Sample records for bioclimatology

  1. Bioclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents and analyze, the meteorological data picked up in the meteorological station of the Center of Investigations Macagual of the ICA in the Amazon mountain foot, during the period 1977 at 1989. It was found that the values of shine lot in the region are inferior at 2.000 hours year, being restrictive for species like Pueraria phaseoloides with high requirements of light. It was found that the values annual means of temperature have a very small variation, the same thing happens with the variation among the months, reason why it concludes that it is a isohypertermic regime that doesn't limit the development of the species that it conform the agro-ecosystem. It concludes that the Amazon mountain foot has a rainy tropical climate of high significance in the environmental and agricultural activities with smaller forage readiness in the times of maximum precipitation and loss of weight of the animals, being necessary the nutritious supplementation; the high relative humidity until of 93 percent it is related with endemic illnesses as Pseudomoras solanacearum, Erminia, Mycrocyclus uleim pernicious Grinipellis and Monihia rureri. The potential evapotranspiration had a value of 1435 mm and in general the precipitation is bigger than the evapotranspiration. The winds of the region remain in calm most of the time. The hydric balance showed an excess of water of March until November and a deficit of December to February

  2. La Bioclimatología y su utilidad en los estudios de la diversidad biológica: experiencias en la provincia Holguín, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fornet Hernández


    Full Text Available Aborda un análisis sobre la importancia de la bioclimatología para los estudios de biodiversidad, se refieren reportes sobre diferentes especies vegetales y se profundiza en un endémico holguinero, Escobaria cubensis (Britton & Rose Hunt, "el cactus enano de Holguín", el cual ha sido estudiado desde hace algunos años por investigadores que han mencionado la influencia del clima sobre su comportamiento. Se concluye la utilidad demostrada de la bioclimatología en el conocimiento de la diversidad biológica y se muestra la necesidad de enfoques y acciones integradoras en este tipo de estudio y no la exposición descriptiva de las características del clima.

  3. Human bioclimatology analysis of Ankara urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Çalışkan


    Full Text Available In this study, the Physiological Equivalent Temperatures (PET of different land patterns in the Ankara urban area has been analyzed. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of the thermal perceptions and the grades of thermal stress caused by the thermal conditions have been determined for 00:00, 03:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00 hours during the December and July of 2010. The effects of physiographic features such as elevation, aspect, slope, and especially land use, on the PETs have also been examined. According to the analysis which is carried out by using PET thermal perception index, in the research area the thermal comfort values varies around from -6 to -11°C in winter and from 13°C to 50°C in summer. In both periods the open spaces (grasslands of the city forests have the maximum PET values during the day. Either in December and in July the urban area (city center has and cool island during the day and has a heat island during the night.

  4. Analysis of Ankara urban area from human bioclimatologic point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Türkoğlu


    Full Text Available In this study, the Physiological Equivalent Temperatures (PET of different land patterns in the Ankara urban area has been analyzed. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of the thermal perceptions and the grades of thermal stress caused by the thermal conditions have been determined for 00:00, 03:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00 hours during the December and July of 2010. The effects of physiographic features such as elevation, aspect, slope, and especially land use, on the PETs have also been examined. According to the analysis which is carried out by using PET thermal perception index, in the research area the thermal comfort values varies around from -6 to -11°C in winter and from 13°C to 50°C in summer. In both periods the open spaces (grasslands of the city forests have the maximum PET values during the day. Either in December and in July the urban area (city center has and cool island during the day and has a heat island during the night.

  5. Geographical variations in seasonal mortality across the United States: A bioclimatological approach (United States)

    Kalkstein, Adam


    Human mortality exhibits a strong seasonal pattern with deaths in winter far exceeding those in the summer. Surprisingly, this seasonal trend is evident in all major cities across the United States, seemingly independent of climate. While the pattern itself is clear, its magnitude varies considerably across space, and it is not known if there is regional homogeneity among cities. Additionally, the causal mechanisms relating to pattern variability are not clearly understood. The goal of this study is to conduct a comprehensive geographic analysis of seasonal mortality across the United States, to uncover systematic regional differences in such mortality, and to determine what role weather plays in impacting seasonal mortality rates. Unique seasonal mortality curves were created for 28 Metropolitan Statistical Areas across the United States, and the amplitude and timing of mortality peaks were determined. In addition, seasonality was calculated for different demographic groups and causes of death. Meteorological factors were also evaluated as possible causal mechanisms. The findings here indicate that the seasonality of mortality exhibits strong spatial variation with the largest seasonal mortality amplitudes found in the southwestern United States and the smallest in the North, along with South Florida. In addition, there have been changes in the timing of seasonal mortality; the date of maximum mortality is occurring increasingly early in the year. Demographics also play an important role with women, Whites, and the elderly exhibiting the strongest seasonality in mortality. There is a strong connection between respiratory disease and other causes of death, implying a cause-effect relationship. Meteorology also plays an important role in seasonal mortality; variations in the frequency of certain air masses were associated with changes in the timing and amplitude of seasonal mortality. Finally, there were strong intra-regional similarities that exist among the examined cities, implying that environmental factors are more important than social factors in determining seasonal mortality response. This work begins to fill a large gap within the scientific literature concerning the causes, geographic variation, and meteorological influences on seasonal mortality. Additionally, these results will increase the forecasting capabilities of determining when and where winter mortality will reach unusually high levels.

  6. Gastrointestinal helminths of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from different bioclimatological regions in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Nansen, P.


    areas in northwest Greenland in close proximity to the Canadian Archipelago. Foxes from air bases, which are known to feed intensively on garbage, harbored similar numbers of species compared to foxes from settlements in the same regions. The number of T. leonina in animals less than 1 yr of age was...

  7. Urban heat island and bioclimatological conditions in a hot-humid tropical city: the example of Akure, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogun, Ifeoluwa A.


    Full Text Available The impact of weather on human health has become an issue of increased significance in recent times, considering the increasing rate of urbanisation and the much associated heat island phenomenon. This study examines the urbanisation influence on human bioclimatic conditions in Akure, a medium sized hot-humid tropical city in Nigeria, utilising data from measurements at urban and rural sites in the city. Differences in the diurnal, monthly and seasonal variation of human bioclimatic characteristics between both environments were evaluated and tested for statistical significance. Higher frequencies of high temperatures observed in the city centre suggest a significant heat stress and health risk in this hot-humid city.

  8. Nemocnost v n. p. Jihlava v letech 1965-1974 z hlediska vlivu vnějších faktorů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Střeštík, Jaroslav; Hejl, Z.

    Bratislava : Slovak bioclimatological society, 2007 - (Lapin, M.; Matejka, F.), s. 1-9 ISBN 80-89186-12-2. [Bioclimatology and water in the land. International bioclimatological conference. Strečno (SK), 11.09.2007-14.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : morbidity * heliogeophysical factors * meteorological factors Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  9. Increase of annual and seasonal air temperatures in the Czech Republic during 1961 - 2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Střeštík, Jaroslav; Rožnovský, J.; Štěpánek, P.; Zahradníček, P.

    Brno: Masaryk University, 2014 - (Rožnovský, J.; Litschmann, T.), s. 475-487 ISBN 978-80-210-6983-1. [Mendel and bioclimatology. Brno (CZ), 03.09.2014-05.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : air temperatures * long-term change * regions * seasons Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  10. Simulation of phytomass productivity based on the optimum temperature for plant growth in a cold climate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šír, Miloslav; Lichner, Ľ.; Tesař, Miroslav; Martinková, M.

    Zvolen : Slovak Bioclimatological Society at the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Technical University in Zvolen, 2007 - (Střelcová, K.; Škvařenina, J.; Blaženec, M.). s. 200 ISBN 978-80-228-1760-8. [Bioclimatology and natural hazards: international scientific conference. 17.09.2007-20.09.2007, Poľana nad Detvou] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200420562; GA ČR GA205/05/2312; GA AV ČR IAA3042301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : phytomass productivity * plant temperature * plant transpiration * natural selection hypothesis * cold climate Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  11. Nemocnost v n. p. Jihlava v letech 1965-1974 z hlediska chronobiologie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejl, Z.; Střeštík, Jaroslav

    Nitra : Slovenská polnohospodárska univerzita, 2004 - (Šiška, B.), s. - ISBN 80-8069-402-8. [Climate change - weather extremes - organisms and ecosystems. International bioclimatological workshop 2004. Viničky (SK), 23.08.2004-26.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3046108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : morbidity * diurnal variation * lunar variation Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  12. Assessment of Water Deficiency in Forest Ecosystems: Can a Simple Model of Forest Water Balance Produce Reliable Results?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baláž, P.; Střelcová, K.; Blaženec, M.; Pokorný, Radek; Klimánková, Z.

    Nizozemí: Springer, 2009, s. 207-217. ISBN 978-1-4020-8875-9. [International Scientific Conference on Bioclimatology and Natural Hazards. Polana (SK), 17.02.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD526/03/H036; GA MŠk 1P05OC027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : drought * european beech * Norway spruce * transpiration * water balance * water demands Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  13. Časová a prostorová proměnlivost povodní a extrémních srážek na území Čech

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, Jan; Halásová, O.; Kakos, Vilibald

    Bratislava : FMFI, Comenius University, 2006 - (Lapin, M.; Matejka, F.), s. 1-17 ISBN 80-89186-12-2. [International Bioclimatological Conference. Strečno (SK), 11.09.2006-14.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300420601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : extreme precipitation events * floods * snow accumulation * long-term variability * climate change * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  14. Globální teplota roste nepravidelně

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Střeštík, Jaroslav

    Zvolen: Technical University, 2007 - (Střelcová, K.; Škvarenina, J.; Blaženec, M.), s. 1-7 ISBN 978-80-228-1760-8. [Bioclimatology and natural hazards. International scientific conference. Zvolen - Polana nad Detvou (SK), 17.09.2007-20.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : global warming * global temperatures * periodicities Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  15. Digital herbarium archives as a spatially extensive, taxonomically discriminate phenological record; a comparison to MODIS satellite imagery (United States)

    Park, Isaac W.


    This study demonstrates that phenological information included in digital herbarium archives can produce annual phenological estimates correlated to satellite-derived green wave phenology at a regional scale (R = 0.183, P = 0.03). Thus, such records may be utilized in a fashion similar to other annual phenological records and, due to their longer duration and ability to discriminate among the various components of the plant community, hold significant potential for use in future research to supplement the deficiencies of other data sources as well as address a wide array of important issues in ecology and bioclimatology that cannot be addressed easily using more traditional methods.

  16. Regular variations of air pollution on selected stations during 2003-2007

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Střeštík, Jaroslav

    Stará Lesná : Geophysical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Slovak Bioclimatological Society of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2009 - (Pribullová, A.; Bičárová, S.), s. 219-220 ISBN 978-80-900450-1-9. [ Sustainable development and bioclimate. Stará Lesná (SK), 05.10.2009-08.10.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : air pollution * variations of concentration * biometeorological prediction Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  17. An example of technical co-operation in nuclear agronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors give the principal results obtained in the Ivory Coast by the use of radioactive tracers and radiation equipment (neutron depth moisture gauges in particular) in the field of agronomical research in a tropical environment. These results are the outcome of work performed in the isotope laboratory set up in 1964 at the ORSTOM Centre, Adiopodoumé, by the CEA, and carried out in collaboration with the research workers of ORSTOM and of various other institutes specializing in the following subjects: plant physiology, agronomy, bioclimatology, nematology and entomology. (author)

  18. Climatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climatology is an important field of continuing interest in nearly all fields of science and beyond. In view of this interdisciplinary role, the textbook gives an accurate and intelligible introduction to the fundamentals and modern aspects of general climatology. It covers the basic concepts of climate elements, the physical processes, atmospheric circulation and further components of the ''climate system'' (ocean, ice, continents), as well as an explanation of the observed field characteristics of the climate, problems of climate modelling fundamentals of bioclimatology, and, last but not least, key aspects of climate history and anthropogenic effects on climate. (orig.)

  19. Mountain Weather and Climate, Third Edition (United States)

    Hastenrath, Stefan


    For colleagues with diverse interests in the atmosphere, glaciers, radiation, landforms, water resources, vegetation, human implications, and more, Mountain Weather and Climate can be a valuable source of guidance and literature references. The book is organized into seven chapters: 1, Mountains and their climatological study; 2,Geographical controls of mountain meteorological elements; 3, Circulation systems related to orography; 4, Climatic characteristics of mountains; 5, Regional case studies; 6, Mountain bioclimatology; and 7, Changes in mountain climates. These chapters are supported by l78 diagrams and photographs, 47 tables, and some 2000 literature references. The volume has an appendix of units and energy conversion factors and a subject index, but it lacks an author index.

  20. Urbanization, urban climate and influence of vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese

    warming in tropical dry climates and effects of different urban vegetation in mitigating local warming, and 3) knowledge of human bioclimatology in a tropical warm climate by examining influences of urban thermal environment on workplace comfort and wellbeing. The changes in urban LULC as well as...... thermal consequences of the ongoing rapid urbanization in African contexts. The magnitude of UHI and its impacts on human comfort and wellbeing, as well as effectiveness of urban vegetation in mitigating the UHI effects in the context of tropical Africa, are rarely studied. This project, therefore......-sized parks showed higher thermal contrast with the surrounding non-park environment. Species with highest and least cooling effect were, respectively, Eucalyptus and Grevillea. In Paper IV, influence of urban environment on human thermal comfort at workplaces in Adama was explored. The role of tree...

  1. A quantitative sensitivity analysis on the behaviour of common thermal indices under hot and windy conditions in Doha, Qatar (United States)

    Fröhlich, Dominik; Matzarakis, Andreas


    Human thermal perception is best described through thermal indices. The most popular thermal indices applied in human bioclimatology are the perceived temperature (PT), the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). They are analysed focusing on their sensitivity to single meteorological input parameters under the hot and windy meteorological conditions observed in Doha, Qatar. It can be noted, that the results for the three indices are distributed quite differently. Furthermore, they respond quite differently to modifications in the input conditions. All of them show particular limitations and shortcomings that have to be considered and discussed. While the results for PT are unevenly distributed, UTCI shows limitations concerning the input data accepted. PET seems to respond insufficiently to changes in vapour pressure. The indices should therefore be improved to be valid for several kinds of climates.

  2. Historical and conceptual aspects of ethno-ornithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Giuseppe Chaves Alves


    Full Text Available Ethno-ornithology describes and analyzes the knowledge of local people, providing a comprehension of the relationships between humans and birds. This work consists of an historical review on ethno-ornithology. Its main objective was to describe and organize the ethno-ornithological knowledge in Brazil, as well as to identify phases in the development of this field of research in Brazil. Ethnoornithology emerged in the 1880s from inventories of bird species and also studies on vernacular names, uses, meanings and histories, evolving into comprehensive studies. In Brazil, it was marked by two stages: a phase of inventories and a multidisciplinary phase. Many different fields of formal knowledge helped in the development of ethno-ornithology, such as anthropology, taxonomy, mythology, history, etymology, bioclimatology, semiotics, morphology, and ecology, contributing towards the mediation of the limits between natural and social sciences.

  3. Applying the concept of the ecological niche and a macroecological approach to understand how climate influences zooplankton: Advantages, assumptions, limitations and requirements (United States)

    Beaugrand, Gregory; Mackas, Dave; Goberville, Eric


    Ecosystem effects of climate change have been detected in all components of the Earth System. In the marine biosphere, climate-change responses have caused large and well-documented biogeographical and phenological shifts, which have in turn altered local dominance hierarchies, and also the structure, diversity and functional linkages within regional marine ecosystems. There is an urgent need to improve both our knowledge of the global-scale effects of climate change on marine biodiversity and our capacity to project future impacts. But extrapolation of previously estimated changes to additional places and to future conditions is complicated by non-linear responses to environmental variables, and also by complexities of multivariate interaction that can lead to tipping-points. In this paper, we show how observations from widely-spaced locations can be combined to characterise the ecological niche of a species, and how the concept of the niche can be used to understand and project how climate-induced changes in temperatures will alter marine zooplankton both locally and globally. As an example to illustrate our view, we apply this framework to the relatively well-known copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Our results suggest that climate change will strongly affect the local abundance of this species in the North Atlantic Ocean by the end of this century. Predicted changes are large (e.g. increase by ±6-10-fold of the temporal changes in the abundance of C. finmarchicus) and vary as a function of the magnitude of warming and the local sign and steepness of the thermal niche. Substantial rates of change hold even under optimistic climatic scenarii. After reviewing the main limitations of the niche concept in bioclimatological research, we argue that the application of this concept in ecology and bioclimatology might nevertheless represent the best tool currently available to scientists to discern and anticipate the effect of global climate change on species and ecosystems

  4. Analysis of human thermal comfort and its tendencies in Budapest (Hungary) (United States)

    Nemeth, Akos; Kovacs, Attila


    In spite of the fact that the evaluation of the thermal conditions in the urban areas is extremely important and timely, in Budapest (capital of Hungary) very few studies were performed in this direction until now. The aim of this paper is to analyze the differences and changes of the thermal comfort conditions in the last half century (1961-2010) by comparing measurements of two meteorological stations located in different environments of Budapest: one in the central urban area (Local Climate Zone 2 - 'compact midrise') and the other in the suburbs (between Local Climate Zones 6 - 'open lowrise' and A - 'dense trees'). The thermal comfort was characterized by two human bioclimatological comfort indices, the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), for four characteristic times of the day in the examined period. Then the thermal comfort differences between the stations according to two climatic normal periods (1961-1990 and 1981-2010), and the tendencies detected among the periods were also under investigation. For the last decade, 2001-2010, hourly-resolution investigations were carried out. The results indicate that the central area is affected by a higher degree of hot stress and less cold stress. Additionally, the warm stress has become more frequent, however, the cold heat load decreased in both examined area at each time.

  5. Measurement of photooxidants relevant to human biometeorology in an urban agglomeration (PHOTOX). Measurement of various hydrocarbons as precursors of photooxidants relevant to human biometeorology (KOVOX). Final report of Part 2; Erfassung von human-biometeorologisch relevanten Photooxidantien in einem Ballungsraum (PHOTOX). Erfassung verschiedener Kohlenwasserstoffe als Vorlaeufersubstanzen fuer human-biometeorologisch relevante Photooxidantien (KOVOX). Abschlussbericht zum Teil 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobi, G.; Fabian, P. [eds.


    The air-chemical components ozone and PAN (peroxy acetyl nitrate), their precursors NO and NO{sub 2} and the meteorological parameters air temperature, humidity, global radiation, wind direction and wind velocity were measured in the framework of a research project (PHOTOX - Measurement of photooxidants relevant to human biometeorology in an urban agglomeration) carried out by the Department of Bioclimatology and Pollution Research. Further, a wide range of anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons, which are important groups of precursors of photooxidants and potential pollution factors, were measured in the framework of another research project (KOVOX - Measurement of various hydrocarbons as precursors of photooxidants relevant to human biometeorology). (orig/SR) [Deutsch] Die Messung der luftchemischen Komponenten Ozon und PAN (Peroxiacetylnitrat), deren Vorlaeufersubstanzen Stickstoffmonoxid (NO) und Stickstoffdioxid (NO{sub 2}) sowie deren meteorologischen Parameter Lufttemperatur, Luftfeuchtigkeit, Globalstrahlung, Windrichtung und Windgeschwindigkeit wurde im Rahmen des am Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immisionsforschung laufenden Forschungsvorhabens ``Erfassung von human-biometeorologisch relevanten Photooxidantien in einem Ballungsraum (PHOTOX)`` durchgefuehrt. Des weiteren erfolgte die Messung einer breiten Palette anthropogener und biogener Kohlenwasserstoffe als wichtige Gruppen der Vorlaeufersubstanzen zur Photooxidantienbildung und moeglicher Wirkfaktoren, im Rahmen des Projektes ``Erfassung verschiedener Kohlenwasserstoffe als Vorlaeufersubstanzen fuer human-biometeorologisch relevante Photooxidantien (KOVOX)``. (orig./BW)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the field of urban bioclimatology an important and timely research direction today is to examine the thermal conditions of public places. In our study, human thermal comfort analysis was performed in a modern and well-attended children playground located in Szeged (Hungary. The aim of the paper is to reveal the changes in the thermal comfort conditions between two seasons and also the resulting subjective thermal reactions of visitors in this relatively small area. Thermal comfort conditions were quantified by the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET. For typical summer and autumn days of 2011 numerical simulations of thermal comfort conditions in the playground were carried out by means of the urban microclimate model ENVI-met. Spatial distribution of the simulated PET, i.e. thermal stress maps were created in two different times of the selected days in order to characterize the distinct microclimatological conditions appearing in the area. The relationship between the momentary spatial patterns of visitors and the thermal conditions was also under investigation. Additionally, onsite questionnaire survey was implemented which highlights the people’s subjective evaluation related to the design of the playground.

  7. Vertical profiles, fluxes and deposition rates of O3, NOx and SO2 in a spruce stand of the Bayerischer Wald mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even the investigations underlying this report, conducted by the Professorship for Bioclimatology and Applied Meteorology at University of Munich, were originally conceived as pure deposition studies (i.e., gas phase, etc.) for researching the damage to forests. But, however, other disciplines were also suggested for additional experiments at the same location through the infrastructure, experimental configuration and preliminary results of this project. This consequently led to the development of a continuous and intensive cooperation of several foreign and domestic groups, in terms of the partial field BIATEX ('Biosphere/Atmosphere Exchange of Pollutants') of the European environmental research program EUROTRAC ('Transport and Transformation of Trace Constituent over Europe'). These groups were assigned the task of also recording emission processes and reactions with deposited materials and, thus, describe physical and chemical interactions between the atmosphere and the special ecosystem 'forest'. The chief and, at the same time, sole objective of the investigations was to study, exclusively, deposition processes and, in this respect, only those relating to the gas phase, although the influence of trace materials occurs in all three states of aggregation in an ecosystem. (orig./KW)

  8. Intermittent hyperthyreosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermittent hyperthyreosis occurs under various forms of stress, especially heat stress. The clinician may diagnose such cases as masked or apathetic hyperthyroidism or 'forme fruste' hyperthyreosis or thyroid autonomy. As most routine and standard tests may here yield inconsistent results, it is the patients' anamnesis which may provide the clue. Our Bioclimatology Unit has now seen over 100 cases in which thyroid hypersensitivity towards heat was the most prominent syndrome: 10-15% of weather-sensitive patients are affected. The patients complain before or during heat spells of such contradictory symptoms as insomnia, irritability, tension, tachycardia, palpitations, precordial pain, dyspnoe, flushes with sweating or chills, tremor, abdominal pain or diarrhea, polyuria or pollakisuria, weight loss in spite of ravenous appetite, fatigue, exhaustion, depression, adynamia, lack of concentration and confusion. Determination of urinary neurohormones allows a differential diagnosis, intermittent hyperthyreosis being characterized by three cardinal symptoms: tachycardia - every case with more than 80 pulse beats being suspect (not specific); urinary histamine - every case excreting more than 90 μg/day being suspect. Again the drawback of this test is its lack of specificity, as histamine may also be increased in cases of allergy and spondylitis; urinary thyroxine - every case excreting more than 20 μg/day T-4 being suspect. This is the only specific test. Therapy should make use of lithium carbonate and betablockers. Propyl thiouracil is rarely required. (orig.)

  9. Ajuste de escalas de sensación térmica para Xalapa, Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cervantes Pérez


    Full Text Available La determinación de una zona de confort es un objetivo de la bioclimatología humana. El desarrollo manual, perceptivo e intelectual del hombre depende de la condición térmica que experimente. Los índices térmicos han sido desarrollados para zonas y grupos étnicos específicos del planeta, por lo que en este trabajo se presenta una propuesta de adecuación de los índices Temperatura Efectiva (TE y Wind-Chill así como la estandarización de sus escalas de sensación térmica para la ciudad de Xalapa, Ver. La temperatura fue la variable a través de la cual se realizó este proceso y los resultados obtenidos fueron satisfactorios al mostrar sensaciones térmicas muy similares ambos índices en dos meses contrastantes. La aplicación de este tipo de información incluye a la arquitectura y a la medicina, entre otras especialidades.

  10. Energy partitioning and surface resistance of a poplar plantation in northern China (United States)

    Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S. G.; Chen, J.


    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been, on the one hand, broadly used in northern China for urban greening, combating desertification, as well as for paper and wood production. On the other hand, such plantations have been questioned occasionally for their possible negative impacts on water availability due to the higher water-use nature of poplar trees compared with other tree species in water-limited dryland regions. To further understand the acclimation of poplar species to semiarid environments and to evaluate the potential impacts of these plantations on the broader context of the region's water supply, we examine the variability of bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning in a poplar (Populus euramericana cv. "74/76") plantation located in northern China over a 4-year period, encompassing both dry and wet conditions. The partitioning of available energy to latent heat flux (LE) decreased from 0.62 to 0.53 under mediated meteorological drought by irrigation applications. A concomitant increase in sensible heat flux (H) resulted in the increase of a Bowen ratio from 0.83 to 1.57. Partial correlation analysis indicated that surface resistance (Rs) normalized by leaf area index (LAI; Rs:LAI) increased by 50 % under drought conditions and was the dominant factor controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the main factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (Ω = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively). Rs was also a major regulator of the LE / LEeq ratio, which decreased from 0.81 in wet years to 0.68 in dry years. All physiological and bioclimatological metrics indicated that the water demands of the poplar plantation were greater than the amount available through precipitation, highlighting the poor match of a water-intensive species like poplar for this water-limited region.

  11. Tropical Warm Semi-Arid Regions Expanding Over Temperate Latitudes In The Projected 21st Century (United States)

    Rajaud, A.; de Noblet, N. I.


    Two billion people today live in drylands, where extreme climatic conditions prevail, and natural resources are limited. Drylands are expected to expand under several scenarios of climatic change. However, relevant adaptation strategies need to account for the aridity level: it conditions the equilibrium tree-cover density, ranging from deserts (hyper-arid) to dense savannas (sub-humid). Here we focus on the evolution of climatically defined warm semi-arid areas, where low-tree density covers can be maintained. We study the global repartition of these regions in the future and the bioclimatic shifts involved. We adopted a bioclimatological approach based on the Köppen climate classification. The warm semi-arid class is characterized by mean annual temperatures over 18°C and a rainfall-limitation criterion. A multi-model ensemble of CMIP5 projections for three representative concentration pathways was selected to analyze future conditions. The classification was first applied to the start, middle and end of the 20th and 21st centuries, in order to localize past and future warm semi-arid regions. Then, time-series for the classification were built to characterize trends and variability in the evolution of those regions. According to the CRU datasets, global expansion of the warm semi-arid area has already started (~+13%), following the global warming trend since the 1900s. This will continue according to all projections, most significantly so outside the tropical belt. Under the "business as usual" scenario, the global warm semi-arid area will increase by 30% and expand 12° poleward in the Northern Hemisphere, according to the multi-model mean. Drying drives the conversion from equatorial sub-humid conditions. Beyond 30° of latitude, cold semi-arid conditions become warm semi-arid through warming, and temperate conditions through combined warming and drying processes. Those various transitions may have drastic but also very distinct ecological and sociological

  12. Changes in flowering of birch in the Czech Republic in recent 25 years (1991–2015 in connection with meteorological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Hajkova


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of long-term phenological observations of silver birch (Betula pendula during the years 1991–2015 across the phenological network of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI – Český hydrometeorologický ústav. The data assembled over this period were used for identification of timing of generative phenophases associated with pollen release into the air: inflorescence emergence 10%, beginning of flowering 10%, beginning of flowering 50%, beginning of flowering 100%, and end of flowering. The stations are situated at altitudes from 155 m (Doksany to 1102 m (Modrava. The average timing of beginning of flowering 10% was 8th April (Lednice = lowland station and 14th May (Modrava = mountain station; the average timing of beginning of flowering 50% was 12th April (Lednice and 20th May (Modrava; the average timing of beginning of flowering 100% was 18th April (Lednice and 22nd May (Modrava, and the average timing of end of flowering was 26th April (Lednice and 28th May (Modrava. The totals of effective temperatures above 5°C (TS5 and sums of daily precipitation were used as a bio-climatological criterion for assessment of the dependence of phenological phases on meteorological variables. The average sums of TS5 and the average sums of daily precipitation total were as follows: 61.0–80.8°C, 82.8–327.4 mm (inflorescence emergence; 105.2–106.4°C, 85.9–365.2 mm (beginning of flowering 10%; 124.8–130.8°C, 89.8–385.9 mm (beginning of flowering 50%; 144.7–158.6°C, 95.2–390.7 mm (beginning of flowering 100%; and 181.6–223.8°C, 104.7–427.4 mm (end of flowering. Synoptic situations occurring during interphase intervals were obtained – the most often found synoptic situations were B (stationary trough over Central Europe, Bp (east travelling trough, NEa (northeast anticyclonic situation, Sa (south anticyclonic situation and SWc2 (southwest cyclonic situation moving northeast to eastwards. The

  13. New product development with the innovative biomolecular sublingual immunotherapy formulations for the management of allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frati F


    Full Text Available Franco Frati,1 Lorenzo Cecchi,2,3 Enrico Scala,4 Erminia Ridolo,5 Ilaria Dell'Albani,1 Eleni Makrì,6 Giovanni Pajno,7 Cristoforo Incorvaia6 1Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2Interdepartmental Centre of Bioclimatology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 3Allergy and Clinical Immunology Section, Azienda Sanitaria di Prato, Prato, Italy; 4Experimental Allergy Unit, IDI-IRCCS, Rome, Italy; 5Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma, Italy; 6Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 7Department of Pediatrics, Allergy Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Abstract: The molecular allergy technique, currently defined as component-resolved diagnosis, significantly improved the diagnosis of allergy, allowing for differentiation between molecules actually responsible for clinical symptoms (genuine sensitizers and those simply cross-reacting or shared by several sources (panallergens, thus influencing the appropriate management of a patient's allergy. This also concerns allergen immunotherapy (AIT, which may be prescribed more precisely based on the component-resolved diagnosis results. However, the advance in diagnosis needs to be mirrored in AIT. According to consensus documents and to expectations of specialists, therapy should be based on standardized extracts containing measured amounts of the clinically relevant molecules, ie, the major allergens. The new generation of extracts for sublingual immunotherapy fulfills these requirements and are thus defined as biomolecular (BM. BM refers to natural extracts with a defined content of major allergens in micrograms. All Staloral BM products are indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma. The effectiveness of AIT is related to its ability to modify the immunological response of allergic subjects. The 5-grass and house dust mite extracts were evaluated addressing the T helper 1, T

  14. Caracteristicas bioclimaticas de las malezas del cinturon verde de cordoba: parte I - Polygonum aviculare "sanguinaria" Bioclimatic characteristic of weeds in the city Cordoba's green belt: part I - Polygonum aviculare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul A. Nobile


    Full Text Available Na região fruti-ortícula do cinturião verde da cidade de Córdoba, Argentina, ocorre com frequência nos períodos de inverno e primavera o aparecimento de Polygomun aviculare. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de conhecer a fenologia desta espécie e as necessidades bioclimáticas de cada uma das etapas do seu ciclo de vida. Para estas análises conduziu-se um ensaio em uma propriedade do cinturião verde, na região Nordeste de Córdoba, durante os anos de 1988, 1989 e 1990. Determinrou-se as fases e subperíodos do ciclo evolutivo da espécie e parâmetros como altura e densidade de plantas e dados meteorológicos. O estudo permitiu estabelecer o fluxo estacional de emergência e determinar o tipo ecológico de planta daninha quanto à estação de crescimento. Os aspectos ecológicos levantados servirão de ferramentas para implementar estratégias de controle desta planta daninha."Knotweed", Polygonum aviculare is one of the most common weeds in the winter-spring period in the horticultural zone of Córdoba green belt. In order to know the phenology and climatic requirements of the species in each stage of its life cycle, an experiment was conducted in one of the green belt farms located in the NE of Córdoba outskirsts for three years (1988, 1989, 1990. Different phases and sub-periods of this life cycle, phenometric parameters (plant height and density and meteorological observations were determined. The experiment enabled to establish the stational flow of emergency and corroborate the winterspring ecological type of the weed. These aspects of the bioecology, phenology and bioclimatology are necessary tools when implementing an integrated system of weed control.

  15. Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period (United States)

    Gyarmati, R.; Toth, T.; Szegedi, S.; Kapocska, L.


    experienced when sudden changes happened in that two meteorological factors. Researches tend to explore this question contain such information that also can be useful from practical view. With comprehensive examination of the relation between frontal passage and the start of labours an opportunity presents for obstetrical departments to prepare for a possible increase of birth number by proper weather forecast. The importance of further studies is proved by the 515 pieces of form made it fill in over the area of the University of Debrecen. This questionnaire contained bioclimatological questions such as general questions for temperature sensation and sensitivity to fronts. We found that almost half the subjects chose by chance from the six age groups was meteoropathy. The answers given to the contact of sensitivity to fronts and allergy as well as to the survey of circulatory and articular troubles can be the basis of the preventive and curative medical researches in the near future. Moreover it's important to inform the population properly of the physiological effects of fronts due to their incomplete knowledge. All these can decrease the number of indispositions, road accidents and the number of deaths connected to frontal passage.

  16. Thermal bioclimate in Strasbourg - the 2003 heat wave (United States)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; de Rocco, Manuela; Najjar, Georges


    This case study highlights the implications of the 2003 heat wave for the city of Strasbourg, France. The urban centers of France and other European countries were particularly affected by the heat wave. In some urban areas, the mortality rate was 60% above the expected value (Institute de Veille Sanitaire, 2003). The 2003 heat wave demonstrated once again that populations in urban centers are much more affected by extreme meteorological events than people living in rural areas. The aim of this analysis is to explore differences in thermal comfort conditions of (a) the city center of Strasbourg, and (b) its hinterland. The differences in thermal conditions existing between rural and urban areas are quantified by using a bio-climatological index termed physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). This index is based on the human energy balance and builds a relevant index for the quantification of the thermal environment of humans. We calculate the PET for the years 2003 and 2004 to highlight the temporal changes in the severity of climate extremes. The spatial scope of this study is improved compared to previous works in the field through the inclusion of PET calculations for five different sites on a central place in Strasbourg (Place Kléber). The calculations are characterized by different sky view factors and are compared to the reference site, which is located in a rural area. In the rural hinterland (Entzheim), the analysis of PET indicates a strong cold thermal stress during the winter months but no significant stress in summer. In 2003, summer temperatures were sensed as warmer compared to other years, but did not reach the extreme temperatures that may cause severe heat stress. For both the rural and the urban study sites PET was higher in the summer of 2003 than in 2004, which reflects the inferior thermal conditions in the urban area during the heat wave in 2003. For the entire study period, urban and rural day-time PET reached similar maximal values

  17. The Determine of the Mashad Bioclimatic Condition Base on Hourly Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montazeri


    Full Text Available Extended Abstract1-IntroductionHumans have been aware that weather and climate affect health and well being. Hippocrates, 2.500 years ago, wrote about regional differences of climate and their relationship to states of the health (matzarakis, 2007. In the several decades past, heat balance models of the human body have become more and more accepted in the assessment of thermal comfort. The basis for these models is the human energy balance equation. One of the first and still very popular heat balance models is the comfort equation defined by Fanger (1972.Bioclimatology data applied to the planning for architect, health and medical, exercise and tourism and vacations Climate-comforting conditions usually are expressed by indexes which a series of meteorological, human and environmental factors have been played a role in, and the possibility of comparison among different places is provided by several thermal indices such as Predicted Mean Vote (PMV, Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET and Standard Effective Temperature (SET* may be calculated for the assessment of human bioclimate in a physiologically relevant manner as shown in several applications (Matzarakis et al., 1999; Blazejczyk, Matzarakis, 2007;etc. All indices have the known grades of thermal perception for human beings and physiological stress (Höppe, 1999. PET is defined as a certain air temperature related to fixed standard indoor conditions at which the heat balance of the human body is maintained with core and skin temperature equal to those under the conditions being assessed..In this research, PET index has used for hourly bioclimatology assessment (06, 12 and 16 UTC in the Mashhad city. This city is the second population city and religious capital in Iran that located to the north east in Iran. 2- MethodologyIn this research, great and population Mashad city have been selected for investigations comfortable climatic condition. We have used from The PET index in scale

  18. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto


    (14), Petr Hlavinka(7,8), Frantisek Jurecka(7,8), Jaromir Krzyszczak(10), Marcos Lana(6), Julien Minet(15), Manuel Montesino(16), Claas Nendel(6), John Porter(16), Jaime Recio(1), Françoise Ruget(11), Alberto Sanz(1), Zacharias Steinmetz(17,18), Pierre Stratonovitch(19), Iwan Supit(20), Domenico Ventrella(21), Allard de Wit(20) and Reimund P. Rötter(4). 1 Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ETSIAgrónomos,28040 Madrid, Spain, 2 University of Florence, 50144 Florence, Italy 3 IFAPA Junta de Andalucia, 14004 Córdoba, Spain 4 Natural Resources Institute (LUKE), 01370 Vantaa, Finland 5 Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), 00250 Helsinki, Finland 6 Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), 15374 Müncheberg, Germany 7 Institute of Agrosystems and Bioclimatology, Mendel University in Brno, Brno 613 00, Czech Republic 8 Global Change Research Institute CAS, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic 9 INRES, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany 10 Institute of Agrophysics Polish Academy of Sciences, Lublin, Poland 11 INRA, UMR 1114 EMMAH, F-84914 Avignon, France 12 James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, DD2 5DA, Scotland 13 State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China 14 University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy 15 Université de Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium 16 University of Copenhagen, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark 17 RIFCON GmbH, 69493 Hirschberg, Germany 18 Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, 76829 Landau, Germany 19 Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts, AL5 2JQ, UK 20 Wageningen University, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands 21 Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia agraria. CRA-SCA


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngrid Loyola Franco


    Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia( UESB in Itapetinga, BA, (15º 09’ 07"; South, 40º 15’ 32"; West. The grasses were cultivated in stonemasons with dimensions of 9X3 meters and they were irrigated by aspersion. The court height was 20 cm for the glasses Marandu and. Tanzânia and 10 cm for the Tifton 85. The were 11 courts. The experimental design was totally random experimental with two treatments (irrigated and not irrigated and five repetitions (stonemasons. The court interval was 25 days. The multivariate statistical analysis detected that both group (treatment and moment

    (court date had affected the dry mass production but, it was detected effect of the interaction group X moment. It was possible, with the use of the Climatic Growing Index, to estimate the glasses dry matter production in both treatments. Although, it was need specific equations for each glass and treatment which indicated the necessity of index calibration. It was possible, after this calibration, to estimate the dry mass production even under the irrigated condition. It was concluded that this index can be used in the estimation of dry mass production even under irrigated conditions. Therefore, the obtained results can be included in simulations and production modeling, for the grasses studied, when the limiting factor is climatic.

    KEY WORDS: Forage production, modelling, vegetal bioclimatology