Sample records for bioclimatology

  1. La Bioclimatología y su utilidad en los estudios de la diversidad biológica: experiencias en la provincia Holguín, Cuba

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    Elena Fornet Hernández


    Full Text Available Aborda un análisis sobre la importancia de la bioclimatología para los estudios de biodiversidad, se refieren reportes sobre diferentes especies vegetales y se profundiza en un endémico holguinero, Escobaria cubensis (Britton & Rose Hunt, "el cactus enano de Holguín", el cual ha sido estudiado desde hace algunos años por investigadores que han mencionado la influencia del clima sobre su comportamiento. Se concluye la utilidad demostrada de la bioclimatología en el conocimiento de la diversidad biológica y se muestra la necesidad de enfoques y acciones integradoras en este tipo de estudio y no la exposición descriptiva de las características del clima.

  2. Human bioclimatology analysis of Ankara urban area

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    Onur Çalışkan


    Full Text Available In this study, the Physiological Equivalent Temperatures (PET of different land patterns in the Ankara urban area has been analyzed. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of the thermal perceptions and the grades of thermal stress caused by the thermal conditions have been determined for 00:00, 03:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00 hours during the December and July of 2010. The effects of physiographic features such as elevation, aspect, slope, and especially land use, on the PETs have also been examined. According to the analysis which is carried out by using PET thermal perception index, in the research area the thermal comfort values varies around from -6 to -11°C in winter and from 13°C to 50°C in summer. In both periods the open spaces (grasslands of the city forests have the maximum PET values during the day. Either in December and in July the urban area (city center has and cool island during the day and has a heat island during the night.

  3. Geographical variations in seasonal mortality across the United States: A bioclimatological approach (United States)

    Kalkstein, Adam


    Human mortality exhibits a strong seasonal pattern with deaths in winter far exceeding those in the summer. Surprisingly, this seasonal trend is evident in all major cities across the United States, seemingly independent of climate. While the pattern itself is clear, its magnitude varies considerably across space, and it is not known if there is regional homogeneity among cities. Additionally, the causal mechanisms relating to pattern variability are not clearly understood. The goal of this study is to conduct a comprehensive geographic analysis of seasonal mortality across the United States, to uncover systematic regional differences in such mortality, and to determine what role weather plays in impacting seasonal mortality rates. Unique seasonal mortality curves were created for 28 Metropolitan Statistical Areas across the United States, and the amplitude and timing of mortality peaks were determined. In addition, seasonality was calculated for different demographic groups and causes of death. Meteorological factors were also evaluated as possible causal mechanisms. The findings here indicate that the seasonality of mortality exhibits strong spatial variation with the largest seasonal mortality amplitudes found in the southwestern United States and the smallest in the North, along with South Florida. In addition, there have been changes in the timing of seasonal mortality; the date of maximum mortality is occurring increasingly early in the year. Demographics also play an important role with women, Whites, and the elderly exhibiting the strongest seasonality in mortality. There is a strong connection between respiratory disease and other causes of death, implying a cause-effect relationship. Meteorology also plays an important role in seasonal mortality; variations in the frequency of certain air masses were associated with changes in the timing and amplitude of seasonal mortality. Finally, there were strong intra-regional similarities that exist among the examined cities, implying that environmental factors are more important than social factors in determining seasonal mortality response. This work begins to fill a large gap within the scientific literature concerning the causes, geographic variation, and meteorological influences on seasonal mortality. Additionally, these results will increase the forecasting capabilities of determining when and where winter mortality will reach unusually high levels.

  4. Analysis of Ankara urban area from human bioclimatologic point of view

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    Necla Türkoğlu


    Full Text Available In this study, the Physiological Equivalent Temperatures (PET of different land patterns in the Ankara urban area has been analyzed. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of the thermal perceptions and the grades of thermal stress caused by the thermal conditions have been determined for 00:00, 03:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00 hours during the December and July of 2010. The effects of physiographic features such as elevation, aspect, slope, and especially land use, on the PETs have also been examined. According to the analysis which is carried out by using PET thermal perception index, in the research area the thermal comfort values varies around from -6 to -11°C in winter and from 13°C to 50°C in summer. In both periods the open spaces (grasslands of the city forests have the maximum PET values during the day. Either in December and in July the urban area (city center has and cool island during the day and has a heat island during the night.

  5. Gastrointestinal helminths of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from different bioclimatological regions in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Nansen, P.


    of Greenland. In general, the composition of the helminth fauna of arctic foxes in Greenland showed distinct differences geographically. Thus, the diversity of helminth species in foxes caught in the northern districts of Greenland seems lower than in the southern districts; only nematode species with direct...... life cycles were represented equally in all parts of the country. The diversity of the surrounding fauna, and thereby the food items available for the foxes, seems to determine the spectrum of helminth species. Helminths requiring rodents as intermediate hosts were absent on the west coast, even...

  6. Urban heat island and bioclimatological conditions in a hot-humid tropical city: the example of Akure, Nigeria

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    Balogun, Ifeoluwa A.


    Full Text Available The impact of weather on human health has become an issue of increased significance in recent times, considering the increasing rate of urbanisation and the much associated heat island phenomenon. This study examines the urbanisation influence on human bioclimatic conditions in Akure, a medium sized hot-humid tropical city in Nigeria, utilising data from measurements at urban and rural sites in the city. Differences in the diurnal, monthly and seasonal variation of human bioclimatic characteristics between both environments were evaluated and tested for statistical significance. Higher frequencies of high temperatures observed in the city centre suggest a significant heat stress and health risk in this hot-humid city.

  7. Digital herbarium archives as a spatially extensive, taxonomically discriminate phenological record; a comparison to MODIS satellite imagery (United States)

    Park, Isaac W.


    This study demonstrates that phenological information included in digital herbarium archives can produce annual phenological estimates correlated to satellite-derived green wave phenology at a regional scale (R = 0.183, P = 0.03). Thus, such records may be utilized in a fashion similar to other annual phenological records and, due to their longer duration and ability to discriminate among the various components of the plant community, hold significant potential for use in future research to supplement the deficiencies of other data sources as well as address a wide array of important issues in ecology and bioclimatology that cannot be addressed easily using more traditional methods.

  8. Historical and conceptual aspects of ethno-ornithology

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    Ângelo Giuseppe Chaves Alves


    Full Text Available Ethno-ornithology describes and analyzes the knowledge of local people, providing a comprehension of the relationships between humans and birds. This work consists of an historical review on ethno-ornithology. Its main objective was to describe and organize the ethno-ornithological knowledge in Brazil, as well as to identify phases in the development of this field of research in Brazil. Ethnoornithology emerged in the 1880s from inventories of bird species and also studies on vernacular names, uses, meanings and histories, evolving into comprehensive studies. In Brazil, it was marked by two stages: a phase of inventories and a multidisciplinary phase. Many different fields of formal knowledge helped in the development of ethno-ornithology, such as anthropology, taxonomy, mythology, history, etymology, bioclimatology, semiotics, morphology, and ecology, contributing towards the mediation of the limits between natural and social sciences.

  9. A quantitative sensitivity analysis on the behaviour of common thermal indices under hot and windy conditions in Doha, Qatar (United States)

    Fröhlich, Dominik; Matzarakis, Andreas


    Human thermal perception is best described through thermal indices. The most popular thermal indices applied in human bioclimatology are the perceived temperature (PT), the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). They are analysed focusing on their sensitivity to single meteorological input parameters under the hot and windy meteorological conditions observed in Doha, Qatar. It can be noted, that the results for the three indices are distributed quite differently. Furthermore, they respond quite differently to modifications in the input conditions. All of them show particular limitations and shortcomings that have to be considered and discussed. While the results for PT are unevenly distributed, UTCI shows limitations concerning the input data accepted. PET seems to respond insufficiently to changes in vapour pressure. The indices should therefore be improved to be valid for several kinds of climates.

  10. Geographical peninsular effects on the trophic system "Tyto alba - micromammals" in Salento (Italy

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    Corrado Battisti


    Full Text Available Abstract The following study contains data from 2420 preys found in Barn Owl pellets from 16 sites of the Salento peninsula (Apulia, Italy. Nine preyed species were detected. Microtus savii was the most frequent prey. No specimen of Clethrionomys glareolus, Muscardinus avellanarius and Sorex spp. were ever found, probably for ecological and bioclimatological reasons. The relatively low values of some ecological parameters (Richness, Trophic level, Diversity suggest that the micromammalian populations in Salento are influenced, locally, by both anthropic and biogeographical factors. These results may be inserted into the general debate on the "peninsula effects".

  11. Applying the concept of the ecological niche and a macroecological approach to understand how climate influences zooplankton: Advantages, assumptions, limitations and requirements (United States)

    Beaugrand, Gregory; Mackas, Dave; Goberville, Eric


    Ecosystem effects of climate change have been detected in all components of the Earth System. In the marine biosphere, climate-change responses have caused large and well-documented biogeographical and phenological shifts, which have in turn altered local dominance hierarchies, and also the structure, diversity and functional linkages within regional marine ecosystems. There is an urgent need to improve both our knowledge of the global-scale effects of climate change on marine biodiversity and our capacity to project future impacts. But extrapolation of previously estimated changes to additional places and to future conditions is complicated by non-linear responses to environmental variables, and also by complexities of multivariate interaction that can lead to tipping-points. In this paper, we show how observations from widely-spaced locations can be combined to characterise the ecological niche of a species, and how the concept of the niche can be used to understand and project how climate-induced changes in temperatures will alter marine zooplankton both locally and globally. As an example to illustrate our view, we apply this framework to the relatively well-known copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Our results suggest that climate change will strongly affect the local abundance of this species in the North Atlantic Ocean by the end of this century. Predicted changes are large (e.g. increase by ±6-10-fold of the temporal changes in the abundance of C. finmarchicus) and vary as a function of the magnitude of warming and the local sign and steepness of the thermal niche. Substantial rates of change hold even under optimistic climatic scenarii. After reviewing the main limitations of the niche concept in bioclimatological research, we argue that the application of this concept in ecology and bioclimatology might nevertheless represent the best tool currently available to scientists to discern and anticipate the effect of global climate change on species and ecosystems


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    Full Text Available In the field of urban bioclimatology an important and timely research direction today is to examine the thermal conditions of public places. In our study, human thermal comfort analysis was performed in a modern and well-attended children playground located in Szeged (Hungary. The aim of the paper is to reveal the changes in the thermal comfort conditions between two seasons and also the resulting subjective thermal reactions of visitors in this relatively small area. Thermal comfort conditions were quantified by the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET. For typical summer and autumn days of 2011 numerical simulations of thermal comfort conditions in the playground were carried out by means of the urban microclimate model ENVI-met. Spatial distribution of the simulated PET, i.e. thermal stress maps were created in two different times of the selected days in order to characterize the distinct microclimatological conditions appearing in the area. The relationship between the momentary spatial patterns of visitors and the thermal conditions was also under investigation. Additionally, onsite questionnaire survey was implemented which highlights the people’s subjective evaluation related to the design of the playground.

  13. The analysis of impact of urbanization on the bioclimatic conditions in the scale of Ankara

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    Necla Türkoğlu


    Full Text Available In this study, the bioclimatological conditions of Ankara urban area have been analyzed from the data which has been acquired from areas having different land cover and use. The hourly thermal perceptions of six meteorology stations have been calculated by using the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET index that could involve not only the meteorological parameters but also human energy balance in calculations. The spatial distribution of values has been carried out by the multiple linear regression models. At the end of the analyses it is concluded that the areas which have higher built density in urban have greater PET values than the other land use classes during the most of the day. These daily mean PET difference between these areas and the grasslands is 0.4-1.2°C, the parks is 2.2-3°C, suburban is 1.4-2.2°C, rural is 1.7-2.5°C. The differences increase during night and from May to September, and decrease during daytime and from October to April.

  14. Physiological Research of Defence Interest in India Part I : Studies in High

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    S.S. Ramaswamy


    Full Text Available Our troops have to operate under a variety of adverse environments including hypoxic, dry cold/wet cold conditions of high altitudes, hot dry/humid conditions in the plains, high noise levels from machinery, engines in ships and aircraft, gunfire, etc. Professor DS Kothari, the first Scientific Adviser, Ministry of Defence, could foresee as early as the late forties that it was only a scientific understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms that would lead to solutions which would ensure the optimal operational efficiency of men under such trying environments. He sowed the seeds of defence physiology as a major discipline in the then Defence Science Organisation, which developed into the Defence Research and Development organisation. As a result, there have been outstanding contributions by the defence physiologists as well in the direct applications of their work in optimizing the operational efficiency of our defence personnel. This paper reviews the wide spectrum of problems relevant to defence physiology studied over the last four decades, the significant findings, and their practical applications. Part I reviews in detail work on the most pressing problem in our current geopolitical context, viz. high altitude physiology. Part II discusses studies on thermal stress, bioclimatology, noise exposure hazards, physical work capacity, effects of ageing on physical and mental capacities, and toxicology. In addition, the contributions of defence scientists towards the rationalisation of service ration scales, and resource development efforts are dealt with.

  15. Measurement of photooxidants relevant to human biometeorology in an urban agglomeration (PHOTOX). Measurement of various hydrocarbons as precursors of photooxidants relevant to human biometeorology (KOVOX). Final report of Part 2; Erfassung von human-biometeorologisch relevanten Photooxidantien in einem Ballungsraum (PHOTOX). Erfassung verschiedener Kohlenwasserstoffe als Vorlaeufersubstanzen fuer human-biometeorologisch relevante Photooxidantien (KOVOX). Abschlussbericht zum Teil 2

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    Jakobi, G.; Fabian, P. [eds.


    The air-chemical components ozone and PAN (peroxy acetyl nitrate), their precursors NO and NO{sub 2} and the meteorological parameters air temperature, humidity, global radiation, wind direction and wind velocity were measured in the framework of a research project (PHOTOX - Measurement of photooxidants relevant to human biometeorology in an urban agglomeration) carried out by the Department of Bioclimatology and Pollution Research. Further, a wide range of anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons, which are important groups of precursors of photooxidants and potential pollution factors, were measured in the framework of another research project (KOVOX - Measurement of various hydrocarbons as precursors of photooxidants relevant to human biometeorology). (orig/SR) [Deutsch] Die Messung der luftchemischen Komponenten Ozon und PAN (Peroxiacetylnitrat), deren Vorlaeufersubstanzen Stickstoffmonoxid (NO) und Stickstoffdioxid (NO{sub 2}) sowie deren meteorologischen Parameter Lufttemperatur, Luftfeuchtigkeit, Globalstrahlung, Windrichtung und Windgeschwindigkeit wurde im Rahmen des am Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immisionsforschung laufenden Forschungsvorhabens ``Erfassung von human-biometeorologisch relevanten Photooxidantien in einem Ballungsraum (PHOTOX)`` durchgefuehrt. Des weiteren erfolgte die Messung einer breiten Palette anthropogener und biogener Kohlenwasserstoffe als wichtige Gruppen der Vorlaeufersubstanzen zur Photooxidantienbildung und moeglicher Wirkfaktoren, im Rahmen des Projektes ``Erfassung verschiedener Kohlenwasserstoffe als Vorlaeufersubstanzen fuer human-biometeorologisch relevante Photooxidantien (KOVOX)``. (orig./BW)

  16. Analysis of human thermal comfort and its tendencies in Budapest (Hungary) (United States)

    Nemeth, Akos; Kovacs, Attila


    In spite of the fact that the evaluation of the thermal conditions in the urban areas is extremely important and timely, in Budapest (capital of Hungary) very few studies were performed in this direction until now. The aim of this paper is to analyze the differences and changes of the thermal comfort conditions in the last half century (1961-2010) by comparing measurements of two meteorological stations located in different environments of Budapest: one in the central urban area (Local Climate Zone 2 - 'compact midrise') and the other in the suburbs (between Local Climate Zones 6 - 'open lowrise' and A - 'dense trees'). The thermal comfort was characterized by two human bioclimatological comfort indices, the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), for four characteristic times of the day in the examined period. Then the thermal comfort differences between the stations according to two climatic normal periods (1961-1990 and 1981-2010), and the tendencies detected among the periods were also under investigation. For the last decade, 2001-2010, hourly-resolution investigations were carried out. The results indicate that the central area is affected by a higher degree of hot stress and less cold stress. Additionally, the warm stress has become more frequent, however, the cold heat load decreased in both examined area at each time.

  17. Tropical Warm Semi-Arid Regions Expanding Over Temperate Latitudes In The Projected 21st Century (United States)

    Rajaud, A.; de Noblet, N. I.


    Two billion people today live in drylands, where extreme climatic conditions prevail, and natural resources are limited. Drylands are expected to expand under several scenarios of climatic change. However, relevant adaptation strategies need to account for the aridity level: it conditions the equilibrium tree-cover density, ranging from deserts (hyper-arid) to dense savannas (sub-humid). Here we focus on the evolution of climatically defined warm semi-arid areas, where low-tree density covers can be maintained. We study the global repartition of these regions in the future and the bioclimatic shifts involved. We adopted a bioclimatological approach based on the Köppen climate classification. The warm semi-arid class is characterized by mean annual temperatures over 18°C and a rainfall-limitation criterion. A multi-model ensemble of CMIP5 projections for three representative concentration pathways was selected to analyze future conditions. The classification was first applied to the start, middle and end of the 20th and 21st centuries, in order to localize past and future warm semi-arid regions. Then, time-series for the classification were built to characterize trends and variability in the evolution of those regions. According to the CRU datasets, global expansion of the warm semi-arid area has already started (~+13%), following the global warming trend since the 1900s. This will continue according to all projections, most significantly so outside the tropical belt. Under the "business as usual" scenario, the global warm semi-arid area will increase by 30% and expand 12° poleward in the Northern Hemisphere, according to the multi-model mean. Drying drives the conversion from equatorial sub-humid conditions. Beyond 30° of latitude, cold semi-arid conditions become warm semi-arid through warming, and temperate conditions through combined warming and drying processes. Those various transitions may have drastic but also very distinct ecological and sociological

  18. Energy partitioning and surface resistance of a poplar plantation in northern China (United States)

    Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S. G.; Chen, J.


    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been, on the one hand, broadly used in northern China for urban greening, combating desertification, as well as for paper and wood production. On the other hand, such plantations have been questioned occasionally for their possible negative impacts on water availability due to the higher water-use nature of poplar trees compared with other tree species in water-limited dryland regions. To further understand the acclimation of poplar species to semiarid environments and to evaluate the potential impacts of these plantations on the broader context of the region's water supply, we examine the variability of bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning in a poplar (Populus euramericana cv. "74/76") plantation located in northern China over a 4-year period, encompassing both dry and wet conditions. The partitioning of available energy to latent heat flux (LE) decreased from 0.62 to 0.53 under mediated meteorological drought by irrigation applications. A concomitant increase in sensible heat flux (H) resulted in the increase of a Bowen ratio from 0.83 to 1.57. Partial correlation analysis indicated that surface resistance (Rs) normalized by leaf area index (LAI; Rs:LAI) increased by 50 % under drought conditions and was the dominant factor controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the main factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (Ω = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively). Rs was also a major regulator of the LE / LEeq ratio, which decreased from 0.81 in wet years to 0.68 in dry years. All physiological and bioclimatological metrics indicated that the water demands of the poplar plantation were greater than the amount available through precipitation, highlighting the poor match of a water-intensive species like poplar for this water-limited region.

  19. Caracteristicas bioclimaticas de las malezas del cinturon verde de cordoba: parte I - Polygonum aviculare "sanguinaria" Bioclimatic characteristic of weeds in the city Cordoba's green belt: part I - Polygonum aviculare

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    Raul A. Nobile


    Full Text Available Na região fruti-ortícula do cinturião verde da cidade de Córdoba, Argentina, ocorre com frequência nos períodos de inverno e primavera o aparecimento de Polygomun aviculare. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de conhecer a fenologia desta espécie e as necessidades bioclimáticas de cada uma das etapas do seu ciclo de vida. Para estas análises conduziu-se um ensaio em uma propriedade do cinturião verde, na região Nordeste de Córdoba, durante os anos de 1988, 1989 e 1990. Determinrou-se as fases e subperíodos do ciclo evolutivo da espécie e parâmetros como altura e densidade de plantas e dados meteorológicos. O estudo permitiu estabelecer o fluxo estacional de emergência e determinar o tipo ecológico de planta daninha quanto à estação de crescimento. Os aspectos ecológicos levantados servirão de ferramentas para implementar estratégias de controle desta planta daninha."Knotweed", Polygonum aviculare is one of the most common weeds in the winter-spring period in the horticultural zone of Córdoba green belt. In order to know the phenology and climatic requirements of the species in each stage of its life cycle, an experiment was conducted in one of the green belt farms located in the NE of Córdoba outskirsts for three years (1988, 1989, 1990. Different phases and sub-periods of this life cycle, phenometric parameters (plant height and density and meteorological observations were determined. The experiment enabled to establish the stational flow of emergency and corroborate the winterspring ecological type of the weed. These aspects of the bioecology, phenology and bioclimatology are necessary tools when implementing an integrated system of weed control.

  20. Changes in flowering of birch in the Czech Republic in recent 25 years (1991–2015 in connection with meteorological variables

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    Lenka Hajkova


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of long-term phenological observations of silver birch (Betula pendula during the years 1991–2015 across the phenological network of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI – Český hydrometeorologický ústav. The data assembled over this period were used for identification of timing of generative phenophases associated with pollen release into the air: inflorescence emergence 10%, beginning of flowering 10%, beginning of flowering 50%, beginning of flowering 100%, and end of flowering. The stations are situated at altitudes from 155 m (Doksany to 1102 m (Modrava. The average timing of beginning of flowering 10% was 8th April (Lednice = lowland station and 14th May (Modrava = mountain station; the average timing of beginning of flowering 50% was 12th April (Lednice and 20th May (Modrava; the average timing of beginning of flowering 100% was 18th April (Lednice and 22nd May (Modrava, and the average timing of end of flowering was 26th April (Lednice and 28th May (Modrava. The totals of effective temperatures above 5°C (TS5 and sums of daily precipitation were used as a bio-climatological criterion for assessment of the dependence of phenological phases on meteorological variables. The average sums of TS5 and the average sums of daily precipitation total were as follows: 61.0–80.8°C, 82.8–327.4 mm (inflorescence emergence; 105.2–106.4°C, 85.9–365.2 mm (beginning of flowering 10%; 124.8–130.8°C, 89.8–385.9 mm (beginning of flowering 50%; 144.7–158.6°C, 95.2–390.7 mm (beginning of flowering 100%; and 181.6–223.8°C, 104.7–427.4 mm (end of flowering. Synoptic situations occurring during interphase intervals were obtained – the most often found synoptic situations were B (stationary trough over Central Europe, Bp (east travelling trough, NEa (northeast anticyclonic situation, Sa (south anticyclonic situation and SWc2 (southwest cyclonic situation moving northeast to eastwards. The

  1. Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period (United States)

    Gyarmati, R.; Toth, T.; Szegedi, S.; Kapocska, L.


    experienced when sudden changes happened in that two meteorological factors. Researches tend to explore this question contain such information that also can be useful from practical view. With comprehensive examination of the relation between frontal passage and the start of labours an opportunity presents for obstetrical departments to prepare for a possible increase of birth number by proper weather forecast. The importance of further studies is proved by the 515 pieces of form made it fill in over the area of the University of Debrecen. This questionnaire contained bioclimatological questions such as general questions for temperature sensation and sensitivity to fronts. We found that almost half the subjects chose by chance from the six age groups was meteoropathy. The answers given to the contact of sensitivity to fronts and allergy as well as to the survey of circulatory and articular troubles can be the basis of the preventive and curative medical researches in the near future. Moreover it's important to inform the population properly of the physiological effects of fronts due to their incomplete knowledge. All these can decrease the number of indispositions, road accidents and the number of deaths connected to frontal passage.

  2. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto


    (14), Petr Hlavinka(7,8), Frantisek Jurecka(7,8), Jaromir Krzyszczak(10), Marcos Lana(6), Julien Minet(15), Manuel Montesino(16), Claas Nendel(6), John Porter(16), Jaime Recio(1), Françoise Ruget(11), Alberto Sanz(1), Zacharias Steinmetz(17,18), Pierre Stratonovitch(19), Iwan Supit(20), Domenico Ventrella(21), Allard de Wit(20) and Reimund P. Rötter(4). 1 Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ETSIAgrónomos,28040 Madrid, Spain, 2 University of Florence, 50144 Florence, Italy 3 IFAPA Junta de Andalucia, 14004 Córdoba, Spain 4 Natural Resources Institute (LUKE), 01370 Vantaa, Finland 5 Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), 00250 Helsinki, Finland 6 Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), 15374 Müncheberg, Germany 7 Institute of Agrosystems and Bioclimatology, Mendel University in Brno, Brno 613 00, Czech Republic 8 Global Change Research Institute CAS, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic 9 INRES, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany 10 Institute of Agrophysics Polish Academy of Sciences, Lublin, Poland 11 INRA, UMR 1114 EMMAH, F-84914 Avignon, France 12 James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, DD2 5DA, Scotland 13 State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China 14 University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy 15 Université de Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium 16 University of Copenhagen, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark 17 RIFCON GmbH, 69493 Hirschberg, Germany 18 Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, 76829 Landau, Germany 19 Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts, AL5 2JQ, UK 20 Wageningen University, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands 21 Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia agraria. CRA-SCA

  3. Survival of the lichen model system Circinaria gyrosa before flight to the ISS (EXPOSE R2 mission) (United States)

    De la Torre Noetzel, Rosa

    Abstract Space Verification Tests (SVT) are necessary for selection of the most promising biological organisms for flight experiments in Low Earth Orbit or other space destinations: Simulation of sample assembly, exposure to expected space parameters and sample disassembly are significantly advanced by such tests, will be performed with this tests, allowing post-analysis of the exposed biological material and thus a deeper understanding of the individual and synergistic effects of space. In this work we present the results obtained with the lichen species Circinaria gyrosa after the SVT 2 run-2 tests concerning the EXPOSE-R2 Mission Preflight Test Program, performed at the planetary and space simulation facilities at DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Cologne, Germany) [1], from October 2013 to January 2014. This vagrant lichen species was collected at the steppic highlands of Central Spain and defined as “astrobiological model system” due to previous test at space missions (BIOPAN-6, Foton M-3) [2, 3], Therefore, C. gyrosa is part of the BIOMEX experiment (Biology and Mars Experiment, ESA) [4] which will be exposed from July 2014 to January 2016 on board of EXPOSE R2 on the International Space Station. C. gyrosa was exposed at DLR to simulated space- and Mars parameters: a) space vacuum 10-5 Pa, space UV-radiation (200-400 nm, fluence of 12 months mission = 5 x 105 kJm-2) and temperature fluctuations (-25 ºC to 10 ºC); b); Mars Simulated CO2 atmosphere, Mars pressure of 103 Pa, Mars UV-radiation (200-400 nm), and temperature fluctuations (-25 ºC to 10 ºC). In line with the lichen's well studied adaptations to harsh environmental conditions [5, 6] we observed a high recovery- and resistance capacity of C. gyrosa which was demonstrated after a 72 hours re-activation process of in the UV-Radiation and Bioclimatology Laboratories of INTA (Atmospheric Research and Instrumentation, Dept. Earth Observation). These results confirm the high survival