ratio offer significant advantages for in vivo applications. However, the lipophilic nature of the material and the associated degradation may render the polymer unusable in certain applications. The predictive model of lipid uptake introduced here will allow more accurate evaluation of lipid susceptibility during the preliminary design phase of SIBS-based in vivo structures. PMID:27479889

  18. Biocompatible polyhydroxyalkanoates/bacterial cellulose composites: Preparation, characterization, and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiulan, Ioana; Mihaela Panaitescu, Denis; Nicoleta Frone, Adriana; Teodorescu, Mircea; Andi Nicolae, Cristian; Căşărică, Angela; Tofan, Vlad; Sălăgeanu, Aurora

    2016-10-01

    Biocompatible composites play a critical role as scaffolds in tissue engineering. Novel biocomposites made from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and bacterial cellulose (BC) in different concentrations were prepared by solution casting and their thermal and mechanical behavior as well as biocompatibility was characterized. BC addition increased the thermal stability of the polymer matrix as evidenced by thermogravimetric analysis. The crystallinity of PHB and the crystallization temperature decreased with the addition of BC and PHA, thus increasing the processing window. BC in small concentration determined an increase in the mechanical properties due to a concerted action of PHA and filler. Good cells attachment and proliferation were observed for all the biocomposites. By the addition of PHA (more hydrophobic than the matrix) and various amounts of BC (highly hydrophilic), surface properties and cell attachment can be controlled. Cytocompatibility studies using L929 cell line revealed that this material is suitable for biomedical applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2576-2584, 2016. PMID:27242044

  19. Understanding the Biocompatibility of Sintered Calcium Phosphate with Ratio of [Ca]/[P] = 1.50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Lin Yen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatibility of sintered calcium phosphate pellets with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50 was determined in this study. Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP phase formed on the sintered pellets immersed in a normal saline solution for 14 d at 37∘C. The intensities of hydroxyapatite (HA reflections in the X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of the pellets were retrieved to as-sintered state. The pellet surface morphology shows that CPP crystallites were clearly present and make an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP to discriminate against become to the area of slice join together. In addition, the intensities of the CPP reflections in the XRD patterns were the highest when the pellets were immersed for 28 d. When the CPP powders were extracted from the pellets after immersion in the solution for 14 d, the viability of 3T3 cells remained above 90% for culture times from 1 to 4 d. The pellet surface morphology observed using optical microscopy showed that the cells did not adhere to the bottom of the sintered pellets when cultured for 4 d; however, some CPP phase precipitates were formed, as confirmed by XRD. In consequence, the results suggest that the sintered HA powders are good materials for use in biomedical applications because of their good biocompatibility.

  20. Mechanical performance of a biocompatible biocide soda-lime glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Esteban, S; Bartolomé, J F; Dí Az, L A; Esteban-Tejeda, L; Prado, C; López-Piriz, R; Torrecillas, R; Moya, J S

    2014-06-01

    A biocompatible soda-lime glass-ceramic in the SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO-B2O3 system containing combeite and nepheline as crystalline phases, has been obtained at 750°C by two different routes: (i) pressureless sintering and (ii) Spark Plasma Sintering. The SPS glass-ceramic showed a bending strength, Weibull modulus, and toughness similar values to the cortical human bone. This material had a fatigue limit slightly superior to cortical bone and at least two times higher than commercial dental glass-ceramics and dentine. The in vitro studies indicate that soda-lime glass-ceramic is fully biocompatible. The in vivo studies in beagle jaws showed that implanted SPS rods presented no inflammatory changes in soft tissues surrounding implants in any of the 10 different cases after four months implantation. The radiological analysis indicates no signs of osseointegration lack around implants. Moreover, the biocide activity of SPS glass-ceramic versus Escherichia coli, was found to be >4log indicating that it prevents implant infections. Because of this, the SPS new glass-ceramic is particularly promising for dental applications (inlay, crowns, etc). PMID:24667693

  1. Characterization and Biocompatibility of Chitosan Gels with Silver and Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sámano-Valencia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a very important issue and the search of new alternatives is necessary. In this work, a combination of chitosan gel with silver or gold nanoparticles was prepared and characterized using thermal, rheology, bactericide, and biocompatibility analyses. ESEM images were also taken to visualize the incorporation of the nanoparticles into the gel matrix. Thermal analysis showed a better thermal stability in the chitosan-gold nanoparticles gels compared to the chitosan-silver nanoparticles gels. Rheology analyses showed that the viscosity of the gels decreased when velocity increased and there were differences in viscosity when silver and gold nanoparticles concentrations change. ESEM images showed the presence of agglomerates of silver and gold nanoparticles into the gel matrix with a good distribution; in some cases the formation of microstructures was found. Bactericide results show that these materials present an antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. mutans, and E. coli. The biocompatibility test showed neither negative reaction nor wound healing delay after the application of the gels in an in vivo test. The gels with silver and gold nanoparticles could be used to treat wound infections in oral or skin applications.

  2. Tailoring Properties of Biocompatible PEG-DMA Hydrogels with UV Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckström, Sania; Benavente, Juana; Berg, Rolf W.;

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogels are highly water-absorbent hydrophilic polymer networks, which show potential in many biocompatible ap- plications. In previous work, we demonstrated the feasibility of using poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) gels polymerized with a photoinitiator for encapsulation and stab......Hydrogels are highly water-absorbent hydrophilic polymer networks, which show potential in many biocompatible ap- plications. In previous work, we demonstrated the feasibility of using poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) gels polymerized with a photoinitiator for encapsulation....... In this work, we show that the properties of a PEG-DMA hydrogel formed by photoinitiated polymerize- tion can be tailored by varying the photocrosslinking time. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy (RS) showed that the optimal crosslinking time for the gel was 6 - 10 minutes...... identified spectral features of the hydrogel, which may serve as a diag- nostic tool to monitor changes in the gels due to variation in parameters such as time, pH, temperature, aging or expo- sure to chemicals or biological material....

  3. Biocompatible Double-Membrane Hydrogels from Cationic Cellulose Nanocrystals and Anionic Alginate as Complexing Drugs Codelivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ning; Gèze, Annabelle; Wouessidjewe, Denis; Huang, Jin; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-03-23

    A biocompatible hydrogel with a double-membrane structure is developed from cationic cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and anionic alginate. The architecture of the double-membrane hydrogel involves an external membrane composed of neat alginate, and an internal composite hydrogel consolidates by electrostatic interactions between cationic CNC and anionic alginate. The thickness of the outer layer can be regulated by the adsorption duration of neat alginate, and the shape of the inner layer can directly determine the morphology and dimensions of the double-membrane hydrogel (microsphere, capsule, and filmlike shapes). Two drugs are introduced into the different membranes of the hydrogel, which will ensure the complexing drugs codelivery and the varied drugs release behaviors from two membranes (rapid drug release of the outer hydrogel, and prolonged drug release of the inner hydrogel). The double-membrane hydrogel containing the chemically modified cellulose nanocrystals (CCNC) in the inner membrane hydrogel can provide the sustained drug release ascribed to the "nano-obstruction effect" and "nanolocking effect" induced by the presence of CCNC components in the hydrogels. Derived from natural polysaccharides (cellulose and alginate), the novel double-membrane structure hydrogel material developed in this study is biocompatible and can realize the complexing drugs release with the first quick release of one drug and the successively slow release of another drug, which is expected to achieve the synergistic release effects or potentially provide the solution to drug resistance in biomedical application.

  4. High concentration honey chitosan electrospun nanofibers: biocompatibility and antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2015-05-20

    Honey nanofibers represent an attractive formulation with unique medicinal and wound healing advantages. Nanofibers with honey concentrations of chitosan and honey (H) were cospun with polyvinyl alcohol (P) allowing the fabrication of nanofibers with high honey concentrations up to 40% and high chitosan concentrations up to 5.5% of the total weight of the fibers using biocompatible solvents (1% acetic acid). The fabricated nanofibers were further chemically crosslinked, by exposure to glutaraldehyde vapor, and physically crosslinked by heating and freezing/thawing. The new HP-chitosan nanofibers showed pronounced antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus but weak antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The developed HP-chitosan nanofibers revealed no cytotoxicity effects on cultured fibroblasts. In conclusion, biocompatible, antimicrobial crosslinked honey/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan nanofibers were developed which hold potential as effective wound dressing. PMID:25817652

  5. Biocompatible Collagen Paramagnetic Scaffold for Controlled Drug Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Simona; Bonfrate, Valentina; Syrgiannis, Zois; Sannino, Alessandro; Salvatore, Luca; Madaghiele, Marta; Valli, Ludovico; Giancane, Gabriele

    2015-09-14

    A porous collagen-based hydrogel scaffold was prepared in the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and was characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The hybrid scaffold was then loaded with fluorescein sodium salt as a model compound. The release of the hydrosoluble species was triggered and accurately controlled by the application of an external magnetic field, as monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of the proposed matrix was also tested by the MTT assay performed on 3T3 cells. Cell viability was only slightly reduced when the cells were incubated in the presence of the collagen-NP hydrogel, compared to controls. The economicity of the chemical protocol used to obtain the paramagnetic scaffolds as well as their biocompatibility and the safety of the external trigger needed to induce the drug release suggest the proposed collagen paramagnetic matrices for a number of applications including tissue engeneering and drug delivery. PMID:26270197

  6. [IN VIVO EVALUATION OF POLYCAPROLACTONE-HYDROXYAPATITE SCAFFOLD BIOCOMPATIBILITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Kozadaev, M N; Bogomolova, N V; Matveeva, O V; Puchinyan, D M; Norkin, I A; Sal'kovskii, Yu E; Lyubun, G P

    2015-01-01

    Biocompatibility is one of the main and very important properties for scaffolds. The aim of the present study was to investigate cells population dynamics in vivo in the process of original polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite scaffold colonization, as well as tissue reactions to the implantation to assess the biocompatibility of the matrix. It has been found that tissue reactive changes in white rats subside completely up to the 21st day after subcutaneous polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite scaffold implantation. Matrix was actively colonized by connective tissue cells in the period from the 7th to the 21st day of the experiment. However, intensive scaffold vascularization started from the 14th day after implantation. These findings suggest a high degree of the polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite scaffold biocompatiblilitye.

  7. Biocompatibility studies of polyacrylonitrile membranes modified with carboxylated polyetherimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, S; Rajesh, S; Jayalakshmi, A; Mohan, D

    2013-10-01

    Poly (ether-imide) (PEI) was carboxylated and used as the hydrophilic modification agent for the preparation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. Membranes were prepared with different blend compositions of PAN and CPEI by diffusion induced precipitation. The modified membranes were characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurement to understand the influence of CPEI on the properties of the membranes. The biocompatibility studies exhibited reduced plasma protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and thrombus formation on the modified membrane surface. The complete blood count (CBC) results of CPEI incorporated membranes showed stable CBC values and significant decrease in the complement activation were also observed. In addition to good cytocompatibility, monocytes cultured on these modified membranes exhibited improved functional profiles in 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Thus it could be concluded that PAN/CPEI membranes with excellent biocompatibility can be useful for hemodialysis. PMID:23910257

  8. Biocompatibility of intracortical microelectrodes: current status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of sensory and/or motor functions in patients with neurological diseases is more and more dealing with artificial electrical stimulation and recording from populations of neurons using biocompatible chronic implants. As more and more patients have benefited from these approaches, the interest in neural interfaces has grown significantly. However an important problem reported with all available microelectrodes to date is long-term viability and biocompatibility. Therefore it is essential to understand the signals that lead to neuroglial activation and create a targeted intervention to control the response, reduce the adverse nature of the reactions and maintain an ideal environment for the brain-electrode interface. We discuss some of the exciting opportunities and challenges that lie in this intersection of neuroscience research, bioengineering, neurology and biomaterials.

  9. Interfacing Microbial Styrene Production with a Biocompatible Cyclopropanation Reaction**

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Stephen; Balskus, Emily P.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing new reactivity into living organisms is a major challenge in synthetic biology. Despite an increasing interest in both developing aqueous-compatible small molecule catalysts and engineering enzymes to perform new chemistry in vitro, the integration of non-native reactivity into metabolic pathways for small molecule production has been underexplored. Herein we report a biocompatible iron(III) phthalocyanine catalyst capable of efficient olefin cyclopropanation in the presence of a ...

  10. Physical and technological principles of creating biocompatible superparamagnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Yevgen; Koval, Alla; Vedernikova, Irina; Ol'khovik, Larissa; Tkachenko, Mykola

    2011-01-01

    Nanodisperse powder of zinc-substituted magnetite has been developed. Functional characteristics (biocompatibility, dispersion, magnetic state) allow to recommend it for approbation in medical and biologic technologies. The character of the temperature dependences of magnetization investigated in the magnetic fields lower than the anisotropy field indicates that transfer from the magnetically stable state into the superparamagnetic state was realized for particles of 3-13 nm in the temperature range of 4.2-150 K. It reflects specificity of small particles magnetism.

  11. Biocompatible polymer microarrays for cellular high-content screening

    OpenAIRE

    Pernagallo, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    The global aim of this thesis was to study the use of microarray technology for the screening and identification of biocompatible polymers, to understand physiological phenomena, and the design of biomaterials, implant surfaces and tissue-engineering scaffolds. This work was based upon the polymer microarray platform developed by the Bradley group. Polymer microarrays were successfully applied to find the best polymer supports for: (i) mouse fibroblast cells and used to eval...

  12. Biomolecular modification of zirconia surfaces for enhanced biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ho, Wen-Fu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yao, Chun-Hsu [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Pai-Ling [Taoyuan General Hospital, Taoyuan 33004, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Shih-Ching, E-mail: scwu@ctust.edu.tw [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-12-01

    Yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) is a preferred biomaterial due to its good mechanical properties. In order to improve the biocompatibility of zirconia, RGD-peptide derived from extracellular matrix proteins was employed to modify the surface of Y-TZP to promote cell adhesion in this study. The surface of Y-TZP specimens was first modified using a hydrothermal method for different lengths of time. The topographies of modified Y-TZP specimens were analyzed by contact angle, XRD, FTIR, AFM, and FE-SEM. The mechanical properties were evaluated using Vickers hardness and three point bending strength. Then, the RGD-peptide was immobilized on the surface of the Y-TZP by chemical treatment. These RGD-peptide immobilized Y-TZP specimens were characterized by FTIR and AFM, and then were cocultured with MG-63 osteoblast cells for biocompatibility assay. The cell morphology and proliferation were evaluated by SEM, WST-1, and ALP activity assay. The XRD results indicated that the phase transition, from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase, was increased with a longer incubation time of hydrothermal treatment. However, there were no significant differences in mechanical strengths after RGD-peptide was successfully grafted onto the Y-TZP surface. The SEM images showed that the MG-63 cells appeared polygonal, spindle-shaped, and attached on the RGD-peptide immobilized Y-TZP. The proliferation and cellular activities of MG-63 cells on the RGD-peptide immobilized Y-TZP were better than that on the unmodified Y-TZP. From the above results, the RGD-peptide can be successfully grafted onto the hydrothermal modified Y-TZP surface. The RGD-peptide immobilized Y-TZP can increase cell adhesion, and thus, improve the biocompatibility of Y-TZP. - Highlights: • Covalent bonding between peptide and Y-TZP was proposed. • Stable biomimetic structures produced on the surface of zirconia. • The biocompatibility was improved.

  13. A biodegradable and biocompatible gecko-inspired tissue adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Alborz; Ferreira, Lino; Sundback, Cathryn; Nichol, Jason W; Chan, Edwin P; Carter, David J D; Bettinger, Chris J; Patanavanich, Siamrut; Chignozha, Loice; Ben-Joseph, Eli; Galakatos, Alex; Pryor, Howard; Pomerantseva, Irina; Masiakos, Peter T; Faquin, William; Zumbuehl, Andreas; Hong, Seungpyo; Borenstein, Jeffrey; Vacanti, Joseph; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2008-02-19

    There is a significant medical need for tough biodegradable polymer adhesives that can adapt to or recover from various mechanical deformations while remaining strongly attached to the underlying tissue. We approached this problem by using a polymer poly(glycerol-co-sebacate acrylate) and modifying the surface to mimic the nanotopography of gecko feet, which allows attachment to vertical surfaces. Translation of existing gecko-inspired adhesives for medical applications is complex, as multiple parameters must be optimized, including: biocompatibility, biodegradation, strong adhesive tissue bonding, as well as compliance and conformability to tissue surfaces. Ideally these adhesives would also have the ability to deliver drugs or growth factors to promote healing. As a first demonstration, we have created a gecko-inspired tissue adhesive from a biocompatible and biodegradable elastomer combined with a thin tissue-reactive biocompatible surface coating. Tissue adhesion was optimized by varying dimensions of the nanoscale pillars, including the ratio of tip diameter to pitch and the ratio of tip diameter to base diameter. Coating these nanomolded pillars of biodegradable elastomers with a thin layer of oxidized dextran significantly increased the interfacial adhesion strength on porcine intestine tissue in vitro and in the rat abdominal subfascial in vivo environment. This gecko-inspired medical adhesive may have potential applications for sealing wounds and for replacement or augmentation of sutures or staples.

  14. Sputtered Gum metal thin films showing bacterial inactivation and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achache, S; Alhussein, A; Lamri, S; François, M; Sanchette, F; Pulgarin, C; Kiwi, J; Rtimi, S

    2016-10-01

    Super-elastic Titanium based thin films Ti-23Nb-0.7Ta-2Zr-(O) (TNTZ-O) and Ti-24Nb-(N) (TN-N) (at.%) were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) in different reactive atmospheres. The effects of oxygen doping (TNTZ-O) and/or nitrogen doping (TN-N) on the microstructure, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the as-deposited coatings were investigated. Nano-indentation measurements show that, in both cases, 1sccm of reactive gas in the mixture is necessary to reach acceptable values of hardness and Young's modulus. Mechanical properties are considered in relation to the films compactness, the compressive stress and the changes in the grain size. Data on Bacterial inactivation and biocompatibility are reported in this study. The biocompatibility tests showed that O-containing samples led to higher cells proliferation. Bacterial inactivation was concomitant with the observed pH and surface potential changes under light and in the dark. The increased cell fluidity leading to bacterial lysis was followed during the bacterial inactivation time. The increasing cell wall fluidity was attributed to the damage of the bacterial outer cell which losing its capacity to regulate the ions exchange in and out of the bacteria. PMID:27434155

  15. In Vitro Biocompatibility of Endodontic Sealers Incorporating Antibacterial Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak Abramovitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of endodontic disease is bacteria. Disinfection is presently achieved by cleaning the root canal system prior to obturation. Following setting, root canal filling is devoid of any antibacterial effect. Endodontic sealers with antimicrobial properties yet biocompatible may enhance root canal therapy. For this purpose, quaternized polyethylenimine nanoparticles which are antibacterial polymers, biocompatible, nonvolatile, and stable may be used. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of added QPEI on the cytotoxicity of AH Plus, Epiphany, and GuttaFlow endodontic sealers. The effect of these sealers on the proliferation of RAW 264.7 macrophage and L-929 fibroblast cell lines and on the production of TNFα from macrophages was examined. Cell vitality was evaluated using a colorimetric XTT assay. The presence of cytokines was determined by two-site ELISA. Results show that QPEI at 1% concentration does not impair the basic properties of the examined sealers in both macrophages and fibroblast cell lines. Incorporation of 1% QPEI into the sealers did not impair their biocompatibility. QPEI is a potential clinical candidate to improve antibacterial activity of sealers without increasing cytotoxicity.

  16. [Elastomeric impression materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, T; Tsokas, K

    1990-01-01

    A review of the literature on elastomeric impression materials, is presented in this paper. The article mentions the composition and the most important properties of the elastomeric impression materials used in dental practice. The clinical significance of these materials, physical and mechanical properties are also emphasized. In addition some new elastomeric impression materials with improved properties and a new (experimental) light-cured impression material, are mentioned. Another part of this article is the biocompatibility of these materials. In the end the great significance of handling is outlined. PMID:2130039

  17. A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, JaeWoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp . We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp . mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 μM) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge

  18. Surface construction and biocompatibility of polymeric used for cardiovascular medical device○

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bao-lin; Wang Dong-an

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Biomaterials for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases must have anti-thrombotic, anti-biodegradability and anti-infective ability in the blood-contact condition. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the biocompatibility, blood compatibility and cytocompatibility of new implantable (interfered) polymer material (surface) used in cardiovascular tissue engineering. METHODS:The PubMed database and Wanfang database were retrieved for the related articles from 1967 to 2012 with the key words of“biocompatibility, lood compatibility, biomedical materials, biomedical polymer materials”. RESUTLS AND CONCLUSION:The graft copolymer surface and a block copolymer surfactant that can be used as biological materials were in-depth analyzed though analyzing the design requirements of type, application, cardiovascular medical devices and implantable soft tissue substitutes of polymeric biomaterials used for cardiovascular medicine. The results showed that the difference between the surface and noumenon wil be reflected on many molecular layers that extended from the surface to the noumenon, while the two main factors of surface energy and molecular motion determined the noumenon/surface behavior including the noumenon/surface difference and surface phase separation. If the understanding of the noumenon/surface consisting difference should be taking into consideration, the other determinant should be added too, that was the crystal ization behavior of each competent. If the one of the components contained in the graft copolymer surface and a block copolymer surfactant had higher crystal inity, the other components wil be squeezed out;crystal ization could also hindered the motion and diffusion of molecules, and eventual y, the incompatibility degree of two components of copolymers wil affect the phase separation tendency in the noumenon and surface layers.

  19. Biocompatibility and other properties of acrylic bone cements prepared with antiseptic activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, B; Fernández, M; Vázquez, B; Collía, F; de Pedro, J A; López-Bravo, A; San Román, J

    2003-08-15

    Acrylic bone cements prepared with activators of reduced toxicity have been formulated with the aim of improving the biocompatibility of the final material. The activators used were N,N-dimethylaminobenzyl alcohol (DMOH) and 4,4'-dimethylamino benzydrol (BZN). The toxicity, cytotoxicity, and antiseptic action of these activators were first studied. DMOH and BZN presented LD50 values 3-4 times higher than DMT, were less cytotoxic against polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and possessed an antimicrobial character, with a high activity against the most representative microorganisms involved in postoperative infections. The properties of the acrylic bone cements formulated with DMOH and BZN were evaluated to determine the influence of these activators on the curing process and the physicochemical characteristics of the cements. A decrease of the peak temperature was observed for the curing with DMOH or BZN with respect to that of one commercially available formulation (CMW 3). However, residual monomer content and mechanical properties in tension and compression were comparable to those of CMW 3. The biocompatibility of acrylic bone cements containing DMOH or BZN was studied and compared with CMW 3. To that end, intramuscular and intraosseous implantation procedures were carried out and the results were obtained from the histological analysis of the surrounding tissues at different periods of time. Implantation of rods of cement into the dorsal muscle of rats showed the presence of a membrane of connective tissue, which increased in collagen fibers with time of implantation, for all formulations. The intraosseous implantation of the cements in the dough state in the femur of rabbits, revealed a higher and early osseous neoformation, with the presence of osteoid material surrounding the rest of the cured material, for the cement prepared with the activator BZN in comparison with that obtained following the implantation of the cement cured with DMOH or DMT (CMW 3).

  20. Mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of newly developed biodegradable Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunfei; Lin, Jixing; Wen, Cuie; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Yuncang

    2016-08-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Mg-Zr-Sr alloys can be anticipated as excellent biodegradable implant materials for load-bearing applications. In general, rare earth elements (REEs) are widely used in magnesium (Mg) alloys with the aim of enhancing the mechanical properties of Mg-based alloys. In this study, the REE holmium (Ho) was added to an Mg-1Zr-2Sr alloy at different concentrations of Mg1Zr2SrxHo alloys (x = 0, 1, 3, 5 wt. %) and the microstructure, mechanical properties, degradation behaviour and biocompatibility of the alloys were systematically investigated. The results indicate that the addition of Ho to Mg1Zr2Sr led to the formation of the intermetallic phases MgHo3, Mg2Ho and Mg17Sr2 which resulted in enhanced mechanical strength and decreased degradation rates of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. Furthermore, Ho addition (≤5 wt. %) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys led to enhancement of cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells on the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. The in vitro biodegradation and the biocompatibility of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys were both influenced by the Ho concentration in the Mg alloys; Mg1Zr2Sr3Ho exhibited lower degradation rates than Mg1Zr2Sr and displayed the best biocompatibility compared with the other alloys.

  1. Mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of newly developed biodegradable Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunfei; Lin, Jixing; Wen, Cuie; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Yuncang

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Mg-Zr-Sr alloys can be anticipated as excellent biodegradable implant materials for load-bearing applications. In general, rare earth elements (REEs) are widely used in magnesium (Mg) alloys with the aim of enhancing the mechanical properties of Mg-based alloys. In this study, the REE holmium (Ho) was added to an Mg-1Zr-2Sr alloy at different concentrations of Mg1Zr2SrxHo alloys (x = 0, 1, 3, 5 wt. %) and the microstructure, mechanical properties, degradation behaviour and biocompatibility of the alloys were systematically investigated. The results indicate that the addition of Ho to Mg1Zr2Sr led to the formation of the intermetallic phases MgHo3, Mg2Ho and Mg17Sr2 which resulted in enhanced mechanical strength and decreased degradation rates of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. Furthermore, Ho addition (≤5 wt. %) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys led to enhancement of cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells on the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. The in vitro biodegradation and the biocompatibility of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys were both influenced by the Ho concentration in the Mg alloys; Mg1Zr2Sr3Ho exhibited lower degradation rates than Mg1Zr2Sr and displayed the best biocompatibility compared with the other alloys. PMID:27553403

  2. Tribological properties of biocompatible Ti-10W and Ti-7.5TiC-7.5W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myounggeun; Hong, Eunji; So, Jungwon; Song, Seokbeom; Kim, Byoung-Suck; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kim, Yong-Suk; Cho, Jinhan; Choe, Heeman

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates and compares the microstructure, biocompatibility, and tribological properties of two different Ti-based composites, Ti-10W and Ti-7.5TiC-7.5W, with those of pure Ti for their potential use in biomedical applications. In particular, cold and hot isostatic-pressing and arc-melting methods were utilized and compared for the microstructure of the composites. Nano-scratch measurements and pin-on-disk wear tests were employed to understand their tribological behavior. As compared to pure Ti, Ti-10W and Ti-7.5TiC-7.5W showed significantly improved nano-scratch resistance (by 85 and 77%, respectively) and wear resistance (by 64 and 66%, respectively), in good agreement with hardness measurements. For biocompatibility examination, both microculture tetrazolium test (MTT) and water soluble tetrazolium (WST-1) test were used to quantify the cell viability of human osteoblasts and mouse fibroblasts on the materials. Both of the Ti-based composites showed acceptable biocompatibility in comparison with the pure Ti control. PMID:24333672

  3. BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF MEDICAL DEVICES BASED ON METALS, CAUSES FORMATION OF PATHOLOGICAL REACTIVITY (A REVIEW OF FOREIGN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Rozhnova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is a review of approaches to the evaluation of biocompatibility of medical devices on the basis of metals and alloys, and to find ways of overcoming the low engraftment of implanted structures. Implantation by artificial materials allows us to regain the use of human organs and tissues and to date has no rivals. The advantage of using metals and alloys for implanted structures is their high reliability in operation, long servicelife, and high functionality. The nature of the interaction between the human body and the implant has an impact on resource use and the durability of the structures. Manufacturers of scientific research into medical implants at the present stage are directed to obtain materials that will not adversely affect the human body, and to ensure the maximum survival rate when using them. At the same time, the data presented in the article suggests that attempts to make higher biocompatible material properties tend to reduce the development of new methods for the surface treatment and the chemical composition modulation implants. World literature demonstrates the lack of a systematic approach to the problem of increased sensitivity of patients to different metals and alloys (metal sensitization, resulting in the development of complications such as the development of aseptic inflammation and infectious complications of unstable structures, and loss of functionality. Consequently, there is a need to search for ways to improve the biocompatibility of materials used in medicine, based on an assessment of immune defense mechanisms, and the development of algorithms preoperative tactics. 

  4. Nanocrystalline diamond: In vitro biocompatibility assessment by MG63 and human bone marrow cells cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, M; Dias, A G; Gomes, P S; Lopes, M A; Silva, R F; Santos, J D; Fernandes, M H

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) has a great potential for prosthetic implants coating. Nevertheless, its biocompatibility still has to be better understood. To do so, we employed several materials characterization techniques (SEM, AFM, micro-Raman spectroscopy) and cell culture assays using MG63 osteoblast-like and human bone marrow cells. Biochemical routines (MTT assays, Lowry's method, ALP activity) supported by SEM and confocal microscopy characterization were carried out. We used silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrates for NCD coatings based on a previous demonstration of the superior adhesion and tribological performance of these NCD coated ceramics. Results demonstrate an improved human osteoblast proliferation and the stimulation of differentiated markers, like ALP activity and matrix mineralization, compared with standard polystyrene tissue culture plates. The nanometric featuring of NCD, associated to its chemical affinity are key points for bone regeneration purposes. PMID:18085649

  5. Biocompatible Polyhydroxyethylaspartamide-based Micelles with Gadolinium for MRI Contrast Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyo Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biocompatible poly-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl-d,l-aspartamide]-methoxypoly(ethyleneglycol-hexadecylamine (PHEA-mPEG-C16 conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-gadolinium (DOTA-Gd via ethylenediamine (ED was synthesized as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent. Amphiphilic PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd forms micelle in aqueous solution. All the synthesized materials were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. Micelle size and shape were examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Micelles with PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd showed higher relaxivities than the commercially available gadolinium contrast agent. Moreover, the signal intensity of a rabbit liver was effectively increased after intravenous injection of PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd.

  6. BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF MEDICAL DEVICES – LEGAL REGULATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Yaneva-Deliverska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A multiplicity of laws, standards, and recommendations regulate the marketing of medical devices. Therefore, legal regulations do not release the specialists in the fields of medicine and dentistry from the responsibility to gather as much information as possible about the products used or to request this information from the manufacturer. Safety data sheets for medical devices can be downloaded from the Internet. They are an important source of information about the biocompatibility of dental materials as they were investigated by the manufacturers. Appropriate safety labels on the wrappings should be considered. The manufacturer/importer is responsible for its products and is potentially liable for damages. The medical doctors and dentists should use only those medical devices for which appropriate information is available.

  7. Biocompatible Polyhydroxyethylaspartamide-based Micelles with Gadolinium for MRI Contrast Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang Young; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Kwak, Byung-Kook; Lee, Ha-Young; Seong, Hasoo; Shin, Byung Cheol; Yuk, Soon Hong; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Cho, Sun Hang

    2010-12-01

    Biocompatible poly-[ N-(2-hydroxyethyl)- d, l-aspartamide]-methoxypoly(ethyleneglycol)-hexadecylamine (PHEA-mPEG-C16) conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-gadolinium (DOTA-Gd) via ethylenediamine (ED) was synthesized as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. Amphiphilic PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd forms micelle in aqueous solution. All the synthesized materials were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Micelle size and shape were examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Micelles with PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd showed higher relaxivities than the commercially available gadolinium contrast agent. Moreover, the signal intensity of a rabbit liver was effectively increased after intravenous injection of PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd.

  8. Buckling Instability of Dielectric Elastomeric Plates for Soft, Bio-Compatible Microfluidic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Behrouz; Bozlar, Michael; Froehlicher, Guillaume; Punckt, Christian; Stone, Howard A.; Aksay, Ilhan; Holmes, Douglas

    2013-03-01

    Dielectric elastomers are well-known for their superior stretchability and permittivity. A fully-clamped thin elastomer will buckle when it is compressed by applying sufficient electric potentials to its sides. When embedded within soft, silicone rubbers, these advanced materials can provide a means for a bio-compatible pumping mechanism that can be used to inject bio-fluids with desired flow rates into microfluidic devices, tissues, and organs of interest. We have incorporated a dielectric film that is sandwiched between two thin, flexible, solid electrodes into a microfluidic device and utilized a voltage-induced out-of-plane buckling instability for pumping of fluids. We experimentally quantify the voltage-induced plate buckling and measure the fluid flow rate when the structure is embedded in a microchannel. Additionally, we offer an analytical prediction that uses plate buckling theory to estimate the flow rate as a function of applied voltage.

  9. Experimental investigation of plasma-immersion ion implantation treatment for biocompatible polyurethane implants production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iziumov, R. I.; Beliaev, A. Y.; Kondyurina, I. V.; Shardakov, I. N.; Kondyurin, A. V.; Bilek, M. M.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Modification of the surface layer of polyurethane with plasma-immersion ion implantation (PIII) and studying its physical and chemical changes have been discussed in this paper. The goal of the research was to obtain carbonized layer allowing creating biocompatible polyurethane implants. The experiments of PIII treatment in various modes were performed. The investigation of the modified surface characteristics was carried out by observing the kinetics of free surface energy for two weeks after treatment. The regularities between treatment time and the level of free surface energy were detected. The explanation of high energy level was given through the appearance of free radicals in the surface layer of material. The confirmation of the chemical activation of the polyurethane surface after PIII treatment was obtained.

  10. In vitro biocompatibility and endothelialization of novel magnesium-rare Earth alloys for improved stent applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhao

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg based alloys are the most advanced cardiovascular stent materials. This new generation of stent scaffold is currently under clinical evaluation with encouraging outcomes. All these Mg alloys contain a certain amount of rare earth (RE elements though the exact composition is not yet disclosed. RE alloying can usually enhance the mechanical strength of different metal alloys but their toxicity might be an issue for medical applications. It is still unclear how RE elements will affect the magnesium (Mg alloys intended for stent materials as a whole. In this study, we evaluated MgZnCaY-1RE, MgZnCaY-2RE, MgYZr-1RE, and MgZnYZr-1RE alloys for cardiovascular stents applications regarding their mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, hemolysis, platelet adhesion/activation, and endothelial biocompatibility. The mechanical properties of all alloys were significantly improved. Potentiodynamic polarization showed that the corrosion resistance of four alloys was at least 3-10 times higher than that of pure Mg control. Hemolysis test revealed that all the materials were non-hemolytic while little to moderate platelet adhesion was found on all materials surface. No significant cytotoxicity was observed in human aorta endothelial cells cultured with magnesium alloy extract solution for up to seven days. Direct endothelialization test showed that all the alloys possess significantly better capability to sustain endothelial cell attachment and growth. The results demonstrated the promising potential of these alloys for stent material applications in the future.

  11. Exploration of New Electroacupuncture Needle Material

    OpenAIRE

    Sanghun Lee; Gwang-Ho Choi; Chang Hoon Lee; Yu Kyoung Kim; Saebhom Lee; Sungjin Cho; Sunhee Yeon; Sun-Mi Choi; Yeon-Hee Ryu

    2012-01-01

    Background. Electro Acupuncture (EA) uses the acupuncture needle as an electrode to apply low-frequency stimulation. For its safe operation, it is essential to prevent any corrosion of the acupuncture needle. Objective. The aim of this study is to find an available material and determine the possibility of producing a standard EA needle that is biocompatible. Methods. Biocompatibility was tested by an MTT assay and cytotoxicity testing. Corrosion was observed with a scanning electron microsco...

  12. Harnessing what lies within: Programming immunity with biocompatible devices to treat human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Reid Austin

    Advances in our mechanistic insight of cellular function and how this relates to host physiology have revealed a world which is intimately connected at the macro and micro level. Our increasing understanding of biology exemplifies this, where cells respond to environmental cues through interconnected networks of proteins which function as receptors and adaptors to elicit gene expression changes that drive appropriate cellular programs for a given stimulus. Consequently, our deeper molecular appreciation of host homeostasis implicates aberrations of these pathways in nearly all major human disease categories, including those of infectious, metabolic, neurologic, oncogenic, and autoimmune etiology. We have come to recognize the mammalian immune system as a common network hub among all these varied pathologies. As such, the major goal of this dissertation is to identify a platform to program immune responses in mammals so that we may enhance our ability to treat disease and improve health in the 21st century. Using advances in materials science, in particular a recently developed particle fabrication technology termed Particle Replication in Non-wetting Templates (PRINT), our studies systematically assess the murine and human immune response to precisely fabricated nano- and microscale particles composed of biodegradable and biocompatible materials. We then build on these findings and present particle design parameters to program a number of clinically attractive immune responses by targeting endogenous cellular signaling pathways. These include control of particle uptake through surface modification, design parameters that modulate the magnitude and kinetics of biological signaling dynamics that can be used to exacerbate or dampen inflammatory responses, as well as particle designs which may be of use in treating allergies and autoimmune disorders. In total, this dissertation provides evidence that rational design of biocompatible nano- and microparticles is a viable

  13. Biocompatible magnetic core-shell nanocomposites for engineered magnetic tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Arco, Laura; Rodriguez, Ismael A.; Carriel, Victor; Bonhome-Espinosa, Ana B.; Campos, Fernando; Kuzhir, Pavel; Duran, Juan D. G.; Lopez-Lopez, Modesto T.

    2016-04-01

    The inclusion of magnetic nanoparticles into biopolymer matrixes enables the preparation of magnetic field-responsive engineered tissues. Here we describe a synthetic route to prepare biocompatible core-shell nanostructures consisting of a polymeric core and a magnetic shell, which are used for this purpose. We show that using a core-shell architecture is doubly advantageous. First, gravitational settling for core-shell nanocomposites is slower because of the reduction of the composite average density connected to the light polymer core. Second, the magnetic response of core-shell nanocomposites can be tuned by changing the thickness of the magnetic layer. The incorporation of the composites into biopolymer hydrogels containing cells results in magnetic field-responsive engineered tissues whose mechanical properties can be controlled by external magnetic forces. Indeed, we obtain a significant increase of the viscoelastic moduli of the engineered tissues when exposed to an external magnetic field. Because the composites are functionalized with polyethylene glycol, the prepared bio-artificial tissue-like constructs also display excellent ex vivo cell viability and proliferation. When implanted in vivo, the engineered tissues show good biocompatibility and outstanding interaction with the host tissue. Actually, they only cause a localized transitory inflammatory reaction at the implantation site, without any effect on other organs. Altogether, our results suggest that the inclusion of magnetic core-shell nanocomposites into biomaterials would enable tissue engineering of artificial substitutes whose mechanical properties could be tuned to match those of the potential target tissue. In a wider perspective, the good biocompatibility and magnetic behavior of the composites could be beneficial for many other applications.The inclusion of magnetic nanoparticles into biopolymer matrixes enables the preparation of magnetic field-responsive engineered tissues. Here we

  14. A capillary viscometer designed for the characterization of biocompatible ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, J.; Odenbach, S.

    2016-08-01

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles are receiving a growing interest in biomedical research. These ferrofluids can, e.g., be used for the treatment of cancer, making use of the drug targeting principle or using an artificially induced heating. To enable a safe application the basic properties of the ferrofluids have to be well understood, including the viscosity of the fluids if an external magnetic field is applied. It is well known that the viscosity of ferrofluids rises if a magnetic field is applied, where the rise depends on shear rate and magnetic field strength. In case of biocompatible ferrofluids such investigations proved to be rather complicated as the experimental setup should be close to the actual application to allow justified predictions of the effects which have to be expected. Thus a capillary viscometer, providing a flow situation comparable to the flow in a blood vessel, has been designed. The glass capillary is exchangeable and different inner diameters can be used. The range of the shear rates has been adapted to the range found in the human organism. The application of an external magnetic field is enabled with two different coil setups covering the ranges of magnetic field strengths required on the one hand for a theoretical understanding of particle interaction and resulting changes in viscosity and on the other hand for values necessary for a potential biomedical application. The results show that the newly designed capillary viscometer is suitable to measure the magnetoviscous effect in biocompatible ferrofluids and that the results appear to be consistent with data measured with rotational rheometry. In addition, a strong change of the flow behaviour of a biocompatible ferrofluid was proven for ranges of the shear rate and the magnetic field strength expected for a potential biomedical application.

  15. A rheological and microscopical characterization of biocompatible ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, J., E-mail: johannes.nowak@tu-dresden.de [Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Germany (Germany); Wolf, D. [Triebenberg Laboratory, Technische Universität Dresden, 01328 Germany (Germany); Odenbach, S. [Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Germany (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    There is an increasing interest in suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles in the biomedical area. Those ferrofluids are e.g. used for magnetic resonance imaging and emerging research focuses on employing the fluids for magnetic drug targeting or magnetic particle heating as a potential treatment for cancer. For these applications the knowledge of the suspensions' thermophysical properties is of major interest to guarantee a safe and effective application. Therefore the flow behavior cannot be neglected as it might significantly influence the execution of the aforementioned applications. In this experimental study two biocompatible ferrofluids were investigated. Rheological measurements were carried out using rotational rheometry. To allow an interpretation of the fluids' behavior the microscopic make-up was investigated using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Measurements of diluted ferrofluids were carried out as a first step to simulate the rheological behavior reflecting the concentration of magnetic nanoparticles found in blood flow for most biomedical applications of such fluids. The detected strong effects show the potential to significantly influence application and handling of the biocompatible ferrofluids in the medical area and should therefore be taken into account for further research as well as for the application of such fluids. - Highlights: • The rheology of biocompatible multicore ferrofluids is influenced by magnetic fields. • The flow curves can be described by the Herschel–Bulkley model. • A connection between the magnetoviscous effect and the particle size is found. • The strong magnetoviscous effect exists even if the fluids are diluted. • The connection between the effect and the dilution is mathematically described.

  16. Biocompatible implants and methods of making and attaching the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, Adrian P; Laude, Lucien D; Humayun, Mark S; Weiland, James D; Lotfi, Atoosa; Markland, Jr., Francis S

    2014-10-07

    The invention provides a biocompatible silicone implant that can be securely affixed to living tissue through interaction with integral membrane proteins (integrins). A silicone article containing a laser-activated surface is utilized to make the implant. One example is an implantable prosthesis to treat blindness caused by outer retinal degenerative diseases. The device bypasses damaged photoreceptors and electrically stimulates the undamaged neurons of the retina. Electrical stimulation is achieved using a silicone microelectrode array (MEA). A safe, protein adhesive is used in attaching the MEA to the retinal surface and assist in alleviating focal pressure effects. Methods of making and attaching such implants are also provided.

  17. A biocompatible alkene hydrogenation merges organic synthesis with microbial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirasani, Gopal; Tong, Liuchuan; Balskus, Emily P

    2014-07-21

    Organic chemists and metabolic engineers use orthogonal technologies to construct essential small molecules such as pharmaceuticals and commodity chemicals. While chemists have leveraged the unique capabilities of biological catalysts for small-molecule production, metabolic engineers have not likewise integrated reactions from organic synthesis with the metabolism of living organisms. Reported herein is a method for alkene hydrogenation which utilizes a palladium catalyst and hydrogen gas generated directly by a living microorganism. This biocompatible transformation, which requires both catalyst and microbe, and can be used on a preparative scale, represents a new strategy for chemical synthesis that combines organic chemistry and metabolic engineering.

  18. Biodegradable Xylitol-Based Elastomers: In Vivo Behavior and Biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Joost P.; Bettinger, Christopher J.; Langer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradable elastomers based on polycondensation reactions of xylitol with sebacic acid, referred to as poly(xylitol sebacate) (PXS) elastomers have recently been developed. Herein, we describe the in vivo behavior of PXS elastomers. Four PXS elastomers were synthesized, characterized and compared to poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). PXS elastomers displayed a high level of structural integrity and form stability during degradation. The in vivo half-life ranged from approximately 3 to 52 weeks. PXS elastomers exhibited increased biocompatibility compared to PLGA implants. PMID:20540093

  19. Mechanical biocompatibilities of titanium alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinomi, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Young's modulus as well as tensile strength, ductility, fatigue life, fretting fatigue life, wear properties, functionalities, etc., should be adjusted to levels that are suitable for structural biomaterials used in implants that replace hard tissue. These factors may be collectively referred to as mechanical biocompatibilities. In this paper, the following are described with regard to biomedical applications of titanium alloys: the Young's modulus, wear properties, notch fatigue strength, fatigue behaviour on relation to ageing treatment, improvement of fatigue strength, fatigue crack propagation resistance and ductility by the deformation-induced martensitic transformation of the unstable beta phase, and multifunctional deformation behaviours of titanium alloys.

  20. Biocompatibility and applications of carbon nanotubes in medical nanorobots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Andrei M; Lozovik, Yurii E; Fiorito, Silvana; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2007-01-01

    The set of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) based on relative motion of carbon nanotubes walls is proposed for use in medical nanorobots. This set includes electromechanical nanothermometer, jet nanoengine, nanosyringe (the last can be used simultaneously as nanoprobe for individual biological molecules and drug nanodeliver). Principal schemes of these NEMS are considered. Operational characteristics of nanothermometer are analyzed. The possible methods of these NEMS actuation are considered. The present-day progress in nanotechnology techniques which are necessary for assembling of NEMS under consideration is discussed. Biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes is analyzed in connection with perspectives of their application in nanomedicine.

  1. A novel smart injectable hydrogel prepared by microbial transglutaminase and human-like collagen: Its characterization and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Leilei; Li, Xian; Zhao, Jiaqi; Ma, Saijian; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Fan, Daidi; Zhu, Chenhui; Liu, Yannan

    2016-11-01

    Various tissue scaffold materials are increasingly used to repair skin defects by cross-linking because of the ability to fill and implant in any form via operation. However, crosslinker residues cannot be easily removed from scaffold materials prepared by chemical crosslinking methods, limiting their use for skin tissue engineering. Here, microbial transglutaminase (MTGase), a nontoxic crosslinker with high specific activity and reaction rate under mild conditions, was employed crosslinks in human-like collagen (HLC) to yield novel smart MTGase crosslinked with human-like collagen (MTGH) hydrogels, which are sensitive to temperature and/or enzymes. Various ratios of MTGase/HLC were performed, and their physicochemical properties were characterized, including the swelling ratio, the elastic modulus, the morphology and the porosity. The degradation behavior and mechanism of MTGase in concentration-dependent manner involved in formation hydrogels were identifying in vitro. The cell attachment in vitro and biocompatibility in vivo were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the use of different concentrations of MTGase to crosslink HLC produced products with different degradation times and biocompatibilities. The 50U/g MTGase-prepared MTGH hydrogels had a higher density of crosslinks, which made them more resistant to degradation by collagenase I and collagenase II. However, 40U/g MTGase-prepared MTGH hydrogels were more suitable for cell attachment. In addition, compared with the Collagen Implant I® (SUM) used in animal experiments, the 40U/g MTGase-prepared MTGH hydrogels had a lower toxicity and better biocompatibility. Therefore, 40U/g MTGase crosslinked with HLC should be used to prepare MTGH hydrogels for potential application as soft materials for skin tissue engineering. PMID:27524026

  2. Biocompatible post-polymerization functionalization of a water soluble poly(p-phenylene ethynylene)

    OpenAIRE

    Swager, Timothy Manning; Vanveller, Brett Steven

    2010-01-01

    A biocompatible post-polymerization functionalization reaction takes advantage of a polymer's structural motif for the controllable attachment of biotin as a model biosensor that responds to streptavidin.

  3. Safety and biocompatibility of graphene: A new generation nanomaterial for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syama, S; Mohanan, P V

    2016-05-01

    Graphene, a material with great application potential is expected to revolutionize various fields in the near future particularly biomedical field with its inherent properties. However, significant increase in the research on graphene in the recent years has created anxiety about their safety/biocompatibility towards living organisms. Though there is increase in reports on graphene synthesis and application, in parallel reports on unwanted toxic effects of these materials is under scrutiny. Before exploiting their use, any engineered nanomaterials should undergo through investigation regarding the risk and health hazards imposed by them. Toxicity of nanomaterial depends on many factors like size, shape, surface chemistry, dose, duration and the biological milieu. In this account, we reviewed physico-chemical properties of graphene that plays a key role in toxicity prediction. We also detailed some examples of the in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies that have been published so far. The potential environmental risk associated with these carbon materials is also addressed, in order to avoid unintentional leaching of these materials into surface water.

  4. Safety and biocompatibility of graphene: A new generation nanomaterial for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syama, S; Mohanan, P V

    2016-05-01

    Graphene, a material with great application potential is expected to revolutionize various fields in the near future particularly biomedical field with its inherent properties. However, significant increase in the research on graphene in the recent years has created anxiety about their safety/biocompatibility towards living organisms. Though there is increase in reports on graphene synthesis and application, in parallel reports on unwanted toxic effects of these materials is under scrutiny. Before exploiting their use, any engineered nanomaterials should undergo through investigation regarding the risk and health hazards imposed by them. Toxicity of nanomaterial depends on many factors like size, shape, surface chemistry, dose, duration and the biological milieu. In this account, we reviewed physico-chemical properties of graphene that plays a key role in toxicity prediction. We also detailed some examples of the in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies that have been published so far. The potential environmental risk associated with these carbon materials is also addressed, in order to avoid unintentional leaching of these materials into surface water. PMID:26851208

  5. Multiphoton crosslinking for biocompatible 3D printing of type I collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alex; Kofron, Matthew; Nistor, Vasile

    2015-09-03

    Multiphoton fabrication is a powerful technique for three-dimensional (3D) printing of structures at the microscale. Many polymers and proteins have been successfully structured and patterned using this method. Type I collagen comprises a large part of the extracellular matrix for most tissue types and is a widely used cellular scaffold material for tissue engineering. Current methods for creating collagen tissue scaffolds do not allow control of local geometry on a cellular scale. This means the environment experienced by cells may be made up of the native material but unrelated to native cellular-scale structure. In this study, we present a novel method to allow multiphoton crosslinking of type I collagen with flavin mononucleotide photosensitizer. The method detailed allows full 3D printing of crosslinked structures made from unmodified type I collagen and uses only demonstrated biocompatible materials. Resolution of 1 μm for both standing lines and high-aspect ratio gaps between structures is demonstrated and complex 3D structures are fabricated. This study demonstrates a means for 3D printing with one of the most widely used tissue scaffold materials. High-resolution, 3D control of the fabrication of collagen scaffolds will facilitate higher fidelity recreation of the native extracellular environment for engineered tissues.

  6. Biocompatibility assessment of spark plasma-sintered alumina-titanium cermets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Rodrigo; Fernandez-García, Elisa; Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Carlos F; Fernandez, Adolfo; Lopez-Lacomba, Jose Luis; Lopez-Esteban, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Alumina-titanium materials (cermets) of enhanced mechanical properties have been lately developed. In this work, physical properties such as electrical conductivity and the crystalline phases in the bulk material are evaluated. As these new cermets manufactured by spark plasma sintering may have potential application for hard tissue replacements, their biocompatibility needs to be evaluated. Thus, this research aims to study the cytocompatibility of a novel alumina-titanium (25 vol. % Ti) cermet compared to its pure counterpart, the spark plasma sintered alumina. The influence of the particular surface properties (chemical composition, roughness and wettability) on the pre-osteoblastic cell response is also analyzed. The material electrical resistance revealed that this cermet may be machined to any shape by electroerosion. The investigated specimens had a slightly undulated topography, with a roughness pattern that had similar morphology in all orientations (isotropic roughness) and a sub-micrometric average roughness. Differences in skewness that implied valley-like structures in the cermet and predominance of peaks in alumina were found. The cermet presented a higher surface hydrophilicity than alumina. Any cytotoxicity risk associated with the new materials or with the innovative manufacturing methodology was rejected. Proliferation and early-differentiation stages of osteoblasts were statistically improved on the composite. Thus, our results suggest that this new multifunctional cermet could improve current alumina-based biomedical devices for applications such as hip joint replacements.

  7. Biocompatible fluorescent nanoparticles for in vivo stem cell tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Lidia; Bigini, Paolo; Diana, Valentina; Sitia, Leopoldo; Ferrari, Raffaele; Pesce, Ruggiero Maria; Khalaf, Rushd; Bossolasco, Patrizia; Ubezio, Paolo; Lupi, Monica; Tortarolo, Massimo; Colombo, Laura; Giardino, Daniela; Silani, Vincenzo; Morbidelli, Massimo; Salmona, Mario; Moscatelli, Davide

    2013-06-01

    Efficient application of stem cells to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases requires safe cell tracking to follow stem cell fate over time in the host environment after transplantation. In this work, for the first time, fluorescent and biocompatible methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based nanoparticles (fluoNPs) were synthesized through a free-radical co-polymerization process with a fluorescent macromonomer obtained by linking Rhodamine B and hydroxyethyl methacrylate. We demonstrate that the fluoNPs produced by polymerization of MMA-Rhodamine complexes (1) were efficient for the labeling and tracking of multipotent human amniotic fluid cells (hAFCs); (2) did not alter the main biological features of hAFCs (such as viability, cell growth and metabolic activity); (3) enabled us to determine the longitudinal bio-distribution of hAFCs in different brain areas after graft in the brain ventricles of healthy mice by a direct fluorescence-based technique. The reliability of our approach was furthermore confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging analyses, carried out by incubating hAFCs with both superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and fluoNPs. Our data suggest that these finely tunable and biocompatible fluoNPs can be exploited for the longitudinal tracking of stem cells.

  8. Biocompatible and target specific hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wei; Li, Weiyi; Rubenstein, David A; Meng, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Atherosclerosis is a major cause for cardiovascular diseases. Drugs that treat atherosclerosis usually act nonspecifically. To enhance drug delivery specificity, the authors developed a hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan (HGC) nanoparticle that can specifically target activated endothelial cells. The biocompatibility of these nanoparticles toward red blood cells and platelets was evaluated through hemolysis, platelet activation, platelet thrombogenicity, and platelet aggregation assays. The biocompatibility of these nanoparticles toward vascular endothelial cells was evaluated by their effects on endothelial cell growth, metabolic activity, and activation. The results demonstrated that HGC nanoparticles did not cause hemolysis, or affect platelet activation, thrombogenicity, and aggregation capability in vitro. The nanoparticles did not impair vascular endothelial cell growth or metabolic activities in vitro, and did not cause cell activation either. When conjugated with intercellular adhesion molecular 1 antibodies, HGC nanoparticles showed a significantly increased targeting specificity toward activated endothelial cells. These results suggested that HGC nanoparticles are likely compatible toward red blood cells, platelets, and endothelial cells, and they can be potentially used to identify activated endothelial cells at atherosclerotic lesion areas within the vasculature, and deliver therapeutic drugs. PMID:27126597

  9. Biocompatible cellulose-based superabsorbent hydrogels with antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Na; Wang, Yanfeng; Ye, Qifa; Liang, Lei; An, Yuxing; Li, Qiwei; Chang, Chunyu

    2016-02-10

    Current superabsorbent hydrogels commercially applied in the disposable diapers have disadvantages such as weak mechanical strength, poor biocompatibility, and lack of antimicrobial activity, which may induce skin allergy of body. To overcome these hassles, we have developed novel cellulose based hydrogels via simple chemical cross-linking of quaternized cellulose (QC) and native cellulose in NaOH/urea aqueous solution. The prepared hydrogel showed superabsorbent property, high mechanical strength, good biocompatibility, and excellent antimicrobial efficacy against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The presence of QC in the hydrogel networks not only improved their swelling ratio via electrostatic repulsion of quaternary ammonium groups, but also endowed their antimicrobial activity by attraction of sections of anionic microbial membrane into internal pores of poly cationic hydrogel leading to the disruption of microbial membrane. Moreover, the swelling properties, mechanical strength, and antibacterial activity of hydrogels strongly depended on the contents of quaternary ammonium groups in hydrogel networks. The obtained data encouraged the use of these hydrogels for hygienic application such as disposable diapers.

  10. Biocompatible fluorescent nanoparticles for in vivo stem cell tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient application of stem cells to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases requires safe cell tracking to follow stem cell fate over time in the host environment after transplantation. In this work, for the first time, fluorescent and biocompatible methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based nanoparticles (fluoNPs) were synthesized through a free-radical co-polymerization process with a fluorescent macromonomer obtained by linking Rhodamine B and hydroxyethyl methacrylate. We demonstrate that the fluoNPs produced by polymerization of MMA–Rhodamine complexes (1) were efficient for the labeling and tracking of multipotent human amniotic fluid cells (hAFCs); (2) did not alter the main biological features of hAFCs (such as viability, cell growth and metabolic activity); (3) enabled us to determine the longitudinal bio-distribution of hAFCs in different brain areas after graft in the brain ventricles of healthy mice by a direct fluorescence-based technique. The reliability of our approach was furthermore confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging analyses, carried out by incubating hAFCs with both superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and fluoNPs. Our data suggest that these finely tunable and biocompatible fluoNPs can be exploited for the longitudinal tracking of stem cells. (paper)

  11. In vitro Biocompatibility of New Silver(I Coordination Compound Coated-Surfaces for Dental Implant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla S. Brunetto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation on implant materials causes a common problem: resistance to aggressive pharmacological agents as well as host defenses. Therefore, to reduce bacterial adhesion to implant surfaces we propose to use silver(I coordination networks as it is known that silver is the most powerful antimicrobial inorganic agent. As a model surface, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on gold Au(111 was used to permit permanent attachment of our silver(I coordination networks. The surface coatings showed typical nano-structured surfaces with a good biocompatibility for soft-tissue integration with fibroblast cells.

  12. Fabrication of free-standing, electrochemically active, and biocompatible graphene oxide-polyaniline and graphene-polyaniline hybrid papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xingbin; Chen, Jiangtao; Yang, Jie; Xue, Qunji; Miele, Philippe

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we report a low-cost technique via simple rapid-mixture polymerization of aniline using graphene oxide (GO) and graphene papers as substrates, respectively, to fabricate free-standing, flexible GO-polyaniline (PANI) and graphene-PANI hybrid papers. The morphology and microstructure of the obtained papers were characterized by FESEM, FTIR, Raman, and XRD. As results, nanostructural PANI can be deposited on the surfaces of GO and graphene papers, forming thin, lightweight, and flexible paperlike hybrid papers. The hybrid papers display a remarkable combination of excellent electrochemical performances and biocompatibility, making the paperlike materials attractive for new kinds of applications in biosciences.

  13. Evaluation of biocompatibility of a new root canal irrigant Q Mix TM 2 in 1- An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Veeramachaneni Chandrasekhar; Vanapatla Amulya; Vanapatla Swaroopa Rani; T Jaya Prakash; A Siva Ranjani; Ch Gayathri

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the biocompatibility of a new root canal irrigant Q mix™ 2 in 1 in comparison to 0.9% sterile saline, 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Materials and Methods: Six circles were drawn on the dorsal skin of 24 male Wistar Albino rats, leaving 2cm between each circle. Using a syringe, 0.1mL of each root canal irrigant was injected subcutaneously into five circles. In the sixth circle, the needle of an empty...

  14. Functionally graded hydroxyapatite-alumina-zirconia biocomposite: Synergy of toughness and biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzal, Mohammad Atif Faiz [Biomaterials Processing and Characterization Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Kesarwani, Pallavi [Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology Nagpur (India); Reddy, K. Madhav; Kalmodia, Sushma [Laboratory for Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Basu, Bikramjit [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Balani, Kantesh, E-mail: kbalani@iitk.ac.in [Biomaterials Processing and Characterization Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Laboratory for Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)

    2012-07-01

    Functionally Gradient Materials (FGM) are considered as a novel concept to implement graded functionality that otherwise cannot be achieved by conventional homogeneous materials. For biomedical applications, an ideal combination of bioactivity on the material surface as well as good physical property (strength/toughness/hardness) of the bulk is required in a designed FGM structure. In this perspective, the present work aims at providing a smooth gradation of functionality (enhanced toughening of the bulk, and retained biocompatibility of the surface) in a spark plasma processed hydroxyapatite-alumina-zirconia (HAp-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-YSZ) FGM bio-composite. In the current work HAp (fracture toughness {approx} 1.5 MPa.m{sup 1/2}) and YSZ (fracture toughness {approx} 6.2 MPa.m{sup 1/2}) are coupled with a transition layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} allowing minimum gradient of mechanical properties (especially the fracture toughness {approx} 3.5 MPa.m{sup 1/2}). The in vitro cyto-compatibilty of HAp-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-YSZ FGM was evaluated using L929 fibroblast cells and Saos-2 Osteoblast cells for their adhesion and growth. From analysis of the cell viability data, it is evident that FGM supports good cell proliferation after 2, 3, 4 days culture. The measured variation in hardness, fracture toughness and cellular adhesion across the cross section confirmed the smooth transition achieved for the FGM (HAp-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-YSZ) nanocomposite, i.e. enhanced bulk toughness combined with unrestricted surface bioactivity. Therefore, such designed biomaterials can serve as potential bone implants. - Graphical abstract: Spark plasma sintered functionally gradient materials (FGM) eliciting the YSZ - Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-YSZ and HAp-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface with grading hardness, toughness and biocompatibility response. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of functionally gradient material to serve as a potential bone implant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introduction

  15. Morphology characterization and biocompatibility study of PLLA (Poly-L-Llactid-Acid) coating chitosan as stent for coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyanti, Prihartini; Paramadini, Adanti W.; Jabbar, Hajria; Fatimah, Inas; Nisak, Fadila N. K.; Puspitasari, Rahma A.

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a global disease with high urgency. In the severe case of coronary heart disease while a blockage in the coronary arteries reach 75% or more, the patient required stent implantation. Stents are made of metal which has many limitations that can lead to blood clots and stent incompatibility toward the size of the blood vessels. There is a metal stent replacement solution that made from polymer material which is biocompatible. PLLA also has biocompatibility and good mechanical strength. PLLA stent will be coated with chitosan as a candidate for drug-coated stents which is able to work as a drug carrier. The aim of this study is to know the morphology information and biocompability status of PLLA coating chitosan as candidate of heart stent. Morphological results using SEM showed a smooth surface structure which reinforced clinical standard of stent material. Results of cytotoxicity test by MTT Assay method showed that the result of four samples in this experiment living cells is reached 90% which is non toxic and safe to use in the human body. %). The conclusion of this study is PLLA is polymer has potency to be used as stent material.

  16. Biocompatibility of artificial bone based on vancomycin loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles and calcium sulfate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jisheng; Wang, Teng; Fan, Guoxin; Ma, Junhua; Hu, Wei; Cai, Xiaobing

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of artificial bone based on vancomycin loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles and calcium sulfate composites. In vitro cytotoxicity tests by cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) assay showed that the 5%Van-MSN-CaSO4 and Van-CaSO4 bone cements were cytocompatible for mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. The microscopic observation confirmed that MC3T3-E1cells incubated with Van-CaSO4 group and 5%Van-MSN-CaSO4 group exhibited clear spindle-shaped changes, volume increase and maturation, showing that these cements supported adhesion of osteoblastic cells on their surfaces. In addition, the measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity revealed the osteoconductive property of these biomaterials. In order to assess in vivo biocompatibility, synthesized cements were implanted into the distal femur of twelve adult male and female New Zealand rabbits. After implantation in artificial defects of the distal femur, 5%Van-MSN-CaSO4 and Van-CaSO4 bone cements did not damage the function of main organs of rabbits. In addition, the Van-MSN-CaSO4 composite allowed complete repair of bone defects with new bone formation 3 months after implantation. These results show potential application of Van-MSN-CaSO4 composites as bone graft materials for the treatment of open fracture in human due to its mechanical, osteoconductive and potential sustained drug release characteristics and the absence of adverse effects on the body.

  17. Biocompatibility evaluation of Minalux and VeraBond2 in-vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandi Bidgoli M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of newly presented base metal alloys (Minalux is produced according to VeraBond2 alloy (Ni- Cr base composition. Several studies showed that, cytotoxicity of base metal alloys can be occurred due to corrosion and element release. Purpose: This study evaluated the biocompatibility of these two base metal alloys in three steps: as cast, after polishing and after porcelain firing cycles. Release of Ni and Cr ions were measured to determine if there is any difference between these two alloys. Materials and Methods: Samples of two base metal alloys were subjected to Neutral Red Assay, MTT Assay and Trypan Blue for biocompatibility tests. Fibroblast Balb/c 3T3 cells were used for cell culture. Samples were contacted directly with cells in 37ºc and 5% Co2 concentration for 72 hours. Teflon samples were used as negative control. ANOVA test was used to compare different groups of two alloys. In addition, the release of Ni and Cr ions in to saline solution was measured by means of atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: MTT and Trypan Blue didn’t show any significant difference between Minalux, VeraBond2 and Teflon. Neutral Red Assay showed no significant difference between these two base metal alloys but as cast group was higher in cytotoxicity in comparisons with polished and firing groups in both two alloys. Release of Cr ion was non detectable (Cr < 1 PPB but Ni ion was measured and Ni release was significantly different in as cast groups (P=0.007 of two alloys. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between cytotoxicity of two base metal alloys and polishing and firing can decrease cytotoxicity of both alloys.

  18. Apoferritin Nanoparticle: A Novel and Biocompatible Carrier for Enzyme Immobilization with Enhanced Activity and Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Youyu; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong J.; Lin, Chiann Tso; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-11-01

    Apoferritin is a nanostructured material with a uniform size and spherical structure, and it has excellent bio-compatibility. In this work, we report the use of apoferritin as a novel and biocompatible carrier for stabilizing enzymes and their activities. We used glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model enzyme. GOx was immobilized on the surface of the apoferritin through a green synthetic approach taking advantage of bioaffinity binding between streptavidin and biotin. As a result, a glucose oxidase-biotin/streptavidin/biotin-apoferritin conjugate (Apo-GOx) was prepared using streptavidin as a bridge. The synthesized Apo-GOx was characterized with transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The activity and stability of GOx on the surface of the apoferritin were studied in different environments, such as temperature, chemicals, and pH, in comparison with the biotinylated GOx (B-GOx). The results showed that the activity of GOx on the apoferritin surface was significantly enhanced. The thermal and chemical stability of the GOx on the apoferritin was also greatly improved compared to free B-GOx in a solution. It was found that the activity of the GOx on the apoferritin only lost 30% in comparison to a 70% loss of free B-GOx after a 2 h incubation at 50oC. There was almost no decrease in activity for the GOx on the apoferritin as compared to an 80% activity decrease for free B-GOx after 30 min incubation in a 5 M urea solution. Glucose detection was used as a model application for the enzyme immobilization method developed in this work. The GOx immobilized apoferritin nanoparticles exhibited high sensitivity for glucose detection with a detection limit of 3 nM glucose. This work offers a novel approach for immobilizing enzymes with enhanced stability and activity, and this method may find a number of applications, such as in enzyme catalysis, DNA assays and immunoassays.

  19. Biocompatibility and biomineralization assessment of bioceramic-, epoxy-, and calcium hydroxide-based sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Carlos Roberto Emerenciano; Valentim, Diego; Marques, Vanessa Abreu Sanches; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Jacinto, Rogério Castilho; Dezan-Junior, Eloi

    2016-06-14

    Obturation of the root canal system aims to fill empty spaces, promoting hermetic sealing and preventing bacterial activity in periapical tissues. This should provide optimal conditions for repair, stimulating the process of biomineralization. An endodontic sealer should be biocompatible once it is in direct contact with periapical tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat subcutaneous tissue response to implanted polyethylene tubes filled with Smartpaste Bio, Acroseal, and Sealapex and investigate mineralization ability of these endodontic sealers. Forty Wistar rats were assigned to the three sealers groups and control group, (n = 10 animals/group) and received subcutaneous implants containing the test sealers, and the control group were implanted with empty tubes. After days 7, 15, 30, and 60, animals were euthanized and polyethylene tubes were removed with the surrounding tissues. Inflammatory infiltrate and thickness of the fibrous capsule were histologically evaluated. Mineralization was analyzed by Von Kossa staining and polarized light. Data were tabulated and analyzed via Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test. All tested materials induced a moderate inflammatory reaction in the initial periods. Smartpaste Bio induced the mildest inflammatory reactions after day 15. No difference was observed among groups after days 30 or 60. Von Kossa-positive staining and birefringent structures observed under polarized light revealed a larger mineralization area in Sealapex-treated animals followed by Smartpaste Bio-treated animals. At the end of the experiment, all tested sealers were found to be biocompatible. All sealers induced biomineralization, except Acroseal, which induced a mild tissue reaction. PMID:27305513

  20. Preliminary biocompatible evaluation of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 composite porous membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Qu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Yili Qu1,3, Ping Wang1,3, Yi Man1, Yubao Li2, Yi Zuo2, Jidong Li21State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China; 2Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China; 3These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (nHA/PA66 composite with good bioactivity and osteoconductivity was employed to develop a novel porous membrane with asymmetric structure for guided bone regeneration (GBR. In order to test material cytotoxicity and to investigate surface-dependent responses of bone-forming cells, the morphology, proliferation, and cell cycle of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs of rats cultured on the prepared membrane were determined. The polygonal and fusiform shape of BMSCs was observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. The proliferation of BMSCs cultured on nHA/PA66 membrane tested by the MTT method (MTT: [3-{4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl}-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazoliumbromide] was higher than that of negative control groups for 1 and 4 days’ incubation and had no significant difference for 7 and 11 days’ culture. The results of cell cycle also suggested that the membrane has no negative influence on cell division. The nHA/PA66 membranes were then implanted into subcutaneous sites of nine Sprague Dawley rats. The wounds and implant sites were free from suppuration and necrosis in all periods. All nHA/PA66 membranes were surrounded by a fibrous capsule with decreasing thickness 1 to 8 weeks postoperatively. In conclusion, the results of the in vitro and in vivo studies reveal that nHA/PA66 membrane has excellent biocompatibility and indicate its use in guided tissue regeneration (GTR or GBR.Keywords: hydroxyapatite/polyamide, barrier membrane, biocompatibility, guided bone regeneration

  1. Effects of graphene plates’ adoption on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vivo biocompatibility of calcium silicate coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie YT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Youtao Xie, Hongqin Li, Chuanxian Ding, Xuebin Zheng, Kai Li Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Calcium silicate (CS ceramic is a good coating candidate for biomedical implants to improve biocompatibility and accelerate early osseo-integration. However, the poor fracture toughness and wear resistance of this ceramic material restricts the long-term performance of implants. In this study, graphene plates (GPs were used as reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties of CS coating. Composite coating containing 1.5 weight % GPs was prepared by vacuum plasma spraying technology. The good survival of the GPs in the composite coating was demonstrated by Raman analysis, although the defects of the GPs were increased after plasma spraying. Effects of the GPs’ adoption on the microstructure of the coating were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that the GPs were homogenously distributed in the CS grains interface or enwrapped on the particles, and exhibited good wetting behavior with the CS matrix. The wear properties of the composite coating were obviously enhanced by the reinforcement of GPs. The reinforcement mechanism was attributed to the enhanced micro-hardness and interfacial bonding of the particles in the coating. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the composite coating possessed similarly good biocompatibility compared to pure CS coating. The bone-implant contact ratio reached 84.3%±7.4% for GPs/CS coating and 79.6%±9.4% for CS coating after 3 months’ implantation.Keywords: graphene plates, coating, microstructure, wear resistance, biocompatibility

  2. Temperature-Responsive Biocompatible Copolymers Incorporating Hyperbranched Polyglycerols for Adjustable Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. House

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-triggered copolymers are proposed for a number of bio-applications but there is no ideal material platform, especially for injectable drug delivery. Options are needed for degradable biomaterials that not only respond to temperature but also easily accommodate linkage of active molecules. A first step toward realizing this goal is the design and synthesis of the novel materials reported herein. A multifunctional macromer, methacrylated hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG-MA with an average of one acrylate unit per copolymer, was synthesized and copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm, hydroxyethyl methacrylate-polylactide (HEMAPLA and acrylic acid (AAc. The potential to fully exploit the copolymers by modification of the multiple HPG hydroxyl groups will not be discussed here. Instead, this report focuses on the thermoresponsive, biocompatible, and degradation properties of the material. Poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMAPLA-co-AAc-co-HPG-MA displayed increasing lower critical solution temperatures (LCST as the HPG content increased over a range of macromer ratios. For the copolymer with the maximum HPG incorporation (17%, the LCST was ~30 °C. In addition, this sample showed no toxicity when human uterine fibroid cells were co-cultured with the copolymer for up to 72 h. This copolymer lost approximately 92% of its mass after 17 hours at 37 °C. Thus, the reported biomaterials offer attractive properties for the design of drug delivery systems where orthogonally triggered mechanisms of therapeutic release in relatively short time periods would be attractive.

  3. Accessing the biocompatibility of layered double hydroxide by intramuscular implantation: histological and microcirculation evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Vanessa Roberta Rodrigues; de Souza, Rodrigo Barbosa; da Fonseca Martins, Ana Maria Cristina Rebello Pinto; Koh, Ivan Hong Jun; Constantino, Vera Regina Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatibility of layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like materials or double metal hydroxides, was investigated by in vivo assays via intramuscular tablets implantation in rat abdominal wall. The tablets were composed by chloride ions intercalated into LDH of magnesium/aluminum (Mg2Al-Cl) and zinc/aluminum (Zn2Al-Cl). The antigenicity and tissue integration capacity of LDHs were assessed histologically after 7 and 28 days post-implantation. No fibrous capsule nearby the LDH was noticed for both materials as well any sign of inflammatory reactions. Sidestream Dark Field imaging, used to monitor in real time the microcirculation in tissues, revealed overall integrity of the microcirculatory network neighboring the tablets, with no blood flow obstruction, bleeding and/or increasing of leukocyte endothelial adhesion. After 28 days Mg2Al-Cl promoted multiple collagen invaginations (mostly collagen type-I) among its fragments while Zn2Al-Cl induced predominantly collagen type-III. This work supports previous results in the literature about LDHs compatibility with living matter, endorsing them as functional materials for biomedical applications. PMID:27480483

  4. Translational Applications of Nanodiamonds: From Biocompatibility to Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura Kent

    Nanotechnology marks the next phase of development for drug delivery, contrast agents and gene therapy. For these novel systems to achieve success in clinical translation we must see that they are both effective and safe. Diamond nanoparticles, also known as nanodiamonds (NDs), have been gaining popularity as molecular delivery vehicles over the last decade. The uniquely faceted, carbon nanoparticles possess a number of beneficial properties that are being harnessed for applications ranging from small-molecule drug delivery to biomedical imaging and gene therapy. In addition to improving the effectiveness of a variety of therapeutics and contrast agents, initial studies indicate that NDs are biocompatible. In this work we evaluate the translational potential of NDs by demonstrating efficacy in molecular delivery and scrutinizing particle tolerance. Previous work has demonstrated that NDs are effective vehicles for the delivery of anthracycline chemotherapeutics and gadolinium(III) based contrast agents. We have sought to enhance the gains made in both areas through the addition of active targeting. We find that ND-mediated targeted delivery of epirubicin to triple negative breast cancers induces tumor regression and virtually eliminates drug toxicities. Additionally, ND-mediated delivery of the MRI contrast agent ProGlo boosts the per gadolinium relaxivity four fold, eliminates water solubility issues and effectively labels progesterone receptor expressing breast cancer cells. Both strategies open the door to the development of targeted, theranostic constructs based on NDs, capable of treating and labeling breast cancers at the same time. Although we have seen that NDs are effective vehicles for molecular delivery, for any nanoparticle to achieve clinical utility it must be biocompatible. Preliminary research has shown that NDs are non-toxic, however only a fraction of the ND-subtypes have been evaluated. Here we present an in depth analysis of the cellular

  5. 75 FR 13556 - Biocompatibles UK Ltd.; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Biocompatibles UK Ltd.; Filing of Color Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that Biocompatibles UK Ltd., has filed a petition proposing that the color...

  6. Whole genome expression profiling using DNA microarray for determining biocompatibility of polymeric surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Wang, Zhenyu; Kutter, Jörg Peter;

    2006-01-01

    There is an ever increasing need to find surfaces that are biocompatible for applications like medical implants and microfluidics-based cell culture systems. The biocompatibility of five different surfaces with different hydrophobicity was determined using gene expression profiling as well as more...

  7. Effects of surface finishing conditions on the biocompatibility of a nickel-chromium dental casting alloy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Emma Louise

    2011-07-01

    To assess the effects of surface finishing condition (polished or alumina particle air abraded) on the biocompatibility of direct and indirect exposure to a nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) d.Sign®10 dental casting alloy on oral keratinocytes. Biocompatibility was performed by assessing cellular viability and morphology, metabolic activity, cellular toxicity and presence of inflammatory cytokine markers.

  8. The effect of cross-linking on the microstructure, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of electrospun polycaprolactone–gelatin/PLGA–gelatin/PLGA–chitosan hybrid composite

    OpenAIRE

    Thi-Hiep Nguyen; Byong-Taek Lee

    2012-01-01

    In this study, multilayered scaffolds composed of polycaprolactone (PCL)–gelatin/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)–gelatin/PLGA–chitosan artificial blood vessels were fabricated using a double-ejection electrospinning system. The mixed fibers from individual materials were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The effects of the cross-linking process on the microstructure, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the fibers were examined. The tensile stress and liquid strength of ...

  9. Rapid microfabrication of solvent-resistant biocompatible microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Lung-Hsin; Lin, Robert; Lee, Abraham Phillip

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a rapid, simple, and low-cost fabrication method to prepare solvent resistant and biocompatible microfluidic devices with three-dimensional geometries. The devices were fabricated in thiolene and replicated from PDMS master with high molding fidelity. Good chemical compatibility for organic solvents allows volatile chemicals in synthesis and analysis applications. The surface can be processed to be hydrophobic or hydrophilic for water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. Monodisperse organic solvent droplet generation is demonstrated to be reproducible in thiolene microchannels without swelling. The thiolene surface prevents cell adhesion but normal cell growth and adhesion on glass substrates is not affected by the adjacent thiolene patterns. PMID:18497921

  10. Synthesis of biocompatible multicolor luminescent carbon dots for bioimaging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaprasad Puvvada, B N Prashanth Kumar, Suraj Konar, Himani Kalita, Mahitosh Mandal and Amita Pathak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble carbon dots (C-dots were prepared through microwave-assisted pyrolysis of an aqueous solution of dextrin in the presence of sulfuric acid. The C-dots produced showed multicolor luminescence in the entire visible range, without adding any surface-passivating agent. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed the graphitic nature of the carbon and the presence of hydrophilic groups on the surface, respectively. The formation of uniformly distributed C-dots and their luminescent properties were, respectively, revealed from transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The biocompatible nature of C-dots was confirmed by a cytotoxicity assay on MDA-MB-468 cells and their cellular uptake was assessed through a localization study.

  11. Vertically, interconnected carbon nanowalls as biocompatible scaffolds for osteoblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Raluca; Vizireanu, Sorin; Luculescu, Catalin; Cimpean, Anisoara; Dinescu, Gheorghe

    2016-07-01

    The response of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts to vertically aligned, interconnected carbon nanowalls prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrate has been evaluated in terms of cell adhesion, viability and cell proliferation. The behavior of osteoblasts seeded on carbon nanowalls was analyzed in parallel and compared with the behavior of the cells maintained in contact with tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). The results demonstrate that osteoblasts adhere and remain viable in the long term on carbon nanowalls. Moreover, on the investigated scaffold cell proliferation was significantly promoted, although to a lower extent than on TCPS. Overall, the successful culture of osteoblasts on carbon nanowalls coated substrate confirms the biocompatibility of this scaffold, which could have potential applications in the development of orthopedic biomaterials.

  12. Biocompatibility of epoxidized styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane was prepared by solution casting method and then was epoxidized with peroxyformic acid generated in situ to yield the epoxidized styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane (ESBS). The structure and properties of ESBS were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, Universal Testing Machine, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The performances of contact angle, water content, protein adsorption, and water vapor transmission rate on ESBS membrane were determined. After epoxidation, the hydrophilicity of the membrane increased. The water vapor transmission rate of ESBS membrane is similar to human skin. The biocompatibility of ESBS membrane was evaluated with the cell culture of fibroblasts on the membrane. It revealed that the cells not only remained viable but also proliferated on the surface of the various ESBS membranes and the population doubling time for fibroblast culture decreased.

  13. Interfacing microbial styrene production with a biocompatible cyclopropanation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Stephen; Balskus, Emily P

    2015-06-01

    The introduction of new reactivity into living organisms is a major challenge in synthetic biology. Despite an increasing interest in both the development of small-molecule catalysts that are compatible with aqueous media and the engineering of enzymes to perform new chemistry in vitro, the integration of non-native reactivity into metabolic pathways for small-molecule production has been underexplored. Herein we report a biocompatible iron(III) phthalocyanine catalyst capable of efficient olefin cyclopropanation in the presence of a living microorganism. By interfacing this catalyst with E. coli engineered to produce styrene, we synthesized non-natural phenyl cyclopropanes directly from D-glucose in single-vessel fermentations. This process is the first example of the combination of nonbiological carbene-transfer reactivity with cellular metabolism for small-molecule production. PMID:25925138

  14. Biocompatible hydrodispersible magnetite nanoparticles used as antibiotic drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolocan, Alexandra; Mihaiescu, Dan Eduard; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Voicu, Georgeta; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Vasile, Bogdan Ştefan; Bleotu, Coralia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Pop, Corina Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a newly synthesized vectorizing nanosystem, based on hydrodispersible magnetite nanoparticles (HMNPs) with an average size less than 10 nm, obtained by precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in basic solution of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis coupled with thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA) and bioevaluated for cytotoxicity and antibiotic delivery in active forms. The obtained data demonstrate that HMNPs can be used as an efficient drug delivery system, for clinically relevant antimicrobial drugs. HMNPs antimicrobial activity depended on the loaded drug structure and the tested microbial strain, being more efficient against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, comparing with the Escherichia coli strain. The novel HMNPs demonstrated an acceptable biocompatibility level, being thus a very good candidate for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery or targeting.

  15. Biocompatibility of chitosan/Mimosa tenuiflora scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel-Estrada, Santos Adriana [Instituto de arquitectura diseño y arte, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ave. Del Charro #610 norte, Col. Partido Romero, C.P. 32320 Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico); Rodríguez-Espinoza, Brenda [Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Anillo envolvente del PRONAF y Estocolmo, C.P. 32320 Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico); Santos-Rodríguez, Elí [ICTP Meso-American Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP-MCTP)/Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Ciudad Universitaria, Carretera Zapata Km. 4, Real del Bosque (Terán), C.P. 29040 Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Jiménez-Vega, Florinda [Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Anillo envolvente del PRONAF y Estocolmo, C.P. 32320 Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico); García-Casillas, Perla E.; Martínez-Pérez, Carlos A. [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ave. Del Charro #610 norte, Col. Partido Romero, C.P. 32320 Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico); and others

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The porosity of the composites allow biological processes for the cell adaptation on the scaffolds. • The composites improve the viability and proliferation of cells. • Composition of the scaffold plays an important role in the biocompatibility. • The results indicate that Mimosa Tenuiflora can induce the differentiation of osteoblast cells. - Abstract: In search of a plant that exhibits osteogenic activity, Mimosa tenuiflora (M. tenuiflora) cortex represents the opportunity to create a biomaterial that, together with the chitosan, is osteoconductive and promote better and rapid regeneration of bone tissue. Thus, the composite of chitosan/M. tenuiflora cortex fabricated will have properties of biocompatibility and allow the osteoblast proliferation. Composites were developed with different concentrations of chitosan/M. tenuiflora cortex (w/w) using thermally induced phase separation technique (TIPS). To analyze the effects of composite on osteoblasts, primary cultures, each sample was collected on days 1, 3 and 7 after seeding. The evaluation of composites consisted of viability and proliferation tests in which we observed the metabolic activity of the cells using MTT reagent and determined the DNA concentration by means of fluorescence. The expression of the marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using p-nitrophenyl phosphate was examined, allowing the observation to the activity of proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells. Moreover, an analysis of biomineralization was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that 80/20 chitosan/M. tenuiflora cortex biocomposite has the best performance with osteoblasts compared to biomaterials 100/0 and 70/30 chitosan/M. tenuiflora composites. Finally, it was determined that the composite of chitosan/M. tenuiflora cortex presents no cytotoxicity and increases the capacity of the osteoblasts

  16. How hydrophobically modified chitosans are stabilized by biocompatible lipid aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Nino; Frielinghaus, Heide; Vitiello, Giuseppe; D'Errico, Gerardino; Leal, Leslie G; Richter, Dieter; Ortona, Ornella; Paduano, Luigi

    2015-08-15

    Nanostructured hydrogels composed by biocompatible molecules are formulated and characterized. They are based on a polymer network formed by hydrophobically modified chitosans (HMCHIT or CnCHIT) in which vesicles of monoolein (MO) and oleic acid or sodium oleate (NaO), depending on pH, are embedded. The best conditions for gel formation, in terms of pH, length of the hydrophobic moieties of chitosan, and weight proportion among the three components were estimated by visual inspection of a large number of samples. Among all possible combinations, the system C12CHIT-MO-NaO in the weight proportion (1:1:1) is optimal for the formation of a well-structured gel-like system, which is also confirmed by rheological experiments. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements unambiguously show the presence of lipid bilayers in this mixture, indicating that MO-NaO vesicles are stabilized by C12CHIT even at acid pH. A wide small angle neutron scattering investigation performed on several ternary systems of general formula CnCHIT-MO-NaO shows that the length of the hydrophobic tail Cn is a crucial parameter in stabilizing the polymer network in which lipid vesicles are embedded. Structural parameters for the vesicles are determined by using a multilamellar model that admits the possibility of displacement of the center of each shell. The number of shells tends to be reduced by increasing the polymer content. The thickness and the distance between consecutive lamellae are not influenced by either the polymer or MO-NaO concentration. The hydrogel presented in this work, being fully biocompatible and nanostructured, is well-suited for possible application in drug delivery. PMID:25935287

  17. Biocompatibility of chitosan/Mimosa tenuiflora scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The porosity of the composites allow biological processes for the cell adaptation on the scaffolds. • The composites improve the viability and proliferation of cells. • Composition of the scaffold plays an important role in the biocompatibility. • The results indicate that Mimosa Tenuiflora can induce the differentiation of osteoblast cells. - Abstract: In search of a plant that exhibits osteogenic activity, Mimosa tenuiflora (M. tenuiflora) cortex represents the opportunity to create a biomaterial that, together with the chitosan, is osteoconductive and promote better and rapid regeneration of bone tissue. Thus, the composite of chitosan/M. tenuiflora cortex fabricated will have properties of biocompatibility and allow the osteoblast proliferation. Composites were developed with different concentrations of chitosan/M. tenuiflora cortex (w/w) using thermally induced phase separation technique (TIPS). To analyze the effects of composite on osteoblasts, primary cultures, each sample was collected on days 1, 3 and 7 after seeding. The evaluation of composites consisted of viability and proliferation tests in which we observed the metabolic activity of the cells using MTT reagent and determined the DNA concentration by means of fluorescence. The expression of the marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using p-nitrophenyl phosphate was examined, allowing the observation to the activity of proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells. Moreover, an analysis of biomineralization was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that 80/20 chitosan/M. tenuiflora cortex biocomposite has the best performance with osteoblasts compared to biomaterials 100/0 and 70/30 chitosan/M. tenuiflora composites. Finally, it was determined that the composite of chitosan/M. tenuiflora cortex presents no cytotoxicity and increases the capacity of the osteoblasts

  18. Nanocrystalline β-Ti alloy with high hardness, low Young's modulus and excellent in vitro biocompatibility for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Kelvin Y. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wang, Yanbo, E-mail: yanbo.wang@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Zhao, Yonghao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chang, Li; Wang, Guocheng; Chen, Zibin; Cao, Yang [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Liao, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lavernia, Enrique J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Valiev, Ruslan Z. [Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, K. Marksa 12, Ufa 450000 (Russian Federation); Sarrafpour, Babak; Zoellner, Hans [The Cellular and Molecular Pathology Research Unit, Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Sydney, Westmead Centre for Oral Health, Westmead Hospital, NSW 2145 (Australia); Ringer, Simon P. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-08-01

    High strength, low Young's modulus and good biocompatibility are desirable but difficult to simultaneously achieve in metallic implant materials for load bearing applications, and these impose significant challenges in material design. Here we report that a nano-grained β-Ti alloy prepared by high-pressure torsion exhibits remarkable mechanical and biological properties. The hardness and modulus of the nano-grained Ti alloy were respectively 23% higher and 34% lower than those of its coarse-grained counterpart. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were enhanced, demonstrating good in vitro biocompatibility of the nano-grained Ti alloy, consistent with demonstrated increased nano-roughness on the nano-grained Ti alloy. Results suggest that the nano-grained β-Ti alloy may have significant application as an implant material in dental and orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • A bulk nanocrystalline β-Ti alloy was produced by high-pressure torsion processing. • Excellent mechanical properties for biomedical implants were obtained. • Enhanced in vitro biocompatibility was also demonstrated.

  19. A Comparison of Biocompatibility of a Titanium Alloy Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting and Selective Laser Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhao, Bingjing; Liu, Changkui; Wang, Chao; Tan, Xinying; Hu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM) are two advanced rapid prototyping manufacturing technologies capable of fabricating complex structures and geometric shapes from metallic materials using computer tomography (CT) and Computer-aided Design (CAD) data. Compared to traditional technologies used for metallic products, EBM and SLM alter the mechanical, physical and chemical properties, which are closely related to the biocompatibility of metallic products. In this study, we evaluate and compare the biocompatibility, including cytocompatibility, haemocompatibility, skin irritation and skin sensitivity of Ti6Al4V fabricated by EBM and SLM. The results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison test. Both the EBM and SLM Ti6Al4V exhibited good cytobiocompatibility. The haemolytic ratios of the SLM and EBM were 2.24% and 2.46%, respectively, which demonstrated good haemocompatibility. The EBM and SLM Ti6Al4V samples showed no dermal irritation when exposed to rabbits. In a delayed hypersensitivity test, no skin allergic reaction from the EBM or the SLM Ti6Al4V was observed in guinea pigs. Based on these results, Ti6Al4V fabricated by EBM and SLM were good cytobiocompatible, haemocompatible, non-irritant and non-sensitizing materials. Although the data for cell adhesion, proliferation, ALP activity and the haemolytic ratio was higher for the SLM group, there were no significant differences between the different manufacturing methods.

  20. A Comparison of Biocompatibility of a Titanium Alloy Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting and Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhao, Bingjing; Liu, Changkui; Wang, Chao; Tan, Xinying; Hu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM) are two advanced rapid prototyping manufacturing technologies capable of fabricating complex structures and geometric shapes from metallic materials using computer tomography (CT) and Computer-aided Design (CAD) data. Compared to traditional technologies used for metallic products, EBM and SLM alter the mechanical, physical and chemical properties, which are closely related to the biocompatibility of metallic products. In this study, we evaluate and compare the biocompatibility, including cytocompatibility, haemocompatibility, skin irritation and skin sensitivity of Ti6Al4V fabricated by EBM and SLM. The results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test. Both the EBM and SLM Ti6Al4V exhibited good cytobiocompatibility. The haemolytic ratios of the SLM and EBM were 2.24% and 2.46%, respectively, which demonstrated good haemocompatibility. The EBM and SLM Ti6Al4V samples showed no dermal irritation when exposed to rabbits. In a delayed hypersensitivity test, no skin allergic reaction from the EBM or the SLM Ti6Al4V was observed in guinea pigs. Based on these results, Ti6Al4V fabricated by EBM and SLM were good cytobiocompatible, haemocompatible, non-irritant and non-sensitizing materials. Although the data for cell adhesion, proliferation, ALP activity and the haemolytic ratio was higher for the SLM group, there were no significant differences between the different manufacturing methods. PMID:27391895

  1. The biocompatibility of carbon hydroxyapatite/β-glucan composite for bone tissue engineering studied with Raman and FTIR spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka-Bartnicka, Anna; Kimber, James A; Borkowski, Leszek; Pawlowska, Marta; Polkowska, Izabela; Kalisz, Grzegorz; Belcarz, Anna; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Ginalska, Grazyna; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2015-10-01

    The spectroscopic approaches of FTIR imaging and Raman mapping were applied to the characterisation of a new carbon hydroxyapatite/β-glucan composite developed for bone tissue engineering. The composite is an artificial bone material with an apatite-forming ability for the bone repair process. Rabbit bone samples were tested with an implanted bioactive material for a period of several months. Using spectroscopic and chemometric methods, we were able to determine the presence of amides and phosphates and the distribution of lipid-rich domains in the bone tissue, providing an assessment of the composite's bioactivity. Samples were also imaged in transmission using an infrared microscope combined with a focal plane array detector. CaF2 lenses were also used on the infrared microscope to improve spectral quality by reducing scattering artefacts, improving chemometric analysis. The presence of collagen and lipids at the bone/composite interface confirmed biocompatibility and demonstrate the suitability of FTIR microscopic imaging with lenses in studying these samples. It confirmed that the composite is a very good background for collagen growth and increases collagen maturity with the time of the bone growth process. The results indicate the bioactive and biocompatible properties of this composite and demonstrate how Raman and FTIR spectroscopic imaging have been used as an effective tool for tissue characterisation.

  2. 内固定与外固定材料修复骨盆骨折损伤:合理选择与生物相容性%Internal and external fixation materials for the repair of pelvic fracture:reasonable choice and biocompatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎毅; 融恺; 陈平波

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Pelvic fractures are mostly caused by high energy trauma. With the development of imaging techniques and in-depth study of the anatomical structure of the pelvis and biomechanics, internal fixation and external fixation materials are gradual y being used in the repair of pelvic fracture. OBJECTIVE:To summarize features and applications of external fixation stent material, percutaneous screw fixation, percutaneous sacral iliac screw material for internal fixation and intramedul ary tensile screw material for internal fixation after pelvic fracture. METHODS:We retrieved Wanfang Database and PubMed for studies on the application of internal fixation material and external fixation material in pelvic fracture from 1994 to 2015. Al data were analyzed and summarized. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Application of pelvic external fixation materials contributed to the stability of early pelvic fractures, showed smal injury, could increase the reliability of fixation. However, the biomechanical stability of external fixation materials was lower than other internal fixation, could only be used for the early temporary fixation of unstable pelvic fractures in particular cases. Internal fixation materials can achieve anatomical reduction, accorded with the requirements of the physical mechanics of the pelvis, improve the stability of the pelvis, and have become the first choice for repair of unstable pelvic fractures. Currently used methods are percutaneous hol ow screw fixation, percutaneous fixation of the sacral iliac screw, and intramedul ary lag screw fixation. The combination of external fixation and internal fixation can effectively restore the stability of the pelvic cavity. Therefore, we should consider the location, type and stability of the fracture to select the appropriate internal fixation and external fixation materials.%背景:骨盆骨折多为高能量损伤所致,随着影像学技术的发展及对骨盆解剖结构和生物力学的深入研究,内

  3. Osteoblast biocompatibility of premineralized, hexamethylene-1,6-diaminocarboxysulfonate crosslinked chitosan fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechel, Marjorie A; Beringer, Laura T; Donius, Amalie E; Komiya, Yuko; Habas, Raymond; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Schauer, Caroline L

    2015-10-01

    Biopolymer-ceramic composites are thought to be particularly promising materials for bone tissue engineering as they more closely mimic natural bone. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication by electrospinning of fibrous chitosan-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds with low (1 wt %) and high (10 wt %) mineral contents. Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and unidirectional tensile testing were performed to determine fiber surface morphology, elemental composition, and tensile Young's modulus (E) and ultimate tensile strength (σUTS ), respectively. EDS scans of the scaffolds indicated that the fibers, crosslinked with either hexamethylene-1,6-diaminocarboxysulfonate (HDACS) or genipin, have a crystalline hydroxyapatite mineral content at 10 wt % additive. Moreover, FESEM micrographs showed that all electrospun fibers have diameters (122-249 nm), which fall within the range of those of fibrous collagen found in the extracellular matrix of bone. Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength of the various crosslinked composite compositions were in the range of 116-329 MPa and 2-15 MPa, respectively. Osteocytes seeded onto the mineralized fibers were able to demonstrate good biocompatibility enhancing the potential use for this material in future bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25771925

  4. Capture Efficiency of Biocompatible Magnetic Nanoparticles in Arterial Flow: A Computer Simulation for Magnetic Drug Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunnoo, Thodsaphon; Puangmali, Theerapong

    2015-12-01

    The primary limitation of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) relates to the strength of an external magnetic field which decreases with increasing distance. Small nanoparticles (NPs) displaying superparamagnetic behaviour are also required in order to reduce embolization in the blood vessel. The small NPs, however, make it difficult to vector NPs and keep them in the desired location. The aims of this work were to investigate parameters influencing the capture efficiency of the drug carriers in mimicked arterial flow. In this work, we computationally modelled and evaluated capture efficiency in MDT with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4. The studied parameters were (i) magnetic nanoparticle size, (ii) three classes of magnetic cores (Fe3O4, Fe2O3, and Fe), and (iii) the thickness of biocompatible coating materials (Au, SiO2, and PEG). It was found that the capture efficiency of small particles decreased with decreasing size and was less than 5 % for magnetic particles in the superparamagnetic regime. The thickness of non-magnetic coating materials did not significantly influence the capture efficiency of MDT. It was difficult to capture small drug carriers (D<200 nm) in the arterial flow. We suggest that the MDT with high-capture efficiency can be obtained in small vessels and low-blood velocities such as micro-capillary vessels. PMID:26515074

  5. Biocompatibility of Delrin 150: a creep-resistant polymer for total joint prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, J S; Memoli, V A; Galante, J O; Rostoker, W; Urban, R M

    1985-01-01

    A thermoplastic polymer, Delrin 150 (polyoxymethylene homopolymer), with creep resistance ten times that of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene, is used as a material for total joint prostheses. A study was made of the local and systemic host response to this polymer when implanted in three different mammalian species. 316 LC stainless steel was used as a control. The materials were implanted into muscle and bone as solid cylinders. A total of 446 samples were implanted into 74 animals. The duration of implantation ranged from 2 weeks to 2 years. A semi-quantitative evaluation of local tissue reaction was performed. For each implant, 16 histological criteria were graded for severity of host tissue reaction. The liver, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, and lungs from each animal were also studied for evidence of systemic toxicity. The polymer implants exhibited a mild tissue reaction with the same characteristics as the control. Local tumor formation, bone osteolysis, and surrounding muscle necrosis were not seen. No pathological changes compatible with systemic toxicity by Delrin 150 were observed in the study of the organs. Delrin 150 in solid form did not exhibit local or systemic toxicity and is therefore biocompatible by this study. Powder implantation studies should be performed to simulate tissue response to wear particles. PMID:4066726

  6. Mechanical and biocompatible characterization of a cross-linked collagen-hyaluronic acid wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, James F; Ritter, Gregg; Finger, Isaac; Sankar, Dhyana; Reddy, Joseph D; Talton, James D; Nataraj, Chandra; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Cobb, Ronald R

    2013-01-01

    Collagen scaffolds have been widely employed as a dermal equivalent to induce fibroblast infiltrations and dermal regeneration in the treatment of chronic wounds and diabetic foot ulcers. Cross-linking methods have been developed to address the disadvantages of the rapid degradation associated with collagen-based scaffolds. To eliminate the potential drawbacks associated with glutaraldehyde cross-linking, methods using a water soluble carbodiimide have been developed. In the present study, the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) hyaluronic acid (HA), was covalently attached to an equine tendon derived collagen scaffold using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) to create ntSPONGE The HA was shown to be homogeneously distributed throughout the collagen matrix. In vitro analyses of the scaffold indicated that the cross-linking enhanced the biological stability by decreasing the enzymatic degradation and increasing the thermal denaturation temperature. The material was shown to support the attachment and proliferation of mouse L929 fibroblast cells. In addition, the cross-linking decreased the resorption rate of the collagen as measured in an intramuscular implant model in rabbits. The material was also shown to be biocompatible in a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays. These results indicate that this cross-linked collagen-HA scaffold, ntSPONGE has the potential for use in chronic wound healing.

  7. β-Dicalcium silicate-based cement: synthesis, characterization and in vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Daniel; Almirall, Amisel; García-Carrodeguas, Raúl; dos Santos, Luis Alberto; De Aza, Antonio H; Parra, Juan; Delgado, José Ángel

    2014-10-01

    β-dicalcium silicate (β-Ca₂ SiO₄, β-C₂ S) is one of the main constituents in Portland cement clinker and many refractory materials, itself is a hydraulic cement that reacts with water or aqueous solution at room/body temperature to form a hydrated phase (C-S-H), which provides mechanical strength to the end product. In the present investigation, β-C₂ S was synthesized by sol-gel process and it was used as powder to cement preparation, named CSiC. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility studies were assessed by soaking the cement samples in simulated body fluid solutions and human osteoblast cell cultures for various time periods, respectively. The results showed that the sol-gel process is an available synthesis method in order to obtain a pure powder of β-C₂ S at relatively low temperatures without chemical stabilizers. A bone-like apatite layer covered the material surface after soaking in SBF and its compressive strength (CSiC cement) was comparable with that of the human trabecular bone. The extracts of this cement were not cytotoxic and the cell growth and relative cell viability were comparable to negative control.

  8. The Preparation and Biocompatibility Study on Fe2O3 Magnetic Nanoparticles Used in Tumor Hyperthermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of self-prepared nanosized Fe2 O3, which has the potential implication in tumor hyperthermia. Methods:Fe2O3 nanoparticles were prepared by improving co-precipitation, which characterization was detected by TEM, XRD, CMIAS, EDS. MTT assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity test; hemolytic test was carried out to estimate whether it has blood toxicity;Fe2O3 suspended in sterile 0.9% NaCl was intraperitoneally injected into Kunming mouse to calculate the LD50; micronucleus (MN) were reckoned to identify whether it is genotoxic. Results :The nanoparticles are brown spherical particles with diameter ranging from 8 to 15 nm, which have good decentralization and stability. The experiments also showed that the toxicity of the material on mouse fibroblast (L-929) cell lines was 0 - 1 degree; it has no hemolysis activity; LD50 arrived at 5.45 g/kg-1 after intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml suspension; micronucleus test showed that it has no genotoxic effects either. Conclusion:The results showed that the Fe2O3 nanoparticles are prepared successfully, the self-prepared nanosized Fe2O3 is a kind of high biocompatibility materials and perhaps it is suitable for further application in tumor hyperthermia.

  9. Biocompatibility evaluation of sputtered zirconium-based thin film metallic glass-coated steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Balasubramanian Subramanian,1 Sundaram Maruthamuthu,2 Senthilperumal Thanka Rajan1 1Electrochemical Material Science Division, 2Corrosion and Materials Protection Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, India Abstract: Thin film metallic glasses comprised of Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.% of approximately 1.5 µm and 3 µm in thickness were prepared using magnetron sputtering onto medical grade 316L stainless steel. Their structural and mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion, and antimicrobial activity were analyzed. The amorphous thin film metallic glasses consisted of a single glassy phase, with an absence of any detectable peaks corresponding to crystalline phases. Elemental composition close to the target alloy was noted from EDAX analysis of the thin film. The surface morphology of the film showed a smooth surface on scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In vitro electrochemical corrosion studies indicated that the zirconium-based metallic glass could withstand body fluid, showing superior resistance to corrosion and electrochemical stability. Interactions between the coated surface and bacteria were investigated by agar diffusion, solution suspension, and wet interfacial contact methods. The results indicated a clear zone of inhibition against the growth of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, confirming the antimicrobial activity of the thin film metallic glasses. Cytotoxicity studies using L929 fibroblast cells showed these coatings to be noncytotoxic in nature. Keywords: thin film metallic glasses, sputtering, biocompatibility, corrosion, antimicrobial activity

  10. Renewable smart materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chan; Mun, Seongcheol; Ko, Hyun-U.; Zhai, Lindong; Kafy, Abdullahil; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-01

    The use of renewable materials is essential in future technologies to harmonize with our living environment. Renewable materials can maintain our resources from the environment so as to overcome degradation of natural environmental services and diminished productivity. This paper reviews recent advancement of renewable materials for smart material applications, including wood, cellulose, chitin, lignin, and their sensors, actuators and energy storage applications. To further improve functionality of renewable materials, hybrid composites of inorganic functional materials are introduced by incorporating carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide and tin oxide conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Since renewable materials have many advantages of biocompatible, sustainable, biodegradable, high mechanical strength and versatile modification behaviors, more research efforts need to be focused on the development of renewable smart materials.

  11. Potential use of porous titanium-niobium alloy in orthopedic implants: preparation and experimental study of its biocompatibility in vitro.

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    Jian Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The improvement of bone ingrowth into prosthesis and enhancement of the combination of the range between the bone and prosthesis are important for long-term stability of artificial joints. They are the focus of research on uncemented artificial joints. Porous materials can be of potential use to solve these problems. OBJECTIVES/PURPOSES: This research aims to observe the characteristics of the new porous Ti-25Nb alloy and its biocompatibility in vitro, and to provide basic experimental evidence for the development of new porous prostheses or bone implants for bone tissue regeneration. METHODS: The Ti-25Nb alloys with different porosities were fabricated using powder metallurgy. The alloys were then evaluated based on several characteristics, such as mechanical properties, purity, pore size, and porosity. To evaluate biocompatibility, the specimens were subjected to methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT colorimetric assay, cell adhesion and proliferation assay using acridine staining, scanning electron microscopy, and detection of inflammation factor interleukin-6 (IL-6. RESULTS: The porous Ti-25Nb alloy with interconnected pores had a pore size of 200 µm to 500 µm, which was favorable for bone ingrowth. The compressive strength of the alloy was similar to that of cortical bone, while with the elastic modulus closer to cancellous bone. MTT assay showed that the alloy had no adverse reaction to rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, with a toxicity level of 0 to 1. Cell adhesion and proliferation experiments showed excellent cell growth on the surface and inside the pores of the alloy. According to the IL-6 levels, the alloy did not cause any obvious inflammatory response. CONCLUSION: All porous Ti-25Nb alloys showed good biocompatibility regardless of the percentage of porosity. The basic requirement of clinical orthopedic implants was satisfied, which made the alloy a good prospect for biomedical application. The alloy with 70

  12. Silica–polyethylene glycol hybrids synthesized by sol–gel: Biocompatibility improvement of titanium implants by coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, F.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Ferrara, C.; Mustarelli, P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia and INSTM, Via Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Although metallic implants are the most used in dental and orthopaedic fields, they can early fail due to low tissue tolerance or osseointegration ability. To overcome this drawback, functional coatings can be applied on the metallic surface to provide a firm fixation of the implants. The objective of the present study was twofold: to synthesize and to characterize silica/polyethylene glycol (PEG) hybrid materials using sol–gel technique and to investigate their capability to dip-coat titanium grade 4 (Ti-gr4) substrates to improve their biological properties. Various hybrid systems have been synthesized by changing the ratio between the organic and inorganic phases in order to study the influence of the polymer amount on the structure and, thus, on the properties of the coatings. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) allowed us to detect the formation of hydrogen bonds between the inorganic sol–gel matrix and the organic component. SEM analysis showed that high PEG content enables to obtain crack free-coating. Moreover, the effective improvement in biological properties of Ti-gr4 implants has been evaluated by performing in vitro tests. The bioactivity of the hybrid coatings has been showed by the hydroxyapatite formation on the surface of SiO{sub 2}/PEG coated Ti-gr4 substrates after soaking in a simulated body fluid and the lack of cytotoxicity by the WST-8 Assay. The results showed that the coated substrates are more bioactive and biocompatible than the uncoated ones and that the bioactivity is not significantly affected by PEG amount whereas its addition makes the films more biocompatible. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrid biomaterials synthesized by sol–gel method at various PEG percentages • Hybrid coating of titanium substrate with dip-coating technology • Chemical and morphological characterization of hybrids and coating • Biocompatibility improvement of coated titanium with high

  13. In Vitro Biocompatibility of Si Alloyed Multi-Principal Element Carbide Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladescu, Alina; Titorencu, Irina; Dekhtyar, Yuri; Jinga, Victor; Pruna, Vasile; Balaceanu, Mihai; Dinu, Mihaela; Pana, Iulian; Vendina, Viktorija; Braic, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we have examined the possibility to improve the biocompatibility of the (TiZrNbTaHf)C through replacement of either Ti or Ta by Si. The coatings were deposited on Si and 316L stainless steel substrates by magnetron sputtering in an Ar+CH4 mixed atmosphere and were examined for elemental composition, chemical bonds, surface topography, surface electrical charge and biocompatible characteristics. The net surface charge was evaluated at nano and macroscopic scale by measuring the electrical potential and work function, respectively. The biocompatible tests comprised determination of cell viability and cell attachment to the coated surface. The deposited coatings had C/(metal+Si) ratios close to unity, while a mixture of metallic carbide, free-carbon and oxidized species formed on the film surface. The coatings' surfaces were smooth and no influence of surface roughness on electrical charge or biocompatibility was found. The biocompatible characteristics correlated well with the electrical potential/work function, suggesting a significant role of surface charge in improving biocompatibility, particularly cell attachment to coating's surface. Replacement of either Ti or Ta by Si in the (TiZrNbTaHf)C coating led to an enhanced surface electrical charge, as well as to superior biocompatible properties, with best results for the (TiZrNbSiHf)C coating. PMID:27571361

  14. In Vitro Biocompatibility of Si Alloyed Multi-Principal Element Carbide Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladescu, Alina; Titorencu, Irina; Dekhtyar, Yuri; Jinga, Victor; Pruna, Vasile; Balaceanu, Mihai; Dinu, Mihaela; Pana, Iulian; Vendina, Viktorija

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we have examined the possibility to improve the biocompatibility of the (TiZrNbTaHf)C through replacement of either Ti or Ta by Si. The coatings were deposited on Si and 316L stainless steel substrates by magnetron sputtering in an Ar+CH4 mixed atmosphere and were examined for elemental composition, chemical bonds, surface topography, surface electrical charge and biocompatible characteristics. The net surface charge was evaluated at nano and macroscopic scale by measuring the electrical potential and work function, respectively. The biocompatible tests comprised determination of cell viability and cell attachment to the coated surface. The deposited coatings had C/(metal+Si) ratios close to unity, while a mixture of metallic carbide, free-carbon and oxidized species formed on the film surface. The coatings’ surfaces were smooth and no influence of surface roughness on electrical charge or biocompatibility was found. The biocompatible characteristics correlated well with the electrical potential/work function, suggesting a significant role of surface charge in improving biocompatibility, particularly cell attachment to coating's surface. Replacement of either Ti or Ta by Si in the (TiZrNbTaHf)C coating led to an enhanced surface electrical charge, as well as to superior biocompatible properties, with best results for the (TiZrNbSiHf)C coating. PMID:27571361

  15. Determinación por Visión Artificial del Factor de Degradación en Aleaciones Biocompatibles Computer Vision for Determination of Degradation Factor in Biocompatible Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Aperador-Chaparro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó por visión artificial el factor de degradación de una aleación biocompatible, AISI 316LVM. Para ello, se utilizó una solución fisiológica simulada (solución de Hanks, electrolito que simula la composición presente en el organismo, es decir, el ambiente donde el implante se utilizará. El comportamiento electroquímico fue evaluado mediante curvas potencio-dinámicas. La caracterización superficial se desarrolló mediante un estereoscopio y los productos de corrosión se evaluaron mediante difracción de rayos X. El sistema usó una imagen microscópica de la superficie del material en su estado natural (brillo espejo como parámetro base para la comparación, para definir en qué estado se encuentran las muestras una vez han pasado por las pruebas realizadas. Se encontró, que es posible estimar el factor de degradación o de deterioro en un material mediante un análisis topográfico del mismo.The degradation factor of a biocompatible alloy, AISI 316LVM, was determined by computer vision. For this, a simulated physiological solution (Hanks' solution which simulates the electrolyte composition in the body, that is the environment in which the implant is used. The electrochemical behavior was evaluated by potentio-dynamic curves. The surface characterization was performed using a stereoscope and corrosion products were evaluated by X-ray diffraction. The system used a microscopic image of the surface of the material in its natural state (mirror finish as a basis for comparison parameter to define what state are once samples have undergone testing. It was found that it is possible to estimate the factor of degradation or deterioration of a material through a topographic analysis.

  16. Water Dispersible and Biocompatible Porphyrin-Based Nanospheres for Biophotonics Applications: A Novel Surfactant and Polyelectrolyte-Based Fabrication Strategy for Modifying Hydrophobic Porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ning; Zong, Shenfei; Cao, Wei; Jiang, Jianzhuang; Wang, Zhuyuan; Cui, Yiping

    2015-09-01

    The hydrophobility of most porphyrin and porphyrin derivatives has limited their applications in medicine and biology. Herein, we developed a novel and general strategy for the design of porphyrin nanospheres with good biocompatibility and water dispersibility for biological applications using hydrophobic porphyrins. In order to display the generality of the method, we used two hydrophobic porphyrin isomers as starting material which have different structures confirmed by an X-ray technique. The porphyrin nanospheres were fabricated through two main steps. First, the uniform porphyrin nanospheres stabilized by surfactant were prepared by an interfacially driven microemulsion method, and then the layer-by-layer method was used for the synthesis of polyelectrolyte-coated porphyrin nanospheres to reduce the toxicity of the surfactant as well as improve the biocompatibility of the nanospheres. The newly fabricated porphyrin nanospheres were characterized by TEM techniques, the electronic absorption spectra, photoluminescence emission spectra, dynamic light scattering, and cytotoxicity examination. The resulting nanospheres demonstrated good biocompatibility, excellent water dispersibility and low toxicity. In order to show their application in biophotonics, these porphyrin nanospheres were successfully applied in targeted living cancer cell imaging. The results showed an effective method had been explored to prepare water dispersible and highly stable porphyrin nanomaterial for biophotonics applications using hydrophobic porphyrin. The approach we reported shows obvious flexibility because the surfactants and polyelectrolytes can be optionally selected in accordance with the characteristics of the hydrophobic material. This strategy will expand the applications of hydrophobic porphyrins owning excellent properties in medicine and biology.

  17. Biocompatibility of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and their cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen DZ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Daozhen Chen,1,3,* Qiusha Tang,2,* Xiangdong Li,3,* Xiaojin Zhou,1 Jia Zang,1 Wen-qun Xue,1 Jing-ying Xiang,1 Cai-qin Guo11Central Laboratory, Wuxi Hospital for Matemaland Child Health Care Affiliated Medical School of Nanjing, Jiangsu Province; 2Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Medical College, Southeast University, Jiangsu Province; 3The People’s Hospital of Aheqi County, Xinjiang, China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The objective of this study was to evaluate the synthesis and biocompatibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and investigate their therapeutic effects when combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia on cultured MCF-7 cancer cells.Methods: Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared using a coprecipitation method. The appearance, structure, phase composition, functional groups, surface charge, magnetic susceptibility, and release in vitro were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and a vibrating sample magnetometer. Blood toxicity, in vitro toxicity, and genotoxicity were investigated. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] and flow cytometry assays.Results: Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the shapes of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were approximately spherical, with diameters of about 26.1 ± 5.2 nm. Only the spinel phase was indicated in a comparison of the x-ray diffraction data with Joint Corporation of Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS X-ray powder diffraction files. The O-to-Fe ratio of the Fe3O4 was determined by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy elemental analysis, and approximated pure Fe3O4. The vibrating sample magnetometer hysteresis loop suggested that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were superparamagnetic at room temperature. MTT experiments showed that the toxicity of the material

  18. Biocompatibility of Poly (L-Lactic Acid Synthesized In Polymerization Unit By Cytotoxicity And Hemocompatibility Assay And Nanofibers Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier, M.V

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The absorbable polyacid is one of the most used and studied materials in tissue engineering. This work synthesized a poly (L-lactic acid (PLLA through ring-opening polymerization and produced nanofibers by the electrospinning process. The PLLA was analyzed by FTIR and the cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT assay and Live/Dead®. The hemocompatibility was tested by platelet adhesion and hemolytic activity assay. The tests were performed in contact with human mesenchymal cells at varying times. The high rates of cell viability and proliferation shown by MTT and Live/Dead® tests demonstrate that this PLLA is a non-toxic material and the hemocompatibility assay revealed that the biomaterial was also biocompatible. It was achieved as well the successful production of electrospinning nanofibers, which can be converted for specific biomedical applications in the future

  19. Biocompatibility evaluation of tissue-engineered decellularized scaffolds for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Kamal Hany; Park, Kyung-Mee; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Woo, Heung-Myong

    2016-10-01

    Biomaterials based on seeding of cells on decellularized scaffolds have gained increasing interest in the last few years and suggested to serve as an alternative approach to bioengineer artificial organs and tissues for transplantation. The reaction of the host toward the decellularized scaffold and transplanted cells depends on the biocompatibility of the construct. Before proceeding to the clinical application step of decellularized scaffolds, it is greatly important to apply a number of biocompatibility tests in vitro and in vivo. This review describes the different methodology involved in cytotoxicity, pathogenicity, immunogenicity and biodegradability testing for evaluating the biocompatibility of various decellularized matrices obtained from human or animals. PMID:27287176

  20. The Blood Compatibilities of Blood Purification Membranes and Other Materials Developed in Japan

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    Takaya Abe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatibilities in blood purification therapy are defined as “a concept to stipulate safety of blood purification therapy by an index based on interaction in the body arising from blood purification therapy itself.” The biocompatibilities are associated with not only materials to be used but also many factors such as sterilization method and eluted substance. It is often evaluated based on impacts on cellular pathways and on humoral pathways. Since the biocompatibilities of blood purification therapy in particular hemodialysis are not just a prognostic factor for dialysis patients but a contributory factor for long-term complications, it should be considered with adequate attention. It is important that blood purification therapy should be performed by consistently evaluating not only risks associated with these biocompatibilities but also the other advantages obtained from treatments. In this paper, the biocompatibilities of membrane and adsorption material based on Japanese original which are used for blood purification therapy are described.

  1. Modified surface morphology of a novel Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn titanium alloy via anodic oxidation for enhanced interfacial biocompatibility and osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Tao; Hu, Jing; Li, Shujun; Zou, Qin; Li, Yunfeng; Jiang, Nan; Li, Hui; Li, Jihua

    2016-08-01

    The Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn titanium alloy (Ti2448) has shown potential for use in biomedical implants, because this alloy possesses several important mechanical properties, such as a high fracture strength, low elastic modulus, and good corrosion resistance. In this study, we aimed to produce a hierarchical nanostructure on the surface of Ti2448 to endow this alloy with favorable biological properties. The chemical composition of Ti2448 (64.0wt% Ti, 23.9wt% Nb, 3.9wt% Zr, and 8.1wt% Sn) gives this material electrochemical properties that lead to the generation of topographical features under standard anodic oxidation. We characterized the surface properties of pure Ti (Ti), nanotube-Ti (NT), Ti2448, and nanotube-Ti2448 (NTi2448) based on surface morphology (scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy), chemical and phase compositions (X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), and wettability (water contact angle). We evaluated the biocompatibility and osteointegration of implant surfaces by observing the behavior of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured on the surfaces in vitro and conducting histological analysis after in vivo implantation of the modified materials. Our results showed that a hierarchical structure with a nanoscale bone-like layer was achieved along with nanotube formation on the Ti2448 surface. The surface characterization data suggested the superior biocompatibility of the NTi2448 surface in comparison with the Ti, NT, and Ti2448 surfaces. Moreover, the NTi2448 surface showed better biocompatibility for BMSCs in vitro and better osteointegration in vivo. Based on these results, we conclude that anodic oxidation facilitated the formation of a nanoscale bone-like structure and nanotubes on Ti2448. Unlike the modified titanium surfaces developed to date, the NTi2448 surface, which presents both mechanical compatibility and bioactivity, offers excellent biocompatibility and osteointegration, suggesting its potential for

  2. Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Markides

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine is a pioneering field aimed at restoring and regenerating the function of damaged cells, organs and tissues in order to establish normal function. It demands the cross communication of disciplines to develop effective therapeutic stem cell based therapies. Nanotechnology has been instrumental in the development and translation of basic research to the clinically relevant therapies. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have been applied to tag, track and activate stem cells offering an effective means of monitoring in vitro and in vivo behaviour. MNPs are comprised of an iron oxide core with a biocompatible biological polymer. Safety is an issue of constant concern and emphasises on the importance of investigating the issue of toxicity. Any indication of toxicity can ultimately limit the therapeutic efficiency of the therapy. Toxicity is highly dependent on the physical, chemical and structural properties of the MNP itself as well as dose and intended use. Few in vitro studies have reported adverse effects of MNP on cells at in vitro in therapeutic doses. However, long term in vivo studies have not been studied as extensively. This review aims to summarise current research in this topic highlighting commonly used toxicity assays to investigate this.

  3. Plasma polymerized carvone as an antibacterial and biocompatible coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuen Wah; Siow, Kim Shyong; Ng, Pei Yuen; Gires, Usup; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2016-11-01

    Antibacterial coating is important to prevent the colonization of medical devices by biofilm forming bacteria that would cause infection and sepsis in patients. Current coating techniques such as immobilization of antimicrobial compounds, time-releasing antibiotic agents and silver nanoparticles, require multiple processing steps, and they have low efficacy and low stability. We proposed a single-step plasma polymerization of an essential oil known as carvone to produce a moderately hydrophobic antibacterial coating (ppCar) with an average roughness of static water contact angle of 78°, even after 10days of air aging and it maintained its stability throughout 24h of LB broth immersion. ppCar showed promising results in the live-dead fluorescence assay and crystal violet assay. The biofilm assay showed an effective reduction of E. coli and S. aureus bacteria by 86% and 84% respectively. ppCar is also shown to rupture the bacteria membrane for its bactericidal effects. The cytotoxicity test indicated that the coating is not cytotoxic to the human cell line. This study would be of interest to researcher keen on producing a bacteria-resistance and biocompatible coating on different substrates in a cost-effective manner. PMID:27524089

  4. Conversion of bulk seashells to biocompatible hydroxyapatite for bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Kenneth S; Zhang, Xing; Massie, Jennifer B; Wang, Mark; Kim, Choll W

    2007-11-01

    Strombus gigas (conch) shells and Tridacna gigas (Giant clam) shells have dense, tailored structures that impart excellent mechanical properties to these shells. In this investigation, conch and clam seashells were converted to hydroxyapatite (HAP) by a hydrothermal method at different temperatures and for different conversion durations. Dense HAP structures were created from these shells throughout the majority of the samples at the relative low temperature of approximately 200 degrees C. The average fracture stress was found to be approximately 137-218MPa for partially converted conch shell samples and approximately 70-150MPa for original and converted clamshell samples, which is close to the mechanical strength of compact human bone. This indicates that the converted shell samples can be used as implants in load-bearing cases. In vivo tests of converted shell samples were performed in rat femoral defects for 6 weeks. The microtomography images at 6 weeks show that the implants did not move, and untreated control defects remain empty with no evidence of a spontaneous fusion. Histological study reveals that there is newly formed bone growing up to and around the implants. There is no evidence of a fibrosis tissue ring around the implants, also indicating that there is no loosening of the implants. In contrast, the untreated controls remain empty with some evidence of a fibrosis ring around the defect hole. These results indicate good biocompatibility and bioactivity of the converted shell implants. PMID:17684000

  5. In Vitro Biocompatibility of Electrospun Chitosan/Collagen Scaffold

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    Peiwei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan/collagen composite nanofibrous scaffold has been greatly concerned in recent years for its favorable physicochemical properties which mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM both morphologically and chemically. In a previous study, we had successfully fabricated nanofibrous chitosan/collagen composite by electrospinning. In the present study, we further investigate the biocompatibility of such chitosan/collagen composite nanofiber to be used as scaffolds in vascular tissue engineering. The porcine iliac artery endothelial cells (PIECs were employed for morphogenesis, attachment, proliferation, and phenotypic studies. Four characteristic EC markers, including two types of cell adhesion molecules, one proliferation molecule (PCNA, and one function molecule (p53, were studied by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Results showed that the chitosan/collagen composite nanofibrous scaffold could enhance the attachment, spreading, and proliferation of PIECs and preserve the EC phenotype. Our work provides profound proofs for the applicable potency of scaffolds made from chitosan/collagen composite nanofiber to be used in vascular tissue engineering.

  6. A new biocompatible nanocomposite as a promising constituent of sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rehab M; Elfeky, Souad A; Verwanger, Thomas; Krammer, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Skin naturally uses antioxidants to protect itself from the damaging effects of sunlight. If this is not sufficient, other measures have to be taken. Like this, hydroxyapatite has the potential to be applied as an active constituent of sunscreens since calcium phosphate absorbs in the ultraviolet region (UV). The objective of the present work was to synthesize a hydroxyapatite-ascorbic acid nanocomposite (HAp/AA-NC) as a new biocompatible constituent of sunscreens and to test its efficiency with skin cell models. The synthesized HAp/AA-NC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, absorption spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. The protective effect of the construct was tested with respect to viability and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of primary human dermal fibroblasts (SKIN) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). Both cell lines were irradiated with UV light, λmax=254 nm with a fluence of 25 mJ cm(-2) to mimic the effect of UV radiation of sunlight on the skin. Results showed that HAp/AA-NC had a stimulating effect on the cell viability of both, HaCaT and SKIN cells, relative to the irradiated control. Intracellular ROS significantly decreased in UV irradiated cells when treated with HAp/AA-NC. We conclude that the synthesized HAp/AA-NC have been validated in vitro as a skin protector against the harmful effect of UV-induced ROS. PMID:27040194

  7. Synthesis of biocompatible nanoparticle drug complexes for inhibition of mycobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Tejashree; Ghoderao, Prachi; Sanghavi, Sonali; Babrekar, Harshada; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Ganesan, V.; Kulkarni, Anjali

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most critical infectious diseases affecting the world today. Current TB treatment involves six months long daily administration of four oral doses of antibiotics. Due to severe side effects and the long treatment, a patient's adherence is low and this results in relapse of symptoms causing an alarming increase in the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB. Hence, it is imperative to develop a new drug delivery technology wherein these effects can be reduced. Rifampicin (RIF) is one of the widely used anti-tubercular drugs (ATD). The present study discusses the development of biocompatible nanoparticle-RIF complexes with superior inhibitory activity against both Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by gas phase condensation and NP-RIF complexes were tested against M. smegmatis SN2 strain as well as M. tuberculosis H37Rv laboratory strain. These complexes showed significantly better inhibition of M. smegmatis SN2 strain at a much lower effective concentration (27.5 μg ml-1) as compared to neat RIF (125 μg ml-1). Similarly M. tuberculosis H37Rv laboratory strain was susceptible to both nanoparticle-RIF complex and neat RIF at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.22 and 1 μg ml-1, respectively. Further studies are underway to determine the efficacy of NPs-RIF complexes in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis as well as MDR isolates.

  8. A comparative study of interaction of ibuprofen with biocompatible polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Iqrar A; Anjum, Kahkashan; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Kabir-ud Din

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we are reporting the interaction of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IBF) with various biocompatible polymers. Being amphiphilic, the drug interacts with the polymers similar to the interaction of surfactants and polymers. Therefore, we have considered the polymer-amphiphile interaction approach using conductimetry. The polymers of different charges (cationic, anionic, and nonionic) have been taken for the study. It was found that the critical aggregation concentration (cac) decreases on increasing the polymer concentrations of cationic as well as nonionic polymers whereas it increases for anionic polymers. The results imply that anionic IBF interacts with cationic and nonionic polymers more strongly as compared to the anionic polymers. A possible anionic-anionic repulsion is responsible for the weak interaction of IBF with anionic polymers. On the other side, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) increases for all polymers which is a usual indication of the interaction between amphiphiles and polymers. Free energies of aggregation (ΔG(agg)) and micellization (ΔG(mic)) were also computed with the help of degrees of micelle ionization obtained from the specific conductivity - [IBF] isotherms.

  9. Newly developed Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta-Si-Fe biomedical beta titanium alloys with increased strength and enhanced biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopova, Ivana; Stráský, Josef; Harcuba, Petr; Landa, Michal; Janeček, Miloš; Bačákova, Lucie

    2016-03-01

    Beta titanium alloys are promising materials for load-bearing orthopaedic implants due to their excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, low elastic modulus and moderate strength. Metastable beta-Ti alloys can be hardened via precipitation of the alpha phase; however, this has an adverse effect on the elastic modulus. Small amounts of Fe (0-2 wt.%) and Si (0-1 wt.%) were added to Ti-35Nb-7Zr-6Ta (TNZT) biocompatible alloy to increase its strength in beta solution treated condition. Fe and Si additions were shown to cause a significant increase in tensile strength and also in the elastic modulus (from 65 GPa to 85 GPa). However, the elastic modulus of TNZT alloy with Fe and Si additions is still much lower than that of widely used Ti-6Al-4V alloy (115 GPa), and thus closer to that of the bone (10-30 GPa). Si decreases the elongation to failure, whereas Fe increases the uniform elongation thanks to increased work hardening. Primary human osteoblasts cultivated for 21 days on TNZT with 0.5Si+2Fe (wt.%) reached a significantly higher cell population density and significantly higher collagen I production than cells cultured on the standard Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In conclusion, the Ti-35Nb-7Zr-6Ta-2Fe-0.5Si alloy proves to be the best combination of elastic modulus, strength and also biological properties, which makes it a viable candidate for use in load-bearing implants.

  10. Antibacterial activity and in vitro evaluation of the biocompatibility of chitosan-based polysaccharide/polyester membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-San; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Liao, Hsin-Tzu; Cai, Yu-Xuan

    2015-12-10

    The antibacterial activity and biocompatibility of membranes of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and chitosan (CS) (PHBV)/CS) were evaluated in this study. Maleic anhydride (MA)-grafted polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHBV-g-MA) was evaluated as an alternative to PHBV. Mouse tail skin fibroblasts (FBs) were seeded on two series of these films to assess cytocompatibility. Collagen and cell proliferation analyses indicated that PHBV, PHBV-g-MA and their composite membranes were biocompatible with respect to FB proliferation. However, FB proliferation, collagen production and the percentage of normal cells growing on PHBV/CS membranes were greater than those for PHBV-g-MA/CS membranes. Cell-cycle and apoptosis assays by FBs on the PHBV-series membrane samples were not affected by DNA content related to damage; i.e. rapid apoptosis/necrosis was not observed, demonstrating the potential of PHBV/CS or PHBV-g-MA/CS membranes for biomedical material applications. Moreover, CS-based polysaccharide enhanced the Escherichia coli (BCRC 10239) antibacterial activity of the membranes. Membranes of PHBV-g-MA or PHBV containing CS-based polysaccharide had better antibacterial activity. PMID:26428145

  11. Biocompatibility of Nanoporous TiO2 Coating on NiTi Alloy Prepared via Dealloying Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the biocompatibility of nanoporous TiO2 coating on NiTi shape-memory alloy (SMA prepared via dealloying method. Our previous study shows that the dealloying treatment at low temperature leads to 130 nm Ni-free surface titania surface layer, which possesses good bioactivity because of the combination of hydroxyl (OH− group in the process of dealloying treatment simultaneously. In this paper, the biological compatibility of NiTi alloy before and after dealloying treatment was evaluated and compared by direct contact method with dermal mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs by the isolated culture way. The interrelation between the biological compatibility and surface change of material after modification was systematically analyzed. As a consequence, the dealloying treatment method at low temperature could be of interest for biomedical application, as it can avoid sensitization and allergies and improve biocompatibility of NiTi shape-memory alloys. Thus it laid the foundation of the clinical trials for surface modification of NiTi memory alloy.

  12. Development of a discriminatory biocompatibility testing model for non-precious dental casting alloys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Emma Louise

    2011-12-01

    To develop an enhanced, reproducible and discriminatory biocompatibility testing model for non-precious dental casting alloys, prepared to a clinically relevant surface finishing condition, using TR146 oral keratinocyte cells.

  13. Biocompatibility of reduced graphene oxide nanoscaffolds following acute spinal cord injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Palejwala

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Graphene is a nanomaterial that is biocompatible with neurons and may have significant biomedical application. It may provide a scaffold for the ingrowth of regenerating axons after spinal cord injury.

  14. New Biocompatible Polyesters Derived from α-Amino Acids: Hydrolytic Degradation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeoshua Katzhendler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available New polymers were synthesized from α-hydroxy acids derived from the natural amino acids Ile, Leu, Phe, and Val, combined with lactic acid, glycolic acid and 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid by direct condensation. The toxicity was determined and the degradation process of these polyesters was investigated under physiological conditions by analyzing the composition of the degraded polymers and the oligomers cleaved in the buffer medium. The polymers were found to be non toxic to two cell lines. Polymers displayed a biphasic degradation behavior. In most cases, a linear relationship was found between the weight loss constant and the hydrophobicity of the polymers, Log P. Regarding the second stage of weight loss, it is apparent that polymers derived from α-hydroxy(Lisoleucine ((LHOIle and α-hydroxy(LValine ((LHOVal degraded much faster than those derived from α-hydroxy(Lleucine ((LHOLeu and α-hydroxy(Lphenylalanine ((LHOPhe, probably due to different spatial orientation of the side chains. Copolymers of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid displayed slow degradation rates as expected, whereas the degradation profile of copolymers of lactic acid was similar to the other homopolymers. These new polyesters may serve as potential biocompatible materials for medical applications.

  15. Biocompatibility of bio-Mg-Zn alloy within bone with heart, liver, kidney and spleen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE YaoHua; ZHANG XiaoNong; TAO HaiRong; ZHANG Yan; JIANG Yao; ZHANG ShaoXiang; ZHAO ChangLi; LI JiaNan; ZHANG BeiLei; SONG Yang

    2009-01-01

    A magnesium-zinc alloy rod was implanted into the marrow cavity of the distal femur in New Zealand rabbits. The femur with the implanted alloy was compared with the contralateral femur in which a bone tunnel without implant was formed as a control. Degradation of the magnesium-zinc alloy was analyzed via X-ray, scanning electron microscopy, and element energy spectrum analysis. Serum magnesium, liver and kidney function tests, and myocardial enzymes were measured. Head, liver, kidney and spleen were sectioned for pathological analysis, and the effects of the implanted material on the histology and function of important organs were analyzed. Magnesium-zinc alloy was resorbed from the bone marrow cavity of the femur; 87% of the alloy was degraded within 14 weeks after the surgery. There were no significant differences in serum magnesium, liver or kidney function tests, or myocardial enzymes be-fore the surgery and after degradation of the magnesium-zinc alloy. Histology of the heart, liver, kidney, and spleen did not change. This study demonstrated that magnesium-zinc alloy can be resorbed in bone, and that the degradation products have good biocompatibility with heart, liver, kidney, and spleen.

  16. Biocompatible circuit-breaker chip for thermal management of biomedical microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Dahmardeh, Masoud; Takahata, Kenichi

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a thermoresponsive micro circuit breaker for biomedical applications specifically targeted at electronic intelligent implants. The circuit breaker is micromachined to have a shape-memory-alloy cantilever actuator as a normally closed temperature-sensitive switch to protect the device of interest from overheating, a critical safety feature for smart implants including those that are electrothermally driven with wireless micro heaters. The device is fabricated in a size of 1.5  ×  2.0  ×  0.46 mm3 using biocompatible materials and a chip-based titanium package, exhibiting a nominal cold-state resistance of 14 Ω. The breaker rapidly enters the full open condition when the chip temperature exceeds 63 °C, temporarily breaking the circuit of interest to lower its temperature until chip temperature drops to 51 °C, at which the breaker closes the circuit to allow current to flow through it again, physically limiting the maximum temperature of the circuit. This functionality is tested in combination with a wireless resonant heater powered by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, demonstrating self-regulation of heater temperature. The developed circuit-breaker chip operates in a fully passive manner that removes the need for active sensor and circuitry to achieve temperature regulation in a target device, contributing to the miniaturization of biomedical microsystems including electronic smart implants where thermal management is essential.

  17. Biocompatibility Assessment of PLCL-Sericin Copolymer Membranes Using Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewalin Inthanon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells based tissue engineering requires biocompatible materials, which allow the cells to adhere, expand, and differentiate in a large scale. An ideal biomaterial for clinical application should be free from mammalian products which cause immune reactivities and pathogen infections. We invented a novel biodegradable poly(L-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone-sericin (PLCL-SC copolymer membrane which was fabricated by electrospinning. Membranes with concentrations of 2.5 or 5% (w/v SC exhibited qualified texture characteristics with a noncytotoxic release profile. The hydrophilic properties of the membranes were 35–40% higher than those of a standard PLCL and commercial polystyrene (PS. The improved characteristics of the membranes were due to an addition of new functional amide groups, C=O, N–H, and C–N, onto their surfaces. Degradation of the membranes was controllable, depending on the content proportion of SC. Results of thermogram indicated the superior stability and crystallinity of the membranes. These membranes enhanced human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSC proliferation by increasing cyclin A and also promoted cell adhesion by upregulating focal adhesion kinase (FAK. On the membranes, hWJMSC differentiated into a neuronal lineage with the occurrence of nestin. These data suggest that PLCL-SC electrospun membrane represents some properties which will be useful for tissue engineering and medical applications.

  18. Biocompatibility Assessment of PLCL-Sericin Copolymer Membranes Using Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthanon, Kewalin; Daranarong, Donraporn; Techaikool, Pimwalan; Punyodom, Winita; Khaniyao, Vorathep; Bernstein, Audrey M; Wongkham, Weerah

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells based tissue engineering requires biocompatible materials, which allow the cells to adhere, expand, and differentiate in a large scale. An ideal biomaterial for clinical application should be free from mammalian products which cause immune reactivities and pathogen infections. We invented a novel biodegradable poly(L-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone)-sericin (PLCL-SC) copolymer membrane which was fabricated by electrospinning. Membranes with concentrations of 2.5 or 5% (w/v) SC exhibited qualified texture characteristics with a noncytotoxic release profile. The hydrophilic properties of the membranes were 35-40% higher than those of a standard PLCL and commercial polystyrene (PS). The improved characteristics of the membranes were due to an addition of new functional amide groups, C=O, N-H, and C-N, onto their surfaces. Degradation of the membranes was controllable, depending on the content proportion of SC. Results of thermogram indicated the superior stability and crystallinity of the membranes. These membranes enhanced human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSC) proliferation by increasing cyclin A and also promoted cell adhesion by upregulating focal adhesion kinase (FAK). On the membranes, hWJMSC differentiated into a neuronal lineage with the occurrence of nestin. These data suggest that PLCL-SC electrospun membrane represents some properties which will be useful for tissue engineering and medical applications. PMID:26839562

  19. Ionic liquid based polymeric liposomes: A stable and biocompatible soft platform for bioelectrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yanping; Xia, Jiarui; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Junhui; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Yao; Yang, Lini; Zhang, Qian; Xia, Lixin

    2016-10-01

    Polymeric liposomes (denoted as ILs-polysomes) are a biocompatible and conductive nanomaterial, which was first utilised as the electrode material for immobilising and biosensing redox enzyme horseradish peroxide (HRP). The morphology and surface property of IL-polysomes was characterised and systematically compared with unpolymerised ionic liquid based liposomes (denoted as ILs-liposomes). Differing from IL-liposomes, IL-polysomes preserves their original morphology and bilayer membrane structure on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes due to the cross-linking of polymerised lipids, thus exhibiting excellent stability and specific biocompability. Because of the existence of imidazolium ionic liquid moieties on the outer surface, IL-polysomes displays a positive charge in aqueous solution, leading to oppositely charged HRP self-assembling onto the vesicles to form HRP/IL-polysomes/PVA/GC electrodes. Owing to the combined merits of ILs and liposomes, electron transfer between HRP-Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples of immobilised enzymes and GC electrodes can be achieved. Therefore, HRP/IL-polysomes/PVA/GC electrodes exhibited good electrocatalytic performance toward the electrocatalysis of H2O2. Accordingly, IL-polysomes could act as an efficient charged platform for the self-assembled redox enzymes to realise direct electrochemistry. IL-polysomes have a promising application in the fabrication of third-generation electrochemical biosensors. PMID:27196632

  20. Evaluation of Synthesized Nanohydroxyapatite-Nanocellulose Composites as Biocompatible Scaffolds for Applications in Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Herdocia-Lluberes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic calcium phosphate (BCP crystals have been associated with many diseases due to their activation of signaling pathways that lead to their mineralization and deposition in intra-articular and periarticular locations in the bones. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HAp has been placed in a polysaccharide network as a strategy to minimize this deposition. This research consisted of the evaluation of varying proportions of the polysaccharide network, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs, and HAp synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. The resulting biocompatible composites were extensively characterized by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, dynamic light scattering (DLS, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that an nHAp = CNC ratio presented greater homogeneity in the size and distribution of the nanoparticles without compromising the crystalline structure. Also, incorporation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 was performed to evaluate the effects that this interaction would have in the constructs. Finally, the osteoblast cell (hFOB 1.19 viability assay was executed and it showed that all of the materials promoted greater cell proliferation while the nHAp > CNC proportion with the inclusion of the BMP-2 protein was the best composite for the purpose of this study.

  1. Effect of a cordless retraction paste on titanium surface: a topographic, chemical and biocompatibility evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Cooper

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Good exposure of the preparation margins and haemostasis in the sulcular gingiva are necessary for accurate impressions to produce precise restorations. The use of cordless retraction paste material in implant dentistry is a relatively novel application. However, few studies have been conducted on the use of retraction pastes and their possible interaction with implant surfaces. Recent literature has described remnants on titanium implant surfaces and expressed the need for an assessment of the biocompatibility of the exposed surface (Chang et al.. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of a cordless gingival retraction paste on sterile titanium disks. Surface chemistry was determined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and further investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. After exposure to retraction paste, surface chemistry alterations were identified. A fibroblast cell line (L929 was exposed to the disks and the live/dead viability/cytotoxicity assay was used to determine any effects on the proliferation and health of cells. The disks exposed to the retraction paste showed fewer dead cells compared to the unexposed disks. This was statistically significant.

  2. Controllable fabrication and characterization of biocompatible core-shell particles and hollow capsules as drug carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Gong, Xinglong; Xuan, Shouhu; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Xiuqing; Jiang, Wanquan; Chen, Zuyao

    2006-10-01

    SiO 2@CdSe core-shell particles were fabricated by controllable deposition CdSe nanoparticles on silica colloidal spheres. Step-wise coating process was tracked by the TEM and XRD measurements. In addition, SiO 2@CdSe/polypyrrole(PPy) multi-composite particles were synthesized based on the as-prepared SiO 2@CdSe particles by cationic polymerization. The direct electrochemistry of myoglobin (Mb) could be performed by immobilizing Mb on the surface of SiO 2@CdSe particles. Immobilized with Mb, SiO 2@CdSe/PPy-Mb also displayed good bioelectrochemical activity. It confirmed the good biocompatible property of the materials with protein. CdSe hollow capsules were further obtained as the removal of the cores of SiO 2@CdSe spheres. Hollow and porous character of CdSe sub-meter size capsules made them becoming hopeful candidates as drug carriers. Doxorubicin, a typical an antineoplastic drug, was introduced into the capsules. A good sustained drug release behavior of the loading capsules was discovered via performing a release test in the PBS buffer (pH 7.4) solution at 310 k. Furthermore, SiO 2@CdSe/PPy could be converted to various smart hollow capsules via selectively removal of their relevant components.

  3. Application of Polyethylene Glycol to Promote Cellular Biocompatibility of Polyhydroxybutyrate Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodman T. H. Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB is a biomaterial with potential for applications in biomedical and tissue engineering; however, its brittle nature and high crystallinity limit its potential. Blending PHB with a variety of PEGs produced natural-synthetic composite films composed of FDA-approved polymers with significant reductions in crystallinity, from 70.1% for PHB films to 41.5% for its composite with a 30% (w/w loading of PEG2000. Blending also enabled manipulation of the material properties, increasing film flexibility with an extension to break of 2.49±1.01% for PHB films and 8.32±1.06% for films containing 30% (w/w PEG106. Significant changes in the film surface properties, as measured by porosity, contact angles, and water uptake, were also determined as a consequence of the blending process, and these supported greater adhesion and proliferation of neural-associated olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs. A growth rate of 7.2×105 cells per day for PHB films with 30% (w/w PEG2000 loading compared to 2.5×105 for PHB films was observed. Furthermore, while cytotoxicity of the films as measured by lactate dehydrogenase release was unaffected, biocompatibility, as measured by mitochondrial activity, was found to increase. It is anticipated that fine control of PEG composition in PHB-based composite biomaterials can be utilised to support their applications in medicinal and tissue engineering applications.

  4. Robust and Biocompatible Hybrid Matrix with Controllable Permeability for Microalgae Encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-Bo; Wang, Li; Charles, Valérie; Rooke, Joanna C; Su, Bao-Lian

    2016-04-13

    Hybrid beads with entrapped microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were synthesized for the sustainable production of high value metabolites via photosynthesis. Encapsulating the microalgae requires an exquisite control of material properties, which has been achieved by modifying the composition (alginate, polycation, and silica). A coating of PDADMAC precluded cell leakage as indicated by the OD750 value of the culture medium, and the homogeneous distribution of silica prevented bead shrinkage from the strong electronic force of PDADMAC, resulting in a robust and biocompatible matrix for the cells. Besides fabricating suitable porous beads for the diffusion of expected metabolites, the permeability can be controlled to a certain degree by applying different molecular weights of PDADMAC. The hybrid alginate+silica/CaCl2+PDADMAC beads possessed sufficient mechanical rigidity to sheer force under constant stirring and good chemical stability to chelating agents such as sodium citrate. Moreover, the encapsulated cells exhibited excellent long-term viability and cellular functionality, which retained about 81.5% of the original value after a 120 day encapsulation as observed by microscopy and oximetry measurement. This study is not only significant for understanding the critical role of polycations and silica involved in the synthesis of hybrid beads but also important for real-scale bioengineering applications. PMID:27027232

  5. Biocompatibility Evaluation of Vessel Extracellular Matrix as a Matrix for Urethral Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of vessel extracellular matrix (VECM) from rabbit and to discuss the feasibility of vessel extracellular matrix as a matrix for urethral reconstruction. Primary cultured bladder smooth muscle cells isolated from New Zealand rabbits were implanted on VECM .The effects of VECM on rabbit bladder smooth muscle cells (RBSMCs) metabolic activity,attachment, proliferation were monitored in vitro with the aid of an inverted light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The cell viability was monitored by MTT(methythiazolye tetrazolium bromide) after 1, 3,5 days seeding. The in vivo tissue response to VECM was investigated by implanting them into the subcutaneous of rabbits. VECM exhibited a nontoxic and bioactive effect on RBSMCs. RBSMCs could be attached to and proliferated on VECM and maintained their morphologies. MTT assay showed RBSMCs cultured with the extracts of VECM were not significantly different from those of negative controls. In vivo, VECM demonstrated a favorable tissue compatibility without tissue necrosis, fibrosis and other abnormal response. VECM exhibited nontoxic and bioactive effects on RBSMC. It is a suitable material for urethral reconstruction.

  6. Cellular Interactions and Biocompatibility of Self-Assembling Diblock Polypeptide Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakstis, Lisa; Ozbas, Bulent; Pochan, Darrin; Robinson, Clifford; Nowak, Andrew; Deming, Timothy

    2002-03-01

    Self-assembling peptide based hydrogels having a unique nano- and microscopic morphology are being studied for potential use as tissue engineering scaffolds. Low molecular weight ( ~20 kg/mol), amphiphilic, diblock polypeptides of hydrophilic lysine (K) or glutamic acid (E) and hydrophobic leucine (L) or valine (V) form hydrogels in aqueous solution at neutral pH and at very low volume fraction of polymer (vol. fraction polypeptide >=0.5 wt%). The morphology of these hydrogels has been characterized using laser confocal microscopy (LCM), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM) imaging. Studies of the interactions of the hydrogels with bacterial and mammalian cells reveal that these materials are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. Hence, the chemistry of the assembled diblock polypeptides allows for cellular proliferation whereas the same chemistry in the homopolyeric form is cytotoxic. Current research is directed at the design and incorporation of binding sites within the polypeptide to specifically target interactions of the hydrogel with desired cells types.

  7. Biocompatible circuit-breaker chip for thermal management of biomedical microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a thermoresponsive micro circuit breaker for biomedical applications specifically targeted at electronic intelligent implants. The circuit breaker is micromachined to have a shape-memory-alloy cantilever actuator as a normally closed temperature-sensitive switch to protect the device of interest from overheating, a critical safety feature for smart implants including those that are electrothermally driven with wireless micro heaters. The device is fabricated in a size of 1.5  ×  2.0  ×  0.46 mm3 using biocompatible materials and a chip-based titanium package, exhibiting a nominal cold-state resistance of 14 Ω. The breaker rapidly enters the full open condition when the chip temperature exceeds 63 °C, temporarily breaking the circuit of interest to lower its temperature until chip temperature drops to 51 °C, at which the breaker closes the circuit to allow current to flow through it again, physically limiting the maximum temperature of the circuit. This functionality is tested in combination with a wireless resonant heater powered by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, demonstrating self-regulation of heater temperature. The developed circuit-breaker chip operates in a fully passive manner that removes the need for active sensor and circuitry to achieve temperature regulation in a target device, contributing to the miniaturization of biomedical microsystems including electronic smart implants where thermal management is essential. (paper)

  8. In vitro biocompatibility of titanium after plasma surface alloying with boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Jurczyk, Mieczysława U; Miklaszewski, Andrzej; Paszel-Jaworska, Anna; Romaniuk, Aleksandra; Lipińska, Natalia; Żurawski, Jakub; Urbaniak, Paulina; Jurczyk, Karolina

    2016-12-01

    Recently, the effect of different sizes of precursor powders during surface plasma alloying modification on the properties of titanium surface was studied. In this work we show in vitro test results of the titanium (α-Ti) after plasma surface alloying with boron (B). Ti-B nanopowders with 2 and 10wt% B were deposited onto microcrystalline Ti substrate. The in vitro cytocompatibility of these biomaterials was evaluated and compared with a conventional microcrystalline Ti. During the studies, established cell line of human gingival fibroblasts and osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of tested materials, and its survival rate and proliferation activity were examined. For this purpose, MTT assay, flow cytometric and fluorescent microscopic evaluation were made. Biocompatibility tests carried out indicate that the Ti after plasma surface alloying with B could be a possible candidate for dental implants and other medicinal applications. Plasma alloying is a promising method for improving the properties of titanium, thus increasing the field of its applications. PMID:27612822

  9. Biocompatible thermoresponsive PEGMA nanoparticles crosslinked with cleavable disulfide-based crosslinker for dual drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulasan, Mehmet; Yavuz, Emine; Bagriacik, Emin Umit; Cengeloglu, Yunus; Yavuz, Mustafa Selman

    2015-01-01

    Smart materials have been attracting much attention because of their stimuli responsive nature. We have synthesized biocompatible thermoresponsive crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA)-co-vinyl pyrrolidone nanoparticles (PEGMA NPs) using disulfide-based crosslinker by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization method. Particle characterization studies were carried out by dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy. Polymerization kinetics, effect of crosslinker and initiator concentrations on both average hydrodynamic diameter and polydispersity index were investigated. Hydrodynamic diameters of thermoresponsive PEGMA NPs were decreased from 210 nm to 90 nm upon heating over the lowest critical solution temperature (LCST). Disulfide crosslinked PEGMA NPs were demonstrated as a dual delivery system. Rhodamine B, a model of small-sized drug molecule, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-alizarin yellow, a model of large drug molecule, were loaded into PEGMA NPs where LCST of these NPs was tuned to 37°C, the body temperature. The rhodamine B was released from PEGMA NPs upon heating to 39°C. Then, PEG-alizarin content was released by subsequent degradation of nanoparticles using dithiothreitol (DTT), which reduces disulfide bonds to thiols. Furthermore, cytotoxicity studies of PEGMA NPs were carried out in 3T3 cells, which resulted in no toxic effect on the cells.

  10. Interaction of Sodium Hyaluronate with a Biocompatible Cationic Surfactant from Lysine: A Binding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bračič, Matej; Hansson, Per; Pérez, Lourdes; Zemljič, Lidija F; Kogej, Ksenija

    2015-11-10

    Mixtures of natural and biodegradable surfactants and ionic polysaccharides have attracted considerable research interest in recent years because they prosper as antimicrobial materials for medical applications. In the present work, interactions between the lysine-derived biocompatible cationic surfactant N(ε)-myristoyl-lysine methyl ester, abbreviated as MKM, and the sodium salt of hyaluronic acid (NaHA) are investigated in aqueous media by potentiometric titrations using the surfactant-sensitive electrode and pyrene-based fluorescence spectroscopy. The critical micelle concentration in pure surfactant solutions and the critical association concentration in the presence of NaHA are determined based on their dependence on the added electrolyte (NaCl) concentration. The equilibrium between the protonated (charged) and deprotonated (neutral) forms of MKM is proposed to explain the anomalous binding isotherms observed in the presence of the polyelectrolyte. The explanation is supported by theoretical model calculations of the mixed-micelle equilibrium and the competitive binding of the two MKM forms to the surface of the electrode membrane. It is suggested that the presence of even small amounts of the deprotonated form can strongly influence the measured electrode response. Such ionic-nonionic surfactant mixtures are a special case of mixed surfactant systems where the amount of the nonionic component cannot be varied independently as was the case for some of the earlier studies.

  11. Effect of a cordless retraction paste on titanium surface: a topographic, chemical and biocompatibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katherine; Bennani, Vincent; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Reid, Malcolm; Stirling, Claudine; Dias, George

    2013-01-01

    Good exposure of the preparation margins and haemostasis in the sulcular gingiva are necessary for accurate impressions to produce precise restorations. The use of cordless retraction paste material in implant dentistry is a relatively novel application. However, few studies have been conducted on the use of retraction pastes and their possible interaction with implant surfaces. Recent literature has described remnants on titanium implant surfaces and expressed the need for an assessment of the biocompatibility of the exposed surface (Chang et al.). This in vitro study evaluated the effect of a cordless gingival retraction paste on sterile titanium disks. Surface chemistry was determined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and further investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). After exposure to retraction paste, surface chemistry alterations were identified. A fibroblast cell line (L929) was exposed to the disks and the live/dead viability/cytotoxicity assay was used to determine any effects on the proliferation and health of cells. The disks exposed to the retraction paste showed fewer dead cells compared to the unexposed disks. This was statistically significant. PMID:23739788

  12. POLY (β-HYDROXYALKANOATES): NATURAL BIOCOMPATIBLE AND BIODEGRADABLE POLYESTERS PRODUCED BY BACTERIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT W.LENZ; RICHARD A.GROSS; HELMUT BRANDL; R.CLINTON FULLER

    1989-01-01

    A wide variety of different types of microorganisms are known to produce intracellular energy and carbon storage products, which have been generally described as being poly (β-hydroxybutyrate ), PHB, but which are, more often than not, copolymers containing different alkyl groups at the β-position. Hence, PHB belongs to the family ofpoly (β-hydroxyalkanoastes), PHA, all of which are usually formed as intracellular inclusions in bacteria under unbalanced growth conditions. Recently, it became of industrial interest to evaluate these PHA polyesters as natural biodegradable and biocompatible plastics for a wide range of possible applications, such as surgical sutures or packaging containers. For industrial applications, the controlled incorporation of repeating units with different chain lengths into a series ofcopolymers is desirable in order to produce polyesters with a range of material properties because physical and chemical characteristics depend strongly on the polymer composition. Such "tailor- made" copolymers can be produced under controlled growth conditions in that, if a defined mixture of substrates for a certain type of microorganisms is supplied, a well defined and reproducible copolymer is formed.

  13. Superparamagnetic iron oxide/chitosan core/shells for hyperthermia application: Improved colloidal stability and biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, R. M.; Shete, P. B.; Thorat, N. D.; Otari, S. V.; Barick, K. C.; Prasad, A.; Ningthoujam, R. S.; Tiwale, B. M.; Pawar, S. H.

    2014-04-01

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are of great interest due to their potential biomedical applications. In the present investigation, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by alkaline precipitation using ferrous chloride as the sole source. An amphiphilic polyelectrolyte with the property of biocompatibility and functional carboxyl groups was used as a stabilizer to prepare a well-dispersed suspension of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The final material composed of Fe3O4 core and chitosan (CH) shell was produced. The amino groups of CH coated on Fe3O4 nanoparticles were further cross linked using glutaraldehyde (GLD) for stable coating. FTIR spectra, XPS and TGA confirmed the coating of CH/GLD on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. XRD patterns indicate the pure phase Fe3O4 with a spinel structure. The nanoparticles were superparamagnetic at room temperature with saturation magnetization values for bare and coated nanoparticles which were 51.68 emu/g and 48.60 emu/g, respectively. Zeta potential values showed higher colloidal stability of coated nanoparticles than the bare one. Cytotoxicity study up to 2 mg mL-1 concentration showed no drastic change in cell viability of nanoparticles after coating. Also, coated nanoparticles showed increased SAR value, making them suitable for hyperthermia therapy application.

  14. Thermal property and assessment of biocompatibility of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid/graphene nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Ananta R., E-mail: aa8381@gmail.com [Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, Texas-77204 (United States); Rusakova, Irene; Chu, Wei-Kan [Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, Texas-77204 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Houston, Texas-77204 (United States); Haleh, Ardebili [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Texas, Texas-77204 (United States); Luisi, Jonathan; Panova, Neli I.; Laezza, Fernanda [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas-77555 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Polymer-matrix nanocomposites based on Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and Graphene platelets (GNPs) were studied. GNPs, nanomaterials with a 2D flat surface, were chosen with or without chemical modification in PLGA/GNP nanocomposites and their microstructure, thermal property, and their compatibility as scaffolds for cell growth were investigated. PLGA/GNP nanocomposites (0, 1, and 5 wt. % of GNPs) were prepared using a solution based technique. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Differential scanning calorimeter, and Thermogravimetric analyzer were used to analyze morphology and thermal properties. This work demonstrated the role of GNPs flat surface to provide a favorable platform resulting in an enhanced PLGA crystallization. Functionalized GNPs suppress both the thermal stability and the crystallization of PLGA. Finally, to determine the potential usefulness of these scaffolds for biomedical applications, mammalian cells were cultured on various PLGA/GNP nanocomposites (0, 1, and 5 wt. % GNPs). 1 wt. % PLGA/GNP nanocomposites showed better biocompatibility for cell growth with/without graphenes functionalization compared to pure PLGA and 5 wt. % PLGA/GNP. The function of GNPs in PLGA/GNPs (1 wt. %) composites is to provide a stage for PLGA crystallization where cell growth is favored. These results provide strong evidence for a new class of materials that could be important for biomedical applications.

  15. Biocompatibility of chitosan%壳聚糖的生物相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李若慧; 张雪; 单丹彤; 袁志奎

    2012-01-01

    背景:壳聚糖是惟一一种被广泛应用于生物医学工程领域的碱性、带有正电荷的天然多糖,其生物相容性是决定这些应用价值的关键.目的:综述了壳聚糖的生物相容性,包括组织相容性、血液相容性和力学相容性.方法:由第一作者检索1990/2011 PubMed数据库、中国知网数据库及万方数据库有关壳聚糖及其衍生物在生物医学上的应用和生物相容性等方面的文献.结果与结论:壳聚糖作为可生物降解高分子材料具有良好的组织相容性及与人体组织相匹配所需要的力学相容性,被逐渐应用于人工皮肤、手术缝合线、眼科修复、人工骨骼、牙齿修复、肿瘤治疗等方面.但壳聚糖的促凝血作用使其血液相容性很差,目前很多研究关注于寻找解决这一问题的方法,改善其血液相容性,扩展其在生物医学工程上的应用领域,使其更加安全有效地与人体心血管系统直接接触.%BACKGROUND: Chitosan is a kind of nature polysaccharide which recently has been widely applied in biomedical field as its unique alkaline and positive charges that are critically depending on its biocompatibility. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the biocompatibility of chitosan as well as its histocompatibility, blood compatibility and mechanical compatibility. METHODS: The databases of PubMed, CNKI and Wanfang (1990-2011) were used to search the related articles about the biocompatibility of chitosan and its derivant and the applications on biomedicine. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chitosan as a kind of biodegradable polymer materials has been gradually applied on artificial skin, operation suture, ophthalmology, artificial skeleton, oral rehabilitation and tumor therapy depended on its good histocompatibility and mechanical compatibility which was used to match human body organization. However, the blood compatibility of chitosan was poor due to its thrombosis. To date, many studies are focus on the solution to

  16. Mechanical Strength and Biocompatibility of Ultrafine-Grained Commercial Purity Titanium

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Estrin; Hyoun-Ee Kim; Rimma Lapovok; Hoi Pang Ng; Ji-Hoon Jo

    2013-01-01

    The effect of grain refinement of commercial purity titanium by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) on its mechanical performance and bone tissue regeneration is reported. In vivo studies conducted on New Zealand white rabbits did not show an enhancement of biocompatibility of ECAP-modified titanium found earlier by in vitro testing. However, the observed combination of outstanding mechanical properties achieved by ECAP without a loss of biocompatibility suggests that this is a very promisi...

  17. In Vivo Biocompatibility of PLGA-Polyhexylthiophene Nanofiber Scaffolds in a Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Anuradha Subramanian; Uma Maheswari Krishnan; Swaminathan Sethuraman

    2013-01-01

    Electroactive polymers have applications in tissue engineering as a physical template for cell adhesion and carry electrical signals to improve tissue regeneration. Present study demonstrated the biocompatibility and biodegradability of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (PLGA-PHT) blend electrospun scaffolds in a subcutaneous rat model. The biocompatibility of PLGA-undoped PHT, PLGA-doped PHT, and aligned PLGA-doped PHT nanofibers was evaluated and compared with random PLGA f...

  18. Nanoclusters of iron oxide: effect of core composition on structure, biocompatibility and cell labeling efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    van Tilborg, Geralda A. F.; Cormode, David P.; Jarzyna, Peter A.; van der Toorn, Annette; van der Pol, Susanne M. A.; van Bloois, Louis; Fayad, Zahi A.; Storm, Gert; Mulder, Willem J. M.; de Vries, Helga E.; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic nanocrystals have a variety of applications in medicine. They may serve as contrast agents, therapeutics and for in vitro diagnostics. Frequently, the synthesis route yields hydrophobically capped nanocrystals, which necessitates their subsequent coating to render a water-soluble and biocompatible probe. Biocompatibility is crucial for cellular imaging applications, which require large quantities of diagnostically active nanoparticles to be loaded into cells. We have previously repo...

  19. An animal model in sheep for biocompatibility testing of biomaterials in cancellous bones

    OpenAIRE

    Boos Alois; Auer Joerg A; Nuss Katja; Rechenberg Brigitte von

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The past years have seen the development of many synthetic bone replacements. To test their biocompatibility and ability for osseointegration, osseoinduction and -conduction requires their placement within bone preferably in an animal experiment of a higher species. Methods A suitable experimental animal model in sheep with drill holes of 8 mm diameter and 13 mm depth within the proximal and distal humerus and femur for testing biocompatibility issues is introduced. Result...

  20. Assembly-Controlled Biocompatible Interface on a Microchip: Strategy to Highly Efficient Proteolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y; Zhong, W.; Meng, S; Kong, J.; Lu, H.; Yang, P.; Girault, HH; Liu, B

    2006-01-01

    A biocompatible interface was constructed on a microchip by using the layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of charged polysaccharides incorporating proteases for highly efficient proteolysis. The controlled assembly of natural polyelectrolytes and the enzyme-adsorption step were monitored by using a quartz-crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Such a multilayer-assembled membrane provides a biocompatible interconnected network with high enzyme-loading capacity. The maximum digest...

  1. Highly biocompatible, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite synthesized in a solvothermal process driven by high energy density microwave radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolen D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dariusz Smolen1, Tadeusz Chudoba1, Iwona Malka1, Aleksandra Kedzierska1, Witold Lojkowski1, Wojciech Swieszkowski2, Krzysztof Jan Kurzydlowski2, Malgorzata Kolodziejczyk-Mierzynska3, Malgorzata Lewandowska-Szumiel31Polish Academy of Science, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Warsaw, Poland; 2Faculty of Materials Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Histology and Embryology, Center of Biostructure Research, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, PolandAbstract: A microwave, solvothermal synthesis of highly biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp nanopowder was developed. The process was conducted in a microwave radiation field having a high energy density of 5 W/mL and over a time less than 2 minutes. The sample measurements included: powder X-ray diffraction, density, specific surface area, and chemical composition. The morphology and structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The thermal behavior analysis was conducted using a simultaneous thermal analysis technique coupled with quadruple mass spectrometry. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests of heated samples were performed. A degradation test and a biocompatibility study in vitro using human osteoblast cells were also conducted. The developed method enables the synthesis of pure, fully crystalline hexagonal HAp nanopowder with a specific surface area close to 240 m2/g and a Ca/P molar ratio equal to 1.57. TEM measurements showed that this method results in particles with an average grain size below 6 nm. A 28-day degradation test conducted according to the ISO standard indicated a 22% loss of initial weight and a calcium ion concentration at 200 µmol/dm3 in the tris(hydroxymethylaminomethane hydrochloride test solution. The cytocompatibility of the obtained material was confirmed in a culture of human bone derived cells, both in an indirect test using the material

  2. In Vitro Models in BiocompatibilityAssessment for Biomedical-Grade Chitosan Derivatives in Wound Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Chin Keong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the ultimate goals of wound healing research is to find effective healing techniques that utilize the regeneration of similar tissues. This involves the modification of various wound dressing biomaterials for proper wound management. The biopolymer chitosan (b-1,4-D-glucosamine has natural biocompatibility and biodegradability that render it suitable for wound management. By definition, a biocompatible biomaterial does not have toxic or injurious effects on biological systems. Chemical and physical modifications of chitosan influence its biocompatibility and biodegradability to an uncertain degree. Hence, the modified biomedical-grade of chitosan derivatives should be pre-examined in vitro in order to produce high-quality, biocompatible dressings. In vitro toxicity examinations are more favorable than those performed in vivo, as the results are more reproducible and predictive. In this paper, basic in vitro tools were used to evaluate cellular and molecular responses with regard to the biocompatibility of biomedical-grade chitosan. Three paramount experimental parameters of biocompatibility in vitro namely cytocompatibility, genotoxicity and skin pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, were generally reviewed for biomedical-grade chitosan as wound dressing.

  3. Comparison of the biocompatibility of different root canal irrigants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Gomes-Filho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the reaction of rat subcutaneous connective tissue to 0.9% sterile saline, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution or gel. Six circles were demarcated on the dorsal skin of 24 male Wistar rats, leaving 2 cm between each circle. Using a syringe, 0.1 mL of each root canal irrigant was injected subcutaneously into 5 circles. In the 6th circle, the needle of an empty syringe was introduced into the skin, but no irrigant was injected (control group. Evaluations were undertaken at 2 h, 48 h, 14 days and 30 days post-procedure. Tissue samples were excised, embedded in paraffin blocks and 3-µm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The areas of inflammatory reaction were evaluated and analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test. The control group showed few or no inflammatory reaction areas in the subcutaneous tissue. 0.9% saline solution, 2.0% chlorhexidine solution and 2.5% NaOCl showed a good biocompatibility, as very mild inflammatory reaction was detected at 14 days and tissue repair occurred at 30 days. 5.25% NaOCl was the most toxic irrigant, as the number of inflammatory cells remained elevated at 14 and 30 days. The group treated with 2.0% chlorhexidine gluconate gel presented a moderate inflammatory response at 14 days, which decreased at 30 days, being considered similar to that of the control group, 0.9% saline solution, 2.0% chlorhexidine solution and 2.5% NaOCl at this experimental period.

  4. Long-term in vivo degradation behaviour and biocompatibility of the magnesium alloy ZEK100 for use as a biodegradable bone implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuba, Dina; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea; Seitz, Jan Marten; Waizy, Hazibullah; Angrisani, Nina; Reifenrath, Janin

    2013-11-01

    Magnesium alloys are the focus of research as resorbable materials for osteosynthesis, as they provide sufficient stability and would make surgery to remove implants unnecessary. The new degradable magnesium alloy ZEK100 was developed to improve the stability and corrosion resistance by alloying with zinc, rare earth metals and zirconium. As the implants were degraded to only a limited extent after 6 months implantation in a previous in vivo study the present study was conducted to evaluate the long-term degradation behaviour and biocompatibility in the same animal model over 9 and 12 months. Five rabbits each with intramedullary tibia implants were examined over 9 and 12 months. Three legs were left without an implant to serve as negative controls. Numerous examinations were performed in the follow-up (clinical examinations, serum analysis, and radiographic and in vivo micro-CT investigations) and after death (ex vivo micro-CT, histology, and implant analysis) to assess the in vivo degradation and biocompatibility. It could be shown that favourable in vivo degradation behaviour is not necessarily associated with good biocompatibility. Although ZEK100 provided a very high initial stability and positive biodegradation, it must be excluded from further biomedical testing as it showed pathological effects on the host tissue following complete degradation. PMID:22922249

  5. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of a myo-inositol hexakisphosphate gelated polyaniline hydrogel in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kwang-Hsiao; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Changjian; Yu, Tong; Shang, Tao; Huang, Chen; Zhou, Min; Liu, Cheng; Ran, Feng; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi; Pan, Lijia

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in understanding the interaction between electricity and cells/biomolecules have generated great interest in developing biocompatible electrically conductive materials. In this study, we investigated the biocompatibility of a myo-inositol hexakisphosphate gelated polyaniline hydrogel using in vitro and in vivo experiments in a rat model. The polyaniline hydrogel was used to coat a polycaprolactone scaffold and was cultured with rat endothelial progenitor cells differentiated from rat adipose-derived stem cells. Compared with the control sample on a pristine polycaprolactone scaffold, the treated polyaniline hydrogel had the same non-poisonous/cytotoxicity grade, enhanced cell adhesion, and a higher cell proliferation/growth rate. In implant studies, the polyaniline hydrogel sample induced milder inflammatory responses than did the control at the same time points. Combining the advantages of a biocompatible hydrogel and an organic conductor, the inositol phosphate-gelated polyaniline hydrogel could be used in bioelectronics applications such as biosensors, neural probes, cell stimulators, medical electrodes, tissue engineering, and electro-controlled drug delivery.

  6. Antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of Ag{sup +}- and Cu{sup 2+}-doped biphasic hydroxyapatite/α-tricalcium phosphate obtained from hydrothermally synthesized Ag{sup +}- and Cu{sup 2+}-doped hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radovanović, Željko, E-mail: zradovanovic@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jokić, Bojan; Veljović, Djordje; Dimitrijević, Suzana [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Kojić, Vesna [Oncology Institute of Vojvodina, Institutski put 4, 21204 Sremska Kamenica (Serbia); Petrović, Rada; Janaćković, Djordje [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders doped with Ag{sup +} or Cu{sup 2+} were synthesized by a hydrothermal method in order to obtain biomaterial with an antimicrobial effect. The synthesis was performed with two contents of dopant (Ag{sup +} or Cu{sup 2+}) by considering both the antimicrobial activities and biocompatibility of the powders. The doped HAp was annealed at 1200 °C for 2 h with the intention of investigating the influence of doping with Ag{sup +} and Cu{sup 2+} on the creation of the biphasic HAp/α-tricalcium phosphate (HAp/α-TCP) and determining the antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of the obtained biphasic powders. Analyses of all powders, undoped and doped HAp and HAp/α-TCP, were performed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The in vitro antibacterial activities of the powders were evaluated against: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. All powders showed good antimicrobial activity but generally the powders of doped HAp/α-TCP had more uniform results against all pathogenic microorganisms than the powders of doped HAp. In vitro biocompatibility tests, MTT and DET, were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of Ag{sup +}- and Cu{sup 2+}-doped HAp/α-TCP with MRC-5 human fibroblast cells. These tests confirmed that powders do not have a cytotoxic effect. The HAp/α-TCP powders doped with the lower content of Ag{sup +} and Cu{sup 2+} showed especially good biocompatibility. Antimicrobial and biocompatibility tests recommend the Ag{sup +}- and Cu{sup 2+}-doped HAp/α-TCP as promising material for use in reconstructive surgery of bone.

  7. Bioactive glass incorporation in calcium phosphate cement-based injectable bone substitute for improved in vitro biocompatibility and in vivo bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiasa, Alexander; Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Franco, Rose Ann; Min, Young Ki; Lee, Byong Taek

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we fabricated injectable bone substitutes modified with the addition of bioactive glass powders synthesized via ultrasonic energy-assisted hydrothermal method to the calcium phosphate-based bone cement to improve its biocompatibility. The injectable bone substitutes was initially composed of a powder component (tetracalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium sulfate dehydrate) and a liquid component (citric acid, chitosan and hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose) upon which various concentrations of bioactive glass were added: 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Setting time and compressive strength of the injectable bone substitutes were evaluated and observed to improve with the increase of bioactive glass content. Surface morphologies were observed via scanning electron microscope before and after submersion of the samples to simulated body fluid and increase in apatite formation was detected using x-ray diffraction machine. In vitro biocompatibility of the injectable bone substitutes was observed to improve with the addition of bioactive glass as the proliferation/adhesion behavior of cells on the material increased. Human gene markers were successfully expressed using real time-polymerase chain reaction and the samples were found to promote cell viability and be more biocompatible as the concentration of bioactive glass increases. In vivo biocompatibility of the samples containing 0% and 30% bioactive glass were evaluated using Micro-CT and histological staining after 3 months of implantation in male rabbits' femurs. No inflammatory reaction was observed and significant bone formation was promoted by the addition of bioactive glass to the injectable bone substitute system.

  8. In vitro and in vivo characterization of antibacterial activity and biocompatibility: a study on silver-containing phosphonate monolayers on titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîlmaciu, Carmen-Mihaela; Mathieu, Marc; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Toupet, Karine; Guerrero, Gilles; Ponche, Arnaud; Amalric, Julien; Noël, Danièle; Mutin, P Hubert

    2015-03-01

    Infections associated with implanted medical devices are a major cause of nosocomial infections, with serious medical and economic repercussions. A variety of silver-containing coatings have been proposed to decrease the risk of infection by hindering bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. However, the therapeutic range of silver is relatively narrow and it is important to minimize the amount of silver in the coatings, in order to keep sufficient antibacterial activity without inducing cytotoxicity. In this study, the antibacterial efficiency and biocompatibility of nanocoatings with minimal silver loading (∼0.65 nmol cm(-2)) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Titanium substrates were coated by grafting mercaptododecylphosphonic acid (MDPA) monolayers followed by post-reaction with AgNO3. The MDPA/AgNO3 nanocoatings significantly inhibited Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation in vitro, while allowing attachment and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Moreover, osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3 cells and murine mesenchymal stem cells was not affected by the nanocoatings. Sterilization by ethylene oxide did not alter the antibacterial activity and biocompatibility of the nanocoatings. After subcutaneous implantation of the materials in mice, we demonstrated that MDPA/AgNO3 nanocoatings exhibit significant antibacterial activity and excellent biocompatibility, both in vitro and in vivo, after postoperative seeding with S. epidermidis. These results confirm the interest of coating strategies involving subnanomolar amounts of silver exposed at the extreme surface for preventing bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on metallic or ceramic medical devices without compromising their biocompatibility. PMID:25562573

  9. Sustained release behavior for poly (hydroxybutyrate hydroxyvalerate)/polylactide blend materials as carriere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN J. H.; XU Z. Y.; CHEN K.; S.S.Davis; CHEN; Z.L,HOU L.B.; LIOU S. T.

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTIONPolyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and it's copolymer PHBV achieved by the biosynthetic pathway, has attracted much attention as an alternation biodegradable materials. They have the excellent biocompatibility and proper degradation periods by optimization of pertinent molecular weight and copolymer compositions.

  10. Facile synthesis of water-soluble ZnS quantum dots with strong luminescent emission and biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Liu, Yingbo; Sun, Shuqing

    2013-10-01

    ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are among the most promising emerging fluorescent materials for biolabeling. High-quality colloidal ZnS QDs were synthesized via a new facile chemical precipitation method using the mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water as the solvent. The phase structure and morphology of the ZnS QDs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The synthesized ZnS QDs have a cubic zinc blende structure with monodispered and small particles. ZnS QDs easily dispersed in water to form stable and clear colloids and the strong tunable trap state emissions from 452 to 516 nm were achieved by varying the reaction time. The hemolysis assay was performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of the ZnS QDs.

  11. Facile synthesis of water-soluble ZnS quantum dots with strong luminescent emission and biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are among the most promising emerging fluorescent materials for biolabeling. High-quality colloidal ZnS QDs were synthesized via a new facile chemical precipitation method using the mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water as the solvent. The phase structure and morphology of the ZnS QDs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The synthesized ZnS QDs have a cubic zinc blende structure with monodispered and small particles. ZnS QDs easily dispersed in water to form stable and clear colloids and the strong tunable trap state emissions from 452 to 516 nm were achieved by varying the reaction time. The hemolysis assay was performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of the ZnS QDs.

  12. Preparation of biocompatible magnetite-carboxymethyl cellulose nanocomposite: Characterization of nanocomposite by FTIR, XRD, FESEM and TEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Neda

    2014-10-01

    The preparation and characterization of magnetite-carboxymethyl cellulose nano-composite (M-CMC) material is described. Magnetite nano-particles were synthesized by a modified co-precipitation method using ferrous chloride tetrahydrate and ferric chloride hexahydrate in ammonium hydroxide solution. The M-CMC nano-composite particles were synthesized by embedding the magnetite nanoparticles inside carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) using a freshly prepared mixture of Fe3O4 with CMC precursor. Morphology, particle size, and structural properties of magnetite-carboxymethyl cellulose nano-composite was accomplished using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis. As a result, magnetite nano-particles with an average size of 35 nm were obtained. The biocompatible Fe3O4-carboxymethyl cellulose nano-composite particles obtained from the natural CMC polymers have a potential range of application in biomedical field.

  13. Nanophasic biodegradation enhances the durability and biocompatibility of magnesium alloys for the next-generation vascular stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lin; Shen, Li; Niu, Jialin; Zhang, Jian; Ding, Wenjiang; Wu, Yu; Fan, Rong; Yuan, Guangyin

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable metal alloys emerge as a new class of biomaterials for tissue engineering and medical devices such as cardiovascular stents. Deploying biodegradable materials to fabricate stents not only obviates a second surgical intervention for implant removal but also circumvents the long-term foreign body effect of permanent implants. However, these materials for stents suffer from an un-controlled degradation rate, acute toxic responses, and rapid structural failure presumably due to a non-uniform, fast corrosion process. Here we report that highly uniform, nanophasic degradation is achieved in a new Mg alloy with unique interstitial alloying composition as the nominal formula Mg-2.5Nd-0.2Zn-0.4Zr (wt%, hereafter, denoted as JDBM). This material exhibits highly homogeneous nanophasic biodegradation patterns as compared to other biodegradable metal alloy materials. Consequently it has significantly reduced degradation rate determined by electrochemical characterization. The in vitro cytotoxicity test using human vascular endothelial cells indicates excellent biocompatibility and potentially minimal toxic effect on arterial vessel walls. Finally, we fabricated a cardiovascular stent using JDBM and performed in vivo long-term assessment via implantation of this stent in an animal model. The results confirmed the reduced degradation rate in vivo, excellent tissue compatibility and long-term structural and mechanical durability. Thus, this new Mg-alloy with highly uniform nanophasic biodegradation represents a major breakthrough in the field and a promising material for manufacturing the next generation biodegradable vascular stents.

  14. PCR biocompatibility of Lab-on-a-chip and MEMS materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Balmer; Pedersen, Christian Møller; Grøndahl, K. G.;

    2007-01-01

    DNA amplification using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an important tool in biotechnology, pathogen surveillance in food, medical and forensic science etc. The PCR technique is now an important part of the research in and development of miniaturized biochemical analysis systems. However...

  15. Biocompatible Nanocomplexes for Molecular Targeted MRI Contrast Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijin; Yu, Dexin; Wang, Shaojie; Zhang, Na; Ma, Chunhong; Lu, Zaijun

    2009-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis in early stage is vital for the treatment of Hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of poly lactic acid-polyethylene glycol/gadolinium-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA) nanocomplexes using as biocompatible molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. The PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes were obtained using self-assembly nanotechnology by incubation of PLA-PEG nanoparticles and the commercial contrast agent, Gd-DTPA. The physicochemical properties of nanocomplexes were measured by atomic force microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. The T1-weighted MR images of the nanocomplexes were obtained in a 3.0 T clinical MR imager. The stability study was carried out in human plasma and the distribution in vivo was investigated in rats. The mean size of the PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes was 187.9 ± 2.30 nm, and the polydispersity index was 0.108, and the zeta potential was -12.36 ± 3.58 mV. The results of MRI test confirmed that the PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes possessed the ability of MRI, and the direct correlation between the MRI imaging intensities and the nano-complex concentrations was observed ( r = 0.987). The signal intensity was still stable within 2 h after incubation of the nanocomplexes in human plasma. The nanocomplexes gave much better image contrast effects and longer stagnation time than that of commercial contrast agent in rat liver. A dose of 0.04 mmol of gadolinium per kilogram of body weight was sufficient to increase the MRI imaging intensities in rat livers by five-fold compared with the commercial Gd-DTPA. PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes could be prepared easily with small particle sizes. The nanocomplexes had high plasma stability, better image contrast effect, and liver targeting property. These results indicated that the PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes might be potential as molecular targeted imaging contrast agent.

  16. Biocompatible Nanocomplexes for Molecular Targeted MRI Contrast Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Dexin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accurate diagnosis in early stage is vital for the treatment of Hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of poly lactic acid–polyethylene glycol/gadolinium–diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes using as biocompatible molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent. The PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes were obtained using self-assembly nanotechnology by incubation of PLA–PEG nanoparticles and the commercial contrast agent, Gd–DTPA. The physicochemical properties of nanocomplexes were measured by atomic force microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. The T1-weighted MR images of the nanocomplexes were obtained in a 3.0 T clinical MR imager. The stability study was carried out in human plasma and the distribution in vivo was investigated in rats. The mean size of the PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes was 187.9 ± 2.30 nm, and the polydispersity index was 0.108, and the zeta potential was −12.36 ± 3.58 mV. The results of MRI test confirmed that the PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes possessed the ability of MRI, and the direct correlation between the MRI imaging intensities and the nano-complex concentrations was observed (r = 0.987. The signal intensity was still stable within 2 h after incubation of the nanocomplexes in human plasma. The nanocomplexes gave much better image contrast effects and longer stagnation time than that of commercial contrast agent in rat liver. A dose of 0.04 mmol of gadolinium per kilogram of body weight was sufficient to increase the MRI imaging intensities in rat livers by five-fold compared with the commercial Gd–DTPA. PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes could be prepared easily with small particle sizes. The nanocomplexes had high plasma stability, better image contrast effect, and liver targeting property. These results indicated that the PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes might be potential as molecular

  17. Materials for Multifunctional Balloon Catheters With Capabilities in Cardiac Electrophysiological Mapping and Ablation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Lu, Nanshu; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Kim, Yun-Soung; Lee, Stephen P.; Xu, Lizhi; Wu, Jian; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Song, Jizhou; Liu, Zhuangjian; Viventi, Jonathan; de Graff, Bassel; Elolampi, Brian; Mansour, Moussa; Slepian, Marvin J.

    2011-01-01

    Development of advanced surgical tools for minimally invasive procedures represents an activity of central importance to improvements in human health. A key materials challenge is in the realization of bio-compatible interfaces between the classes of semiconductor and sensor technologies that might be most useful in this context and the soft, curvilinear surfaces of the body. This paper describes a solution based on biocompatible materials and devices that integrate directly with the thin ela...

  18. Metaanalysis of filler materials in periapical surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Yáñez Sánchez, Ángela; Leco Berrocal, María Isabel; Martínez González, José María

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the success and failure, apical sealing and biocompatibility of silver amalgam, IRM®, SuperEBA® and MTA as retrograde filler materials. A metaanalysis was made of filler materials in periapical surgery, evaluating a total of 30 articles published in recent years. Percentage success with silver amalgam was 76.5% and slightly inferior to that afforded by IRM®. Performance in turn increased considerably when the materials used were SuperEBA® or MTA. As regards margina...

  19. Keratin materials for new product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keratin from wool is a reactive, biocompatible, and biodegradable material found as pure protein in over 90% by weight of fiber. As a polymeric amide, keratin is a rich source of intermediate filament proteins (IFPs) which are being investigated for a wide range of biomaterial applications. The po...

  20. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy and UHMWPE polymer for total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Bich Vu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introductions: Joint replacements have considerably improved the quality of life of patients with damaged joints. Over the past 30 years, there has been much effort and investigations in ways to repair damages in joints, including knee and hip joints. Materials for joint production have also been developed. Many improvements have been made in the joint replacement materials to increase their biocompatibility and longevity. This study is aimed at evaluating the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy and UHMWPE polymer used in total hip replacements. Methods: Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy and UHMWPE polymer were carefully washed with sterile distilled water then autoclaved. The materials were used directly or indirectly to evaluate pyrogens, endotoxins, animal cell cytotoxicity, gene mutation, animal cell transformation, DNA synthesis, immunogenicity, histology reactions, and immune response. All assays were performed according to ISO10993 guidelines. Results: The results showed that Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy and Chirulen 1020 UHMWPE polymer satisfied all criteria for implantable materials. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(3.000: 567-577

  1. Interdisciplinary approach to cell-biomaterial interactions: biocompatibility and cell friendly characteristics of RKKP glass-ceramic coatings on titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, Mario; De Bonis, Angela; Bertani, Francesca Romana; Cacciotti, Ilaria; Teghil, Roberto; Lolli, Maria Grazia; Ravaglioli, Antonio; Lisi, Antonella; Rau, Julietta V

    2015-06-01

    In this work, titanium (Ti) supports have been coated with glass-ceramic films for possible applications as biomedical implant materials in regenerative medicine. For the film preparation, a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique has been applied. The RKKP glass-ceramic material, used for coating deposition, was a sol-gel derived target of the following composition: Ca-19.4, P-4.6, Si-17.2, O-43.5, Na-1.7, Mg-1.3, F-7.2, K-0.2, La-0.8, Ta-4.1 (all in wt%). The prepared coatings were compact and uniform, characterised by a nanometric average surface roughness. The biocompatibility and cell-friendly properties of the RKKP glass-ceramic material have been tested. Cell metabolic activity and proliferation of human colon carcinoma CaCo-2 cells seeded on RKKP films showed the same exponential trend found in the control plastic substrates. By the phalloidin fluorescence analysis, no significant modifications in the actin distribution were revealed in cells grown on RKKP films. Moreover, in these cells a high mRNA expression of markers involved in protein synthesis, proliferation and differentiation, such as villin (VIL1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP1), β-actin (β-ACT), Ki67 and RPL34, was recorded. In conclusion, the findings, for the first time, demonstrated that the RKKP glass-ceramic material allows the adhesion, growth and differentiation of the CaCo-2 cell line.

  2. A biocompatibility study of new nanofibrous scaffolds for nervous system regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspa, A.; Marchini, A.; Pugliese, R.; Mauri, M.; Maleki, M.; Vasita, R.; Gelain, F.

    2015-12-01

    The development of therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury (SCI) is still a challenging goal to achieve. The pathophysiological features of chronic SCI are glial scar and cavity formation: an effective therapy will require contribution of different disciplines such as materials science, cell biology, drug delivery and nanotechnology. One of the biggest challenges in SCI regeneration is to create an artificial scaffold that could mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) and support nervous system regeneration. Electrospun constructs and hydrogels based on self-assembling peptides (SAPs) have been recently preferred. In this work SAPs and polymers were assembled by using a coaxial electrospinning setup. We tested the biocompatibility of two types of coaxially electrospun microchannels: the first one made by a core of poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PCL-PLGA) and a shell of an emulsion of PCL-PLGA and a functionalized self-assembling peptide Ac-FAQ and the second one made by a core of Ac-FAQ and a shell of PCL-PLGA. Moreover, we tested an annealed scaffold by PCL-PLGA microchannel heat-treatment. The properties of coaxial scaffolds were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed via viability and differentiation assays with neural stem cells (NSCs); whereas in vivo inflammatory response was evaluated following scaffold implantation in rodent spinal cords. Emulsification of the outer shell turned out to be the best choice in terms of cell viability and tissue response: thus suggesting the potential of using functionalized SAPs in coaxial electrospinning for applications in regenerative medicine.The development of therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury (SCI) is still a challenging goal to achieve. The pathophysiological features of chronic SCI are glial scar and cavity formation: an

  3. A biocompatibility study of new nanofibrous scaffolds for nervous system regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspa, A; Marchini, A; Pugliese, R; Mauri, M; Maleki, M; Vasita, R; Gelain, F

    2016-01-01

    The development of therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury (SCI) is still a challenging goal to achieve. The pathophysiological features of chronic SCI are glial scar and cavity formation: an effective therapy will require contribution of different disciplines such as materials science, cell biology, drug delivery and nanotechnology. One of the biggest challenges in SCI regeneration is to create an artificial scaffold that could mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) and support nervous system regeneration. Electrospun constructs and hydrogels based on self-assembling peptides (SAPs) have been recently preferred. In this work SAPs and polymers were assembled by using a coaxial electrospinning setup. We tested the biocompatibility of two types of coaxially electrospun microchannels: the first one made by a core of poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PCL-PLGA) and a shell of an emulsion of PCL-PLGA and a functionalized self-assembling peptide Ac-FAQ and the second one made by a core of Ac-FAQ and a shell of PCL-PLGA. Moreover, we tested an annealed scaffold by PCL-PLGA microchannel heat-treatment. The properties of coaxial scaffolds were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed via viability and differentiation assays with neural stem cells (NSCs); whereas in vivo inflammatory response was evaluated following scaffold implantation in rodent spinal cords. Emulsification of the outer shell turned out to be the best choice in terms of cell viability and tissue response: thus suggesting the potential of using functionalized SAPs in coaxial electrospinning for applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:26607419

  4. Osteoblast biocompatibility on poly(octanediol citrate)/sebacate elastomers with controlled wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Szili, Endre J; Choudhury, Namita Roy; Dutta, Naba; Steele, David A; Kumar, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the biocompatibility of poly(octanediol citrate)/sebacate (p(OCS)) biodegradable polyester elastomers. The growth of human MG63 osteoblast-like cells was studied on p(OCS) films. Three types of p(OCS) films were synthesised simply by varying the concentrations of 1,8-octanediol (OD), citric acid (CA), and sebacic acid (SA) monomers at initial molar ratios of 1:1:0, 1:0.75:0.25 and 1:0.5:0.5. At these ratios, the p(OCS) films exhibit decreasing hydrophilicity as shown by the measured water contact angle values of 31, 41 and 64 degrees , respectively. For all the samples, no difference in cell growth was detected after 1 day of cell culture. However, after 4 days, the highest number of viable cells was detected on the p(OCS) film synthesised with the intermediate CA molar ratio of 0.75. This sample also contains the median concentration of surface carboxylic acid groups and hydrophilicity. Following long-term cell culture (18 days), a statistically significant higher density of viable cells had grown on the p(OCS) films with SA molar ratios of 0.25 (P < 0.0001) and 0.5 (P = 0.002) in comparison to the material containing 100% CA and no SA. The work demonstrated that the performance of possible p(OCS) bone tissue engineering scaffolds could be improved by simply adjusting the molar ratios of CA and SA in the pre-polymer without any requirements for post-synthesis modification. PMID:20507707

  5. Gelation and biocompatibility of injectable alginate-calcium phosphate gels for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, D Alves; van den Beucken, J J J P; Both, L L H; Bender, J; Jansen, J A; Leeuwenburgh, S C G

    2014-03-01

    An emerging approach toward development of injectable, self-setting, and fully biodegradable bone substitutes involves the combination of injectable hydrogel matrices with a dispersed phase consisting of nanosized calcium phosphate particles. Here, novel injectable composites for bone regeneration have been developed based on the combination of ultrapure alginate as the matrix phase, crystalline CaP [monetite and poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA)] powders as both a dispersed mineral phase and a source of calcium for cross-linking alginate, glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) as acidifier and glycerol as both plasticizer and temporary sequestrant. The composites were maximized with respect to CaP content to obtain the highest amount of osteoconductive filler. The viscoelastic and physicochemical properties of the precursor compounds and composites were analyzed using rheometry, elemental analysis (for calcium release and uptake), acidity [by measuring pH in simulated body fluid (SBF)], general biocompatibility (subcutaneous implantation in rabbits), and osteocompatibility (implantation in femoral condyle bone defect of rabbits). The gelation of the resulting composites could be controlled from seconds to tens of minutes by varying the solubility of the CaP phase (HA vs. monetite) or amount of GDL. All composites mineralized extensively in SBF for up to 11 days. In vivo, the composites also disintegrated upon implantation in subcutaneous or bone tissue, leaving behind less degradable but osteoconductive CaP particles. Although the composites need to be optimized with respect to the available amount of calcium for cross-linking of alginate, the beneficial bone response as observed in the in vivo studies render these gels promising for minimally invasive applications as bone-filling material.

  6. Superparamagnetic iron oxide/chitosan core/shells for hyperthermia application: Improved colloidal stability and biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, R.M.; Shete, P.B.; Thorat, N.D.; Otari, S.V. [Center for Interdisciplinary Research, D.Y. Patil University, Kolhapur 416006, MS (India); Barick, K.C.; Prasad, A.; Ningthoujam, R.S. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, MS (India); Tiwale, B.M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Research, D.Y. Patil University, Kolhapur 416006, MS (India); Pawar, S.H., E-mail: pawar_s_h@yahoo.com [Center for Interdisciplinary Research, D.Y. Patil University, Kolhapur 416006, MS (India)

    2014-04-15

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are of great interest due to their potential biomedical applications. In the present investigation, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by alkaline precipitation using ferrous chloride as the sole source. An amphiphilic polyelectrolyte with the property of biocompatibility and functional carboxyl groups was used as a stabilizer to prepare a well-dispersed suspension of superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The final material composed of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core and chitosan (CH) shell was produced. The amino groups of CH coated on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were further cross linked using glutaraldehyde (GLD) for stable coating. FTIR spectra, XPS and TGA confirmed the coating of CH/GLD on the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. XRD patterns indicate the pure phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with a spinel structure. The nanoparticles were superparamagnetic at room temperature with saturation magnetization values for bare and coated nanoparticles which were 51.68 emu/g and 48.60 emu/g, respectively. Zeta potential values showed higher colloidal stability of coated nanoparticles than the bare one. Cytotoxicity study up to 2 mg mL{sup −1} concentration showed no drastic change in cell viability of nanoparticles after coating. Also, coated nanoparticles showed increased SAR value, making them suitable for hyperthermia therapy application. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized from FeCl{sub 2} as the sole source by alkaline precipitation. • Coating of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was done with chitosan by simple ultrasonication. • Chitosan cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. • High colloidal stability was observed. • Increased SAR value and least cytotoxicity were observed.

  7. Improving stability and biocompatibility of alginate/chitosan microcapsule by fabricating bi-functional membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoshuang; Liu, Xiudong; Wang, Xiuli; Chen, Li; Xie, Hongguo; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Huizhen; Yu, Weiting; Ma, Xiaojun

    2014-05-01

    Cell encapsulation technology holds promise for the cell-based therapy. But poor mechanical strength and biocompatibility of microcapsule membrane are still obstacles for the clinical applications. A novel strategy is presented to prepare AC₁ C₂ A microcapsules with bi-functional membrane (that is, both desirable biocompatibility and membrane stability) by sequentially complexing chitosans with higher deacetylation degree (C₁) and lower deacetylation degree (C₂) on alginate (A) gel beads. Both in vitro and in vivo evaluation of AC₁C₂ A microcapsules demonstrate higher membrane stability and less cell adhesion, because the introduction of C₂ increases membrane strength and decreases surface roughness. Moreover, diffusion test of AC₁C₂ A microcapsules displays no inward permeation of IgG protein suggesting good immunoisolation function. The results demonstrate that AC₁C₂ A microcapsules with bi-functional membrane could be a promising candidate for microencapsulated cell implantation with cost effective usage of naturally biocompatible polysaccharides.

  8. Degradation and in Vitro Biocompatibility studies of Citric acid based polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Margaret Marie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of a polymer for a particular application is dependent on its physical and chemical properties. The monomers used play a significant role in the synthesis of polymers for biomedical applications. In the present work two copolyesters, poly (1,12-dodecanediol citrate-co-1,12- dodecanediol sebacate (PP1; poly (1,12-dodecanediol citrate-co-1,12- dodecanediol itaconate (PP2 were synthesized by catalyst-free melt polyesterification using monomers - citric acid, sebacic acid, itaconic acid and 1,12-dodecanediol. The polymers exhibited mechanical and thermal properties that made them suitable candidates for degradation and biocompatibility studies. In the present work the degradation and in vitro biocompatibility studies were carried out. The degradation and biocompatibility data support the potential use of the elastomers in tissue engineering applications as well as other clinical procedures that may require a biodegradable elastomeric implant.

  9. Biocompatibility of various ferrite nanoparticles evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assays using HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomitaka, Asahi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: d07gd158@ynu.ac.jp; Hirukawa, Atsuo; Yamada, Tsutomu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Morishita, Shin [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Takemura, Yasushi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles for thermotherapy must be biocompatible and possess high thermal efficiency as heating elements. The biocompatibility of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (20-30 nm), ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (15-30 nm) and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (20-30 nm) nanoparticles was studied using a cytotoxicity colony formation assay and a cell viability assay. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} sample was found to be biocompatible on HeLa cells. While ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were non-toxic at low concentrations, HeLa cells exhibited cytotoxic effects when exposed to concentrations of 100 {mu}g/ml nanoparticles.

  10. Engineering the Biomaterial Interface of Prosthetic Vascular Grafts for Improving Thromboresistance and Biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Ryan Akihiro

    blood EPCs as a model for progenitor cell recruitment, the cells exhibited high levels of CXCR4 expression and demonstrated that released SDF-1 protein remained bioactive and was capable of promoting migration. The copolymer also exhibited excellent cell compatibility and significantly inhibited whole blood clotting. Together, these results are significant steps towards developing biocompatible materials which are capable of harnessing the regenerative properties of EPCs as well as serving as thromboresistant blood vessel replacements.

  11. Newly developed Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta-Si-Fe biomedical beta titanium alloys with increased strength and enhanced biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopova, Ivana; Stráský, Josef; Harcuba, Petr; Landa, Michal; Janeček, Miloš; Bačákova, Lucie

    2016-03-01

    Beta titanium alloys are promising materials for load-bearing orthopaedic implants due to their excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, low elastic modulus and moderate strength. Metastable beta-Ti alloys can be hardened via precipitation of the alpha phase; however, this has an adverse effect on the elastic modulus. Small amounts of Fe (0-2 wt.%) and Si (0-1 wt.%) were added to Ti-35Nb-7Zr-6Ta (TNZT) biocompatible alloy to increase its strength in beta solution treated condition. Fe and Si additions were shown to cause a significant increase in tensile strength and also in the elastic modulus (from 65 GPa to 85 GPa). However, the elastic modulus of TNZT alloy with Fe and Si additions is still much lower than that of widely used Ti-6Al-4V alloy (115 GPa), and thus closer to that of the bone (10-30 GPa). Si decreases the elongation to failure, whereas Fe increases the uniform elongation thanks to increased work hardening. Primary human osteoblasts cultivated for 21 days on TNZT with 0.5Si+2Fe (wt.%) reached a significantly higher cell population density and significantly higher collagen I production than cells cultured on the standard Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In conclusion, the Ti-35Nb-7Zr-6Ta-2Fe-0.5Si alloy proves to be the best combination of elastic modulus, strength and also biological properties, which makes it a viable candidate for use in load-bearing implants. PMID:26706526

  12. Photocatalytic, Antimicrobial and Biocompatibility Features of Cotton Knit Coated with Fe-N-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miruna Silvia Stan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research was focused on the evaluation of the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties, as well as biocompatibility of cotton fabrics coated with fresh and reused dispersions of nanoscaled TiO2-1% Fe-N particles prepared by the hydrothermal method and post-annealed at 400 °C. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The textiles coated with doped TiO2 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses, and their photocatalytic effect by trichromatic coordinates of the materials stained with methylene blue and coffee and exposed to UV, visible and solar light. The resulting doped TiO2 consists of a mixture of prevailing anatase phase and a small amount (~15%–20% of brookite, containing Fe3+ and nitrogen. By reusing dispersions of TiO2-1% Fe-N, high amounts of photocatalysts were deposited on the fabrics, and the photocatalytic activity was improved, especially under visible light. The treated fabrics exhibited specific antimicrobial features, which were dependent on their composition, microbial strain and incubation time. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation on CCD-1070Sk dermal fibroblasts confirmed the absence of cytotoxicity after short-term exposure. These results highlight the potential of TiO2-1% Fe-N nanoparticles for further use in the development of innovative self-cleaning and antimicrobial photocatalytic cotton textiles. However, further studies are required in order to assess the long-term skin exposure effects and the possible particle release due to wearing.

  13. Use of a latex biomembrane for bladder augmentation in a rabbit model: biocompatibility, clinical and histological outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L. A. Domingos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate histological features and biocompatibility of a latex biomembrane for bladder augmentation using a rabbit model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After a partial cystectomy, a patch of a non-vulcanized latex biomembrane (2x4 cm was sewn to the bladder with 5/0 monofilament polydioxanone sulfate in a watertight manner. Groups of 5 animals were sacrificed at 15, 45 and 90 days after surgery and the bladder was removed. The 5-µm preparations obtained from grafted area and normal bladder were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with a primary antibody against alpha-actin to assess muscle regeneration. RESULTS: No death, urinary leakage or graft extrusion occurred in any group. All bladders showed a spherical shape. Macroscopically, after 90 days, the latex biomembrane was not identifiable and the patch was indistinguishable from normal bladder. A bladder stone was found in one animal (6.6%. On the 90th day, histology revealed continuity of transitional epithelium of host bladder tissue on the patch area. At this time, the muscle layers were well organized in a similar fashion to native bladder muscle layers. The inflammatory process was higher on grafted areas when compared to controls: 15 days - p < 0.0001, 45 days - p < 0.001, and 90 days - p < 0.01. The anti alpha-actin immunoexpression peaked at 45 days, when the graft was observed covered by muscle cells. CONCLUSION: The latex biomembrane is biocompatible and can be used in models for bladder augmentation in rabbits. It promotes epithelium and muscle regeneration without urinary leakage.

  14. MgO-doped tantalum coating on Ti: microstructural study and biocompatibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mangal; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2012-02-01

    Pure and MgO incorporated Ta coatings were prepared on Cp-Ti substrate using laser engineered net shaping (LENS), which resulted in diffuse coating-substrate interface. MgO was found along the Ta grain boundaries in the Ta matrix that increased the coating hardness from 185 ± 2.7 HV to 794 ± 93 HV. In vitro biocompatibility study showed excellent early cellular attachment and later stage proliferation in MgO incorporated coatings. The results indicated that although Ta coatings had higher biocompatibility than Ti, it could further be improved by incorporating MgO in the coating, while simultaneously improving the mechanical properties. PMID:22248182

  15. Biocompatibility evaluation of NiTi SMA stent via intervenient therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; Jing-su; LIU; Kun-peng; KOU; Ya-ming

    2005-01-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) stent with film are the long-term implanted medical devices which could be used in human's organ, such as esophagus, bile duct, urethra-prostate and blood vessel, by intervene therapy. It is very important to have a good biocompatibility for implanted device. According to standard ISO 10993, we completed biocompatibility evaluation of NiTi stent that included following tests: cytotoxicity, sensitization, genotoxicity, hemolysis and acute systemic toxicity, The results of tests qualify the NiTi stent, and provide an optimistic conclusion for the eventual use of NiTi stent as implanted medical devices.

  16. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Biocompatibility Study of Highly Crystalline Carbonated Hydroxyapatite Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Caibao; Chen, Yingzhi; Huang, Yongzhuo; Zhu, Peizhi

    2015-08-01

    Highly crystalline carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) nanorods with different carbonate contents were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method. The crystallinity and chemical structure of synthesized nanorods were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photo-electronic spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The biocompatibility of synthesized CHA nanorods was evaluated by cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MG-63 cell line. The biocompatibility evaluation results show that these CHA nanorods are biologically active apatites and potentially promising bone-substitute biomaterials for orthopedic application.

  17. Preparation and biological evaluations of PLA/chitosan composite materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Chang-ren; LI Lihua; DING Shan

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable material that is hontoxic and biocompatible. However, as scaffold materials, PLA has several obvious weaknesses:biodegrading too fast, acidic degradation product, and hydrophobic. When PLA isplanted in the body, the degradation takes place synchronously.

  18. Apatite Formation and Biocompatibility of a Low Young's Modulus Ti-Nb-Sn Alloy Treated with Anodic Oxidation and Hot Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetatsu Tanaka

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely prevalent as a material for orthopaedic implants because of its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However, the discrepancy in Young's modulus between metal prosthesis and human cortical bone sometimes induces clinical problems, thigh pain and bone atrophy due to stress shielding. We designed a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy with a low Young's modulus to address problems of stress disproportion. In this study, we assessed effects of anodic oxidation with or without hot water treatment on the bone-bonding characteristics of a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy. We examined surface analyses and apatite formation by SEM micrographs, XPS and XRD analyses. We also evaluated biocompatibility in experimental animal models by measuring failure loads with a pull-out test and by quantitative histomorphometric analyses. By SEM, abundant apatite formation was observed on the surface of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy discs treated with anodic oxidation and hot water after incubation in Hank's solution. A strong peak of apatite formation was detected on the surface using XRD analyses. XPS analysis revealed an increase of the H2O fraction in O 1s XPS. Results of the pull-out test showed that the failure loads of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy rods treated with anodic oxidation and hot water was greater than those of untreated rods. Quantitative histomorphometric analyses indicated that anodic oxidation and hot water treatment induced higher new bone formation around the rods. Our findings indicate that Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water showed greater capacity for apatite formation, stronger bone bonding and higher biocompatibility for osteosynthesis. Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water treatment is a promising material for orthopaedic implants enabling higher osteosynthesis and lower stress disproportion.

  19. Apatite Formation and Biocompatibility of a Low Young's Modulus Ti-Nb-Sn Alloy Treated with Anodic Oxidation and Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidetatsu; Mori, Yu; Noro, Atsushi; Kogure, Atsushi; Kamimura, Masayuki; Yamada, Norikazu; Hanada, Shuji; Masahashi, Naoya; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely prevalent as a material for orthopaedic implants because of its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However, the discrepancy in Young's modulus between metal prosthesis and human cortical bone sometimes induces clinical problems, thigh pain and bone atrophy due to stress shielding. We designed a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy with a low Young's modulus to address problems of stress disproportion. In this study, we assessed effects of anodic oxidation with or without hot water treatment on the bone-bonding characteristics of a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy. We examined surface analyses and apatite formation by SEM micrographs, XPS and XRD analyses. We also evaluated biocompatibility in experimental animal models by measuring failure loads with a pull-out test and by quantitative histomorphometric analyses. By SEM, abundant apatite formation was observed on the surface of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy discs treated with anodic oxidation and hot water after incubation in Hank's solution. A strong peak of apatite formation was detected on the surface using XRD analyses. XPS analysis revealed an increase of the H2O fraction in O 1s XPS. Results of the pull-out test showed that the failure loads of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy rods treated with anodic oxidation and hot water was greater than those of untreated rods. Quantitative histomorphometric analyses indicated that anodic oxidation and hot water treatment induced higher new bone formation around the rods. Our findings indicate that Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water showed greater capacity for apatite formation, stronger bone bonding and higher biocompatibility for osteosynthesis. Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water treatment is a promising material for orthopaedic implants enabling higher osteosynthesis and lower stress disproportion. PMID:26914329

  20. Silica Aerogel Improves the Biocompatibility in a Poly-ε-Caprolactone Composite Used as a Tissue Engineering Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL is a biodegradable polyester that has received great attentions in clinical and biomedical applications as sutures, drug delivery tool, and implantable scaffold material. Silica aerogel is a material composed of SiO2 that has excellent physical properties for use in drug release formulations and biomaterials for tissue engineering. The current study addresses a composite of silica aerogel with PCL as a potential bone scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. The biocompatibility evaluation of this composite indicates that the presence of silica aerogel effectively prevented any cytotoxic effects of the PCL membrane during extended tissue culture periods and improved the survival, attachment, and growth of 3T3 cells and primary mouse osteoblastic cells. The beneficial effect of silica aerogel may be due to neutralization of the acidic condition that develops during PCL degradation. Specifically, it appears that silica aerogel to PCL wt/wt ratio at 0.5 : 1 maintains a constant pH environment for up to 4 weeks and provides a better environment for cell growth.

  1. Porous polymer/hydroxyapatite scaffolds: characterization and biocompatibility investigations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, T.E.L.; Pamula, E.; Hauk, D.; Wiltfang, J.; Sivananthan, S.; Sherry, E.; Warnke, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Poly-lactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) has been widely used as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering applications. 3D sponge-like porous scaffolds have previously been generated through a solvent casting and salt leaching technique. In this study, polymer-ceramic composite scaffolds were created

  2. Progress towards biocompatible intracortical microelectrodes for neural interfacing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorfi, Mehdi; Skousen, John L.; Weder, Christoph; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-02-01

    To ensure long-term consistent neural recordings, next-generation intracortical microelectrodes are being developed with an increased emphasis on reducing the neuro-inflammatory response. The increased emphasis stems from the improved understanding of the multifaceted role that inflammation may play in disrupting both biologic and abiologic components of the overall neural interface circuit. To combat neuro-inflammation and improve recording quality, the field is actively progressing from traditional inorganic materials towards approaches that either minimizes the microelectrode footprint or that incorporate compliant materials, bioactive molecules, conducting polymers or nanomaterials. However, the immune-privileged cortical tissue introduces an added complexity compared to other biomedical applications that remains to be fully understood. This review provides a comprehensive reflection on the current understanding of the key failure modes that may impact intracortical microelectrode performance. In addition, a detailed overview of the current status of various materials-based approaches that have gained interest for neural interfacing applications is presented, and key challenges that remain to be overcome are discussed. Finally, we present our vision on the future directions of materials-based treatments to improve intracortical microelectrodes for neural interfacing.

  3. [INFLUENCE OF TITANIUM COATING ON THE BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF POLYPROPYLENE IMPLANTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichenko, I I; Kazantsev, A A; Titarov, D L; Shemyatovsky, K A; Ghevondian, N M; Melchenko, D; Alekhin, A I

    2016-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the proliferative activity of inflammatory cells and distribution of collagen types I and III was carried out around the net materials of polypropylene and titanium coating polypropylene using im- munohistochemical method and polarization microscopy. Experimental modeling of implanted mesh material were made in the soft tissues of the lumbar region of rats. On the 7th postoperative day, quantitative analysis of proliferating cells delected using antibodies to the Ki-67 protein showed, a significant decrease (p Sirius red at polarizing light. On the 7th day after surgery, the ratio of collagen fibers ty- pe I and III in granulomas around the mesh material made of polypropylene was 1.085 ± 0.022 and this rati around materials of titanium coated polypropylene was higher--1.107 ± 0.013 (p = 0.017). On the 30th posto- perative day in the interface area ratio I/III collagen significantly increased and amounted to 1.174 ± 0.036 and 1.246 ± 0.102, respectively (p = 0.045). Assessing the impact of the use of titanium as a coating on the po- lypropylene, it can be argued that it promotes the formation of collagen I type and a more mature connective tis- sue around the mesh of the implants. PMID:27220251

  4. The biocompatibility of dense and porous Nickel-Titanium produced by selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habijan, T., E-mail: Tim.Habijan@rub.de [Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, BG Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Ruhr-University Bochum, Buerkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, 44789 Bochum (Germany); Haberland, C.; Meier, H. [Institute Product and Service Engineering, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany); Frenzel, J. [Institute for Materials, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany); Wittsiepe, J. [Department of Hygiene, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany); Wuwer, C.; Greulich, C.; Schildhauer, T.A.; Koeller, M. [Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, BG Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Ruhr-University Bochum, Buerkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, 44789 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-Titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi-SMA) are of biomedical interest due to their unusual range of pure elastic deformability and their elastic modulus, which is closer to that of bone than any other metallic or ceramic material. Newly developed porous NiTi, produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM), is currently under investigation as a potential carrier material for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). SLM enables the production of highly complex and tailor-made implants for patients on the basis of CT data. Such implants could be used for the reconstruction of the skull, face, or pelvis. hMSC are a promising cell type for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering due to their ability to support the regeneration of critical size bone defects. Loading porous SLM-NiTi implants with autologous hMSC may enhance bone growth and healing for critical bone defects. The purpose of this study was to assess whether porous SLM-NiTi is a suitable carrier for hMSC. Specimens of varying porosity and surface structure were fabricated via SLM. hMSC were cultured for 8 days on NiTi specimens, and cell viability was analyzed using two-color fluorescence staining. Viable cells were detected on all specimens after 8 days of cell culture. Cell morphology and surface topography were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell morphology and surface topology were dependent on the orientation of the specimens during SLM production. The Nickel ion release can be reduced significantly by aligned laser processing conditions. The presented results clearly attest that both dense SLM-NiTi and porous SLM-NiTi are suitable carriers for hMSC. Nevertheless, before carrying out in vivo studies, some work on optimization of the manufacturing process and post-processing is required. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specimens, varying in porosity and surface structure were produced via SLM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biocompatibility of these specimens was analyzed. Black

  5. Ultrasonic investigation of magnetic nanoparticles suspension with PEG biocompatible coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water suspension of nanoparticles was studied by ultrasound spectroscopy. Nanoparticles have a core-shell structure with magnetic core Fe3O4 and surfactant shells. The surface of magnetic particles was coated with oleate sodium as the primary layer and polyethylene glycol as the secondary layer. The acoustic properties of suspensions, such as velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves, have been measured. From experimental data mechanical properties have been determined. Adiabatic compressibility of nanoparticles suspension decreased with increase of temperature. The changes of ultrasonic wave attenuation under the influence of the external magnetic field, show that magnetic liquids with high concentration of magnetic material (despite two surfactant shells) show tendency to aggregate. - Research highlights: → Elastic properties of magnetic nanoparticles water suspension. → Molecular weight of the poly(ethylene glycol)s has effect on the ultrasound velocity and adiabatic compressibility. → Magnetic fluids with high concentrations of magnetic material, in spite of two surfactant shells show tendency to aggregate.

  6. Biocompatibility of individually designed scaffolds with human periosteum for use in tissue engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, S.T.; Douglas, T.E.L.; Acil, Y.; Seitz, H.; Sivananthan, S.; Wiltfang, J.; Warnke, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biocompatibility of computer-assisted designed (CAD) synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalciumphosphate (TCP) blocks and natural bovine hydroxyapatite blocks for augmentations and endocultivation by supporting and promoting the proliferation o

  7. In Vivo Biocompatibility of PLGA-Polyhexylthiophene Nanofiber Scaffolds in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroactive polymers have applications in tissue engineering as a physical template for cell adhesion and carry electrical signals to improve tissue regeneration. Present study demonstrated the biocompatibility and biodegradability of poly(lactide-co-glycolide-poly(3-hexylthiophene (PLGA-PHT blend electrospun scaffolds in a subcutaneous rat model. The biocompatibility of PLGA-undoped PHT, PLGA-doped PHT, and aligned PLGA-doped PHT nanofibers was evaluated and compared with random PLGA fibers. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks; the surrounding tissue along with the implant was removed to evaluate biocompatibility and biodegradability by histologic analysis and GPC, respectively. Histology results demonstrated that all scaffolds except PLGA-undoped PHT showed decrease in inflammation over time. It was observed that the aligned PLGA-doped PHT fibers elicited moderate response at 2 weeks, which further reduced to a mild response over time with well-organized tissue structure and collagen deposition. The degradation of aligned nanofibers was found to be very slow when compared to random fibers. Further, there was no reduction in the molecular weight of undoped form of PHT throughout the study. These experiments revealed the biocompatibility and biodegradability of PLGA-PHT nanofibers that potentiate it to be used as a biomaterial for various applications.

  8. Biocompatibility and degradation characteristics of PLGA-based electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds with nanoapatite incorporation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, W.; Yang, F.; Seyednejad, H.; Chen, Z.; Hennink, W.E.; Anderson, J.M.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Jansen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of current study was to evaluate the effect of nano-apatitic particles (nAp) incorporation on the degradation characteristics and biocompatibility of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanofibrous scaffolds. Composite PLGA/poly(varepsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) blended (w/w = 3/1) polymeri

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Chemoselective and Biocompatible Functionalization of Cysteine-Containing Molecules at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shuaeeb, Riyadh Ahmed Atto; Kolodych, Sergii; Koniev, Oleksandr; Delacroix, Sébastien; Erb, Stéphane; Nicolaÿ, Stéphanie; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Brion, Jean-Daniel; Cianférani, Sarah; Alami, Mouâd; Wagner, Alain; Messaoudi, Samir

    2016-08-01

    The third generation of aminobiphenyl palladacycle pre-catalyst "G3-Xantphos" enables functionalization of peptides containing cysteine in high yields. The conjugation (bioconjugation) occurs chemoselectively at room temperature under biocompatible conditions. Extension of the method to protein functionalization allows selective bioconjugation of the trastuzumab antibody. PMID:27362372

  10. Ultrasmall Biocompatible WO3- x Nanodots for Multi-Modality Imaging and Combined Therapy of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ling; Chen, Ling; Zheng, Shimin; Zeng, Jianfeng; Duan, Guangxin; Wang, Yong; Wang, Guanglin; Chai, Zhifang; Li, Zhen; Gao, Mingyuan

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasmall biocompatible WO3 - x nanodots with an outstanding X-ray radiation sensitization effect are prepared, and demonstrated to be applicable for multi-modality tumor imaging through computed tomography and photoacoustic imaging (PAI), and effective cancer treatment combining both photothermal therapy and radiation therapy.

  11. Soft and Stretchable Sensor Using Biocompatible Electrodes and Liquid for Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzani, Tommaso; Liu, Hongbin; Nefti-Meziani, Samia; Althoefer, Kaspar; Menciassi, Arianna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article introduces a soft and stretchable sensor composed of silicone rubber integrating a conductive liquid-filled channel with a biocompatible sodium chloride (NaCl) solution and novel stretchable gold sputtered electrodes to facilitate the biocompatibility of the sensor. By stretching the sensor, the cross section of the channel deforms, thus leading to a change in electrical resistance. The functionalities of the sensor have been validated experimentally: changes in electrical resistance are measured as a function of the applied strain. The experimentally measured values match theoretical predictions, showing relatively low hysteresis. A preliminary assessment on the proposed sensor prototype shows good results with a maximum tested strain of 64%. The design optimization of the saline solution, the electrodes, and the algebraic approximations derived for integrating the sensors in a flexible manipulator for surgery has been discussed. The contribution of this article is the introduction of the biocompatible and stretchable gold sputtered electrodes integrated with the NaCl-filled channel rubber as a fully biocompatible solution for measuring deformations in soft and stretchable medical instruments. PMID:27625915

  12. Biocompatibility and tolerability of a purely bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis solution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, L.; Stegmayr, B.; Malmsten, G.; Tejde, M.; Hadimeri, H.; Siegert, C.E.; Ahlmen, J.; Larsson, R.; Ingman, B.; Simonsen, O.; Hamersvelt, H.W. van; Johansson, A.C.; Hylander, B.; Mayr, M.; Nilsson, P.H.; Andersson, P.O.; Los Rios, T. De

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Novel peritoneal dialysis solutions are characterized by a minimal content of glucose degradation products and a neutral pH. Many studies have shown the biocompatibility of neutral lactate-buffered solutions; however, until now, the effect of purely bicarbonate-buffered solutions has not

  13. Enhanced biocompatibility and wound healing properties of biodegradable polymer-modified allyl 2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ju; Son, Ho Sung; Jung, Gyeong Bok; Kim, Ji Hye; Choi, Samjin; Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2015-06-01

    As poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a polymer with good biocompatibility and biodegradability, we created a new tissue adhesive (TA), pre-polymerized allyl 2-cyanoacrylate (PACA) mixed with PLLA in an effort to improve biocompatibility and mechanical properties in healing dermal wound tissue. We determined optimal mixing ratios of PACA and PLLA based on their bond strengths and chemical structures analyzed by the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In vitro biocompatibility of the PACA/PLLA was evaluated using direct- and indirect-contact methods according to the ISO-10993 cytotoxicity test for medical devices. The PACA/PLLA have similar or even better biocompatibility than those of commercially available cyanoacrylate (CA)-based TAs such as Dermabond® and Histoacryl®. The PACA/PLLA were not different from those exposed to Dermabond® and Histoacryl® in Raman spectra when biochemical changes of protein and DNA/RNA underlying during cell death were compared utilizing Raman spectroscopy. Histological analysis revealed that incised dermal tissues of rats treated with PACA/PLLA showed less inflammatory signs and enhanced collagen formation compared to those treated with Dermabond® or Histoacryl®. Of note, tissues treated with PACA/PLLA were stronger in the tensile strength compared to those treated with the commercially available TAs. Therefore, taking all the results into consideration, the PACA/PLLA we created might be a clinically useful TA for treating dermal wounds. PMID:25842106

  14. Process optimization and biocompatibility of cell carriers suitable for automated magnetic manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, I; Piana, C; Howitz, S; Wegener, T; Fiedler, S; Zwanzig, M; Schmitt, D; Daum, N; Meier, K; Lehr, C M; Batista, U; Zemljic, S; Messerschmidt, J; Franzke, J; Wirth, M; Gabor, F

    2012-03-01

    There is increasing demand for automated cell reprogramming in the fields of cell biology, biotechnology and the biomedical sciences. Microfluidic-based platforms that provide unattended manipulation of adherent cells promise to be an appropriate basis for cell manipulation. In this study we developed a magnetically driven cell carrier to serve as a vehicle within an in vitro environment. To elucidate the impact of the carrier on cells, biocompatibility was estimated using the human adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. Besides evaluation of the quality of the magnetic carriers by field emission scanning electron microscopy, the rate of adherence, proliferation and differentiation of Caco-2 cells grown on the carriers was quantified. Moreover, the morphology of the cells was monitored by immunofluorescent staining. Early generations of the cell carrier suffered from release of cytotoxic nickel from the magnetic cushion. Biocompatibility was achieved by complete encapsulation of the nickel bulk within galvanic gold. The insulation process had to be developed stepwise and was controlled by parallel monitoring of the cell viability. The final carrier generation proved to be a proper support for cell manipulation, allowing proliferation of Caco-2 cells equal to that on glass or polystyrene as a reference for up to 10 days. Functional differentiation was enhanced by more than 30% compared with the reference. A flat, ferromagnetic and fully biocompatible carrier for cell manipulation was developed for application in microfluidic systems. Beyond that, this study offers advice for the development of magnetic cell carriers and the estimation of their biocompatibility.

  15. Development of novel biocompatible hybrid nanocomposites based on polyurethane-silica prepared by sol gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashti, Ali; Yahyaei, Hossein; Firoozi, Saman; Ramezani, Sara; Rahiminejad, Ali; Karimi, Roya; Farzaneh, Khadijeh; Mohseni, Mohsen; Ghanbari, Hossein

    2016-12-01

    Due to high biocompatibility, polyurethane has found many applications, particularly in development of biomedical devices. A new nanocomposite based on thermoset polyurethane and silica nanoparticles was synthesized using sol-gel method. Sol-gel process was fulfilled in two acidic and basic conditions by using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethoxyisocyanatesilane as precursors. The hybrid films characterized for mechanical and surface properties using tensile strength, contact angle, ATR-FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the hybrids were assessed using standard MTT, LDH and TUNEL assays. The results revealed that incorporation of silica nanoparticles was significantly improved tensile strength and mechanical properties of the hybrids. Based on the contact angle results, silica nanoparticles increased hydrophilicity of the hybrids. Biocompatibility by using human lung epithelial cell line (MRC-5) demonstrated that the hybrids were significantly less cytotoxic compared to pristine polymer as tested by MTT and LDH assays. TUNEL assay revealed no signs of apoptosis in all tested samples. The results of this study demonstrated that incorporation of silica nanoparticles into polyurethane lead to the enhancement of biocompatibility, indicating that these hybrids could potentially be used in biomedical field in particular as a new coating for medical implants. PMID:27612823

  16. In Vitro Biocompatibility of Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron Particles (NZVI) Synthesized using tea-polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A “green” protocol was used for the rapid generation of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles using tea polyphenols. The NZVI particles were subsequently examined for in vitro biocompatibility using the human keratinocyte cell (HaCaT) line as a skin exposure model. The cell...

  17. The biocompatibility of porous vs non-porous bone cements: a new methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dall'Oca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite cements have been shown to be biocompatible, bioactive, with good mechanical properties and capability to bind to the bone. Despite these interesting characteristic, in vivo studies on animal models are still incomplete and ultrastructural data are lacking. The acquisition of new ultrastructural data is hampered by uncertainties in the methods of preparation of histological samples due to the use of resins that melt methacrylate present in bone cement composition. A new porous acrylic cement composed of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA and β-tricalciumphosphate (β-TCP was developed and tested on an animal model. The cement was implanted in femurs of 8 New Zealand White rabbits, which were observed for 8 weeks before their sacrifice. Histological samples were prepared with an infiltration process of LR white resin and then the specimens were studied by X-rays, histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. As a control, an acrylic standard cement, commonly used in clinical procedures, was chosen. Radiographic ultrastructural and histological exams have allowed finding an excellent biocompatibility of the new porous cement. The high degree of osteointegration was demonstrated by growth of neo-created bone tissue inside the cement sample. Local or systemic toxicity signs were not detected. The present work shows that the proposed procedure for the evaluation of biocompatibility, based on the use of LR white resin allows to make a thorough and objective assessment of the biocompatibility of porous and non-porous bone cements.

  18. Modified titanium surface with gelatin nano gold composite increases osteoblast cell biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the gelatin nano gold (GnG) composite for surface modification of titanium in addition to insure biocompatibility on dental implants or biomaterials. The GnG composite was constructed by gelatin and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate in presence of reducing agent, sodium borohydrate (NabH4). The GnG composite was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A dipping method was used to modify the titanium surface by GnG composite. Surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The MC-3T3 E1 cell viability was assessed by trypan blue and the expression of proteins to biocompatibility were analyzed by Western blotting. The GnG composite showed well dispersed character, the strong absorption at 530 nm, roughness, regular crystal and clear C, Na, Cl, P, and Au signals onto titanium. Further, this composite allowed MC-3T3 E1 growth and viability compared to gelatin and pure titanium. It induced ERK activation and the expression of cell adherent molecules, FAK and SPARC, and growth factor, VEGF. However, GnG decreased the level of SAPK/JNK. This shows that GnG composite coated titanium surfaces have a good biocompatibility for osteoblast growth and attachment than in intact by simple and versatile dipping method. Furthermore, it offers good communication between cell and implant surfaces by regulating cell signaling and adherent molecules, which are useful to enhance the biocompatibility of titanium surfaces.

  19. Effects of acid treatment on structure, properties and biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Incubation of carbon nanotubes in an acid mixture changes their chemical and physical properties as shown using spectroscopy and microscopy assays. ► Acid incubation of single-walled carbon nanotubes reduces their intrinsic cytotoxicity in relation to human epithelial cells. ► Multi-walled carbon nanotubes with user-controlled physical and chemical properties serve as platforms for the next generation of biosensors. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising to be the next generation of viable tools for bioapplications. Further advances in such bioapplications may depend on improved understanding of CNTs physical and chemical properties as well as control over their biocompatibility. Herein we performed a systematic study to show how acid oxidation treatment changes CNTs physical and chemical properties and leads to improved CNTs biocompatibility. Specifically, by incubating CNTs in a strong acid mixture we created a user-defined library of CNTs samples with different characteristics as recorded using Raman energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, or solubility tests. Systematically characterized CNTs were subsequently tested for their biocompatibility in relation to human epithelial cells or enzymes. Such selected examples are building pertinent relationships between CNTs biocompatibility and their intrinsic properties by showing that acid oxidation treatment lowers CNTs toxicity providing feasible platforms to be used for biomedical applications or the next generation of biosensors.

  20. Effects of acid treatment on structure, properties and biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Chenbo; Campell, Alan S.; Eldawud, Reem; Perhinschi, Gabriela [Department of Chemical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Rojanasakul, Yon [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Dinu, Cerasela Zoica, E-mail: cerasela-zoica.dinu@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incubation of carbon nanotubes in an acid mixture changes their chemical and physical properties as shown using spectroscopy and microscopy assays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acid incubation of single-walled carbon nanotubes reduces their intrinsic cytotoxicity in relation to human epithelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-walled carbon nanotubes with user-controlled physical and chemical properties serve as platforms for the next generation of biosensors. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising to be the next generation of viable tools for bioapplications. Further advances in such bioapplications may depend on improved understanding of CNTs physical and chemical properties as well as control over their biocompatibility. Herein we performed a systematic study to show how acid oxidation treatment changes CNTs physical and chemical properties and leads to improved CNTs biocompatibility. Specifically, by incubating CNTs in a strong acid mixture we created a user-defined library of CNTs samples with different characteristics as recorded using Raman energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, or solubility tests. Systematically characterized CNTs were subsequently tested for their biocompatibility in relation to human epithelial cells or enzymes. Such selected examples are building pertinent relationships between CNTs biocompatibility and their intrinsic properties by showing that acid oxidation treatment lowers CNTs toxicity providing feasible platforms to be used for biomedical applications or the next generation of biosensors.

  1. Synthesis of Biocompatible Nanoparticulate Coordination Polymers for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandanapitiye, Murthi S.

    The combination of nanotechnology with medicinal chemistry has developed into a burgeoning research area. Nanomaterials (NMs) could be seamlessly interfaced with various facets in biology, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry and environmental chemistry that may not be available to the same material in the bulk scale. This dissertation research has focused on the development of nanoparticulate coordination polymers for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Modern imaging techniques include X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). We have successfully developed several types of nanoparticulate diagnostics and therapeutics that have some potential usefulness in biomedicine. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticulate based PET (Positron emission tomography)/SPECT (Single photon emission computed tomography) are discussed in chapter 3. In chapter 4, preparation and potential utility of non-gadolinium based MRI contrast agent are reported for T1-weighted application. As far as the solely effectiveness of relaxation is concerned, Gd-based T 1-weighted MRI contrast agents have excellent enhancement of image contrast but they have risks of biological toxicity. Consequently, the search for T 1-weighted CAs with high efficacy and low toxicity has gained attention toward the Mn(II) and Fe(III). Fe(III) is considered to be more toxic to cells because free ferric or ferrous ions can catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species via the Fenton reactions. Paramagnetic chelates of Mn(II) could be employed as T1-weighted CAs. However, it is challenging to design and synthesize highly stable Mn(II) complexes that could maintain the integrity when administered to living system. Chapter 4 describes the synthesis and utility of nanoparticulate Mn analogue of Prussian blue (K2Mn 3[FeII(CN)6]2) as an effective T1 MRI contrast agent for cellular imaging X

  2. The effect of cross-linking on the microstructure, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of electrospun polycaprolactone–gelatin/PLGA–gelatin/PLGA–chitosan hybrid composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi-Hiep Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, multilayered scaffolds composed of polycaprolactone (PCL–gelatin/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA–gelatin/PLGA–chitosan artificial blood vessels were fabricated using a double-ejection electrospinning system. The mixed fibers from individual materials were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The effects of the cross-linking process on the microstructure, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the fibers were examined. The tensile stress and liquid strength of the cross-linked artificial blood vessels were 2.3 MPa and 340 mmHg, respectively, and were significantly higher than for the non-cross-linked vessel (2.0 MPa and 120 mmHg. The biocompatibility of the cross-linked artificial blood vessel scaffold was examined using the MTT assay and by evaluating cell attachment and cell proliferation. The cross-linked PCL–gelatin/PLGA–gelatin/PLGA–chitosan artificial blood vessel scaffold displayed excellent flexibility, was able to withstand high pressures and promoted cell growth; thus, this novel material holds great promise for eventual use in artificial blood vessels.

  3. The effect of cross-linking on the microstructure, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of electrospun polycaprolactone-gelatin/PLGA-gelatin/PLGA-chitosan hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi-Hiep; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2012-06-01

    In this study, multilayered scaffolds composed of polycaprolactone (PCL)-gelatin/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-gelatin/PLGA-chitosan artificial blood vessels were fabricated using a double-ejection electrospinning system. The mixed fibers from individual materials were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The effects of the cross-linking process on the microstructure, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the fibers were examined. The tensile stress and liquid strength of the cross-linked artificial blood vessels were 2.3 MPa and 340 mmHg, respectively, and were significantly higher than for the non-cross-linked vessel (2.0 MPa and 120 mmHg). The biocompatibility of the cross-linked artificial blood vessel scaffold was examined using the MTT assay and by evaluating cell attachment and cell proliferation. The cross-linked PCL-gelatin/PLGA-gelatin/PLGA-chitosan artificial blood vessel scaffold displayed excellent flexibility, was able to withstand high pressures and promoted cell growth; thus, this novel material holds great promise for eventual use in artificial blood vessels.

  4. The effect of cross-linking on the microstructure, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of electrospun polycaprolactone–gelatin/PLGA–gelatin/PLGA–chitosan hybrid composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, multilayered scaffolds composed of polycaprolactone (PCL)–gelatin/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)–gelatin/PLGA–chitosan artificial blood vessels were fabricated using a double-ejection electrospinning system. The mixed fibers from individual materials were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The effects of the cross-linking process on the microstructure, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the fibers were examined. The tensile stress and liquid strength of the cross-linked artificial blood vessels were 2.3 MPa and 340 mmHg, respectively, and were significantly higher than for the non-cross-linked vessel (2.0 MPa and 120 mmHg). The biocompatibility of the cross-linked artificial blood vessel scaffold was examined using the MTT assay and by evaluating cell attachment and cell proliferation. The cross-linked PCL–gelatin/PLGA–gelatin/PLGA–chitosan artificial blood vessel scaffold displayed excellent flexibility, was able to withstand high pressures and promoted cell growth; thus, this novel material holds great promise for eventual use in artificial blood vessels. (paper)

  5. The Production of Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloy with Open Pore Structure as an Implant and the Investigation of Its Biocompatibility In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Er

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dental crown material, Nickel-Chrome-Molybdenum alloy, is manufactured using precision casting method from a polyurethane foam model in a regular and open-pore form, as a hard tissue implant for orthopedic applications. The samples produced have 10, 20, and 30 (±3 pores per inch of pore densities and 0.0008, 0.0017, and 0.0027 g/mm3 densities, respectively. Samples were implanted in six dogs and observed for a period of two, four, and six months for the histopathological examinations. The dogs were examined radiologically in 15-day intervals and clinically in certain intervals. The implants were taken out with surrounding tissue at the end of these periods. Implants and surrounding tissues were examined histopathologically in terms of biocompatibility. As a result, it is seen that new bone tissue was formed, in pores of the porous implant at the head of the tibia in dogs implanted. Any pathology, inflammation, and reaction in old and new tissues were not observed. It was concluded that a dental alloy (Ni-Cr-Mo alloy could also be used as a biocompatible hard tissue implant material for orthopedics.

  6. In vitro degradation behavior and biocompatibility of Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy by hydrofluoric acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lin; Yuan, Guangyin; Niu, Jialin; Zong, Yang; Ding, Wenjiang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy (denoted as JDBM) coated with hydrofluoric acid (HF) chemical conversion film (MgF2) was researched as a potential biodegradable cardiovascular stent material. The microstructures, in vitro degradation and biocompatibility were investigated. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that a compact MgF2 film was formed on the surface of JDBM. The corrosion rate decreased in artificial plasma from 0.337 to 0.253 mm·y(-1) and the electrochemical measurement demonstrated that the corrosion resistance of JDBM alloy could be obviously improved due to the protective MgF2 film on the surface of the substrate. Meanwhile, the hemolysis ratio of JDBM decreased from 52.0% to 10.1% and the cytotoxicity met the requirement of cellular application after HF treatment. In addition, JDBM and MgF2 film showed good anti-platelet adhesion, which is a very favorable property for implant material in contact with blood directly.

  7. Hydroxyapatite-coated magnesium implants with improved in vitro and in vivo biocorrosion, biocompatibility, and bone response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae-Mi; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Sung-Mi; Kang, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Estrin, Yuri; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jung-Woo; Koh, Young-Hag

    2014-02-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are candidate materials for biodegradable implants; however, excessively rapid corrosion behavior restricts their practical uses in biological systems. For such applications, surface modification is essential, and the use of anticorrosion coatings is considered as a promising avenue. In this study, we coated Mg with hydroxyapatite (HA) in an aqueous solution containing calcium and phosphate sources to improve its in vitro and in vivo biocorrosion resistance, biocompatibility and bone response. A layer of needle-shaped HA crystals was created uniformly on the Mg substrate even when the Mg sample had a complex shape of a screw. In addition, a dense HA-stratum between this layer and the Mg substrate was formed. This HA-coating layer remarkably reduced the corrosion rate of the Mg tested in a simulated body fluid. Moreover, the biological response, including cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, of the HA-coated samples was enhanced considerably compared to samples without a coating layer. The preliminary in vivo experiments also showed that the biocorrosion of the Mg implant was significantly retarded by HA coating, which resulted in good mechanical stability. In addition, in the case of the HA-coated implants, biodegradation was mitigated, particularly over the first 6 weeks of implantation. This considerably promoted bone growth at the interface between the implant and bone. These results confirmed that HA-coated Mg is a promising material for biomedical implant applications.

  8. [INFLUENCE OF TITANIUM COATING ON THE BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF POLYPROPYLENE IMPLANTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichenko, I I; Kazantsev, A A; Titarov, D L; Shemyatovsky, K A; Ghevondian, N M; Melchenko, D; Alekhin, A I

    2016-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the proliferative activity of inflammatory cells and distribution of collagen types I and III was carried out around the net materials of polypropylene and titanium coating polypropylene using im- munohistochemical method and polarization microscopy. Experimental modeling of implanted mesh material were made in the soft tissues of the lumbar region of rats. On the 7th postoperative day, quantitative analysis of proliferating cells delected using antibodies to the Ki-67 protein showed, a significant decrease (p titanium coating polypropylene (33.6 ± 3.1 %). Similar patterns were found on the 30th day of the experiment--15.9 ± 4.3 and 26.9 ± 3.6%--respectively (p titanium coated polypropylene was higher--1.107 ± 0.013 (p = 0.017). On the 30th posto- perative day in the interface area ratio I/III collagen significantly increased and amounted to 1.174 ± 0.036 and 1.246 ± 0.102, respectively (p = 0.045). Assessing the impact of the use of titanium as a coating on the po- lypropylene, it can be argued that it promotes the formation of collagen I type and a more mature connective tis- sue around the mesh of the implants.

  9. Some Limits of Biocompatibility Testing for Lipophilic Leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne D. Lucas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical device standards recommend using both a polar and non-polar solvent to extract materials prior to in vitro testing. Testing lipophilic extract in cell culture systems is limited by the toxicity of the lipophilic solvents used in extraction. Use of agar overlay and direct contact methods do not directly address the problem of testing for highly lipophilic leachates from device or material extracts. This particular problem was approached by 1 use of hydrotropes, and 2 by sealing the suspended cells in dialysis tubing and placing it directly in oil or media. The use of hydrotropes to eliminate micelle formation and increase the solubility of lipophilic compounds was not useful as the hydrotropes themselves were toxic to the cells at concentrations that significantly increased analyte solubility. Diffusion of hydrophobic compounds from either peanut oil or cell culture media into the dialysis tubing where the test cells in media reside was significantly higher for the cell culture media than the peanut oil. There were significant differences in toxicity for cells in dialysis tubing from devices extracted between peanut oil and media. This study illustrates the importance of examining if cell toxicity due to micelle formation versus that of soluble chemicals for lipophilic extracts.

  10. Study of biocompatible properties of polymeric scaffolds derived from vegetable oils for application in tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have as main objective the morphologic/functional reestablishment of injured tissues and organs using cells, scaffolds, stem cells and control of immunological/biochemical responses promoted by the body. In addition, materials science seeks to develop biocompatible biomaterials that do not promote unwanted immune responses and provide the re-establishment of the functions of the tissue/organ. Polymers of natural origin stand out as biomaterials to resemble biological macromolecules, similarity to the extracellular matrix, reduced chance of inflammation and chronic pacing low or no toxicity. This study aimed the development of macromolecular arrays originated from epoxidized soybean oil (OSE), analyzing the relationship between the chemical structure/biological activity of the macromolecular arrays for use as biomaterials in tissue engineering. The synthesis of OSE was performed through the oil chemical route, whose efficiency was determined by infrared spectroscopy and the reaction yield of 85%, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. From the analysis by differential scanning calorimetry, it was detected a decrease of the glass transition temperature of the epoxidized soybean oil polymer (POSE) compared with OSE, suggesting an increase of the growth of polymer chains of POSE. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed to define the OSE degradation profile, which degrades in two steps. The POSE degrades in just one step and shows higher thermal stability by the increased molecular interactions. The hydrophilicity and crosslinking of POSE was promoted by the addition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with the monomer grafting by gamma irradiation. The results showed an increased mechanical stability, gelation and water absorption with the HEMA content increasing. Finally, the degree of crystallinity for such polymers grafted with HEMA was 27.5%, estimated by X-ray diffractometry. The second stage was

  11. A new methodology for studying nanoparticle interactions in biological systems: Dispersing titania in biocompatible media using chemical stabilisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Garcia, Sonia; Chen, Lan; Morris, Michael A.; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2011-11-01

    We report here a highly successful and original protocol for the dispersion of nanoparticles in biocompatible fluids for in vitro and in vivo studies of the nanoparticle-biology interaction. Titania is chosen as a suitable model as it is one of the priority materials listed by the OECD and small particles of the anatase structure are extensively used as e.g. photocatalysts in solar cells. Consequently, its delivery into the environment and its interaction with biological organisms is unavoidable. Therefore, its biological effect needs to be understood. In this work, we prepared stable nanoparticle dispersions of anatase aggregates using citrate stabilisations between 45 and 55 nm at concentrations of up to 10 mg mL-1. The optimum pH for this type of suspension was 7, resulting in ζ-potentials of approximately -50 mV. The stabilised aggregates were the subject of dialysis to produce stable dispersions without the chemical stabiliser, thus allowing studies in the absence of potentially toxic chemicals. Different sizing techniques such as Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) and Differential Centrifuge Sedimentation (DCS) were used to characterise the different suspensions. The results obtained with each of these techniques are compared and a critical analysis of the suitability of each technique is given.We report here a highly successful and original protocol for the dispersion of nanoparticles in biocompatible fluids for in vitro and in vivo studies of the nanoparticle-biology interaction. Titania is chosen as a suitable model as it is one of the priority materials listed by the OECD and small particles of the anatase structure are extensively used as e.g. photocatalysts in solar cells. Consequently, its delivery into the environment and its interaction with biological organisms is unavoidable. Therefore, its biological effect needs to be understood. In this work, we prepared stable nanoparticle dispersions of anatase aggregates

  12. Chitosan/halloysite nanotubes bionanocomposites: structure, mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxian; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Chongchao; Xiong, Sheng; Zhou, Changren

    2012-11-01

    Incorporation of nanosized reinforcements into chitosan usually results in improved properties and changed microstructures. Naturally occurred halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are incorporated into chitosan for forming bionanocomposite films via solution casting. The electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding interactions between HNTs and chitosan are confirmed. HNTs are uniformly dispersed in chitosan matrix. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of chitosan are enhanced by HNTs. The storage modulus and glass transition temperature of chitosan/HNTs films also increase significantly. Blending with HNTs induces changes in surface nanotopography and increase of roughness of chitosan films. In vitro fibroblasts response demonstrates that both chitosan and chitosan/HNTs nanocomposite films are cytocompatibility even when the loading of HNTs is 10%. In summary, these results provide insights into understanding of the structural relationships of chitosan/HNTs bionanocomposite films in potential applications, such as scaffold materials in tissue engineering. PMID:22743347

  13. Superparamagnetic microrobots: fabrication by two-photon polymerization and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Marcel; Zhang, Li; Siringil, Erdem C; Peters, Christian; Luehmann, Tessa; Ergeneman, Olgac; Peyer, Kathrin E; Nelson, Bradley J; Hierold, Christofer

    2013-12-01

    This work presents the fabrication and controlled actuation of swimming microrobots made of a magnetic polymer composite (MPC) consisting of 11-nm-diameter magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and photocurable resin (SU-8). Two-photon polymerization (TPP) is used to fabricate the magnetic microstructures. The material properties and the cytotoxicity of the MPC with different nanoparticle concentrations are characterized. The live/dead staining tests indicate that MPC samples with varied concentrations, up to 10 vol.%, have negligible cytotoxicity after 24 h incubation. Fabrication parameters of MPC with up to 4 vol.% were investigated. We demonstrate that the helical microdevices made of 2 vol.% MPC were capable of performing corkscrew motion in water applying weak uniform rotating magnetic fields. PMID:23846247

  14. Transparent, biocompatible nanostructured surfaces for cancer cell capture and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng BR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Boran Cheng,1,* Zhaobo He,2,* Libo Zhao,2,* Yuan Fang,1 Yuanyuan Chen,1 Rongxiang He,2 Fangfang Chen,1 Haibin Song,1 Yuliang Deng,2 Xingzhong Zhao,2 Bin Xiong1 1Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 2Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs in the blood which have detached from both the primary tumor and any metastases may be considered as a “liquid biopsy” and are expected to replace tumor biopsies in the monitoring of treatment response and determining patient prognosis. Here, we introduce a facile and efficient CTC detection material made of hydroxyapatite/chitosan (HA/CTS, which is beneficial because of its transparency and excellent biological compatibility. Atomic force microscopy images show that the roughness of the HA/CTS nanofilm (HA/CTSNF substrates can be controlled by changing the HA:CTS ratio. Enhanced local topographic interactions between nano-components on cancer cell membranes, and the antibody coated nanostructured substrate lead to improved CTC capture and separation. This remarkable nanostructured substrate