WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioclim deliverable d2

  1. Bioclim Deliverable D2: consolidation of needs of the European waste management agencies and the regulator of the consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    period, with particular emphasis on the last glacial cycle. The data and information collated in this report for three of these countries (France, Spain and the United Kingdom) will be used within BIOCLIM to guide the development of down-scaling rules for regional climate characteristics and thereby to provide a basis for linking climate model output to system descriptions required for the purposes long-term safety assessment. In each case, the description begins with a summary of the present-day characteristics of the regions/sites of interest, categorized under the following headings: site location and the geology of the region; human communities and land use; topography; climate; litho-stratigraphy; surface water bodies; and biota These site descriptions are then followed by a detailed presentation of the information base that has enabled palaeo-reconstructions of environmental change to be made within each country. The intention is that, by correlating these reconstructions with the global climate record, it will be possible to develop down-scaling procedures that allow the projected effects of future global climate change to be reflected in assumptions about biosphere conditions relevant to long-term radiological safety assessments. Key outputs from the palaeo-environmental analysis for each selected region include: - a narrative description of the sequence of climate change at a regional scale, expressed in terms of simple climate parameters, such as the estimated mean annual temperature, associated with defined time periods. - associated descriptions of environmental change, taking into account the effects on hydrology, soils and vegetation. - identification of key environmental properties associated with a range of 'typical' conditions that have prevailed in different regions of Europe during the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Additional information for the Czech Republic has also been summarised for interest and comparison. Because the information described

  2. Bioclim Deliverable D1: environmental change analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The BIOCLIM project on modelling sequential Biosphere systems under Climate change for radioactive waste disposal is part of the EURATOM fifth European framework programme. The project was launched in October 2000 for a three-year period. The project aims at providing a scientific basis and practical methodology for assessing the possible long term impacts on the safety of radioactive waste repositories in deep formations due to climate and environmental change. The project brings together a number of representatives from both European radioactive waste management organisations which have national responsibilities for the safe disposal of radioactive waste, either as disposers or regulators, and several highly experienced climate research teams. In particular, BIOCLIM aims to address the important objective of how to represent the development of future biosphere systems by addressing both how to model long-term climate change, the relevant environmental consequences of such changes and the implementation of a sequential approach to such changes. The results from the development of this sophisticated approach will be of great benefit for improving long term radiological impact calculations and the information presented in a safety case. Simulations will be conducted to represent the time series of long-term climate in three European areas within which disposal sites may be established (i.e. Central/Southern Spain, Northeast of France and Central Britain). Two complementary strategies will provide representations of future climate predictions together with associated vegetation patterns using either an analysis of distinct climate states or a continuous climate simulation over at least one glacial-interglacial cycle and possibly for other selected periods over the next 1,000,000 years. These results will be used to derive the characteristics of possible future human environments (i.e. biosphere systems) through which radionuclides, emerging from the repository, may

  3. Bioclim Deliverable D7: continuous climate evolution scenarios over western Europe (1000 km scale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of BIOCLIM is to assess the possible long term impacts due to climate change on the safety of radioactive waste repositories in deep formations. This aim is addressed through the following specific objectives: - Development of practical and innovative strategies for representing sequential climatic changes to the geosphere-biosphere system for existing sites over central Europe, addressing the timescale of one million years, which is relevant to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. - Exploration and evaluation of the potential effects of climate change on the nature of the biosphere systems used to assess the environmental impact. - Dissemination of information on the new methodologies and the results obtained from the project among the international waste management community for use in performance assessments of potential or planned radioactive waste repositories. A key point of the project is therefore to develop strategies for representing sequential long-term climatic changes by addressing time scales of relevance to geological disposal of solid radioactive wastes. The integrated strategy, which first step is described in this deliverable (D7), consists of building an integrated, dynamic climate model, to represent all the known important mechanisms for long term climatic variations. The time-dependent results will then be interpreted in terms of regional climate using rule-based and statistical down-scaling approaches. Therefore, the continuous simulation of the climate evolution of the next 200 000 years selected for study is a major objective of the BIOCLIM project. This requires models that account for the simultaneous evolution of the atmosphere, biosphere, land-ice and the ocean. To be able to perform several 200 000-yearlong transient climate simulations, the models have to include all these components, but also need to be simple enough to run fast. Therefore, climate models of intermediate complexity have been chosen to

  4. Bioclim Deliverable D6b: application of statistical down-scaling within the BIOCLIM hierarchical strategy: methods, data requirements and underlying assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    -study regions were identified, together with the additional issues which arise in applying these techniques to output from the BIOCLIM simulations. This preliminary work is described in this BIOCLIM technical note. It provides an overview of statistical down-scaling methods, together with their underlying assumptions and advantages/disadvantages. Specific issues relating to their application within the BIOCLIM context (i.e., application to the IPSL C M4 D snapshot simulations) are identified, for example, the stationarity issue. The predictor and predictand data sets that would be required to implement these methods within the BIOCLIM hierarchical strategy are also outlined, together with the methodological steps involved. Implementation of these techniques was delayed in order to give priority to the application of the rule-based down-scaling method developed in WP3 to WP2 EMIC output (see Deliverable D8a). This task was not originally planned, but has allowed more comprehensive comparison and evaluation of the BIOCLIM scenarios and down-scaling methods to be undertaken

  5. Bioclim deliverable D8a: development of the rule-based down-scaling methodology for BIOCLIM Work-package 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The BIOCLIM project on modelling sequential Biosphere systems under Climate change for radioactive waste disposal is part of the EURATOM fifth European framework programme. The project was launched in October 2000 for a three-year period. The project aims at providing a scientific basis and practical methodology for assessing the possible long term impacts on the safety of radioactive waste repositories in deep formations due to climate and environmental change. Five work packages (WP) have been identified to fulfill the project objectives. One of the tasks of BIOCLIM WP3 was to develop a rule-based approach for down-scaling from the MoBidiC model of intermediate complexity in order to provide consistent estimates of monthly temperature and precipitation for the specific regions of interest to BIOCLIM (Central Spain, Central England and Northeast France, together with Germany and the Czech Republic). A statistical down-scaling methodology has been developed by Philippe Marbaix of CEA/LSCE for use with the second climate model of intermediate complexity used in BIOCLIM - CLIMBER-GREMLINS. The rule-based methodology assigns climate states or classes to a point on the time continuum of a region according to a combination of simple threshold values which can be determined from the coarse scale climate model. Once climate states or classes have been defined, monthly temperature and precipitation climatologies are constructed using analogue stations identified from a data base of present-day climate observations. The most appropriate climate classification for BIOCLIM purposes is the Koeppen/Trewartha scheme. This scheme has the advantage of being empirical, but only requires monthly averages of temperature and precipitation as input variables. Section 2 of this deliverable (D8a) outline how each of the eight methodological steps have been undertaken for each of the three main BIOCLIM study regions (Central England, Northeast France and Central Spain) using Mo

  6. Bioclim Deliverable D8b: development of the physical/statistical down-scaling methodology and application to climate model Climber for BIOCLIM Work-package 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of BIOCLIM is to assess the possible long term impacts due to climate change on the safety of radioactive waste repositories in deep formations. The main aim of this deliverable is to provide time series of climatic variables at the high resolution as needed by performance assessment (PA) of radioactive waste repositories, on the basis of coarse output from the CLIMBER-GREMLINS climate model. The climatological variables studied here are long-term (monthly) mean temperature and precipitation, as these are the main variables of interest for performance assessment. CLIMBER-GREMLINS is an earth-system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC), designed for long climate simulations (glacial cycles). Thus, this model has a coarse resolution (about 50 degrees in longitude) and other limitations which are sketched in this report. For the purpose of performance assessment, the climatological variables are required at scales pertinent for the knowledge of the conditions at the depository site. In this work, the final resolution is that of the best available global gridded present-day climatology, which is 1/6 degree in both longitude and latitude. To obtain climate-change information at this high resolution on the basis of the climate model outputs, a 2-step down-scaling method is designed. First, physical considerations are used to define variables which are expected to have links which climatological values; secondly a statistical model is used to find the links between these variables and the high-resolution climatology of temperature and precipitation. Thus the method is termed as 'physical/statistical': it involves physically based assumptions to compute predictors from model variables and then relies on statistics to find empirical links between these predictors and the climatology. The simple connection of coarse model results to regional values can not be done on a purely empirical way because the model does not provide enough information - it is both

  7. Bioclim Deliverable D6a: regional climatic characteristics for the European sites at specific times: the dynamical down-scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    many millennia. These results are then interpreted in terms of regional climatic changes using rule-based and statistical down-scaling approaches. This deliverable, D6a, focuses on the hierarchical strategy, and in particular the MAR simulations. According to the hierarchical strategy developed in the BIOCLIM project to predict future climate, six BIOCLIM experiments were run with the MAR model. In addition to these experiments a baseline experiment, presenting the present-day climate simulated by MAR, was also undertaken. In the first step of the hierarchical strategy the LLN 2-D NH climate model simulated the gross features of the climate of the next 1 Myr. Six snapshot experiments were selected from these results. In a second step a GCM and a biosphere model were used to simulate in more detail the climate of the selected time periods. These simulations were performed on a global scale. The third step of the procedure is to derive the regional features of the climate at the same time periods. Therefore the results of the GCM are used as boundary conditions to force the regional climate model (MAR) for the six selected periods and the baseline simulation. The control simulation (baseline) corresponds to the regional climate simulated under present-day conditions, both insolation forcing and atmospheric CO 2 concentration. All the BIOCLIM simulations are compared to that baseline simulation. In addition, other comparisons will also be presented

  8. Bioclim Deliverable D3: global climatic features over the next million years and recommendation for specific situations to be considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The BIOCLIM project aims at assessing the possible long-term impacts of climate change on the safety of waste repositories in deep formations using climate simulations of the long-term climate in various European areas. One of the objectives of the project is to develop two strategies for representing sequential climatic changes to the geosphere-biosphere system for different sites over Europe, addressing the time scale of one million years. The results of this work will be interpreted in terms of global or regional changes of climate and of vegetation. The first strategy (hierarchical strategy) will use the full hierarchy of existing climate models (a climate model is a numerical simplified representation of the climate system behaviour and evolution). Simple models (LLN 2-D NH and threshold models; see the description here after) will simulate the overall long-term evolution of the global climate. Their results will then be used as inputs to more complex models (LMD climate models possibly coupled with vegetation models, either SECHIBA or ORCHIDE) and finally climate and vegetation cover will be determined for specific sites at specific times. A second strategy (integrated strategy) will consist in building an integrated climate model, which represents most of the physical mechanisms for studying long-term climatic variations. The results will then be interpreted on a regional scale. This deliverable is the first step of the hierarchical strategy. The purpose of this deliverable is to identify and justify some specific climatic situations amongst different long-term simulations that are of interest for assessing the safety of radioactive waste repository sites and that will be further studied with GCMs (General Circulation Model). The simple threshold (or multi-state) climate model is a modified version of the model from Paillard. It describes the time evolution of the ice volume and the CO 2 concentration. It has two distinct regimes (interglacial and glacial

  9. Bioclim Deliverable D4/5: global climatic characteristics, including vegetation and seasonal cycles over Europe, for snapshots over the next 200,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the BIOCLIM project is to develop and present techniques that can be used to develop self-consistent patterns of possible future climate changes over the next million years (climate scenarios), and to demonstrate how these climate scenarios can be used in assessments of the long-term safety of nuclear waste repository sites. Within the project, two strategies are implemented to predict climate change. The first is the hierarchical strategy, in which a hierarchy of climate models is used to investigate the evolution of climate over the period of interest. These models vary from very simple 2-D and threshold models, which simulate interactions between only a few aspects of the earth system, through general circulation models (GCMs) and vegetation models, which simulate in great detail the dynamics and physics of the atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere, to regional models, which focus in particular on the European region and the specific areas of interest. The second strategy is the integrated strategy, in which intermediate complexity climate models are developed, and used to consecutively simulate the development of the earth system over many millennia. Although these models are relatively simple compared to a GCM, they are more advanced than 2D models, and do include physical descriptions of the biosphere, cryo-sphere, atmosphere and ocean. This deliverable, D4/5, focuses on the hierarchical strategy, and in particular the GCM and vegetation model simulation of possible future climates. Deliverable D3 documented the first step in this strategy. The Louvain-la-Neuve 2-D climate model (LLN-2D) was used to estimate (among other variables) annual mean temperatures and ice volume in the Northern Hemisphere over the next 1 million years. It was driven by the calculated evolution of orbital parameters, and plausible scenarios of CO 2 concentration. From the results, 3 future time periods within the next 200,000 years were identified as being extreme, that is

  10. Bioclim Deliverable D10 - 12: development and application of a methodology for taking climate-driven environmental change into account in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The BIOCLIM project on modelling sequential Biosphere systems under Climate change for radioactive waste disposal is part of the EURATOM fifth European framework programme. The project was launched in October 2000 for a three-year period. The project aims at providing a scientific basis and practical methodology for assessing the possible long term impacts on the safety of radioactive waste repositories in deep formations due to climate and environmental change. Five work packages have been identified to fulfill the project objectives: - Work package 1 will consolidate the needs of the European agencies of the consortium and summarize how environmental change has been treated to date in performance assessments. - Work packages 2 and 3 will develop two innovative and complementary strategies for representing time series of long term climate change using different methods to analyse extreme climate conditions (the hierarchical strategy) and a continuous climate simulation over more than the next glacial-interglacial cycle (the integrated strategy). - Work package 4 will explore and evaluate the potential effects of climate change on the nature of the biosphere systems. - Work package 5 will disseminate information on the results obtained from the three year project among the international community for further use. The output from the climate models developed and applied in WP2 and WP3 has been interpreted in WP4 ('Biosphere system description') in terms of model requirements for the post-closure radiological performance assessment of deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes, in order to develop a methodology to demonstrate how biosphere systems can be represented in the long-term. The work undertaken in WP4 is described in this report. This report describes the methodology used for identification and characterisation of specific climate states and transitions between those climate states. It also covers the application of those methods in the context of

  11. Concept and Model - Kiwi project deliverable D2.8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Concept and Model for personalisation serves several goals: •    Introducing relevant concepts of personalisation, user and group modelling, statistical model, reasoning and reason maintenance for personalisation. •    Reviewing the related work in personalisation and understanding how......, widget arrangement based on user activity and reasoning maintenance for generation of recommendations....

  12. Overview of arc design options: Deliverable D2.1

    CERN Document Server

    Chance, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the collider layouts to be taken into account for further detailed studies. The optimization of the arc cell lattice and the choice made on the dispersion suppressor are explained. The arc lattice is detailed with the procedures to tune the collider ring and to correct the chromaticity. The correction schemes of the orbit, of the dynamic aperture and of the spurious dispersion are detailed. Finally, the properties of the arc design at the injection energy are shown.

  13. Deliverable 2.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho; Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Skov, Mette

    2016-01-01

    This deliverable describes in detail the problem based learning (PBL) approach and its potential for open data education. The first section provides a theoretical description of PBL with the purpose of offering a platform for the design of open data learning activities. Section two describes the ...... the current practice of open data training within the ODEdu partners along with international initiatives. The last section provides pedagogical recommendations for the process of designing the open data courses and online platform aimed at in WP3....

  14. Solicitant -exciting plain bioclimate / Amara Balneoclimateric Resort, 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Spa and balneotherapy is one of studying medicine and therapy and apply natural factors intherapy: natural mineral water springs and lakes mineralized, therapeuticmineral mud and peat, gas emanations and climate zones,orlocalities developed intosources respective treatment , the spa resort climate.Resources are the mineral spa and climatic treatment ,whose physicochemical properties meet the needs of prevention and health maintenance, strengthening and restoration of health, work capacity and physical and mental comfort of the individual.Climatic is a form of treatment, well-run, have fewer side effects than chemo therapeutictreatment and prolonged effects, because the way treatment is as close to normal activity in a relaxing environment.Bioclimate turn-applicant is characterized by general biological effects resulting from theapplication marked the central nervous system and autonomic and endocrine activity. Bioclimatic conditions, demanding aplain exciting resorts are located in northeasternbalneoclimatice Baragan, on the shores of salt lakes: Amara, Lacul Sarat.

  15. Bioclimate analysis of Mountain Bjelašnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šušnjar Sanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of this paper was to assess weather suitability on Bjelasnica Mountain for optimal function of a human organism. Also, this paper represents weather classification for certain types of recreation and sport's activities. For the purpose of bioclimate analyses it has been used Model “MENEX”. This paper deals with the assessment of heat exchange between man and its environment. Research is based on a meteorological data from 2000 to 2010. The aim of a research was to determine periods in year on mountain Bjelasnica with optimal climate conditions for recreation and living but also to define periods with mostly unsuitable weather conditions, except for healthy and well adapted persons and specific type of activities.

  16. Deliverable 2.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarabanis, Konstantinos; Efthimios, Tambouris; Zotou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    etc. The report also presents the OD-PBL design pathway, which is a further development of the OD-PBL methodological recommendations presented in the D2.1. This design pathway aims to guide educators when designing learning processes that aim to teach OD by utilizing the PBL learning strategy......The work carried out resulted in the description of the LA field and in the presentation of a total of 18 LA tools that can analyse educational data that can be utilized in the project to support multiple PBL aspects, such as feedback, reflection, self-driven learning, collaboration, application....... The pathway consists of 6 main steps, i.e. Analysis, Gathering of inputs, Design, Development, Implementation and Reflection. Each step provides guidelines on how to plan an OD course and learning processes, and combines all previous project results from D1.1, D1.2, D1.3 and D2.1. Finally, the report presents...

  17. Thermal bioclimate in idealized urban street canyons in Campinas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Harbich, Loyde V.; Labaki, Lucila C.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Among several urban design parameters, the height-to-width ratio (H/W) and orientation are important parameters strongly affecting thermal conditions in cities. This paper quantifies changes in thermal comfort due to typical urban canyon configurations in Campinas, Brazil, and presents urban guidelines concerning H/W ratios and green spaces to adapt urban climate change. The study focuses on thermal comfort issues of humans in urban areas and performs evaluation in terms of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), based on long-term data. Meteorological data of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation over a 7-year period (2003-2010) were used. A 3D street canyon model was designed with RayMan Pro software to simulate the influence of urban configuration on urban thermal climate. The following configurations and setups were used. The model canyon was 500 m in length, with widths 9, 21, and 44 m. Its height varied in steps of 2.5 m, from 5 to 40 m. The canyon could be rotated in steps of 15°. The results show that urban design parameters such as width, height, and orientation modify thermal conditions within street canyons. A northeast-southwest orientation can reduce PET during daytime more than other scenarios. Forestry management and green areas are recommended to promote shade on pedestrian areas and on façades, and to improve bioclimate thermal stress, in particular for H/W ratio less than 0.5. The method and results can be applied by architects and urban planners interested in developing responsive guidelines for urban climate issues.

  18. Interpretación bioclimática de la arquitectura vernácula

    OpenAIRE

    Paniagua Padilla, Diego

    2015-01-01

    La ‘arquitectura vernácula’ desarrolló la primera adecuación entre el clima, las necesidades humanas y la construcción sostenible. En este sentido, la ‘arquitectura bioclimática’ de la que hablamos hoy en día es una interpretación de la arquitectura a efectos del clima sobre el hombre. Podríamos entenderla como una arquitectura popular evolucionada y adaptada. ¿Pero es lo mismo arquitectura vernácula que popular? ¿Y arquitectura bioclimática? ¿Es lo que muchos denominan ‘arquitectura sostenib...

  19. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  20. Adapting forest management to climate change using bioclimate models with topographic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; James J. Worrall; Suzanne B. Marchetti; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2015-01-01

    Bioclimate models incorporating topographic predictors as surrogates for microclimate effects are developed for Populus tremuloides and Picea engelmannii to provide the fine-grained specificity to local terrain required for adapting management of three Colorado (USA) national forests (1.28 million ha) and their periphery to climate change. Models were built with the...

  1. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers...

  2. Stakeholders´ Requirements and Reference Scenarios. Deliverable D2.1

    OpenAIRE

    Diamantopoulou, Vasiliki; Mouratidis, Haralambos; Pavlidis, Michalis; Rekleitis, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    The present document covers important elements on the development of WP2, including: a literature review of the state of the art relevant to security requirements engineering, risk management and supply chain security management standards. Following, the elicitation, analysis and documentation of requirements associated risk management and cyber-security management in ports and their supply chain sectors is presented. Emphasis is given in capturing the perspectives of all stakeholders; includ...

  3. Deliverable D2.4: Status of Dry Electrode Development Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of dry electrode development activity within the WP2 is tobuild a dry electrode prototype for brain wave sensing that is comfortable for the user and provides sufficient signal quality. The electrodes are to be utilized in BCI applications, namely Steady-StateVisually Evoked Potential

  4. Policy making structures in the EU and participating countries. Deliverable D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell; Lidberg, Maria; Falck, Eberhard

    2008-10-01

    The point of departure for the ARGONA project is that participation and transparency are key elements of effective risk governance. The acronym ARGONA stands for 'Arenas for Risk Governance' and the project investigates how approaches of transparency and deliberation relate to each other and also how they relate to the political system in which decisions, for example on the final disposal of nuclear waste, are ultimately taken. The project then turns to study the role played by mediators, who facilitate public engagement with nuclear waste management issues, and the 'conduct of the conduct' of public consultations. By the latter is meant the communication of models used for deliberation and transparency. Furthermore, the project investigates how good risk communication can be organized taking cultural aspects and different arenas into account. In a central part of the project major efforts are made to test and apply approaches to transparency and participation by making explicit what it would mean to use the RISCOM model and other approaches within different cultural and organizational settings. Finally, the ARGONA partners develop guidelines for the application of novel approaches that will enhance real progress in nuclear waste management programmes. The project consists of six work packages that logically starts with a description of the policy making structures that exist within the EU and in the participating countries, including EU Directives, such as Strategic Environmental Assessment and Environmental Impact Assessment Directives, as well as national nuclear safety and environmental legislation. This work package (WP 1) forms the point of departure for the project, in determining the framework within which new arenas can be formed and within which the mediators are acting. A questionnaire was issued and sent to key organizations at national and local levels. The intention was that the work package should be focused on issues that set the scene for e.g. site selection and involvement of stakeholders. One issue is the requirements for, but also if there are any limitations of, the use of novel public participation approaches (as compared to traditional minimal participation such as receiving information, asking questions at public meetings and submitting written comments) within the legal systems. Initially, the basic method of the work package was thus to analyze information gathered by the questionnaire survey. It was later decided to include more of external sources of information in the review such as other governance projects supported by DG Research of the European Commission. Furthermore, a study made on the legal aspects of information and participation in the nuclear sector made by the University of Aberdeen in a contract with DG TREN in 2005-2006 gave starting point for the WP 1 work Paterson et al. This study stays with strict legal requirements and in the discussion in this report we go deeper into how they are practiced with regard to participation and transparency. The decision to complement the survey by taking other sources of information into account and referring to them was made partly to avoid unnecessary duplication of work and partly as the questionnaire responses were fewer than expected. In the end, it is believed that this approach made the work and thus this report richer than otherwise would been the case. This report was concluded with a combination of efforts from Karita and the Joint Research Centre (JRC). In Chapter 2 we give more details on the relevant international agreements, thus mainly referring to the DG TREN report when it comes to national legislation. In chapter 3 we summarize the results from the survey with regard to driving forces behind efforts for participation and transparency, current practices and future needs. Finally, in Chapter 4 we discuss the situation taking both formal requirements, as described in chapter 3 and in the DG TREN report, and the survey responses into account. Appendix 1 provides the questionnaire itself and Appendix 2 lists the responding organizations

  5. ON SOFT D2-ALGEBRA AND SOFT D2-IDEALS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Subramanian; S. Seethalaksmi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied some characterization of soft D2-algebra, kernel, intersection, image, quotient D2-algebra’s and relations ship between D2-algebra and D2-ideals with suitable examples.

  6. Estudio climático y bioclimático del Parque Natural Sierra de Grazalema

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo Barea, Alfonso Jesús

    2016-01-01

    El Parque Natural Sierra de Grazalema, uno de los ámbitos más interesantes desde el punto de vista climático y bioclimático de la península, no está lo suficientemente estudiado. Por ello, en primer lugar, afrontamos un estudio climático de detalle, donde se analizan en profundidad las dos variables climáticas más relevantes (temperatura y precipitación). En vista de que la cartografía climática pública es muy general, hemos elaborado, con los valores térmicos y pluviométricos anuales disponi...

  7. Modelling sequential Biosphere systems under Climate change for radioactive waste disposal. Project BIOCLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texier, D.; Degnan, P.; Loutre, M.F.; Lemaitre, G.; Paillard, D.; Thorne, M.

    2000-01-01

    The BIOCLIM project (Modelling Sequential Biosphere systems under Climate change for Radioactive Waste Disposal) is part of the EURATOM fifth European framework programme. The project was launched in October 2000 for a three-year period. It is coordinated by ANDRA, the French national radioactive waste management agency. The project brings together a number of European radioactive waste management organisations that have national responsibilities for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes, and several highly experienced climate research teams. Waste management organisations involved are: NIREX (UK), GRS (Germany), ENRESA (Spain), NRI (Czech Republic) and ANDRA (France). Climate research teams involved are: LSCE (CEA/CNRS, France), CIEMAT (Spain), UPMETSIMM (Spain), UCL/ASTR (Belgium) and CRU (UEA, UK). The Environmental Agency for England and Wales provides a regulatory perspective. The consulting company Enviros Consulting (UK) assists ANDRA by contributing to both the administrative and scientific aspects of the project. This paper describes the project and progress to date. (authors)

  8. Present, future, and novel bioclimates of the San Francisco, California region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2013-01-01

    Bioclimates are syntheses of climatic variables into biologically relevant categories that facilitate comparative studies of biotic responses to climate conditions. Isobioclimates, unique combinations of bioclimatic indices (continentality, ombrotype, and thermotype), were constructed for northern California coastal ranges based on the Rivas-Martinez worldwide bioclimatic classification system for the end of the 20th century climatology (1971–2000) and end of the 21st century climatology (2070–2099) using two models, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model and the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), under the medium-high A2 emission scenario. The digitally mapped results were used to 1) assess the relative redistribution of isobioclimates and their magnitude of change, 2) quantify the loss of isobioclimates into the future, 3) identify and locate novel isobioclimates projected to appear, and 4) explore compositional change in vegetation types among analog isobioclimate patches. This study used downscaled climate variables to map the isobioclimates at a fine spatial resolution −270 m grid cells. Common to both models of future climate was a large change in thermotype. Changes in ombrotype differed among the two models. The end of 20th century climatology has 83 isobioclimates covering the 63,000 km2 study area. In both future projections 51 of those isobioclimates disappear over 40,000 km2. The ordination of vegetation-bioclimate relationships shows very strong correlation of Rivas-Martinez indices with vegetation distribution and composition. Comparisons of vegetation composition among analog patches suggest that vegetation change will be a local rearrangement of species already in place rather than one requiring long distance dispersal. The digitally mapped results facilitate comparison with other Mediterranean regions. Major remaining challenges include predicting vegetation composition of novel isobioclimates and developing metrics to compare

  9. Present, future, and novel bioclimates of the San Francisco, California region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Torregrosa

    Full Text Available Bioclimates are syntheses of climatic variables into biologically relevant categories that facilitate comparative studies of biotic responses to climate conditions. Isobioclimates, unique combinations of bioclimatic indices (continentality, ombrotype, and thermotype, were constructed for northern California coastal ranges based on the Rivas-Martinez worldwide bioclimatic classification system for the end of the 20(th century climatology (1971-2000 and end of the 21(st century climatology (2070-2099 using two models, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL model and the Parallel Climate Model (PCM, under the medium-high A2 emission scenario. The digitally mapped results were used to 1 assess the relative redistribution of isobioclimates and their magnitude of change, 2 quantify the loss of isobioclimates into the future, 3 identify and locate novel isobioclimates projected to appear, and 4 explore compositional change in vegetation types among analog isobioclimate patches. This study used downscaled climate variables to map the isobioclimates at a fine spatial resolution -270 m grid cells. Common to both models of future climate was a large change in thermotype. Changes in ombrotype differed among the two models. The end of 20(th century climatology has 83 isobioclimates covering the 63,000 km(2 study area. In both future projections 51 of those isobioclimates disappear over 40,000 km(2. The ordination of vegetation-bioclimate relationships shows very strong correlation of Rivas-Martinez indices with vegetation distribution and composition. Comparisons of vegetation composition among analog patches suggest that vegetation change will be a local rearrangement of species already in place rather than one requiring long distance dispersal. The digitally mapped results facilitate comparison with other Mediterranean regions. Major remaining challenges include predicting vegetation composition of novel isobioclimates and developing metrics to

  10. Fluctuations and predictability of wind and hydropower. Deliverable 2.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Holttinen, H.; Söder, L.

    2004-01-01

    The report forms the deliverable D2.1 of the EU supported project Wind Power Integration in a Liberalised Electricity Market (WILMAR). The handling and generation of the necessary wind and hydro time series for the project’s power system planningsimulation model is described. The wind power...... and the hydro power time series on hourly basis are generated on basis of real data for all the geographical regions included in the analysis in order to realistically represent the various correlations intime and displacement. Models have been developed to generate various realistic future time series based...

  11. QUEST2: Release 1: Project plan deliverable set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braaten, F.D.

    1995-01-01

    This Project Management Plan combines the project management deliverables from the P+ methodology which are applicable to Release 1 of the QUEST2 work. This consolidation reflects discussions with WHC QA regarding an appropriate method for ensuring that P+ deliverables fulfill the intent of WHC-CM-3-10 and QR-19

  12. Caracterización de patrones bioclimáticos en tejidos urbanos residenciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Alicia Cárdenas Jirón

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El microclima urbano es la resultante de una interacción entre la morfología urbana y el medio ambiente; y su estudio importa porque determina las condiciones de confort térmico en los espacios exteriores a la vivienda y por tanto su uso. Se parte del supuesto que la evaluación energética del entorno urbano no se considera en la actividad proyectual de conjuntos habitacionales. Por ello, el objetivo principal de esta tesis fue investigar el comportamiento energético de tejidos urbanos residenciales contemporáneos, aplicado a dos modelos de habitar: la ciudad jardín y la ciudad de bloque. Se postuló que si a una configuración espacial dada, le corresponde un comportamiento energético singular, entonces sería posible descifrar un patrón morfo-climático. El urbanismo bioclimático enmarca el enfoque teórico de la discusión, y el trabajo de campo se situó en un barrio residencial del pericentro en la metrópolis de Santiago de Chile. El método de caso analizó las dos tipologías de tejidos e integró los parámetros bioclimáticos: temperatura del aire, humedad relativa, radiación solar, y vientos para evaluar su desempeño energético. Los resultados demostraron que el rendimiento energético de los tejidos urbanos variaba según la tipología y con ello fue posible descifrar un patrón bioclimático. Este conocimiento es aplicable a la planificación y al diseño urbano sostenible. Abstract: Urban microclimate is a result of interaction between urban morphology and environment at micro-scale. Its study relevance lies on thermal comfort in outdoor spaces so habitat. It is assumed that energy performance of urban surrounding is not considered at design stage of architectural project. Main purpose of current research was to study energy performance of residential urban fabric applied to two urbanized models: garden city and Corbusier city. Rationale was if spatial configuration influences energy performance then those models would

  13. A first approach to calculate BIOCLIM variables and climate zones for Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Monika; Trutschnig, Wolfgang; Bathke, Arne C.; Ruprecht, Ulrike

    2018-02-01

    For testing the hypothesis that macroclimatological factors determine the occurrence, biodiversity, and species specificity of both symbiotic partners of Antarctic lecideoid lichens, we present a first approach for the computation of the full set of 19 BIOCLIM variables, as available at http://www.worldclim.org/ for all regions of the world with exception of Antarctica. Annual mean temperature (Bio 1) and annual precipitation (Bio 12) were chosen to define climate zones of the Antarctic continent and adjacent islands as required for ecological niche modeling (ENM). The zones are based on data for the years 2009-2015 which was obtained from the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) database of the Ohio State University. For both temperature and precipitation, two separate zonings were specified; temperature values were divided into 12 zones (named 1 to 12) and precipitation values into five (named A to E). By combining these two partitions, we defined climate zonings where each geographical point can be uniquely assigned to exactly one zone, which allows an immediate explicit interpretation. The soundness of the newly calculated climate zones was tested by comparison with already published data, which used only three zones defined on climate information from the literature. The newly defined climate zones result in a more precise assignment of species distribution to the single habitats. This study provides the basis for a more detailed continental-wide ENM using a comprehensive dataset of lichen specimens which are located within 21 different climate regions.

  14. Supersymmetric D2 anti-D2 Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Dongsu; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2001-01-01

    We consider the flat supersymmetric D2 and anti-D2 system, which follows from ordinary noncommutative D2 anti-D2 branes by turning on an appropriate worldvolume electric field describing dissolved fundamental strings. We study the strings stretched between D2 and anti-D2 branes and show explicitly that the would-be tachyonic states become massless. We compute the string spectrum and clarify the induced noncommutativity on the worldvolume. The results are compared with the matrix theory descri...

  15. The EC BIOCLIM Project (2000-2003), 5. Euratom Framework Programme - Modelling sequential biosphere systems under climate change for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvez, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    Marianne Calvez (ANDRA, France) presented the new EC BIOCLIM project that started in 2001. Its main objective is to provide a scientific basis and practical methodology for assessing the possible long-term impacts on the safety of radioactive waste repositories in deep formations due to climate driven changes. She explained that BIOCLIM objective is not to predict what will be the future but will correspond to an illustration of how people could use the knowledge. The BIOCLIM project will use the outcomes from the Biomass project. Where Biomass considered discrete biospheres, the BIOCLIM project will consider the evolution of climate with a focus on the European climate for three regions in the United Kingdom, France and Spain. The consortium of BIOCLIM participants consists of various experts in climate modelling and various experts and organisations in performance assessment. The intent is to build an integrated dynamic climate model that represents all the important mechanisms for long-term climate evolution. The modelling will primarily address the next 200000 years. The final outcome will be an enhancement of the state-of-the-art treatment of biosphere system change over long periods of time through the use of a number of innovative climate modelling approaches and the application of the climate model outputs in performance assessments

  16. Record of principal work activities/deliverables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    Over the five year period of performance, thirteen task assignments were issued by the DOE to ARINC Research. During the two year base period seven tasks were assigned. Two task assignments were issued for each of the three consecutive one year option periods. Associated with all task assignments were multiple subtasks, some of which required significant effort. These subtasks are appropriately cited in this report under their respective task assignments as principal work activities or deliverables. The technical and management support provided to the DOE under this contract focused on two general areas: (1) appraisal activities and (2) non-appraisal activities. Support to appraisals included planning, document review, developing lines-of-inquiry, interviewing, data collection, report writing, and follow-up. Such work was executed both on-site at the DOE facility under review and off-site. Non-appraisal support was varied and included such areas as document review, data base development, technical assessments. statistical analysis, policy analysis, reliability engineering, and workshop and conference planning and execution

  17. Short-term Canadian natural gas deliverability 2007-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report examined factors that may influence gas supply in the near future, and presented an outlook for natural gas deliverability up to the year 2009. Deliverability was projected under the following 3 scenarios to reflect varying levels of drilling investment that may occur: (1) a reference case; (2) a high case; and (3) a low case. Canadian natural gas has provided approximately 25 per cent of North America's natural gas production over the past few years. Marketable gas sales in 2006 were approximately $42 billion. Approximately 98 per cent of the total Canadian volume of natural gas is produced in the western Canadian sedimentary basin (WCSB). Results of the scenario analyses showed that deliverability decreased in all 3 projected scenarios. By 2009, Canadian natural gas deliverability was projected to decrease to between 410 and 449 million m 3 /d. The report also noted that the annual decline rate of the average natural gas well is 55 per cent. Producers have been maintaining deliverability by increasing the number of wells drilled annually. Gas producers are now targeting the western side of the basin, and are drilling deeper wells in order to access richer deposits of gas. Coalbed methane (CBM) production is also expected to increase over the next few years. It was concluded that Canadian deliverability will continue to play an important role in North American gas supplies. 6 tabs., 6 figs

  18. Medellín bioclimático : su edificio de oficinas a través del siglo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Estrada Cano

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available La situación económica y ecológica actual en Colombia y las condiciones de bienestar psicológico y fisiológico de los habitantes de su arquitectura hacen pensar en la necesidad de implementar Ia arquitectura bioclimática en nuestro medio, como componente arquitectónico fundamental para lograr avances significativos en la obtención de ahorro energético por medio del uso racional de las energías tradicionales y de la utilización de energías alternativas cuyas fuentes sean abundantes, en la conservación de nuestro deteriorado medio ambiente y en el mejoramiento de las condiciones de habitabilidad de nuestras edificaciones. Aunque este texto no discurre exclusivamente sobre arquitectura bioclimática, tiene como propósito interesar al lector en ella y contribuir a la formación de una conciencia colectiva acerca ele la necesidad de incorporarla en el quehacer arquitectónico colombiano.

  19. Zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Orlando Rus

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 45 fêmeas ovinas adultas (15 Hampshire Down [HD], 15 Texel [TE] e 15 Ile de France [IF], para propor um zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná. Mediram-se a temperatura retal (Tr, da epiderme (Te, do interior do velo (Tiv e da superfície do velo (Tsv; a frequência respiratória (Fr; a temperatura do ar (Ta, pressão de vapor (e, velocidade do vento (v e carga térmica radiante (CTR. O Índice de Conforto Térmico utilizado foi ICT= 0,6678Ta + 0,4969e + 0,5444Tg + 0,1038v. A regressão do ICT sobre Tr mostrou efeito quadrático para as três raças. Para ICT=24,3, 27,3 e 20,6, os valores de Tr foram respectivamente: 39,10ºC para a raça HD, 39,05ºC para TE e 39,09ºC para IF, atingindo 40,40; 40,50; e 40,28ºC, respectivamente, para ICT=58. As três raças aumentaram sua Tr a partir de ICT=26, com a TE apresentando menor Tr até o valor ICT=46; neste ponto, as três raças foram semelhantes, tendo a TE apresentado maiores valores. Para ICT igual a 27,6; 29,7; e 27,0, os valores de Fr foram, respectivamente, 89,63; 77,08; e 78,77 resp./min., para as raças HD, TE e IF. A raça TE apresentou menor Fr (77,08 resp./min., para ICT=29,7 e para ICT=48, valores semelhantes aos da IF (181,96 resp./min.; a partir deste índice, passou a ser maior que as demais raças, atingindo valores de 288,66 resp./min. no ICT=56, porém inferior à HD (289,01 resp./min.. Neste índice, a raça IF foi a que apresentou a menor Fr (275,72 resp./min.. Uma extensa faixa ao longo do litoral do Estado, entrando cerca de 200 km para o interior até os limites das cidades de Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul e Pato Branco, permite a criação das três raças, sem exigir grandes esforços de termorregulação.

  20. Prospects and Challenges in the Deliverance of Executive Masters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the recent decade Executive Masters degree programmes have become very popular deliverance in the Tanzanian higher learning institutions. ... Using The Open University of Tanzania as a case study, this article will focus on two programmes, namely; Executive Masters in Business Administration (EMBA) and Masters ...

  1. Check-up Measurement (update). Deliverable D5.22

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtzer, A.C.G.; Giessen, A.M.D. van der; Djurica, M.

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable D5.22 presents the GEN6 check-up measurement. It describes the most prominent outcomes of the GEN6 project up to this point in time. The check-up measurement helps to focus the monitoring towards the most relevant achievements of the project, such that an efficient and well-targeted

  2. Urban strategies for Waste Management in Tourist Cities. D2.7 : Compendium of waste management practices in pilot cities and best practices in touristic cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, Iris; Mayerhofer, Johannes; Obersteiner, Gudrun; Ramusch, Roland; Romein, A.; Eriksson, Mattias; Grosse, Juliane; MC. Nascimento, Gisela; Bjorn Olsen, Trine; de Luca, Claudia; Zapata Aranda, Pilar; Kazeroni, Marie; Kovacs, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This report (Deliverable D2.7) refers to URBANWASTE Work Package 2, Task 2.8. Under this Task the current waste prevention and management practices in the URBANWASTE pilot cases are investigated and best practices coming from the EU context (focussing on touristic processes) are identified. This

  3. Deliverable 1.2.1 Market Analysis and Business Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth

    2009-01-01

    Deliverable 1.2.1 - Market Analysis and Business Plan The main objective of this deliverable is to provide a short overview of 4 communities involved in the pilots, envisaged type of solutions and architectures to be deployed (chapter 2) and market analysis at regional level (chapter 3......) with related business cases. The Market analysis will provide an overview of market requirements, current status and opportunities for the pilot service that will be provided in the context of ISISEMD. This will be realised by performing detailed studies on various sources. Proposals for business modelling...... and business cases (chapter 4) will rely on the concept of value chains. Value chains typically consist of several providers, which together produce a complex product or service....

  4. Southwest British Columbia natural gas supply and deliverability: Discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    A review is presented of energy in British Columbia, the role of natural gas, and options available to enhance gas supply security in the province's most densely populated area, the southwest. British Columbia has abundant natural gas supplies, and production exceeds domestic demand. In 1992, natural gas supplied ca 25% of total provincial end-use energy requirements, but this share is expected to rise to 30% by 2015. Although some say that the province's natural gas production and transmission system should serve only domestic needs, this would have significant negative impacts. Domestic gas supply policy allows gas consumers to contract their own supplies, but contract security is required. Provincial guidelines allow demand-side programs to compete with supply sources to ensure that the resource profile is achieved at least cost. In the southwest, natural gas demand is projected to increase from 189 PJ in 1991 to 262 PJ by 2005. Most gas supplied to this region comes from northeast British Columbia through pipelines that are generally fully contracted. Short-term deliverability can be a problem, especially in peak winter demand periods. The gas industry's contingency plans for shortages are outlined and alternatives to enhance deliverability to the southwest are assessed, including storage, expansion of the pipeline system, supply curtailment, and peaking supply contracts. Aspects of provincial natural gas planning are discussed, including security of supply and deliverability, economic and environmental impacts, consumer costs, safety, and the public interest. A least-cost option for enhancing deliverability (underground storage and an additional liquefied natural gas plant) is estimated to cost consumers $3.69/GJ over 20 years. 9 figs., 1 tab

  5. M2 to D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhi, Sunil; Papageorgakis, Constantinos

    2008-01-01

    We examine the recently proposed ''3-algebra'' field theory for multiple M2-branes and show that when a scalar field valued in the 3-algebra develops a vacuum expectation value, the resulting Higgs mechanism has the novel effect of promoting topological (Chern-Simons) to dynamical (Yang-Mills) gauge fields. This leads to a precise derivation of the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on multiple D2-branes and thereby provides a relationship between 3-algebras and Yang-Mills theories. We discuss the physical interpretation of this result.

  6. Zoneamento bioclimático para a raça ovina Dorper no Estado de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Medeiros de Paula Mendes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o zoneamento bioclimático para ovinos da raça Dorper, no Estado de Pernambuco. Foram utilizados dados meteorológicos médios diários de 246 postos meteorológicos no estado. As variáveis temperatura do ar e umidade relativa do ar foram utilizadas para o cálculo do índice de temperatura e umidade. Com os valores destas variáveis, traçaram-se as isolinhas por meio do programa Surfer. A região do Agreste pernambucano apresenta melhores condições climáticas para a raça Dorper, durante todo o ano, do que a região que compreende o litoral, a Zona da Mata e o Semiárido. Nos meses mais quentes e nas regiões mais críticas, como o Sertão, é necessária a implementação de manejo, como o provimento de sombra, para amenizar o estresse pelo calor e não comprometer o desempenho produtivo da raça.

  7. Load Composition Model Workflow (BPA TIP-371 Deliverable 1A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Cezar, Gustavo V.; /SLAC

    2017-07-17

    This project is funded under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Strategic Partnership Project (SPP) 17-005 between BPA and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The project in a BPA Technology Improvement Project (TIP) that builds on and validates the Composite Load Model developed by the Western Electric Coordinating Council's (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF). The composite load model is used by the WECC Modeling and Validation Work Group to study the stability and security of the western electricity interconnection. The work includes development of load composition data sets, collection of load disturbance data, and model development and validation. This work supports reliable and economic operation of the power system. This report was produced for Deliverable 1A of the BPA TIP-371 Project entitled \\TIP 371: Advancing the Load Composition Model". The deliverable documents the proposed work ow for the Composite Load Model, which provides the basis for the instrumentation, data acquisition, analysis and data dissemination activities addressed by later phases of the project.

  8. Natural Gas Deliverability Task Force report: A joint FERC/DOE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of the FERC/DOE Natural Gas Deliverability Task Force Report was threefold: (1) to review current deliverability data for utility, accuracy, and timeliness; (2) to identify mechanisms for closing significant gaps in information resulting from changing market structures; and (3) to ensure that technologies are available to meet the needs of the emerging, competitive natural gas industry

  9. 20 CFR 638.812 - State and local taxation of Job Corps deliverers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State and local taxation of Job Corps deliverers. 638.812 Section 638.812 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 638.812 State and local taxation of Job Corps deliverers. The Act provides that transactions conducted...

  10. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under any...

  11. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Urban strategies for Waste Management in Tourist Cities. D2.7: Compendium of waste management practices in pilot cities and best practices in touristic cities

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Iris; Mayerhofer, Johannes; Obersteiner, Gudrun; Ramusch, Roland; Romein, A.; Eriksson, Mattias; Grosse, Juliane; MC. Nascimento, Gisela; Bjorn Olsen, Trine; de Luca, Claudia; Zapata Aranda, Pilar; Kazeroni, Marie; Kovacs, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This report (Deliverable D2.7) refers to URBANWASTE Work Package 2, Task 2.8. Under this Task the current waste prevention and management practices in the URBANWASTE pilot cases are investigated and best practices coming from the EU context (focussing on touristic processes) are identified. This document shall support the selection of innovative strategies to be carried out within Work Package WP 4. A comparative policy review of national waste management strategies and targets in the Europea...

  13. Possibilities for a valorisation of geomorphologic research deliverables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilhausen, M.; Götz, J.; Otto, J.-C.; Schrott, L.

    2009-04-01

    Many geomorphological studies focus on fundamental research questions in large parts, although there are lots of applied fields like landslide hazard assessment or water framework directive. As fundamental research is a common property, their outcomes should be more "open" and accessible to the public. This means that scientists have to find new ways presenting their results and outcomes besides publishing in scientific journals. This paper shows possibilities for a valorisation of geomorphologic research deliverables using print as well as digital media. Geotrails explain remarkable and exciting landscape features using information boards and become more and more popular and important for tourism in many parts of the world. With the growing interest in environmental change and outdoor activities, print media like field guides reach an increasing number of people. Field guides and Geotrails can be coupled in order to arise awareness about geomorphological landforms and to deliver more specific information on the site beyond the information given on the boards in the field. As field guides are designed for the general public they can be used for educational purposes as well. Today, this information can also be found in the internet offering virtual trips through landscapes using dynamic maps. Here, server side GIS technologies (WebGIS) using standardised interfaces provide new possibilities to show geomorphic data to the public and to share them with the scientific community. Furthermore, data formats like XML or KML are powerful tools for data exchange and can be used in interactive data viewers like Google Earth. We will present the Geotrail "Geomorphologischer Lehrpfad am Fuße der Zugspitze. Das Reintal - Eine Wanderung durch Raum und Zeit" (Bavarian Alps, Germany). Additionally, three geomorphologic WebGIS applications (Geomorphologic map Turtmanntal, Permafrostmap of Austria, Geomorphologic maps of Germany) will exemplify how geomorphologic information and

  14. Guidelines for Inter-Enterprise Management (IEM), GLOBEMEN Deliverable D23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    2002-01-01

    This document is a deliverable of Work package 2 of the IMS Globemen (GMN) project: D23 Guidelines for Inter-Enterprise Management (IEM). IMS Globemen is an inter-regional project aiming to develop methods, tools and architectures to support inter-enterprise operations in one-of-kind industries......-Project, the developed solution for Inter-Enterprise Management. The structure of the deliverable is as follows: - Chapter 1 introduces the guidelines and outlines the structure of the deliverable - Chapter 2 defines key terms along with a list of acronyms used in the deliverable - Chapter 3 gives a general introduction...... for inter-enterprise management (IEM). - Chapter 5 contains the actual Guidelines The chapter contains guidelines for how to prepare enterprise network in being able to set up and manage virtual enterprises. The section consists of a set of activities an enterprise should/could consider when preparing...

  15. Modeling & Simulation Education for the Acquisition and T&E Workforce: FY07 Deliverable Package

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olwell, David H; Johnson, Jean; Few, Stephanie; Didoszak, Jarema M

    2007-01-01

    This technical report presents the deliverables for calendar year 2007 for the "Educating the Modeling and Simulation Workforce" project performed for the DoD Modeling and Simulation Steering Committee...

  16. Project Turnover Deliverables for the SY Farm Enraf Annulus Leak Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCAIEF, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    This document identifies the deliverables that ensure the end user of the SY Farm Enraf Annulus Leak Detectors (ALD) has all the documentation and training required for operating and maintaining the new system. All deliverable items checked on the Acceptance For Beneficial Use (ABU) form have been completed and are available to the end user. This document was written as required by HNF-IP-0842, Volume IV section 3.12 Acceptance of Structures, Systems, and Components for Beneficial Use. This document applies to the deliverable documentation required to operate and maintain the SY Farm Enraf ALD System. Appendix A provides a copy of the ABU form as listed in the appendix of TWR-4092, Engineering Task Plan for the New SY Farm Annulus Leak Detectors. This document attests that all required deliverable items checked on the ABU have been completed and are available to the end user

  17. Towards transparent, proportionate and deliverable regulation for geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As part of its activities, the Regulators' Forum of the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee has been examining the regulatory criteria for the long-term performance of geological disposal. In this context, it organised a workshop entitled 'Towards Transparent, Proportionate and Deliverable Regulation for Geological Disposal', which served to verify current status and needs. Participants included regulators, implementers, policy makers, R and D specialists and academics. Themes addressed included duties to future generations, timescales for regulation, stepwise decision making, roles of optimisation and best available techniques (BAT), multiple lines of reasoning, safety and performance indicators, recognition of uncertainties and the importance of stakeholder interactions. The workshop highlighted the significant amount of work accomplished over the past decade, but also identified important differences between national regulations even if these are not in contradiction with international guidance. Also highlighted was the importance of R and D carried out on behalf of the regulator. In addition to the contributed papers, these proceedings trace the numerous discussions that formed an integral part of the workshop. They constitute an important and unique documentary basis for researchers and radioactive waste management specialists

  18. Bioclimate of Liberec

    OpenAIRE

    Rubáš, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    The diploma thesis provides special studies from the human bioclimatology sector. Ten year sequences (2001-2010) of many meteorological components are processed here. The meteorological components are as follows: average daily air temperature, average daily wind speed, time of sunshine per day, duration of rainfalls, fogs and fumes and also monthly aggregate rainfall. The main study aims attention to evaluation of complex effects of selected elements on humans. The most and the least suitable...

  19. D2O-induced cell excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andjus, P.R.; Vucelic, D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of deuterium oxide (D 2 O) on giant internodal cells of the fresh water alga Chara gymnophylla, were investigated. D 2 O causes membrane excitation followed by potassium leakage. The primary effect consists of an almost instantaneous membrane depolarization resembling an action potential with incomplete repolarization. A hypothesis was proposed which deals with an osmotic stress effect of D 2 O on membrane ion channels followed by the suppression of the electrogenic pump activity. The initial changes (potential spike and rapid K+ efflux) may represent the previously undetected link between the D 2 O-induced temporary arrest of protoplasmic streaming and the early events triggered at the plasma membrane level as the primary site of D 2 O action

  20. Aporte del diseño bioclimático a la sustentabilidad de áreas urbanas en zonas áridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cunsulo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de la certeza ineludible de que toda estrategia tendiente a la sustentabilidad de los asentamientos humanos requiere indefectiblemente programas sistemáticos de sustitución energética, la aplicación masiva de la oferta climática en la construcción del hábitat regional es un componente esencial en dicha sustitución de recursos energéticos renovables. En ese contexto, el trabajo presenta algunas recomendaciones de diseño urbano bioclimático, producto de investigaciones realizadas por el Area Arquitectura Ambiental de la Facultad de Arquitectura y Diseño sobre la ciudad de San Juan (Argentina, localizada en la Franja Arida de América del Sur.

  1. Cocaine-induced adaptation of dopamine D2S, but not D2L autoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Brooks G; Condon, Alec F; Radl, Daniela; Borrelli, Emiliana; Williams, John T; Neve, Kim A

    2017-11-20

    The dopamine D2 receptor has two splice variants, D2S (Short) and D2L (Long). In dopamine neurons, both variants can act as autoreceptors to regulate neuronal excitability and dopamine release, but the roles of each variant are incompletely characterized. In a previous study we used viral receptor expression in D2 receptor knockout mice to show distinct effects of calcium signaling on D2S and D2L autoreceptor function (Gantz et al., 2015). However, the cocaine-induced plasticity of D2 receptor desensitization observed in wild type mice was not recapitulated with this method of receptor expression. Here we use mice with genetic knockouts of either the D2S or D2L variant to investigate cocaine-induced plasticity in D2 receptor signaling. Following a single in vivo cocaine exposure, the desensitization of D2 receptors from neurons expressing only the D2S variant was reduced. This did not occur in D2L-expressing neurons, indicating differential drug-induced plasticity between the variants.

  2. Designing equitable workplace dietary interventions: perceptions of intervention deliverers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah A; Visram, Shelina; O'Malley, Claire; Summerbell, Carolyn; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Hillier-Brown, Frances; Lake, Amelia A

    2017-10-16

    Workplaces are a good setting for interventions that aim to support workers in achieving a healthier diet and body weight. However, little is known about the factors that impact on the feasibility and implementation of these interventions, and how these might vary by type of workplace and type of worker. The aim of this study was to explore the views of those involved in commissioning and delivering the Better Health at Work Award, an established and evidence-based workplace health improvement programme. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 individuals in North East England who had some level of responsibility for delivering workplace dietary interventions. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic framework analysis. A number of factors were felt to promote the feasibility and implementation of interventions. These included interventions that were cost-neutral (to employee and employer), unstructured, involved colleagues for support, took place at lunchtimes, and were well-advertised and communicated via a variety of media. Offering incentives, not necessarily monetary, was perceived to increase recruitment rates. Factors that militate against feasibility and implementation of interventions included worksites that were large in size and remote, working patterns including shifts and working outside of normal working hours that were not conducive to workers being able to access intervention sessions, workplaces without appropriate provision for healthy food on site, and a lack of support from management. Intervention deliverers perceived that workplace dietary interventions should be equally and easily accessible (in terms of cost and timing of sessions) for all staff, regardless of their job role. Additional effort should be taken to ensure those staff working outside normal working hours, and those working off-site, can easily engage with any intervention, to avoid the risk of intervention-generated inequalities (IGIs).

  3. Deliverable navigation for multicriteria IMRT treatment planning by combining shared and individual apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, Albin; Bokrantz, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of deliverable Pareto surface navigation for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy. This problem amounts to calculation of a collection of treatment plans with the property that convex combinations of plans are directly deliverable. Previous methods for deliverable navigation impose restrictions on the number of apertures of the individual plans, or require that all treatment plans have identical apertures. We introduce simultaneous direct step-and-shoot optimization of multiple plans subject to constraints that some of the apertures must be identical across all plans. This method generalizes previous methods for deliverable navigation to allow for treatment plans with some apertures from a collective pool and some apertures that are individual. The method can also be used as a post-processing step to previous methods for deliverable navigation in order to improve upon their plans. By applying the method to subsets of plans in the collection representing the Pareto set, we show how it can enable convergence toward the unrestricted (non-navigable) Pareto set where all apertures are individual. (paper)

  4. Evolution and development of a deliverability improvement program for gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, T.D.; Sikorski, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    With the implementation in November 1993 of FERC Order 636, the responsibilities and contractual obligations for a Gas Transmission Company operating Gas Storage have changed. Among these responsibilities is the ability to deliver gas from storage in a timely manner as specified by gas storage contracts. To ensure that their deliverability obligations are met, a program has been implemented to review well performance and to re-work wells where deliverability can economically be improved. This program is aimed at maintaining or improving deliverability from wells and monitoring their future performance. Re-working existing wells has proven to be an economically successful method of maintaining deliverability compared to drilling new wells to meet this purpose. Re-working can be broken into two groups of wells: wells that have mechanical problems that need to be corrected or wells that need some type of stimulation treatment. In developing a rework program, several things need to be addressed such as: a candidate recognition program, the design of the work to be performed, execution of that work, and the evaluation of the results obtained along with the economics. The Deliverability Improvement Program is in its third year. It has developed from a small pilot program to a substantial part of normal storage activities. The purpose of this paper is to review the processes used to find candidates to work on and an evaluation of work performed

  5. Measurement of the hyperfine structure of the 31D2, 41D2, 51D2 levels of helium 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemery, H.; Hamel, J.; Barrat, J.-P.

    1981-01-01

    It is well known that, in a discharge in 3 He, the nuclear spins in the ground state can be oriented through metastability exchange, by optical pumping of the metastable 2 3 S 1 atoms. The orientation is transmitted to the other levels excited in the discharge. If the nuclear spins in the ground state are submitted to magnetic resonance, the light emitted from these excited states is modulated at the R.F. field frequency. The degree of modulation is important only near a level crossing, in zero field or in non-zero field. This method has been used to determine the hyperfine structure of the 3 1 D 2 , 4 1 D 2 , 5 1 D 2 levels. The results are in good agreement with those of previous measurements and with theoretical predictions [fr

  6. Evidence for genetic heterogeneity in D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranendijk, Martijn; Struys, Eduard A; Gibson, K Michael

    2010-01-01

    We performed molecular, enzyme, and metabolic studies in 50 patients with D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA) who accumulated D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) in physiological fluids. Presumed pathogenic mutations were detected in 24 of 50 patients in the D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGD...

  7. On d=2 Regge calculus without triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, D.

    1987-01-01

    The supersymmetric version of a previously developed Regge calculus for d=2 euclidean gravity is given. In the context of string theory, a continuum theory is likely to exist for D<2 external space-time dimensions, just like in the bosonic case and essentially in agreement with the weak coupling regime D≤1 found by Gervais and Neveu for Liouville theory and its supersymmetric extension. The techniques developed here are intended to be of use, eventually, in lowering the critical dimensions of string theories. (orig.)

  8. Favoring D2-Lymphadenectomy in Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavokyros, Ioannis; Michalinos, Adamantios

    2018-01-01

    The role of extended lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer has been debated for many years. So far six prospective randomized trials and a number of meta-analyses comparing D 1 - to D 2 -lymphadenectomy in open surgery have been published with contradicting results. The possible oncologic benefit of radical lymphadenectomy has been blurred by a number of reasons. In most of the trials the strategies under comparison were made similar after protocol violations. Imperfect design of the trials could not exclude the influence of cofounding factors. Inappropriate endpoints could not detect evidently the difference between the two surgical strategies. On the other hand radical lymphadenectomy was characterized by increased morbidity and mortality. This was mostly caused by the addition of pancreatico-splenectomy in all D 2 -dissections, even when not indicated. A careful analysis of the available evidence indicates that D 2 -lymphadenectomy performed by adequately trained surgeons without resection of the pancreas and/or spleen, unless otherwise indicated, decreases Gastric Cancer Related Deaths and increases Disease Specific Survival. This evidence is not compelling but cannot be ignored. D 2 -lymphadendctomy is nowadays considered to be the standard of care for resectable gastric cancer.

  9. Visual modification of the road environment. EU-project Guarding Automobile Drivers through Guidance Education and Technology GADGET, Deliverable D2, Contract No. RO-97-SC.2235.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagberg, F. Hakkert, A.S. Larsen, L. Leden, L. Schmotzer, C. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    2003-01-01

    The report is a review and discussion of research regarding effects of the road environment on driver behaviour. The discussion relates to theories and facts regarding driver information needs, limitations of the human visual system, information processing, driver expectations, mental load, and risk

  10. TH-AB-202-03: A Novel Tool for Computing Deliverable Doses in Dynamic MLC Tracking Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, M; Kamerling, C; Menten, M; Nill, S; Oelfke, U [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Crijns, S; Raaymakers, B [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In tracked dynamic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) treatments, segments are continuously adapted to the target centroid motion in beams-eye-view. On-the-fly segment adaptation, however, potentially induces dosimetric errors due to the finite MLC leaf width and non-rigid target motion. In this study, we outline a novel tool for computing the 4d dose of lung SBRT plans delivered with MLC tracking. Methods: The following automated workflow was developed: A) centroid tracking, where the initial segments are morphed to each 4dCT phase based on the beams-eye-view GTV shift (followed by a dose calculation on each phase); B) re-optimized tracking, in which all morphed initial plans from (A) are further optimised (“warm-started”) in each 4dCT phase using the initial optimisation parameters but phase-specific volume definitions. Finally, both dose sets are accumulated to the reference phase using deformable image registration. Initial plans were generated according to the RTOG-1021 guideline (54Gy, 3-Fx, equidistant 9-beam IMRT) on the peak-exhale (reference) phase of a phase-binned 4dCT. Treatment planning and delivery simulations were performed in RayStation (research v4.6) using our in-house segment-morphing algorithm, which directly links to RayStation through a native C++ interface. Results: Computing the tracking plans and 4d dose distributions via the in-house interface takes 5 and 8 minutes respectively for centroid and re-optimized tracking. For a sample lung SBRT patient with 14mm peak-to-peak motion in sup-inf direction, mainly perpendicular leaf motion (0-collimator) resulted in small dose changes for PTV-D95 (−13cGy) and GTV-D98 (+18cGy) for the centroid tracking case compared to the initial plan. Modest reductions of OAR doses (e.g. spinal cord D2: −11cGy) were achieved in the idealized tracking case. Conclusion: This study presents an automated “1-click” workflow for computing deliverable MLC tracking doses in RayStation. Adding a non-deliverable

  11. TH-AB-202-03: A Novel Tool for Computing Deliverable Doses in Dynamic MLC Tracking Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, M; Kamerling, C; Menten, M; Nill, S; Oelfke, U; Crijns, S; Raaymakers, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In tracked dynamic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) treatments, segments are continuously adapted to the target centroid motion in beams-eye-view. On-the-fly segment adaptation, however, potentially induces dosimetric errors due to the finite MLC leaf width and non-rigid target motion. In this study, we outline a novel tool for computing the 4d dose of lung SBRT plans delivered with MLC tracking. Methods: The following automated workflow was developed: A) centroid tracking, where the initial segments are morphed to each 4dCT phase based on the beams-eye-view GTV shift (followed by a dose calculation on each phase); B) re-optimized tracking, in which all morphed initial plans from (A) are further optimised (“warm-started”) in each 4dCT phase using the initial optimisation parameters but phase-specific volume definitions. Finally, both dose sets are accumulated to the reference phase using deformable image registration. Initial plans were generated according to the RTOG-1021 guideline (54Gy, 3-Fx, equidistant 9-beam IMRT) on the peak-exhale (reference) phase of a phase-binned 4dCT. Treatment planning and delivery simulations were performed in RayStation (research v4.6) using our in-house segment-morphing algorithm, which directly links to RayStation through a native C++ interface. Results: Computing the tracking plans and 4d dose distributions via the in-house interface takes 5 and 8 minutes respectively for centroid and re-optimized tracking. For a sample lung SBRT patient with 14mm peak-to-peak motion in sup-inf direction, mainly perpendicular leaf motion (0-collimator) resulted in small dose changes for PTV-D95 (−13cGy) and GTV-D98 (+18cGy) for the centroid tracking case compared to the initial plan. Modest reductions of OAR doses (e.g. spinal cord D2: −11cGy) were achieved in the idealized tracking case. Conclusion: This study presents an automated “1-click” workflow for computing deliverable MLC tracking doses in RayStation. Adding a non-deliverable

  12. Seasonal Variation of Provitamin D2 and Vitamin D2 in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Didion, Thomas; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Ergosterol (provitamin D(2)) is converted to vitamin D(2) in grass by exposure to UV light. Six varieties of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were harvested four times during the season, and the contents of vitamin D(2) and ergosterol were analyzed by a sensitive and selective liquid...... chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Weather factors were recorded, and a principal component analysis was performed to study which factors were important for the formation of vitamin D(2). The results suggest that a combination of weather factors is involved and that the contents of ergosterol...... and vitamin D(2) change more than a factor of 10 during the season. These results demonstrate that grass potentially can be a significant source of vitamin D for grazing animals and animals fed on silage and hay....

  13. Cocaine Inhibits Dopamine D2 Receptor Signaling via Sigma-1-D2 Receptor Heteromers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefania; Bonaventura, Jordi; Brugarolas, Marc; Farré, Daniel; Aguinaga, David; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carmen; Ferre, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Under normal conditions the brain maintains a delicate balance between inputs of reward seeking controlled by neurons containing the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and inputs of aversion coming from neurons containing the D2-like family of dopamine receptors. Cocaine is able to subvert these balanced inputs by altering the cell signaling of these two pathways such that D1 reward seeking pathway dominates. Here, we provide an explanation at the cellular and biochemical level how cocaine may achieve this. Exploring the effect of cocaine on dopamine D2 receptors function, we present evidence of σ1 receptor molecular and functional interaction with dopamine D2 receptors. Using biophysical, biochemical, and cell biology approaches, we discovered that D2 receptors (the long isoform of the D2 receptor) can complex with σ1 receptors, a result that is specific to D2 receptors, as D3 and D4 receptors did not form heteromers. We demonstrate that the σ1-D2 receptor heteromers consist of higher order oligomers, are found in mouse striatum and that cocaine, by binding to σ1 -D2 receptor heteromers, inhibits downstream signaling in both cultured cells and in mouse striatum. In contrast, in striatum from σ1 knockout animals these complexes are not found and this inhibition is not seen. Taken together, these data illuminate the mechanism by which the initial exposure to cocaine can inhibit signaling via D2 receptor containing neurons, destabilizing the delicate signaling balance influencing drug seeking that emanates from the D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons in the brain. PMID:23637801

  14. 24,25,28-Trihydroxyvitamin D2 and 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D2: Novel metabolites of vitamin D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.S.; Tserng, K.

    1990-01-01

    Understanding of the inactivation pathways of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 and 24-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , the two physiologically significant monohydroxylated metabolites of vitamin D 2 , is of importance, especially during hypervitaminosis D 2 . At present, little information is available regarding the inactivation pathway of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 except its further metabolism into 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 2 . In our present study, the authors investigated the metabolic fate of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 in the isolated perfused rat kidney and demonstrated its conversion not only into 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 2 but also into two other new metabolites, namely, 24,25,28-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 and 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 . The structure identification of the new metabolites was established by the techniques of ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry and by the characteristic nature of each new metabolite's susceptibility to sodium metaperiodate oxidation. In order to demonstrate the physiological significance of the two new trihydroxy metabolites of vitamin D 2 , induced hypervitaminosis D 2 in a rat using [3α- 3 H]vitamin D 2 and analyzed its plasma for the various [3α- 3 H]vitamin D 2 metabolites on two different high-pressure liquid chromatography systems. The results indicate that both 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 and 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 circulate in the vitamin D 2 intoxicated rat in significant amounts along with other previously identified monohydroxy and dihydroxy metabolites of vitamin D 2 , namely, 24-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 2

  15. Opening the SMS platform to users : Deliverable D7.2 - RISIS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Besselaar, P.A.A.; Khalili, A.; de Graaf, K.A.; Idrissou, O.A.K.; van Harmelen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In this deliverable we describe the SMS (Semantically Mapping Science) data integration platform (http://sms.risis.eu), the technical core within the RISIS data infrastructure for Science, Technology and Innovation Studies (STI). The aim of the platform is to produce richer data to be used in social

  16. Driving simulator test results Deliverable no D6.3. Final draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiland, J.; Mattes, S.; Kuhn, F.; Gelau, Ch.; Schindhelm, R.; Hoedemaeker, D.D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Deliverable 6.3 reports the procedure and results from a driving simulator study. This study was carried out to test the efficiency of the principles of the in-vehicle information manager, which was developed within the Comunicar project. Thirty-six subjects were tested in a fixed-base driving

  17. Monitoring framework and description of indicators. Deliverable D5.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtzer, A.C.G.; Giessen, A.M. van der; Munck, S.G.E. de; Poel, M.A.; Smets, R.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    This deliverable describes the monitoring framework that will be used to monitor and evaluate the GEN6 project and its nine pilots. The main topics are IPv6 uptake and governance, as described by the EC. Monitoring and evaluation will be done during the course of the project. This report describes

  18. Test results evaluation: Pilot evaluations Deliverable no D6.5. Final draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaeker, D.M.; Dangelmaier, M.; Gelau, C.; Mattes, S.; Montanari, R.

    2003-01-01

    This deliverable describes the User Centred Design approach that has been adopted within the COMUNICAR project. In this design approach several iterative steps were taken to design and evaluate the multimedia Human Machine Interface that is able to manage all the information exchanges between the

  19. Discrepancies between selected Pareto optimal plans and final deliverable plans in radiotherapy multi-criteria optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyroudi, Archonteia; Petersson, Kristoffer; Ghandour, Sarah; Pachoud, Marc; Matzinger, Oscar; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Bourhis, Jean; Bochud, François; Moeckli, Raphaël

    2016-08-01

    Multi-criteria optimization provides decision makers with a range of clinical choices through Pareto plans that can be explored during real time navigation and then converted into deliverable plans. Our study shows that dosimetric differences can arise between the two steps, which could compromise the clinical choices made during navigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Capabilities and costs for ancillary services provision by wind power plants. Deliverable D 3.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faiella, Mariano; Hennig, Tobias; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    This report is the deliverable of the third work package of the REserviceS project and describes the technical options and related costs for the provision of ancillary services specifically from wind energy technologies. It is focused on the set of ancillary services defined in the previous work...

  1. Deliverable 1.2.7: Cross-cultural benefit segmentation of consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.J.; Onwezen, M.C.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Berg, van den I.; Jasiulewicz, A.; Guardia, M.D.; Guerrero, L.

    2010-01-01

    The present report, deliverable D.1.2.7, gives a final view of the work done in ISAFruit Work Package (WP) 1.2. Average Europe fruit consumption is below the recommended level and moreover the consumption level is still decreasing in Europe. A large survey was carried out in four European countries

  2. Deliverable D.8.4. Social data visualization and navigation services -3rd Year Update-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Brouns, Francis; Drachsler, Hendrik; Fazeli, Soude; Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador; Rajabi, Enayat; Kolovou, Lamprini

    2015-01-01

    Within the Open Discovery Space our study (T.8.4) focused on ”Enhanced Social Data Visualization & Navigation Services. This deliverable provides the prototype report regarding the deployment of adapted visualization and navigation services to be integrated in the ODS Social Data Management Layer.

  3. Data needs and computational requirements for ST decision making. Internal deliverable ID6.2.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Rémy; Tournebise, Pascal; Perkin, Samuel

    The objective of this deliverable is to present the requirements for adapting available tools/models and identifying data needs for probabilistic reliability analysis and optimal decision-making in the short-term decision making process. It will serve as a basis for the next tasks of GARPUR work ...

  4. 20 CFR 638.300 - Eligibility for funds and eligible deliverers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility for funds and eligible deliverers. 638.300 Section 638.300 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Funding, Site Selection...

  5. Multivariate time series analysis of SafetyNet data. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 7, Deliverable 7.7.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, J.J.F. Bijleveld, F.D. & Bergel, R.

    2009-01-01

    This deliverable provides an application of theories and methods documented in Deliverables 7.4 and 7.5 of work package 7 of the SafetyNet project. In this deliverable, use of select analysis techniques is demonstrated through real world road safety analysis problems, using aggregate data which may

  6. Time resolved spectroscopic investigation of SiD2 + D2: kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubaiey, Najem A.; Walsh, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Silylenes (silanediyls) have made an important impact on organosilicon chemistry even if it is of more recent foundation than carbenes in organic chemistry and much less complete. These species are highly reactive intermediates. They play a central role in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of various silicon-containing thin films which have a technological importance in microelectronics as well as in the dry etching processes of silicon wafers. Spectroscopic methods have been developed to observe these species, a necessary pre-requisite to their direct monitoring. In this work, deuterated phenylsilane precursor, PhSiD3 was chosen for SiD2 because its analogue phenylsilane, PhSiH3 proved to be a good precursor for SiH2 and the high quality decay signals observed revealed that SiD2 be readily detected from PhSiD3 and that if other decomposition pathways (e.g. PhSiD + D2) are occurring, they do not effect measurements of the rate constants for SiD2. The absorption spectrum of SiD2 formed from the flash photolysis of a mixture of PhSiD3 and SF6 at 193nm were found in the region 17384-17391 cm-1 with strong band at 17387.07 cm-1. This single rotational line of pQ1 was chosen to monitor SiD2 removal. Time-resolved studies of SiD2 have been carried out to obtain rate constants for its bimolecular reactions with D2. The reactions were studied over the pressure range 5-100 Torr (in SF6 bath gas) at four temperatures in the range 298-498K. Single decay from 10 photolysis laser shots were averaged and found to give reasonable first-order kinetics fits. Second order kinetics were obtained by pressure dependence of the pseudo first order decay constants and substance D2 pressures within experimental error. The reaction was found to be weakly pressure dependent at all temperatures, consistent with a third-body mediated association process. In addition, SiH2+ H2 reaction is approximately ca. 60% faster than SiD2+D2 reaction. Theoretical extrapolations (using Lindemann

  7. Time resolved spectroscopic investigation of SiD2 + D2: kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rubaiey Najem A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silylenes (silanediyls have made an important impact on organosilicon chemistry even if it is of more recent foundation than carbenes in organic chemistry and much less complete. These species are highly reactive intermediates. They play a central role in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD of various silicon-containing thin films which have a technological importance in microelectronics as well as in the dry etching processes of silicon wafers. Spectroscopic methods have been developed to observe these species, a necessary pre-requisite to their direct monitoring. In this work, deuterated phenylsilane precursor, PhSiD3 was chosen for SiD2 because its analogue phenylsilane, PhSiH3 proved to be a good precursor for SiH2 and the high quality decay signals observed revealed that SiD2 be readily detected from PhSiD3 and that if other decomposition pathways (e.g. PhSiD + D2 are occurring, they do not effect measurements of the rate constants for SiD2. The absorption spectrum of SiD2 formed from the flash photolysis of a mixture of PhSiD3 and SF6 at 193nm were found in the region 17384-17391 cm-1 with strong band at 17387.07 cm-1. This single rotational line of pQ1 was chosen to monitor SiD2 removal. Time-resolved studies of SiD2 have been carried out to obtain rate constants for its bimolecular reactions with D2. The reactions were studied over the pressure range 5-100 Torr (in SF6 bath gas at four temperatures in the range 298-498K. Single decay from 10 photolysis laser shots were averaged and found to give reasonable first-order kinetics fits. Second order kinetics were obtained by pressure dependence of the pseudo first order decay constants and substance D2 pressures within experimental error. The reaction was found to be weakly pressure dependent at all temperatures, consistent with a third-body mediated association process. In addition, SiH2+ H2 reaction is approximately ca. 60% faster than SiD2+D2 reaction. Theoretical extrapolations (using

  8. Evaluation of state of the art technologies, GLOBEMEN Deliverable D411

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Roel; Hannus, Matti; Pedersen, Jens Dahl

    2000-01-01

    topics such as tools, methods, and models, and can range from as wide as reference architectures to middleware technology. This document is organised as follows. The next chapter contains some requirements as defined by the industrial partners in Globemen. Chapter 3 contains virtual enterprise concepts...... and constructs for background information. The frame for the remainder of the document is set in chapter 4, where ALIVE (Architecture for Layered Integration of Virtual Enterprises) is introduced. Each of the components in ALIVE is subsequently discussed in detail in the chapters 6 to 10. Chapter 5 discusses...... reference architectures and methodologies, which should guide a user to fill in the various types of integration as indicated by ALIVE. The first type of integration, inter-enterprise coordination, is not described in this deliverable, but in the various WP1-3 deliverables. The topic of modelling languages...

  9. Short-term Canadian natural gas deliverability 2005-2007 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    This document examined the factors that influence gas supply in the short-term and presented an outlook for deliverability from 2005 to 2007. Recent trends in the production characteristics of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and the east coast offshore provide a better understanding of the short-term gas supply situation. High natural gas prices have resulted in record levels of drilling in Canada's natural gas exploration and production industry. Drilling levels are expected to remain high as industry will continue to maximize efforts to increase production. However, due to the maturity of the WCSB, the effort will result in only a modest increase in production over the next 2 years. The low decline characteristics of natural gas from coal (NGC) wells will have a stabilizing effect on WCSB deliverability over the long-term. It was noted that approximately 98 per cent of Canadian gas is produced from the WCSB with Alberta accounting for 80 per cent of the output. This assessment provided separate deliverability estimates for conventional gas in the WCSB, NGC, and offshore Nova Scotia. The contribution from offshore Nova Scotia will likely remain in the range of 10 to 11 million cubic metres per day until late 2006, and rise to an average of 13 million cubic metres per day in 2007 with added compression. It was concluded that Canadian deliverability will increase slightly through an increase in drilling activity. It was also noted that the province of Alberta and the petroleum industry are addressing the issue of drilling density, access to resources, noise and other environmental aspects of the expected increase in NGC activity. 3 tabs., 16 figs., 3 appendices

  10. Identification of preferred dipole design options and cost estimates: Deliverable D5.2

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, Davide

    2017-01-01

    This document contains a description of the preferred 16 Tesla dipole magnet baseline design with its expected performances. The document also includes an analysis of the individual merits and risks of the different, initial design options and gives a justification for the selection of the baseline design. The deliverable includes expected field levels, field errors and a cost estimate, which serve as input for the arc design consolidation.

  11. Weighted linear regression using D2H and D2 as the independent variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans T. Schreuder; Michael S. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Several error structures for weighted regression equations used for predicting volume were examined for 2 large data sets of felled and standing loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.). The generally accepted model with variance of error proportional to the value of the covariate squared ( D2H = diameter squared times height or D...

  12. Incidencia del clima local en los procesos de planificación territorial: Análisis bioclimático de la Costa del Sol Occidental de Málaga (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frente al excesivo consumo energético en el acondicionamiento térmico residencial, este estudio investiga la implicancia del clima local en las estrategias de expansión urbana, así como su grado de afección a las condiciones de confort, en el contexto mediterráneo español de la Costa del Sol Occidental. Para ello se realiza un análisis bioclimático territorial, identificando los diversos climas locales existentes y las diferentes respuestas biológicas asociadas a cada uno de ellos. Con estos resultados se elabora una clasificación del lugar desde la óptica de la idoneidad bioclimática. Esta herramienta ha permitido evaluar los procesos de planificación territorial, concluyéndose que el 80,6% del suelo urbano y urbanizable no se beneficia de las condiciones climáticas más favorables, las cuales constituyen el 47,3% del territorio analizado. Esta información, puesta al servicio de mejorar las condiciones térmicas de las ciudades, puede ser útil en el diseño y distribución de futuras áreas urbanas.

  13. La ordenanza bioclimática de Tres Cantos, Madrid. Últimos avances en planificación ambiental y sostenible./ The ordinance bioclimatic Tres Cantos, Madrid. Recent developments in environmental planning and sustainable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higueras García, Ester

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aunque es de todos reconocida la importancia de planificar con criterios ambientales, son muy pocos los casos en los que estos criterios pasan de los objetivos a las propuestas. En el caso de la localidad de Tres Cantos (Madrid se ha obtenido un importante reto: la aprobación de una ordenanza, denominada Ordenanza Bioclimática, que impulsa el desarrollo urbano equilibrado con su territorio, reduce los consumos de suelo y agua, es respetuosa con el paisaje e incentiva la edificación bioclimática frente a otras convencionales./Despite the well-known relevancy of environmental criteria relating to urban planning, they often remain as objectives and do not become proposals. In the case of Tres Cantos, an important challenge has been proposed: the approval of an ordinance, called Bioclimatic Ordinance, that promotes a proportional urban development relating to the territory, that reduces the use of ground and water, that is respectful towards the landscape and encourages bioclimatic construction against the traditional one.

  14. Differential regulation of striatal motor behavior and related cellular responses by dopamine D2L and D2S isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Daniela; Chiacchiaretta, Martina; Lewis, Robert G; Brami-Cherrier, Karen; Arcuri, Ludovico; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2018-01-02

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is a major component of the dopamine system. D2R-mediated signaling in dopamine neurons is involved in the presynaptic regulation of dopamine levels. Postsynaptically, i.e., in striatal neurons, D2R signaling controls complex functions such as motor activity through regulation of cell firing and heterologous neurotransmitter release. The presence of two isoforms, D2L and D2S, which are generated by a mechanism of alternative splicing of the Drd2 gene, raises the question of whether both isoforms may equally control presynaptic and postsynaptic events. Here, we addressed this question by comparing behavioral and cellular responses of mice with the selective ablation of either D2L or D2S isoform. We establish that the presence of either D2L or D2S can support postsynaptic functions related to the control of motor activity in basal conditions. On the contrary, absence of D2S but not D2L prevents the inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation and, thereby, of dopamine synthesis, supporting a major presynaptic role for D2S. Interestingly, boosting dopamine signaling in the striatum by acute cocaine administration reveals that absence of D2L, but not of D2S, strongly impairs the motor and cellular response to the drug, in a manner similar to the ablation of both isoforms. These results suggest that when the dopamine system is challenged, D2L signaling is required for the control of striatal circuits regulating motor activity. Thus, our findings show that D2L and D2S share similar functions in basal conditions but not in response to stimulation of the dopamine system.

  15. 21 CFR 172.379 - Vitamin D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin D2. 172.379 Section 172.379 Food and Drugs... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.379 Vitamin D2. Vitamin D2 may be used safely in foods as a... prescribed conditions: (a) Vitamin D2, also known as ergocalciferol, is the chemical 9,10-seco(5Z,7E,22E)-5,7...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-2 - Payee certification failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payee certification failure. 31.3406(d)-2 Section 31.3406(d)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(d)-2 Payee certification failure. (a) Requirement to...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5950 - Vitamin D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin D2. 582.5950 Section 582.5950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5950 Vitamin D2. (a) Product. Vitamin D2. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  19. Short-term Canadian natural gas deliverability 2008-2010 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    This document examined the factors that affect gas supply in the short term and presented an outlook for deliverability through 2010. Its primary purpose was to advance public understanding of the short-term gas supply situation in Canada. For the past several years, Canadian natural gas has provided about 25 per cent of combined Canadian and U.S. production. Canadian gas deliverability remained within a narrow range from 2000 to mid-2007 at around 483 million cubic metres and has since begun to decline. About 98 per cent of the Canadian volume comes from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), with most of the rest coming from Atlantic Canada. Although drilling and development activity in the WCSB has depended on the price of natural gas relative to costs, that price was influenced by uncertainties such as weather-driven market demand, changes in natural gas supply, cost, attractiveness of other basins, availability of imported liquefied natural gas and possible supply disruptions in the Gulf of Mexico. Shale gas and tight gas prospects in the Horn River and Montney plays of northeast British Columbia have attracted considerable interest from Canada's upstream industry. Early stages of shale gas development are also underway in Quebec and the Maritimes. However, the viability of large scale commercial development of shale gas in Canada has yet to be proven. In order to reflect the short-term uncertainty of the North American natural gas market, this report project deliverability under 3 cases that reflect different levels of drilling investment, namely reference case, high case and low case scenarios. 4 tabs., 12 figs

  20. SU-F-T-333: Deliverability Considerations in Modulated Photon Radiotherapy (XMRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGeachy, P [Department of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Weppler, S; Villarreal-Barajas, J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary, AB (Canada); Zinchenko, Y [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Khan, R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Modulated Photon Radiotherapy (XMRT), which simultaneously optimizes photon beamlet energy (6 and 18 MV) and fluence, has shown dosimetric improvements for fluence map optimization (FMO) when compared to conventional single-energy intensity modulated radiotherapy. However, generating deliverable multi-leaf collimator (MLC) sequences for XMRT needs to be explored. Therefore, two problems were investigated: 1) The ability to generate MLC-sequenced fluence maps from FMO XMRT solutions for a prostate case 2) The impact of fluence smoothening constraints imposed in the FMO on the deliverability and dose distribution. Methods: XMRT FMO solutions for a clinical prostate case employing standard dosimetric constraints, prescriptions, and a seven coplanar beam arrangement were generated. Smoothening constraints in the FMO utilized a sum of positive gradients approach. Sequenced maps were generated using an in-house optimization algorithm (MLCSO). The maximum leaf speed, minimum leaf separation, and transmission through MLC leaves were set to 2.5 mm/s, 1 mm, and 1%, respectively. The resulting sequenced maps for each field were compared with the original FMO solutions through gamma analysis (0.5%/0.5 mm) and root mean square error (RMSE). This comparison was done for both the smoothed and unsmoothed XMRT solutions. Results: Average RMSE and gamma agreement of 0.44, 93%and 0.36, 95% were obtained for unsmoothed 6 and 18 MV contributions from XMRT sequenced maps. The sequenced maps with smoothening constraints had better agreement with their respective optimal fluences, with RMSEs of 0 and gamma pass rates of 100% for all comparisons. This improved smoothening led to increased dose to critical structures (rectum, bladder, and femoral heads); however solutions were still clinically acceptable. Conclusion: For a clinical prostate case, XMRT FMO fluence maps were suitable for conversion into deliverable MLC sequences. Imposing smoothening constraints during FMO resulted

  1. Short-term Canadian natural gas deliverability 2008-2010 : an energy market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-10-15

    This document examined the factors that affect gas supply in the short term and presented an outlook for deliverability through 2010. Its primary purpose was to advance public understanding of the short-term gas supply situation in Canada. For the past several years, Canadian natural gas has provided about 25 per cent of combined Canadian and U.S. production. Canadian gas deliverability remained within a narrow range from 2000 to mid-2007 at around 483 million cubic metres and has since begun to decline. About 98 per cent of the Canadian volume comes from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), with most of the rest coming from Atlantic Canada. Although drilling and development activity in the WCSB has depended on the price of natural gas relative to costs, that price was influenced by uncertainties such as weather-driven market demand, changes in natural gas supply, cost, attractiveness of other basins, availability of imported liquefied natural gas and possible supply disruptions in the Gulf of Mexico. Shale gas and tight gas prospects in the Horn River and Montney plays of northeast British Columbia have attracted considerable interest from Canada's upstream industry. Early stages of shale gas development are also underway in Quebec and the Maritimes. However, the viability of large scale commercial development of shale gas in Canada has yet to be proven. In order to reflect the short-term uncertainty of the North American natural gas market, this report project deliverability under 3 cases that reflect different levels of drilling investment, namely reference case, high case and low case scenarios. 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  2. Ensuring on-time quality data management deliverables from global clinical data management teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Haque

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing emphasis on off-site and off-shore clinical data management activities mandates a paramount need for adequate solutions geared toward on-time, quality deliverables. The author has been leading large teams that have been involved in successful global clinical data management endeavors. While each study scenario is unique and has to be approached as such, there are several elements in defining strategy and team structure in global clinical data management that can be applied universally. In this article, key roles, practices, and high-level procedures are laid out as a road map to ensure success with the model.

  3. Shuttle orbiter Ku-band radar/communications system design evaluation. Deliverable test equipment evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronde, R. G.

    1980-07-01

    The Ku-band test equipment, known as the Deliverable System Test equipment (DSTE), is reviewed and evaluated. The DSTE is semiautomated and computer programs were generated for 14 communication mode tests and 17 radar mode tests. The 31 test modules provide a good cross section of tests with which to exercise the Ku-band system; however, it is very limited when being used to verify Ku-band system performance. More detailed test descriptions are needed, and a major area of concern is the DSTE sell-off procedure which is inadequate.

  4. 'Archers' of the Blessed City: City's Deliverance in the Coinage of Early Hellenistic Olbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolba, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Despite continuous and thorough studies of Olbian coinage, the chronology of some coin series produced by this Pontic city and the messages communicated by their types remain obscure. One such controversial issue, standing out from the total mass, is the so-called ‘archers’, the early Hellenistic...... with the major turning point in the city’s history, namely its deliverance from the siege laid by Macedonian troops in the course of Zopyrion’s campaign against the Scythians around 331 BC....

  5. LANL12-RS-107J PYTHON Radiography Analysis Tool (PyRAT). Mid-Year Deliverable Report for FY15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temple, Brian Allen; Armstrong, Jerawan Chudoung

    2015-01-01

    This document is a mid-year report on a deliverable for the PYTHON Radiography Analysis Tool (PyRAT) for project LANL12-RS-107J in FY15. The deliverable is deliverable number 2 in the work package and is titled ''Add the ability to read in more types of image file formats in PyRAT''. Right now PyRAT can only read in uncompressed TIF files (tiff files). It is planned to expand the file formats that can be read by PyRAT, making it easier to use in more situations. A summary of the file formats added include jpeg, jpg, png and formatted ASCII files.

  6. Urbanismo bioclimático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Higueras García

    1998-09-01

    The paper describes the relationship between the urban areas and their environment in a world community aware of the ill-conceived energy ideas of this wasteful century, to an area of efficient and sustainable energy systems. The environmental preoccupation is on every discipline, and this Thesis rethinks about planning, environment and climate. On urban planning the answers are still more theoretical than practical, not only because of the natural complexity of the urban phenomenon, but also because the answers must be very particular to the place and local climate conditions. The study must be very particular to the place and local climate conditions. The study ends with two practical case studies on the Madrilenian Community, on two different climate areas.

  7. The signaling pathway of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) activation using normal mode analysis (NMA) and the construction of pharmacophore models for D2R ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmas, Ramin Ekhteiari; Stein, Matthias; Yurtsever, Mine; Seeman, Philip; Erol, Ismail; Mestanoglu, Mert; Durdagi, Serdar

    2017-07-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are targets of more than 30% of marketed drugs. Investigation on the GPCRs may shed light on upcoming drug design studies. In the present study, we performed a combination of receptor- and ligand-based analysis targeting the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). The signaling pathway of D2R activation and the construction of universal pharmacophore models for D2R ligands were also studied. The key amino acids, which contributed to the regular activation of the D2R, were in detail investigated by means of normal mode analysis (NMA). A derived cross-correlation matrix provided us an understanding of the degree of pair residue correlations. Although negative correlations were not observed in the case of the inactive D2R state, a high degree of correlation appeared between the residues in the active state. NMA results showed that the cytoplasmic side of the TM5 plays a significant role in promoting of residue-residue correlations in the active state of D2R. Tracing motions of the amino acids Arg219, Arg220, Val223, Asn224, Lys226, and Ser228 in the position of the TM5 are found to be critical in signal transduction. Complementing the receptor-based modeling, ligand-based modeling was also performed using known D2R ligands. The top-scored pharmacophore models were found as 5-sited (AADPR.671, AADRR.1398, AAPRR.3900, and ADHRR.2864) hypotheses from PHASE modeling from a pool consisting of more than 100 initial candidates. The constructed models using 38 D2R ligands (in the training set) were validated with 15 additional test set compounds. The resulting model correctly predicted the pIC 50 values of an additional test set compounds as true unknowns.

  8. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Deliverable 1.2: Road safety management investigation model and questionnaire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupont, H. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Muhlrad, N. Jähi, H. Vallet, G. Giustiniani, G. Tripodi, A. Usami, D. Bax, C. Wijnen, W. Schöne, M.-L. Machata, K. Buttler, I. Zysinska, M. Talbot, R. Gitelman, V. & Hakkert, S. & Muhlrad, N. Gitelman, V. & Buttler, I. (Eds.)

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the DaCoTA Work Package 1 is to investigate road safety policy-making and management processes in Europe. In the Deliverables released previously, the Work Package 1 assessed the experts’ needs in terms of road safety knowledge, data and decision support tools (Deliverable 1.1/4.1), as

  9. M-theory solutions invariant under D(2,1; γ) + D(2,1;γ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachas, C.; D'Hoker, E.; Estes, J.; Krym, D.

    2014-01-01

    We simplify and extend the construction of half-BPS solutions to 11-dimensional supergravity, with isometry superalgebra D(2,1;γ) + D(2,1;γ). Their space-time has the form AdS 3 x S 3 x S 3 warped over a Riemann surface Σ. It describes near-horizon geometries of M2 branes ending on, or intersecting with, M5 branes along a common string. The general solution to the BPS equations is specified by a reduced set of data (γ, h, G), where γ is the real parameter of the isometry superalgebra, and h and G are functions on Σ whose differential equations and regularity conditions depend only on the sign of γ. The magnitude of γ enters only through the map of h,G onto the supergravity fields, thereby promoting all solutions into families parametrized by vertical stroke γ vertical stroke. By analyzing the regularity conditions for the supergravity fields, we prove two general theorems: (i) that the only solution with a 2-dimensional CFT dual is AdS 3 x S 3 x S 3 x R 2 , modulo discrete identifications of the flat R 2 , and (ii) that solutions with γ 4 /Z 2 or AdS 7 ' regions; highly-curved M5-branes; and a coordinate singularity called the ''cap''. By putting these ''Lego'' pieces together we recover all known global regular solutions with the above symmetry, including the self-dual strings on M5 for γ 0, but now promoted to families parametrized by vertical stroke γ vertical stroke. We also construct exactly new regular solutions which are asymptotic to AdS 4 /Z 2 for γ 0 solutions with highly curved M5-brane regions, which are the formal continuation of the self-dual string solutions across the decompactification point at γ = 0. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. MO-FG-CAMPUS-TeP3-04: Deliverable Robust Optimization in IMPT Using Quadratic Objective Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, J; Liu, W; Bues, M; Schild, S [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To find and evaluate the way of applying deliverable MU constraints into robust spot intensity optimization in Intensity-Modulated- Proton-Therapy (IMPT) to prevent plan quality and robustness from degrading due to machine deliverable MU-constraints. Methods: Currently, the influence of the deliverable MU-constraints is retrospectively evaluated by post-processing immediately following optimization. In this study, we propose a new method based on the quasi-Newton-like L-BFGS-B algorithm with which we turn deliverable MU-constraints on and off alternatively during optimization. Seven patients with two different machine settings (small and large spot size) were planned with both conventional and new methods. For each patient, three kinds of plans were generated — conventional non-deliverable plan (plan A), conventional deliverable plan with post-processing (plan B), and new deliverable plan (plan C). We performed this study with both realistic (small) and artificial (large) deliverable MU-constraints. Results: With small minimum MU-constraints considered, new method achieved a slightly better plan quality than conventional method (D95% CTV normalized to the prescription dose: 0.994[0.992∼0.996] (Plan C) vs 0.992[0.986∼0.996] (Plan B)). With large minimum MU constraints considered, results show that the new method maintains plan quality while plan quality from the conventional method is degraded greatly (D95% CTV normalized to the prescription dose: 0.987[0.978∼0.994] (Plan C) vs 0.797[0.641∼1.000] (Plan B)). Meanwhile, plan robustness of these two method’s results is comparable. (For all 7 patients, CTV DVH band gap at D95% normalized to the prescription dose: 0.015[0.005∼0.043] (Plan C) vs 0.012[0.006∼0.038] (Plan B) with small MU-constraints and 0.019[0.009∼0.039] (Plan C) vs 0.030[0.015∼0.041] (Plan B) with large MU-constraints) Conclusion: Positive correlation has been found between plan quality degeneration and magnitude of

  11. MO-FG-CAMPUS-TeP3-04: Deliverable Robust Optimization in IMPT Using Quadratic Objective Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, J; Liu, W; Bues, M; Schild, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To find and evaluate the way of applying deliverable MU constraints into robust spot intensity optimization in Intensity-Modulated- Proton-Therapy (IMPT) to prevent plan quality and robustness from degrading due to machine deliverable MU-constraints. Methods: Currently, the influence of the deliverable MU-constraints is retrospectively evaluated by post-processing immediately following optimization. In this study, we propose a new method based on the quasi-Newton-like L-BFGS-B algorithm with which we turn deliverable MU-constraints on and off alternatively during optimization. Seven patients with two different machine settings (small and large spot size) were planned with both conventional and new methods. For each patient, three kinds of plans were generated — conventional non-deliverable plan (plan A), conventional deliverable plan with post-processing (plan B), and new deliverable plan (plan C). We performed this study with both realistic (small) and artificial (large) deliverable MU-constraints. Results: With small minimum MU-constraints considered, new method achieved a slightly better plan quality than conventional method (D95% CTV normalized to the prescription dose: 0.994[0.992∼0.996] (Plan C) vs 0.992[0.986∼0.996] (Plan B)). With large minimum MU constraints considered, results show that the new method maintains plan quality while plan quality from the conventional method is degraded greatly (D95% CTV normalized to the prescription dose: 0.987[0.978∼0.994] (Plan C) vs 0.797[0.641∼1.000] (Plan B)). Meanwhile, plan robustness of these two method’s results is comparable. (For all 7 patients, CTV DVH band gap at D95% normalized to the prescription dose: 0.015[0.005∼0.043] (Plan C) vs 0.012[0.006∼0.038] (Plan B) with small MU-constraints and 0.019[0.009∼0.039] (Plan C) vs 0.030[0.015∼0.041] (Plan B) with large MU-constraints) Conclusion: Positive correlation has been found between plan quality degeneration and magnitude of

  12. D2.1 - An EA Active, Problem Based Learning Methodology - EAtrain2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Georgsen, Marianne; Buus, Lillian

    This deliverable reports on the work undertaken in work package 2 with the key objective to develop a learning methodology for web 2.0 mediated Enterprise Architecture (EA) learning building on a problem based learning (PBL) approach. The deliverable reports not only on the methodology but also...... on the activities leading to its development (literature review, workshops, etc.) and on further outcomes of this work relevant to the platform specification and pilot courses preparation....

  13. Dosimetric quality, accuracy, and deliverability of modulated radiotherapy treatments for spinal metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kairn, Tanya, E-mail: t.kairn@gmail.com [Genesis Cancer Care Queensland, Auchenflower (Australia); School of Chemistry, Physics, and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Papworth, Daniel [Genesis Cancer Care Queensland, Auchenflower (Australia); Crowe, Scott B. [School of Chemistry, Physics, and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston (Australia); Anderson, Jennifer [Genesis Cancer Care Queensland, Auchenflower (Australia); Christie, David R.H. [Genesis Cancer Care Queensland, Auchenflower (Australia); School of Medicine, Bond University, Robina (Australia)

    2016-10-01

    Cancer often metastasizes to the vertebra, and such metastases can be treated successfully using simple, static posterior or opposed-pair radiation fields. However, in some cases, including when re-irradiation is required, spinal cord avoidance becomes necessary and more complex treatment plans must be used. This study evaluated 16 sample intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans designed to treat 6 typical vertebral and paraspinal volumes using a standard prescription, with the aim of investigating the advantages and limitations of these treatment techniques and providing recommendations for their optimal use in vertebral treatments. Treatment plan quality and beam complexity metrics were evaluated using the Treatment And Dose Assessor (TADA) code. A portal-imaging–based quality assurance (QA) system was used to evaluate treatment delivery accuracy, and radiochromic film measurements were used to provide high-resolution verification of treatment plan dose accuracy, especially in the steep dose gradient regions between each vertebral target and spinal cord. All treatment modalities delivered approximately the same doses and the same levels of dose heterogeneity to each planning target volume (PTV), although the minimum PTV doses in the vertebral plans were substantially lower than the prescription, because of the requirement that the plans meet a strict constraint on the dose to the spinal cord and cord planning risk volume (PRV). All plans met required dose constraints on all organs at risk, and all measured PTV-cord dose gradients were steeper than planned. Beam complexity analysis suggested that the IMRT treatment plans were more deliverable (less complex, leading to greater QA success) than the VMAT treatment plans, although the IMRT plans also took more time to deliver. The accuracy and deliverability of VMAT treatment plans were found to be substantially increased by limiting the number of

  14. Amphetamine Self-Administration Attenuates Dopamine D2 Autoreceptor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calipari, Erin S; Sun, Haiguo; Eldeeb, Khalil; Luessen, Deborah J; Feng, Xin; Howlett, Allyn C; Jones, Sara R; Chen, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine D2 autoreceptors located on the midbrain dopaminergic neurons modulate dopamine (DA) neuron firing, DA release, and DA synthesis through a negative-feedback mechanism. Dysfunctional D2 autoreceptors following repeated drug exposure could lead to aberrant DA activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projection areas such as nucleus accumbens (NAcc), promoting drug-seeking and -taking behavior. Therefore, it is important to understand molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced changes in D2 autoreceptors. Here, we reported that 5 days of amphetamine (AMPH) self-administration reduced the ability of D2 autoreceptors to inhibit DA release in the NAcc as determined by voltammetry. Using the antibody-capture [35S]GTPγS scintillation proximity assay, we demonstrated for the first time that midbrain D2/D3 receptors were preferentially coupled to Gαi2, whereas striatal D2/D3 receptors were coupled equally to Gαi2 and Gαo for signaling. Importantly, AMPH abolished the interaction between Gαi2 and D2/D3 receptors in the midbrain while leaving striatal D2/D3 receptors unchanged. The disruption of the coupling between D2/D3 receptors and Gαi2 by AMPH is at least partially explained by the enhanced RGS2 (regulator of G-protein signaling 2) activity resulting from an increased RGS2 trafficking to the membrane. AMPH had no effects on the midbrain expression and trafficking of other RGS proteins such as RGS4 and RGS8. Our data suggest that midbrain D2/D3 receptors are more susceptible to AMPH-induced alterations. Reduced D2 autoreceptor function could lead to enhanced DA signaling and ultimately addiction-related behavior. RGS2 may be a potential non-dopaminergic target for pharmacological intervention of dysfunctional DA transmission and drug addiction. PMID:24513972

  15. M-theory solutions invariant under D(2,1; γ) + D(2,1;γ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachas, C. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure Unite mixte (UMR 8549) du CNRS et de l' ENS, Paris (France); D' Hoker, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Estes, J. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Krym, D. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, The City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2014-03-06

    We simplify and extend the construction of half-BPS solutions to 11-dimensional supergravity, with isometry superalgebra D(2,1;γ) + D(2,1;γ). Their space-time has the form AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} warped over a Riemann surface Σ. It describes near-horizon geometries of M2 branes ending on, or intersecting with, M5 branes along a common string. The general solution to the BPS equations is specified by a reduced set of data (γ, h, G), where γ is the real parameter of the isometry superalgebra, and h and G are functions on Σ whose differential equations and regularity conditions depend only on the sign of γ. The magnitude of γ enters only through the map of h,G onto the supergravity fields, thereby promoting all solutions into families parametrized by vertical stroke γ vertical stroke. By analyzing the regularity conditions for the supergravity fields, we prove two general theorems: (i) that the only solution with a 2-dimensional CFT dual is AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} x R {sup 2}, modulo discrete identifications of the flat R {sup 2}, and (ii) that solutions with γ < 0 cannot have more than one asymptotic higher-dimensional AdS region. We classify the allowed singularities of h and G near the boundary of Σ, and identify four local solutions: asymptotic AdS{sub 4}/Z{sub 2} or AdS{sub 7}' regions; highly-curved M5-branes; and a coordinate singularity called the ''cap''. By putting these ''Lego'' pieces together we recover all known global regular solutions with the above symmetry, including the self-dual strings on M5 for γ <0, and the Janus solution for γ > 0, but now promoted to families parametrized by vertical stroke γ vertical stroke. We also construct exactly new regular solutions which are asymptotic to AdS{sub 4}/Z{sub 2} for γ < 0, and conjecture that they are a different superconformal limit of the self-dual string. Finally, we construct exactly γ > 0 solutions with highly curved M5

  16. TRANSIT WP3 deliverable D3.2 – “A first prototype of TSI theory”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxeltine, Alex; Kemp, René; Dumitru, Adina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this deliverable (D3. 2) of the TRANSIT research project is to report on the development of a 'first prototype'of a middle-range theory of transformative social innovation. The 'prototype'is presented here in the form a framework for Transformative Social Innovation, which at this ...

  17. Summary of FY 17 Assessments Sandia National Laboratories: Evaluation of FY16 SNL FCT M2 Milestone Deliverables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, Gordon John

    2017-03-01

    This report is the milestone deliverable M4FT-17SN111102091 “Summary of Assessments Performed FY17 by SNL QA POC” for work package FT-17SN11110209 titled “Quality Assurance – SNL”. This report summarizes the FY17 assessment performed on Fuel Cycle Technologies / Spent Fuel and Waste Disposition efforts.

  18. Such membranes are called “D2-branes”.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Such membranes are called “D2-branes”. D is for “Dirichlet”, the boundary conditions which fix the ends of open strings onto a surface. 2 is for a 2-dimensional surface, a membrane. So we say that open string theory has D2-branes among its excitations. Notes:

  19. Dopamine D2 receptors in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw van Weenen, Judith Elisabeth de

    2011-01-01

    Extensive literature links the dopamine receptor D2 to insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus type 2. However, many aspects of the functional relationship remain unclear. In this thesis we focused on unraveling the characteristics of the interplay between dopamine D2 receptors and glucose

  20. CO2-emission trading and green markets for renewable electricity. Wilmar - deliverable 4.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azuma-Dicke, N.; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Ravn, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    This report is Deliverable 4.1 of the EU project “Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets” (WILMAR) and describes the application of two policy instruments, Tradable Emissions Permits (TEP’s) and Tradable Green Certificates (TGC’s) forelectricity produced from renewable energy...... sources in the European Union and the implications for implementation in the Wilmar model. The introduction of a common emission-trading system in the EU is expected to have an upward effect on the spot pricesat the electricity market. The variations of the spot price imply that some types of power...... generation may change the situation from earning money to losing money despite the increasing spot price. Heavy restrictions on emissions penalise thefossil-fuelled technologies significantly, and the associated increase in the spot price need not compensate for this. Therefore, a market of TEP’s is expected...

  1. Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology (VERAM), Joint D41/D43 deliverable of GLOBEMEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Zwegers, Arian; Vesterager, Johan

    2003-01-01

    . IMS Globemen is an inter-regional project aiming to develop methods, tools and architectures to support inter-enterprise operations in one-of-kind industries, in different lifecycle phases. This deliverable describes an architectural framework VERAM including a description/elaboration of its elements......-of-a-kind-production”, the concept of the Virtual Enterprise (VE) and the Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture (VERA) developed in GLOBEMEN. - In Chapter 4 a so-called life history example is presented to give a possible scenario about how an enterprise network could evolve over time, and to point out the need for preparing...... and setting up networks and VEs. The life history example in Chapter 4 highlights the potential for preparing and reusing existing knowledge related to enterprise networks and VEs. - As a means to structure relevant knowledge GLOBEMEN developed the VERAM (Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture...

  2. Outlook for B.C. gas production and deliverability in relation to domestic and export markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.J.

    1993-01-01

    The business outlook for natural gas in British Columbia is discussed. Drilling activity in B.C. is increasing, and it is predicted that reserve additions over 1993-1998 will total 3.4 terra cubic feet. Deliverability in 1993 is 1.9 billion cubic feet/d, and this is expected to rise 30% by 1998. Westcoast is doubling raw gas capacity at the Pine River plant and is constructing new raw gas transmission lines. Growth is expected to continue at 6%/y for the next five years. In the deregulated environment, short term fluctuations in price are to be expected, however consumers are reluctant to tolerate price increases when levels of disposable income are static or decreasing. Regular, predictable and sustained increases in prices are preferable to sudden, significant oscillations, especially for residental customers

  3. From Field Work to Deliverables. Experiences on the Tin House Courtyard Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello Caballero, L.; Mezzino, D.; Federman, A.; Santana Quintero, M.

    2017-08-01

    The Tin House Courtyard is a property of the National Capital Commission (NCC) in Ottawa, Canada. The site is located within the `Mile of History', a historical route running from Parliament Hill to the Governor General's residence. Currently, existing assets are under intervention works that include several preservation and renewal actions. Within the broader project, one of the tasks before construction works started was the documentation of the set of facades. The Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) at Carleton University in Ottawa was commissioned by NCC to conduct the recording of the area. This paper describes the process undertaken from field work to the final deliverable to the client, as well as the issues faced in between. Nowadays, up to date surveying technologies have revolutionized the methodologies for cultural heritage documentation. In this regard, the recording strategy employed encompassed the use of photogrammetry, laser scanner, total station, as well as different pre and post processing software in order to generate the desired outcomes.

  4. Deliverable 3.3.2 Specification of tests and test groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth; Mitseva, Anelia; Harpur, Jill

    2009-01-01

    Deliverable 3.3.2: Specification of tests and test groups One of the main goals of the ISISEMD project is to offer innovative ICT services to improve the quality of life of elderly persons with cognitive problems or mild dementia and their informal and formal caregivers who provide every day care...... for them. This will be done via integrating intelligent scalable ICT services which will be tested for a period of 12 months under realistic conditions. Offering the services could not be complete without evaluating quality of life improvement, user acceptance and user satisfaction with a representative...... group of the target user groups. This document is devoted to describing important aspects of services evaluation such as: who the test participants will be, inclusion and exclusion criterion, selection standards, how the test participants will be recruited, ethical considerations, etc. Test methodology...

  5. Flibe-D2 Permeation Experiment and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, S.; Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R.; Schuetz, S.T.; O'Brien, J.E.; Nishimura, H.; Hatano, Y.; Terai, T.; Petti, D.A.; Sze, D.-K.; Tanaka, S.

    2003-01-01

    Experiment of D 2 permeation through Ni facing with purified Flibe is being carried out under the Japan-US joint research project (JUPITER-II). The experiment is proceeding in the following phases; (i) fabrication and assembly of a dual-probe permeation apparatus, (ii) a single-probe Ni/D 2 permeation experiment without Flibe, (iii) a dual-probe Ni/D 2 permeation experiment without Flibe, (iv) Flibe chemical purification by HF/H 2 gas bubbling, (v) physical purification by Flibe transport through a porous Ni filter, (vi) Ni/Flibe/D 2 permeation experiment, and (vii) Ni/Flibe/HT permeation experiment. The present paper describes results of the single and dual Ni/D 2 permeation experiments in detail

  6. D2-40/podoplanin expression in the human placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Sun, Jingxia; Gu, Yang; Zhao, Shuang; Groome, Lynn J.; Alexander, J. Steven

    2011-01-01

    Placental tissue expresses many lymphatic markers. The current study was undertaken to examine if D2-40/podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelial marker, was expressed in the human placentas, and how it is altered developmentally and pathologically. We studied D2-40/podoplanin and VEGFR-3 expressions in placentas from normotensive pregnancies at different gestational ages and in placentas from women with clinically defined preeclampsia. D2-40 expression in systemic lymphatic vessel endothelium served as a positive control. Protein expression for D2-40, VEGFR-3, and β-actin were determined by Western blot in placentas from normotensive (n=6) and preeclamptic (n=5) pregnancies. Our results show that D2-40/podoplanin was strongly expressed in the placenta, mainly as a network plexus pattern in the villous stroma throughout gestation. CD31 was limited to villous core fetal vessel endothelium and VEGFR-3 was found in both villous core fetal vessel endothelium and trophoblasts. D2-40/podoplanin expression was significantly decreased, and VEGFR-3 significantly increased in preeclamptic placental tissues compared to normotensive placental controls. Placental villous stroma is a reticular-like structure, and the localization of D2-40 to the stroma suggests that a lymphatic-like conductive network may exist in the human placenta. D2-40/podoplanin is an O-linked sialoglycoprotein. Although little is known regarding biological functions of sialylated glycoproteins within the placenta, placental D2-40/podoplanin may support fetal vessel angiogenesis during placenta development and reduced D2-40/podoplanin expression in preeclamptic placenta may contribute to altered interstitial fluid homeostasis and impaired angiogenesis in this pregnancy disorder. PMID:21095001

  7. 生椎茸中のプレビタミンD_2およびビタミンD_2の同定

    OpenAIRE

    高村, 一知; 星野, 浩子; 叶多, 謙蔵; タカムラ, カズノリ; ホシノ, ヒロコ; カノウタ, ケンゾウ; KAZUNORI, TAKAMURA; HIROKO, HOSHINO; KENZO, KANOHTA

    1993-01-01

    Pre-vitamin D_2(pre-D_2)and vitamin D_2(D_2)in raw shiitake mushroom were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with modified plasmaspray. 1. Pre-D_2 and D_2 in raw shiitake mushroom were separated by LC. 2. Pre-D_2 was confirmed parent ion(m/z 397 [M+H]^+)to scan number 259 of total ion chromatogram. 3. D_2 was cofirmed parent ion(m/z 397 [M+H]^+) to scan number 296 of total ion chromatogram. 4. We have succeeded in obtaining mass spectra of pre-D_2 and D_2 that does ...

  8. Do all the European surgeons perform the same D2? The need of D2 audit in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencivenga, Maria; Verlato, Giuseppe; Mengardo, Valentina; Weindelmayer, Jacopo; Allum, William H

    2018-06-04

    Although D2 lymphadenectomy is the standard of care for radical intent surgical treatment of gastric cancer, the real compliance with D2 dissection in Europe is still unknown. The aim of the present study is to analyze the variation in lymph-node harvesting reported after D2 dissection in European series and to present a European project aiming at evaluating the real compliance with D2 lymphadenectomy. A PubMed search for papers using the key words "D2 lymphadenectomy" and "gastric cancer" from 2008 to 2017 was undertaken. Only studies by European authors in English language reporting the number of retrieved lymph nodes after D2 lymphadenectomy were included. The results of literature review were descriptively reported. The literature survey yielded 16 studies: 2 RCTs, 3 observational multicentre studies, and 11 observational monocentric studies. A large variability was found in the number of retrieved nodes, which, overall, was the lowest in the surgical series from Eastern Europe (16.6 and 19.9 in the Lithuanian and Hungarian series, respectively) and the highest in an Italian RCT. The within-study variability was also quite high, especially in multicentre RCTs and observational studies. Sample size tended to have a larger effect on the variability of lymph nodes retrieved than on its actual value. However, in both cases, the relation was not significant, due to the low number of studies considered. There is a large variability in the number of retrieved nodes after D2 dissection in European series. This reflects, at least partly, different approaches to D2 lymphadenectomy by European surgeons and may be responsible of the different outcomes observed in patients with gastric cancer across Europe. Therefore, there is the need to standardize the practice of D2 gastrectomy in Europe and to define possible variations of D2 procedures according to tumour's characteristics.

  9. A photoaffinity ligand for dopamine D2 receptors: azidoclebopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niznik, H B; Guan, J H; Neumeyer, J L; Seeman, P

    1985-02-01

    In order to label D2 dopamine receptors selectively and covalently by means of a photosensitive compound, azidoclebopride was synthesized directly from clebopride. The dissociation constant (KD) of clebopride for the D2 dopamine receptor (canine brain striatum) was 1.5 nM, while that for azidoclebopride was 21 nM. The affinities of both clebopride and azidoclebopride were markedly reduced in the absence of sodium chloride. In the presence of ultraviolet light, azidoclebopride inactivated D2 dopamine receptors irreversibly, as indicated by the inability of the receptors to bind [3H]spiperone. Maximal photoinactivation of about 60% of the D2 dopamine receptors occurred at 1 microM azidoclebopride; 30% of the receptors were inactivated at 80 nM azidoclebopride (pseudo-IC50). Dopamine agonists selectively protected the D2 receptors from being inactivated by azidoclebopride, the order of potency being (-)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than apomorphine greater than (+/-)-6,7-dihydroxy-2-aminotetralin greater than (+)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than serotonin. Similarly, dopaminergic antagonists prevented the photoinactivation of D2 receptors by azidoclebopride with the following order of potency: spiperone greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than clebopride greater than (-)-sulpiride greater than (-)-butaclamol. The degree of D2 dopamine receptor photoinduced inactivation by azidoclebopride was not significantly affected by scavengers such as p-aminobenzoic acid and dithiothreitol. Furthermore, irradiation of striatal membranes with a concentration of azidoclebopride sufficient to inactivate dopamine D2 receptors by 60% did not significantly reduce dopamine D1, serotonin (S2), benzodiazepine, alpha 1- or beta-noradrenergic receptors. This study describes the use of a novel and selective photoaffinity ligand for brain dopamine D2 receptors. The molecule, in radiolabeled form, may aid in the

  10. Study of the effects of D2O circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblath, N.S.; Poon, A.W.P.

    2000-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has been collecting data since November 1999. The study of whether or not the D 2 O circulation affects the data is an important part of understanding how the SNO detector behaves. This report looks at several characteristics of the data to determine to what extent the D 2 O circulation affects the data. We found that there is no evidence for any dependence of event rates in the cleaned data sets on the state of D 2 O circulation

  11. Physical limit of stability in supercooled D2O and D2O+H2O mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, S. B.; Ely, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    The fluctuation theory of homogeneous nucleation was applied for calculating the physical boundary of metastable states, the kinetic spinodal, in supercooled D2O and D2O+H2O mixtures. The kinetic spinodal in our approach is completely determined by the surface tension and equation of state of the supercooled liquid. We developed a crossover equation of state for supercooled D2O, which predicts a second critical point of low density water-high density water equilibrium, CP2, and represents all available experimental data in supercooled D2O within experimental accuracy. Using Turnbull's expression for the surface tension we calculated with the crossover equation of state for supercooled D2O the kinetic spinodal, TKS, which lies below the homogeneous nucleation temperature, TH. We show that CP2 always lies inside in the so-called "nonthermodynamic habitat" and physically does not exist. However, the concept of a second "virtual" critical point is physical and very useful. Using this concept we have extended this approach to supercooled D2O+H2O mixtures. As an example, we consider here an equimolar D2O+H2O mixture in normal and supercooled states at atmospheric pressure, P=0.1 MPa.

  12. Reduced striatal D2 receptor binding in myoclonus-dystonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beukers, R.J.; Weisscher, N.; Tijssen, M.A.J.; Booij, J.; Zijlstra, F.; Amelsvoort, T.A.M.J. van

    2009-01-01

    To study striatal dopamine D 2 receptor availability in DYT11 mutation carriers of the autosomal dominantly inherited disorder myoclonus-dystonia (M-D). Fifteen DYT11 mutation carriers (11 clinically affected) and 15 age- and sex-matched controls were studied using 123 I-IBZM SPECT. Specific striatal binding ratios were calculated using standard templates for striatum and occipital areas. Multivariate analysis with corrections for ageing and smoking showed significantly lower specific striatal to occipital IBZM uptake ratios (SORs) both in the left and right striatum in clinically affected patients and also in all DYT11 mutation carriers compared to control subjects. Our findings are consistent with the theory of reduced dopamine D 2 receptor (D2R) availability in dystonia, although the possibility of increased endogenous dopamine, and consequently, competitive D2R occupancy cannot be ruled out. (orig.)

  13. The melting curve of tetrahydrofuran hydrate in D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, H.J.M.; Meyers, G.J.; White, J.W.; Sloan, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    Melting points for the tetrahydrofuran/D 2 O hydrate in equilibrium with the air-saturated liquid at atmospheric pressure are reported. The melting points were measured by monitoring the absorbance of the solution. Overall, the melting-point phase boundary curve is about 2.5 K greater than the corresponding curve for the H 2 O hydrate, with a congruent melting temperature of 281 ± 0.5 K at a D 2 O mole fraction of 0.936. The phase boundary is predicted to within 5% if the assumption is made that the THF occupancy in the D 2 O and H 2 O hydrates is the same. The authors measure an occupancy of 99.9%. The chemical potential of the empty lattice in D 2 O is estimated to be 5% greater than in H 2 O

  14. Dopamine D2 receptors photolabeled by iodo-azido-clebopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niznik, H B; Dumbrille-Ross, A; Guan, J H; Neumeyer, J L; Seeman, P

    1985-04-19

    Iodo-azido-clebopride, a photoaffinity compound for dopamine D2 receptors, had high affinity for canine brain striatal dopamine D2 receptors with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 14 nM. Irradiation of striatal homogenate with iodo-azido-clebopride irreversibly inactivated 50% of dopamine D2 receptors at 20 nM (as indicated by subsequent [3H]spiperone binding). Dopamine agonists and antagonists prevented this photo-inactivation with the appropriate rank-order of potency. Striatal dopamine D1, serotonin (S2), alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors were not significantly inactivated following irradiation with iodo-azido-clebopride. Thus, iodo-azido-clebopride is a selective photoaffinity probe for dopamine D2 receptors, the radiolabelled form of which may aid in the molecular characterization of these proteins.

  15. Quantitative imaging of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG in selected histological tissue areas by a novel bioluminescence technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Fabienne Voelxen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPatients with malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis with average survival of less than one year. Whereas in other tumor entities the characteristics of tumor metabolism are successfully used for therapeutic approaches, such developments are very rare in brain tumors, notably in gliomas. One metabolic feature characteristic of gliomas, in particular diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendroglial tumors, is the variable content of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG, a metabolite, which was discovered first in this tumor entity. D2HG is generated in large amounts due to various gain-of–function mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenases IDH-1 and IDH-2. Meanwhile, D2HG has been detected in several other tumor entities including intrahepatic bile-duct cancer, chondrosarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. D2HG is barely detectable in healthy tissue (< 0.1 mM, but its concentration increases up to 35 mM in malignant tumor tissues. Consequently, the oncometabolite D2HG has gained increasing interest in the field of tumor metabolism. To facilitate its quantitative measurement without loss of spatial resolution at a microscopical level, we have developed a novel bioluminescence assay for determining D2HG in sections of snap-frozen tissue. The assay was verified independently by photometric tests and liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The novel technique allows the microscopically resolved determination of D2HG in a concentration range of 0 – 10 µmol/g tissue (wet weight. In combination with the already established bioluminescence imaging techniques for ATP, glucose, pyruvate, and lactate, the novel D2HG assay enables a comparative characterization of the metabolic profile of individual tumors in a further dimension.

  16. Photoaffinity ligand for dopamine D2 receptors: azidoclebopride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niznik, H.B.; Guan, J.H.; Neumeyer, J.L.; Seeman, P.

    1985-01-01

    In order to label D2 dopamine receptors selectively and covalently by means of a photosensitive compound, azidoclebopride was synthesized directly from clebopride. The dissociation constant (KD) of clebopride for the D2 dopamine receptor (canine brain striatum) was 1.5 nM, while that for azidoclebopride was 21 nM. The affinities of both clebopride and azidoclebopride were markedly reduced in the absence of sodium chloride. In the presence of ultraviolet light, azidoclebopride inactivated D2 dopamine receptors irreversibly, as indicated by the inability of the receptors to bind [ 3 H]spiperone. Maximal photoinactivation of about 60% of the D2 dopamine receptors occurred at 1 microM azidoclebopride; 30% of the receptors were inactivated at 80 nM azidoclebopride (pseudo-IC50). Dopamine agonists selectively protected the D2 receptors from being inactivated by azidoclebopride, the order of potency being (-)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than apomorphine greater than (+/-)-6,7-dihydroxy-2-aminotetralin greater than (+)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than serotonin. Similarly, dopaminergic antagonists prevented the photoinactivation of D2 receptors by azidoclebopride with the following order of potency: spiperone greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than clebopride greater than (-)-sulpiride greater than (-)-butaclamol

  17. idSpace D2.3 – Semantic meta-model integration and transformations v2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Grube, Pascal; Schmid, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    This deliverable discusses an extended set of requirements for transformations and metamodel for creativity techniques. Based on the requirements, the deliverable provides refined meta-model. The metamodel allows for more advanced transforma-tion concepts besides the previously delivered graph tr...... oriented implemen-tation with portlets and widgets in the Liferay portal....

  18. TU-C-17A-06: Evaluating IMRT Plan Deliverability Via PTV Shape and MLC Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGurk, R; Smith, VA; Price, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: For step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans, the dosimetry and deliverability can be affected by the number and shape of the segments used. Thus, plan deliverability is likely related to target volume and shape. We investigated whether the sphericity of target volumes and the previously proposed Modulation Complexity Score (MCS) could be used together to improve the detection of IMRT fields that failed quality assurance (QA). Methods: 526 and 353 IMRT fields from 32 prostate and 28 head-and-neck (H'N) patients, respectively, were analyzed. MCS was used to quantify the complexity of multi-leaf collimator shapes and motion patterns for each field. Sphericity was calculated using the surface area and volume of each patient’s planning target volume (PTV). Logistic regression models with MCS-alone or MCS and sphericity terms were fit to PlanUNC IMRT pass/fail results (5% dose difference, 4mm distance-to-agreement criteria) using SAS 9.3 (Cary, NC). Model concordance, discordance and area under the curve (AUC) were used to quantify model accuracy. Results: Mean (±1 standard deviation) MCS for prostate and H'N were 0.58(±0.15) and 0.40 (±0.14), respectively. Mean sphericity scores were 0.75(±0.05) for prostate and 0.63 (±0.12) for H'N. Both metrics were significantly different between treatment locations (p<0.01, Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test) indicating greater complexity in shape and variations for H'N PTVs. For prostate, concordance, discordance and AUC using MCS alone were 80.8%, 18.7% and 0.811. Including sphericity in the model improved these to 81.7%, 17.7% and 0.820. For H'N, the original concordance, discordance and AUC were of 72.9%, 26.9% and 0.729. Including sphericity into the model improved these metrics to 76.5%, 23.2% and 0.729. Conclusion: Sphericity provides a quantitative measure of PTV shape. While improvement in IMRT QA failure detection was modest for both prostate and H'N plans

  19. Cenogramas, análisis bioclimático y muestreo en faunas de mamíferos: implicaciones para la aplicación de métodos de análisis paleoecológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Fernández, M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed the problems derived from the potential species loss associated to the taphonomic processes occurring in fossil sites. We seek to resolve the possible utility of cenograms and bioclimatic analysis as methodologies applicable in Paleoecology. Supposedly, if species are deleted in a community, significant changes in its structure might appear, which would make these paleoecological techniques dysfunctional. The analysis has been carried out with the data of two modern mammalian communities, Barrow (Alaska and Jaipur (India, on which we have deleted species randomly. Our results have allowed us to conclude that these methodologies are useful in Paleoecology, since they are functional with a satisfactory level of confidence, as long as the species loss is not excessively elevated (for communities with 20-40% of the original species.En este trabajo hemos analizado la problemática derivada de la posible pérdida de especies asociada a los procesos tafonómicos que se dan en los yacimientos de fósiles, para determinar la posible utilidad de los cenogramas y el análisis bioclimático como metodologías aplicables en Paleoecología. Podría suponerse que si eliminamos especies en una comunidad se podrían producir cambios significativos en su estructura que convertirían en no funcionales a estas metodologías. El análisis se ha llevado a cabo con los datos de dos comunidades de mamíferos actuales, Barrow (Alaska y Jaipur (India, de las que hemos eliminado progresivamente especies de forma aleatoria. Los resultados obtenidos nos han permitido concluir que tanto los cenogramas como el análisis bioclimático son útiles en Paleoecología, ya que son funcionales con un nivel de confianza adecuado, siempre y cuando la pérdida de especies no sea excesivamente elevada (en comunidades con un 20-40% de las especies originales.

  20. Assessment Report Sandia National Laboratories Fuel Cycle Technologies Quality Assurance Evaluation of FY15 SNL FCT M2 Milestone Deliverables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, Gordon John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program activities are conducted in accordance with FCT Quality Assurance Program Document (FCT-QAPD) requirements. The FCT-QAPD interfaces with SNL approved Quality Assurance Program Description (SNL-QAPD) as explained in the Sandia National Laboratories QA Program Interface Document for FCT Activities (Interface Document). This plan describes SNL's FY16 assessment of SNL's FY15 FCT M2 milestone deliverable's compliance with program QA requirements, including SNL R&A requirements. The assessment is intended to confirm that SNL's FY15 milestone deliverables contain the appropriate authenticated review documentation and that there is a copy marked with SNL R&A numbers.

  1. Assessment Report Sandia National Laboratories Fuel Cycle Technologies Quality Assurance Evaluation of FY15 SNL FCT M2 Milestone Deliverables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, Gordon John

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program activities are conducted in accordance with FCT Quality Assurance Program Document (FCT-QAPD) requirements. The FCT-QAPD interfaces with SNL approved Quality Assurance Program Description (SNL-QAPD) as explained in the Sandia National Laboratories QA Program Interface Document for FCT Activities (Interface Document). This plan describes SNL's FY16 assessment of SNL's FY15 FCT M2 milestone deliverable's compliance with program QA requirements, including SNL R&A requirements. The assessment is intended to confirm that SNL's FY15 milestone deliverables contain the appropriate authenticated review documentation and that there is a copy marked with SNL R&A numbers.

  2. CRISP. Functional Specifications of electric Networks with high degrees of distributed generation. Deliverable D1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontela, M.; Bacha, S.; Hadsjaid, N.; Andrieu, C.

    2007-09-01

    The deliverable D 1.1 is the first step in the project. This D 1.1 deliverable treats the different components: networks, generation sources and also the actors present in the energy market. The French system is usually commented but comments about the other countries uses are also mentioned. Special attention has been paid to the Dutch system, and a comparison is made between the French and the Dutch system. The main goal of this work is to describe the electric system and its components. Also a benchmarking model is proposed in order to start the studies of the different work package. This benchmarking model implies: the transmission, sub-transmission and distribution electric sub-systems. From this model, different scenarios of perturbations are studied. These scenarios correspond to different framework times (transient and steady states) and they could become fatal for the system operation

  3. ADAM adaptation and mitigation strategies: supporting European climate policy. Deliverable D3 of work package M1 (code D-M1.3). ADAM 2-degree scenario for Europe - policies and impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Wolfgang; Jochem, Eberhard; Barker, Terry [and others

    2009-07-31

    ADAM research identifies and appraises existing and new policy options that can contribute to different combinations of adaptation and mitigation strategies. These options address the demands a changing climate will place on protecting citizens and valuable ecosystems - i.e., adaptation - as well as addressing the necessity to restrain/control humankind's perturbation to global climate to a desirable level - i.e., mitigation. The work package Mitigation 1 (Ml) has the core objective to simulate mitigation options and their related costs for Europe until 2050 and 2100 respectively. The focus of this deliverable is on the period 2005 to 2050. The long-term period until 2100 is covered in the previous deliverable D2, applying the POLES model for this time horizon. The analysis constitutes basically a techno-economic analysis. Depending on the sector analyzed it is either directly combined with a policy analysis (e.g. in the transport sector, renewables sector) or the policy analysis is performed qualitatively as a subsequent and independent step after the techno-economic analysis is completed (e.g. in the residential and service sectors). The book includes the following chapters: scenarios and macroeconomic assumptions; methodological issues analyzing mitigation options; the integrated global energy model POLES and its projections for the reference and 2 deg C scenarios; forest and basic materials sector; residential sector in Europe; the service (tertiary) and the primary sectors in Europe; basic products and other manufacturing industry sectors; transport sectors in Europe; renewable sector in Europe; conversion sector in Europe; syntheses and sectoral analysis in Europe; macroeconomic impacts of climate policy in the EU; the effects of the financial crisis on baseline simulations with implications for climate policy modeling: an analysis using the global model E3MG 2008-2012; conclusions and policy recommendations.

  4. ADAM adaptation and mitigation strategies: supporting European climate policy. Deliverable D3 of work package M1 (code D-M1.3). ADAM 2-degree scenario for Europe - policies and impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Wolfgang; Jochem, Eberhard; Barker, Terry (and others)

    2009-07-31

    ADAM research identifies and appraises existing and new policy options that can contribute to different combinations of adaptation and mitigation strategies. These options address the demands a changing climate will place on protecting citizens and valuable ecosystems - i.e., adaptation - as well as addressing the necessity to restrain/control humankind's perturbation to global climate to a desirable level - i.e., mitigation. The work package Mitigation 1 (Ml) has the core objective to simulate mitigation options and their related costs for Europe until 2050 and 2100 respectively. The focus of this deliverable is on the period 2005 to 2050. The long-term period until 2100 is covered in the previous deliverable D2, applying the POLES model for this time horizon. The analysis constitutes basically a techno-economic analysis. Depending on the sector analyzed it is either directly combined with a policy analysis (e.g. in the transport sector, renewables sector) or the policy analysis is performed qualitatively as a subsequent and independent step after the techno-economic analysis is completed (e.g. in the residential and service sectors). The book includes the following chapters: scenarios and macroeconomic assumptions; methodological issues analyzing mitigation options; the integrated global energy model POLES and its projections for the reference and 2 deg C scenarios; forest and basic materials sector; residential sector in Europe; the service (tertiary) and the primary sectors in Europe; basic products and other manufacturing industry sectors; transport sectors in Europe; renewable sector in Europe; conversion sector in Europe; syntheses and sectoral analysis in Europe; macroeconomic impacts of climate policy in the EU; the effects of the financial crisis on baseline simulations with implications for climate policy modeling: an analysis using the global model E3MG 2008-2012; conclusions and policy recommendations.

  5. Report of Case Studies on Gender Equality as a Focus Point of National and Nativist Discourses (Deliverable 9.7)

    OpenAIRE

    Siim, Birte; Kriszan, Andrea; Ámon, Kata; Knijn, Trudie; Broek, Hans Peter van den; Caponia, Tiziana; Gal, John; Halevy, Dana; Sipic, Josip; Unger, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of WP9.7 is to analyse ‘cross-national case studies on gender equality as the focus of national and nativist discourses’. This deliverable is based on the national reports on the rhetoric of populist radical right parties from the seven selected countries, i.e. Croatia, Denmark, the Netherlands, Hungary, Germany, Italy and Spain, together with Israel. The objective of this synthesis report is to identify similarities and divergences in framing migration, mobility, gender and f...

  6. Silver deposited carboxymethyl chitosan-grafted magnetic nanoparticles as dual action deliverable antimicrobial materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Duc-Thang; Sabrina, Sabrina; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2017-04-01

    Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) was known to have a much better antimicrobial activity than chitosan due to the increased cationic -NH 3 + groups resulted from the intra- and intermolecular interactions between the carboxyl and amino groups. CMCS was grafted onto the surface of silica coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to obtain magnetically retrievable and deliverable antimicrobial nanoparticles (MNPs@CMCS). The presence of carboxylate groups in CMCS not only enhanced antimicrobial activity but also enabled Ag ions chelating ability to induce the in situ formation of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs). The deposition of AgNPs on the surface of MNPs@CMCS could significantly increase its antimicrobial activity against planktonic cells due to the dual action of CMCS and AgNPs. Due to its high magnetism, the as-prepared MNPs@CMCS-Ag could be efficiently delivered into an existing biofilm under the guidance of an applied magnetic field. Without direct contact, the Ag ions and/or radical oxygen species (ROS) released from the deposited Ag nanoparticles could effectively kill the bacteria embedded in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix of biofilm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An editorial approach: Mike Nelson’s corridors and The Deliverance and The Patience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hughes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay contrasts the contemporary British artist Mike Nelson’s approach to constructing his large, multi-room installations with his approach to editing the numerous artist books that he has produced since 2000. This comparison reveals several compositional symmetries between the two, namely pertaining to narrative non-linearity and meta-fictionality. The logic of montage is shown to similarly underscore both the books and the installations. This essay argues that the corridors connecting the different rooms of Nelson’s installations function in a similar way to the logic of montage: they play an integral role as the support that binds the structure of the installation (its multiple rooms together as a whole. This essay argues that the corridor is the primary viewing framework of the installation for the viewer, and that this vantage point is significant because the necessarily partial vision of the installation from the space of the corridor demonstrates the logic of installation art more broadly. I conclude by mapping the key compositional elements of Nelson’s artist books onto his installations, taking the 2001 work The Deliverance and The Patience as a case study, to show that the books do not exemplify the artwork as with traditional exhibition catalogues, but rather parallel it. That is, a structural continuity is established between these two facets of his work.

  8. Musical Expression with the D2MMG Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Graugaard, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Distribution in Multiple Musical Gestures (D2MMG) uses a robust interface for detecting simple drawing gestures. The gestures affect low- and high-level aspects of sound and music through inherent modes organized as primary and secondary gestures. This enables expressive live performance...... and improvisation with sequence creation where musical elements such as tonality, chromaticity, rhythm patterns, and melodical sequences can be affected in real-time. We introduce a utility for procedurally controlling note density and chordal alignment. Future papers will focus on D2MMG’s progressive learning......, multi-user, and unconventional performance usage as well as novel aspects of its methods for gesture detection and sound synthesis....

  9. Acute D2/D3 dopaminergic agonism but chronic D2/D3 antagonism prevents NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Nuri B; Nemmers, Brian; Noguchi, Kevin K

    2006-09-15

    Antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor, most likely by producing disinhibtion in complex circuits, acutely produce psychosis and cognitive disturbances in humans, and neurotoxicity in rodents. Studies examining NMDA Receptor Hypofunction (NRHypo) neurotoxicity in animals, therefore, may provide insights into the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. Dopaminergic D2 and/or D3 agents can modify psychosis over days to weeks, suggesting involvement of these transmitter system(s). We studied the ability of D2/D3 agonists and antagonists to modify NRHypo neurotoxicity both after a one-time acute exposure and after chronic daily exposure. Here we report that D2/D3 dopamine agonists, probably via D3 receptors, prevent NRHypo neurotoxicity when given acutely. The protective effect with D2/D3 agonists is not seen after chronic daily dosing. In contrast, the antipsychotic haloperidol does not affect NRHypo neurotoxicity when given acutely at D2/D3 doses. However, after chronic daily dosing of 1, 3, or 5 weeks, haloperidol does prevent NRHypo neurotoxicity with longer durations producing greater protection. Understanding the changes that occur in the NRHypo circuit after chronic exposure to dopaminergic agents could provide important clues into the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders.

  10. Surface tension of H2O and D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargaftik, N.B.; Voljak, L.D.; Volkov, B.N.

    1975-01-01

    There is a great number of works on surface tension of clean water (H 2 O) at temperatures up to 100 deg C and very few above the boiling point. Works on surface tension of heavy water (D 2 O) are insufficient. A review of works on surface tension of both kinds of water is given

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DREDGING AND DISPOSAL (E2-D2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Effects of Dredging and Disposal" ("E2-D2") searchable database of published reports and studies about environmental impacts associated with dredging and disposal operations. Many of the reports and studies are ava...

  12. On the sign of d2H/dt2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipankar, R.

    1977-11-01

    For a system with a given energy that has N different possible states, the H function (of thermodynamics) satisfies d 2 H/dt 2 >0 if N( 2 H/dt 2 may be both positive and negative if N(>=)5. The case of N=4 remains undetermined

  13. Characterizing the D2 statistic: word matches in biological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forêt, Sylvain; Wilson, Susan R; Burden, Conrad J

    2009-01-01

    Word matches are often used in sequence comparison methods, either as a measure of sequence similarity or in the first search steps of algorithms such as BLAST or BLAT. The D2 statistic is the number of matches of words of k letters between two sequences. Recent advances have been made in the characterization of this statistic and in the approximation of its distribution. Here, these results are extended to the case of approximate word matches. We compute the exact value of the variance of the D2 statistic for the case of a uniform letter distribution, and introduce a method to provide accurate approximations of the variance in the remaining cases. This enables the distribution of D2 to be approximated for typical situations arising in biological research. We apply these results to the identification of cis-regulatory modules, and show that this method detects such sequences with a high accuracy. The ability to approximate the distribution of D2 for both exact and approximate word matches will enable the use of this statistic in a more precise manner for sequence comparison, database searches, and identification of transcription factor binding sites.

  14. Study on dopamine D2 binding capacity in vascular parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terashi, Hiroo; Nagata, Ken; Hirata, Yutaka; Hatazawa, Jun; Utsumi, Hiroya

    2001-01-01

    To investigate whether the striatal dopamine receptor function is involved in the development of vascular parkinsonism (VP), a positron emission tomography (PET) study was conducted on 9 patients with VP by using [ 11 C] N-methylspiperone as the tracer. The rate of binding availability in the striatal dopamine D 2 receptor (k 3 ) was determined semiquantitatively, and the values were compared to the predicted normal values based on the results from 7 normal volunteers. Of 9 patients with VP, the normalized D 2 receptor binding [%k 3 ] was more than 90% in 5 patients, 89 to 87% in 3, and 75% in one. These values showed no evident correlation with the Hoehn and Yahr stage. The laterality of the striatal %k 3 did not correspond to that of the parkinsonism. Thus, the striatal dopamine D 2 receptor binding was not severely impaired and did not correlate with the neurological status in patients with VP. This may indicate that striatal dopamine D 2 receptor function is not primarily associated with the development of the parkinsonism in VP. (author)

  15. Cellular modifications produced by D2O in yeast culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihancea, I.; Mircea, R.Al.

    1996-01-01

    The cellular cycle of the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, chosen as experimental object, is unmodified by the presence in the culture medium of D 2 O at different concentrations. An increased concentration of D 2 O in the culture medium leads to a decrease of the number of budded cells, to metabolic alterations, to DNA structure modification as well as to enzymatic changes produced by blocking. Other anomalies appear, as a function of the cell defence capacity and of the influence of the factors from the nutrient substrate or exterior medium. Due to D 2 O, the medium's pH changes and modifications at the enzyme level and of the cell microstructure and morphology occur. The enzymatic reactions take place in D 2 O slower than in H 2 O. Three-dimensional modifications appear in the organic components of the live cell which, in turn, produce profound modifications in the cell growth and division. Due to the kinetic and isotopic effects, modifications of the biochemical reactions affecting the cell integrity happen

  16. 17 CFR 240.15d-2 - Special financial report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special financial report. 240....15d-2 Special financial report. (a) If the registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933 did... registration statement, file a special report furnishing certified financial statements for such last full...

  17. Vibrational excitation of D2 by low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.J.; Phelps, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Excitation coefficients for the production of vibrationally exicted D 2 by low energy electrons have been determined from measurements of the intensity of infrared emission from mixtures of D 2 and small concentrations of CO 2 or CO. The measurements were made using the electron drift tube technique and covered electric field to gas density ratios (E/n) from (5 to 80) x 10 -21 V m 2 , corresponding to mean electron energies between 0.45 and 4.5 eV. The CO 2 and CO concentrations were chosen to allow efficient excitation transfer from the D 2 to the carbon containing molecule, but to minimize direct excitation of the CO 2 or CO. The measured infrared intensities were normalized to predicted values for N 2 --CO 2 and N 2 --CO mixtures at E/n where the efficiency of vibrational excitation is known to be very close to 100%. The experimental excitation coefficients are in satisfactory agreement with predictions based on electron--D 2 cross sections at mean electron energies below 1 eV, but are about 50% too high at mean energies above about 2 eV. Application of the technique to H 2 did not yield useful vibrational excitation coefficients. The effective coefficients in H 2 --CO 2 mixtures were a factor of about 3 times the predicted values. For our H 2 --CO mixtures the excitation of CO via excitation transfer from H 2 is small compared to direct electron excitation of CO molecules. Published experiments and theories on electron--H 2 and electron--D 2 collisions are reviewed to obtain the cross sections used in the predictions

  18. Conclusions and summaries of feed-back comments from participating countries. Deliverable D18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie; Richardson, Phil; Pritrsky, Jozef

    2009-12-01

    Deliverable 18 is focused on the principal components of risk communication strategies and based on actual experiences from different cultural settings in relation to nuclear waste management (NWM) issues. Essentially it describes how the ideas were presented and developed within the 3rd year of the ARGONA project, in sub-workpackage 4.1. The intention of this work was to delineate good risk communication approaches across national borders, as well as to specify the circumstances that require more specific and unique national or group considerations. Our aim was to provide an in-depth analysis of societal patterns and trends regarding the management of nuclear wastes on the basis of a number of individual participants' understanding and open discussion of the issue between themselves and across the heterogeneous groups represented. To meet these goals we involved a number of stakeholders from ARGONA participating countries (UK, Sweden, Slovakia, Czech Republic) in a one-day focus group in September 2009. Their task was to provide comments on the strategies for risk communication that have emanated from the various interest groups within the different countries. Another reason for their engagement was to elicit their comments on the central features of existing materials and thus point to any strengths and weaknesses associated with various risk communication techniques and more composite risk communication strategies. The results obtained reflect the opinions and sentiments related to risks and safety of various groups in civil society within the participating countries. We also believe that the work performed in D18 fits well into the transparency framework provided in the RISCOM model. This model was successfully used in Sweden and has actually also been applied in the Czech Republic within the ARGONA project. It was shown that if applied in practice this model has a high potential for improving transparency related to consensus building in the NWM area

  19. Short-term Canadian natural gas deliverability 2006-2008 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    This report presented an assessment of the expected capability of Canadian gas production through to the year 2008. Strong natural gas prices have led to record drilling levels in Canada's natural gas industry. North American natural gas prices reached a peak near the end of 2005. The rise in prices during 2005 reflected high world crude oil prices, a tight balance between natural gas supply and demand, and disruptions to United States gas supply from 2 hurricanes. In response to rising prices, western Canada drilling activity achieved new highs in early 2006. Higher drilling rates also reflected rising costs for key inputs of steel, fuel, and labour. Gas prices have since softened due to a storage overhang resulting from a mild winter. The combination of rising costs and softening prices has impacted margins for Canadian gas producers. In response, some producers have reduced drilling expansion plans in coalbed methane (CBM) and shallow gas plays in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). Increases in deeper gas drilling have been maintained. Total gas drilling for 2006 is expected to rise by 3 per cent compared to 2005. The report projected a small increase in Canada's total annual gas production from 484 million m 3 /d in 2005 to 491 million m 3 /d in 2008. Annual average deliverability of conventional gas is expected to decline slightly over the projection period. The decrease is expected to be more than offset by growth in CBM production in western Canada, which is expected to increase from 8 million m 3 /d in 2005 to 27 million m 3 /d in 2008. 5 tabs., 5 figs

  20. The iTREN-2030 reference scenario until 2030. Deliverable D4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorello, Davide; De Stasio, Claudia; Koehler, Jonathan; Kraft, Markus; Netwon, Sean; Purwanto, Joko; Schade, Burkhard; Schade, Wolfgang; Szimba, Eckhard

    2009-07-01

    The basic objective of iTREN-2030 is to extend the forecasting and assessment capabilities of the TRANS-TOOLS transport model to the new policy issues arising from the technology, environment and energy fields. This is achieved by couplin the TRANS-TOOLS model with three other models, ASTRA, POLES and TREMOVE covering these new policy issues. The TRANS-TOOLS transport network model has been developed to constitute the reference tool for supporting transport policy in the EU and currently is being developed in several European projects. The scenario set-up to be developed in iTREN-2030 has been modified, so that the projects develops a reference scenario and an integrated scenario. For the reference scenario, the three other modelling tools are harmonised with TRANS-TOOLS and made consistent with each other. This results in a coherent scenario for Europe until 2030 for technology, transport, energy, environment and economic development. The integrated scenario will consider the changing framework conditions until 2030, inparticular the policy pressure coming from climate policy and the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels as well as the impact of the financial and economic crisis. Within the iTREN-2030 project, the overall objective of Work Package 4 (WP4) producing tis deliverable is to develop the reference scenario for the quantitative projections using the four modelling tools involved in the project. The main aims of WP4 are to (a) define a consistent framework for using the different tools in an integrated way; (b) calibrate models with exchanged input to a coherent joint reference; (c) implement external input from WP3 and running models for projections; (d) produce output procedures and templates to facilitate assessment in WP5.

  1. ECO D2.5 Learning analytics requirements and metrics report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, Francis; Zorrilla Pantaleón, Marta Elena; Esperanza‎ Álvarez Saiz, Elena; Solana González, Pedro; Cobo Ortega, Ángel; Rocío‎ Rocha Blanco, Eliana; Collantes Viaña, Marta; Rodríguez Hoyo, Carlos; De Lima Silva, Mariana; Marta-Lazo, Carmen; Gabelas Barroso, José Antonio; Arranz, Pilar; García, Luis; Silva, Alejandro; Sáez López, José Manuel; Ventura Expósito, Patricia; Jordano de la Torre, María; María, Felix; Viñuales, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In MOOCs, learning analytics have to be addressed to the various types of learners that participate. This deliverable describes indicators that enable both teachers and learner to monitor the progress and performance as well as identify whether there are learners at risk of dropping out. How these

  2. 17 CFR 270.12d2-1 - Definition of insurance company for purposes of sections 12(d)(2) and 12(g) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.12d2-1 Definition of insurance company for purposes of sections 12(d)(2... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of insurance company for purposes of sections 12(d)(2) and 12(g) of the Act. 270.12d2-1 Section 270.12d2-1 Commodity...

  3. Fast, controlled stepping drive for D2 filament ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenda, W.; Lang, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    Centrifugal pellet injectors are required to refuel plasma machines. The pellet feed into the centrifuge should, if possible, be direct to keep the exit angle divergence small. The D 2 filaments used are first stored in a cryostat and then rapidly transported to the intake region of the centrifuge. An intermittent drive for fast, controlled ejection of D 2 filaments is described here. Mean filament speed of up to 0.6 m/s per step (1.2 mm) are achieved for the centrifugal pellet injector which refuels the ASDEX tokamak at Garching. The timing of the (81) step shifts can be synchronized with the rotor motion. The drive allows rates of up to 50 pellets per second. The drive method also seems to be suitable for direct feeding of other known centrifugal pellet injectors

  4. The separation of U and Y by D2EHPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwi-Biyantoro; Subagiono, R.; Rosyidin; Kris-Tri-Basuki; Tri-Handini; Purwoto

    1996-01-01

    The separation of uranium and yttrium in hydrochloric acid was extracted by D 2 EHPA in dodecane. This process used liquid-liquid extraction method. The variables studied were the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the concentration of extractant, time of extraction, and the temperature of extraction. The data evaluation of the research showed that the optimum condition was as follows: the concentration of HCI = 0.2 M, the concentration of extractant = 0.15 M D 2 EHPA, the time of extraction = 15 minutes, and the temperature of extraction = 20 o C. It was found that the distribution coefficient of uranium was = 34.43, the distribution coefficient of yttrium was = 2.20, and the separation factor of U-Y= 15.65

  5. Electrochemical boriding and characterization of AISI D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sista, V.; Kahvecioglu, O.; Eryilmaz, O.L.; Erdemir, A.; Timur, S.

    2011-01-01

    D2 is an air-hardening tool steel and due to its high chromium content provides very good protection against wear and oxidation, especially at elevated temperatures. Boriding of D2 steel can further enhance its surface mechanical and tribological properties. Unfortunately, it has been very difficult to achieve a very dense and uniformly thick boride layers on D2 steel using traditional boriding processes. In an attempt to overcome such a deficiency, we explored the suitability and potential usefulness of electrochemical boriding for achieving thick and hard boride layers on this tool steel in a molten borax electrolyte at 850, 900, 950 and 1000 °C for durations ranging from 15 min to 1 h. The microstructural characterization and phase analysis of the resultant boride layers were performed using optical, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Our studies have confirmed that a single phase Fe 2 B layer or a composite layer consisting of FeB + Fe 2 B is feasible on the surface of D2 steel depending on the length of boriding time. The boride layers formed after shorter durations (i.e., 15 min) mainly consisted of Fe 2 B phase and was about 30 μm thick. The thickness of the layer formed in 60 min was about 60 μm and composed mainly of FeB and Fe 2 B. The cross sectional micro-hardness values of the boride layers varied between 14 and 22 GPa, depending on the phase composition.

  6. Microstructural investigation of D2 tool steel during rapid solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delshad Khatibi, Pooya

    Solidification is considered as a key processing step in developing the microstructure of most metallic materials. It is, therefore, important that the solidification process can be designed and controlled in such a way so as to obtain the desirable properties in the final product. Rapid solidification refers to the system's high undercooling and high cooling rate, which can yield a microstructure with unique chemical composition and mechanical properties. An area of interest in rapid solidification application is high-chromium, high-carbon tool steels which experience considerable segregation of alloying elements during their solidification in a casting process. In this dissertation, the effect of rapid solidification (undercooling and cooling rate) of D2 tool steel on the microstructure and carbide precipitation during annealing was explored. A methodology is described to estimate the eutectic and primary phase undercooling of solidifying droplets. The estimate of primary phase undercooling was confirmed using an online measurement device that measured the radiation energy of the droplets. The results showed that with increasing primary phase and eutectic undercooling and higher cooling rate, the amount of supersaturation of alloying element in metastable retained austenite phase also increases. In the case of powders, the optimum hardness after heat treatment is achieved at different temperatures for constant periods of time. Higher supersaturation of austenite results in obtaining secondary hardness at higher annealing temperature. D2 steel ingots generated using spray deposition have high eutectic undercooling and, as a result, high supersaturation of alloying elements. This can yield near net shape D2 tool steel components with good mechanical properties (specifically hardness). The data developed in this work would assist in better understanding and development of near net shape D2 steel spray deposit products with good mechanical properties.

  7. 3D2 pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, T.

    1996-01-01

    The superfluid 3 D 2 pairing instability in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is studied, using the Paris nucleon-nucleon interaction as an input. It is found that the critical temperature associated with the transition to the superfluid phase becomes strongly suppressed with increasing isospin asymmetry, and vanishes for asymmetry parameter values α (≡(n n -n p )/(n n +n p )) that are larger than several percent. It is shown that for neutron star models based on relativistic, field-theoretical equations of state, a large fraction of their interior may exist in a 3 D 2 -paired superfluid phase. The implications of such a 3 D 2 superfluid in massive neutron stars is discussed with respect to observable pulsar phenomena. Another interesting phenomenon, discussed in the paper, concerns the numerical finding of two critical superfluid temperatures for a given density in the case of isospin-asymmetric matter. Using the BCS cut-off ansatz, a mathematical expression for the critical temperature is derived which confirms this finding analytically. (orig.)

  8. Hyperdorsoanterior embryos from Xenopus eggs treated with D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharf, S.R.; Rowning, B.; Wu, M.; Gerhart, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Excessively dorsalized embryos of Xenopus laevis develop from eggs treated with 30-70% D 2 O for a few minutes within the first third of the cell cycle following fertilization. As the concentration of D 2 O and the duration of exposure are increased, the anatomy of these embryos shifts in the direction of enlarged dorsal and anterior structures and reduced ventral and posterior ones. Twinning of dorsoanterior structures is frequent. Intermediate forms include embryos with large heads but no trunks or tails. The limit form of the series has cylindrical symmetry, with circumferential bands of eye pigment and cement gland, a core of notochord-like tissue, and a centrally located beating heart. D 2 O treatment seems to increase the egg's sensitivity to the dorsalizing effects of cortical rotation and to stimulate the egg to initiate two or more directions of rotation. Such eggs probably establish thereafter a widened and/or duplicated Nieuwkoop center in the vegetal hemisphere, with the subsequent induction of a widened and/or duplicated Spemann organizer region in the marginal zone, which leads to excessive dorsal development. The existence of these anatomical forms indicates the potential of the egg to undertake dorsal development at all positions of its circumference and suggests that normal patterning depends on the limited and localized activation or disinhibition of this widespread potential

  9. Multidimensional correlation among plan complexity, quality and deliverability parameters for volumetric-modulated arc therapy using canonical correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lanxiao; Chen, Shan; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Han, Ce; Zheng, Xiaomin; Deng, Zhenxiang; Zhou, Yongqiang; Gong, Changfei; Xie, Congying; Jin, Xiance

    2018-03-01

    A multidimensional exploratory statistical method, canonical correlation analysis (CCA), was applied to evaluate the impact of complexity parameters on the plan quality and deliverability of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and to determine parameters in the generation of an ideal VMAT plan. Canonical correlations among complexity, quality and deliverability parameters of VMAT, as well as the contribution weights of different parameters were investigated with 71 two-arc VMAT nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients, and further verified with 28 one-arc VMAT prostate cancer patients. The average MU and MU per control point (MU/CP) for two-arc VMAT plans were 702.6 ± 55.7 and 3.9 ± 0.3 versus 504.6 ± 99.2 and 5.6 ± 1.1 for one-arc VMAT plans, respectively. The individual volume-based 3D gamma passing rates of clinical target volume (γCTV) and planning target volume (γPTV) for NPC and prostate cancer patients were 85.7% ± 9.0% vs 92.6% ± 7.8%, and 88.0% ± 7.6% vs 91.2% ± 7.7%, respectively. Plan complexity parameters of NPC patients were correlated with plan quality (P = 0.047) and individual volume-based 3D gamma indices γ(IV) (P = 0.01), in which, MU/CP and segment area (SA) per control point (SA/CP) were weighted highly in correlation with γ(IV) , and SA/CP, percentage of CPs with SA plan quality with coefficients of 0.98, 0.68 and -0.99, respectively. Further verification with one-arc VMAT plans demonstrated similar results. In conclusion, MU, SA-related parameters and PTV volume were found to have strong effects on the plan quality and deliverability.

  10. SiteChar. Characterisation of European CO2 storage. Deliverable D8.1. Qualitative and quantitative social site characterisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Pol, M.; Paukovic, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaiser, M.; Zimmer, R. [Unabhaengiges Institut fuer Umweltfragen UfU, Berlin (Germany); Shackley, S.; Mabon, L. [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage SCCS, Edinburg, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hepplewhite, F.; Loveridge, R. [Energy Markets Unit, Scottish Government, Edinburg, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mazurowski, M.; Polak-Osiniak, D. [Polish Oil and Gas Company PGNiG, Warszawa (Poland); Rybicki, C. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    At local level, public support has proven crucial to the implementation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) demonstration projects. Whereas no method exists to guarantee public acceptability of any project, a constructive stakeholder engagement process does increase the likelihood thereof. Social site characterisation can be used as an instrument to explore, plan and evaluate a process of active and constructive local stakeholder engagement in a prospective CCS project as a parallel activity to technical site characterisation. It roughly consists of a formative research phase to get acquainted with the area followed by a series of public information and engagement activities. This deliverable presents results from the first phase for the social site characterisations of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore), using qualitative as well as quantitative research methods, as a first step to planning of local public engagement activities and evaluation of these activities that will be undertaken by this consortium at both sites in the near future. Although the term social site characterisation actually refers to the entire process of formative research and subsequent public outreach, and hence to the complete package of awareness work undertaken as part of SiteChar, in the present deliverable the term only refers to the formative research activities as undertaken up to now and as described in this deliverable. The qualitative part of the social site characterisation consisted of (1) a description of relevant social site characteristics such as local history; (2) interviews with relevant local stakeholders; (3) a media analysis of local newspapers. The quantitative part of the social site characterisation consisted of surveys using representative samples to characterise the local population in terms of awareness, knowledge and perceptions of CCS, felt involvement in decision making, extent of local activism, level of trust in representatives and

  11. Supplement to ACUMEN deliverable 5.4a: Description and comparison of indicators in Google Scholar and Web of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Lorna Elizabeth; Larsen, Birger; Schneider, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    of individual researchers. In this report we begin by comparing database coverage, coverage at seniority and gender-level and then the performance of four basic indicators computed in both databases. In the main deliverable 5.4a, we investigate in a cluster analysis the performance of our previously identified......We collected publication and citation data in two databases to investigate the extent performance of author-level indicators are effected by choice of database, the stability of indicators across databases and ultimately to illustrate how differences in the computed indicators change our perception...

  12. Compilation and testing of tools and methods for sustainable coastal management at local and regional scales : Deliverable D2.5.4, Thresholds project, 6th framework programme, EU, 108 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Håkanson, Lars

    2008-01-01

    This work describes how general methods and models for sustainable coastal ecosystem management at local to regional scales may be used to address key questions in coastal management and threshold science. The general, process-based mass-balance model (CoastMab) for substances transported to, within and from for coastal areas may be used as a tool to: 1. Combat eutrophication, 2. Rank nutrient fluxes, 3. Estimate the system response related to nutrient reductions and 4. Estimate realistic val...

  13. Organic viticulture and wine-making: development of environment and consumer friendly technologies for organic wine quality improvement and scientifically based legislative framework. Deliverable: D 2.7 Public report about first round qualitative consumer research and market needs

    OpenAIRE

    Stolz, Hanna; Schmid, Otto

    2007-01-01

    This survey of consumers’ perceptions and expectations regarding organic wine and viticulture in the selected case study countries of Italy (IT), France (FR), Germany (DE) and Switzerland (CH) was conducted within the framework of the EU research project ORWINE (Organic viticulture and wine-making: development of environment and consumer friendly technologies for organic wine quality improvement and scientifically based legislative framework). The objectives of the study were to investigat...

  14. CO2-emission trading and green markets for renewable electricity. WILMAR - deliverable 4.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma-Dicke, N.; Weber, C.; Morthorst, P.E.; Ravn, H.F.; Schmidt, R.

    2004-06-01

    This report is Deliverable 4.1 of the EU project 'Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets' (WILMAR) and de-scribes the application of two policy instruments, Tradable Emissions Permits (TEPs) and Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) for electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the European Union and the implications for implementation in the Wilmar model. The introduction of a common emission-trading system in the EU is expected to have an upward effect on the spot prices at the electric-ity market. The variations of the spot price imply that some types of power generation may change the situation from earning money to losing money despite the increasing spot price. Heavy restrictions on emissions penalise the fossil-fuelled technologies significantly, and the associated increase in the spot price need not compensate for this. Therefore, a market of TEPs is expected to have a significant influence on the electricity spot price. However, the expected price level of TEPs are met with great uncertainty and a study of a number of economical studies shows a price span between zero and 270 USD per ton of CO 2 depending on the participation or non-participation of countries in the scheme. The price-determination at the TGC market is expected to be closely related to the price at the power spot market as the RE-producers of electricity will have expectations to the total price paid for the energy produced, i.e., for the price of electricity at the spot market plus the price per kWh obtained at the green certificate mar-ket. In the Wilmar model, the TGC market can either be handled exogenously, i.e., the increase in renewable capacity and an average annual TGC price are determined outside the model, or a simple TGC module is developed, including the long-term supply functions for the most relevant renewable technologies and an overall TGC quota. Both solutions are rather simple, but to develop a more advanced model for the TGC market seems to be

  15. Suggested Guidelines for Transparency and Participation in Nuclear Waste Management Programmes. Deliverable 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Josefin Paeivioe; Andersson, Kjell; Bolado, Ricardo; Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie; Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran; Kojo, Matti; Meskens, Gaston; Pritrsky, Jozef; Richardson, Phil; Soneryd, Linda; Steinerova, Lucie; Szerszynski, Bronislaw; Wene, Clas-Otto; Vojtechova, Hana

    2010-02-01

    . Annex 2 gives references for the various sections of the guidelines to more background information in ARGONA deliverables and in the ARGONA Final Report. These guidelines concern nuclear waste management, however, this issue represents only one part of society's concerns in complex and controversial matters. The ARGONA participants believe that many of the following suggested guidelines should be of relevance in a much wider context than nuclear waste management only

  16. Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches in the Czech Republic. Guidelines on approaches to siting a deep repository. Deliverable D21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtechova, Hana

    2009-10-01

    Based on the review of experiences in SEA and EIA in the Czech Republic summarized in Deliverable No.3 and the testing of novel participatory and dialogue approaches summarized in Deliverables No.7, 11 and 12 in this report a model for the siting process specifically in the Czech Republic, that takes into account the need for transparency and interaction with the public, within the framework of legal requirements is outlined. Lessons learnt are summarised and a road map specified. The guidelines / recommendations in this report are proposed based on mapping the situation in the Czech Republic and experience gained in connection with the testing and application of novel participatory approaches and dialogue, but many of them are of general validity and can be applied in other countries outside the Czech Republic. This reports links directly to Work package 6, where general guidelines for participation and transparency, reflecting institutional and cultural differences, are given - Deliverable No.22

  17. Single-electron capture in He2+-D2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Dagnac, R.

    1994-01-01

    Doubly differential cross sections of single-electron capture were measured for He 2+ impinging on a molecular deuterium target. The investigated collision energies are 4, 6 and 8 keV and the scattering angles range from 10' to 2 o 30' (laboratory frame). The exothermic capture leading to He + (1s) + D 2 +* was found to be the most important process at low energies and angles, whereas the endothermic channels leading to dissociative capture become the main processes at high scattering angles, i.e. at small impact parameters. (author)

  18. Uranium reextraction from D2EHPA-TOPO solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Neto, J.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study for recovering uranium from the solvent D 2 EHPA-TOPO (di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid - tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) with ammonium carbonate and sodium carbonate solutions has been made. The paper discusses the precipitation of iron during stripping and the extracctant solubilization in the aqueous phases. Continuous tests showed that uranium is efficiently stripped from the solvent by using both solutions and that the choice of a specific system is dependent on the uranium precipitation mechanism to be employed. (Author) [pt

  19. Joint Secrecy for D2D Communications Underlying Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2018-01-15

    In this work, we investigate the ergodic secrecy rate region of a block-fading spectrum-sharing system, where a D2D communication is underlying a cellular channel. We consider that both the primary and the secondary transmissions require their respective transmitted messages to be kept secret from a common eavesdropper under a joint secrecy constraint. The presented results are for three different scenarios, each corresponding to a particular requirement of the cellular system. First, we consider the case of a fair cellular system, and we show that the impact of jointly securing the transmissions can be balanced between the primary and the secondary systems. The second scenario examines the case when the primary network is demanding and requires the secondary transmission to be at a rate that is decodable by the primary receiver, while the last scenario assumes a joint transmission of artificial noise by the primary and the secondary transmitters. For each scenario, we present an achievable ergodic secrecy rate region that can be used as an indicator for the cellular and the D2D systems to agree under which terms the spectrum will be shared.

  20. Structure of solid H2-D2 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupskij, I.N.; Kovalenko, S.I.; Krajnyukova, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    The structure of vapor deposited H 2 -D 2 solid mixtures is investigated. The electron-diffraction examination has been carried out in the temperature range from 2.3K up to the sample sublimation temperature, taking place in case of H 2 at T approximately 5K and D 2 -at T approximately 7K. On the basis of the difractogramm obtained it is shown that in solid films of pure components a FCC structure with parameters asub(Hsub(2))=5.310+-0.01A and asub(Osub(2))=5.100+-0.005A is realized, the structure being metastable in the temperature range. The existence of non-limitted solubility in solid two-component condensates is stated. The decay absence at T approximately 5K, when molecula mobility is enough for the transition of metastable FCC structure into HCP, is in good agreement with the results of experimental and theoretical estimations, according to which the decay critical temperature should not exceed 4K. The existance of the continuous series of solutions at lower temperatures is explained by a small coefficient value of a volumetric and surface diffusion of molecula as well

  1. Infrared spectra and tunneling dynamics of the N2-D2O and OC-D2O complexes in the v2 bend region of D2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Zheng, Rui; Li, Song; Yang, Yu; Duan, Chuanxi

    2013-12-07

    The rovibrational spectra of the N2-D2O and OC-D2O complexes in the v2 bend region of D2O have been measured in a supersonic slit jet expansion using a rapid-scan tunable diode laser spectrometer. Both a-type and b-type transitions were observed for these two complexes. All transitions are doubled, due to the heavy water tunneling within the complexes. Assuming the tunneling splittings are the same in K(a) = 0 and K(a) = 1, the band origins, all three rotational and several distortion constants of each tunneling state were determined for N2-D2O in the ground and excited vibrational states, and for OC-D2O in the excited vibrational state, respectively. The averaged band origin of OC-D2O is blueshifted by 2.241 cm(-1) from that of the v2 band of the D2O monomer, compared with 1.247 cm(-1) for N2-D2O. The tunneling splitting of N2-D2O in the ground state is 0.16359(28) cm(-1), which is about five times that of OC-D2O. The tunneling splittings decrease by about 26% for N2-D2O and 23% for OC-D2O, respectively, upon excitation of the D2O bending vibration, indicating an increase of the tunneling barrier in the excited vibrational state. The tunneling splittings are found to have a strong dependence on intramolecular vibrational excitation as well as a weak dependence on quantum number K(a).

  2. 16 CFR Appendix D2 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Electric D2 Appendix D2 to... PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. D2 Appendix D2 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Electric Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of...

  3. Algebraization of Jaśkowski’s Paraconsistent Logic D2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciuciura Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an algebraic approach to Jaśkowski’s paraconsistent logic D2. We present: a D2-discursive algebra, Lindenbaum- Tarski algebra for D2 and D2-matrices. The analysis is mainly based on the results obtained by Jerzy Kotas in the 70s.

  4. SPECT imaging of D2 dopamine receptors and endogenous dopamine release in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, C.; De Bruin, K.; Beekman, F.J.; Booij, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is important in the mediation of addiction. [123I]iodobenzamide (IBZM), a SPECT ligand for the D2R, has been used for in vivo studies of D2R availability in humans, monkeys, and rats. Although mouse models are important in the study of addiction, [123I]IBZM

  5. On relating multiple M2 and D2-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, U.; Nilsson, B.E.W; Petersson, C.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the difficulties of finding superconformal Lagrangian theories for multiple M2-branes, we will in this paper instead focus on the field equations. By relaxing the requirement of a Lagrangian formulation we can explore the possibility of having structure constants f ABC D satisfying the fundamental identity but which are not totally antisymmetric. We exemplify this discussion by making use of an explicit choice of a non-antisymmetric f ABC D constructed from the Lie algebra structure constants f ab c of an arbitrary gauge group. Although this choice of f ABC D does not admit an obvious Lagrangian description, it does reproduce the correct SYM theory for a stack of N D2-branes to leading order in g YM -1 upon reduction and, moreover, it sheds new light on the centre of mass coordinates for multiple M2-branes.

  6. Inoenue-Wigner contraction and D = 2 + 1 supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha, P.K.; Rodriguez, E.K. [Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Vina del Mar (Chile); Universidad Austral de Chile, Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Valdivia (Chile); Fierro, O. [Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Concepcion (Chile)

    2017-01-15

    We present a generalization of the standard Inoenue-Wigner contraction by rescaling not only the generators of a Lie superalgebra but also the arbitrary constants appearing in the components of the invariant tensor. The procedure presented here allows one to obtain explicitly the Chern-Simons supergravity action of a contracted superalgebra. In particular we show that the Poincare limit can be performed to a D = 2 + 1 (p,q) AdS Chern-Simons supergravity in presence of the exotic form. We also construct a new three-dimensional (2,0) Maxwell Chern-Simons supergravity theory as a particular limit of (2,0) AdS-Lorentz supergravity theory. The generalization for N = p + q gravitinos is also considered. (orig.)

  7. Thermodynamics of the localized D2-D6 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Reino, Marta; Naculich, Stephen G.; Schnitzer, Howard J.

    2005-01-01

    An exact fully-localized extremal supergravity solution for N 2 D2-branes and N 6 D6-branes, which is dual to 3-dimensional supersymmetric SU(N 2 ) gauge theory with N 6 fundamentals, was found by Cherkis and Hashimoto. In order to consider the thermal properties of the gauge theory we present the non-extremal extension of this solution to first order in an expansion near the core of the D6-branes. We compute the Hawking temperature and the black-brane horizon area/entropy. The leading-order entropy, which is proportional to N 2 3/2 N 6 1/2 T H 2 , is not corrected to first order in the expansion. This result is consistent with the analogous weak-coupling result at the correspondence point N 2 similar to N 6

  8. Polarizability tensor invariants of H2, HD, and D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Ankit; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.; Witek, Henryk A.

    2018-03-01

    We report an exhaustive compilation of wavelength-dependent matrix elements over the mean polarizability (α ¯ ) and polarizability anisotropy (γ) operators for the rovibrational states of the H2, HD, and D2 molecules together with an accompanying computer program for their evaluation. The matrix elements can be readily evaluated using the provided codes for rovibrational states with J = 0-15 and v = 0-4 and for any laser wavelengths in the interval 182.25-1320.6 nm corresponding to popular, commercially available lasers. The presented results substantially extend the scope of the data available in the literature, both in respect of the rovibrational transitions analyzed and the range of covered laser frequencies. The presented detailed tabulation of accurate polarizability tensor invariants is essential for successful realization of our main long-term goal: developing a universal standard for determining absolute Raman cross sections and absolute Raman intensities in experimental Rayleigh and Raman scattering studies of molecules.

  9. Analysis of ν2 of D 2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, James R.; Blatherwick, Ronald D.; Bonomo, Francis S.

    1985-11-01

    The infrared spectrum of ν2 of D 2S was recorded from 740 to 1100 cm -1 on the University of Denver 50-cm FTIR spectrometer system. We have assigned 655 transitions from D 232S and 129 from D 234S, and have analyzed them using Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian evaluated in the I r representation. We used the recently published D 232S and D 234S ground state Hamiltonian constants [C. Camy-Peyret, J. M. Flaud, L. Lechuga-Fossat and J. W. C. Johns, J. Mol. Spectrosc.109, 300-333 (1985)]. Upper state Hamiltonian constants were obtained from a fit of the ν2 transitions, keeping the ground state constants fixed while varying the upper state constants. The standard deviation of the D 232S ν2 fit is 0.0025 cm -1. The standard deviation of the D 234S ν2 fit is 0.0041 cm -1.

  10. D2-H2 equilibration over γ-irradiated zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, J.; Wichterlova, B.

    1987-01-01

    D 2 -H 2 equilibration was studied at 77 and 298 K over HY, AlHY, HZSM-5 and Alsub(x)Osub(y)HZSM-5 zeolites which had been γ-irradiated at 77 and/or 298 K. The exchange rate was found to be higher at the lower temperature regardless of the temperature of irradiation. Moreover, at 77 K the exchange rates were similar and more stable over the individual zeolites than at 298 K, thus indicating a common reaction path at 77 K. The exchange rate at 298 K depended on the zeolite type: it was more stable and higher over HZSM-5 than over HY, and extra-lattice Al increased both these properties on HY as well as on HZSM-5. The reaction mechanism is discussed in connection with the nature of defects generated by γ-irradiation. (author)

  11. SiteChar. Characterisation of European CO2 storage. Deliverable D8.2. Trust building and raising public awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Pol, M.; Mastop, E.A. [ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaiser, M.; Zimmer, R. [Unabhaengiges Institut fuer Umweltfragen UfU, Berlin (Germany); Shackley, S.; Mabon, L.; Howell, R. [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage SCCS, Edinburg, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    At local level, public support has proven crucial to the implementation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) demonstration projects. Whereas no method exists to guarantee public acceptability of any project, a constructive stakeholder and community engagement process does increase the likelihood thereof. This deliverable is a follow-up to deliverable D8.1 'Social site characterisation'. Social site characterisation can be used as an instrument to explore, plan and evaluate a process of active and constructive local stakeholder and citizen engagement in a prospective CCS project as a parallel activity to technical site characterisation. It serves as an analytical tool to describe the local social circumstances in the area and to design and evaluate stakeholder and community engagement efforts with the aims of building trust and raising public awareness. Using results from the social site characterisation of the area, the present deliverable focuses on the second purpose. It presents results from public engagement activities designed to raise public awareness and inform public opinion of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore): focus conferences. Furthermore, by initiating an enhanced cooperation in planning of new storage sites between project developers, authorities and the local public, focus conferences aim to serve as a 'hinge' between social site characterisation as a research effort and application to real-life project settings. The focus conferences are part of a range of public engagement activities including the setup of public information websites on generic and site-specific CCS, information meetings. A second survey eventually shall evaluate the results of the public engagement activities. The aim of the focus conferences was to raise public awareness and assist public opinion forming processes of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore). At the same time, it aimed to present and test a

  12. Increased consumption of ethanol and sugar water in mice lacking the dopamine D2 long receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulwa, Zachary B; Sharlin, Jordan A; Clark, Peter J; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Kilby, Chessa N; Wang, Yanyan; Rhodes, Justin S

    2011-11-01

    Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in the brain are thought to influence motivation and reinforcement for ethanol and other rewards. D2R exists in two isoforms, D2 long (D2LR) and D2 short (D2SR), produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. The relative contributions of D2LR versus D2SR to ethanol and sugar water drinking are not known. Genetic engineering was used to produce a line of knockout (KO) mice that lack D2LR and consequently have increased expression of D2SR. KO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes were tested for intake of 20% ethanol, 10% sugar water and plain tap water using established drinking-in-the-dark procedures. Mice were also tested for effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on intake of ethanol to determine whether KO responses were caused by lack of D2LR or overrepresentation of D2SR. Locomotor activity on running wheels and in cages without wheels was also measured for comparison. D2L KO mice drank significantly more ethanol than WT in both sexes. KO mice drank more sugar water than WT in females but not in males. Eticlopride dose dependently decreased ethanol intake in all groups except male KO. KO mice were less physically active than WT in cages with or without running wheels. Results suggest that overrepresentation of D2SR contributes to increased intake of ethanol in the KO mice. Decreasing wheel running and general levels of physical activity in the KO mice rules out the possibility that higher intake results from higher motor activity. Results extend the literature implicating altered expression of D2R in risk for addiction by delineating the contribution of individual D2R isoforms. These findings suggest that D2LR and D2SR play differential roles in consumption of alcohol and sugar rewards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Deliverable 4a: Good practice in data, data collection and data use for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. Bernhoft, I.M. Erke, A. Ewert, U. Kallberg, V.-P. & Skladana, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report is the Deliverable of task 4.3a of the PEPPER project. It describes the good practice requirements regarding data, data collection and data use for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement (TLE). The aim is that, eventually, individual police forces/countries put the identified

  14. Preliminary guidelines for priority setting between measures, Deliverable 3.4 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martensen, H. Van den Berghe, W. Wijnen, W. Weijermars, W.A.M. Carnis, L. & Elvik, R.

    2017-01-01

    The present deliverable describes the economic assessment of counter measures. Cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis are compared to cost-benefit analysis. Cost-effectiveness analysis helps to estimate the costs per prevented fatality or injury. To evaluate the effectiveness in terms

  15. Natural gas market assessment. Natural gas supply, western Canada: Recent developments (1982-1992), [and] short-term deliverability outlook (1993-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of gas supply from western Canada over the last ten years and a short-term forecast of gas deliverability. To illustrate the changed supply conditions, selected trends and market developments are summarized, including trends in excess deliverability, changes in reserves, the regional distribution of cumulative production, the pace of tieing-in of previously discovered pools for production, the expansion in deliverability from gas storage reservoirs, and recent increases in drilling activity. On the basis of analyses and observations, it is concluded that estimated productive capacity is likely to exceed pipeline capacity on a peak-day basis by a narrow margin over 1993-96. Increasing deliverability from gas storage reservoirs located in the producing provinces is an important factor in handling peak day requirements. From time to time, high demand due to extreme weather conditions could result in pronounced tightness and price fluctuations similar to those seen in winter 1992/93. A strong economic recovery could also result in market tightness, depending on the speed and size of supply response. The growing estimates of resource potential in the western Canada sedimentary basin provide an encouraging indication of the availability of future supply. 29 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Identification of road user related risk factors, Deliverable 5.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filtness, A. & Papadimitriou, E. (Eds.) Leskovšek, B. Focant, N. Martensen, H. Sgarra, V. Usami, D.S. Soteropoulos, A. Stadlbauer, S. Theofilatos, A. Yannis, G. Ziakopoulos, A. Diamandouros, K. Durso, C. Goldenbeld, C. Loenis, B. Schermers, G. Petegem, J.-H. van Elvik, R. Hesjevoll, I.S. Quigley, C. & Papazikou, E.

    2017-01-01

    The present Deliverable (D5.1) describes the identification and evaluation of infrastructure related risk factors. It outlines the results of Task 5.1 of WP5 of SafetyCube, which aimed to identify and evaluate infrastructure related risk factors and related road safety problems by (i) presenting a

  17. Risk of injury by driving with alcohol and other drugs. Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines DRUID, Deliverable 2.3.5.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hels, T. Bernhoft, I.M. Lyckegaard, A. Houwing, S. Hagenzieker, M.P. Legrand, S.-A. Isalberti, C. Van der Linden, T. & Verstraete, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this deliverable is to assess the risk of driving with alcohol, illicit drugs and medicines in various European countries. In total nine countries participated in the study on relative risk of serious injury/fatality while positive for psychoactive substances. Six countries

  18. Deliverable 7.1: Legal Framework and Legal Barriers to an Offshore HVDC Electricity Grid in the North Sea : Intermediate Report for Stakeholder Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhout, C.T.

    The present deliverable elaborates the current legal framework for offshore wind and grid development on international, European and national level. It is shown that often, the legal framework needs to be adapted in order to facilitate the development of a meshed offshore electricity grid. This is

  19. Rethinking the Business Model in Construction by the Use of Off-Site System Deliverance: Case of the Shaft Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Hvam, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a set of insights to be used in the development of business models for off-site system deliveries contributing to the development of Off-Site Manufacturing practices (OSM). The theoretical offset for discussing the development of business models is the blue ocean strategy...... of installation shafts. Findings from the development and production of the installation shaft show that system deliveries represent a promising strategy for moving from red ocean competitive environment with the predominant cost+ business model, to a blue ocean situation in which the competition emerges...... in the constant pursue of value creation and cost reduction. On the basis of that system deliverances represent a promising strategy in the future development and application of off-site manufacturing practices. The application of system deliveries is however demanding as it represents a fundamental shift...

  20. Data needs and computational requirements for asset management decision making. Internal deliverable ID5.2.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catrinu-Renstrom, Maria; Clement, Rémy; Tournebise, Pascal

    addressing to the requirements of RMAC criterion developed in work package 2. The report has been written by several partners, three of them being European TSOs, and the three other being academic partners. Special attention has been paid to address every topic in asset management decision making process......The objective of this deliverable is to present the requirements for adapting available tools/models and identifying data needs for reliability analysis and optimal decision-making for asset management decision making process. It will serve as a basis for the next tasks of GARPUR work package 5...... decision making process, as described in work package 2. Some advanced models exist in scientific literature to characterize the spatio-temporal variation and correlations of relevant factors. Some of these models have been proposed in academia, and offer improved representation with respect to those...

  1. Each individual isoform of the dopamine D2 receptor protects from lactotroph hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Daniela; De Mei, Claudia; Chen, Eric; Lee, Hyuna; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2013-06-01

    Dopamine acting through D2 receptors (D2Rs) controls lactotroph proliferation and prolactin (PRL) levels. Ablation of this receptor in mice results in lactotroph hyperplasia and prolactinomas in aged females. Alternative splicing of the Drd2 gene generates 2 independent isoforms, a long (D2L) and a short (D2S) isoform, which are present in all D2R-expressing cells. Here, we addressed the role of D2L and D2S on lactotroph physiology through the generation and analysis of D2S-null mice and their comparison with D2L-null animals. These mice represent a valuable tool with which to investigate dopamine-dependent isoform-specific signaling in the pituitary gland. We sought to assess the existence of a more prominent role of D2L or D2S in controlling PRL expression and lactotroph hyperplasia. Importantly, we found that D2L and D2S are specifically linked to independent transduction pathways in the pituitary. D2L-mediated signaling inhibits the AKT/protein kinase B kinase activity whereas D2S, in contrast, is required for the activation of the ERK 1/2 pathway. Under normal conditions, presence of only 1 of the 2 D2R isoforms in vivo prevents hyperprolactinemia, formation of lactotroph's hyperplasia, and tumorigenesis that is observed when both isoforms are deleted as in D2R-/- mice. However, the protective function of the single D2R isoforms is overridden when single isoform-knockout mice are challenged by chronic estrogen treatments as they show increased PRL production and lactotroph hyperplasia. Our study indicates that signaling from each of the D2R isoforms is sufficient to maintain lactotroph homeostasis in physiologic conditions; however, signaling from both is necessary in conditions simulating pathologic states.

  2. SU-F-BRB-07: A Plan Comparison Tool to Ensure Robustness and Deliverability in Online-Adaptive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P; Labby, Z; Bayliss, R A; Geurts, M; Bayouth, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a plan comparison tool that will ensure robustness and deliverability through analysis of baseline and online-adaptive radiotherapy plans using similarity metrics. Methods: The ViewRay MRIdian treatment planning system allows export of a plan file that contains plan and delivery information. A software tool was developed to read and compare two plans, providing information and metrics to assess their similarity. In addition to performing direct comparisons (e.g. demographics, ROI volumes, number of segments, total beam-on time), the tool computes and presents histograms of derived metrics (e.g. step-and-shoot segment field sizes, segment average leaf gaps). Such metrics were investigated for their ability to predict that an online-adapted plan reasonably similar to a baseline plan where deliverability has already been established. Results: In the realm of online-adaptive planning, comparing ROI volumes offers a sanity check to verify observations found during contouring. Beyond ROI analysis, it has been found that simply editing contours and re-optimizing to adapt treatment can produce a delivery that is substantially different than the baseline plan (e.g. number of segments increased by 31%), with no changes in optimization parameters and only minor changes in anatomy. Currently the tool can quickly identify large omissions or deviations from baseline expectations. As our online-adaptive patient population increases, we will continue to develop and refine quantitative acceptance criteria for adapted plans and relate them historical delivery QA measurements. Conclusion: The plan comparison tool is in clinical use and reports a wide range of comparison metrics, illustrating key differences between two plans. This independent check is accomplished in seconds and can be performed in parallel to other tasks in the online-adaptive workflow. Current use prevents large planning or delivery errors from occurring, and ongoing refinements will lead to

  3. Thermodynamics of the localized D2-D6 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Reino, Marta [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)]. E-mail: marta@brandeis.edu; Naculich, Stephen G. [Department of Physics, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011 (United States)]. E-mail: naculich@bowdoin.edu; Schnitzer, Howard J. [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)]. E-mail: schnitzer@brandeis.edu

    2005-05-02

    An exact fully-localized extremal supergravity solution for N{sub 2} D2-branes and N{sub 6} D6-branes, which is dual to 3-dimensional supersymmetric SU(N{sub 2}) gauge theory with N{sub 6} fundamentals, was found by Cherkis and Hashimoto. In order to consider the thermal properties of the gauge theory we present the non-extremal extension of this solution to first order in an expansion near the core of the D6-branes. We compute the Hawking temperature and the black-brane horizon area/entropy. The leading-order entropy, which is proportional to N{sub 2}{sup 3/2}N{sub 6}{sup 1/2}T{sub H}{sup 2}, is not corrected to first order in the expansion. This result is consistent with the analogous weak-coupling result at the correspondence point N{sub 2} similar to N{sub 6}.

  4. Determination of the evaporation coefficient of D2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Cohen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The evaporation rate of D2O has been determined by Raman thermometry of a droplet train (12–15 μm diameter injected into vacuum (~10-5 torr. The cooling rate measured as a function of time in vacuum was fit to a model that accounts for temperature gradients between the surface and the core of the droplets, yielding an evaporation coefficient (γe of 0.57±0.06. This is nearly identical to that found for H2O (0.62±0.09 using the same experimental method and model, and indicates the existence of a kinetic barrier to evaporation. The application of a recently developed transition-state theory (TST model suggests that the kinetic barrier is due to librational and hindered translational motions at the liquid surface, and that the lack of an isotope effect is due to competing energetic and entropic factors. The implications of these results for cloud and aerosol particles in the atmosphere are discussed.

  5. Color constancy in 3D-2D face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Manuel; Riess, Christian; Angelopoulou, Elli; Evangelopoulos, Georgios; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A.

    2013-05-01

    Face is one of the most popular biometric modalities. However, up to now, color is rarely actively used in face recognition. Yet, it is well-known that when a person recognizes a face, color cues can become as important as shape, especially when combined with the ability of people to identify the color of objects independent of illuminant color variations. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and effect of explicitly embedding illuminant color information in face recognition systems. We empirically examine the theoretical maximum gain of including known illuminant color to a 3D-2D face recognition system. We also investigate the impact of using computational color constancy methods for estimating the illuminant color, which is then incorporated into the face recognition framework. Our experiments show that under close-to-ideal illumination estimates, one can improve face recognition rates by 16%. When the illuminant color is algorithmically estimated, the improvement is approximately 5%. These results suggest that color constancy has a positive impact on face recognition, but the accuracy of the illuminant color estimate has a considerable effect on its benefits.

  6. Definitive difference among [DS-D2O], [DS-H2O] and [Bulk-D2O] cells in the deuterization and deuterium-reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Yue Chang

    2000-01-01

    We observed a new phenomena that the enormous amount of deuterium/hydrogen can be absorbed quickly as a 'solute-atom' into fine metal powders embedded inside a double-structure (DS) cathode in the electrolyses of D 2 O and H 2 O-electrolytes, respectively, but such highly deuterated powders can be produced only using DS-cathode immersed in D 2 O-electrolyte; [DS-D 2 O], and never generated in H 2 O-electrolyte even using the DS-cathode; [DS-H 2 O]. On the other hand, [Bulk-D 2 O] with bulk-cathode made by the bulk Pd metal never produces highly deuterated metal as mentioned above even though using D 2 O-electrolyte. In short, the deuterium-concentration generating in [Bulk-D 2 O] is found to be much lower than that in [DS-D 2 O]. As a result, because of reason mentioned above, in marked contrast to the case with the [DS-D 2 O], neither excess heat nor 4 He production are observed with both [DS-H 2 O] and [Bulk-D 2 O]. (author)

  7. Satisfactory surgical outcome of T2 gastric cancer after modified D2 lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shupeng; Wu, Liangliang; Wang, Xiaona; Ding, Xuewei; Liang, Han

    2017-04-01

    Though D2 lymphadenectomy has been increasingly regarded as standard surgical procedure for advanced gastric cancer (GC), the modified D2 (D1 + 7, 8a and 9) lymphadenectomy may be more suitable than D2 dissection for T2 stage GC. The purpose of this study is to elucidate whether the surgical outcome of modified D2 lymphadenectomy was comparable to that of standard D2 dissection in T2 stage GC patients. A retrospective cohort study with 77 cases and 77 controls matched for baseline characteristics was conducted. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the extent of lymphadenectomy: the modified D2 group (mD2) and the standard D2 group (D2). Surgical outcome and recurrence date were compared between the two groups. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 71.4% for patients accepted mD2 lymphadenectomy and 70.1% for those accepted standard D2, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant. Multivariate survival analysis revealed that curability, tumor size, TNM stage and postoperative complications were independently prognostic factors for T2 stage GC patients. Patients in the mD2 group tended to have less intraoperative blood loss (P=0.001) and shorter operation time (P<0.001) than those in the D2 group. While there were no significant differences in recurrence rate and types, especially lymph node recurrence, between the two groups. The surgical outcome of mD2 lymphadenectomy was equal to that of standard D2, and the use of mD2 instead of standard D2 can be a better option for T2 stage GC.

  8. Dopamine D2L receptor-interacting proteins regulate dopaminergic signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norifumi Shioda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine receptor family proteins include seven transmembrane and trimeric GTP-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Among them, the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R is most extensively studied. All clinically used antipsychotic drugs serve as D2R antagonists in the mesolimbic dopamine system, and their ability to block D2R signaling is positively correlated with antipsychotic efficiency. Human genetic studies also show a significant association of DRD2 polymorphisms with disorders including schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. D2R exists as two alternatively spliced isoforms, the long isoform (D2LR and the short isoform (D2SR, which differ in a 29-amino acid (AA insert in the third cytoplasmic loop. Importantly, previous reports demonstrate functional diversity between the two isoforms in humans. In this review, we focus on binding proteins that specifically interact with the D2LR 29AA insert. We discuss how D2R activities are mediated not only by heterotrimeric G proteins but by D2LR-interacting proteins, which in part regulate diverse D2R activities. Keywords: Dopamine D2L receptor, Antipsychotic drugs, DRD2 polymorphisms, Alternatively spliced isoforms, D2LR-interacting proteins

  9. Microstructural Quantification of Rapidly Solidified Undercooled D2 Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valloton, J.; Herlach, D. M.; Henein, H.; Sediako, D.

    2017-10-01

    Rapid solidification of D2 tool steel is investigated experimentally using electromagnetic levitation (EML) under terrestrial and reduced gravity conditions and impulse atomization (IA), a drop tube type of apparatus. IA produces powders 300 to 1400 μm in size. This allows the investigation of a large range of cooling rates ( 100 to 10,000 K/s) with a single experiment. On the other hand, EML allows direct measurements of the thermal history, including primary and eutectic nucleation undercoolings, for samples 6 to 7 mm in diameter. The final microstructures at room temperature consist of retained supersaturated austenite surrounded by eutectic of austenite and M7C3 carbides. Rapid solidification effectively suppresses the formation of ferrite in IA, while a small amount of ferrite is detected in EML samples. High primary phase undercoolings and high cooling rates tend to refine the microstructure, which results in a better dispersion of the eutectic carbides. Evaluation of the cell spacing in EML and IA samples shows that the scale of the final microstructure is mainly governed by coarsening. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis of IA samples reveals that IA powders are polycrystalline, regardless of the solidification conditions. EBSD on EML samples reveals strong differences between the microstructure of droplets solidified on the ground and in microgravity conditions. While the former ones are polycrystalline with many different grains, the EML sample solidified in microgravity shows a strong texture with few much larger grains having twinning relationships. This indicates that fluid flow has a strong influence on grain refinement in this system.

  10. Propuestas de viviendas bioclimáticas

    OpenAIRE

    Oteiza San José, I.

    2006-01-01

    El Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja (CSIC) organiza seminarios monográficos sobre temas de actualidad en el ámbito de la Tecnología de la Construcción y de sus Materiales a cargo de destacados investigadores nacionales y extranjeros del sector.

  11. Transfer of π- from hydrogen to deuterium in H2O + D2O mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislaus, S.; Measday, D.F.; Vetterli, D.; Weber, P.; Aniol, K.A.; Harston, M.R.; Armstrong, D.S.

    1989-07-01

    The transfer of stopping π - mesons from hydrogen to deuterium has been investigated in mixtures of H 2 O+D 2 O as a function of D 2 O concentration. The concentration dependence of the transfer probability is similar to that observed for the gas mixtures of H 2 and D 2 but slightly more transfer is found for H 2 O+D 2 O. (Author) 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  12. SU-F-P-64: The Impact of Plan Complexity Parameters On the Plan Quality and Deliverability of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy with Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, X; Yi, J; Xie, C [The 1st Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of complexity indices on the plan quality and deliverability of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and to determine the most significant parameters in the generation of an ideal VMAT plan. Methods: A multi-dimensional exploratory statistical method, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was adopted to study the correlations between VMAT parameters of complexity, quality and deliverability, as well as their contribution weights with 32 two-arc VMAT nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients and 31 one-arc VMAT prostate cancer patients. Results: The MU per arc (MU/Arc) and MU per control point (MU/CP) of NPC were 337.8±25.2 and 3.7±0.3, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of prostate cancer patients (MU/Arc : 506.9±95.4, MU/CP : 5.6±1.1). The plan complexity indices indicated that two-arc VMAT plans were more complex than one-arc VMAT plans. Plan quality comparison confirmed that one-arc VMAT plans had a high quality than two-arc VMAT plans. CCA results implied that plan complexity parameters were highly correlated with plan quality with the first two canonical correlations of 0.96, 0.88 (both p<0.001) and significantly correlated with deliverability with the first canonical correlation of 0.79 (p<0.001), plan quality and deliverability was also correlated with the first canonical correlation of 0.71 (p=0.02). Complexity parameters of MU/CP, segment area (SA) per CP, percent of MU/CP less 3 and planning target volume (PTV) were weighted heavily in correlation with plan quality and deliveability . Similar results obtained from individual NPC and prostate CCA analysis. Conclusion: Relationship between complexity, quality, and deliverability parameters were investigated with CCA. MU, SA related parameters and PTV volume were found to have strong effect on the plan quality and deliverability. The presented correlation among different quantified parameters could be used to improve the plan quality and the efficiency

  13. For Earth into space: The German Spacelab Mission D-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahm, P. R.; Keller, M. H.; Schiewe, B.

    The Spacelab Mission D-2 successfully lifted off from Kennedy Space Center on April 26, 1993. With 88 experiments on board covering eleven different research disciplines it was a very ambitious mission. Besides materials and life science subjects, the mission also encompassed astronomy, earth observation, radiation physics and biology, telecommunication, automation and robotics. Notable results were obtained in almost all cases. To give some examples of the scientific output, building upon results obtained in previous missions (FSLP, D1) diffusion in melts was broadly represented delivering most precise data on the atomic mobility within various liquids, and crystal growth experiments (the largest gallium arsenide crystal grown by the floating zone technique, so far obtained anywhere, was one of the results), biological cell growth experiments were continued (for example, beer yeast cultures, continuing their growth on earth, delivered a qualitatively superior brewery result), the human physiology miniclinic configuration ANTHRORACK gave novel insights concerning cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal (fluid volume determining) factors. Astronomical experiments yielded insights into our own galaxy within the ultra violet spectrum, earth observation experiments delivered the most precise resolution data superimposed by thematic mapping of many areas of the Earth, and the robotics experiment brought a remarkable feature in that a flying object was caught by the space robot, which was only achieved through several innovative advances during the time of experiment preparation. The eight years of preparation were also beneficial in another sense. Several discoveries have been made, and various technology transfers into ground-based processes were verified. To name the outstanding ones, in the materials science a novel bearing materials production process was developped, a patent granted for an improved high temperature heating chamber; with life sciences a new hormone

  14. Verification experiment of EPR paradox by (d, 2He) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hideyuki

    2003-01-01

    FBR paradox which was brought forward by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen is expressed by Bell's inequality of spin correlation theoretically. In principle it is possible to verify the inequality by measuring spin correlation between two particles having spin 1/2 from a decay of 1 S 0 experimentally. Most of the past experiments to verify the inequality, however, have been performed by using photons. On the other hand, only one experiment by using hadron system was carried out by Lamehi and Mitting, where the [ 1 S 0 ] state was produced by proton-proton scattering at first, and then the spin orientations after the scattering were measured. Unfortunately, there exit some sources of ambiguity to reach definite conclusion from their result because the experiment was done at rather high energy of 13.5 MeV. In the experiment planned by the present author it is designed to overcome the experimental difficulties, which Lamehi and Mitting encountered, by (1) generating high purity singlet [ 1 S 0 ] state of two protons by (d, 2 He) type nuclear reaction at intermediate energy range, and by (2) developing high performance spin-correlation polarimeter which can analyze spins of two protons simultaneously to minimize the systematic errors. The excitation energy of 2 He corresponding to the proton-proton relative energy can be experimentally controlled. An idea singlet is realized by choosing the state with sufficiently small relative energy. It is planned to measure the spin correlation function by using SMART (Swinger and Magnetic Analyzer with Rotator and Twister) at RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility. Einstein POLarimeter (EPOL) to be installed on the second focal plane of SMART is under development, with which high precision measurements of spin orientations of two high energy protons simultaneously coming into limited space from 2 He decay are made selecting the subject events from very many background events. Monte Carlo simulation predicts the possibility to verify the

  15. Exchange reaction of acetylene-d2 with hydrogen chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bopp, A.F.; Kern, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A mixture containing 3 percent each of the reactants C 2 D 2 and HCl in an Ne--Ar diluent was studied over the temperature range 1650 to 2600 0 K utilizing a shock tube coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Plots of the mole fractions f of the exchange products, DCl and C 2 HD, revealed two distinct regions of growth: (a) an initial low conversion region characterized by an induction period t/sub i/; and (b) a region of accelerated exchange during which exchange products were formed with a quadratic dependence of the reaction time. These two regions labeled a and b were combined using two empirical equations, 1 - f/sub a//f/sub eq,a/ = exp [-k/sub a/[M]t], where t less than or equal to t/sub i/, and 1 - f/sub b//f/sub eq,b/ = exp [-k/sub b/[M](t - t/sub i/) 2 ], in order to represent the entire reaction profile at any given temperature within the interval investigated. The Arrhenius parameters for k/sub a/ and k/sub b/ were determined to be 10 11 . 15+-0 . 30 exp (-19990 +- 2850/RT) and 10 16 . 40+-0 . 41 exp (-31480 +- 4200/RT), respectively, for DCl and 10 11 . 69+-0 . 29 exp (-19150 +- 2740/RT) and 10 15 . 24+-0 . 34 exp (-17620 +- 3480/RT) for C 2 HD. The units for k/sub a/ are cm 3 mol -1 sec -1 and cm 3 mol -1 sec -2 for k/sub b/. Activation energies are reported in cal mol -1 . Comparison with the profiles obtained for acetylene pyrolysis strongly suggests that the mechanism for the exchange is atomic. Furthermore, the exchange experiments indicate that the initial step in the pyrolysis of acetylene is the disproportionation reaction, 2C 2 H 2 → C 2 H + C 2 H 3

  16. VirD2 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens : functional domains and biotechnological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregten, Maartje van

    2011-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a pathogenic bacterium, which can genetically transform plants and other organisms. It does so by translocating a part of its DNA, the T-strand, in complex with the relaxase protein VirD2. We have shown that VirD2 is the determinant of translocation of the VirD2-T-strand

  17. Características do ejaculado de caprinos sob estresse calórico em câmara bioclimática Sperm characteristics of bucks under heat stress in climatic chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Coelho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar o efeito do estresse calórico (EC na produção espermática de caprinos, oito machos das raças Saanen (n=4 e Pardo-Alpina (n=4 foram mantidos em câmara bioclimática, sob condições de termoneutralidade (13,0ºC a 26,7ºC durante 30 dias e, após um período (60 dias de descanso, submetidos ao EC (23,7ºC a 34,0ºC por mais 30 dias. Para minimizar as variações sazonais na produção espermática, durante todo o período, o fotoperíodo foi controlado utilizando-se alternância de dias longos (16 horas de luz e 8 horas de escuro e de dias curtos (8 horas de luz e 16 horas de escuro a cada 30 dias. Avaliaram-se as temperaturas retal e testicular, o volume do ejaculado, a concentração espermática, as motilidades massal e individual progressiva (MIP, o vigor e a morfologia espermática. Houve aumento (P0,05 o percentual total de células anormais e nem a temperatura retal. Os machos da raça Saanen apresentaram temperaturas do testículo e retal mais elevadas (PTo verify the effect of heat stress (HS on caprine semen production eight male goats of Saanen (n=4 and Alpine Brown (n=4 breeds were kept in climate chamber under thermal neutral conditions (13.0ºC to 26.7ºC for 30 days. After a resting period (60 days, the same bucks were submitted to heat stress (23.7ºC to 34.0ºC for another 30 days. To neutralize the seasonal variations of sperm production throughout the period, the photoperiod was controlled every 30 days alterning long days (16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness and short days (8 hours of light and 16 hours of darkness. The following variables were evaluated: rectal and testicular temperatures, volume of ejaculate, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual progressive motility, vigor and sperm morphology. There was an elevation (P0.05 on percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa and rectal temperature. The Saanen males showed higher testicular and rectal temperatures and produced more sperm

  18. How the NDA Provides Transparency and Visibility of the Technical Deliverability of the R and D Programme - 13303

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula; Brownridge, Melanie; McMinn, Mervin

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) was created under the UK Energy Act 2004 to ensure the UK historic civil public sector nuclear legacy sites are decommissioned safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways that protect the environment. The delivery will involve carrying out many unique projects within a high hazard environment requiring the very highest standards in safety, security and environmental management. Unique problems require unique solutions and there is a substantial amount of research and development required for each project. The NDA's R and D strategic objective is to ensure that delivery of the NDA's mission is technically underpinned by sufficient and appropriate research and development. This drives a requirement to provide transparency and visibility of the technical deliverability of the programme through the technical baseline and accompanying research and development requirements. The NDA need to have confidence in the technical deliverability of the Site License Companies (SLCs) plans, provide overall visibility of R and D across the NDA Estate and ensure that appropriate R and D is being carried out in a timely manner. They need to identify where coordinated R and D programmes may be advantageous as a result of common needs, risks and opportunities and ensure key R and D needs across NDA are identified, prioritised and work programmes are costed and scheduled in the Lifetime Plans for individual sites and SLCs. Evidence of the Site License Company's approach and their corresponding technical underpinning programmes is achieved through submission of a number of outputs collectively known as TBuRDs (Technical Baseline and Underpinning Research and Development Requirements). This paper is a summary of the information generated by an independent review of those TBuRDs. It highlights some of the key messages, synergies and common R and D activities across the estate. It demonstrates the value of a consistent approach to collecting R

  19. Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Male Mouse Skeletal Muscle Is Largely Independent of D2 in Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck-de-Castro, Joao P.; Fonseca, Tatiana L.; Ignacio, Daniele L.; Fernandes, Gustavo W.; Andrade-Feraud, Cristina M.; Lartey, Lattoya J.; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Gereben, Balazs

    2015-01-01

    The type 2 deiodinase (D2) activates the prohormone T4 to T3. D2 is expressed in skeletal muscle (SKM), and its global inactivation (GLOB-D2KO mice) reportedly leads to skeletal muscle hypothyroidism and impaired differentiation. Here floxed Dio2 mice were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the myosin light chain 1f (cre-MLC) to disrupt D2 expression in the late developmental stages of skeletal myocytes (SKM-D2KO). This led to a loss of approximately 50% in D2 activity in neonatal and adult SKM-D2KO skeletal muscle and about 75% in isolated SKM-D2KO myocytes. To test the impact of Dio2 disruption, we measured soleus T3 content and found it to be normal. We also looked at the expression of T3-responsive genes in skeletal muscle, ie, myosin heavy chain I, α-actin, myosin light chain, tropomyosin, and serca 1 and 2, which was preserved in neonatal SKM-D2KO hindlimb muscles, at a time that coincides with a peak of D2 activity in control animals. In adult soleus the baseline level of D2 activity was about 6-fold lower, and in the SKM-D2KO soleus, the expression of only one of five T3-responsive genes was reduced. Despite this, adult SKM-D2KO animals performed indistinguishably from controls on a treadmill test, running for approximately 16 minutes and reached a speed of about 23 m/min; muscle strength was about 0.3 mN/m·g body weight in SKM-D2KO and control ankle muscles. In conclusion, there are multiple sources of D2 in the mouse SKM, and its role is limited in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:26214036

  20. On the clinical impact of cerebral dopamine D2 receptor scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larisch, R.; Klimke, A.

    1998-01-01

    The present review describes findings and clinical indications for the dopamine D 2 receptor scintigraphy. Methods for the examination of D 2 receptors are positron emission tomography (PET) using 11 C- or 18 F-labelled butyrophenones or benzamides or single photon emission tomography (SPECT) using 123 I-iodobenzamide (IBZM) respectively. The most important indication in neurology is the differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism: Patients with early Parkinson's disease show an increased D 2 receptor binding (D 2 -RB) compared to control subjects. However, patients suffering from Steele-Richardson-Olszewski-Syndrome or Multiple System Atrophy show a decreased D 2 -RB and are generally non-responsive to treatment. Postsynaptic blockade of D 2 receptors results in a drug induced Parkinsonian syndrome, which can be diagnosed by D 2 scintigraphy. Further possible indications occur in psychiatry: The assessment of receptor occupancy is useful in schizophrenic patients treated with neuroleptics. Additionally, D 2 receptor scintigraphy might help to clarify the differential diagnosis between neuroleptic malignant syndrome and lethal catatonia. The method might be useful for supervising neurobiochemical changes in drug dependency and during withdrawal. Assessment of dopamine D 2 receptor binding can simplify the choice of therapy in depressive disorder: Patients showing a low D 2 binding are likely to improve following an antidepressive drug treatment whereas sleep deprivation is promising in patients with high D 2 binding. (orig.) [de

  1. Low bioaccessibility of vitamin D2 from yeast-fortified bread compared to crystalline D2 bread and D3 from fluid milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-11-09

    The assessment of the efficacy of dietary and supplemental vitamin D tends to be confounded by differences in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response between vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 . Serum response differences from these vitamers may be due to differences in bioavailability. To address this specifically, the bioaccessibility was assessed for vitamin D 2 from breads fortified with UV-treated yeast, and a benchmark against staple vitamin D 3 fortified foods including bovine milks and infant formula, as well as crystalline vitamin D 2 fortified bread. Fortified foods were subjected to a three-stage static in vitro digestion model, and vitamin D was analyzed by HPLC-MS. Vitamin D bioaccessibility was significantly greater from bovine milks and infant formula (71-85%) than from yeast-fortified sandwich breads (6-7%). Bioaccessibility was not different between whole wheat and white wheat bread (p > 0.05), but was ∼4× lower from yeast-fortified bread than from crystalline vitamin D 2 fortified bread (p yeast cells were observed in the digesta of yeast fortified bread. These results indicate that the low bioavailability of yeast D 2 in comparison to other vitamin D 2 sources is likely due to entrapment within a less digestible yeast matrix and not only to metabolic differences between vitamins D 2 and D 3 .

  2. Hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI enhance dopamine D2R protomer recognition and signaling of D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Narvaez, Manuel; Oflijan, Julia; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-03

    Dopamine D2LR-serotonin 5-HT2AR heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells after cotransfection of the two receptors and shown to have bidirectional receptor-receptor interactions. In the current study the existence of D2L-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes was demonstrated also in discrete regions of the ventral and dorsal striatum with in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA). The hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI but not the standard 5-HT2AR agonist TCB2 and 5-HT significantly increased the density of D2like antagonist (3)H-raclopride binding sites and significantly reduced the pKiH values of the high affinity D2R agonist binding sites in (3)H-raclopride/DA competition experiments. Similar results were obtained in HEK293 cells and in ventral striatum. The effects of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists on D2R density and affinity were blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. In a forskolin-induced CRE-luciferase reporter gene assay using cotransfected but not D2R singly transfected HEK293 cells DOI and LSD but not TCB2 significantly enhanced the D2LR agonist quinpirole induced inhibition of CRE-luciferase activity. Haloperidol blocked the effects of both quinpirole alone and the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD while ketanserin only blocked the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD. The mechanism for the allosteric enhancement of the D2R protomer recognition and signalling observed is likely mediated by a biased agonist action of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists at the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer. This mechanism may contribute to the psychotic actions of LSD and DOI and the D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complex may thus be a target for the psychotic actions of hallunicogenic 5-HT2A agonists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antihypertensive effect of etamicastat in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando, Ines; Asico, Laureano D; Wang, Xiaoyan; Jones, John E; Serrão, Maria Paula; Cuevas, Santiago; Grandy, David K; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio; Jose, Pedro A

    2018-04-13

    Abnormalities of the D 2 R gene (DRD2) play a role in the pathogenesis of human essential hypertension; variants of the DRD2 have been reported to be associated with hypertension. Disruption of Drd2 (D 2 -/- ) in mice increases blood pressure. The hypertension of D 2 -/- mice has been related, in part, to increased sympathetic activity, renal oxidative stress, and renal endothelin B receptor (ETBR) expression. We tested in D 2 -/- mice the effect of etamicastat, a reversible peripheral inhibitor of dopamine-β-hydroxylase that reduces the biosynthesis of norepinephrine from dopamine and decreases sympathetic nerve activity. Blood pressure was measured in anesthetized D 2 -/- mice treated with etamicastat by gavage, (10 mg/kg), conscious D 2 -/- mice, and D 2 +/+ littermates, and mice with the D 2 R selectively silenced in the kidney, treated with etamicastat in the drinking water (10 mg/kg per day). Tissue and urinary catecholamines and renal expression of selected G protein-coupled receptors, enzymes related to the production of reactive oxygen species, and sodium transporters were also measured. Etamicastat decreased blood pressure both in anesthetized and conscious D 2 -/- mice and mice with renal-selective silencing of D 2 R to levels similar or close to those measured in D 2 +/+ littermates. Etamicastat decreased cardiac and renal norepinephrine and increased cardiac and urinary dopamine levels in D 2 -/- mice. It also normalized the increased renal protein expressions of ETBR, NADPH oxidase isoenzymes, and urinary 8-isoprostane, as well as renal NHE3 and NCC, and increased the renal expression of D 1 R but not D 5 R in D 2 -/- mice. In conclusion, etamicastat is effective in normalizing the increased blood pressure and some of the abnormal renal biochemical alterations of D 2 -/- mice.

  4. Dopamine-induced apoptosis of lactotropes is mediated by the short isoform of D2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Daniela Betiana; Ferraris, Jimena; Boti, Valeria; Seilicovich, Adriana; Sarkar, Dipak Kumar; Pisera, Daniel

    2011-03-25

    Dopamine, through D2 receptor (D2R), is the major regulator of lactotrope function in the anterior pituitary gland. Both D2R isoforms, long (D2L) and short (D2S), are expressed in lactotropes. Although both isoforms can transduce dopamine signal, they differ in the mechanism that leads to cell response. The administration of D2R agonists, such as cabergoline, is the main pharmacological treatment for prolactinomas, but resistance to these drugs exists, which has been associated with alterations in D2R expression. We previously reported that dopamine and cabergoline induce apoptosis of lactotropes in primary culture in an estrogen-dependent manner. In this study we used an in vivo model to confirm the permissive action of estradiol in the apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells induced by D2R agonists. Administration of cabergoline to female rats induced apoptosis, measured by Annexin-V staining, in anterior pituitary gland from estradiol-treated rats but not from ovariectomized rats. To evaluate the participation of D2R isoforms in the apoptosis induced by dopamine we used lactotrope-derived PR1 cells stably transfected with expression vectors encoding D2L or D2S receptors. In the presence of estradiol, dopamine induced apoptosis, determined by ELISA and TUNEL assay, only in PR1-D2S cells. To study the role of p38 MAPK in apoptosis induced by D2R activation, anterior pituitary cells from primary culture or PR1-D2S were incubated with an inhibitor of the p38 MAPK pathway (SB203850). SB203580 blocked the apoptotic effect of D2R activation in lactotropes from primary cultures and PR1-D2S cells. Dopamine also induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, determined by western blot, in PR1-D2S cells and estradiol enhanced this effect. These data suggest that, in the presence of estradiol, D2R agonists induce apoptosis of lactotropes by their interaction with D2S receptors and that p38 MAPK is involved in this process.

  5. Dopamine-induced apoptosis of lactotropes is mediated by the short isoform of D2 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Betiana Radl

    Full Text Available Dopamine, through D2 receptor (D2R, is the major regulator of lactotrope function in the anterior pituitary gland. Both D2R isoforms, long (D2L and short (D2S, are expressed in lactotropes. Although both isoforms can transduce dopamine signal, they differ in the mechanism that leads to cell response. The administration of D2R agonists, such as cabergoline, is the main pharmacological treatment for prolactinomas, but resistance to these drugs exists, which has been associated with alterations in D2R expression. We previously reported that dopamine and cabergoline induce apoptosis of lactotropes in primary culture in an estrogen-dependent manner. In this study we used an in vivo model to confirm the permissive action of estradiol in the apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells induced by D2R agonists. Administration of cabergoline to female rats induced apoptosis, measured by Annexin-V staining, in anterior pituitary gland from estradiol-treated rats but not from ovariectomized rats. To evaluate the participation of D2R isoforms in the apoptosis induced by dopamine we used lactotrope-derived PR1 cells stably transfected with expression vectors encoding D2L or D2S receptors. In the presence of estradiol, dopamine induced apoptosis, determined by ELISA and TUNEL assay, only in PR1-D2S cells. To study the role of p38 MAPK in apoptosis induced by D2R activation, anterior pituitary cells from primary culture or PR1-D2S were incubated with an inhibitor of the p38 MAPK pathway (SB203850. SB203580 blocked the apoptotic effect of D2R activation in lactotropes from primary cultures and PR1-D2S cells. Dopamine also induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, determined by western blot, in PR1-D2S cells and estradiol enhanced this effect. These data suggest that, in the presence of estradiol, D2R agonists induce apoptosis of lactotropes by their interaction with D2S receptors and that p38 MAPK is involved in this process.

  6. Progressive supranuclear palsy dopamine D2 receptor tomoscintigraphy to detect L-dopamine efficiency. Paralysies supra-nucleaires progressives. Quantification des recepteurs dopaminergiques D2 par tomoscintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquart, F; Henry Le Bras, F; Toffol, B de; Autret, A; Guilloteau, D; Baulieu, J L [Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)

    1994-09-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may sometimes be misdiagnosed as Parkinson's disease in its early stages, hence an early positive diagnosis of PSP based on dopamine D2 receptor density could be extremely valuable. In the present case report, the absence of dopamine D2 receptors was clearly demonstrated in the striatum using [sup 123]I-iodobenzamide (IBZM) tomoscintigraphy. This illustrates the potential use of IBZM tomoscintigraphy to identify Parkinson-like's disease presenting with decreased dopamine D2 receptor density; and hence to predict L-Dopa effectiveness. Further studies are needed to evaluate the value of IBZM tomoscintigraphy in the different Parkinson's like diseases. (authors). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Nucleus Accumbens Microcircuit Underlying D2-MSN-Driven Increase in Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Cunha, Carina; Coimbra, Bárbara; Domingues, Ana Verónica; Vasconcelos, Nivaldo; Sousa, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana João

    2018-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in reinforcement and motivation. Around 95% of the NAc neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs), divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) or dopamine receptor D2 (D2R). Optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increased motivation, whereas inhibition of these neurons produced the opposite effect. Yet, it is still unclear how activation of D2-MSNs affects other local neurons/interneurons or input terminals and how this contributes for motivation enhancement. To answer this question, in this work we combined optogenetic modulation of D2-MSNs with in loco pharmacological delivery of specific neurotransmitter antagonists in rats. First, we showed that optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increases motivation in a progressive ratio (PR) task. We demonstrated that this behavioral effect relies on cholinergic-dependent modulation of dopaminergic signalling of ventral tegmental area (VTA) terminals, which requires D1R and D2R signalling in the NAc. D2-MSN optogenetic activation decreased ventral pallidum (VP) activity, reducing the inhibitory tone to VTA, leading to increased dopaminergic activity. Importantly, optogenetic activation of D2-MSN terminals in the VP was sufficient to recapitulate the motivation enhancement. In summary, our data suggests that optogenetic stimulation of NAc D2-MSNs indirectly modulates VTA dopaminergic activity, contributing for increased motivation. Moreover, both types of dopamine receptors signalling in the NAc are required in order to produce the positive behavioral effects.

  8. Dopamine D2 receptors in striatal output neurons enable the psychomotor effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, Geetika; Radl, Daniela; Lewis, Robert; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2016-10-11

    The psychomotor effects of cocaine are mediated by dopamine (DA) through stimulation of striatal circuits. Gabaergic striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are the only output of this pivotal structure in the control of movements. The majority of MSNs express either the DA D1 or D2 receptors (D1R, D2R). Studies have shown that the motor effect of cocaine depends on the DA-mediated stimulation of D1R-expressing MSNs (dMSNs), which is mirrored at the cellular level by stimulation of signaling pathways leading to phosphorylation of ERKs and induction of c-fos Nevertheless, activation of dMSNs by cocaine is necessary but not sufficient, and D2R signaling is required for the behavioral and cellular effects of cocaine. Indeed, cocaine motor effects and activation of signaling in dMSNs are blunted in mice with the constitutive knockout of D2R (D2RKO). Using mouse lines with a cell-specific knockout of D2R either in MSNs (MSN-D2RKO) or in dopaminergic neurons (DA-D2RKO), we show that D2R signaling in MSNs is required and permissive for the motor stimulant effects of cocaine and the activation of signaling in dMSNs. MSN-D2RKO mice show the same phenotype as constitutive D2RKO mice both at the behavioral and cellular levels. Importantly, activation of signaling in dMSNs by cocaine is rescued by intrastriatal injection of the GABA antagonist, bicuculline. These results are in support of intrastriatal connections of D2R + -MSNs (iMSNs) with dMSNs and indicate that D2R signaling in MSNs is critical for the function of intrastriatal circuits.

  9. Cross sections for ion production in reactions of H+ with D2; Effects of vibrational and rotational excited states of D2

    OpenAIRE

    市原 晃; 岩本 修; 横山 啓一

    1998-01-01

    H+とD2の反応で生じるD2+,D+及びHD+イオン生成の断面積を、重心衝突エネルギーEcm=2.5-8.0eVの範囲内で、非経験的分子軌道計算で得られたH3+の3次元ポテンシャル面上でのトラジェクトリーサーフェスホッピング(TSH)法を用いることにより、評価した。反応物D2の初期状態が各イオン生成に与える影響を調べるために、D2の振動及び回転の量子数をv=0-3,j=1,5,10に設定して計算を行った。その結果、D2+イオンの生成は、D2の振動回転状態(v,j)が高くなるに従って著しく増大することが分かった。D2+生成の飛躍的な増大には、D2の振動励起が主要な役割を果たし、回転励起は補助的な効果を与えた。D2+生成と比較して、D2の振動状態がD+及びHD+イオンの生成に与える効果は一桁小さく、D2の回転状態に対する効果は殆ど無視しうる大きさであった。...

  10. Homogeneous catalysis of deuterium transfer by potassium hydroxide and potassium methoxide D2-H2O and D2-CH3OH exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strathdee, G.G.; Garner, D.M.; Given, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of exchange of deuterium between D 2 and water and between D 2 and methanol, catalyzed respectively by concentrated potassium hydroxide and potassium methoxide, has been studied between 348 and 398 K. In the D 2 -KOH-H 2 O case, the transfer of deuterium was found to be controlled by the rate of activation of the D 2 molecule by OH - . Rapid exchange of D + with the aqueous solution followed. From the D 2 -KOCH 3 -CH 3 OH studies, it was concluded that deuterium exchange depended upon the rates of both D 2 activation by methoxide and interaction of the solvent with the transition, or encounter, complex. The dependence of second-order rate constants on solvent activity for both systems was determined by normalization of the exchange reaction rates to unit reagent activity. Analysis of the kinetic isotope effects for each system suggested that their increase with base concentration or temperature was due to solvation effects. (author)

  11. Multiple D2 heteroreceptor complexes: new targets for treatment of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.; Pintsuk, Julia; Schäfer, Thorsten; Friedland, Kristina; Ferraro, Luca; Tanganelli, Sergio; Liu, Fang; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) neuron system most relevant for schizophrenia is the meso-limbic-cortical DA system inter alia densely innervating subcortical limbic regions. The field of dopamine D2 receptors and schizophrenia changed markedly with the discovery of many types of D2 heteroreceptor complexes in subcortical limbic areas as well as the dorsal striatum. The results indicate that the D2 is a hub receptor which interacts not only with many other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) including DA isoreceptors but also with ion-channel receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, scaffolding proteins and DA transporters. Disturbances in several of these D2 heteroreceptor complexes may contribute to the development of schizophrenia through changes in the balance of diverse D2 homo- and heteroreceptor complexes mediating the DA signal, especially to the ventral striato-pallidal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) pathway. This will have consequences for the control of this pathway of the glutamate drive to the prefrontal cortex via the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus which can contribute to psychotic processes. Agonist activation of the A2A protomer in the A2A–D2 heteroreceptor complex inhibits D2 Gi/o mediated signaling but increases the D2 β-arrestin2 mediated signaling. Through this allosteric receptor–receptor interaction, the A2A agonist becomes a biased inhibitory modulator of the Gi/o mediated D2 signaling, which may the main mechanism for its atypical antipsychotic properties especially linked to the limbic A2A–D2 heterocomplexes. The DA and glutamate hypotheses of schizophrenia come together in the signal integration in D2–N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and A2A–D2–metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) heteroreceptor complexes, especially in the ventral striatum. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A)–D2 heteroreceptor complexes are special targets for atypical antipsychotics with high potency to block their 5-HT2A protomer signaling in view of the potential development of

  12. Activation of D2 dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the nucleus accumbens increases motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Cunha, Carina; Coimbra, Barbara; David-Pereira, Ana; Borges, Sonia; Pinto, Luisa; Costa, Patricio; Sousa, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana J.

    2016-01-01

    Striatal dopamine receptor D1-expressing neurons have been classically associated with positive reinforcement and reward, whereas D2 neurons are associated with negative reinforcement and aversion. Here we demonstrate that the pattern of activation of D1 and D2 neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predicts motivational drive, and that optogenetic activation of either neuronal population enhances motivation in mice. Using a different approach in rats, we further show that activating NAc D2 neurons increases cue-induced motivational drive in control animals and in a model that presents anhedonia and motivational deficits; conversely, optogenetic inhibition of D2 neurons decreases motivation. Our results suggest that the classic view of D1–D2 functional antagonism does not hold true for all dimensions of reward-related behaviours, and that D2 neurons may play a more prominent pro-motivation role than originally anticipated. PMID:27337658

  13. Accelerated degradation of the D2 protein of photosystem II under ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, M.A.K.; Edelman, M.; Greenberg, B.M.; Gaba, V.

    1996-01-01

    The D2 protein of photosystem II is relatively stable in vivo under photosynthetic active radiation, but its degradation accelerates under UVB radiation. Little is known about accelerated D2 protein degradation. We characterized wavelength dependence and sensitivity toward photosystem II inhibitors. The in vivo D2 degradation spectrum resembles the pattern for the rapidly turning over D1 protein of photosystem II, with rates being maximal in the UVB region. We propose that D2 degradation, like D1 degradation, is activated by distinct photosensitizers in the UVB and visible regions of the spectrum. In both wavelength regions, photosystem II inhibitors that are known to be targeted to the D1 protein affect D2 degradation. This suggests that degradation of the two proteins is coupled, D2 degradation being influenced by events occurring at the Q B niche on the D1 protein. (Author)

  14. The SH2D2A gene and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, A.R.; Smestad, C.; Lie, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported an association between the SH2D2A gene encoding TSAd and multiple sclerosis (MS). Here a total of 2128 Nordic MS patients and 2004 controls were genotyped for the SH2D2A promoter GA repeat polymorphism and rs926103 encoding a serine to asparagine substitution at amino acid...... that the SH2D2A gene may contribute to susceptibility to MS Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7/15...

  15. The Implementation of C-ID, R2D2 Model on Learning Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayanto, Yudi Hari; Rusmawan, Putu Ngurah

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to find out, (1) whether C-ID, R2D2 model is effective to be implemented on learning Reading comprehension, (2) college students' activity during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on learning Reading comprehension, and 3) college students' learning achievement during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on…

  16. Translational Modeling in Schizophrenia: Predicting Human Dopamine D2 Receptor Occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martin; Kozielska, Magdalena; Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Vermeulen, An; Barton, Hugh A; Grimwood, Sarah; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Geny M M; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes H

    2016-04-01

    To assess the ability of a previously developed hybrid physiology-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PBPKPD) model in rats to predict the dopamine D2 receptor occupancy (D2RO) in human striatum following administration of antipsychotic drugs. A hybrid PBPKPD model, previously developed using information on plasma concentrations, brain exposure and D2RO in rats, was used as the basis for the prediction of D2RO in human. The rat pharmacokinetic and brain physiology parameters were substituted with human population pharmacokinetic parameters and human physiological information. To predict the passive transport across the human blood-brain barrier, apparent permeability values were scaled based on rat and human brain endothelial surface area. Active efflux clearance in brain was scaled from rat to human using both human brain endothelial surface area and MDR1 expression. Binding constants at the D2 receptor were scaled based on the differences between in vitro and in vivo systems of the same species. The predictive power of this physiology-based approach was determined by comparing the D2RO predictions with the observed human D2RO of six antipsychotics at clinically relevant doses. Predicted human D2RO was in good agreement with clinically observed D2RO for five antipsychotics. Models using in vitro information predicted human D2RO well for most of the compounds evaluated in this analysis. However, human D2RO was under-predicted for haloperidol. The rat hybrid PBPKPD model structure, integrated with in vitro information and human pharmacokinetic and physiological information, constitutes a scientific basis to predict the time course of D2RO in man.

  17. Advective-diffusive transport of D2O in unsaturated media under evaporation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Amano, Hikaru; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Iida, Takao

    2003-01-01

    Advective-diffusive transport of HTO in unsaturated media was investigated empirically using deuterated water (D 2 O) and columns filled with glass beads. The tortuosity factor was evaluated by numerical model calculations corresponding to first experiment for diffusion under no-evaporation condition. Temporal variations in depth profiles of D 2 O concentrations in the columns were observed by second experiment, which considers the transferring and spreading of D 2 O by pore-water flow caused by evaporation. Measurements and model calculations indicated that diffusion was about two times more efficient than dispersion for D 2 O spreading process under this evaporation condition. (author)

  18. The dosage of the neuroD2 transcription factor regulates amygdala development and emotional learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chin-Hsing; Hansen, Stacey; Wang, Zhenshan; Storm, Daniel R.; Tapscott, Stephen J.; Olson, James M.

    2005-01-01

    The amygdala is centrally involved in formation of emotional memory and response to fear or risk. We have demonstrated that the lateral and basolateral amygdala nuclei fail to form in neuroD2 null mice and neuroD2 heterozygotes have fewer neurons in this region. NeuroD2 heterozygous mice show profound deficits in emotional learning as assessed by fear conditioning. Unconditioned fear was also diminished in neuroD2 heterozygotes compared to wild-type controls. Several key molecular regulators ...

  19. Promoter de-methylation of cyclin D2 by sulforaphane in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Anna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, induces potent anti-proliferative effects in prostate cancer cells. One mechanism that may contribute to the anti-proliferative effects of SFN is the modulation of epigenetic marks, such as inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC enzymes. However, the effects of SFN on other common epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation are understudied. Promoter hyper-methylation of cyclin D2, a major regulator of cell cycle, is correlated with prostate cancer progression, and restoration of cyclin D2 expression exerts anti-proliferative effects on LnCap prostate cancer cells. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of SFN on DNA methylation status of cyclin D2 promoter, and how alteration in promoter methylation impacts cyclin D2 gene expression in LnCap cells. We found that SFN significantly decreased the expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, especially DNMT1 and DNMT3b. Furthermore, SFN significantly decreased methylation in cyclin D2 promoter regions containing c-Myc and multiple Sp1 binding sites. Reduced methlyation of cyclin D2 promoter corresponded to an increase in cyclin D2 transcript levels, suggesting that SFN may de-repress methylation-silenced cyclin D2 by impacting epigenetic pathways. Our results demonstrated the ability of SFN to epigenetically modulate cyclin D2 expression, and provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which SFN may regulate gene expression as a prostate cancer chemopreventive agent.

  20. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed guidance and requirements to deliverables crosswalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    In September 1996, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) initiated the first of a two-phase program to remediate waste storage in tanks at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Initiating the first phase, RL signed contracts with two private companies who agreed to receive and vitrify a portion of the tank waste in a demonstration and to return the vitrified product and by-products to the Project Management Hanford Contract (PHMC) team for disposition. The first phase of the overall remediation effort is a demonstration of treatment concepts, and the second phase includes treatment of the remaining tank wastes. The demonstration phase, Phase 1 of the project, is further subdivided into two parts, A and B. During Phase 1A, the vitrification contractors are to establish the technical, operational, regulatory, business, and financial elements required to provide treatment services on a fixed unit price basis. Phase 1A deliverables will be evaluated by RL to determine whether it is in the best interest of the government to have one or more vitrification contractors proceed with Phase 1B, in which 6% to 13% of the tank waste would be treated in the demonstration. In addition, before RL can authorize proceeding with Phase 1B, the PHMC team must demonstrate its readiness to retrieve and deliver the waste to the private contractor(s) and to receive and dispose of the products and by-products returned from the treatment. The PHMC team has organized their plans for providing these vitrification-support services into the Retrieval and Disposal Mission within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. Three RL core teams were established to assist in evaluating the PHMC team's readiness specifically in regard to three task areas: Waste feed delivery; Infrastructure and by-products delivery; and Immobilized products. The core teams each developed a set of criteria and plans to be used in evaluating the PHMC team's readiness to proceed (RTP)

  1. Simulation of Porous Medium Hydrogen Storage - Estimation of Storage Capacity and Deliverability for a North German anticlinal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Bauer, S.; Pfeiffer, W. T.

    2015-12-01

    Large scale energy storage will be required to mitigate offsets between electric energy demand and the fluctuating electric energy production from renewable sources like wind farms, if renewables dominate energy supply. Porous formations in the subsurface could provide the large storage capacities required if chemical energy carriers such as hydrogen gas produced during phases of energy surplus are stored. This work assesses the behavior of a porous media hydrogen storage operation through numerical scenario simulation of a synthetic, heterogeneous sandstone formation formed by an anticlinal structure. The structural model is parameterized using data available for the North German Basin as well as data given for formations with similar characteristics. Based on the geological setting at the storage site a total of 15 facies distributions is generated and the hydrological parameters are assigned accordingly. Hydraulic parameters are spatially distributed according to the facies present and include permeability, porosity relative permeability and capillary pressure. The storage is designed to supply energy in times of deficiency on the order of seven days, which represents the typical time span of weather conditions with no wind. It is found that using five injection/extraction wells 21.3 mio sm³ of hydrogen gas can be stored and retrieved to supply 62,688 MWh of energy within 7 days. This requires a ratio of working to cushion gas of 0.59. The retrievable energy within this time represents the demand of about 450000 people. Furthermore it is found that for longer storage times, larger gas volumes have to be used, for higher delivery rates additionally the number of wells has to be increased. The formation investigated here thus seems to offer sufficient capacity and deliverability to be used for a large scale hydrogen gas storage operation.

  2. The dopamine D2 receptor can directly recruit and activate GRK2 without G protein activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Thomas F; Orlen, Margo I; Ray, Caroline; Peterson, Sean M; Caron, Marc G

    2018-04-20

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is critical for many central nervous system functions. The D2R carries out these functions by signaling through two transducers: G proteins and β-arrestins (βarrs). Selectively engaging either the G protein or βarr pathway may be a way to improve drugs targeting GPCRs. The current model of GPCR signal transduction posits a chain of events where G protein activation ultimately leads to βarr recruitment. GPCR kinases (GRKs), which are regulated by G proteins and whose kinase action facilitates βarr recruitment, bridge these pathways. Therefore, βarr recruitment appears to be intimately tied to G protein activation via GRKs. Here we sought to understand how GRK2 action at the D2R would be disrupted when G protein activation is eliminated and the effect of this on βarr recruitment. We used two recently developed biased D2R mutants that can preferentially interact either with G proteins or βarrs as well as a βarr-biased D2R ligand, UNC9994. With these functionally selective tools, we investigated the mechanism whereby the βarr-preferring D2R achieves βarr pathway activation in the complete absence of G protein activation. We describe how direct, G protein-independent recruitment of GRK2 drives interactions at the βarr-preferring D2R and also contributes to βarr recruitment at the WT D2R. Additionally, we found an additive interaction between the βarr-preferring D2R mutant and UNC9994. These results reveal that the D2R can directly recruit GRK2 without G protein activation and that this mechanism may have relevance to achieving βarr-biased signaling. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Genetically determined measures of striatal D2 signaling predict prefrontal activity during working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Alessandro; Taurisano, Paolo; Pisciotta, Nicola Marco; Blasi, Giuseppe; Fazio, Leonardo; Romano, Raffaella; Gelao, Barbara; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Lozupone, Madia; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Caforio, Grazia; Sambataro, Fabio; Niccoli-Asabella, Artor; Papp, Audrey; Ursini, Gianluca; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Popolizio, Teresa; Sadee, Wolfgang; Rubini, Giuseppe

    2010-02-22

    Variation of the gene coding for D2 receptors (DRD2) has been associated with risk for schizophrenia and with working memory deficits. A functional intronic SNP (rs1076560) predicts relative expression of the two D2 receptors isoforms, D2S (mainly pre-synaptic) and D2L (mainly post-synaptic). However, the effect of functional genetic variation of DRD2 on striatal dopamine D2 signaling and on its correlation with prefrontal activity during working memory in humans is not known. Thirty-seven healthy subjects were genotyped for rs1076560 (G>T) and underwent SPECT with [123I]IBZM (which binds primarily to post-synaptic D2 receptors) and with [123I]FP-CIT (which binds to pre-synaptic dopamine transporters, whose activity and density is also regulated by pre-synaptic D2 receptors), as well as BOLD fMRI during N-Back working memory. Subjects carrying the T allele (previously associated with reduced D2S expression) had striatal reductions of [123I]IBZM and of [123I]FP-CIT binding. DRD2 genotype also differentially predicted the correlation between striatal dopamine D2 signaling (as identified with factor analysis of the two radiotracers) and activity of the prefrontal cortex during working memory as measured with BOLD fMRI, which was positive in GG subjects and negative in GT. Our results demonstrate that this functional SNP within DRD2 predicts striatal binding of the two radiotracers to dopamine transporters and D2 receptors as well as the correlation between striatal D2 signaling with prefrontal cortex activity during performance of a working memory task. These data are consistent with the possibility that the balance of excitatory/inhibitory modulation of striatal neurons may also affect striatal outputs in relationship with prefrontal activity during working memory performance within the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical pathway.

  4. Genetically determined measures of striatal D2 signaling predict prefrontal activity during working memory performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bertolino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Variation of the gene coding for D2 receptors (DRD2 has been associated with risk for schizophrenia and with working memory deficits. A functional intronic SNP (rs1076560 predicts relative expression of the two D2 receptors isoforms, D2S (mainly pre-synaptic and D2L (mainly post-synaptic. However, the effect of functional genetic variation of DRD2 on striatal dopamine D2 signaling and on its correlation with prefrontal activity during working memory in humans is not known.Thirty-seven healthy subjects were genotyped for rs1076560 (G>T and underwent SPECT with [123I]IBZM (which binds primarily to post-synaptic D2 receptors and with [123I]FP-CIT (which binds to pre-synaptic dopamine transporters, whose activity and density is also regulated by pre-synaptic D2 receptors, as well as BOLD fMRI during N-Back working memory.Subjects carrying the T allele (previously associated with reduced D2S expression had striatal reductions of [123I]IBZM and of [123I]FP-CIT binding. DRD2 genotype also differentially predicted the correlation between striatal dopamine D2 signaling (as identified with factor analysis of the two radiotracers and activity of the prefrontal cortex during working memory as measured with BOLD fMRI, which was positive in GG subjects and negative in GT.Our results demonstrate that this functional SNP within DRD2 predicts striatal binding of the two radiotracers to dopamine transporters and D2 receptors as well as the correlation between striatal D2 signaling with prefrontal cortex activity during performance of a working memory task. These data are consistent with the possibility that the balance of excitatory/inhibitory modulation of striatal neurons may also affect striatal outputs in relationship with prefrontal activity during working memory performance within the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical pathway.

  5. Vibrational and rotational excitation effects of the N(2D) + D2(X1Σg +) → ND(X3Σ+) + D(2S) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziliang; Wang, Haijie; Wang, Xiquan; Shi, Yanying

    2018-05-01

    The effects of the rovibrational excitation of reactants in the N(2D) + D2(X1Σg+) → ND(X3Σ+) + D(2S) reaction are calculated in a collision energy range from the threshold to 1.0 eV using the time-dependent wave packet approach and a second-order split operator. The reaction probability, integral cross-section, differential cross-section and rate constant of the title reaction are calculated. The integral cross-section and rate constant of the initial states v = 0, j = 0, 1, are in good agreement with experimental data available in the literature. The rotational excitation of the D2 molecule has little effect on reaction probability, integral cross-section and the rate constant, but it increased the sideways and forward scattering signals. The vibrational excitation of the D2 molecule reduced the threshold and broke up the forward-backward symmetry of the differential cross-section; it also increased the forward scattering signals. This may be because the vibrational excitation of the D2 molecule reduced the lifetime of the intermediate complex.

  6. Modeling and protein engineering studies of active and inactive states of human dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and investigation of drug/receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmas, Ramin Ekhteiari; Yurtsever, Mine; Stein, Matthias; Durdagi, Serdar

    2015-05-01

    Homology model structures of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) were generated starting from the active and inactive states of β2-adrenergic crystal structure templates. To the best of our knowledge, the active conformation of D2R was modeled for the first time in this study. The homology models are built and refined using MODELLER and ROSETTA programs. Top-ranked models have been validated with ligand docking simulations and in silico Alanine-scanning mutagenesis studies. The derived extra-cellular loop region of the protein models is directed toward the binding site cavity which is often involved in ligand binding. The binding sites of protein models were refined using induced fit docking to enable the side-chain refinement during ligand docking simulations. The derived models were then tested using molecular modeling techniques on several marketed drugs for schizophrenia. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis and molecular docking studies gave similar results for marketed drugs tested. We believe that these new D2 receptor models will be very useful for a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of drugs to be targeted to the binding sites of D2Rs and they will contribute significantly to drug design studies involving G-protein-coupled receptors in the future.

  7. Accumulation of deuterium oxide in body fluids after ingestion of D2O-labeled beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Lamb, D.R.; Burgess, W.A.; Bartoli, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    A simple low-cost procedure was developed to compare the temporal profiles of deuterium oxide (D 2 O) accumulation in body fluids after ingestion of D 2 O-labeled solutions. D 2 O concentration was measured in plasma and saliva samples taken at various intervals after ingestion of 20 ml of D 2 O mixed with five solutions differing in carbohydrate and electrolyte concentrations. An infrared spectrometer was used to measure D 2 O in purified samples obtained after a 48-h incubation period during which the water (D 2 O and H 2 O) in the sample was equilibrated with an equal volume of distilled water in a sealed diffusion dish. The procedure yields 100% recoveries of 60-500 ppm D 2 O with an average precision of 5%. When compared with values for distilled water, D 2 O accumulation in serial samples of plasma and saliva was slower for ingested solutions containing 40 and 15% glucose and faster for hypotonic saline and a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution. These differences appear to reflect known differences in gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of these beverages. Therefore, this technique may provide a useful index of the rate of water uptake from ingested beverages into the body fluids

  8. Dopamine D2 receptor occupancy by olanzapine or risperidone in young patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavalaye, J.; Linszen, D. H.; Booij, J.; Reneman, L.; Gersons, B. P.; van Royen, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    A crucial characteristic of antipsychotic medication is the occupancy of the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor. We assessed striatal DA D2 receptor occupancy by olanzapine and risperidone in 36 young patients [31 males, 5 females; mean age 21.1 years (16-28)] with first episode schizophrenia, using

  9. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in treatment resistant depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart P de Kwaasteniet

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrated improvement of depressive symptoms in treatment resistant depression (TRD after administering dopamine agonists which suggest abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission in TRD. However, the role of dopaminergic signaling through measurement of striatal dopamine D(2/3 receptor (D2/3R binding has not been investigated in TRD subjects. We used [(123I]IBZM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT to investigate striatal D2/3R binding in TRD. We included 6 severe TRD patients, 11 severe TRD patients on antipsychotics (TRD AP group and 15 matched healthy controls. Results showed no significant difference (p = 0.75 in striatal D2/3R availability was found between TRD patients and healthy controls. In the TRD AP group D2/3R availability was significantly decreased (reflecting occupancy of D2/3Rs by antipsychotics relative to TRD patients and healthy controls (p<0.001 but there were no differences in clinical symptoms between TRD AP and TRD patients. This preliminary study therefore does not provide evidence for large differences in D2/3 availability in severe TRD patients and suggests this TRD subgroup is not characterized by altered dopaminergic transmission. Atypical antipsychotics appear to have no clinical benefit in severe TRD patients who remain depressed, despite their strong occupancy of D2/3Rs.

  10. Dynamic Downlink Spectrum Access for D2D-Enabled Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Al-Qahtani, Fawaz S.; Celik, Abdulkadir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes new approaches for underlay device- to-device (D2D) communication in spectrum-shared het- erogeneous cellular networks. It considers devices that share downlink resources and have an enabled D2D feature to improve coverage

  11. Cardioprotective effect of vitamin D2 on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agaty, Sahar M

    2018-03-08

    To assess the effect of vitamin D 2 and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms on acute myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in diabetic rats. Rats were divided into control rats, diabetic rats (DM), diabetic rats received ISO (DM-ISO), and diabetic rats pretreated with vitamin D 2 and received ISO (DM-D 2 -ISO). Vitamin D 2 pretreatment significantly decreased fasting glucose and myocardial malondialdehyde, associated with increased insulin, myocardial glutathione and superoxide dismutase in DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. The serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL were significantly decreased, along with increased HDL and adiponectin. Poly-ADP ribose polymerase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, caspase-3, BAX, and p53 were significantly downregulated in myocardium of DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. Histological studies showed diminished inflammatory cells infiltration in myocardium of DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. Vitamin D 2 ameliorates hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, redox imbalance, inflammatory and apoptotic processes, protecting the myocardium of diabetic rats against acute myocardial infarction.

  12. Functional coupling between heterologously expressed dopamine D(2) receptors and KCNQ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungstrom, Trine; Grunnet, Morten; Jensen, Bo Skaaning

    2003-01-01

    protein of the G(alphai/o) subtype. Cells of the human neuroblastoma line SH-SY5Y were co-transfected transiently with KCNQ4 and D(2L) receptors. Stimulation of D(2L) receptors increased the KCNQ4 current ( n=6) as determined in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. The specificity of the dopaminergic...

  13. Stability of globular proteins in H2O and D2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efimova, Y. M.; Haemers, S.; Wierczinski, B.; Norde, W.; van Well, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    In several experimental techniques D2O rather then H2O is often used as a solvent for proteins. Concerning the influence of the solvent on the stability of the proteins, contradicting results have been reported in literature. In this paper the influence of H2O-D2O solvent substitution on the

  14. Stability of globular proteins in H2O and in D2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efimova, Y.M.; Haemers, S.; Wierczinsky, B.; Norde, W.; Well, van A.A.

    2007-01-01

    In several experimental techniques D2O rather then H2O is often used as a solvent for proteins. Concerning the influence of the solvent on the stability of the proteins, contradicting results have been reported in literature. In this paper the influence of H2O-D2O solvent substitution on the

  15. Modulatory Effects of Dopamine D2 Receptors on Spreading Depression in Rat Somatosensory Neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Haarmann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spreading depression (SD is a propagating wave of depolarization followed by depression of the neuroglial activities and can modulate extracellular dopamine concentrations in the neocortex. It has been shown that the dopaminergic system plays a role in migraine. SD has been suggested as a critical phenomenon in the pathophysiology of migraine. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dopamine D2 receptors on the characteristic features of SD in rat neocortical tissues. Methods: The effect of dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole and D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride was tested on different characteristic features (amplitude, duration and velocity of KCl-induced SD in somatosensory neocortical slices of adult rats. The effect of above-mentioned substances on production of long-term potentiation (LTP in the neocortex was also evaluated. Results: The present data revealed a dose-dependent suppression of the amplitude and duration of SD in the presence of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride in the neocortex. D2 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole dose-dependently enhanced the amplitude and duration of the neocortical SD. Furthermore, application of D2 receptor antagonist significantly suppressed induction of LTP. Discussion: These results indicate that D2 receptors modulate the initiation of SD in the neocortex. This finding refers to the potential role of D2 receptor antagonist in treatment of migraine pain.

  16. Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy of H2O2, D2O, and HDO in Solid Parahydrogen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fajardo, Mario

    2003-01-01

    ...) solids doped with H2O, D2O and HDO molecules. Analysis of the rovibrational spectra of the isolated H20, D2O and HDO monomers reveals their existence as very slightly hindered rotors, typically showing only 2 to 5...

  17. Reduced Slc6a15 in Nucleus Accumbens D2-Neurons Underlies Stress Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Francis, T Chase; Nam, Hyungwoo; Riggs, Lace M; Engeln, Michel; Rudzinskas, Sarah; Konkalmatt, Prasad; Russo, Scott J; Turecki, Gustavo; Iniguez, Sergio D; Lobo, Mary Kay

    2017-07-05

    Previous research demonstrates that Slc6a15, a neutral amino acid transporter, is associated with depression susceptibility. However, no study examined Slc6a15 in the ventral striatum [nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in depression. Given our previous characterization of Slc6a15 as a striatal dopamine receptor 2 (D2)-neuron-enriched gene, we examined the role of Slc6a15 in NAc D2-neurons in mediating susceptibility to stress in male mice. First, we showed that Slc6a15 mRNA was reduced in NAc of mice susceptible to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), a paradigm that produces behavioral and molecular adaptations that resemble clinical depression. Consistent with our preclinical data, we observed Slc6a15 mRNA reduction in NAc of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). The Slc6a15 reduction in NAc occurred selectively in D2-neurons. Next, we used Cre-inducible viruses combined with D2-Cre mice to reduce or overexpress Slc6a15 in NAc D2-neurons. Slc6a15 reduction in D2-neurons caused enhanced susceptibility to a subthreshold social defeat stress (SSDS) as observed by reduced social interaction, while a reduction in social interaction following CSDS was not observed when Slc6a15 expression in D2-neurons was restored. Finally, since both D2-medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and D2-expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) interneurons express Slc6a15, we examined Slc6a15 protein in these interneurons after CSDS. Slc6a15 protein was unaltered in ChAT interneurons. Consistent with this, reducing Slc5a15 selectively in NAc D2-MSNs, using A2A-Cre mice that express Cre selectively in D2-MSNs, caused enhanced susceptibility to SSDS. Collectively, our data demonstrate that reduced Slc6a15 in NAc occurs in MDD individuals and that Slc6a15 reduction in NAc D2-neurons underlies stress susceptibility. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our study demonstrates a role for reduced Slc6a15, a neutral amino acid transporter, in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in depression and stress susceptibility. The

  18. Regulation of dopamine D2 receptors in a novel cell line (SUP1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivins, K.J.; Luedtke, R.R.; Artymyshyn, R.P.; Molinoff, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    A prolactin-secreting cell line, SUP1, has been established from rat pituitary tumor 7315a. In radioligand binding experiments, the D2 receptor antagonist (S)-(-)-3- 125 I iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-[(1-ethyl-2- pyrrolidinyl)methyl]benzamide ( 125 I IBZM) labeled a single class of sites in homogenates of SUP1 cells (Kd = 0.6 nM; Bmax = 45 fmol/mg of protein). The sites displayed a pharmacological profile consistent with that of D2 receptors. Inhibition of the binding of 125 I IBZM by dopamine was sensitive to GTP, suggesting that D2 receptors in SUP1 cells are coupled to guanine nucleotide-binding protein(s). In the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine, dopamine decreased the level of cAMP accumulation in SUP1 cells. Dopamine also inhibited prolactin secretion from SUP1 cells. Both the inhibition of cAMP accumulation and the inhibition of prolactin secretion were blocked by D2 receptor antagonists, suggesting that these effects of dopamine were mediated by an interaction with D2 receptors. The regulation of D2 receptors in SUP1 cells by D2 receptor agonists was investigated. Exposure of SUP1 cells to dopamine or to the D2 receptor agonist N-propylnorapomorphine led to increased expression of D2 receptors, with no change in the affinity of the receptors for 125 I IBZM. An increase in the density of D2 receptors in SUP1 cells was evident within 7 hr of exposure to dopamine. Spiroperidol, a D2 receptor antagonist, blocked the effect of dopamine on receptor density. These results suggest that exposure of D2 receptors in SUP1 cells to agonists leads to an up-regulation of D2 receptors. Dopamine retained the ability to inhibit cAMP accumulation in SUP1 cells exposed to dopamine for 24 hr, suggesting that D2 receptors in SUP1 cells are not desensitized by prolonged exposure to agonist

  19. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene in Lamprey, Its Expression in the Striatum and Cellular Effects of D2 Receptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brita; Huerta-Ocampo, Icnelia; Ericsson, Jesper; Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Bolam, J. Paul; Diaz-Heijtz, Rochellys; Grillner, Sten

    2012-01-01

    All basal ganglia subnuclei have recently been identified in lampreys, the phylogenetically oldest group of vertebrates. Furthermore, the interconnectivity of these nuclei is similar to mammals and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (dopaminergic) fibers have been detected within the input layer, the striatum. Striatal processing is critically dependent on the interplay with the dopamine system, and we explore here whether D2 receptors are expressed in the lamprey striatum and their potential role. We have identified a cDNA encoding the dopamine D2 receptor from the lamprey brain and the deduced protein sequence showed close phylogenetic relationship with other vertebrate D2 receptors, and an almost 100% identity within the transmembrane domains containing the amino acids essential for dopamine binding. There was a strong and distinct expression of D2 receptor mRNA in a subpopulation of striatal neurons, and in the same region tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive synaptic terminals were identified at the ultrastructural level. The synaptic incidence of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive boutons was highest in a region ventrolateral to the compact layer of striatal neurons, a region where most striatal dendrites arborise. Application of a D2 receptor agonist modulates striatal neurons by causing a reduced spike discharge and a diminished post-inhibitory rebound. We conclude that the D2 receptor gene had already evolved in the earliest group of vertebrates, cyclostomes, when they diverged from the main vertebrate line of evolution (560 mya), and that it is expressed in striatum where it exerts similar cellular effects to that in other vertebrates. These results together with our previous published data (Stephenson-Jones et al. 2011, 2012) further emphasize the high degree of conservation of the basal ganglia, also with regard to the indirect loop, and its role as a basic mechanism for action selection in all vertebrates. PMID:22563388

  20. Analysis of D2D Communications over Gamma/Nakagami Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hussain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the outage probability, channel capacity and symbol error rate (SER performance of device-to-device (D2D communication systems. The D2D communication system is affected by several co-channel interferers. Gamma fading channel is considered for the D2D communication system. The channel for the co-channel interference is assumed to be Nakagami faded. An expression for the probability density function (PDF of the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR is presented. The PDF is a function of distances between various devices in the D2D system, path-loss, channel fading conditions and signal powers. Based on the PDF expression, we present the expressions for the outage, channel capacity and SER. With the help of numerical results the performance of D2D communication system is discussed under various conditions of interference, path-loss and channel fading.

  1. Preparation and use of very pure o-D2. Technical report No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.; Lewis, M.; Yu, Z.Z.; Yucel, S.

    1985-01-01

    Optimum production and utilization of spin-polarized deuterium as a fusion fuel requires long nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times at temperatures near 4K. This can be achieved with very high purity ortho-D 2 . We report new experimental methods and results of total-adsorption catalysis of D 2 para-ortho conversion in the 4 to 15K temperature region, using as catalysts activated alumina and partially-activated charcoal. Because of the strongly anisotropic adsorbate binding on alumina, the ortho-D 2 equilibrium concentration near 10 to 12K (where the conversion time is acceptable) is not high enough, and near 4K (where the equilibium ortho-D 2 concentration is satisfactory) the conversion time is almost prohibitively too long to permit achievement of the desired ortho-D 2 purity. Although doping alumina with paramagnetic ions could improve this situation, it would be at the expense of excessive back-conversion upon desorption

  2. Potent haloperidol derivatives covalently binding to the dopamine D2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Tobias; Kaindl, Jonas; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2017-10-01

    The dopamine D 2 receptor (D 2 R) is a common drug target for the treatment of a variety of neurological disorders including schizophrenia. Structure based design of subtype selective D 2 R antagonists requires high resolution crystal structures of the receptor and pharmacological tools promoting a better understanding of the protein-ligand interactions. Recently, we reported the development of a chemically activated dopamine derivative (FAUC150) designed to covalently bind the L94C mutant of the dopamine D 2 receptor. Using FAUC150 as a template, we elaborated the design and synthesis of irreversible analogs of the potent antipsychotic drug haloperidol forming covalent D 2 R-ligand complexes. The disulfide- and Michael acceptor-functionalized compounds showed significant receptor affinity and an irreversible binding profile in radioligand depletion experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship of frontal D2/3 binding potentials to cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pinborg, Lars H; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    for set shifting. The main findings indicated a relation between D2/3 receptor binding in the frontal cortex and set shifting, planning and attention, but also support a differential involvement of cortical dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in at least some cognitive functions, perhaps particularly attention......Studies of in vivo dopamine receptors in schizophrenia have mostly focused on D2 receptors in striatal areas or on D1 receptors in cortex. No previous study has examined the correlation between cortical dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potentials and cognition in schizophrenia patients. The objective......, in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy people. The results suggest that cortical D2/3 receptor function may be more involved in some cognitive functions (i.e. attention, fluency and planning) in patients with schizophrenia than in healthy people, suggesting that information processing in schizophrenia may...

  4. Vibrational relaxation and dissociation of D2(vj) on Cu(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciatore, M.; DeFelice, P.; Capitelli, M.

    1992-01-01

    The dissociative chemisorption of H 2 /D 2 with single crystal Cu surface has recently been the object of experimental and theoretical investigations. Here the authors present their results for the D 2 (vj)/Cu(111) system obtained within a semiclassical model developed for the interaction of molecules with non-rigid surfaces. The dissociation probability for D 2 in a specific initial (vj) state has been computed as a function of the impact energy and the surface temperature set to 300K. The quantum tunneling probability through the potential barriers has also been evaluated. The results show that the D 2 dissociation probability is smaller when compared to that of H 2 . The D 2 absorption probability, as well as the energy transferred to the surface phonons, is higher then that found for H 2

  5. Dynamic Downlink Spectrum Access for D2D-Enabled Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2018-01-15

    This paper proposes new approaches for underlay device- to-device (D2D) communication in spectrum-shared het- erogeneous cellular networks. It considers devices that share downlink resources and have an enabled D2D feature to improve coverage. The mode of operation classifies devices according to their experienced base station (BS) coverage, potential to be served by BS, ability of BS to meet their quality of service (QoS), and their downlink resources occupancy. The initiation of D2D cooperation is conditioned on proposed provisional access by an active device, wherein its serving BS attempts to meet its QoS using as low number of spectrum channels as possible, while treating remaining channels for feasible D2D cooperation. Detailed formulations for the mode of operation and a proposed D2D path allocation scheme are presented under perfect and imperfect operation scenarios. The developed results are generally applicable for any performance metric and network model.

  6. Sigma1 and dopamine D2 receptor occupancy in the mouse brain after a single administration of haloperidol and two dopamine D2-like receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi; Kawamura, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Tadayuki; Matsuno, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    We investigated sigma 1 and dopamine D 2 receptor occupancy in mouse brain after a single injection of haloperidol, nemonapride, or spiperone using [ 11 C]SA4503 and [ 11 C]raclopride, respectively. Co-injection of the three compounds significantly blocked the uptake of each radioligand. Six hours later, only haloperidol blocked [ 11 C]SA4503 uptake, while all three reduced [ 11 C]raclopride uptake. Sigma 1 receptor occupancy by haloperidol was reduced to 19% at day 2 when D 2 receptor occupancy disappeared. [ 11 C]SA4503 would be applicable to the investigation of sigma 1 receptor occupancy of antispychotic drugs using PET

  7. In vitro histamine release from basophils of asthmatic and atopic individuals in D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, R.; Lichtenstein, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    It was found that spontaneous histamine release from human basophils in H 2 O-based buffers is negligible; in D 2 O-based buffers, however, release is observed with the cells of some donors. Analysis of this phenomenon revealed release from the basophils of 1 of 22 control individuals (5%), 15 of 47 patients with allergic rhinitis (32%), and 14 of 20 asthmatic patients (70%). The difference between both patient groups and controls and between atopics and asthmatics was highly significant. That D 2 O release was not cytotoxic is suggested by the finding that 37 0 was optimal, with inhibition at 4 0 C or 46 0 C as well as by EDTA, 2-deoxyglucose, and dibromoacetophenone, an inhibitor of phospholipase A 2 . The release mechanism was unusual in that dibutyryl cAMP and agonists that cause an increase in cAMP lead to no inhibition. No correlation was noted between the total serum IgE level (and thus the number of IgE receptors on the basophil surface) and the magnitude of D 2 O release. No increase in D 2 O release was observed in 17 ragweed-sensitive patients through a ragweed season. A unique property of D 2 O release was the loss of reactivity by preincubating cells at 37 0 C for 30 min before adding D 2 O. Non-D 2 O-reactive cells could be ''converted'' to D 2 O-reactive cells by incubation with antigen in the whole blood phase during leukocyte isolation; these cells showed the same loss of releaseability at 37 0 C and an inhibitor profile similar to D 2 O-responsive cells from ragweed allergic or asthmatic patients. We suggest that D 2 O-based buffers reveal, in atopic and asthmatic patients, in vivo basophil activation; whether this is due to IgE cross-links, to C split products, or to other stimuli is not yet clear

  8. SU-G-BRC-02: A Novel Multi-Criteria Optimization Approach to Generate Deliverable Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Treatment Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirlik, G; D’Souza, W; Zhang, H [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To present a novel multi-criteria optimization (MCO) solution approach that generates treatment plans with deliverable apertures using column generation. Methods: We demonstrate our method with 10 locally advanced head-and-neck cancer cases retrospectively. In our MCO formulation, we defined an objective function for each structure in the treatment volume. This resulted in 9 objective functions, including 3 distinct objectives for primary target volume, high-risk and low-risk target volumes, 5 objectives for each of the organs-at-risk (OARs) (two parotid glands, spinal cord, brain stem and oral cavity), and one for the non-target non-OAR normal tissue. Conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) constraints were utilized to ensure at least certain fraction of the target volumes receiving the prescription doses. To directly generate deliverable plans, column generation algorithm was embedded within our MCO approach for aperture shape generation. Final dose distributions for all plans were generated using a Monte Carlo kernel-superposition dose calculation. We compared the MCO plans with the clinical plans, which were created by clinicians. Results: At least 95% target coverage was achieved by both MCO plans and clinical plans. However, the average conformity indices of clinical plans and the MCO plans were 1.95 and 1.35, respectively (31% reduction, p<0.01). Compared to the conventional clinical plan, the proposed MCO method achieved average reductions in left parotid mean dose of 5% (p=0.06), right parotid mean dose of 18% (p<0.01), oral cavity mean dose of 21% (p=0.03), spinal cord maximum dose of 20% (p<0.01), brain stem maximum dose of 61% (p<0.01), and normal tissue maximum dose of 5% (p<0.01), respectively. Conclusion: We demonstrated that the proposed MCO method was able to obtain deliverable IMRT treatment plans while achieving significant improvements in dosimetric plan quality.

  9. Deposition of D2O from air to plant and soil during an experiment of D2O vapor release into a vinyl house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atarashi, M.; Amano, H.

    1998-01-01

    Deuterium, a stable isotope of tritium, was released into a vinyl house in autumn 1995 and summer 1996 to study the transfer of tritium from air to plant and soil. Temporal variation of D 2 O concentrations in plant and soil water, and plant physiological parameters such as transpiration rate and leaf temperature, were measured during these experiments. D 2 O concentrations of plants were fitted to a first order kinetic model: C p =C max (1-e -kt ), where C p is the D 2 O concentrations in plants at time t, C max is the steady-state concentration in plants and k is the rate constant. The rate constant was also calculated using measured plant physiological parameters for comparison. The D 2 O uptake by paddy rice was most rapid and the value of k was 3.63±0.31 h -1 followed by radish, cherry tomato, komatsuna and orange. The day/night concentration ratio for cherry tomato and orange was higher than that for radish and komatsuna. (orig.)

  10. Wavetrain 2 : Deliverable 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    Denmark (the Danish TSO) and counts with the interest and collaboration of the wave device developers Pelamis, Wave Dragon and Wavestar. The second case study assesses the macro-economic impact of the introduction of a 100MW farm in Portugal. An Input-Output model based on Leontief theory was developed...... (HMRC) and Hans C. Sorensen (SPOK). It included 3 main parts: a first introduction to microeconomics at project level, a second practical session on the use of economic model Retscreen and a final session introducing macro and socio-economic aspects....

  11. Saph Pani deliverables

    OpenAIRE

    Saph Pani

    2016-01-01

    Summary Saph Pani was an India-EU collaborative project with a duration of three years. The project aimed to improve natural water treatment systems such as bank filtration (BF), managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and natural treatment systems (NTS) for wastewater treatment (e.g. constructed wetlands) in India by building on a combination of local and international expertise. An enhancement of water resources and water supply, particularly in water stressed urban and peri-urban areas was targ...

  12. Sum Rate Maximization of D2D Communications in Cognitive Radio Network Using Cheating Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjing Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the cheating algorithm for device-to-device (D2D pairs that reuse the uplink channels of cellular users. We are concerned about the way how D2D pairs are matched with cellular users (CUs to maximize their sum rate. In contrast with Munkres’ algorithm which gives the optimal matching in terms of the maximum throughput, Gale-Shapley algorithm ensures the stability of the system on the same time and achieves a men-optimal stable matching. In our system, D2D pairs play the role of “men,” so that each D2D pair could be matched to the CU that ranks as high as possible in the D2D pair’s preference list. It is found by previous studies that, by unilaterally falsifying preference lists in a particular way, some men can get better partners, while no men get worse off. We utilize this theory to exploit the best cheating strategy for D2D pairs. We find out that to acquire such a cheating strategy, we need to seek as many and as large cabals as possible. To this end, we develop a cabal finding algorithm named RHSTLC, and also we prove that it reaches the Pareto optimality. In comparison with other algorithms proposed by related works, the results show that our algorithm can considerably improve the sum rate of D2D pairs.

  13. Reversible Chromatic Response of Polydiacetylene Derivative Vesicles in D2O Solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Jae; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2016-01-26

    The thermal chromatic sensitivity of polydiacetylenes (PDAs) with 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) derivatives, which have a hydroxyl group (HEEPCDA) and an amine group (APPCDA), were investigated using D2O and H2O as solvents. The vesicle solution with polymerized HEEPCDA exhibited a reversible chromatic response during the heating and cooling cycle in D2O, but not in H2O. On the other hand, the vesicle solution with the polymerized APPCDA exhibited a reversible chromatic response in H2O during the heating and cooling cycle, but the color of the solution did not change much in D2O. The critical vesicle concentration of HEEPCDA was lower in D2O than in H2O, and the chromatic sensitivity of the polymerized vesicles to temperature was slower in D2O than in H2O. We think that it is due to D2O being a more highly structured solvent than H2O with the hydrogen bonding in D2O stronger than that in H2O.

  14. Spatial Frequency Selectivity Is Impaired in Dopamine D2 Receptor Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Bruno Oliveira Ferreira; Abou Rjeili, Mira; Quintana, Clémentine; Beaulieu, Jean M.; Casanova, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter implicated in several brain functions, including vision. In the present study, we investigated the impacts of the lack of D2 dopamine receptors on the structure and function of the primary visual cortex (V1) of D2-KO mice using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Retinotopic maps were generated in order to measure anatomo-functional parameters such as V1 shape, cortical magnification factor, scatter, and ocular dominance. Contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency selectivity (SF) functions were computed from responses to drifting gratings. When compared to control mice, none of the parameters of the retinotopic maps were affected by D2 receptor loss of function. While the contrast sensitivity function of D2-KO mice did not differ from their wild-type counterparts, SF selectivity function was significantly affected as the optimal SF and the high cut-off frequency (p D2-KO than in WT mice. These findings show that the lack of function of D2 dopamine receptors had no influence on cortical structure whereas it had a significant impact on the spatial frequency selectivity and high cut-off. Taken together, our results suggest that D2 receptors play a specific role on the processing of spatial features in early visual cortex while they do not seem to participate in its development. PMID:29379422

  15. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cells of the human normal pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonello, Rosario; Waaijers, Marlijn; Kros, Johan M; Pivonello, Claudia; de Angelis, Cristina; Cozzolino, Alessia; Colao, Annamaria; Lamberts, Steven W J; Hofland, Leo J

    2017-08-01

    The dopamine D 2 receptor is the main dopamine receptor expressed in the human normal pituitary gland. The aim of the current study was to evaluate dopamine D 2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cell populations of the anterior lobe and pars intermedia, as well as posterior lobe of the human normal pituitary gland by immunohistochemistry. Human normal pituitary gland samples obtained from routine autopsies were used for the study. In all cases, histology together with immunostaining for adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and neurofilaments were performed and compared to the immunostaining for D 2 receptor. D 2 receptor was heterogeneously expressed in the majority of the cell populations of the anterior and posterior lobe as well as in the area localized between the anterior and posterior lobe, and arbitrary defined as "intermediate zone". This zone, characterized by the presence of nerve fibers included the residual pars intermedia represented by the colloid-filled cysts lined by the remnant melanotroph cells strongly expressing D 2 receptors, and clusters of corticotroph cells, belonging to the anterior lobe but localized within the cysts and adjacent to the posterior lobe, variably expressing D 2 receptors. D 2 dopamine receptor is expressed in the majority of the cell populations of the human normal pituitary gland, and particularly, in the different corticotroph cell populations localized in the anterior lobe and the intermediate zone of the pituitary gland.

  16. NeuroD2 regulates the development of hippocampal mossy fiber synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilke Scott A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assembly of neural circuits requires the concerted action of both genetically determined and activity-dependent mechanisms. Calcium-regulated transcription may link these processes, but the influence of specific transcription factors on the differentiation of synapse-specific properties is poorly understood. Here we characterize the influence of NeuroD2, a calcium-dependent transcription factor, in regulating the structural and functional maturation of the hippocampal mossy fiber (MF synapse. Results Using NeuroD2 null mice and in vivo lentivirus-mediated gene knockdown, we demonstrate a critical role for NeuroD2 in the formation of CA3 dendritic spines receiving MF inputs. We also use electrophysiological recordings from CA3 neurons while stimulating MF axons to show that NeuroD2 regulates the differentiation of functional properties at the MF synapse. Finally, we find that NeuroD2 regulates PSD95 expression in hippocampal neurons and that PSD95 loss of function in vivo reproduces CA3 neuron spine defects observed in NeuroD2 null mice. Conclusion These experiments identify NeuroD2 as a key transcription factor that regulates the structural and functional differentiation of MF synapses in vivo.

  17. A peptide disrupting the D2R-DAT interaction protects against dopamine neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping; Liu, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Dopamine reuptake from extracellular space to cytosol leads to accumulation of dopamine, which triggers neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons. Previous studies have shown that both dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) are involved in dopamine neurotoxicity. However, blockade of either D2R or DAT causes side effects due to antagonism of other physiological functions of these two proteins. We previously found that DAT can form a protein complex with D2R and its cell surface expression is facilitated via D2R-DAT interaction, which regulates dopamine reuptake and intracellular dopamine levels. Here we found that an interfering peptide (DAT-S1) disrupting the D2R-DAT interaction protects neurons against dopamine neurotoxicity, and this effect is mediated by inhibiting DAT cell surface expression and inhibiting both caspase-3 and PARP-1 cleavage. This study demonstrates the role of the D2R-DAT complex in dopamine neurotoxicity and investigated the potential mechanisms, which might help better understand the mechanisms of dopamine neurotoxicity. The peptide may provide some insights to improve treatments for dopamine neurotoxicity and related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, as well as methamphetamine- and 3,4-methsylenedioxy methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Vitamin D(3) is more potent than vitamin D(2) in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P; Recker, Robert R; Grote, James; Horst, Ronald L; Armas, Laura A G

    2011-03-01

    Current unitage for the calciferols suggests that equimolar quantities of vitamins D(2) (D2) and D(3) (D3) are biologically equivalent. Published studies yield mixed results. The aim of the study was to compare the potencies of D2 and D3. The trial used a single-blind, randomized design in 33 healthy adults. Calciferols were dosed at 50,000 IU/wk for 12 wk. Principal outcome variables were area under the curve for incremental total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and change in calciferol content of sc fat. Incremental mean (sd) 25(OH)D area under the curve at 12 wk was 1366 ng · d/ml (516) for the D2-treated group and 2136 (606) for the D3 (P < 0.001). Mean (sd) steady-state 25(OH)D increments showed similar differences: 24 ng/ml for D2 (10.3) and 45 ng/ml (16.2) for D3 (P <0.001). Subcutaneous fat content of D2 rose by 50 μg/kg in the D2-treated group, and D3 content rose by 104 μg/kg in the D3-treated group. Total calciferol in fat rose by only 33 ng/kg in the D2-treated, whereas it rose by 104 μg/kg in the D3-treated group. Extrapolating to total body fat D3, storage amounted to just 17% of the administered dose. D3 is approximately 87% more potent in raising and maintaining serum 25(OH)D concentrations and produces 2- to 3-fold greater storage of vitamin D than does equimolar D2. For neither was there evidence of sequestration in fat, as had been postulated for doses in this range. Given its greater potency and lower cost, D3 should be the preferred treatment option when correcting vitamin D deficiency.

  19. Chronic exposure to dopamine agonists affects the integrity of striatal D2 receptors in Parkinson's patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Politis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the integrity and clinical relevance of striatal dopamine receptor type-2 (D2R availability in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. We studied 68 PD patients, spanning from early to advanced disease stages, and 12 healthy controls. All participants received one [11C]raclopride PET scan in an OFF medication condition for quantification of striatal D2R availability in vivo. Parametric images of [11C]raclopride non-displaceable binding potential were generated from the dynamic [11C]raclopride scans using implementation of the simplified reference tissue model with cerebellum as the reference tissue. PET data were interrogated for correlations with clinical data related to disease burden and dopaminergic treatment. PD patients showed a mean 16.7% decrease in caudate D2R and a mean 3.5% increase in putaminal D2R availability compared to healthy controls. Lower caudate [11C]raclopride BPND correlated with longer PD duration. PD patients on dopamine agonist treatment had 9.2% reduced D2R availability in the caudate and 12.8% in the putamen compared to PD patients who never received treatment with dopamine agonists. Higher amounts of lifetime dopamine agonist therapy correlated with reduced D2Rs availability in both caudate and putamen. No associations between striatal D2R availability and levodopa treatment and dyskinesias were found. In advancing PD the caudate and putamen D2R availability are differentially affected. Chronic exposure to treatment with dopamine agonists, but no levodopa, suppresses striatal D2R availability, which may have relevance to output signaling to frontal lobes and the occurrence of executive deficits, but not dyskinesias.

  20. Functional variants of the dopamine receptor D2 gene modulate prefronto-striatal phenotypes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Alessandro; Fazio, Leonardo; Caforio, Grazia; Blasi, Giuseppe; Rampino, Antonio; Romano, Raffaella; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Taurisano, Paolo; Papp, Audrey; Pinsonneault, Julia; Wang, Danxin; Nardini, Marcello; Popolizio, Teresa; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor signalling is strongly implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia. We have recently characterized the function of three DRD2 SNPs: rs12364283 in the promoter affecting total D2 mRNA expression; rs2283265 and rs1076560, respectively in introns 5 and 6, shifting mRNA splicing to two functionally distinct isoforms, the short form of D2 (D2S) and the long form (D2L). These two isoforms differentially contribute to dopamine signalling in prefrontal cortex and in striatum. We performed a case-control study to determine association of these variants and of their main haplotypes with several schizophrenia-related phenotypes. We demonstrate that the minor allele in the intronic variants is associated with reduced expression of %D2S of total mRNA in post-mortem prefrontal cortex, and with impaired working memory behavioural performance, both in patients and controls. However, the fMRI results show opposite effects in patients compared with controls: enhanced engagement of prefronto-striatal pathways in controls and reduced activity in patients. Moreover, the promoter variant is also associated with working memory activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum of patients, and less robustly with negative symptoms scores. Main haplotypes formed by the three DRD2 variants showed significant associations with these phenotypes consistent with those of the individual SNPs. Our results indicate that the three functional DRD2 variants modulate schizophrenia phenotypes possibly by modifying D2S/D2L ratios in the context of different total D2 density.

  1. Behavioral control by striatal adenosine A2A -dopamine D2 receptor heteromers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taura, J; Valle-León, M; Sahlholm, K; Watanabe, M; Van Craenenbroeck, K; Fernández-Dueñas, V; Ferré, S; Ciruela, F

    2018-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) exhibit the ability to form receptor complexes that include molecularly different GPCR (ie, GPCR heteromers), which endow them with singular functional and pharmacological characteristics. The relative expression of GPCR heteromers remains a matter of intense debate. Recent studies support that adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) and dopamine D 2 receptors (D 2 R) predominantly form A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers in the striatum. The aim of the present study was evaluating the behavioral effects of pharmacological manipulation and genetic blockade of A 2A R and D 2 R within the frame of such a predominant striatal heteromeric population. First, in order to avoid possible strain-related differences, a new D 2 R-deficient mouse with the same genetic background (CD-1) than the A 2A R knock-out mouse was generated. Locomotor activity, pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and drug-induced catalepsy were then evaluated in wild-type, A 2A R and D 2 R knock-out mice, with and without the concomitant administration of either the D 2 R agonist sumanirole or the A 2A R antagonist SCH442416. SCH442416-mediated locomotor effects were demonstrated to be dependent on D 2 R signaling. Similarly, a significant dependence on A 2A R signaling was observed for PPI and for haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The results could be explained by the existence of one main population of striatal postsynaptic A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers, which may constitute a relevant target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  2. Permeation of a H2 + HD + D2 gas mixture through a polymer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercea, P.; Cuna, S.; Kreibik, S.; Ursu, I.

    1990-01-01

    The selective permeation of a H 2 + HD + D 2 gas mixture through a polyethylene terephthalate membrane was studied at T 20 0 C. It was found that the permeation of the HD through the membrane leads to a smaller overall hydrogen-deuterium separation factor than that determined in the permeation experiments with pure H 2 and D 2 . On the other hand, a process of isotopic exchange between deuterium atoms from the penetrant gas stream and hydrogen atoms from the polymer membrane is assumed and discussed in order to explain temporal variations of the H 2 , HD and D 2 concentrations of the permanent gas stream. (author)

  3. Production of the excited charm mesons D1 and D*2 at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.

    2012-08-01

    The production of the excited charm mesons D 1 (2420) and D * 2 (2460) in ep collisions has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 373 pb -1 . The masses of the neutral and charged states, the widths of the neutral states, and the helicity parameter of D 1 (2420) 0 were determined and compared with other measurements and with theoretical expectations. The measured helicity parameter of the D 0 1 allows for some mixing of S- and D-waves in its decay to D *± π -+ . The result is also consistent with a pure D-wave decay. Ratios of branching fractions of the two decay modes of the D * 2 (2460) 0 and D * 2 (2460) ± states were measured and compared with previous measurements. The fractions of charm quarks hadronising into D 1 and D * 2 were measured and are consistent with those obtained in e + e - annihilations.

  4. Power Control for D2D Underlay Cellular Networks With Channel Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Memmi, Amen; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Device-to-device (D2D) communications underlying the cellular infrastructure are a technology that have been proposed recently as a promising solution to enhance cellular network capabilities. It improves spectrum utilization, overall throughput

  5. Estimated D2--DT--T2 phase diagram in the three-phase region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souers, P.C.; Hickman, R.G.; Tsugawa, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    A composite of experimental eH 2 -D 2 phase-diagram data at the three-phase line is assembled from the literature. The phase diagram is a smooth cigar shape without a eutectic point, indicating complete miscibility of liquid and solid phases. Additional data is used to estimate the D 2 -T 2 , D 2 DT, and DT-T 2 binary phase diagrams. These are assembled into the ternary D 2 -DT-T 2 phase diagram. A surface representing the chemical equilibrium of the three species is added to the phase diagram. At chemical equilibrium, it is estimated that 50-50 liquid D-T at 19.7 0 K is in equilibrium with 42 mole percent T vapor and 54 percent T solid. Infrared spectroscopy is suggested as a means of component analysis of liquid and solid mixtures

  6. Achieving energy efficiency in LTE with joint D2D communications and green networking techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the joint operation of cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green cellular communications is investigated. An efficient approach for grouping mobile terminals (MTs) into cooperative clusters is described. In each

  7. Dopamine D2 receptor radiotracers [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride are indistinguishably inhibited by D2 agonists and antagonists ex vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Patrick N. [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada)], E-mail: patrick.mccormick@camhpet.ca; Kapur, Shitij [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); PET Center, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Seeman, Philip [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan A. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); PET Center, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2008-01-15

    Introduction: In vitro, the dopamine D2 receptor exists in two states, with high and low affinity for agonists. The high-affinity state is the physiologically active state thought to be involved in dopaminergic illnesses such as schizophrenia. The positron emission tomography radiotracer [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO ([{sup 11}C](+)-4-propyl-3,4,4a,5,6,10b-hexahydro-2H-naphtho[1,2-b][1,4] oxazin-9-o l), being a D2 agonist, should selectively label the high-affinity state at tracer dose and therefore be more susceptible to competition by agonist as compared to the antagonist [{sup 3}H]raclopride, which binds to both affinity states. Methods: We tested this prediction using ex vivo dual-radiotracer experiments in conscious rats. D2 antagonists (haloperidol or clozapine), a partial agonist (aripiprazole), a full agonist [(-)-NPA] or the dopamine-releasing drug amphetamine (AMPH) were administered to rats prior to an intravenous coinjection of [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride. Rats were sacrificed 60 min after radiotracer injection. Striatum, cerebellum and plasma samples were counted for {sup 11}C and {sup 3}H. The specific binding ratio {l_brace}SBR, i.e., [%ID/g (striatum)-%ID/g (cerebellum)]/(%ID/g (cerebellum){r_brace} was used as the outcome measure. Results: In response to D2 antagonists, partial agonist or full agonist, [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride SBRs responded indistinguishably in terms of both ED{sub 50} and Hill slope (e.g., (-)-NPA ED{sub 50} values are 0.027 and 0.023 mg/kg for [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride, respectively). In response to AMPH challenge, [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride SBRs were inhibited to the same degree. Conclusions: We have shown that the SBRs of [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO- and [{sup 3}H]raclopride do not differ in their response to agonist challenge. These results do not support predictions of the in vivo binding behavior of a D2 agonist radiotracer and cast some doubt on the in vivo

  8. Dopamine D2 receptor radiotracers [11C](+)-PHNO and [3H]raclopride are indistinguishably inhibited by D2 agonists and antagonists ex vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, Patrick N.; Kapur, Shitij; Seeman, Philip; Wilson, Alan A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In vitro, the dopamine D2 receptor exists in two states, with high and low affinity for agonists. The high-affinity state is the physiologically active state thought to be involved in dopaminergic illnesses such as schizophrenia. The positron emission tomography radiotracer [ 11 C](+)-PHNO ([ 11 C](+)-4-propyl-3,4,4a,5,6,10b-hexahydro-2H-naphtho[1,2-b][1,4] oxazin-9-o l), being a D2 agonist, should selectively label the high-affinity state at tracer dose and therefore be more susceptible to competition by agonist as compared to the antagonist [ 3 H]raclopride, which binds to both affinity states. Methods: We tested this prediction using ex vivo dual-radiotracer experiments in conscious rats. D2 antagonists (haloperidol or clozapine), a partial agonist (aripiprazole), a full agonist [(-)-NPA] or the dopamine-releasing drug amphetamine (AMPH) were administered to rats prior to an intravenous coinjection of [ 11 C](+)-PHNO and [ 3 H]raclopride. Rats were sacrificed 60 min after radiotracer injection. Striatum, cerebellum and plasma samples were counted for 11 C and 3 H. The specific binding ratio {SBR, i.e., [%ID/g (striatum)-%ID/g (cerebellum)]/(%ID/g (cerebellum)} was used as the outcome measure. Results: In response to D2 antagonists, partial agonist or full agonist, [ 11 C](+)-PHNO and [ 3 H]raclopride SBRs responded indistinguishably in terms of both ED 50 and Hill slope (e.g., (-)-NPA ED 50 values are 0.027 and 0.023 mg/kg for [ 11 C](+)-PHNO and [ 3 H]raclopride, respectively). In response to AMPH challenge, [ 11 C](+)-PHNO and [ 3 H]raclopride SBRs were inhibited to the same degree. Conclusions: We have shown that the SBRs of [ 11 C](+)-PHNO- and [ 3 H]raclopride do not differ in their response to agonist challenge. These results do not support predictions of the in vivo binding behavior of a D2 agonist radiotracer and cast some doubt on the in vivo applicability of the D2 two-state model, as described by in vitro binding experiments

  9. Insulin, Central Dopamine D2 Receptors, and Monetary Reward Discounting in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Sarah A; Gredysa, Danuta M; Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann; Green, Leonard; Arbeláez, Ana Maria; Koller, Jonathan M; Black, Kevin J; Perlmutter, Joel S; Moerlein, Stephen M; Hershey, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Animal research finds that insulin regulates dopamine signaling and reward behavior, but similar research in humans is lacking. We investigated whether individual differences in body mass index, percent body fat, pancreatic β-cell function, and dopamine D2 receptor binding were related to reward discounting in obese and non-obese adult men and women. Obese (n = 27; body mass index>30) and non-obese (n = 20; body mass indexmonetary rewards relative to immediate, certain smaller monetary rewards was measured using delayed and probabilistic reward discounting tasks. Positron emission tomography using a non-displaceable D2-specific radioligand, [11C](N-methyl)benperidol quantified striatal D2 receptor binding. Groups differed in body mass index, percent body fat, and disposition index, but not in striatal D2 receptor specific binding or reward discounting. Higher percent body fat in non-obese women related to preference for a smaller, certain reward over a larger, less likely one (greater probabilistic discounting). Lower β-cell function in the total sample and lower insulin sensitivity in obese related to stronger preference for an immediate and smaller monetary reward over delayed receipt of a larger one (greater delay discounting). In obese adults, higher striatal D2 receptor binding related to greater delay discounting. Interestingly, striatal D2 receptor binding was not significantly related to body mass index, percent body fat, or β-cell function in either group. Our findings indicate that individual differences in percent body fat, β-cell function, and striatal D2 receptor binding may each contribute to altered reward discounting behavior in non-obese and obese individuals. These results raise interesting questions about whether and how striatal D2 receptor binding and metabolic factors, including β-cell function, interact to affect reward discounting in humans.

  10. Systemic blockade of D2-like dopamine receptors facilitates extinction of conditioned fear in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Nissim, Helen A.; Barad, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear in animals is the explicit model of behavior therapy for human anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Based on previous data indicating that fear extinction in rats is blocked by quinpirole, an agonist of dopamine D2 receptors, we hypothesized that blockade of D2 receptors might facilitate extinction in mice, while agonists should block extinction, as they do in rats. One day after fear con...

  11. Dopamine D2-Like Receptors and Behavioral Economics of Food Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Paul L; Hiranita, Takato; Xu, Ming; Hursh, Steven R; Grandy, David K; Katz, Jonathan L

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest dopamine (DA) D2-like receptor involvement in the reinforcing effects of food. To determine contributions of the three D2-like receptor subtypes, knockout (KO) mice completely lacking DA D2, D3, or D4 receptors (D2R, D3R, or D4R KO mice) and their wild-type (WT) littermates were exposed to a series of fixed-ratio (FR) food-reinforcement schedules in two contexts: an open economy with additional food provided outside the experimental setting and a closed economy with all food earned within the experimental setting. A behavioral economic model was used to quantify reinforcer effectiveness with food pellets obtained as a function of price (FR schedule value) plotted to assess elasticity of demand. Under both economies, as price increased, food pellets obtained decreased more rapidly (ie, food demand was more elastic) in DA D2R KO mice compared with WT littermates. Extinction of responding was studied in two contexts: by eliminating food deliveries and by delivering food independently of responding. A hyperbolic model quantified rates of extinction. Extinction in DA D2R KO mice occurred less rapidly compared with WT mice in both contexts. Elasticity of food demand was higher in DA D4R KO than WT mice in the open, but not closed, economy. Extinction of responding in DA D4R KO mice was not different from that in WT littermates in either context. No differences in elasticity of food demand or extinction rate were obtained in D3R KO mice and WT littermates. These results indicate that the D2R is the primary DA D2-like receptor subtype mediating the reinforcing effectiveness of food. PMID:26205210

  12. The Roles of Dopamine D2 Receptor in the Social Hierarchy of Rodents and Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Lee, Young-A.; Kato, Akemi; Jas, Emanuel; Goto, Yukiori

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays significant roles in regulation of social behavior. In social groups of humans and other animals, social hierarchy exists, which is determined by several behavioral characteristics such as aggression and impulsivity as well as social affiliations. In this study, we investigated the effects of pharmacological blockade of DA D2 receptor on social hierarchy of Japanese macaque and mouse social groups. We found acute administration of the D2 antagonist, sulpiride, in socially ...

  13. Evaluation of the recurrence pattern of gastric cancer after laparoscopic gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yuichiro; Satoh, Seiji; Umeki, Yusuke; Ishida, Yoshinori; Suda, Koichi; Uyama, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the oncological aspects of gastric cancer following laparoscopic gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy (LG-D2). We retrospectively evaluated the long-term outcomes of 354 patients who underwent LG-D2 for primary gastric cancer. Recurrence patterns and predictors of peritoneal metastasis were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 43.8 months. Five-year overall survival rates for yp/pStages I, II, and III gastric cancer were 93.7, 78.5, and 42.2 %, respectively. Recurrence was observed in 86 patients. Peritoneal metastasis was the most frequent recurrence pattern (n = 51), followed by hepatic metastasis (n = 17). Lymphatic recurrence at distant sites was observed in 10 patients. No locoregional lymph node metastasis or local recurrence was seen. Nine of 51 cases of peritoneal recurrence were detected by probe laparoscopy. Peritoneal recurrence rates were significantly higher in yp/pT4 and yp/pN3 diseases compared with yp/pT ≤ 3 and yp/pN ≤ 2 diseases. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that yp/pT4, yp/pN3, tumor size ≥70 mm, vascular invasion, and undifferentiated tumors were predictors of peritoneal recurrence following LG-D2. Long-term outcomes of gastric cancer following LG-D2, including recurrence patterns and predictors of peritoneal metastasis, were comparable to those following open D2 gastrectomy. LG-D2 showed good local control. Probe laparoscopy after LG may be effective in detecting peritoneal recurrence, which is not determined with less invasive examinations, including a CT scan. Future large-scale prospective studies are desirable to evaluate not only surgical but also oncological benefits and safety of LG-D2 for advanced gastric cancer.

  14. Aberrant dopamine D2-like receptor function in a rodent model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Stephanie M; Lodge, Daniel J

    2012-11-01

    Based on the observation that antipsychotic medications display antagonist properties at dopamine D2-like receptors, aberrant dopamine signaling has been proposed to underlie psychosis in patients with schizophrenia. Thus, it is not surprising that considerable research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms involved in the antipsychotic action of these compounds. It is important to note that the majority of these studies have been performed in "normal" experimental animals. Given that these animals do not possess the aberrant neuronal information processing typically associated with schizophrenia, the aim of the current study was to examine the dopamine D2 receptor system in a rodent model of schizophrenia. Here, we demonstrate that methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-treated rats display an enhanced effect of quinpirole on dopamine neuron activity and an aberrant locomotor response to D2-like receptor activation, suggesting changes in postsynaptic D2-like receptor function. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the enhanced response to D2-like ligands in MAM-treated rats, we examined the expression of D2, D3, and dopamine transporter mRNA in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. MAM-treated rats displayed a significant increase in dopamine D3 receptor mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens with no significant changes in the expression of the D2 receptor. Taken together, these data demonstrate robust alterations in dopamine D2-like receptor function in a rodent model of schizophrenia and provide evidence that preclinical studies examining the mechanisms of antipsychotic drug action should be performed in animal models that mirror aspects of the abnormal neuronal transmission thought to underlie symptoms of schizophrenia.

  15. Allosteric mechanisms within the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Sergi; Bonaventura, Jordi; Tomasi, Dardo; Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefanía; Cortés, Antonio; Lluís, Carme; Casadó, Vicent; Volkow, Nora D.

    2017-01-01

    The structure constituted by a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) homodimer and a G protein provides a main functional unit and oligomeric entities can be viewed as multiples of dimers. For GPCR heteromers, experimental evidence supports a tetrameric structure, comprised of two different homodimers, each able to signal with its preferred G protein. GPCR homomers and heteromers can act as the conduit of allosteric interactions between orthosteric ligands. The well-known agonist/agonist allosteric interaction in the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer, by which A2AR agonists decrease the affinity of D2R agonists, gave the first rationale for the use of A2AR antagonists in Parkinson’s disease. We review new pharmacological findings that can be explained in the frame of a tetrameric structure of the A2AR-D2R heteromer: first, ligand-independent allosteric modulations by the D2R that result in changes of the binding properties of A2AR ligands; second, differential modulation of the intrinsic efficacy of D2R ligands for G protein-dependent and independent signaling; third, the canonical antagonistic Gs-Gi interaction within the frame of the heteromer; and fourth, the ability of A2AR antagonists, including caffeine, to also exert the same allosteric modulations of D2R ligands than A2AR agonists, while A2AR agonists and antagonists counteract each other’s effects. These findings can have important clinical implications when evaluating the use of A2AR antagonists. They also call for the need of monitoring caffeine intake when evaluating the effect of D2R ligands, when used as therapeutic agents in neuropsychiatric disorders or as probes in imaging studies. PMID:26051403

  16. Safety-Evaluation Report related to the D2/D3 steam-generator design modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) related to the D2/D3 steam generator design modification has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this SER is to issue the staff's evaluation of the acceptability of the design modification for both installation and full-power operation in the D2/D3 steam generators based on the Design Review Panel Report of January 1983

  17. BRST quantization, IOSp(D,2vertical stroke2) invariance and the PCT theorem. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, E.; Reuter, M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the IOSp(D,2vertical stroke2) extension of the Poincare group in the BRST quantization of the spinning particle. We construct the corresponding field theory and prove its dimensional reduction a la Parisi-Sourlas. As for the scalar particle, we show that the PCT transformation is induced by a certain element of the SO(D,2) subgroup of the IOSp(D,2vertical stroke2). This gives us the tools for a simple interpretation of the PCT theorem for Dirac fields. We then continue by clarifying the role of the 'modular' transformation (i.e. world-line orientation-reversing diffeomorphism) and indicating how the PCT transformation could be regarded as a modular transformation in a 'SO(D,2)-rotated' frame. In this work we also consider BRST field theories leading to D-dimensional chiral theories. In this case, of the full IOSp(D,2vertical stroke2) symmetry, only the subgroup IO(D-1,1)xOSp(1,1vertical stroke2) survives together with the (isolated) SO(D,2) transformation that implements PCT. (orig.)

  18. Time-differential observation of the ortho-para conversion of liquid D2 under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Utsuro, M.; Nagai, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Kohmoto, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Ooi, M.

    2007-01-01

    We measured an absolute ortho-D 2 concentration of gas samples taken from irradiated liquid D 2 samples as a function of the integrated radiation dose and the irradiation time by means of a frequency-resolved Raman spectroscopy to study the ortho-D 2 conversion mechanism under irradiation. The measurement was carried out by irradiating liquid ortho-D 2 at a temperature of 25 K with Bremsstrahlung photons, which were produced by bombarding tantalum with 33 MeV electrons, and whose absolute fluxes were determined experimentally by employing a foil activation method. The obtained ortho-D 2 concentration was found to decrease from 98% to 82% monotonically with increasing the radiation dose, irrespective of the electron-beam power. This fact clearly indicates the important role of a radiation-induced breakup effect of the ortho D 2 under the present experimental conditions of radiation dose and irradiation time. The obtained conversion rate is ten times faster than the evaluated value based on an existing model, requiring an alternate mechanism to enhance the conversion

  19. Characterization of D2 tool steel friction surfaced coatings over low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharbabu, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Rao, K. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid state coating by friction surfacing method. • D2 tool steel is coated over relatively softer low carbon steel. • Defect free interface between tool steel coating and low carbon steel substrate. • D2 coatings exhibited higher hardness and good wear resistance. • Highly refined martensitic microstructure in the coating. - Abstract: In this work D2 tool steel coating is produced over a low carbon steel substrate using friction surfacing process. The process parameters are optimized to get a defect free coating. Microstructural characterization is carried out using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Infrared thermography is used to measure the thermal profile during friction surfacing of D2 steel. Wear performance of the coating is studied using Pin-on-Disk wear tests. A lower rotational speed of the consumable rod and higher translational speed of the substrate is found to result in thinner coatings. Friction surfaced D2 steel coating showed fine-grained martensitic microstructure compared to the as-received consumable rod which showed predominantly ferrite microstructure. Refinement of carbides in the coating is observed due to the stirring action of the process. The infrared thermography studies showed the peak temperature attained by the D2 coating to be about 1200 °C. The combined effect of martensitic microstructure and refined carbides resulted in higher hardness and wear resistance of the coating

  20. D2-Thr92Ala, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopciuc, Lucia Maria; Caracostea, Gabriela; Hazi, Georgeta; Nemeti, Georgiana; Stamatian, Florin

    2017-02-01

    To identify if there is a relationship between the deiodinase D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia. We genotyped 125 women with preeclampsia and 131 normal pregnant women using PCR-RFLP. Serum thyroid hormone levels were determined using ELISA. Our study showed higher TSH and FT4 levels and lower FT3 levels in women with preeclampsia compared to normal pregnant women, with statistical significance for women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The risk to develop pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), mild or severe preeclampsia was increased in carriers of at least one D2-Ala92 allele. TSH and FT4 levels were significantly higher and FT3 levels were significantly lower in preeclamptic women with severe preeclampsia if they carried the D2-Ala92 allele compared to non-carriers. Pregnant women with PIH and mild preeclampsia, carriers of at least one D2-Ala92 allele, delivered at lower gestational age neonates with a lower birth weight compared to non-carriers, but the results were statistically significant only in severe preeclampsia. The D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant is associated with the severity and the obstetric outcome of preeclampsia, and it also influences thyroid hormone levels. The study demonstrates non-thyroidal biochemical hypothyroidism - as a result of deiodination effects due to D2 genotypes.

  1. Phasic dopamine release drives rapid activation of striatal D2-receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, Pamela F; Mamaligas, Aphroditi A; Ford, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Summary Striatal dopamine transmission underlies numerous goal-directed behaviors. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are a major target of dopamine in the striatum. However, as dopamine does not directly evoke a synaptic event in MSNs, the time course of dopamine signaling in these cells remains unclear. To examine how dopamine release activates D2-receptors on MSNs, G-protein activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK2; Kir 3.2) channels were virally overexpressed in the striatum and the resulting outward currents were used as a sensor of D2-receptor activation. Electrical and optogenetic stimulation of dopamine terminals evoked robust D2-receptor inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in GIRK2-expressing MSNs that occurred in under a second. Evoked D2-IPSCs could be driven by repetitive stimulation and were not occluded by background dopamine tone. Together, the results indicate that D2-receptors on MSNs exhibit functional low affinity and suggest that striatal D2-receptors can encode both tonic and phasic dopamine signals. PMID:25242218

  2. Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with receptor-binding characteristics in alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, E.P.; Blum, K.; Ritchie, T.; Montgomery, A.; Sheridan, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The allelic association of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene with the binding characteristics of the D2 dopamine receptor was determined in 66 brains of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects. In a blinded experiment, DNA from the cerebral cortex was treated with the restriction endonuclease Taql and probed with a 1.5-kilobase (kb) digest of a clone (lambda hD2G1) of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene. The binding characteristics (Kd [binding affinity] and Bmax [number of binding sites]) of the D2 dopamine receptor were determined in the caudate nuclei of these brains using tritiated spiperone as the ligand. The adjusted Kd was significantly lower in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic subjects. In subjects with the A1 allele, in whom a high association with alcoholism was found, the Bmax was significantly reduced compared with the Bmax of subjects with the A2 allele. Moreover, a progressively reduced Bmax was found in subjects with A2/A2, A1/A2, and A1/A1 alleles, with subjects with A2/A2 having the highest mean values, and subjects with A1/A1, the lowest. The polymorphic pattern of the D2 dopamine receptor gene and its differential expression of receptors suggests the involvement of the dopaminergic system in conferring susceptibility to at least one subtype of severe alcoholism

  3. Effects of dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonism on human planning and spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, M; Müller, U; Linssen, A; Clark, L; Robbins, T W; Eisenegger, C

    2017-04-25

    Psychopharmacological studies in humans suggest important roles for dopamine (DA) D2 receptors in human executive functions, such as cognitive planning and spatial working memory (SWM). However, studies that investigate an impairment of such functions using the selective DA D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride have yielded inconsistent results, perhaps because relatively low doses were used. We believe we report for the first time, the effects of a higher (800 mg p.o.) single dose of sulpiride as well as of genetic variation in the DA receptor D2 gene (DA receptor D2 Taq1A polymorphism), on planning and working memory. With 78 healthy male volunteers, we apply a between-groups, placebo-controlled design. We measure outcomes in the difficult versions of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery One-Touch Stockings of Cambridge and the self-ordered SWM task. Volunteers in the sulpiride group showed significant impairments in planning accuracy and, for the more difficult problems, in SWM. Sulpiride administration speeded response latencies in the planning task on the most difficult problems. Volunteers with at least one copy of the minor allele (A1+) of the DA receptor D2 Taq1A polymorphism showed better SWM capacity, regardless of whether they received sulpiride or placebo. There were no effects on blood pressure, heart rate or subjective sedation. In sum, a higher single dose of sulpiride impairs SWM and executive planning functions, in a manner independent of the DA receptor D2 Taq1A polymorphism.

  4. Modeling Cellular Networks with Full Duplex D2D Communication: A Stochastic Geometry Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2016-08-24

    Full-duplex (FD) communication is optimistically promoted to double the spectral efficiency if sufficient self-interference cancellation (SIC) is achieved. However, this is not true when deploying FD-communication in a large-scale setup due to the induced mutual interference. Therefore, a large-scale study is necessary to draw legitimate conclusions about gains associated with FD-communication. This paper studies the FD operation for underlay device-to-device (D2D) communication sharing the uplink resources in cellular networks. We propose a disjoint fine-tuned selection criterion for the D2D and FD modes of operation. Then, we develop a tractable analytical paradigm, based on stochastic geometry, to calculate the outage probability and rate for cellular and D2D users. The results reveal that even in the case of perfect SIC, due to the increased interference injected to the network by FD-D2D communication, having all proximity UEs transmit in FD-D2D is not beneficial for the network. However, if the system parameters are carefully tuned, non-trivial network spectral-efficiency gains (64% shown) can be harvested. We also investigate the effects of imperfect SIC and D2D-link distance distribution on the harvested FD gains.

  5. The effect of D2 agonist versus D2 antagonist on the fear behavior in the male rats using plus-maze method: the prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabzehkhah S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dopaminergic is the most important neurotransmitter is fear. The dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway has essential role in excitable behavior, and it's role in Parkinson disease. The aim of this research in study, the effect of dopaminergic pathway in fear response. "n"nMethods: The elevated plus maze was used in combination with the percentage of time spent in the open arms of the maze (OAT% and the percentage of entries into the open arms (OAE% to measure fear. Increases in the OAT% and OAE% indicate an anxiolytic effect (reduction in anxiety, whereas decreases in the OAE% and OAT% indicate an anxiogenic effect. After five days, the rats were injected with saline and different doses of sulpiride and Bromocriptine."n"nResults: Results showed that intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride, in the doses of 5, 20μg/rat and bromocriptine, D2 agonist in doses 65, 95μg/rat produced a significant effect comparing to sham groups (p<0.05. While intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride 15, 10μg/rat, and bromocriptine 70, 80μg/rat, did not show any significant effect comparing with sham group (p<0.05. In the current research intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride, D2 antagonist at the doses of 5, 10, 15, 20μg/rat and Bromocriptine, D2 agonist in the doses of 65, 70, 80, 95μg/rat were used and theire effect on the fear behavior were studied. "n"nConclusions: The possible effect of Dopaminergic system in the fear process, especially D2 receptor increase fear.

  6. SiteChar. Characterisation of European CO2 storage. Deliverable 8.4. Quantitative social site characterisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Mastop, E.A. [ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaiser, M.; Zimmer, R. [Unabhaengiges Institut fuer Umweltfragen UfU, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    This report describes the results of the last stage of the in-depth social site characterisation activities at two prospective CCS sites as part of the SiteChar project: a CCS onshore site and a CCS offshore site. The onshore site is the Zalecze and Zuchlow site application (Poland - WP5) and the offshore site is the North Sea Moray Firth site (UK - WP3). This deliverable describes the results from a repeated quantitative measurement of local awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of CCS at both sites using representative surveys. For comparison and discussion of all SiteChar WP8 results we refer to the final summary report D8.5. The 2nd survey showed some interesting results. First of all, awareness of CCS was still very low. While in the UK around half of the respondents had at least heard of local plans for CCS, in Poland this was only 21%. It seems that awareness in the UK was mostly induced by specific plans in the area that were abandoned in the course of the SiteChar project. Second, it seems that on the whole the local publics were rather positive about CCS. Most respondents expected a positive impact of CCS on the region. In the UK, arguments for that were mainly economic, while in Poland arguments were mainly related to environmental concerns. Although there are some worries about risks of leakage, especially at the onshore site in Poland, people think that authorities will properly regulate CCS and monitor the safety of CCS. Expectations were mostly that it would be good for the country and that it will help reach international targets for CO2 reduction and buy time to develop renewable energy. Respondents seemed uncertain about the costs of using CCS and whether the technique is ready for widespread use. Especially in Poland people seemed to agree that CCS is essential for tackling climate change. Most differences between the two sites may be attributed to the proximity of the site to the local community. The Polish site is onshore and therefore much

  7. Detection of phasic dopamine by D1 and D2 striatal medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapo, Cedric; Nair, Anu G; Clement, Lorna; Castro, Liliana R; Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette; Vincent, Pierre

    2017-12-15

    Brief dopamine events are critical actors of reward-mediated learning in the striatum; the intracellular cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) response of striatal medium spiny neurons to such events was studied dynamically using a combination of biosensor imaging in mouse brain slices and in silico simulations. Both D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons can sense brief dopamine transients in the sub-micromolar range. While dopamine transients profoundly change cAMP levels in both types of medium spiny neurons, the PKA-dependent phosphorylation level remains unaffected in D2 neurons. At the level of PKA-dependent phosphorylation, D2 unresponsiveness depends on protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibition by DARPP-32. Simulations suggest that D2 medium spiny neurons could detect transient dips in dopamine level. The phasic release of dopamine in the striatum determines various aspects of reward and action selection, but the dynamics of the dopamine effect on intracellular signalling remains poorly understood. We used genetically encoded FRET biosensors in striatal brain slices to quantify the effect of transient dopamine on cAMP or PKA-dependent phosphorylation levels, and computational modelling to further explore the dynamics of this signalling pathway. Medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which express either D 1 or D 2 dopamine receptors, responded to dopamine by an increase or a decrease in cAMP, respectively. Transient dopamine showed similar sub-micromolar efficacies on cAMP in both D1 and D2 MSNs, thus challenging the commonly accepted notion that dopamine efficacy is much higher on D 2 than on D 1 receptors. However, in D2 MSNs, the large decrease in cAMP level triggered by transient dopamine did not translate to a decrease in PKA-dependent phosphorylation level, owing to the efficient inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 by DARPP-32. Simulations further suggested that D2 MSNs can also operate in a 'tone-sensing' mode, allowing them to detect transient dips in basal dopamine

  8. Total scattering cross-sections for the systems nH2 + nH2, pH2 + pH2, nD2 + nD2, oD2 + oD2 and HD + HD for relative energies below ten milli-electron volts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Relative total scattering cross sections for nH 2 + nH 2 , pH 2 + pH 2 , nD 2 + nD 2 , oD 2 + oD 2 , and HD + HD were measured with inclined nozzle beams derived from nozzle sources and intersecting at 21 0 . Both nozzles could be varied in temperature from 4.2K to 300K to provide the velocity range for the cross sections. The use of a parahydrogen converter allowed the measurement of the pH 2 + pH 2 and oD 2 + oD 2 cross sections. Cross sections for the H 2 + H 2 were measured over a relative velocity range of 200 m/s to 1450 m/s. The nH 2 + nH 2 results show an undulation in the velocity range between 350 m/s and 400 m/s that corresponds to a l = 3 orbiting resonance. Analysis of the pH 2 + pH 2 cross section indicates a l = 4 orbiting resonance near 586 m/s. This resonance has a peak energy of 1.79 meV and a measured energy width of 1.05 meV, both which agree well with theoretical predictions. The D 2 + D 2 cross sections have been measured in the velocity range between 190 m/s and 1000 m/s. No orbiting resonances have been observed, but in the oD 2 + oD 2 cross section a deep minimum between the l = 4 and the l = 5 resonances at low velocities is clearly suggested. Initial measurements of the HD + HD cross section suggests the presence of the l = 4 orbiting resonance near a relative velocity of 300 m/s. The experimental results for each system were normalized to the total cross sections, which were convoluted to account for experimental velocity and angular dispersions. Three different potentials were considered, but a chi-square fit of the data indicates that the Schaefer and Meyer potential, which has been theoretically obtained from first principles, provides the best overall description of the hydrogen systems in the low collisional energy range

  9. Intermolecular potential and rovibrational states of the H2O–D2 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avoird, Ad van der; Scribano, Yohann; Faure, Alexandre; Weida, Miles J.; Fair, Joanna R.; Nesbitt, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: H 2 O–D 2 potential surface and pH 2 O–oD 2 ground state wave function, for planar geometries. Highlights: ► The interaction between H 2 O and H 2 is of great astrophysical interest. ► The rovibrational states of H 2 O–D 2 were computed on an ab initio potential surface. ► Results are compared with the rovibrational states of H 2 O–H 2 computed recently. ► We measured the high-resolution infrared spectrum of H 2 O–D 2 in the H 2 O bend region. ► Comparison with the calculations provides information on H 2 O–H 2 potential surface. - Abstract: A five-dimensional intermolecular potential for H 2 O–D 2 was obtained from the full nine-dimensional ab initio potential surface of Valiron et al. [P. Valiron, M. Wernli, A. Faure, L. Wiesenfeld, C. Rist, S. Kedžuch, J. Noga, J. Chem. Phys. 129 (2008) 134306] by averaging over the ground state vibrational wave functions of H 2 O and D 2 . On this five-dimensional potential with a well depth D e of 232.12 cm −1 we calculated the bound rovibrational levels of H 2 O–D 2 for total angular momentum J = 0–3. The method used to compute the rovibrational levels is similar to a scattering approach—it involves a basis of coupled free rotor wave functions for the hindered internal rotations and the overall rotation of the dimer—while it uses a discrete variable representation of the intermolecular distance coordinate R. The basis was adapted to the permutation symmetry associated with the para/ortho (p/o) nature of both H 2 O and D 2 , as well as to inversion symmetry. As expected, the H 2 O–D 2 dimer is more strongly bound than its H 2 O–H 2 isotopologue [cf. A. van der Avoird, D.J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 134 (2011) 044314], with dissociation energies D 0 of 46.10, 50.59, 67.43, and 73.53 cm −1 for pH 2 O–oD 2 , oH 2 O–oD 2 , pH 2 O–pD 2 , and oH 2 O–pD 2 . A rotationally resolved infrared spectrum of H 2 O–D 2 was measured in the frequency region of the H 2 O bend

  10. Solar polarimetry in the K I D2 line : A novel possibility for a stratospheric balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Villanueva, G. L.; Katsukawa, Y.; Solanki, S. K.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; Shimizu, T.; Oba, T.; Kubo, M.; Anan, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Suematsu, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Of the two solar lines, K I D1 and D2, almost all attention so far has been devoted to the D1 line, as D2 is severely affected by an O2 atmospheric band. This, however, makes the latter appealing for balloon and space observations from above (most of) the Earth's atmosphere. We estimate the residual effect of the O2 band on the K I D2 line at altitudes typical for stratospheric balloons. Our aim is to study the feasibility of observing the 770 nm window. Specifically, this paper serves as a preparation for the third flight of the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory. The results indicate that the absorption by O2 is still present, albeit much weaker, at the expected balloon altitude. We applied the obtained O2 transmittance to K I D2 synthetic polarimetric spectra and found that in the absence of line-of-sight motions, the residual O2 has a negligible effect on the K I D2 line. On the other hand, for Doppler-shifted K I D2 data, the residual O2 might alter the shape of the Stokes profiles. However, the residual O2 absorption is sufficiently weak at stratospheric levels that it can be divided out if appropriate measurements are made, something that is impossible at ground level. Therefore, for the first time with Sunrise III, we will be able to perform polarimetric observations of the K I D2 line and, consequently, we will have improved access to the thermodynamics and magnetic properties of the upper photosphere from observations of the K I lines.

  11. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow N. D.; Fowler J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi F.

    2012-03-23

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([{sup 11}C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [{sup 11}C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  12. Review article: clinical implications of enteric and central D2 receptor blockade by antidopaminergic gastrointestinal prokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, M; Cipollina, L; Poluzzi, E; Crema, F; Corazza, G R; De Ponti, F

    2004-02-15

    Antidopaminergic gastrointestinal prokinetics (bromopride, clebopride, domperidone, levosulpiride and metoclopramide) have been exploited clinically for the management of motor disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including functional dyspepsia, gastric stasis of various origins and emesis. The prokinetic effect of these drugs is mediated through the blockade of enteric (neuronal and muscular) inhibitory D2 receptors. The pharmacological profiles of the marketed compounds differ in terms of their molecular structure, affinity at D2 receptors, ability to interact with other receptor systems [5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) and 5-HT4 receptors for metoclopramide; 5-HT4 receptors for levosulpiride) and ability to permeate the blood-brain barrier (compared with the other compounds, domperidone does not easily cross the barrier). It has been suggested that the serotonergic (5-HT4) component of some antidopaminergic prokinetics may enhance their therapeutic efficacy in gastrointestinal disorders, such as functional dyspepsia and diabetic gastroparesis. The antagonism of central D2 receptors may lead to both therapeutic (e.g. anti-emetic effect due to D2 receptor blockade in the area postrema) and adverse (including hyperprolactinaemia and extrapyramidal dystonic reactions) effects. As the pituitary (as well as the area postrema) is outside the blood-brain barrier, hyperprolactinaemia is a side-effect occurring with all antidopaminergic prokinetics, although to different extents. Extrapyramidal reactions are most commonly observed with compounds crossing the blood-brain barrier, although with some differences amongst the various agents. Prokinetics with a high dissociation constant compared with that of dopamine at the D2 receptor (i.e. compounds that bind loosely to D2 receptors in the nigrostriatal pathway) elicit fewer extrapyramidal signs and symptoms. A knowledge of central and peripheral D2 receptor pharmacology can help the clinician to choose between the

  13. Dopamine inhibits somatolactin gene expression in tilapia pituitary cells through the dopamine D2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Lian, Anji; He, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and possesses key hypophysiotropic functions. Early studies have shown that DA has a potent inhibitory effect on somatolactin (SL) release in fish. However, the mechanisms responsible for DA inhibition of SL gene expression are largely unknown. To this end, tilapia DA type-1 (D1) and type-2 (D2) receptor transcripts were examined in the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the tilapia pituitary by real-time PCR. In tilapia, DA not only was effective in inhibiting SL mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, but also could abolish pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)- and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH)-stimulated SL gene expression at the pituitary level. In parallel studies, the specific D2 receptor agonists quinpirole and bromocriptine could mimic the DA-inhibited SL gene expression. Furthermore, the D2 receptor antagonists domperidone and (-)-sulpiride could abolish the SL response to DA or the D2 agonist quinpirole, whereas D1 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and SKF83566 were not effective in this respect. In primary cultures of tilapia NIL cells, D2 agonist quinpirole-inhibited cAMP production could be blocked by co-treatment with the D2 antagonist domperidone and the ability of forskolin to increase cAMP production was also inhibited by quinpirole. Using a pharmacological approach, the AC/cAMP pathway was shown to be involved in quinpirole-inhibited SL mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that DA can directly inhibit SL gene expression at the tilapia pituitary level via D2 receptor through the AC/cAMP-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [ 11 C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([ 11 C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [ 11 C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  15. Dataset on the effects of CYB5D2 on the distribution of HeLa cervical cancer cell cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyun Xie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have recently reported that CYB5D2 plays a role in suppression of cervical cancer tumorigenesis, “CYB5D2 displays tumor suppression activities towards cervical cancer” [1]. We provide the accompany data here describing the effects of CYB5D2 overexpression and addition of recombinant CYB5D2 on HeLa cell cycle distribution. Furthermore, we will present the conditions used to specifically determine CYB5D2 expression in primary cervical and cervical cancer tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC and the patient cohort involved in assessing the CYB5D2 protein levels in primary cervical and cervical cancer tissues.

  16. Cyclin D2 is a critical mediator of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, Stephen W; Haines, Chris D; Konhilas, John P; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Messmer-Kratzsch, Antke; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2017-12-01

    A number of signaling pathways underlying pathological cardiac hypertrophy have been identified. However, few studies have probed the functional significance of these signaling pathways in the context of exercise or physiological pathways. Exercise studies were performed on females from six different genetic mouse models that have been shown to exhibit alterations in pathological cardiac adaptation and hypertrophy. These include mice expressing constitutively active glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3βS9A), an inhibitor of CaMK II (AC3-I), both GSK-3βS9A and AC3-I (GSK-3βS9A/AC3-I), constitutively active Akt (myrAkt), mice deficient in MAPK/ERK kinase kinase-1 (MEKK1 -/- ), and mice deficient in cyclin D2 (cyclin D2 -/- ). Voluntary wheel running performance was similar to NTG littermates for five of the mouse lines. Exercise induced significant cardiac growth in all mouse models except the cyclin D2 -/- mice. Cardiac function was not impacted in the cyclin D2 -/- mice and studies using a phospho-antibody array identified six proteins with increased phosphorylation (greater than 150%) and nine proteins with decreased phosphorylation (greater than 33% decrease) in the hearts of exercised cyclin D2 -/- mice compared to exercised NTG littermate controls. Our results demonstrate that unlike the other hypertrophic signaling molecules tested here, cyclin D2 is an important regulator of both pathologic and physiological hypertrophy. Impact statement This research is relevant as the hypertrophic signaling pathways tested here have only been characterized for their role in pathological hypertrophy, and not in the context of exercise or physiological hypertrophy. By using the same transgenic mouse lines utilized in previous studies, our findings provide a novel and important understanding for the role of these signaling pathways in physiological hypertrophy. We found that alterations in the signaling pathways tested here had no impact on exercise performance. Exercise

  17. Age-dependent kinetics of dentate gyrus neurogenesis in the absence of cyclin D2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansorg Anne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult neurogenesis continuously adds new neurons to the dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb. It involves the proliferation and subsequent differentiation of neuronal progenitors, and is thus closely linked to the cell cycle machinery. Cell cycle progression is governed by the successive expression, activation and degradation of regulatory proteins. Among them, D-type cyclins control the exit from the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Cyclin D2 (cD2 has been shown to be required for the generation of new neurons in the neurogenic niches of the adult brain. It is differentially expressed during hippocampal development, and adult cD2 knock out (cD2KO mice virtually lack neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb. In the present study we examined the dynamics of postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG of cD2KO mice. Animals were injected with bromodeoxyuridine at seven time points during the first 10 months of life and brains were immunohistochemically analyzed for their potential to generate new neurons. Results Compared to their WT litters, cD2KO mice had considerably reduced numbers of newly born granule cells during the postnatal period, with neurogenesis becoming virtually absent around postnatal day 28. This was paralleled by a reduction in granule cell numbers, in the volume of the granule cell layer as well as in apoptotic cell death. CD2KO mice did not show any of the age-related changes in neurogenesis and granule cell numbers that were seen in WT litters. Conclusions The present study suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis becomes increasingly dependent on cD2 during early postnatal development. In cD2KO mice, hippocampal neurogenesis ceases at a time point at which the tertiary germinative matrix stops proliferating, indicating that cD2 becomes an essential requirement for ongoing neurogenesis with the transition from developmental to adult neurogenesis. Our data further support the notion that

  18. Recording Cultural Heritage Using Terrestrial Laserscanning - Dealing with the System, the Huge Datasets they Create and Ways to Extract the Necessary Deliverables you can Work with

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofori, E.; Bierwagen, J.

    2013-07-01

    Recording Cultural Heritage objects using terrestrial laserscanning becomes more and more popular over the last years. Since terrestrial Laserscanning System (TLS) Manufacturers have strongly increased the amount and speed of data captured with a single scan at each system upgrade and cutting down system costs the use of TLS Systems for recording cultural heritage is an option for recording worth to think about beside traditional methods like Photogrammetric. TLS Systems can be a great tool for capturing complex cultural heritage object within a short amount of time beside the traditional methods but can be a nightmare to handle for further process if not used right while capturing. Furthermore TLS Systems still have to be recognized as survey equipment, even though some of the manufactures promote them as everyday tool. They have to be used in an intelligent way having in mind the clients and the individual cultural objects needs. Thus the efficient way to use TLS Systems for data recording becomes a relevant topic to deal with the huge Amount of data the Systems collect while recording. Already small projects can turn into huge Pointcloud Datasets that End user, like Architects or Archaeologist neither can't deal with as their technical equipment doesn't fit the requirements of the Dataset nor do they have the software tools to use the Data as the current software tools still are high prized. Even the necessary interpretation of the Dataset can be a tough task if the people who have to work on with the Pointcloud aren't educated right in order to understand TLS and the results it creates. The use of TLS Systems has to have in mind the project requirements of the individual Heritage Object, like the required accuracy, standards for Levels of Details (e.g. "Empfehlungen für die Baudokumentation, Günther Eckstein, Germany"), the required kind of Deliverables (Visualization, 2D Drawings, True Deformation Drawings, 3D Models, BIM or 4D - Animations) as well as the

  19. RECORDING CULTURAL HERITAGE USING TERRESTRIAL LASERSCANNING – DEALING WITH THE SYSTEM, THE HUGE DATASETS THEY CREATE AND WAYS TO EXTRACT THE NECESSARY DELIVERABLES YOU CAN WORK WITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Christofori

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recording Cultural Heritage objects using terrestrial laserscanning becomes more and more popular over the last years. Since terrestrial Laserscanning System (TLS Manufacturers have strongly increased the amount and speed of data captured with a single scan at each system upgrade and cutting down system costs the use of TLS Systems for recording cultural heritage is an option for recording worth to think about beside traditional methods like Photogrammetric. TLS Systems can be a great tool for capturing complex cultural heritage object within a short amount of time beside the traditional methods but can be a nightmare to handle for further process if not used right while capturing. Furthermore TLS Systems still have to be recognized as survey equipment, even though some of the manufactures promote them as everyday tool. They have to be used in an intelligent way having in mind the clients and the individual cultural objects needs. Thus the efficient way to use TLS Systems for data recording becomes a relevant topic to deal with the huge Amount of data the Systems collect while recording. Already small projects can turn into huge Pointcloud Datasets that End user, like Architects or Archaeologist neither can't deal with as their technical equipment doesn't fit the requirements of the Dataset nor do they have the software tools to use the Data as the current software tools still are high prized. Even the necessary interpretation of the Dataset can be a tough task if the people who have to work on with the Pointcloud aren't educated right in order to understand TLS and the results it creates. The use of TLS Systems has to have in mind the project requirements of the individual Heritage Object, like the required accuracy, standards for Levels of Details (e.g. "Empfehlungen für die Baudokumentation, Günther Eckstein, Germany", the required kind of Deliverables (Visualization, 2D Drawings, True Deformation Drawings, 3D Models, BIM or 4D

  20. Evaluation of dose prediction errors and optimization convergence errors of deliverable-based head-and-neck IMRT plans computed with a superposition/convolution dose algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaylov, I. B.; Siebers, J. V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dose prediction errors (DPEs) and optimization convergence errors (OCEs) resulting from use of a superposition/convolution dose calculation algorithm in deliverable intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization for head-and-neck (HN) patients. Thirteen HN IMRT patient plans were retrospectively reoptimized. The IMRT optimization was performed in three sequential steps: (1) fast optimization in which an initial nondeliverable IMRT solution was achieved and then converted to multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequences; (2) mixed deliverable optimization that used a Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm to account for the incident photon fluence modulation by the MLC, whereas a superposition/convolution (SC) dose calculation algorithm was utilized for the patient dose calculations; and (3) MC deliverable-based optimization in which both fluence and patient dose calculations were performed with a MC algorithm. DPEs of the mixed method were quantified by evaluating the differences between the mixed optimization SC dose result and a MC dose recalculation of the mixed optimization solution. OCEs of the mixed method were quantified by evaluating the differences between the MC recalculation of the mixed optimization solution and the final MC optimization solution. The results were analyzed through dose volume indices derived from the cumulative dose-volume histograms for selected anatomic structures. Statistical equivalence tests were used to determine the significance of the DPEs and the OCEs. Furthermore, a correlation analysis between DPEs and OCEs was performed. The evaluated DPEs were within ±2.8% while the OCEs were within 5.5%, indicating that OCEs can be clinically significant even when DPEs are clinically insignificant. The full MC-dose-based optimization reduced normal tissue dose by as much as 8.5% compared with the mixed-method optimization results. The DPEs and the OCEs in the targets had correlation coefficients greater

  1. Effect of D2O on growth properties and chemical structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL; Bali, Garima [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Reeves, David T [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Sun, Qining [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Shah, Riddhi S [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    In present paper, we report the production and detailed structural analysis of deuterium-enriched rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) for neutron scattering experiments. An efficient method to produce deuterated biomass was developed by designing hydroponic perfusion chambers. In preliminary studies, the partial deuterated rye samples were grown in increasing levels of D2O to study the seed germination and the level of deuterium incorporation as a function of D2O concentration. Solution NMR method indicated 36.9 % deuterium incorporation in 50 % D2O grown annual rye samples and further significant increase in the deuterium incorporation level was observed by germinating the rye seedlings in H2O and growing in 50 % D2O inside the perfusion chambers. Moreover, in an effort to compare the substrate characteristics related to enzymatic hydrolysis on deuterated and protiated version of biomass, annual rye grown in 50 % D2O was selected for detailed biomass characterization studies. The compositional analyses, degree of polymerization and cellulose crystallinity were compared with its protiated control. The cellulose molecular weight indicated slight variation with deuteration; however, hemicellulose molecular weights and cellulose crystallinity remain unaffected with the deuteration. Besides the minor differences in biomass components, the development of deuterated biomass for neutron scattering application is essential to understand the complex biomass conversion processes.

  2. TERAHERTZ SPECTROSCOPY AND GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF THE BENDING VIBRATIONS OF ACETYLENE 12C2D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Walters, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-one 12 C 2 D 2 transitions have been measured in the 0.2-1.6 THz region of its ν 5 -ν 4 difference band and 202 of them were observed for the first time. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be ranging from 50 kHz to 100 kHz. The 12 C 2 D 2 molecules were generated under room temperature by passing 120-150 mTorr D 2 O vapor through calcium carbide (CaC 2 ) powder. A multistate analysis was carried out for the bending vibrational modes ν 4 and ν 5 of 12 C 2 D 2 , which includes the lines observed in this work and prior microwave, far-infrared and infrared data on the pure bending levels. Significantly improved molecular parameters were obtained for 12 C 2 D 2 by adding the new measurements to the old data set, which had only 10 lines with microwave measurement precision. New frequency and intensity predictions have been made based on the obtained molecular parameters. The more precise measurements and new predictions reported here will support the analyses of astronomical observations by the future high-resolution spectroscopy telescopes such as Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA, which will work in the terahertz spectral region.

  3. The D1-D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal DNA as barcode for ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, T; Przybos, E; Dunthorn, M

    2014-05-01

    Ciliates are a major evolutionary lineage within the alveolates, which are distributed in nearly all habitats on our planet and are an essential component for ecosystem function, processes and stability. Accurate identification of these unicellular eukaryotes through, for example, microscopy or mating type reactions is reserved to few specialists. To satisfy the demand for a DNA barcode for ciliates, which meets the standard criteria for DNA barcodes defined by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL), we here evaluated the D1-D2 region of the ribosomal DNA large subunit (LSU-rDNA). Primer universality for the phylum Ciliophora was tested in silico with available database sequences as well as in the laboratory with 73 ciliate species, which represented nine of 12 ciliate classes. Primers tested in this study were successful for all tested classes. To test the ability of the D1-D2 region to resolve conspecific and congeneric sequence divergence, 63 Paramecium strains were sampled from 24 mating species. The average conspecific D1-D2 variation was 0.18%, whereas congeneric sequence divergence averaged 4.83%. In pairwise genetic distance analyses, we identified a D1-D2 sequence divergence of DNA amplification of single cells and voucher deposition. In conclusion, the presented data pinpoint the D1-D2 region as an excellent candidate for an official CBOL barcode for ciliated protists. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Vitamin D2 Supplementation Amplifies Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in NASCAR Pit Crew Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C.; Gillitt, Nicholas D.; Shanely, R. Andrew; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat; Luo, Beibei

    2013-01-01

    This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day) had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n = 13) and placebo (n = 15), and ingested supplements (double-blind) for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test). Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 456% and decreased 25(OH)D3 21% versus placebo (p creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p athletes following eccentric exercise. PMID:24362707

  5. The Roles of Dopamine D2 Receptor in the Social Hierarchy of Rodents and Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Lee, Young-A; Kato, Akemi; Jas, Emanuel; Goto, Yukiori

    2017-02-24

    Dopamine (DA) plays significant roles in regulation of social behavior. In social groups of humans and other animals, social hierarchy exists, which is determined by several behavioral characteristics such as aggression and impulsivity as well as social affiliations. In this study, we investigated the effects of pharmacological blockade of DA D2 receptor on social hierarchy of Japanese macaque and mouse social groups. We found acute administration of the D2 antagonist, sulpiride, in socially housed Japanese macaques attenuated social dominance when the drug was given to high social class macaques. A similar attenuation of social dominance was observed in high social class mice with D2 antagonist administration. In contrast, D2 antagonist administration in low social class macaque resulted in more stable social hierarchy of the group, whereas such effect was not observed in mouse social group. These results suggest that D2 receptor signaling may play important roles in establishment and maintenance of social hierarchy in social groups of several species of animals.

  6. Dopamine D2 receptors preferentially regulate the development of light responses of the inner retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ning; Xu, Hong-ping; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Retinal light responsiveness measured via electroretinography undergoes developmental modulation and is thought to be critically regulated by both visual experience and dopamine. The primary goal of this study is to determine whether the dopamine D2 receptor regulates the visual experience-dependent functional development of the retina. Accordingly, we recorded electroretinograms from wild type mice and mice with a genetic deletion of the gene that encodes the dopamine D2 receptor raised under normal cyclic light conditions and constant darkness. Our results demonstrate that mutation of the dopamine D2 receptors preferentially increases the amplitude of the inner retinal light responses evoked by high intensity light measured as oscillatory potentials in adult mice. During postnatal development, all three major components of electroretinograms, the a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potentials, increase with age. Comparatively, mutation of the dopamine D2 receptors preferentially reduces the age-dependent increase of b-waves evoked by low intensity light. Light deprivation from birth reduces the amplitude of b-waves and completely diminishes the increased amplitude of oscillatory potentials. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the dopamine D2 receptor plays an important role in the activity-dependent functional development of the mouse retina. PMID:25393815

  7. Serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors are the same size in membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brann, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Target size analysis was used to compare the sizes of serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors in rat brain membranes. The sizes of these receptors were standardized by comparison with the muscarinic receptor, a receptor of known size. The number of serotonin-S2 receptors labeled with (3H)ketanserin or (3H)spiperone in frontal cortex decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and receptor affinity was not affected. The number of dopamine-D2 receptors labeled with (3H)spiperone in striatum also decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and D2 and S2 receptors were equally sensitive to radiation. In both striatum and frontal cortex, the number of muscarinic receptors labeled with (3H)QNB decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and were much less sensitive to radiation than S2 and D2 receptors. These data indicate that in rat brain membranes, S2 and D2 receptors are of similar size, and both molecules are much larger than the muscarinic receptor

  8. Supersymmetric non-singular fractional D2-branes and NS-NS 2-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, M.; Gibbons, G.W.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.

    2001-01-01

    We obtain regular deformed D2-brane solutions with fractional D2-branes arising as wrapped D4-branes. The space transverse to the D2-brane is a complete Ricci-flat 7-manifold of G 2 holonomy, which is asymptotically conical with principal orbits that are topologically CP 3 or the flag manifold SU(3)/(U(1)xU(1)). We obtain the solution by first constructing an L 2 normalisable harmonic 3-form. We also review a previously-obtained regular deformed D2-brane whose transverse space is a different 7-manifold of G 2 holonomy, with principal orbits that are topologically S 3 xS 3 . This describes D2-branes with fractional NS-NS 2-branes coming from the wrapping of 5-branes, which is supported by a non-normalisable harmonic 3-form on the 7-manifold. We prove that both types of solutions are supersymmetric, preserving 1/16 of the maximal supersymmetry and hence that they are dual to N=1 three-dimensional gauge theories. In each case, the spectrum for minimally-coupled scalars is discrete, indicating confinement in the infrared region of the dual gauge theories. We examine resolutions of other branes, and obtain necessary conditions for their regularity. The resolution of many of these seems to lie beyond supergravity. In the process of studying these questions, we construct new explicit examples of complete Ricci-flat metrics

  9. Ionization and solvation of HCl adsorbed on the D2O-ice surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, M.; Kawanowa, H.; Gotoh, Y.; Souda, R.

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of HCl with the D 2 O-ice surface has been investigated in the temperature range 15-200 K by utilizing time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy, temperature-programmed desorption, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The intensities of sputtered H + (D 2 O) and Cl - ions (the H + ions) are increased (decreased) markedly above 40 K due to the hydrogen bond formation between the HCl and D 2 O molecules. The HCl molecules which form ionic hydrates undergo H/D exchange at 110-140 K and a considerable fraction of them dissolves into the bulk above 140 K. The neutral hydrates of HCl should coexist as evidenced by the desorption of HCl above 170 K. They are incorporated completely in the D 2 O layer up to 140 K. The HCl molecules embedded in the thick D 2 O layer dissolve into the bulk, and the ionic hydrate tends to segregate to the surface above 150 K

  10. Central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Halldin, C.; Sedvall, G.

    1988-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography and the carbon 11-labeled ligand raclopride, central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in the putamen was determined in psychiatric patients treated with clinical doses of psychoactive drugs. Receptor occupancy in drug-treated patients was defined as the percent reduction of specific carbon 11-raclopride binding in relation to the expected binding in the absence of drug treatment. Clinical treatment of schizophrenic patients with 11 chemically distinct antipsychotic drugs (including both classic and atypical neuroleptics such as clozapine) resulted in a 65% to 85% occupancy of D2-dopamine receptors. In a depressed patient treated with the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline, no occupancy was found. The time course for receptor occupancy and drug levels was followed after withdrawal of sulpiride or haloperidol. D2-dopamine receptor occupancy remained above 65% for many hours despite a substantial reduction of serum drug concentrations. In a sulpiride-treated patient, the dosage was reduced in four steps over a nine-week period and a curvilinear relationship was demonstrated between central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy and serum drug concentrations. The results demonstrate that clinical doses of all the currently used classes of antipsychotic drugs cause a substantial blockade of central D2-dopamine receptors in humans. This effect appears to be selective for the antipsychotics, since it was not induced by the antidepressant nortriptyline

  11. Bulk Soil Organic Matter d2H as a Precipitation Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. K.; Terwilliger, V. J.; Nakamoto, B. J.; Berhe, A. A.; Fogel, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    The stable hydrogen isotopic composition (d2H) of leaf waxes have traditionally been used to infer modern and paleoclimate precipitation sources. However, the extent to which evapotranspiration of leaf waters affects the d2H of plant leaf waxes remains hotly contested with offsets varying between species. Because of the relative importance of root organic matter contribution to bulk soil pools compared to litter/leaves and the minimal fractionation between soil water and root material, it is plausible that bulk soil organic matter d2H may be an option for modern and paleoclimate precipitation reconstructions. In this study, we analyzed the non-exchangeable d2H composition of roots, litter, leaves, and bulk soils along an elevation gradient in the southern Sierra Nevada range (USA). Our results show a consistent offset of 30 ± 3‰ in bulk soil organic matter in surface soils from the measured precipitation. This consistent relationship with precipitation was not found in any of the other organic materials that we measured and implies that d2H bulk soil organic matter can record precipitation signals regardless of above-ground species composition. Additionally, we utilized physical density fractionation to determine which fractions (which vary in level of mineral association and in turnover time) of the soil control this relationship. These findings and how this relationship holds with depth will be presented in conjunction with data from a soil profile on the Ethiopian plateau spanning 6000 years.

  12. Inhibition of amygdaloid dopamine D2 receptors impairs emotional learning measured with fear-potentiated startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greba, Q; Gifkins, A; Kokkinidis, L

    2001-04-27

    Considerable advances have been made in understanding the neurocircuitry underlying the acquisition and expression of Pavlovian conditioned fear responses. Within the complex cellular and molecular processes mediating fearfulness, amygdaloid dopamine (DA), originating from cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, is thought to contribute to fear-motivated responding. Considering that blockade of DA D(2) receptors is a common mechanism of action for antipsychotic agents, we hypothesized that inhibition of D(2) receptors in the amygdala may be involved in the antiparanoid effects of these drugs. To assess the role of amygdaloid DA D(2) receptors in aversive emotionality, the D(2) receptor antagonist raclopride was infused into the amygdala prior to Pavlovian fear conditioning. Potentiated startle was used as a behavioral indicator of fear and anxiety. Classical fear conditioning and acoustic startle testing were conducted in a single session allowing for the concomitant assessment of shock reactivity with startle enhancement. Depending on dose, the results found conditioned fear acquisition and retention to be impaired following administration of raclopride into the amygdala. Additionally, the learning deficit was dissociated from shock detection and from fear expression assessed with the shock sensitization of acoustic startle. These findings further refine the known neural mechanisms of amygdala-based emotional learning and memory and were interpreted to suggest that, along with D(1) receptors, D(2) receptors in the amygdala may mediate the formation and the retention of newly-acquired fear associations.

  13. Can Full Duplex reduce the discovery time in D2D Communication?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatnau, Marta; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2016-01-01

    Device-to-device (D2D) communication is considered as one of the key technologies to support new types of services, such as public safety and proximity-based applications. D2D communication requires a discovery phase, i.e., the node awareness procedure prior to the communication phase. Conventional...... half duplex transmission may not be sufficient to provide fast discovery and cope with the strict latency targets of future 5G services. On the other hand, in-band full duplex, by allowing simultaneous transmission and reception, may complete the discovery phase faster. In this paper, the potential...... of full duplex in providing fast discovery for the next 5th generation (5G) system supporting D2D communication is investigated. A design for such system is presented and evaluated via simulations, showing that full duplex can accelerate the discovery phase by supporting a higher transmission probability...

  14. Couplings in D(2,1;α) superconformal mechanics from the SU(2) perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galajinsky, Anton [Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University,Lenin Ave. 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-09

    Dynamical realizations of the most general N=4 superconformal group in one dimension D(2,1;α) are reconsidered from the perspective of the R-symmetry subgroup SU(2). It is shown that any realization of the R-symmetry subalgebra in some phase space can be extended to a representation of the Lie superalgebra corresponding to D(2,1;α). Novel couplings of arbitrary number of supermultiplets of the type (1,4,3) and (0,4,4) to a single supermultiplet of either the type (3,4,1), or (4,4,0) are constructed. D(2,1;α) superconformal mechanics describing superparticles propagating near the horizon of the extreme Reissner-Nordström-AdS-dS black hole in four and five dimensions is considered. The parameter α is linked to the cosmological constant.

  15. (d -2 ) -Dimensional Edge States of Rotation Symmetry Protected Topological States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhida; Fang, Zhong; Fang, Chen

    2017-12-01

    We study fourfold rotation-invariant gapped topological systems with time-reversal symmetry in two and three dimensions (d =2 , 3). We show that in both cases nontrivial topology is manifested by the presence of the (d -2 )-dimensional edge states, existing at a point in 2D or along a line in 3D. For fermion systems without interaction, the bulk topological invariants are given in terms of the Wannier centers of filled bands and can be readily calculated using a Fu-Kane-like formula when inversion symmetry is also present. The theory is extended to strongly interacting systems through the explicit construction of microscopic models having robust (d -2 )-dimensional edge states.

  16. Vapour pressure of D2O - Ice at temperatures below 237 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, J.M.; Asensio, M.C.; Estiu, G.; Viscido, L.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate measurements of heavy water ice vapour pressures between 193 and 253 K have been carried out and an equation based on thermodynamic data has been derived in order to calculate the D 2 O-ice vapour pressures between 173 and 273 K. The agreement between our calculated vapour pressures and the available experimental data including those in this paper, is very good. The comparison between the theoretical calculations of H 2 O-ice and D 2 O-ice vapour pressures confirms the experimental evidence that H 2 O-ice is more volatile than D 2 O-ice at all temperatures in agreement with the vapour isotopic effect theory (VPIE).(author)

  17. The D2G2 project: a new software tool for nuclear engineering design in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheaume, P.; Lefebvre, J.F.; Roy, R.; Koclas, J.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, high quality neutronic simulation codes are readily available. The open source software suite DRAGON/DONJON is a good example. It is free, it has proven quality and correctness over the years and is still developed and maintained at Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal. However, most simulation codes have the following weaknesses: limited usability, poor maintainability, no internal data standardization and poor portability. The D2G2 project is a software development initiative which aims to create an upper layer software tool that annihilates the weakness of classic simulation codes. This paper presents D2G2Client's and D2G2Server's principal capabilities, how they interact and the libraries they use. (author)

  18. Presence of dopamine D-2 receptors in human tumoral cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokoloff, P.; Riou, J.F.; Martres, M.P.; Schwartz, J.C. (Centre Paul Broca, Paris (France))

    1989-07-31

    ({sup 125}I) Iodosulpride binding was examined on eight human cell lines derived from lung, breast and digestive tract carcinomas, neuroblastomas and leukemia. Specific binding was detected in five of these cell lines. In the richest cell line N417, derived from small cell lung carcinoma, ({sup 125}I) iodosulpride bound with a high affinity (Kd = 1.3 nM) to an apparently homogeneous population of binding site (Bmax = 1,606 sites per cell). These sites displayed a typical D-2 specificity, established with several dopaminergic agonists and antagonists selective of either D-1 or D-2 receptor subtypes. In addition, dopamine, apomorphine and RU 24926 distinguished high- and low-affinity sites, suggesting that the binding sites are associated with a G-protein. The biological significance and the possible diagnostic implication of the presence of D-2 receptors on these cell lines are discussed.

  19. Examining the role of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in Pavlovian conditioned approach behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kurt M; Haight, Joshua L; Gardner, Eliot L; Flagel, Shelly B

    2016-05-15

    Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in the extent to which reward cues acquire the ability to act as incentive stimuli may contribute to the development of successful treatments for addiction and related disorders. We used the sign-tracker/goal-tracker animal model to examine the role of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues. Following Pavlovian training, wherein a discrete lever-cue was paired with food reward, rats were classified as sign- or goal-trackers based on the resultant conditioned response. We examined the effects of D2/D3 agonists, 7-OH-DPAT (0.01-0.32mg/kg) or pramipexole (0.032-0.32mg/kg), the D2/D3 antagonist raclopride (0.1mg/kg), and the selective D3 antagonist, SB-277011A (6 or 24mg/kg), on the expression of sign- and goal-tracking conditioned responses. The lever-cue acquired predictive value and elicited a conditioned response for sign- and goal-trackers, but only for sign-trackers did it also acquire incentive value. Following administration of either 7-OH-DPAT, pramipexole, or raclopride, the performance of the previously acquired conditioned response was attenuated for both sign- and goal-trackers. For sign-trackers, the D2/D3 agonist, 7-OH-DPAT, also attenuated the conditioned reinforcing properties of the lever-cue. The selective D3 antagonist did not affect either conditioned response. Alterations in D2/D3 receptor signaling, but not D3 signaling alone, transiently attenuate a previously acquired Pavlovian conditioned response, regardless of whether the response is a result of incentive motivational processes. These findings suggest activity at the dopamine D2 receptor is critical for a reward cue to maintain either its incentive or predictive qualities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vibrational relaxation of a triatomic molecular impurity: D2O in vitreous As2S3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rella, C.W.; Schwettman, H.A.; Engholm, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the relaxation of the D 2 O stretch mode in vitreous As 2 S 3 are presented. Because the bending mode of the molecule offers an intra-molecular decay channel for the stretch mode, the decay scheme of the D 2 O molecule is more complex than that of diatomic molecules. The asymmetric stretch mode of D 2 O has a frequency of 2680 cm -1 . To study the relaxation of this mode we applied a pump-probe technique, using intense psec; pulses of the Stanford Free Electron Laser. Due to the small cross-section of the vibrational mode, successful efforts were made to improve the signal to noise ratio by using a laser stabilization system and a tightly focused beam to increase the intensity, by averaging the signal with a kHz repetition rate and by using samples with an optimized D 2 O concentration. A rapid relaxation rate on the order of 5 x 10 9 sec -1 at low temperature is found that increases with temperature. Recalling that the bending mode of the D 2 O molecule has a frequency of 1170 cm -1 , one would expect a decay in a third order process, involving two quanta of the bending mode plus a vibrational host quanta with a frequency of 340 cm -1 , which coincides with a fundamental frequency of the pyramidal building blocks of the glassy As 2 S 3 host. Instead, we find from the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate that the D 2 O stretching mode relaxes in a higher order process. This indicates that the relaxation dynamics of small molecules is more complex than generally assumed

  1. Effects of D2O on biochemical parameters of normal cells and tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biesewig, G.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of high temperatures (Hyperthermia) on normal tissue and Ehrlich-Ascites tumour cells ('ATZ') was examined under several conditions with regard to the application of deuterium oxide as a stabilising factor. It was proven that the DNA-synthesis of normal tissue (liver, mouse) is not sensitive to temperature. This effect of hyperthermia only occurs when the tissue is damaged, e.g. by trypsinising. The influence of hyperthermia on several biochemical parameters and on morphological changes of the Ascites cells was examined. The findings show that deuterium oxide (D 2 O) is able to reduce both the thermal and the ureal denaturation of enzymes. Thus tests were carried out to find out if D 2 O also reduces toxic influence in complicated biological systems. The assumption of high D 2 O concentrations to prevent several reactions was confirmed. When the Ascites tumour cells in the H 2 O-buffer were exposed to the damaging influence of hyperthermia, the high degree of damage was seen with the decreasing DNA synthesis, reduced aerobic glycose capacity, a drop in the ATP values and breakdown of the permeability of the membrane. Deuterium oxide was able under high temperature (from appr. 44 0 C on) to reduce the degree of damage to DNA synthesis, while auto-effects (inhibition of synthesis) of D 2 O predominate in the lower region. Aerobic glycolysis was damaged in both cases to the same degree, however. In D 2 O after hyperthermia the ATP-level dropped faster than in H 2 O. D 2 O not only reduces the thermal denaturation of the Ascites tumour cells, but it also eliminates the toxic influence of the zytostaticum TRENIMONsup(R) (under 38 0 or 46 0 C incubation). (orig./AJ) [de

  2. R2d2 Drives Selfish Sweeps in the House Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, John P; Morgan, Andrew P; Yadgary, Liran; Bell, Timothy A; McMullan, Rachel C; Ortiz de Solorzano, Lydia; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Bult, Carol J; Campbell, Karl J; Castiglia, Riccardo; Ching, Yung-Hao; Chunco, Amanda J; Crowley, James J; Chesler, Elissa J; Förster, Daniel W; French, John E; Gabriel, Sofia I; Gatti, Daniel M; Garland, Theodore; Giagia-Athanasopoulou, Eva B; Giménez, Mabel D; Grize, Sofia A; Gündüz, İslam; Holmes, Andrew; Hauffe, Heidi C; Herman, Jeremy S; Holt, James M; Hua, Kunjie; Jolley, Wesley J; Lindholm, Anna K; López-Fuster, María J; Mitsainas, George; da Luz Mathias, Maria; McMillan, Leonard; Ramalhinho, Maria da Graça Morgado; Rehermann, Barbara; Rosshart, Stephan P; Searle, Jeremy B; Shiao, Meng-Shin; Solano, Emanuela; Svenson, Karen L; Thomas-Laemont, Patricia; Threadgill, David W; Ventura, Jacint; Weinstock, George M; Pomp, Daniel; Churchill, Gary A; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    A selective sweep is the result of strong positive selection driving newly occurring or standing genetic variants to fixation, and can dramatically alter the pattern and distribution of allelic diversity in a population. Population-level sequencing data have enabled discoveries of selective sweeps associated with genes involved in recent adaptations in many species. In contrast, much debate but little evidence addresses whether "selfish" genes are capable of fixation-thereby leaving signatures identical to classical selective sweeps-despite being neutral or deleterious to organismal fitness. We previously described R2d2, a large copy-number variant that causes nonrandom segregation of mouse Chromosome 2 in females due to meiotic drive. Here we show population-genetic data consistent with a selfish sweep driven by alleles of R2d2 with high copy number (R2d2(HC)) in natural populations. We replicate this finding in multiple closed breeding populations from six outbred backgrounds segregating for R2d2 alleles. We find that R2d2(HC) rapidly increases in frequency, and in most cases becomes fixed in significantly fewer generations than can be explained by genetic drift. R2d2(HC) is also associated with significantly reduced litter sizes in heterozygous mothers, making it a true selfish allele. Our data provide direct evidence of populations actively undergoing selfish sweeps, and demonstrate that meiotic drive can rapidly alter the genomic landscape in favor of mutations with neutral or even negative effects on overall Darwinian fitness. Further study will reveal the incidence of selfish sweeps, and will elucidate the relative contributions of selfish genes, adaptation and genetic drift to evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. EVALUATION OF N-RATIO IN SELECTING PATIENTS FOR ADJUVANT CHEMORADIOTHERAPY AFTER D2-GASTRECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Luiz da COSTA JUNIOR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Whether adjuvant chemoradiotherapy may contribute to improve survival outcomes after D2-gastrectomy remains controvertial. Objective To explore the clinical utility of N-Ratio in selecting gastric cancer patients for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after D2-gastrectomy. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out on gastric cancer patients who underwent D2-gastrectomy alone or D2-gastrectomy plus adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (INT-0116 protocol at the Hospital A. C. Camargo from September 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis were performed using multiple conventional methods, such as c-statistic, adjusted Cox's regression and stratified survival analysis. Results Our analysis involved 128 patients. According to c-statistic, the N-Ratio (i.e., as a continuous variable presented “area under ROC curve” (AUC of 0.713, while the number of metastatic nodes presented AUC of 0.705. After categorization, the cut-offs provide by Marchet et al. displayed the highest discriminating power – AUC value of 0.702. This N-Ratio categorization was confirmed as an independent predictor of survival using multivariate analyses. There also was a trend of better survival by adding of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy only for patients with milder degrees of lymphatic spread – 5-year survival of 23.1% vs 66.9%, respectively (HR = 0.426, 95% CI 0.150–1.202; P = 0.092. Conclusions This study confirms the N-Ratio as a tool to improve the lymph node metastasis staging in gastric cancer and suggests the cut-offs provided by Marchet et al. as the best way for its categorization after a D2-gastrectomy. In these settings, the N-Ratio appears a useful tool to select patients for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and the benefit of adding this type of adjuvancy to D2-gastrectomy is suggested to be limited to patients with milder degrees of lymphatic spread (i.e., NR2, 10%–25%.

  4. Dopamine inhibits reproduction in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) via three pituitary D2 receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Romain; Affaticati, Pierre; Yamamoto, Kei; Jolly, Cécile; Bureau, Charlotte; Baloche, Sylvie; Gonnet, Françoise; Vernier, Philippe; Dufour, Sylvie; Pasqualini, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    In many teleosts, the stimulatory control of gonadotrope axis by GnRH is opposed by an inhibitory control by dopamine (DA). The functional importance of this inhibitory pathway differs widely from one teleostean species to another. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a teleost fish that has become increasingly popular as an experimental vertebrate model. However, the role of DA in the neuroendocrine control of its reproduction has never been studied. Here the authors evaluated in sexually regressed female zebrafish the effects of in vivo treatments with a DA D2 receptor (D2-R) antagonist domperidone, or a GnRH agonist, alone and in combination, on the pituitary level of FSHβ and LHβ transcripts, the gonadosomatic index, and the ovarian histology. Only the double treatment with GnRH agonist and domperidone could induce an increase in the expression of LHβ, in the gonadosomatic index, and a stimulation of ovarian vitellogenesis, indicating that removal of dopaminergic inhibition is required for the stimulatory action of GnRH and reactivation of ovarian function to occur. Using double immunofluorescent staining on pituitary, the authors showed in this species the innervation of LH cells by tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers. Finally, using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, the authors showed that the three subtypes of zebrafish DA D2-R (D2a, D2b, and D2c) were expressed in LH-producing cells, suggesting that they all may be involved in mediating this inhibition. These results show for the first time that, in zebrafish, DA has a direct and potent inhibitory action capable of opposing the stimulatory effect of GnRH in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction.

  5. Blockchain-Empowered Fair Computational Resource Sharing System in the D2D Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Hong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Device-to-device (D2D communication is becoming an increasingly important technology in future networks with the climbing demand for local services. For instance, resource sharing in the D2D network features ubiquitous availability, flexibility, low latency and low cost. However, these features also bring along challenges when building a satisfactory resource sharing system in the D2D network. Specifically, user mobility is one of the top concerns for designing a cooperative D2D computational resource sharing system since mutual communication may not be stably available due to user mobility. A previous endeavour has demonstrated and proven how connectivity can be incorporated into cooperative task scheduling among users in the D2D network to effectively lower average task execution time. There are doubts about whether this type of task scheduling scheme, though effective, presents fairness among users. In other words, it can be unfair for users who contribute many computational resources while receiving little when in need. In this paper, we propose a novel blockchain-based credit system that can be incorporated into the connectivity-aware task scheduling scheme to enforce fairness among users in the D2D network. Users’ computational task cooperation will be recorded on the public blockchain ledger in the system as transactions, and each user’s credit balance can be easily accessible from the ledger. A supernode at the base station is responsible for scheduling cooperative computational tasks based on user mobility and user credit balance. We investigated the performance of the credit system, and simulation results showed that with a minor sacrifice of average task execution time, the level of fairness can obtain a major enhancement.

  6. Striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 receptor-expressing GABAergic medium spiny neurons regulate tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Tanuja; Zhang, Danhui; Perez, Xiomara A; Quik, Maryka

    2016-12-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a drug-induced movement disorder that arises with antipsychotics. These drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are also prescribed for major depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity, obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is thus a need for therapies to reduce TD. The present studies and our previous work show that nicotine administration decreases haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rodent TD models, suggesting a role for the nicotinic cholinergic system. Extensive studies also show that D2 dopamine receptors are critical to TD. However, the precise involvement of striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in TD is uncertain. To elucidate their role, we used optogenetics with a focus on the striatum because of its close links to TD. Optical stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons using cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP decreased haloperidol-induced VCMs (~50%), with no effect in control-eYFP mice. Activation of striatal D2 MSNs using Adora2a-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP also diminished antipsychotic-induced VCMs, with no change in control-eYFP mice. In both ChAT-Cre and Adora2a-Cre mice, stimulation or mecamylamine alone similarly decreased VCMs with no further decline with combined treatment, suggesting nAChRs are involved. Striatal D2 MSN activation in haloperidol-treated Adora2a-Cre mice increased c-Fos + D2 MSNs and decreased c-Fos + non-D2 MSNs, suggesting a role for c-Fos. These studies provide the first evidence that optogenetic stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons and GABAergic MSNs modulates VCMs, and thus possibly TD. Moreover, they suggest nicotinic receptor drugs may reduce antipsychotic-induced TD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitamin D2 Supplementation Amplifies Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in NASCAR Pit Crew Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Nieman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD, and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n = 13 and placebo (n = 15, and ingested supplements (double-blind for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test. Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OHD2 456% and decreased 25(OHD3 21% versus placebo (p < 0.001, p = 0.036, respectively, with no influence on muscle function test scores. The post-study eccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p = 0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p < 0.001, with no differences for DOMS. In summary, 6-weeks vitD2 (3800 IU/day significantly increased 25(OHD2 and decreased 25(OHD3, had no effect on muscle function tests, and amplified muscle damage markers in NASCAR pit crew athletes following eccentric exercise.

  8. SPECT imaging of D2 dopamine receptors and endogenous dopamine release in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Cynthia; Bruin, Kora de; Booij, Jan; Beekman, Freek

    2008-01-01

    The dopamine D 2 receptor (D2R) is important in the mediation of addiction. [ 123 I]iodobenzamide (IBZM), a SPECT ligand for the D2R, has been used for in vivo studies of D2R availability in humans, monkeys, and rats. Although mouse models are important in the study of addiction, [ 123 I]IBZM has not been used in mice SPECT studies. This study evaluates the use of [ 123 I]IBZM for measuring D2R availability in mice. Pharmacokinetics of [ 123 I]IBZM in mice were studied with pinhole SPECT imaging after intravenous (i.v.) injection of [ 123 I]IBZM (20, 40, and 70 MBq). In addition, the ability to measure the release of endogenous dopamine after amphetamine administration with [ 123 I]IBZM SPECT was investigated. Thirdly, i.v. administration, the standard route of administration, and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of [ 123 I]IBZM were compared. Specific binding of [ 123 I]IBZM within the mouse striatum could be clearly visualized with SPECT. Peak specific striatal binding ratios were reached around 90 min post-injection. After amphetamine administration, the specific binding ratios of [ 123 I]IBZM decreased significantly (-27.2%; n=6; p=0.046). Intravenous administration of [ 123 I]IBZM led to significantly higher specific binding than i.p. administration of the same dose. However, we found that i.v. administration of a dose of 70 MBq [ 123 I]IBZM might result in acute ethanol intoxication because ethanol is used as a preparative aid for the routine production of [ 123 I]IBZM. Imaging of D2R availability and endogenous dopamine release in mice is feasible using [ 123 I]IBZM single pinhole SPECT. Using commercially produced [ 123 I]IBZM, a dose of 40 MBq injected i.v. can be recommended. (orig.)

  9. Examining the Role of Dopamine D2 and D3 Receptors in Pavlovian Conditioned Approach Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kurt M.; Haight, Joshua L.; Gardner, Eliot L.; Flagel, Shelly B.

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in the extent to which reward cues acquire the ability to act as incentive stimuli may contribute to the development of successful treatments for addiction and related disorders. We used the sign-tracker/goal-tracker animal model to examine the role of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues. Following Pavlovian training, wherein a discrete lever-cue was paired with food reward, rats were classified as sign- or goal-trackers based on the resultant conditioned response. We examined the effects of D2/D3 agonists, 7-OH-DPAT (0.01–0.32 mg/kg) or pramipexole (0.032–0.32 mg/kg), the D2/D3 antagonist raclopride (0.1 mg/kg), and the selective D3 antagonist, SB-277011A (6 or 24 mg/kg), on the expression of sign- and goal-tracking conditioned responses. The lever-cue acquired predictive value and elicited a conditioned response for sign- and goal-trackers, but only for sign-trackers did it also acquire incentive value. Following administration of either 7-OH-DPAT, pramipexole, or raclopride, the performance of the previously acquired conditioned response was attenuated for both sign- and goal-trackers. For sign-trackers, the D2/D3 agonist, 7-OH-DPAT, also attenuated the conditioned reinforcing properties of the lever-cue. The selective D3 antagonist did not affect either conditioned response. Alterations in D2/D3 receptor signaling, but not D3 signaling alone, transiently attenuate a previously acquired Pavlovian conditioned response, regardless of whether the response is a result of incentive motivational processes. These findings suggest activity at the dopamine D2 receptor is critical for a reward cue to maintain either its incentive or predictive qualities. PMID:26909847

  10. The brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1 regulates dopamine D-2 receptor-mediated transmission in the striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Centonze, Diego; Rossi, Silvia; Napoli, Ilaria; Mercaldo, Valentina; Lacoux, Caroline; Ferrari, Francesca; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; De Chiara, Valentina; Prosperetti, Chiara; Maccarrone, Mauro; Fezza, Filomena; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Bagni, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Dopamine D-2 receptor (D2DR)-mediated transmission in the striatum is remarkably flexible, and changes in its efficacy have been heavily implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Although receptor-associated proteins are clearly involved in specific forms of synaptic plasticity, the molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of D-2 receptors in this brain area are essentially obscure. We have studied the physiological responses of the D2DR stimulations in mice...

  11. APOLLON. Multi-APprOach for high efficiency integrated and inteLLigent cONcentrating PV modules (Systems). Deliverable 7.10. Publication of environmental LCI dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.L. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    This deliverable makes available the life-cycle inventory used to calculate the energy payback time and the carbon footprint of the Apollon final concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) design developed.. The data below relates to one Apollon module. The results are to be published in Environmental Science and Technology, in a paper, 'Sustainability of Materials and Costs of Materials in a Mirror-based Concentrating Photovoltaic System'. Reference is made to the results for the Spectrolab triple junction solar cell in the following two studies: (1) 'Life cycle assessment of high-concentration photovoltaic systems' (Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl., vol. 21, pp. 379-388, 2013), and (2) 'Life Cycle Analysis of Two New Concentrator PV Systems', in 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 2008.

  12. Insulin, Central Dopamine D2 Receptors, and Monetary Reward Discounting in Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Eisenstein

    Full Text Available Animal research finds that insulin regulates dopamine signaling and reward behavior, but similar research in humans is lacking. We investigated whether individual differences in body mass index, percent body fat, pancreatic β-cell function, and dopamine D2 receptor binding were related to reward discounting in obese and non-obese adult men and women. Obese (n = 27; body mass index>30 and non-obese (n = 20; body mass index<30 adults were assessed for percent body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and for β-cell function using disposition index. Choice of larger, but delayed or less certain, monetary rewards relative to immediate, certain smaller monetary rewards was measured using delayed and probabilistic reward discounting tasks. Positron emission tomography using a non-displaceable D2-specific radioligand, [11C](N-methylbenperidol quantified striatal D2 receptor binding. Groups differed in body mass index, percent body fat, and disposition index, but not in striatal D2 receptor specific binding or reward discounting. Higher percent body fat in non-obese women related to preference for a smaller, certain reward over a larger, less likely one (greater probabilistic discounting. Lower β-cell function in the total sample and lower insulin sensitivity in obese related to stronger preference for an immediate and smaller monetary reward over delayed receipt of a larger one (greater delay discounting. In obese adults, higher striatal D2 receptor binding related to greater delay discounting. Interestingly, striatal D2 receptor binding was not significantly related to body mass index, percent body fat, or β-cell function in either group. Our findings indicate that individual differences in percent body fat, β-cell function, and striatal D2 receptor binding may each contribute to altered reward discounting behavior in non-obese and obese individuals. These results raise interesting questions about whether and how striatal D2 receptor binding

  13. Infinite-parametric extension of the conformal algebra in D>2 space-time dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; Linetsky, V.Ya.

    1990-09-01

    On the basis of the analytic continuations of semisimple Lie algebras discovered recently by us we construct manifestly quasiconformal infinite-dimensional algebras AC(so(4,1)) and PAC(so(3,2)) extending the conformal algebras in three-dimensional Euclidean and Minkowski space-time like the Virasoro algebra extends so(2,1). Their higher spin generalizations are also constructed. A counterpart of the central extension for D>2 and possible applications in exactly solvable conformal quantum field models in D>2 are discussed. (author). 31 refs, 2 figs

  14. Calculating many-body effects in resonant [(dtμ)d2e] formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method is developed for calculating the effect of neighboring molecules on the resonant molecular formation reaction tμ + D 2 → [(dtμ)d2e]*, avoiding any expansion in powers of the density. Using a simplified model, the role of collisional broadening, motional narrowing, and the interference of different formation amplitudes is examined. This model is used to generate molecular formation rates as functions of density for fixed temperature. The generalization which will allow comparison with experimental data is discussed

  15. Angular overlap model analysis of the D 2d crystal field effect in uranium (4+) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Z.; Hubert, S.; Krupa, J. C.

    1988-12-01

    Recent interpretations of the D 2d crystal field of U 4+ in β-ThCl 4, α, β-ThBr 4, ThSiO 4 and UCl 4 are discussed in terms of the simplified one-, two- and three-parameter versions of the Angular Overlap Model which are shown to be a handy tool in a trial interpretation of the effect. The variation of the CF parameters with a small D 2 distortion of the coordination is well reproduced by the model.

  16. Towards implementation of transparency and participation in radioactive waste management programmes. ARGONA Final Summary Report. Deliverable 23b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Josefin Paeivioe; Andersson, Kjell; Bolado, Ricardo; Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie; Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran; Kojo, Matti; Meskens, Gaston; Pritrsky, Jozef; Richardson, Phil; Soneryd, Linda; Steinerova, Lucie; Szerszynski, Bronislaw; Wene, Clas-Otto; Vojtechova, Hana

    2010-02-01

    organization. In such a case, it may be better to clarify the different aims of the two processes . The suggested guidelines in ARGONA Deliverable No. 22 give more advice on how mediation by demonstration and mediation by dialogue can be used and combined. It is evident that participative processes and transparency arenas can improve the quality of societal decision making in specific situations. But, as we have seen any project or programme with this purpose has it limits. Then somehow, society should be able to continue the process in a wider context than the explicit decision situations where transparency arenas take place. This wider context, or philosophical orientation, which we call reflexivity has two meanings; reflexivity as 'contextualisation' or 'becoming aware of how knowledge is produced', and reflexivity' in the meaning of 'self-confrontation' to become aware of the potential of and limits to own knowledge and own role in a discourse setting. Based on the analysis made in ARGONA it is recommended that formally organised transparency arenas should become a universal norm that should inspire and steer the practical political organisation of governance. For any decision making process, to be legitimate it needs to have a certain degree of trust among those affected, those participating and citizens at large. If a stakeholder does not trust the organization of a particular deliberative or transparency setting he will not take part and immediately it will lose legitimacy. This project highlighted four elements in building trust: 1) a jointly agreed aim to gain insight into the complexity of radioactive waste management, 2) real justification meaning that there is a real chance for stakeholders to influence the process, 3) looking back for understating 'why things went the way they went', and 4) adaptability of a decision process to the social and physical reality including reversibility of decisions

  17. Biosynthesis of the D2-cell adhesion molecule: post-translational modifications, intracellular transport, and developmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, J M; Linnemann, D; Bock, E

    1984-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications and intracellular transport of the D2-cell adhesion molecule (D2-CAM) were examined in cultured fetal rat neuronal cells. Developmental changes in biosynthesis were studied in rat forebrain explant cultures. Two D2-CAM polypeptides with Mr of 187,000-210,000 (A...

  18. Pharmacology and Structural Analysis of Ligand Binding to the Orthosteric Site of Glutamate-Like GluD2 Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders S; Hansen, Kasper B; Naur, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -term depression. Here, we investigate the pharmacology of the orthosteric binding site in GluD2 by examining the activity of analogs of D-Ser and GluN1 glycine site competitive antagonists at GluD2 receptors containing the lurcher mutation (GluD2(LC)), which promotes spontaneous channel activation. We identify...

  19. A quality profile and techniques for eCommerce application assessment: D 2 ProducEbility-U

    OpenAIRE

    Punter, T.; Steffens, P.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the deliverables of the Work packages WP2.1 and WP2.2 of the Fraunhofer IESE 2002 internal project ProducEbility-U. It provides the definition of a quality profile for eCommerce applications and an overview of assessment criteria. This chapter provides a characterisation of eCommerce applications, compare the assessment of eCommerce applications with other FhG/IESE-assessments, and motivates the development of quality profile for eCommerce assessment. An eCommerce appli...

  20. Synthesis of 25-hydroxy-[26,27-3H]vitamin D2, 1,25-dihydroxy-[26,27-3H]vitamin D2 and their (24R)-epimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicinski, R.R.; Tanaka, Y.; Phelps, M.; Schnoes, H.K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis of a C-24-epimeric mixture of 25-hydroxy-[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D2 and a C-24-epimeric mixture of 1,25-dihydroxy-[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D2 by the Grignard reaction of the corresponding 25-keto-27-nor-vitamin D2 and 1 alpha-acetoxy-25-keto-27-nor-vitamin D3 with tritiated methyl magnesium bromide is described. Separation of epimers by high-performance liquid chromatography afforded pure radiolabeled vitamins of high specific activity (80 Ci/mmol). The identities and radiochemical purities of 25-hydroxy-[26,27- 3 H[vitamin D2 and 1,25-dihydroxy-[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D2 D2 were established by cochromatography with synthetic 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2. Biological activity of 25-hydroxy-[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D2 was demonstrated by its binding to the rat plasma binding protein for vitamin D compounds, and by its in vitro conversion to 1,25-dihydroxy-[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D2 by kidney homogenate prepared from vitamin D-deficient chickens. The biological activity of 1,25-dihydroxy-[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D2 was demonstrated by its binding to the chick intestinal receptor for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3

  1. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itkonen, Suvi T.; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi

    2016-01-01

    -irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20–37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February–April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d......; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D...

  2. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and brain perfusion in hemi-parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between dopamine D 2 receptors and brain perfusion in hemi-parkinsonism rats was studied. Hemi-parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), apomorphine (Apo) which could induced the successful model rat rotates toward the intact side was used to select the rats, 125 I-IBZM ex-vivo autoradiography analysis and 99m Tc-HM-PAO regional cerebral biodistribution were used to evaluate D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD were used to measure striatum DA and its metabolites content. The lesioned side striatum DA and its metabolites HVA DOPAC reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated group, striatum/cerebellum 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 +- 0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (p 0.05). These results indicated that in the 6-OH-DA lesioned side DA content decreased significantly and an up-regulation of striatum D 2 receptor binding sites was induced in hemi-parkinsonism rats, which showed good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Comparing with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-parkinsonism

  3. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-Parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between dopamine D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-Parkinsonism rats. Methods: Hemi-Parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, apomorphine (Apo) which could induce the successful model rat to rotate toward the intact side was used to select the rat models, 125 I-IBZM in vivo autoradiography and 99 Tc m -HMPAO regional cerebral biodistribution analysis were used to study D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD was used to measure striatum DA and its metabolite content . Results: the lesioned side striatum DA and its metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) 3,4-dihyroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated group, striatum/cerebellum 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 +- 0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-Parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (P 0.05). Conclusions: the 6-OH-DA lesioned side DA content decreased significantly and thus induced a compensative up-regulation of striatum D 2 receptor binding sites in hemi-Parkinsonism rats, which show good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Comparing with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-Parkinsonism

  4. Reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulink, Nienke C; Planting, Robin S; Figee, Martijn; Booij, Jan; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-02-01

    Though the dopaminergic system is implicated in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders (OCRD), the dopaminergic system has never been investigated in-vivo in Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). In line with consistent findings of reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), we hypothesized that the dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the striatum will be lower in patients with BDD in comparison to healthy subjects. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor Binding Potential (BPND) was examined in 12 drug-free BDD patients and 12 control subjects pairwise matched by age, sex, and handedness using [(123)I]iodobenzamide Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT; bolus/constant infusion technique). Regions of interest were the caudate nucleus and the putamen. BPND was calculated as the ratio of specific striatal to binding in the occipital cortex (representing nonspecific binding). Compared to controls, dopamine D2/3 receptor BPND was significantly lower in BDD, both in the putamen (p=0.017) and caudate nucleus (p=0.022). This study provides the first evidence of a disturbed dopaminergic system in BDD patients. Although previously BDD was classified as a separate disorder (somatoform disorder), our findings give pathophysiological support for the recent reclassification of BDD to the OCRD in DSM-5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. Repeated cocaine administration results in supersensitivity of striatal D-2 dopamine autoreceptors to pergolide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwoskin, L.P.; Peris, J.; Yasuda, R.P.; Philpott, K.; Zahniser, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    Groups of rats administered cocaine-HCl (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline either acutely or once daily for 8 or 14 days were killed 24 hrs after the last dose. In striatal slices prelabelled with [ 3 H]DA, modulation of [ 3 H]-overflow by pergolide was used to measure D-2 autoreceptor activity. Compared to the contemporaneous control group pergolide produced a greater inhibition only in striatal slices from rats treated repeatedly with cocaine. In radioligand binding studies using striatal membranes from control rats, pergolide had a 500-fold greater affinity for the D-2, as opposed to the D-1, dopamine (DA) receptor subtype. These results indicate that repeated treatment with cocaine produces supersensitive striatal D-2 release-modulating autoreceptors consistent with a compensatory change to diminish the effect of elevated synaptic concentrations of DA produced by cocaine. In contrast, supersensitivity of D-2 receptors was not detected in [ 3 H]spiperone binding assays. 31 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  6. SANS contrast in iota-carrageenan gels and solutions in D2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Denef, B.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    SANS of Na+-iota-carrageenan in D2O/saline solutions was measured as a function of concentration, temperature and type of counterions (K+ or Na+). High and low scattering-contrasted gels and solutions were detected. High contrast is caused by aggregation of low-hydrated chains at high concentration...

  7. Natural variation of rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studying natural variation of rice resistance (R) genes in cultivated and wild rice relatives can predict resistance stability to rice blast fungus. In the present study, the protein coding regions of rice R gene Pi-d2 in 35 rice accessions of subgroups, aus (AUS), indica (IND), temperate japonica (...

  8. The H2O/D2O exchange across vesicular lipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbert, H.P.; Lawaczek, R.

    1985-01-01

    A new method to measure the water (D 2 O/H 2 O) permeation across vesicular lipid bilayers is described. The method is based on the solvent isotope effect of the light scattering which is a consequence of the different indices of refraction of D 2 O and H 2 O. Unilamellar lipid vesicles in excess of H 2 O are rapidly mixed with D 2 O or vice versa. As result of the H 2 O/D 2 O exchange across the vesicular bilayer the light scattering signal has a time dependent, almost single exponential component allowing the deduction of the exchange relaxation rate and, at known size, of the permeability coefficient. The experimental results are in accord with calculations from the Mie theory of light scattering for coated spheres. The method is applicable for large vesicles where the permeation is the rate-limiting step. Size separations are performed by a flow dialysis through a sequence of pore-membrane-filters. For dimyristoyl-lecithin bilayers the water permeability-coefficient is 1.9 . 10 -5 cm/s in the crystalline phase and increases by a factor of 10-100 in the liquid-crystalline state. The temperature dependence of the permeation exhibits a sharp change at the phase transition. For binary mixtures of lecithins this sharp change follows the solidus curve of the non-ideal phase diagram determined by spectroscopic techniques. (orig.)

  9. Underlay of low-rate machine-type D2D links on downlink cellular links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno K.; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    Wireless cellular networks feature two emerging technological trends: direct Device-to-Device (D2D) communications and Machine-Type Communications (MTC). MTC devices (MTDs) pose new challenges to the cellular network, such as low transmission power and massive access that can lead to overload...... probability for the MTC link. The results show that SIC is an important enabler of low-power underlay D2D transmission for low-rate machine-type traffic; however, it may incur a significant rate penalty for the cellular users when trying to meet the outage requirements of the MTC link....... of the radio interface. In this paper we explore the opportunity opened by D2D links for supporting Low-rate Low-power MTDs that are connected to a nearby device, such as an on-body MTD connected to a mobile phone that acts as a relay towards the Base Station (BS). The low-rate requirement for this D2D...

  10. Iodine (p,n) and (d,2n) excitation function measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, H.I. Jr.; Nuckolls, R.M.; Mustafa, M.G.; Lanier, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the nuclear excitation functions for the reactions 127 I (p,n) 127 Xe and 127 I(d,2n) 127 Xe. These results are being used in the interpretation of data obtained from nuclear test diagnostics. 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  11. 17 CFR 240.12d2-1 - Suspension of trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of trading. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Suspension of Trading, Withdrawal, and Striking from Listing and Registration § 240.12d2-1 Suspension of trading. (a) A national securities exchange may suspend from trading a...

  12. Purification and characterization of the recombinant human dopamine D2S receptor from Pichia pastoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Lutea; Grünewald, S; Franke, J.P.; Uges, Donald; Bischoff, Rainer

    The human dopamine D2S receptor was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, where the receptor with a molecular mass of approximately 40 kDa exhibited specific and saturable binding properties. The dopamine antagonist [H-3]spiperone showed an average dissociation constant K-d of 0.6

  13. [18F]FMeNER-D2: A systematic in vitro analysis of radio-metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rami-Mark, Christina; Eberherr, Nadine; Berroterán-Infante, Neydher; Vanicek, Thomas; Nics, Lukas; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Hacker, Marcus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The norepinephrine transporter (NET) presents an important target for therapy and diagnosis of ADHD and other neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Thus, PET is the diagnostic method of choice, using radiolabeled NET-ligands derived from reboxetine. So far, [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2 showed best pharmacokinetic and -dynamic properties. However, the disadvantage of reboxetine derived PET tracers is their high metabolic cleavage—resulting in impeding signals in the PET scans, which hamper a proper quantification of the NET in cortical areas. Methods: Metabolic stability testing was performed in vitro using a plethora of human and murine enzymes. Results: No metabolism was observed using monoamine oxidase A and B or catechol-O-methyl transferase. Incubation of [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2 with CYP450-enzymes, predominantly located in the liver, led to a significant and fast metabolism of the tracer. Moreover, the arising three radiometabolites were found to be more polar than [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2. Surprisingly, definitely no formation of free [ 18 F]fluoride was observed. Conclusion: According to our in vitro data, the interfering uptake in cortical regions might be attributed to these emerging radiometabolites but does not reflect bonding in bone due to defluorination. Further research on these radiometabolites is necessary to elucidate the in vivo situation. This might include an analysis of human blood samples after injection of [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2, to enable a better correction of the PET-input function.

  14. Structure and Properties of Burnished and Nitrided AISI D2 Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel TOBOŁA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available D2 belongs to traditional steels, frequently used in metalworking industry. Shot peening and nitriding are known to improve the wear resistance of D2. In this work we focus on processes of slide burnishing and industrial low temperature gas nitriding. The D2 steel specimens were first subjected to heat treatments (HT prescribed by the manufacturer, turning (T, then burnishing (B and nitriding (N. The reason for turning was achieving appropriate surface roughness. Deformation induced in slide burnishing can be better controlled then in shot peening because of deterministic nature of this process. Four different paths to prepare surfaces were employed: HT + T, HT + T + B, HT + T + N, HT + T + B + N. D2 steel is very sensitive to the final finishing, wear rates vary up to 300 %. Two of our procedures (HT + T + N and HT + T + B + N are much superior to the others. Moreover, in the HT + T + N case, apparently the surface fatigue scaling off takes place.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.7224

  15. A comprehensive review on cold work of AISI D2 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahim, Mohd Aidil Shah bin; Minhat, Mohamad bin; Hussein, Nur Izan Syahriah Binti; Salleh, Mohd Shukor bin

    2017-11-01

    As a common material in mould and die application, AISI D2 cold work tool steel has proven to be a promising chosen material in the industries. However, challenges remain in using AISI D2 through a modified version with a considerable progress having been made in recent years. This paper provides a critical review of the original as-cast AISI D2 cold work tool steel up to the modified version. The main purpose is to develop an understanding of current modified tool steel trend; the machinability of AISI D2 (drilling, milling, turning, grinding and EDM/WEDM; and the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of these cold work tool steels due to the presence of alloy materials in the steel matrix. The doping of rare earth alloy element, new steel fabrication processes, significant process parameter in machinability and surface treatment shows that there have been few empirical investigations into these cold work tool steel alloys. This study has discovered that cold work tool steel will remain to be explored in order to survive in the steel industries.

  16. Integration of Schwinger equation for (φ* φ)d2 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochev, V.E.

    1993-01-01

    A general solution for the Schwinger equation for the generating functional of the complex scalar field theory with (φ * φ) d 2 interaction has been constructed. The method is based on the reduction of the order of this equation using the particular solution

  17. Association between a promoter dopamine D2 receptor gene variant and the personality trait detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Cichon, Sven; Gustavsson, J Petter; Grünhage, Frank; Forslund, Kaj; Mattila-Evenden, Marja; Rylander, Gunnar; Asberg, Marie; Farde, Lars; Propping, Peter; Nöthen, Markus M

    2003-04-01

    Personality traits have shown considerable heritable components. Striatal dopamine D(2) receptor density, as determined by positron-emission tomography, has been associated with detached personality, as assessed by the Karolinska Scales of Personality. A putative functional promoter polymorphism in the dopamine D(2) receptor gene (DRD2), -141C ins/del, has been associated with dopamine D(2) receptor density. In this study healthy subjects (n = 235) who filled in at least one of several personality questionnaires (Karolinska Scales of Personality, Swedish Universities Scales of Personality, Health-relevant Five-factor Personality Inventory, and Temperament and Character Inventory) were analyzed with regard to the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant. There was an association (p =.001) between the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant and Karolinska Scales of Personality Detachment scale, indicating higher scores in subjects with the -141C del variant. There were also associations between the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant and a number of Karolinska Scales of Personality and Swedish Universities Scales of Personality Neuroticism-related scales, but of these only Swedish Universities Scales of Personality Lack of Assertiveness scale (p =.001) survived correction for multiple testing. These results add further support for the involvement of dopamine D(2) receptor in certain personality traits. The results should be treated with caution until replicated.

  18. Voluminous D2 source for intense cold neutron beam production at the ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Batkov, K.; Mezei, F.

    2014-01-01

    the target for the complementary needs of certain fundamental physics experiments. To facilitate experiments depending on the total number of neutrons in a sizable beam, the option of a voluminous D2 moderator, in a large cross-section extraction guide is discussed and its neutronic performance is assessed....

  19. Nonsequential double ionization of D2 molecules with intense 20-fs pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, H.; Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.

    2003-01-01

    The kinetic-energy distribution of D+ fragments obtained from the ionization of D2 molecules with intense 20-fs pulses includes a high-energy component extending up to ˜10 eV. These fragments are only present for linearly, or slightly elliptically, polarized light. Both the maximum kinetic...

  20. Modeling Cellular Networks with Full Duplex D2D Communication: A Stochastic Geometry Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    to the induced mutual interference. Therefore, a large-scale study is necessary to draw legitimate conclusions about gains associated with FD-communication. This paper studies the FD operation for underlay device-to-device (D2D) communication sharing the uplink

  1. Thermal behavior of TAXN and TCDXM D2 collimator mask, Finite element studies

    CERN Document Server

    Sklariks, Stepans

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to perform thermal loading simulations of TCDXM (D2 collimator mask) and TAXN so as to allow the preliminary evaluation of the suitability of the given parts for the upcoming high luminosity upgrade that is to be performed in LHC in the nearest future.

  2. On Secondary Electron Emission from Solid H2 and D2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    1978-01-01

    The emission of secondary electrons from solid hydrogen (H2 , D2, T2) is often considered to be of importance for the interaction between a fusion plasma and pellets of solid hydrogens. A set-up was therefore built for studies of interactions between energetic particles and solid hydrogens. Studies...... of secondary electron emission (SEE) from solid H2 and D2 were made for incidence of electrons up to 3 keV and for incidence of ions of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium up to 10 keV. The measurements were made for normal incidence, and in some cases also for oblique incidence. The SEE coefficients for solid H2...... is always 0.65-0.70 times that for solid D2. This difference is attributed to different losses to vibrational states in H2 and D2 for the low energy electrons. Measurements were also made on solid para-H2 with both electrons and hydrogen ions. There was no difference from the results for normal H2, which...

  3. Comparative d2/d3 LSU–rDNA sequence study of some Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-05

    Nov 5, 2007 ... segments yielded one fragment at over all sequenced isolates as 787 bp in size. The DNA sequences were aligned .... expansion segments of the 28S rDNA subunit (D2/D3. LSU-rDNA) are the ... isolated from different geographical location from tea shrubs infested roots of Guilan province, Iran (Table 1).

  4. Arabidopsis and Musa cyclin D2 expressed in banana (cv. “Sukali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic transformation of banana is important because of its polyploidy, sterility and long generation time of most cultivars which limit conventional breeding. However, transformability and regeneration of transgenic lines remains low in bananas. This research reports on the potential of CycD2 genes to improve ...

  5. VUV Fourier-transform absorption study of the Lyman and Werner bands in D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Arno; Dickenson, Gareth D.; Salumbides, Edcel J.; Ubachs, Wim; de Oliveira, Nelson; Joyeux, Denis; Nahon, Laurent

    2012-06-01

    An extensive survey of the D2 absorption spectrum has been performed with the high-resolution VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer employing synchrotron radiation. The frequency range of 90 000-119 000 cm-1 covers the full depth of the potential wells of the B sideset{^1}{+u}{Σ}, B^' } sideset{^1}{+u}{Σ}, and C 1Πu electronic states up to the D(1s) + D(2ℓ) dissociation limit. Improved level energies of rovibrational levels have been determined up to respectively v = 51, v = 13, and v = 20. Highest resolution is achieved by probing absorption in a molecular gas jet with slit geometry, as well as in a liquid helium cooled static gas cell, resulting in line widths of ≈0.35 cm-1. Extended calibration methods are employed to extract line positions of D2 lines at absolute accuracies of 0.03 cm-1. The D 1Πu and B^' ' } sideset{^1}{+u}{Σ} electronic states correlate with the D(1s) + D(3ℓ) dissociation limit, but support a few vibrational levels below the second dissociation limit, respectively, v = 0-3 and v = 0-1, and are also included in the presented study. The complete set of resulting level energies is the most comprehensive and accurate data set for D2. The observations are compared with previous studies, both experimental and theoretical.

  6. On the symmetry algebra of the discrete states in d<2 closed string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, S.; Roy, S.

    1993-01-01

    The symmetry charges associated with the Lian-Zuckerman states for d<2 closed string theory are constructed. Unlike in the open string case, it is shown here that the symmetry charges commute among themselves and act trivially on all the physical states. (author). 19 refs

  7. Cannabinoids Regulate Bcl-2 and Cyclin D2 Expression in Pancreatic β Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    Full Text Available Recent reports have shown that cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs are expressed in pancreatic β cells, where they induce cell death and cell cycle arrest by directly inhibiting insulin receptor activation. Here, we report that CB1Rs regulate the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cell cycle regulator cyclin D2 in pancreatic β cells. Treatment of MIN6 and βTC6 cells with a synthetic CB1R agonist, WIN55,212-2, led to a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2, in turn inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Additionally, genetic deletion and pharmacological blockade of CB1Rs after injury in mice led to increased levels of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2 in pancreatic β cells. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2 mediated by CB1Rs in the regulation of β-cell survival and growth, and will serve as a basis for developing new therapeutic interventions to enhance β-cell function and growth in diabetes.

  8. Effects of sigma(1) receptor ligand MS-377 on D(2) antagonists-induced behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Shinji; Takagi, Kaori; Horikomi, Kazutoshi

    2002-10-01

    (R)-(+)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl-2-pyrrolidinone L-tartrate (MS-377) is a novel antipsychotic agent with selective and high affinity for sigma(1) receptor. The present study was carried out to clarify the interaction of MS-377 with dopamine D(2) receptor antagonists (D(2) antagonists) in concurrent administration, and then the involvement of sigma receptors in the interaction. The effects of MS-377 on haloperidol- or sultopride-induced inhibition of apomorphine-induced climbing behavior and catalepsy were investigated in mice and rats, respectively. In addition, the effects of (+)-SKF-10,047 and SA4503, both of which are sigma receptor agonists, and WAY-100,635, which is a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, on the interaction due to the concurrent use were also investigated. MS-377 potentiated the inhibitory effects of haloperidol or sultopride on apomorphine-induced climbing behavior in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, MS-377 did not affect the catalepsy induction by these drugs. The potentiation of the inhibitory effects of haloperidol or sultopride on apomorphine-induced climbing behavior by MS-377 was not inhibited by WAY-100,635, but was inhibited by (+)-SKF-10,047 and SA4503. These findings showed that MS-377 potentiates the efficacy of D(2) antagonists, but it does not deteriorate the adverse effect. Moreover, sigma(1) receptors are involved in this potentiation of the efficacy of D(2) antagonists by MS-377.

  9. Collisional Dynamics of the Cesium D1 and D2 Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    37 14. Comparison of Phase Changing Probability and Polarizability ...Phase Changing Probability and Polarizability for D2 Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 25...theoretically determined the values for broadening and shift rates for cesium with Argon , Krypton, and Xenon from the interatomic potentials [27]. The rates

  10. Utilizing Semantic Interpretation of Junctions for 3D-2D Pose Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Florian; Yan, Shi; Grest, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the quality of 3D-2D pose estimates using hand labeled line and point correspondences. We select point correspondences from junctions in the image, allowing to construct a meaningful interpretation about how the junction is formed, as proposed in e.g. [1], [2], [3]. W...

  11. Effects of substituting D2O for H2O on SANS measurements of hydrating cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabine, T.M.; Prior, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements of cement have been found useful in the investigation of the shape and growth of particles formed during hydration. Calorimetric measurements of hydrating cement samples have shown that the substitution of D 2 O for H 2 O has the effect of slowing the hydration process. In order to throw some light on this phenomenon, we have measured SANS profiles from cement samples hydrating in H 2 O and D 2 O. This involved obtaining SANS profiles at half-hourly intervals during the initial stage of hydration. The only instruments capable of this at present are located at the Hahn-Meitner Institute in Berlin and at the Nuclear Physics Institute at Rez near Prague. Initial experiments carried out on the V12a UltraSANS diffractometer at The Hahn-Meitner Institute were only partially successful owing to excessive multiple scattering in the D 2 O samples. Subsequent measurements were therefore carried out on the similar instrument at Rez near Prague which operates at a shorter neutron wavelength. Results from these measurements show profound differences in the evolution of cements hydrating in D 2 O and those hydrating in H 2 O

  12. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1EV4D-2OADA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1EV4D-2OADA 1EV4 2OAD D A SGKPVLHYFNARGRMECIRFLLAAAGVEFDEKFIQSPED...ine> ASP CA 238 2OAD A 2OADA...bID>2OAD A 2OADA LLSQNQGGKAFI...2OAD A 2OADA EEVVT-----IDTWM ...ID> 3 2OAD A 2OADA

  13. Guanine nucleotide regulatory protein co-purifies with the D2-dopamine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senogles, S.E.; Caron, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The D 2 -dopamine receptor from bovine anterior pituitary was purified ∼1000 fold by affinity chromatography on CMOS-Sepharose. Reconstitution of the affinity-purified receptor into phospholipid vesicles revealed the presence of high and low affinity agonist sites as detected by N-n-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) competition experiments with 3 H-spiperone. High affinity agonist binding could be converted to the low affinity form by guanine nucleotides, indicating the presence of an endogenous guanine nucleotide binding protein (N protein) in the affinity-purified D 2 receptor preparations. Furthermore, this preparation contained an agonist-sensitive GTPase activity which was stimulated 2-3 fold over basal by 10 μM NPA. 35 S-GTPγS binding to these preparations revealed a stoichiometry of 0.4-0.7 mole N protein/mole receptor, suggesting the N protein may be specifically coupled with the purified D 2 -dopamine receptor and not present as a contaminant. Pertussis toxin treatment of the affinity purified receptor preparations prevented high affinity agonist binding, as well as agonist stimulation of the GTPase activity, presumably by inactivating the associated N protein. Pertussis toxin lead to the ADP-ribosylation of a protein of 39-40K on SDS-PAGE. These findings indicate that an endogenous N protein, N/sub i/ or N/sub o/, co-purifies with the D 2 -dopamine receptor which may reflect a precoupling of this receptor with an N protein within the membranes

  14. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour...

  15. Welding procedure for 06Kh13N7D2 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muromtsev, B.I.; Turkov, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    Based on the results of investigations into the process strength, mechanical and corrosion properties of 08Kh13N7D2 steel welded joints, the optimal method of its welding and a possibility of applying it for high-strength mounting in nuclear power plants are determined

  16. Involvement of dopamine D2 receptors in addictive-like behaviour for acetaldehyde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brancato

    Full Text Available Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is active in the central nervous system, where it exerts motivational properties. Acetaldehyde is able to induce drinking behaviour in operant-conflict paradigms that resemble the core features of the addictive phenotype: drug-intake acquisition and maintenance, drug-seeking, relapse and drug use despite negative consequences. Since acetaldehyde directly stimulates dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic system, the aim of this study was the investigation of dopamine D2-receptors' role in the onset of the operant drinking behaviour for acetaldehyde in different functional stages, by the administration of two different D2-receptor agonists, quinpirole and ropinirole. Our results show that acetaldehyde was able to induce and maintain a drug-taking behaviour, displaying an escalation during training, and a reinstatement behaviour after 1-week forced abstinence. Acetaldehyde operant drinking behaviour involved D2-receptor signalling: in particular, quinpirole administration at 0.03 mg/kg, induced a significant decrease in the number of lever presses both in extinction and in relapse. Ropinirole, administered at 0.03 mg/kg during extinction, did not produce any modification but, when administered during abstinence, induced a strong decrease in acetaldehyde intake in the following relapse session. Taken together, our data suggest that acetaldehyde exerts its own motivational properties, involving the dopaminergic transmission: indeed, activation of pre-synaptic D2-receptors by quinpirole, during extinction and relapse, negatively affects operant behaviour for acetaldehyde, likely decreasing acetaldehyde-induced dopamine release. The activation of post-synaptic D2-receptors by ropinirole, during abstinence, decreases the motivation to the consecutive reinstatement of acetaldehyde drinking behaviour, likely counteracting the reduction in the dopaminergic tone typical of withdrawal. These data further

  17. Multigenerational effects of adolescent morphine exposure on dopamine D2 receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, John J; Johnson, Nicole L; Carini, Lindsay M; Byrnes, Elizabeth M

    2013-05-01

    The use and misuse of prescription opiates in adolescent populations, and in particular, adolescent female populations, has increased dramatically in the past two decades. Given the significant role that opioids play in neuroendocrine function, exposure to opiates during this critical developmental period could have significant consequences for the female, as well as her offspring. In the current set of studies, we utilized the female rat to model the transgenerational impact of adolescent opiate exposure. We examined locomotor sensitization in response to the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole in the adult male progeny (F1 and F2 generations) of females exposed to morphine during adolescence. All females were drug-free for at least 3 weeks prior to conception, eliminating the possibility of direct fetal exposure to morphine. Both F1 and F2 progeny of morphine-exposed females demonstrated attenuated locomotor sensitization following repeated quinpirole administration. These behavioral effects were coupled with increased quinpirole-induced corticosterone secretion and upregulated kappa opioid receptor and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) gene expression within the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest significant modifications in response to repeated D2R activation in the progeny of females exposed to opiates during adolescence. Given the significant role that the D2R plays in psychopathology, adolescent opiate exposure could shift the vulnerability of future offspring to psychological disorders, including addiction. Moreover, that effects are also observed in the F2 generation suggests that adolescent opiate exposure can trigger transgenerational epigenetic modifications impacting systems critical for motivated behavior.

  18. Homeostatic regulation of excitatory synapses on striatal medium spiny neurons expressing the D2 dopamine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Dominic; Giguère, Nicolas; Loustalot, Fabien; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Ducrot, Charles; El Mestikawy, Salah; Trudeau, Louis-Éric

    2016-05-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are contacted by glutamatergic axon terminals originating from cortex, thalamus and other regions. The striatum is also innervated by dopaminergic (DAergic) terminals, some of which release glutamate as a co-transmitter. Despite evidence for functional DA release at birth in the striatum, the role of DA in the establishment of striatal circuitry is unclear. In light of recent work suggesting activity-dependent homeostatic regulation of glutamatergic terminals on MSNs expressing the D2 DA receptor (D2-MSNs), we used primary co-cultures to test the hypothesis that stimulation of DA and glutamate receptors regulates the homeostasis of glutamatergic synapses on MSNs. Co-culture of D2-MSNs with mesencephalic DA neurons or with cortical neurons produced an increase in spines and functional glutamate synapses expressing VGLUT2 or VGLUT1, respectively. The density of VGLUT2-positive terminals was reduced by the conditional knockout of this gene from DA neurons. In the presence of both mesencephalic and cortical neurons, the density of synapses reached the same total, compatible with the possibility of a homeostatic mechanism capping excitatory synaptic density. Blockade of D2 receptors increased the density of cortical and mesencephalic glutamatergic terminals, without changing MSN spine density or mEPSC frequency. Combined blockade of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors increased the density of cortical terminals and decreased that of mesencephalic VGLUT2-positive terminals, with no net change in total excitatory terminal density or in mEPSC frequency. These results suggest that DA and glutamate signaling regulate excitatory inputs to striatal D2-MSNs at both the pre- and postsynaptic level, under the influence of a homeostatic mechanism controlling functional output of the circuit.

  19. Multivariate cluster analysis of dynamic iodine-123 iodobenzamide SPET dopamine D2receptor images in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, P.D.; Pilowsky, L.S.; Costa, D.C.; Ell, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a multivariate statistical technique to investigate striatal dopamine D 2 receptor concentrations measured by iodine-123 iodobenzamide ( 123 I-IBZM) single-photon emission tomography (SPET). This technique enables the automatic segmentation of dynamic nuclear medicine images based on the underlying time-activity curves present in the data. Once the time-activity curves have been extracted, each pixel can be mapped back on to the underlying distribution, considerably reducing image noise. Cluster analysis has been verified using computer simulations and phantom studies. The technique has been applied to SPET images of dopamine D 2 receptors in a total of 20 healthy and 20 schizophrenic volunteers (22 male, 18 female), using the ligand 123 I-IBZM. Following automatic image segmentation, the concentration of striatal dopamine D 2 receptors shows a significant left-sided asymmetry in male schizophrenics compared with male controls. The mean left-minus-right laterality index for controls is -1.52 (95% CI -3.72-0.66) and for patients 4.04 (95% CI 1.07-7.01). Analysis of variance shows a case-by-sex-by-side interaction, with F=10.01, P=0.005. We can now demonstrate that the previously observed male sex-specific D 2 receptor asymmetry in schizophrenia, which had failed to attain statistical significance, is valid. Cluster analysis of dynamic nuclear medicine studies provides a powerful tool for automatic segmentation and noise reduction of the images, removing much of the subjectivity inherent in region-of-interest analysis. The observed striatal D 2 asymmetry could reflect long hypothesized disruptions in dopamine-rich cortico-striatal-limbic circuits in schizophrenic males. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Radioiodination of central nerves system dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent. IBZM preparation and preclinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong; Hu Mingyang; Pan Shangren; Wang Bocheng

    1996-01-01

    To study preparation of central nerves system dopamine D2 imaging agent 131 I-IBZM and its preclinical investigation, peracetic acid was used as the oxidant for preparing radioiodinated 125 I-IBZM and 131 I-IBZM, D2 binding properties of IBZM were examined by in vitro binding saturation analysis, rat whole body and regional brain biodistribution, rat brain autoradiography and rabbit SPECT static imaging, etc. The results are: 1. The radiolabelling yields of 125 I-IBZM and 131 I-IBZM were 84.18% +- 3.06% and 78.50% +- 3.47%. The radiochemical purity were over 95% after being isolated by HPLC; and were over 90% after being isolated by organic extraction. 2. Scatchard plot of D2 receptor saturation binding analysis showed: K d = 0.53 +- 0.06 nmol/L, B max = 466.45 +- 45.88 fmol/mg protein. 3. The rat brain autoradiography and analysis showed that there was high 125 I-IBZM uptake in striatal area 2 hr after injection, the striatal/cerebellum ratio was 6.22 +- 0.48; the high 125 -IBZM uptake can be blocked by haloperidol--a special dopamine D2 receptor antagonist. 4. 131 I-IBZM rat biodistribution and rabbit SPECT planar imaging showed good initial brain uptake and retention, the initial uptake of rat brain was 1.893 +- 0.147% ID/g at 2 min and 1.044 +- 0.135% ID/g at 60 min. The results showed that the radioiodinated IBZM had high affinity, saturation and specificity to rat's and rabbit's central nerves system dopamine D2 receptors

  1. Involvement of dopamine D2 receptors in addictive-like behaviour for acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Anna; Plescia, Fulvio; Marino, Rosa Anna Maria; Maniaci, Giuseppe; Navarra, Michele; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is active in the central nervous system, where it exerts motivational properties. Acetaldehyde is able to induce drinking behaviour in operant-conflict paradigms that resemble the core features of the addictive phenotype: drug-intake acquisition and maintenance, drug-seeking, relapse and drug use despite negative consequences. Since acetaldehyde directly stimulates dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic system, the aim of this study was the investigation of dopamine D2-receptors' role in the onset of the operant drinking behaviour for acetaldehyde in different functional stages, by the administration of two different D2-receptor agonists, quinpirole and ropinirole. Our results show that acetaldehyde was able to induce and maintain a drug-taking behaviour, displaying an escalation during training, and a reinstatement behaviour after 1-week forced abstinence. Acetaldehyde operant drinking behaviour involved D2-receptor signalling: in particular, quinpirole administration at 0.03 mg/kg, induced a significant decrease in the number of lever presses both in extinction and in relapse. Ropinirole, administered at 0.03 mg/kg during extinction, did not produce any modification but, when administered during abstinence, induced a strong decrease in acetaldehyde intake in the following relapse session. Taken together, our data suggest that acetaldehyde exerts its own motivational properties, involving the dopaminergic transmission: indeed, activation of pre-synaptic D2-receptors by quinpirole, during extinction and relapse, negatively affects operant behaviour for acetaldehyde, likely decreasing acetaldehyde-induced dopamine release. The activation of post-synaptic D2-receptors by ropinirole, during abstinence, decreases the motivation to the consecutive reinstatement of acetaldehyde drinking behaviour, likely counteracting the reduction in the dopaminergic tone typical of withdrawal. These data further strengthen the evidence

  2. Radioiodination of central nerves system dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent. IBZM preparation and preclinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yansong, Lin; Xiangtong, Lin; Mingyang, Hu; Shangren, Pan; Bocheng, Wang [Huashan Hospital of Shanghai Medical Univ., Shanghai (China)

    1996-11-01

    To study preparation of central nerves system dopamine D2 imaging agent {sup 131}I-IBZM and its preclinical investigation, peracetic acid was used as the oxidant for preparing radioiodinated {sup 125}I-IBZM and {sup 131}I-IBZM, D2 binding properties of IBZM were examined by in vitro binding saturation analysis, rat whole body and regional brain biodistribution, rat brain autoradiography and rabbit SPECT static imaging, etc. The results are: 1. The radiolabelling yields of {sup 125}I-IBZM and {sup 131}I-IBZM were 84.18% +- 3.06% and 78.50% +- 3.47%. The radiochemical purity were over 95% after being isolated by HPLC; and were over 90% after being isolated by organic extraction. 2. Scatchard plot of D2 receptor saturation binding analysis showed: K{sub d} = 0.53 +- 0.06 nmol/L, B{sub max} = 466.45 +- 45.88 fmol/mg protein. 3. The rat brain autoradiography and analysis showed that there was high {sup 125}I-IBZM uptake in striatal area 2 hr after injection, the striatal/cerebellum ratio was 6.22 +- 0.48; the high {sup 125}-IBZM uptake can be blocked by haloperidol--a special dopamine D2 receptor antagonist. 4. {sup 131}I-IBZM rat biodistribution and rabbit SPECT planar imaging showed good initial brain uptake and retention, the initial uptake of rat brain was 1.893 +- 0.147% ID/g at 2 min and 1.044 +- 0.135% ID/g at 60 min. The results showed that the radioiodinated IBZM had high affinity, saturation and specificity to rat`s and rabbit`s central nerves system dopamine D2 receptors.

  3. Diffusion Monte Carlo simulations of gas phase and adsorbed D2-(H2)n clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curotto, E.; Mella, M.

    2018-03-01

    We have computed ground state energies and analyzed radial distributions for several gas phase and adsorbed D2(H2)n and HD(H2)n clusters. An external model potential designed to mimic ionic adsorption sites inside porous materials is used [M. Mella and E. Curotto, J. Phys. Chem. A 121, 5005 (2017)]. The isotopic substitution lowers the ground state energies by the expected amount based on the mass differences when these are compared with the energies of the pure clusters in the gas phase. A similar impact is found for adsorbed aggregates. The dissociation energy of D2 from the adsorbed clusters is always much higher than that of H2 from both pure and doped aggregates. Radial distributions of D2 and H2 are compared for both the gas phase and adsorbed species. For the gas phase clusters, two types of hydrogen-hydrogen interactions are considered: one based on the assumption that rotations and translations are adiabatically decoupled and the other based on nonisotropic four-dimensional potential. In the gas phase clusters of sufficiently large size, we find the heavier isotopomer more likely to be near the center of mass. However, there is a considerable overlap among the radial distributions of the two species. For the adsorbed clusters, we invariably find the heavy isotope located closer to the attractive interaction source than H2, and at the periphery of the aggregate, H2 molecules being substantially excluded from the interaction with the source. This finding rationalizes the dissociation energy results. For D2-(H2)n clusters with n ≥12 , such preference leads to the desorption of D2 from the aggregate, a phenomenon driven by the minimization of the total energy that can be obtained by reducing the confinement of (H2)12. The same happens for (H2)13, indicating that such an effect may be quite general and impact on the absorption of quantum species inside porous materials.

  4. Interaction between vitamin D 2 and magnesium in liposomes: Differential scanning calorimetry and FTIR spectroscopy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyran, Neslihan; Severcan, Feride

    2007-08-01

    Magnesium (Mg 2+) ion is of great importance in physiology by its intervention in 300 enzymatic systems, its role in membrane structure, its function in neuromuscular excitability and vitamin D metabolism and/or action. In the present study, the interaction of Mg 2+, at low (1 mole %) and high (7 mole %) concentrations with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes has been studied in the presence and absence of vitamin D 2 (1 mole %) by using two noninvasive techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. DSC studies reveal that the presence of vitamin D 2 in the pure or Mg 2+ (at both low and high concentrations) containing liposomes diminishes the pretransition. The calorimetric results also reveal that, inclusion of Mg 2+ (more significantly at high concentration) into pure or vitamin D 2 containing DPPC liposomes increases the main phase transition temperature. The investigation of the CH 2 symmetric, the CH 3 asymmetric, the C dbnd O stretching, and the PO2- antisymmetric double bond stretching bands in FTIR spectra with respect to changes occurring in the wavenumber and/or the bandwidth values as a function of temperature reveal that, inclusion of vitamin D 2 or Mg 2+ into pure DPPC liposomes orders and decreases the dynamics of the acyl chains in both gel and liquid-crystalline phases and does not induce hydrogen bond formation in the interfacial region. Furthermore, the dynamics of the head groups of the liposomes decreases in both phases. Our findings reveal that, simultaneous presence of vitamin D 2 and Mg 2+ alters the effect of each other, which is reflected as a decrease in the interactions between these two additives within the model membrane.

  5. Production of Long-Lived H2-, HD-, and D2- during Grazing Scattering Collisions of H2+, H3+, D2+, D3+ and D2H+ Ions with KBr, KCl, and LiF Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, D. G.; Meyer, F. W.; Zhang, H.; Havener, C. C.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated atomic and molecular anion production from singly charged atomic and molecular hydrogen, deuterium, and mixed isotope beams during grazing interactions with large area KBr, KCl, and LiF single crystal targets in the incident energy range 4-22.5 keV. Electron capture and, in the case of incident molecular ions, dissociation occur during the grazing interactions without appreciable angular straggling or change in velocity. As a result, atomic and molecular cation and anion interaction products are strongly peaked in the specular reflection direction, and, in case of dissociation products, at the fractional kinetic energies determined by the product fragment mass to incident mass ratios. A large-acceptance electrostatic analysis and detection system is used to collect the charged scattering products with high efficiency. Of particular interest is the production of metastable molecular ions H 2 - , HD - , and D 2 - . By comparing molecular anion yields obtained from incident hydrogen, deuterium and mixed isotope molecular ions, effects arising from isobaric contamination are seen for some incident molecular species.

  6. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkonen, Suvi T; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2016-04-14

    There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (PD2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (PD2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (PD2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool.

  7. Exploring personality traits related to dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Chung, Jun Ku; Gerretsen, Philip; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Iwata, Yusuke; Wilson, Alan; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-04-01

    While several studies have examined how particular personality traits are related to dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability in the striatum of humans, few studies have reported how multiple traits measured in the same persons are differentially related to D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. We examined how personality traits measured with the Karolinska Scales of Personality are related to striatal D2/3R availability measured with [(11)C]-raclopride in 30 healthy humans. Based on previous the literature, five personality traits were hypothesized to be most likely related to D2/3R availability: impulsiveness, monotony avoidance, detachment, social desirability, and socialization. We found self-reported impulsiveness was negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. After controlling for age and gender, monotony avoidance was also negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. Socialization was positively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and putamen. After controlling for age and gender, the relationship between socialization and D2/3R availability in these regions survived correction for multiple comparisons (p-threshold=.003). Thus, within the same persons, different personality traits are differentially related to in vivo D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Link between D1 and D2 dopamine receptors is reduced in schizophrenia and Huntington diseased brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, P.; Niznik, H.B.; Guan, H.C.; Booth, G.; Ulpian, C.

    1989-01-01

    Dopamine receptor types D 1 and D 2 can oppose enhance each other's actions for electrical, biochemical, and psychomotor effects. The authors report a D 1 -D 2 interaction in homogenized tissue as revealed by ligand binding. D 2 agonists lowered the binding of [ 3 H]raclopride to D 2 receptors in striatal and anterior pituitary tissues. Pretreating the tissue with the D 1 -selective antagonist SCH 23390 prevented the agonist-induced decrease in [ 3 H]raclopride binding to D 2 sites in the striatum but not in the anterior pituitary, which has no D 1 receptors. Conversely, a dopamine-induced reduction in the binding of [ 3 H]SCH 23390 to D 1 receptors could be prevented by the D 2 -selective antagonist eticlopride. Receptor photolabeling experiments confirmed both these D 1 -D 2 interactions. The blocking effect by SCH 23390 was similar to that produced by a nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide analogue, and SCH 23390 reduced the number of agonist-labeled D 2 receptors in the high-affinity state. Thus, the D 1 -D 2 link may be mediated by guanine nucleotide-binding protein components. The link may underlie D 1 -D 2 interactions influencing behavior, since the link was missing in over half the postmortem striata from patients with schizophrenia and Huntington disease (both diseases that show some hyperdopamine signs) but was present in human control, Alzheimer, and Parkinson striata

  9. Does prostaglandin D2 hold the cure to male pattern baldness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Ashley; Garza, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    Lipids in the skin are the most diverse in the entire human body. Their bioactivity in health and disease is underexplored. Prostaglandin D2 has recently been identified as a factor which is elevated in the bald scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and has the capacity to decrease hair lengthening. An enzyme which synthesizes it, prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS or lipocalin-PGDS), is hormone responsive in multiple other organs. PGD2 has two known receptors, GPR44 and PTGDR. GPR44 was found to be necessary for the decrease in hair growth by PGD2 . This creates an exciting opportunity to perhaps create novel treatments for AGA, which inhibit the activity of PTGDS, PGD2 or GPR44. This review discusses the current knowledge surrounding PGD2 , and future steps needed to translate these findings into novel therapies for patients with AGA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Providing Fast Discovery in D2D Communication with Full Duplex Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatnau, Marta; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2016-01-01

    technology to provide D2D fast discovery. Such framework provides an algorithm to estimate the number of neighbor devices and to dynamically decide the transmission probability, for adapting to network changes and meeting the 10 milliseconds target. Finally, a signaling scheme is proposed to reduce......In Direct Device-to-Device (D2D), the device awareness procedure known as the discovery phase is required prior to the exchange of data. This work considers autonomous devices where the infrastructure is not involved in the discovery procedure. Commonly, the transmission of the discovery message...... the network interference. Results show that our framework performs better than a static approach, reducing the time it takes to complete the discovery phase. In addition, supporting full duplex allows to further reduce the discovery time compared to half duplex transmission mode....

  11. Achieving energy efficiency in LTE with joint D2D communications and green networking techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the joint operation of cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green cellular communications is investigated. An efficient approach for grouping mobile terminals (MTs) into cooperative clusters is described. In each cluster, MTs cooperate via D2D communications to share content of common interest. Furthermore, an energy-efficient technique for putting BSs in sleep mode in an LTE cellular network is presented. Finally, both methods are combined in order to ensure green communications for both the users\\' MTs and the operator\\'s BSs. The studied methods are investigated in the framework of OFDMA-based state-of-the-art LTE cellular networks, while taking into account intercell interference and resource allocation. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Tool life and surface roughness of ceramic cutting tool when turning AISI D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Emri Wan Abdul Rahaman

    2007-01-01

    The tool life of physical vapor deposition (PVD) titanium nitride (TiN) coated ceramic when turning AISI D2 tool steel of hardness 54-55 HRC was investigated. The experiments were conducted at various cutting speed and feed rate combinations with constant depth of cut and under dry cutting condition. The tool life of the cutting tool for all cutting conditions was obtained. The tool failure mode and wear mechanism were also investigated. The wear mechanism that is responsible for the wear form is abrasion and diffusion. Flank wear and crater wear are the main wear form found when turning AISI D2 grade hardened steel with 54-55 HRC using KY 4400 ceramic cutting tool. Additionally catastrophic failure is observed at cutting speed of 183 m/min and feed rate of 0.16 mm/ rev. (author)

  13. Microstructure evolution and texture development in a friction stir-processed AISI D2 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasavol, N.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Vieira, M. T.; Jafarian, H. R.

    2014-02-01

    Crystallographic texture developments during friction stir processing (FSP) of AISI D2 tool were studied with respect to grain sizes in different tool rotation rates. Comparison of the grain sizes in various rotation rates confirmed that grain refinement occurred progressively in higher rotation rates by severe plastic deformation. It was found that the predominant mechanism during FSP should be dynamic recovery (DRV) happened concurrently with continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) caused by particle-stimulated nucleation (PSN). The developed shear texture relates to the ideal shear textures of D1 and D2 in bcc metals. The prevalence of highly dense arrangement of close-packed planes of bcc and the lowest Taylor factor showed the lowest compressive residual stress which is responsible for better mechanical properties compared with the grain-precipitate refinement.

  14. AFM surface imaging of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the EDM process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guu, Y.H.

    2005-01-01

    The surface morphology, surface roughness and micro-crack of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process were analyzed by means of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. Experimental results indicate that the surface texture after EDM is determined by the discharge energy during processing. An excellent machined finish can be obtained by setting the machine parameters at a low pulse energy. The surface roughness and the depth of the micro-cracks were proportional to the power input. Furthermore, the AFM application yielded information about the depth of the micro-cracks is particularly important in the post treatment of AISI D2 tool steel machined by EDM

  15. On electrical resistivity of AISI D2 steel during various stages of cryogenic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomte, Sachin Vijay; Gogte, Chandrashekhar Laxman; Peshwe, Dilip

    2012-06-01

    The effect of dislocation densities and residual stresses is well known in tool steels. Measurement of electrical resistivity in order to monitor dislocation densities or residual stresses has seldom been used in investigating the effect of cryogenic treatment on tool steels. Monitoring residual stresses during cryogenic treatment becomes important as it is directly related to changes due to cryogenic treatment of tool steels. For high carbon high chromium (HCHC- AISI D2) steels, not only wear resistance but dimensional stability is an important issue as the steels are extensively used in dies, precision measuring instruments. This work comprises of study of measurement of electrical resistivity of AISI D2 steel at various stages of cryogenic treatment. Use of these measurements in order to assess the dimensional stability of these steels is discussed in this paper.

  16. AFM surface imaging of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the EDM process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guu, Y. H.

    2005-04-01

    The surface morphology, surface roughness and micro-crack of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process were analyzed by means of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. Experimental results indicate that the surface texture after EDM is determined by the discharge energy during processing. An excellent machined finish can be obtained by setting the machine parameters at a low pulse energy. The surface roughness and the depth of the micro-cracks were proportional to the power input. Furthermore, the AFM application yielded information about the depth of the micro-cracks is particularly important in the post treatment of AISI D2 tool steel machined by EDM.

  17. Could we understand the 1 D2 → pp-bar charmonium decay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Negrao, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Massless perturbative QCD forbids, at leading order, the exclusive annihilation of proton-antiproton into charmonium states, which, however, have been observed in the pp-bar channel, indicating the significance of higher order and non perturbative effects in the few GeV energy region. The most well known cases are those of the 1 S 0 (η c ) and the 1P 1 . We consider here the 1 D 2 state, whose coupling to pp-bar in equally forbidden in p QCD, and study several possible non perturbative contributions. It turns out that the observation of the pp-bar → 1 D 2 process would be very intriguing indeed. (author)

  18. Successful treatment of dopamine dysregulation syndrome with dopamine D2 partial agonist antipsychotic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizushima Jin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS consists of a series of complications such as compulsive use of dopaminergic medications, aggressive or hypomanic behaviors during excessive use, and withdrawal states characterized by dysphoria and anxiety, caused by long-term dopaminergic treatment in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Although several ways to manage DDS have been suggested, there has been no established treatment that can manage DDS without deterioration of motor symptoms. In this article, we present a case of PD in whom the administration of the dopamine D2 partial agonistic antipsychotic drug aripiprazole improved DDS symptoms such as craving and compulsive behavior without worsening of motor symptoms. Considering the profile of this drug as a partial agonist at D2 receptors, it is possible that it exerts its therapeutic effect on DDS by modulating the dysfunctional dopamine system.

  19. Experimental study on electrostatic guiding of supersonic D2O molecular beam with two charged wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Yaling; Xia Yong; Chen Haibo; Yin Jianping

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate the guiding of a supersonic heavy-water (D 2 O) molecular beam using a hollow electrostatic field generated by the combination of two parallel charged-wires and two grounded metal-plates, and report some new and preliminary experimental results. In the experiment, we detect the guiding signals by using the method of time-of-flight mass spectrum and study the dependence of the relative transmission of the beam guide on the guiding voltage. Our study shows that the relative transmission of the beam guide is increased linearly with increasing guiding voltage V guid , and the number of the guided D 2 O molecules is at least increased by 89.4% when the guiding voltage is +20.0 kV. Finally, some potential applications of our guiding scheme in the molecule optics are briefly discussed. (authors)

  20. Cloning of the cDNA and gene for a human D2 dopamine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, D.K.; Makam, H.; Stofko, R.E.; Bunzow, J.R.; Civelli, O.; Marchionni, M.A.; Alfano, M.; Frothingham, L.; Fischer, J.B.; Burke-Howie, K.J.; Server, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    A clone encoding a human D 2 dopamine receptor was isolated from a pituitary cDNA library and sequenced. The deduced protein sequence is 96% identical with that of the cloned rat receptor with one major difference: the human receptor contains an additional 29 amino acids in its putative third cytoplasmic loop. Southern blotting demonstrated the presence of only one human D 2 receptor gene. Two overlapping phage containing the gene were isolated and characterized. DNA sequence analysis of these clones showed that the coding sequence is interrupted by six introns and that the additional amino acids present in the human pituitary receptor are encoded by a single exon of 87 base pairs. The involvement of this sequence in alternative splicing and its biological significance are discussed

  1. Calculation on the heat of gasification for the saturated liquid of D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Fangfang; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Zhu Zhenghe; Wang Hongbin; Zhou Weimin; Chen Hao; Liu Hongjie

    2005-01-01

    In general, the saturated stream is regarded as the ideal gas for calculating the heat of gasification for the saturated liquid. However, the result of calculation was not consistent with the general law if D 2 was treated as the ideal gas under T c =38.34 K, the critical temperature. Considering the change of the volume from the liquid state to the gas state, this paper implored the Clapeyron differential equation and the equation of vapor-liquid equilibrium, and then obtained the heat of gasification and the entropy from 20 K to 38 K and the saturation curve. The method avoided regarding the saturate gas D 2 as the ideal gas and ignoring the volume change from the liquid state to the gas state, improving the calculation exactitude. (authors)

  2. Therapeutic window of dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy to treat psychosis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Suzanne; McLachlan, Emma; Bertrand, Julie; Antonio, Fabrizia D; Brownings, Stuart; Nair, Akshay; Greaves, Suki; Smith, Alan; Taylor, David; Dunn, Joel; Marsden, Paul; Kessler, Robert; Howard, Robert

    2017-04-01

    See Caravaggio and Graff-Guerrero (doi:10.1093/awx023) for a scientific commentary on this article.Antipsychotic drugs, originally developed to treat schizophrenia, are used to treat psychosis, agitation and aggression in Alzheimer's disease. In the absence of dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy data to inform antipsychotic prescribing for psychosis in Alzheimer's disease, the mechanisms underpinning antipsychotic efficacy and side effects are poorly understood. This study used a population approach to investigate the relationship between amisulpride blood concentration and central D2/3 occupancy in older people with Alzheimer's disease by combining: (i) pharmacokinetic data (280 venous samples) from a phase I single (50 mg) dose study in healthy older people (n = 20, 65-79 years); (ii) pharmacokinetic, 18F-fallypride D2/3 receptor imaging and clinical outcome data on patients with Alzheimer's disease who were prescribed amisulpride (25-75 mg daily) to treat psychosis as part of an open study (n = 28; 69-92 years; 41 blood samples, five pretreatment scans, 19 post-treatment scans); and (iii) 18F-fallypride imaging of an antipsychotic free Alzheimer's disease control group (n = 10, 78-92 years), to provide additional pretreatment data. Non-linear mixed effects modelling was used to describe pharmacokinetic-occupancy curves in caudate, putamen and thalamus. Model outputs were used to estimate threshold steady state blood concentration and occupancy required to elicit a clinically relevant response (>25% reduction in scores on delusions, hallucinations and agitation domains of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory) and extrapyramidal side effects (Simpson Angus Scale scores > 3). Average steady state blood levels were low (71 ± 30 ng/ml), and associated with high D2/3 occupancies (65 ± 8%, caudate; 67 ± 11%, thalamus; 52 ± 11%, putamen). Antipsychotic clinical response occurred at a threshold concentration of 20 ng/ml and D2/3 occupancies of 43% (caudate), 25% (putamen), 43

  3. Synthesis and 131I labelling of epidepride as a dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Hu Mingyang; Pei Zhuguo; Wang Bocheng; Zhou Xingqin

    2001-01-01

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-iodo-2, 3-dimethoxybenzamide (Epidepride) and its iodine labeling precursor S-(-)-N-[(1-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-tributyltin-2, 3-dimethoxybenzamide are synthesized from 3-methoxy salicylic acid. The labeling precursor is labeled with 131 I by hydrogen peroxide method, and 131 I-epidepride is gained, its radiolabelling yield (RLY) and the radiochemical purity (RCP) are all over 95%. The RCP of 131 I-epidepride is over 90% under 4 degree C after 15 days. 131 I-epidepride has high affinity to dopamine D 2 receptor. The striatal uptake can be blocked completely by spiperone. The striatum and cerebellum uptake ratio can reach 237 at 320 min in rats. The results show that 131 I-epidepride may be used as a dopamine D 2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT

  4. Examining the Role of Dopamine D2 and D3 Receptors in Pavlovian Conditioned Approach Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Kurt M.; Haight, Joshua L.; Gardner, Eliot L.; Flagel, Shelly B.

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in the extent to which reward cues acquire the ability to act as incentive stimuli may contribute to the development of successful treatments for addiction and related disorders. We used the sign-tracker/goal-tracker animal model to examine the role of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues. Following Pavlovian training, wherein a discrete lever-cue was paired wi...

  5. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Lin, X.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between dopamine (DA) D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemiparkinsonism rats. Hemi-parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, apomorphine (Apo) which could induce the successful model rat rotates toward the intact side was used to screen that rats, 125 I-IBZM in vivo autoradiography and 99m Tc-HM-PAO regional brain biodistribution were used to study D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD were used to measure the concentration of DA and it metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 3,4-dehydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) in bilateral striatum (ST). The lesioned side ST DA and its metabolites HVA DOPAC reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated control group, ST/cerebellum (CB) 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 ±0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (p 99m Tc 30.1±4.53% enhancement as compared to the intact side, and also show good correlation with 30 min Apo induced rotation numbers (r=0.98), the regional cerebral blood flow study didn't show significant difference between bilateral brain cortex area (p>0.05). The DA content decreased significantly and induced an up-regulation of ST D 2 receptor binding sites in 6-OH-DA lesioned side in hemi-parkinsonism rats, the increased percentage of lesioned-intact side ST/CB 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio showed good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Compare with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-parkinsonism

  6. D1/D2 domain of large-subunit ribosomal DNA for differentiation of Orpinomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Sumit S; Kumar, Sanjay; Mudgil, Priti; Singh, Rameshwar; Puniya, Anil K

    2011-09-01

    This study presents the suitability of D1/D2 domain of large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for differentiation of Orpinomyces joyonii and Orpinomyces intercalaris based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). A variation of G/T in O. intercalaris created an additional restriction site for AluI, which was used as an RFLP marker. The results demonstrate adequate heterogeneity in the LSU rDNA for species-level differentiation.

  7. Specific heat and magnetization of RMn2(H,D)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnawski, Z.; Kolwicz-Chodak, L.; Figiel, H.; Kim-Ngan, N.-T.H.; Havela, L.; Miliyanchuk, K.; Sechovsky, V.; Santava, E.; Sebek, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen absorption on magnetic and thermodynamic properties of hydrides compounds RMn 2 (H,D) 2 (R = Y, Nd, Tb, Ho, and Er) have been investigated by performing specific heat and magnetization measurements in the temperature range of 2-320 K and in magnetic fields up to 9 T. The phase transition to the antiferromagnetic order accompanying a crystal structure transformation have been revealed by complicated-structure anomalies in specific heat and weak anomalies in magnetization

  8. Information on the gauge principle from an N=1/2, D=2 supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, S.A.; Doria, R.M.; Valle, J.L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The gauge principle does not only work to generate interactions. It potentially yields an abundance of gauge-potential fields transforming under the same local symmetry group. In order to show evidences of this property this work gauge-covariantizes an N = 1/2, D = 2 supersymmetric theory. Then, by relaxing the so-called conventional constraint, a second gauge-potential field naturally emerges. (author) [pt

  9. Nonlinear conformally invariant generalization of the Poisson equation to D>2 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgrom, M.

    1997-01-01

    I propound a nonlinear generalization of the scalar-field Poisson equation [(var-phi , i var-phi ,i ) D/2-1 var-phi ; k ] ;k ∝ρ, in curved D-dimensional space. It is derivable from the Lagrangian density L D =L f D -Aρ var-phi, with L f D ∝-(var-phi , i var-phi ,i ) D/2 , and ρ the distribution of sources. Specializing to Euclidean spaces, where the field equation is ∇·(|∇ var-phi | D-2 ∇ var-phi)∝ρ, I find that L f D is the only conformally invariant (CI) Lagrangian in D dimensions, containing only first derivatives of var-phi, beside the free Lagrangian (∇ var-phi) 2 , which underlies the Laplace equation. When var-phi is coupled to the sources in the above manner, L D is left as the only CI Lagrangian. The symmetry is one's only recourse in solving this nonlinear theory for some nontrivial configurations. Systems comprising N point charges are special and afford further application of the symmetry. In spite of the CI, the energy function for such a system is not invariant under conformal transformations of the charges' positions. The anomalous transformation properties of the energy stem from effects of the self-energies of the charges. It follows from these that the forces F i on the charges q i at positions r i must satisfy certain constraints beside the vanishing of the net force and net moment: e.g., summation i r i ·F i must equal some given function of the charges. The constraints total (D+1)(D+2)/2, which tallies with the dimension of the conformal group in D dimensions. Among other things I use all these to derive exact expressions for the following quantities: (1) The general two-point-charge force. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Microstructural Evolution during DPRM Process of Semisolid Ledeburitic D2 Tool Steel

    OpenAIRE

    M. N. Mohammed; M. Z. Omar; J. Syarif; Z. Sajuri; M. S. Salleh; K. S. Alhawari

    2013-01-01

    Semisolid metal processing is a relatively new technology that offers several advantages over liquid processing and solid processing because of the unique behaviour and characteristic microstructure of metals in this state. With the aim of finding a minimum process chain for the manufacture of high-quality production at minimal cost for forming, the microstructural evolution of the ledeburitic AISI D2 tool steel in the semisolid state was studied experimentally. The potential of the direct pa...

  11. Evaluation of prostaglandin D2 as a CSF leak marker: implications in safe epidural anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondabolu S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sirish Kondabolu, Rishimani Adsumelli, Joy Schabel, Peter Glass, Srinivas PentyalaDepartment of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Stony Brook Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York, USABackground: It is accepted that there is a severe risk of dural puncture in epidural anesthesia. Of major concern to anesthesiologists is unintentional spinal block. Reliable identification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from the aspirate is crucial for safe epidural anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin D2 could be clinically used as a marker for the detection of CSF traces.Methods: After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval and patient consent, CSF was obtained from patients undergoing spinal anesthesia, and blood, urine, and saliva were obtained from normal subjects and analyzed for prostaglandin D2 (PGD. CSF (n=5 samples were diluted with local anesthetic (bupivacaine, normal saline and blood in the ratios of 1:5 and 1:10. PGD levels in the CSF samples were analyzed with a PGD-Methoxime (MOX EIA Kit (Cayman Chemicals, MI. This assay is based on the conversion of PGD to a stable derivative, which is analyzed with antiserum specific for PGD-MOX. Results: Different concentrations of pure PGD-MOX conjugate were analyzed by EIA and a standard curve was derived. PGD levels in CSF and CSF with diluents were determined and the values were extrapolated onto the standard curve. Our results show a well-defined correlation for the presence of PGD both in straight CSF samples and in diluted CSF (dilution factor of 1:5 and 1:10. Conclusion: Prostaglandin D2 was reliably identified in CSF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay when diluted with local anesthetic, saline, and serum, and can be used as a marker to identify the presence of CSF in epidural aspirates.Keywords: epidural, cerebrospinal fluid, leak, marker, prostaglandin D2

  12. Reduced striatal dopamine DA D2 receptor function in dominant-negative GSK-3 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Sintes, Raquel; Bortolozzi, Analia; Artigas, Francesc; Lucas, José J

    2014-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase with constitutive activity involved in cellular architecture, gene expression, cell proliferation, fate decision and apoptosis, among others. GSK-3 expression is particularly high in brain where it may be involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer׳s disease, bipolar disorder and major depression. A link with schizophrenia is suggested by the antipsychotic drug-induced GSK-3 regulation and by the involvement of the Akt/GSK-3 pathway in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Taking advantage of the previous development of dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice (Tg) showing a selective reduction of GSK-3 activity in forebrain neurons but not in dopaminergic neurons, we explored the relationship between GSK-3 and dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. In microdialysis experiments, local quinpirole (DA D2-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced dopamine (DA) release significantly less in Tg mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. However, local SKF-81297 (selective DA D1-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced DA release equally in both control and Tg mice indicating a comparable function of DA D1-R in the direct striato-nigral pathway. Likewise, systemic quinpirole administration - acting preferentially on presynaptic DA D2- autoreceptors to modulate DA release-reduced striatal DA release similarly in both control and Tg mice. Quinpirole reduced locomotor activity and induced c-fos expression in globus pallidus (both striatal DA D2-R-mediated effects) significantly more in WT than in Tg mice. Taking together, the present results show that dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice show reduced DA D2-R-mediated function in striatum and further support a link between dopaminergic neurotransmission and GSK-3 activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Power Control for D2D Underlay Cellular Networks With Channel Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Memmi, Amen

    2016-12-26

    Device-to-device (D2D) communications underlying the cellular infrastructure are a technology that have been proposed recently as a promising solution to enhance cellular network capabilities. It improves spectrum utilization, overall throughput, and energy efficiency while enabling new peer-to-peer and location-based applications and services. However, interference is the major challenge, since the same resources are shared by both systems. Therefore, interference management techniques are required to keep the interference under control. In this paper, in order to mitigate interference, we consider centralized and distributed power control algorithms in a one-cell random network model. Existing results on D2D underlay networks assume perfect channel state information (CSI). This assumption is usually unrealistic in practice due to the dynamic nature of wireless channels. Thus, it is of great interest to study and evaluate achievable performances under channel uncertainty. Differently from previous works, we are assuming that the CSI may be imperfect and include estimation errors. In the centralized approach, we derive the optimal powers that maximize the coverage probability and the rate of the cellular user while scheduling as many D2D links as possible. These powers are computed at the base station (BS) and then delivered to the users, and hence the name “centralized”. For the distributed method, the ON–OFF power control and the truncated channel inversion are proposed. Expressions of coverage probabilities are established in the function of D2D links intensity, pathloss exponent, and estimation error variance. Results show the important influence of CSI error on achievable performances and thus how crucial it is to consider it while designing networks and evaluating performances.

  14. Dissociative ionization of H2 and D2 by electron impact near threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, L.G.J.; Heideman, H.G.M.

    We have studied the dissciative ionization of H2 and D2 by electron impact. It is found that in the vicinity of the 2Σ+g dissociation threshold of H+2 (18.08 eV) a significant fraction of the produced protons originates from the process e + H2 → H− + H+ + e (threshold at 17.34 eV). Similar results

  15. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Thixowelded AISI D2 Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Mohammed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rigid perpetual joining of materials is one of the main demands in most of the manufacturing and assembling industries. AISI D2 cold work tool steels is commonly known as non-weldable metal that a high quality joint of this kind of material can be hardly achieved and almost impossible by conventional welding. In this study, a novel thixowelding technology was proposed for joining of AISI D2 tool steel. The effect of joining temperature, holding time and post-weld heat treatment on microstructural features and mechanical properties were also investigated. Acceptable joints without defect were achieved through the welding temperature of 1300 °C, while the welding at lower temperature resulted in a series of cracks across the entire joint that led to spontaneous fracture after joining. Tensile test results showed that maximum joint tensile strength of 271 MPa was achieved at 1300 °C and 10 min holding time, which was 35% of that of D2 base metal. Meanwhile, tensile strength of the joined parts after heat treatment showed a significant improvement over the non-heat treated condition with 560 MPa, i.e., about 70% of that of the strength value of the D2 base metal. This improvement in the tensile strength attributed to the dissolution of some amounts of eutectic chromium carbides and changes in the microstructure of the matrix. The joints are fractured at the diffusion zone, and the fracture exhibits a typical brittle characteristic. The present study successfully confirmed that by avoiding dendritic microstructure, as often resulted from the fusion welding, high joining quality components obtained in the semi-solid state. These results can be obtained without complex or additional apparatuses that are used in traditional joining process.

  16. Cholesterol metabolism: use of D2O for determination of synthesis rate in cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterman, A.L.; Cohen, B.I.; Javitt, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol synthesis in cell culture in the presence of D 2 O yields a spectrum of enriched molecules having a relative abundance that indicates random substitution of deuterium for hydrogen. Quantitation of the absolute rate of cholesterol synthesis is obtained by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Mevinolin and 26-hydroxycholesterol both decrease cholesterol synthesis rate but have a discordant effect on HMG-CoA reductase activity

  17. Extraction of K- mesonlike particles from a D2 gas discharge plasma in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Joshin.

    1996-05-01

    From the outside region of D 2 gas discharge plasma along magnetic field, K - mesonlike particles are extracted with D - ions and π - mesonlike particles. Then, a higher positive bias voltage is necessary for the beam collector of magnetic mass analyzer in order to detect the K - mesonlike particles, and we must interrupt the diffusion of the positive ions to the back of the beam collector. (author)

  18. Crystal structure of barium hydride, determined by neutron diffraction experiments on BaD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronger, W.; Scha Chi-Chien; Mueller, P.

    1987-01-01

    A reinvestigation of the structure of BaH 2 and BaD 2 was performed on powdered samples by X-ray- and neutron diffraction experiments. It is shown, that the hydrogen positions correspond with those found in calcium deuteride and not with those proposed in the literature. The classification of barium hydride in the PbCl 2 structure type is discussed. (author)

  19. Exploration of central dopamine transporter and D2 receptor in morphine abstinent rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Wang Bocheng; Wang Shizhen; Ding Shiyu; Chen Zhengping; Zhang Manda

    2006-01-01

    The experiment was designed to investigate the variation of DAT and D2 receptor in morphine administered and 1,2,3 day abstinent rats. Morphine exposure was induced by repeated morphine (i.p.) treatment for 8 days. Conditioned place preference test was conducted to evaluate the drug seeking behaviour and morphine dependence of rats with morphine exposure. Biodistribution of the imaging agents 125 I-β-CIT and 125 I-IBZM was used to evaluate the central DAT and D2 receptor during morphine exposure and 1,2,3 day's abstinence. Results reveal the following facts. (1) The morphine abstinent rats showed diarrhea and body-shake 1 day after morphine withdrawal. (2) For morphine group, 125 I-β-CIT %ID/g in ST and NAC was higher than that of the 1,2,3 day's abstinent rats and control (P 0.05). (3) 125 I-IBZM %ID/g in ST, NAC and HIP in morphine rats were lower than those of the abstinent and control rats (P 125 I-IBZM %ID/g in ST and NAC gradually increased with the abstinent days. While in ST the %ID/g among the abstinent rats was all lower than that of the control rats, in NAC the %ID/g was still lower in 1 day's abstinent rats (P 0.05), indicating the reduction of hyper-activated DAT and the increase of down-regulatory D2 receptor induced by morphine during morphine withdrawal. Our results confirmed that the dopamine system, especially DAT and D2 receptor in mesolimbic and meso-striatum pathway, has been implicated in morphine treatment. The rewarding properties of morphine and the somatic expression of morphine abstinence were related to changes in mesolimbic and meso-striatum dopaminergic activity. (authors)

  20. Secondary electron emission from solid HD and a solid H2-D2 mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Børgesen, P.; Hao-Ming, Chen

    1983-01-01

    Secondary electron emission from solid HD and a solid 0.6 H2 + 0.4 D2 mixture has been studied for electron and hydrogen ion bombardment at primary energies from 0.5 to 3 keV and 2 to 10 keV/amu, respectively. The yield for solid HD is well explained by a simple stoichiometric model of the low...

  1. Mode structure in an optically pumped D2O far infrared ring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, D.C.; Soumagne, G.; Siegrist, M.R.

    1989-07-01

    The mode structures in an optically pumped D 2 O far infrared ring laser and a corresponding linear resonator have been compared. While single mode operation can be obtained over the whole useful pressure range in the ring structure, this is only possible at pressures greater than 8 Torr in the linear resonator case. A numerical model predicts quite well the pulse shape, pressure dependence and influence of the resonator quality in the ring cavity. (author) 12 figs., 8 refs

  2. D=2 and D=4 realization of κ-conformal algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimek, M.

    1996-01-01

    The generators of κ-conformal transformations leaving the κ-deformed d'Alembert equation invariant are described. The algebraic structure of the conformal extension of the off-shell spin zero realization of κ-Poincare algebra is discussed for D=4. The D=2 off-shell realization of κ-conformal algebra for an arbitrary spin and its commutation relations were studied. 14 refs

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of d-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase from Haloferax mediterranei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech, J.; Baker, P. J.; Sedelnikova, S. E.; Rodgers, H. F.; Rice, D. W.; Ferrer, J.

    2009-01-01

    The d-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase from Haloferax mediterranei has been crystallized in two different forms. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.9 Å resolution for the non-productive ternary complex of the enzyme and to 2.7 Å for the selenomethionyl derivative. d-2-Hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (D2-HDH) from Haloferax mediterranei has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, solubilized in 8 M urea and refolded by rapid dilution. The protein was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate or PEG 3350 as precipitant. Two crystal forms representing the free enzyme and the nonproductive ternary complex with α-ketohexanoic acid and NAD + grew under these conditions. Crystals of form I diffracted to beyond 3.0 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 66.0, b = 119.6, c = 86.2 Å, β = 96.3°. Crystals of form II diffracted to beyond 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.5, b = 75.2, c = 77.6 Å, α = 109.1, β = 107.5, γ = 95.9°. The calculated values for V M and analysis of the self-rotation and self-Patterson functions suggest that the asymmetric unit in both crystal forms contains two dimers related by pseudo-translational symmetry

  4. Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul M; Kenny, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    We found that development of obesity was coupled with emergence of a progressively worsening deficit in neural reward responses. Similar changes in reward homeostasis induced by cocaine or heroin are considered to be crucial in triggering the transition from casual to compulsive drug-taking. Accordingly, we detected compulsive-like feeding behavior in obese but not lean rats, measured as palatable food consumption that was resistant to disruption by an aversive conditioned stimulus. Striatal dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) were downregulated in obese rats, as has been reported in humans addicted to drugs. Moreover, lentivirus-mediated knockdown of striatal D2Rs rapidly accelerated the development of addiction-like reward deficits and the onset of compulsive-like food seeking in rats with extended access to palatable high-fat food. These data demonstrate that overconsumption of palatable food triggers addiction-like neuroadaptive responses in brain reward circuits and drives the development of compulsive eating. Common hedonic mechanisms may therefore underlie obesity and drug addiction.

  5. Energy-sensitive imaging detector applied to the dissociative recombination of D2H+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhr, H.; Schwalm, D.; Mendes, M. B.; Novotny, O.; Berg, M. H.; Bing, D.; Krantz, C.; Orlov, D. A.; Sorg, T.; Stuetzel, J.; Varju, J.; Wolf, A.; Heber, O.; Rappaport, M. L.; Zajfman, D.

    2010-01-01

    We report on an energy-sensitive imaging detector for studying the fragmentation of polyatomic molecules in the dissociative recombination of fast molecular ions with electrons. The system is based on a large area (10x10 cm 2 ) position-sensitive, double-sided Si-strip detector with 128 horizontal and 128 vertical strips, whose pulse height information is read out individually. The setup allows us to uniquely identify fragment masses and is thus capable of measuring branching ratios between different fragmentation channels, kinetic energy releases, and breakup geometries as a function of the relative ion-electron energy. The properties of the detection system, which has been installed at the Test Storage Ring (TSR) facility of the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, is illustrated by an investigation of the dissociative recombination of the deuterated triatomic hydrogen cation D 2 H + . A huge isotope effect is observed when comparing the relative branching ratio between the D 2 + H and the HD + D channel; the ratio 2B(D 2 + H)/B(HD + D), which is measured to be 1.27±0.05 at relative electron-ion energies around 0 eV, is found to increase to 3.7±0.5 at ∼5 eV.

  6. Energy-sensitive imaging detector applied to the dissociative recombination of D2H+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, H.; Mendes, M. B.; Novotný, O.; Schwalm, D.; Berg, M. H.; Bing, D.; Heber, O.; Krantz, C.; Orlov, D. A.; Rappaport, M. L.; Sorg, T.; Stützel, J.; Varju, J.; Wolf, A.; Zajfman, D.

    2010-06-01

    We report on an energy-sensitive imaging detector for studying the fragmentation of polyatomic molecules in the dissociative recombination of fast molecular ions with electrons. The system is based on a large area (10×10 cm2) position-sensitive, double-sided Si-strip detector with 128 horizontal and 128 vertical strips, whose pulse height information is read out individually. The setup allows us to uniquely identify fragment masses and is thus capable of measuring branching ratios between different fragmentation channels, kinetic energy releases, and breakup geometries as a function of the relative ion-electron energy. The properties of the detection system, which has been installed at the Test Storage Ring (TSR) facility of the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, is illustrated by an investigation of the dissociative recombination of the deuterated triatomic hydrogen cation D2H+. A huge isotope effect is observed when comparing the relative branching ratio between the D2 + H and the HD + D channel; the ratio 2B(D2 + H)/B(HD + D), which is measured to be 1.27±0.05 at relative electron-ion energies around 0 eV, is found to increase to 3.7±0.5 at ~5 eV.

  7. Quantum Dynamics Study of the Isotopic Effect on Capture Reactions: HD, D2 + CH3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dunyou; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Time-dependent wave-packet-propagation calculations are reported for the isotopic reactions, HD + CH3 and D2 + CH3, in six degrees of freedom and for zero total angular momentum. Initial state selected reaction probabilities for different initial rotational-vibrational states are presented in this study. This study shows that excitations of the HD(D2) enhances the reactivities; whereas the excitations of the CH3 umbrella mode have the opposite effects. This is consistent with the reaction of H2 + CH3. The comparison of these three isotopic reactions also shows the isotopic effects in the initial-state-selected reaction probabilities. The cumulative reaction probabilities (CRP) are obtained by summing over initial-state-selected reaction probabilities. The energy-shift approximation to account for the contribution of degrees of freedom missing in the six dimensionality calculation is employed to obtain approximate full-dimensional CRPs. The rate constant comparison shows H2 + CH3 reaction has the biggest reactivity, then HD + CH3, and D2 + CH3 has the smallest.

  8. Production of 4He in D2-Loaded Palladium-Carbon Catalyst I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, W. Brian

    2003-01-01

    A series of lead vials of internal volume 1.0 cm 3 were charged with ∼200 mg of carbon catalyst containing 0.5% Pd and 0.4% Pd. The vials were clamped to stainless steel manifolds on a vacuum line, then pumped out and filled with high-purity H 2 or D 2 at a pressure of 152 cm Hg and a temperature of 23 deg. C. Several vials contained ordinary activated carbon instead of palladium-carbon, and some vials contained only H 2 or D 2 . All the vials were stored in a sandbox heated to ∼ 200 deg. C for times up to 45 days before mass spectrometer measurements of 3 He and 4 He were made. No evidence was found for the high concentrations of 4 He claimed in similar experiments by several other researchers. The upper limit for the concentration excess of 4 He in D 2 in vials containing palladium-carbon is 11 ppt (parts per trillion) at the 95% confidence level. This limit for 4 He may be compared with previous claims in similar experiments of 100 ppm (parts per million) by Case and 11 ppm by George and McKubre et al

  9. Emotion dysregulation and amygdala dopamine D2-type receptor availability in methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kyoji; Ghahremani, Dara G; Payer, Doris E; Robertson, Chelsea L; Dean, Andy C; Mandelkern, Mark A; London, Edythe D

    2016-04-01

    Individuals who use methamphetamine chronically exhibit emotional and dopaminergic neurochemical deficits. Although the amygdala has an important role in emotion processing and receives dopaminergic innervation, little is known about how dopamine transmission in this region contributes to emotion regulation. This investigation aimed to evaluate emotion regulation in subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence, and to test for a relationship between self-reports of difficulty in emotion regulation and D2-type dopamine receptor availability in the amygdala. Ninety-four methamphetamine-using and 102 healthy-control subjects completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS); 33 of those who used methamphetamine completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). A subset of 27 methamphetamine-group and 20 control-group subjects completed positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fallypride to assay amygdala D2-type dopamine receptor availability, measured as binding potential (BPND). The methamphetamine group scored higher than the control group on the DERS total score (pmethamphetamine group. The DERS total score was positively correlated with amygdala BPND in both groups and the combined group of participants (combined: r=0.331, p=0.02), and the groups did not differ in this relationship. These findings highlight problems with emotion regulation linked to methamphetamine use, possibly contributing to personal and interpersonal behavioral problems. They also suggest that D2-type dopamine receptors in the amygdala contribute to emotion regulation in both healthy and methamphetamine-using subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design Concepts of Emergency Response Robot Platform K-R2D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sun Young; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    From the analysis for various mobile robots competed in DARPA Robotics Challenge, there are some drawbacks in using two or four legs because bipedal locomotion is not yet suitable for maintaining stability and quadrupedal locomotion is difficult to go through narrow aisles. Motivated by the above observations, we propose a K-R2D2 robot platform with three legs arranged in the form of a triangle like as R2-D2 robot which is a fictional robot character in the Star Wars movies. This robot has 3 legs with tracks in each sole of the leg. It is statically stable since there are three contact points to ground. In addition, three legs are also possible to design a structure walking stairs that can expand and contract in the vertical direction. This paper has presented the conceptual design, it is developed on the purpose of quick response instead of emergent workers to the extreme conditions disasters. This robot is emergency response robot platform KR2D2 with three legs, which is statically stable to walk or wheel depending on the terrains and move quickly as possible as on uneven terrain or stairs.

  11. Dual descriptions of spin-two massive particles in D=2+1 via master actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmazi, D.; Mendonça, Elias L.

    2009-02-01

    In the first part of this work we show the decoupling (up to contact terms) of redundant degrees of freedom which appear in the covariant description of spin-two massive particles in D=2+1. We make use of a master action which interpolates, without solving any constraints, between a first-, second-, and third-order (in derivatives) self-dual model. An explicit dual map between those models is derived. In our approach the absence of ghosts in the third-order self-dual model, which corresponds to a quadratic truncation of topologically massive gravity, is due to the triviality (no particle content) of the Einstein-Hilbert action in D=2+1. In the second part of the work, also in D=2+1, we prove the quantum equivalence of the gauge invariant sector of a couple of self-dual models of opposite helicities (+2 and -2) and masses m+ and m- to a generalized self-dual model which contains a quadratic Einstein-Hilbert action, a Chern-Simons term of first order, and a Fierz-Pauli mass term. The use of a first-order Chern-Simons term instead of a third-order one avoids conflicts with the sign of the Einstein-Hilbert action.

  12. Dual descriptions of spin-two massive particles in D=2+1 via master actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmazi, D.; Mendonca, Elias L.

    2009-01-01

    In the first part of this work we show the decoupling (up to contact terms) of redundant degrees of freedom which appear in the covariant description of spin-two massive particles in D=2+1. We make use of a master action which interpolates, without solving any constraints, between a first-, second-, and third-order (in derivatives) self-dual model. An explicit dual map between those models is derived. In our approach the absence of ghosts in the third-order self-dual model, which corresponds to a quadratic truncation of topologically massive gravity, is due to the triviality (no particle content) of the Einstein-Hilbert action in D=2+1. In the second part of the work, also in D=2+1, we prove the quantum equivalence of the gauge invariant sector of a couple of self-dual models of opposite helicities (+2 and -2) and masses m + and m - to a generalized self-dual model which contains a quadratic Einstein-Hilbert action, a Chern-Simons term of first order, and a Fierz-Pauli mass term. The use of a first-order Chern-Simons term instead of a third-order one avoids conflicts with the sign of the Einstein-Hilbert action.

  13. Water dissociation and CO oxidation over Au/anatase catalyst. A DFT-D2 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqlain, Muhammad Adnan; Hussain, Akhtar; Siddiq, Muhammad; Leitão, Alexandre A.

    2018-03-01

    With the help of DFT-D2 methodology, we have investigated the adsorption of water on clean anatase(001) and Au/anatase(001). In the former case, adsorption energies of H2O differ to small extent computed employing GGA = PW91 and DFT-D2 methods. While the GGA = PW91 predicts that water would desorb close to 650 K on the TiO2 surface, the DFT-D2 predicts that desorption is most likely to occur above 700 K. A comparison of water adsorption on TiO2 and Au/TiO2 surfaces shows that the TiO2 prefers dimer adsorption whereas the Au/TiO2 prefers monomer adsorption. We found that the diffusion of surface hydroxyls on to the Au cluster from the Au/TiO2 periphery is unlikely and it seems that the CO oxidation would occur at the Au/TiO2 boundary. The results show that water dissociation and CO oxidation steps occur easily on Au/TiO2 indicating that this could be good alternative catalyst for water gas shift reaction industry.

  14. Device-Relaying in Cellular D2D Networks: A Fairness Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas; Sezgin, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is envisioned to play a key role in 5G networks as a technique for meeting the demand for high data rates. In a cellular network, D2D allows not only direct communication between users, but also device relaying. In this paper, a simple instance of device-relaying is investigated, and its impact on fairness among users is studied. Namely, a cellular network consisting of two D2D-enabled users and a base-station (BS) is considered. Thus, the users who want to establish communication with the BS can act as relays for each other’s signals. While this problem is traditionally considered in the literature as a multiple-access channel with cooperation in the uplink, and a broadcast channel with cooperation in the downlink, we propose a different treatment of the problem as a multi-way channel. A simple communication scheme is proposed, and is shown to achieve significant gain in terms of fairness (measured by the symmetric rate supported) in comparison to the aforementioned traditional treatment.

  15. QoE-Driven D2D Media Services Distribution Scheme in Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingkai Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Device-to-device (D2D communication has been widely studied to improve network performance and considered as a potential technological component for the next generation communication. Considering the diverse users’ demand, Quality of Experience (QoE is recognized as a new degree of user’s satisfaction for media service transmissions in the wireless communication. Furthermore, we aim at promoting user’s Mean of Score (MOS value to quantify and analyze user’s QoE in the dynamic cellular networks. In this paper, we explore the heterogeneous media service distribution in D2D communications underlaying cellular networks to improve the total users’ QoE. We propose a novel media service scheme based on different QoE models that jointly solve the massive media content dissemination issue for cellular networks. Moreover, we also investigate the so-called Media Service Adaptive Update Scheme (MSAUS framework to maximize users’ QoE satisfaction and we derive the popularity and priority function of different media service QoE expression. Then, we further design Media Service Resource Allocation (MSRA algorithm to schedule limited cellular networks resource, which is based on the popularity function to optimize the total users’ QoE satisfaction and avoid D2D interference. In addition, numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme is more effective in cellular network content delivery, which makes it suitable for various media service propagation.

  16. Design Concepts of Emergency Response Robot Platform K-R2D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Sun Young; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2016-01-01

    From the analysis for various mobile robots competed in DARPA Robotics Challenge, there are some drawbacks in using two or four legs because bipedal locomotion is not yet suitable for maintaining stability and quadrupedal locomotion is difficult to go through narrow aisles. Motivated by the above observations, we propose a K-R2D2 robot platform with three legs arranged in the form of a triangle like as R2-D2 robot which is a fictional robot character in the Star Wars movies. This robot has 3 legs with tracks in each sole of the leg. It is statically stable since there are three contact points to ground. In addition, three legs are also possible to design a structure walking stairs that can expand and contract in the vertical direction. This paper has presented the conceptual design, it is developed on the purpose of quick response instead of emergent workers to the extreme conditions disasters. This robot is emergency response robot platform KR2D2 with three legs, which is statically stable to walk or wheel depending on the terrains and move quickly as possible as on uneven terrain or stairs

  17. Device-Relaying in Cellular D2D Networks: A Fairness Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2015-10-24

    Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is envisioned to play a key role in 5G networks as a technique for meeting the demand for high data rates. In a cellular network, D2D allows not only direct communication between users, but also device relaying. In this paper, a simple instance of device-relaying is investigated, and its impact on fairness among users is studied. Namely, a cellular network consisting of two D2D-enabled users and a base-station (BS) is considered. Thus, the users who want to establish communication with the BS can act as relays for each other’s signals. While this problem is traditionally considered in the literature as a multiple-access channel with cooperation in the uplink, and a broadcast channel with cooperation in the downlink, we propose a different treatment of the problem as a multi-way channel. A simple communication scheme is proposed, and is shown to achieve significant gain in terms of fairness (measured by the symmetric rate supported) in comparison to the aforementioned traditional treatment.

  18. Clean and contaminated TiD2 films: Fabrication and Auger spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    Clean and intentionally contaminated stoichiometric TiD 2 thin films have been formed under controlled conditions and the surface compositions of the films measured using Auger electron spectroscopy. The unique ultrahigh vacuum system used to fabricate the films is described in detail. In addition, the Auger spectra of clean and CO- and CO 2 -contaminated films, before and after deuteriding, are presented. The MVV and LMV peaks in the differential spectrum of TiD 2 are significantly different from the corresponding peaks in the Ti spectrum, presumably a result of the deuteride formation. Films intentionally contaminated with CO and CO 2 have Auger spectra with oxygen peaks and carbide-like carbon peaks. The C and O peak heights and shapes for Ti exposed to CO and CO 2 do not change upon formation of TiD 2 . In addition, for each of these gases, a definite ratio of C/O peak heights was observed: For CO, the C/O ratio was approx.1.3, while for CO 2 it was approx.0.58. Both ratios were independent of gas exposures up to approx.1 Torr s

  19. D2D-Enabled Small Cell Network Control Scheme Based on the Dynamic Stackelberg Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For current and future cellular networks, small cell structure with licensed and unlicensed bandwidth, caching content provisioning, and device-to-device (D2D communications is seen as a necessary architecture. Recently, a series of control methods have been developed to address a myriad of challenges in next-generation small cell networks. In this study, we focus on the design of novel D2D-enabled small cell network control scheme by allowing caching and unlicensed D2D communications. Motivated by game theory and learning algorithm, the proposed scheme adaptively selects caching contents and splits the available bandwidth for licensed and unlicensed communications. Under dynamically changing network environments, we capture the dynamics of the network system and design a new dynamic Stackelberg game model. Based on a hierarchical and feedback based control manner, small base stations and users can be leaders or followers dynamically while improving 5G network performance. Simulations and performance analysis verify the efficiency of the proposed scheme, showing that our approach can outperform existing schemes by about 5%~15% in terms of bandwidth utilization, cache hit ratio, and system throughput.

  20. Simultaneous Multiple MS Binding Assays Addressing D1 and D2 Dopamine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Marion; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2017-10-09

    MS Binding Assays are a label-free alternative to radioligand binding assays. They provide basically the same capabilities as the latter, but use a non-labeled reporter ligand instead of a radioligand. In contrast to radioligand binding assays, MS Binding Assays offer-owing to the selectivity of mass spectrometric detection-the opportunity to monitor the binding of different reporter ligands at different targets simultaneously. The present study shows a proof of concept for this strategy as exemplified for MS Binding Assays selectively addressing D 1 and D 2 dopamine receptors in a single binding experiment. A highly sensitive, rapid and robust LC-ESI-MS/MS quantification method capable of quantifying both SCH23390 and raclopride, selectively addressing D 1 and D 2 receptors, respectively, was established and validated for this purpose. Based thereon, simultaneous saturation and competition experiments with SCH23390 and raclopride in the presence of both D 1 and D 2 receptors were performed and analyzed by LC-MS/MS within a single chromatographic cycle. The present study thus demonstrates the feasibility of this strategy and the high versatility of MS Binding Assays that appears to surpass that common for conventional radioligand binding assays. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The effect of stent coating on stent deliverability: direct randomised comparison of drug eluting and bare metal stents using the same stent platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminiak, Tomasz; Link, Rafał; Wołoszyn, Maciej; Kałmucki, Piotr; Baszko, Artur

    2012-01-01

    There is certain experimental and clinical evidence indicating that the covering of bare metal stents (BMS) with drug eluting polymers to produce drug eluting stents (DES) results in increased stent stiffness and modifies the mechanical properties of the stent platform. In addition, it has been speculated that the mechanical performance of DES, compared to BMS, may be related to the type of polymer used to cover stents. We aimed at evaluating the deliverability of DES with a lactate based biodegradable polymer and BMS in patients with stable coronary artery disease in a prospective randomised study. One hundred eleven consecutive patients (age: 36-77, mean 58.8 years) scheduled for routine angioplasty due to stable coronary disease were randomised to receive BMS (Chopin II(TM), Balton, Poland) or paclitaxel eluting stent (Chopin Luc(TM), Balton, Poland) using the same metal platform. Only patients scheduled for angioplasty using the direct implantation technique of a single stent were randomised. The exclusion criteria included patients 〉 80 years, multivessel disease and reference diameter of the target vessel 〉 3.5 mm. In the BMS group (n = 55; 35 males and 20 females), the mean diameter of implanted stents was 3.09 ± 0.40 and the mean length was 11.37 ± 2.80, whereas in the DES group (n = 56; 34 males and 22 females) the mean stent sizes were 3.02 ± 0.34 and 17.90 ± 7.38 mm, respectively (p 〉 0.05 for length). The groups did not significantly differ regarding the frequency of stent implantation to particular coronary vessels. The direct stenting technique was attempted and failed, leading to the stents' implantation after predilatation in five patients in the BMS group and six patients in the DES group. Failure of stent implantation and subsequent implantation of another stent type was observed in no BMS patients and in one DES patient (NS). Although stent covering with lactate based drug eluting polymer may increase its stiffness, it does not affect

  2. Functional characterisation of eel dopamine D2 receptors and involvement in the direct inhibition of pituitary gonadotrophins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolly, C.; Rousseau, K.; Prézeau, L.

    2016-01-01

    and antagonists, supporting subtle structure/activity differences. Furthermore, using eel pituitary cell primary cultures, the expression by gonadotroph cells of both native eel D2‐R paralogues was examined by in situ hybridisation of D2A‐R or D2B‐R transcripts, coupled with immunofluorescence of luteinising...... hormone (LH)β or follicle‐stimulating (FSH)β. LH and to a lesser extent, FSH cells expressed both D2‐R transcripts but with a clear predominance of D2B‐R. Notably, D2B‐R transcripts were detected for the majority of LH cells. Accordingly, using these cultures, we showed that DA potently inhibited basal...

  3. Dopamine D2-receptor SPECT with [123I]-iodobenzamide in the diagnosis of Parkinson's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, W.; Grundmann, M.; Huber, G.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of the [ 123 I]IBZM D 2 -receptor SPECT in the differential diagnosis of PS. A total of 38 patients (20 females, 18 males; age 61 ± 13.3 years), with typical extrapyramidal symptoms were investigated. Twenty suffered from idiopathic and 11 from secondary PS. Seven patients in whom a neurological disease could be excluded, served as controls. SPECT data were acquired 90 min after i.v. injection of 185-200 MBq [ 123 I]IBZM. After reconstruction with a Butterworth filter (cutoff frequency 0.5) and attenuation correction (coefficient 0.12 cm -1 ) we quantify the IBZM basal ganglia uptake as ratio to the frontal D 2 -receptor-free cortex (BG/FC). The patients with idiopathic PS (IPS) and the controls revealed high and specific IBZM uptake in the basal ganglia compared to the adjacent frontal brain tissue (IPS: BG/FC = 1,44 ± 0,10; controls: BG/FC = 1.48 ± 0.10). A significant decreased striatal IBZM uptake is found in cases with secondary PS (BG/FC = 1.25 ± 0.10, t-test compared to controls and IPS). The patient group with IPS can be subdivided into patients without L-dopatherapy (BG/FC = 1.49 ± 0.07), patients with longstanding L-dopa-therapy demonstrating significantly decreased striatal IBZM uptake (BG/FC = 1.31 ± 0.04, t-test compared to controls and other IPS), which correlates pathophysiological with a reduction of free D 2 receptors, and patients with de novo PS showing a slight increased striatal IBZM uptake (BG/FC = 1.56 ± 0.05), which represents D 2 -receptor stimulation. [ 123 I]IBZM-SPECT is a sensitive and non-invasive test for striatal D 2 -receptor density and activity which permits relatively clear discrimination between idiopathic and secondary PS and yields important information for differential therapy. (orig.) [de

  4. Isotopic exchange processes in cold plasmas of H2/D2 mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Redondo, Miguel; Carrasco, Esther; Herrero, Víctor J; Tanarro, Isabel

    2011-05-28

    Isotope exchange in low pressure cold plasmas of H(2)/D(2) mixtures has been investigated by means of mass spectrometric measurements of neutrals and ions, and kinetic model calculations. The measurements, which include also electron temperatures and densities, were performed in a stainless steel hollow cathode reactor for three discharge pressures: 1, 2 and 8 Pa, and for mixture compositions ranging from 100% H(2) to 100% D(2). The data are analyzed in the light of the model calculations, which are in good global agreement with the experiments. Isotope selective effects are found both in the surface recombination and in the gas-phase ionic chemistry. The dissociation of the fuel gas molecules is followed by wall recycling, which regenerates H(2) and D(2) and produces HD. Atomic recombination at the wall is found to proceed through an Eley-Rideal mechanism, with a preference for reaction of the adsorbed atoms with gas phase D atoms. The best fit probabilities for Eley-Rideal abstraction with H and D are: γ(ER H) = 1.5 × 10(-3), γ(ER D) = 2.0 × 10(-3). Concerning ions, at 1 Pa the diatomic species H(2)(+), D(2)(+) and HD(+), formed directly by electron impact, prevail in the distributions, and at 8 Pa, the triatomic ions H(3)(+), H(2)D(+), HD(2)(+) and D(3)(+), produced primarily in reactions of diatomic ions with molecules, dominate the plasma composition. In this higher pressure regime, the formation of the mixed ions H(2)D(+) and HD(2)(+) is favoured in comparison with that of H(3)(+) and D(3)(+), as expected on statistical grounds. The model results predict a very small preference, undetectable within the precision of the measurements, for the generation of triatomic ions with a higher degree of deuteration, which is probably a residual influence at room temperature of the marked zero point energy effects (ZPE), relevant for deuterium fractionation in interstellar space. In contrast, ZPE effects are found to be decisive for the observed distribution of

  5. Imaging of dopamine transporters and D2 receptors in patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, G M; Karlsborg, M; Thomsen, G

    2004-01-01

    asymmetry than MSA patients. Striatal D2 binding did not differ significantly between patients and healthy controls but the ratio between caudate DAT and D2 binding was significantly higher in patients with IPD than in those with MSA, even when disease severity was taken into account. CONCLUSION: Patients...... diagnostic information, since the ratio between DAT and D2 receptor binding is significantly higher in IPD than in MSA...

  6. Radio resource management scheme and outage analysis for network-assisted multi-hop D2D communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Melki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cellular network it's very difficult to make spectrum resource more efficiently. Device-to-Device (D2D technology enables new service opportunities, and provides high throughput and reliable communication while reducing the base station load. For better total performance, short-range D2D links and cellular links share the same radio resource and the management of interference becomes a crucial task. Here we argue that single-hop D2D technology can be used to further improve cellular networks performance if the key D2D radio resource management algorithms are suitably extended to support multi-hop D2D communications. Aiming to establish a new paradigm for the analysis and design of multi-hop D2D communications, We propose a radio resource allocation for multi-hop D2D routes based on interference avoidance approach in LTE-A networks. On top of that, we investigate the outage probability of D2D communication. We first introduce a new definition of outage probability by considering the maximum distance to be allowable for single-hop transmission. Then we study and analyze the outage performance of a multi-hop D2D route. We derive the general closed form expression of outage probability of the multi-hop D2D routes. The results demonstrate that the D2D radio, sharing the same resources as the cellular network, provide higher capacity compared to pure cellular communication where all the data is transmitted through the base station. They also demonstrate that the new method of calculation of D2D multi hop outage probability has better performance than classical method defined in the literature.

  7. Vitamin D2 Stability During the Refrigerated Storage of Ultraviolet B-Treated Cultivated Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Jablonska-Rys, Ewa; Parfieniuk, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation on the synthesis of vitamin D2 and its stability during refrigerated storage was determined in fresh cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lentinus edodes) after harvest. The irradiated mushrooms were stored at 4°C for up to 10 days. The concentrations of vitamin D2 and ergosterol were determined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The cultivated mushrooms not treated with UVB were devoid of vitamin D2. After UVB irradiation, we obtained mushrooms with a large amount of ergocalciferol. A. bisporus showed the lowest vitamin D2 content (3.55 ± 0.11 μg D2/g dry weight); P. ostreatus contained 58.96 ± 1.15 μg D2/g dry weight, and L. edodes contained 29.46 ± 2.21 μg/g dry weight. During storage at 4°C, the amount of vitamin D2 was gradually decreased in P. ostreatus and L. edodes, whereas in A. bisporus vitamin D2 gradually increased until the sixth day, then decreased. Mushrooms exposed to UVB radiation contain a significant amount of vitamin D2 and are therefore an excellent food source of vitamin D.

  8. Wireless Device-to-Device (D2D) Links for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    Device-to-Device (D2D) communications will play an important role in the fifth generation (5G) cellular networks, by increasing the spatial reuse of spectrum resources and enabling communication links with low latency. D2D is composed of two fundamental building blocks: proximity discovery...... and direct communication between nearby users. Another emerging trend in wireless cellular systems is Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications, often characterized by fixed, low transmission rates. In this chapter we motivate the synergy between D2D and M2M, and present technologies that enable M2M-via-D2D...

  9. Inhibition of vitamin D2-induced arteriosclerosis in rats by depletion of complement with cobra venom factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, A S; Minta, J O

    1980-01-01

    Widespread calcerous deposits developed in the aorta, heart and kidneys of rats fed for 4 days with purina chow and high doses of vitamin D2 (200,000 IU/kg body wt/day). Decomplementation of rats with highly purified cobra venom factor (CoF) prior to vitamin D2 feeding, almost completely prevented calcium deposition in the aorta and arteritis. The mortality rate in the CoF-treated vitamin D2-fed rats was much lower than in untreated rats. These findings suggest that the complement system may be recruited in the pathogenesis of vitamin D2-induced arteriosclerosis.

  10. Glucose Regulates Cyclin D2 Expression in Quiescent and Replicating Pancreatic β-Cells Through Glycolysis and Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salpeter, Seth J.; Klochendler, Agnes; Weinberg-Corem, Noa; Porat, Shay; Granot, Zvi; Shapiro, A. M. James; Magnuson, Mark A.; Eden, Amir; Grimsby, Joseph; Glaser, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the molecular triggers of pancreatic β-cell proliferation may facilitate the development of regenerative therapies for diabetes. Genetic studies have demonstrated an important role for cyclin D2 in β-cell proliferation and mass homeostasis, but its specific function in β-cell division and mechanism of regulation remain unclear. Here, we report that cyclin D2 is present at high levels in the nucleus of quiescent β-cells in vivo. The major regulator of cyclin D2 expression is glucose, acting via glycolysis and calcium channels in the β-cell to control cyclin D2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, cyclin D2 mRNA is down-regulated during S-G2-M phases of each β-cell division, via a mechanism that is also affected by glucose metabolism. Thus, glucose metabolism maintains high levels of nuclear cyclin D2 in quiescent β-cells and modulates the down-regulation of cyclin D2 in replicating β-cells. These data challenge the standard model for regulation of cyclin D2 during the cell division cycle and suggest cyclin D2 as a molecular link between glucose levels and β-cell replication. PMID:21521747

  11. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D; Schiffmann, Serge N; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-07-07

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain.

  12. UV-dependent production of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 in the recombinant yeast cells expressing human CYP2R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Kaori; Endo, Mariko; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Kamakura, Masaki; Ohta, Miho; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We produce 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the recombinant yeast expressing human CYP2R1. •Vitamin D2 is produced in yeast from endogenous ergosterol with UV irradiation. •We produce 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 in the recombinant yeast without added substrate. -- Abstract: CYP2R1 is known to be a physiologically important vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. We have successfully expressed human CYP2R1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to reveal its enzymatic properties. In this study, we examined production of 25-hydroxylated vitamin D using whole recombinant yeast cells that expressed CYP2R1. When vitamin D 3 or vitamin D 2 was added to the cell suspension of CYP2R1-expressing yeast cells in a buffer containing glucose and β-cyclodextrin, the vitamins were converted into their 25-hydroxylated products. Next, we irradiated the cell suspension with UVB and incubated at 37 °C. Surprisingly, the 25-hydroxy vitamin D 2 was produced without additional vitamin D 2 . Endogenous ergosterol was likely converted into vitamin D 2 by UV irradiation and thermal isomerization, and then the resulting vitamin D 2 was converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 by CYP2R1. This novel method for producing 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 without a substrate could be useful for practical purposes

  13. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 27. Biogas Construction Plan in Segoroyoso Village Yogyakarta Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesmana, Surya Budi; Putra, Sri Atmaja [Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2011-10-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara (WNT) and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. To achieve the CASINDO objective seven Technical Working Groups have been established with the aim to conduct the technical activities under the various work packages and to produce the agreed deliverables. This report presents results from Technical Working Group IV on Renewable Energy project development. Its main aims were: To identify suitable non-hydro RE projects that can be developed in the province; To conduct an energy needs assessment in a selected location; To develop a business plan for a proposed solution to the identified main energy problem of the target community; To identify potential investors; To construct the project.

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of Neovascularized Corneas Reveals miR-204 as a Multi-target Biotherapy Deliverable by rAAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Corneal neovascularization (NV is the major sight-threatening pathology caused by angiogenic stimuli. Current drugs that directly target pro-angiogenic factors to inhibit or reverse the disease require multiple rounds of administration and have limited efficacies. Here, we identify potential anti-angiogenic corneal microRNAs (miRNAs and demonstrate a framework that employs discovered miRNAs as biotherapies deliverable by recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs. By querying differentially expressed miRNAs in neovascularized mouse corneas induced by alkali burn, we have revealed 39 miRNAs that are predicted to target more than 5,500 differentially expressed corneal mRNAs. Among these, we selected miR-204 and assessed its efficacy and therapeutic benefit for treating injured corneas. Our results show that delivery of miR-204 by rAAV normalizes multiple novel target genes and biological pathways to attenuate vascularization of injured mouse cornea. Importantly, this gene therapy treatment alternative is efficacious and safe for mitigating corneal NV. Overall, our work demonstrates the discovery of potential therapeutic miRNAs in corneal disorders and their translation into viable treatment alternatives.

  15. A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interaction modulates gliotransmitter release from striatal astrocyte processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetto, Chiara; Venturini, Arianna; Passalacqua, Mario; Guidolin, Diego; Genedani, Susanna; Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Esquela, Dasiel O; Cortelli, Pietro; Woods, Amina; Maura, Guido; Marcoli, Manuela; Agnati, Luigi F

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for striatal A2A-D2 heterodimers has led to a new perspective on molecular mechanisms involved in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Despite the increasing recognition of astrocytes' participation in neuropsychiatric disease vulnerability, involvement of striatal astrocytes in A2A and D2 receptor signal transmission has never been explored. Here, we investigated the presence of D2 and A2A receptors in isolated astrocyte processes prepared from adult rat striatum by confocal imaging; the effects of receptor activation were measured on the 4-aminopyridine-evoked release of glutamate from the processes. Confocal analysis showed that A2A and D2 receptors were co-expressed on the same astrocyte processes. Evidence for A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions was obtained by measuring the release of the gliotransmitter glutamate: D2 receptors inhibited the glutamate release, while activation of A2A receptors, per se ineffective, abolished the effect of D2 receptor activation. The synthetic D2 peptide VLRRRRKRVN corresponding to the receptor region involved in electrostatic interaction underlying A2A-D2 heteromerization abolished the ability of the A2A receptor to antagonize the D2 receptor-mediated effect. Together, the findings are consistent with heteromerization of native striatal astrocytic A2A-D2 receptors that via allosteric receptor-receptor interactions could play a role in the control of striatal glutamatergic transmission. These new findings suggest possible new pathogenic mechanisms and/or therapeutic approaches to neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. The brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1 regulates dopamine D2 receptor-mediated transmission in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, Diego; Rossi, Silvia; Napoli, Ilaria; Mercaldo, Valentina; Lacoux, Caroline; Ferrari, Francesca; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; De Chiara, Valentina; Prosperetti, Chiara; Maccarrone, Mauro; Fezza, Filomena; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Bagni, Claudia

    2007-08-15

    Dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)DR)-mediated transmission in the striatum is remarkably flexible, and changes in its efficacy have been heavily implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Although receptor-associated proteins are clearly involved in specific forms of synaptic plasticity, the molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of D(2) receptors in this brain area are essentially obscure. We have studied the physiological responses of the D(2)DR stimulations in mice lacking the brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1, a small noncoding dendritically localized RNA that is supposed to play a role in mRNA translation. We show that the efficiency of D(2)-mediated transmission regulating striatal GABA synapses is under the control of BC1 RNA, through a negative influence on D(2) receptor protein level affecting the functional pool of receptors. Ablation of the BC1 gene did not result in widespread dysregulation of synaptic transmission, because the sensitivity of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors was intact in the striatum of BC1 knock-out (KO) mice despite D(2) and CB(1) receptors mediated similar electrophysiological actions. Interestingly, the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP, one of the multiple BC1 partners, is not involved in the BC1 effects on the D(2)-mediated transmission. Because D(2)DR mRNA is apparently equally translated in the BC1-KO and wild-type mice, whereas the protein level is higher in BC1-KO mice, we suggest that BC1 RNA controls D(2)DR indirectly, probably regulating translation of molecules involved in D(2)DR turnover and/or stability.

  17. Energy Efficient IoT Data Collection in Smart Cities Exploiting D2D Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsino, Antonino; Araniti, Giuseppe; Militano, Leonardo; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Molinaro, Antonella; Iera, Antonio

    2016-06-08

    Fifth Generation (5G) wireless systems are expected to connect an avalanche of "smart" objects disseminated from the largest "Smart City" to the smallest "Smart Home". In this vision, Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) is deemed to play a fundamental role in the Internet of Things (IoT) arena providing a large coherent infrastructure and a wide wireless connectivity to the devices. However, since LTE-A was originally designed to support high data rates and large data size, novel solutions are required to enable an efficient use of radio resources to convey small data packets typically exchanged by IoT applications in "smart" environments. On the other hand, the typically high energy consumption required by cellular communications is a serious obstacle to large scale IoT deployments under cellular connectivity as in the case of Smart City scenarios. Network-assisted Device-to-Device (D2D) communications are considered as a viable solution to reduce the energy consumption for the devices. The particular approach presented in this paper consists in appointing one of the IoT smart devices as a collector of all data from a cluster of objects using D2D links, thus acting as an aggregator toward the eNodeB. By smartly adapting the Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) on the communication links, we will show it is possible to maximize the radio resource utilization as a function of the total amount of data to be sent. A further benefit that we will highlight is the possibility to reduce the transmission power when a more robust MCS is adopted. A comprehensive performance evaluation in a wide set of scenarios will testify the achievable gains in terms of energy efficiency and resource utilization in the envisaged D2D-based IoT data collection.

  18. Correction of patient motion in cone-beam CT using 3D-2D registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadah, S.; Jacobson, M.; Stayman, J. W.; Ehtiati, T.; Weiss, C.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Cone-beam CT (CBCT) is increasingly common in guidance of interventional procedures, but can be subject to artifacts arising from patient motion during fairly long (~5-60 s) scan times. We present a fiducial-free method to mitigate motion artifacts using 3D-2D image registration that simultaneously corrects residual errors in the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of geometric calibration. The 3D-2D registration process registers each projection to a prior 3D image by maximizing gradient orientation using the covariance matrix adaptation-evolution strategy optimizer. The resulting rigid transforms are applied to the system projection matrices, and a 3D image is reconstructed via model-based iterative reconstruction. Phantom experiments were conducted using a Zeego robotic C-arm to image a head phantom undergoing 5-15 cm translations and 5-15° rotations. To further test the algorithm, clinical images were acquired with a CBCT head scanner in which long scan times were susceptible to significant patient motion. CBCT images were reconstructed using a penalized likelihood objective function. For phantom studies the structural similarity (SSIM) between motion-free and motion-corrected images was  >0.995, with significant improvement (p  values of uncorrected images. Additionally, motion-corrected images exhibited a point-spread function with full-width at half maximum comparable to that of the motion-free reference image. Qualitative comparison of the motion-corrupted and motion-corrected clinical images demonstrated a significant improvement in image quality after motion correction. This indicates that the 3D-2D registration method could provide a useful approach to motion artifact correction under assumptions of local rigidity, as in the head, pelvis, and extremities. The method is highly parallelizable, and the automatic correction of residual geometric calibration errors provides added benefit that could be valuable in routine use.

  19. Energy Efficient IoT Data Collection in Smart Cities Exploiting D2D Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Orsino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifth Generation (5G wireless systems are expected to connect an avalanche of “smart” objects disseminated from the largest “Smart City” to the smallest “Smart Home”. In this vision, Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A is deemed to play a fundamental role in the Internet of Things (IoT arena providing a large coherent infrastructure and a wide wireless connectivity to the devices. However, since LTE-A was originally designed to support high data rates and large data size, novel solutions are required to enable an efficient use of radio resources to convey small data packets typically exchanged by IoT applications in “smart” environments. On the other hand, the typically high energy consumption required by cellular communications is a serious obstacle to large scale IoT deployments under cellular connectivity as in the case of Smart City scenarios. Network-assisted Device-to-Device (D2D communications are considered as a viable solution to reduce the energy consumption for the devices. The particular approach presented in this paper consists in appointing one of the IoT smart devices as a collector of all data from a cluster of objects using D2D links, thus acting as an aggregator toward the eNodeB. By smartly adapting the Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS on the communication links, we will show it is possible to maximize the radio resource utilization as a function of the total amount of data to be sent. A further benefit that we will highlight is the possibility to reduce the transmission power when a more robust MCS is adopted. A comprehensive performance evaluation in a wide set of scenarios will testify the achievable gains in terms of energy efficiency and resource utilization in the envisaged D2D-based IoT data collection.

  20. D2 receptor genotype and striatal dopamine signaling predict motor cortical activity and behavior in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Leonardo; Blasi, Giuseppe; Taurisano, Paolo; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Romano, Raffaella; Gelao, Barbara; Ursini, Gianluca; Quarto, Tiziana; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Mancini, Marina; Popolizio, Teresa; Rubini, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2011-02-14

    Pre-synaptic D2 receptors regulate striatal dopamine release and DAT activity, key factors for modulation of motor pathways. A functional SNP of DRD2 (rs1076560 G>T) is associated with alternative splicing such that the relative expression of D2S (mainly pre-synaptic) vs. D2L (mainly post-synaptic) receptor isoforms is decreased in subjects with the T allele with a putative increase of striatal dopamine levels. To evaluate how DRD2 genotype and striatal dopamine signaling predict motor cortical activity and behavior in humans, we have investigated the association of rs1076560 with BOLD fMRI activity during a motor task. To further evaluate the relationship of this circuitry with dopamine signaling, we also explored the correlation between genotype based differences in motor brain activity and pre-synaptic striatal DAT binding measured with [(123)I] FP-CIT SPECT. Fifty healthy subjects, genotyped for DRD2 rs1076560 were studied with BOLD-fMRI at 3T while performing a visually paced motor task with their right hand; eleven of these subjects also underwent [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT. SPM5 random-effects models were used for statistical analyses. Subjects carrying the T allele had greater BOLD responses in left basal ganglia, thalamus, supplementary motor area, and primary motor cortex, whose activity was also negatively correlated with reaction time at the task. Moreover, left striatal DAT binding and activity of left supplementary motor area were negatively correlated. The present results suggest that DRD2 genetic variation was associated with focusing of responses in the whole motor network, in which activity of predictable nodes was correlated with reaction time and with striatal pre-synaptic dopamine signaling. Our results in humans may help shed light on genetic risk for neurobiological mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of disorders with dysregulation of striatal dopamine like Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Occupancy of pramipexole (Sifrol at cerebral dopamine D2/3 receptors in Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Deutschländer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas positron emission tomography (PET with the antagonist ligand [18F]fallypride reveals the composite of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in brain, treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD patients with the D3-prefering agonist pramipexole should result in preferential occupancy in the nucleus accumbens, where the D3-subtype is most abundant. To test this prediction we obtained pairs of [18F]fallypride PET recordings in a group of nine PD patients, first in a condition of treatment as usual with pramipexole (ON-Sifrol; 3 × 0.7 mg p.d., and again at a later date, after withholding pramipexole 48–72 h (OFF-Sifrol; in that condition the serum pramipexole concentration had declined by 90% and prolactin levels had increased four-fold, in conjunction with a small but significant worsening of PD motor symptoms. Exploratory comparison with historical control material showed 14% higher dopamine D2/3 availability in the more-affected putamen of patients OFF medication. On-Sifrol there was significant (p ˂ 0.01 occupancy at [18F]fallypride binding sites in globus pallidus (8% thalamus (9% and substantia nigra (19%, as well as marginally significant occupancy in frontal and temporal cortex of patients. Contrary to expectation, comparison of ON- and OFF-Sifrol results did not reveal any discernible occupancy in nucleus accumbens, or elsewhere in the extended striatum; present methods should be sensitive to a 10% change in dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatum; the significant findings elsewhere in the basal ganglia and in cerebral cortex are consistent with a predominance of D3 receptors in those structures, especially in substantia nigra, and imply that therapeutic effects of pramipexole may be obtained at sites outside the extended striatum.

  2. Electroacupuncture-Induced Neuroprotection against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats: Role of the Dopamine D2 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shu Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cerebral ischemia is known to produce brain damage and related behavioural deficits, including memory deficits and motor disorders. Evidence shows that EA significantly promotes recovery of neurological function and thus improves quality of life. Objective. Evidence exists for the involvement of catecholamines in human neuroplasticity. A better understanding of dopaminergic (DAergic modulation in this process will be important. Methods. A total of 72 adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into 6 groups: normal, model, EA, spiperone group, EA + spiperone group, and pergolide. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO model was used in all 6 groups except the normal group. A behavioural assessment was conducted at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after MCAO. The percent of brain infarct area was also determined 7 days after MCAO. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43 fluorescence double labeling was performed in the striatum. Results. In this study, we found that EA at Fengchi (GB20 acupoints resulted in marked improvements based on a behavioural assessment. Both TTC staining and GAP-43 immunofluorescence labeling results showed that EA treatment reduced ischemia injury and promoted neuroplasticity compared with the model group. The D2R-selective agonist, pergolide, showed similar results, but these results were reversed by the D2R-selective antagonist, spiperone. We also found that there were more colocalization and expression of GAP-43 and TH in the EA and pergolide groups than those in the other groups. Conclusion. These results suggest that the neuroplasticity induced by EA was mediated by D2 autoreceptors in DAergic neurons.

  3. Interactions of ligands with active and inactive conformations of the dopamine D2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, A; Mohell, N; Backlund Höök, B; Johansson, A M; Hacksell, U; Nordvall, G

    1998-04-10

    The affinities of 19 pharmacologically diverse dopamine D2 receptor ligands were determined for the active and inactive conformations of cloned human dopamine D2 receptors expressed in Ltk cells. The agonist [3H]quinpirole was used to selectively label the guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled, active receptor conformation. The antagonist [3H]raclopride, in the presence of the non-hydrolysable GTP-analogue Gpp(NH)p and sodium ions and in the absence of magnesium ions, was used to label the free inactive receptor conformation. The intrinsic activities of the ligands were determined in a forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP assay using the same cells. An excellent correlation was shown between the affinity ratios (KR/KRG) of the ligands for the two receptor conformations and their intrinsic activity (r=0.96). The ligands included eight structurally related and enantiopure 2-aminotetralin derivatives; the enantiomers of 5-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin, 5-methoxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin, 5-fluoro-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin and 2-(dipropylamino)tetralin. The (S)-enantiomers behaved as full agonists in the cyclic AMP assay and displayed a large KR/KRG ratio. The (R)-enantiomers were classified as partial agonists and had lower ratios. The structure-affinity relationships of these compounds at the active and the inactive receptor conformations were analysed separately, and used in conjunction with a homology based receptor model of the dopamine D2 receptor. This led to proposed binding modes for agonists, antagonists and partial agonists in the 2-aminotetralin series. The concepts used in this study should be of value in the design of ligands with predetermined affinity and intrinsic activity.

  4. Intestinal tumor suppression in ApcMin/+ mice by prostaglandin D2 receptor PTGDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippin, Brigette L; Kwong, Alan M; Inadomi, Michael J; Lee, Oliver J; Park, Jae Man; Materi, Alicia M; Buslon, Virgilio S; Lin, Amy M; Kudo, Lili C; Karsten, Stanislav L; French, Samuel W; Narumiya, Shuh; Urade, Yoshihiro; Salido, Eduardo; Lin, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Our earlier work showed that knockout of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS, an enzyme that produces prostaglandin D 2 ) caused more adenomas in Apc Min/+ mice. Conversely, highly expressed transgenic HPGDS allowed fewer tumors. Prostaglandin D 2 (PGD 2 ) binds to the prostaglandin D 2 receptor known as PTGDR (or DP1). PGD 2 metabolites bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG). We hypothesized that Ptgdr or Pparg knockouts may raise numbers of tumors, if these receptors take part in tumor suppression by PGD 2 . To assess, we produced Apc Min/+ mice with and without Ptgdr knockouts (147 mice). In separate experiments, we produced Apc Min/+ mice expressing transgenic lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (PTGDS), with and without heterozygous Pparg knockouts (104 mice). Homozygous Ptgdr knockouts raised total numbers of tumors by 30–40% at 6 and 14 weeks. Colon tumors were not affected. Heterozygous Pparg knockouts alone did not affect tumor numbers in Apc Min/+ mice. As mentioned above, our Pparg knockout assessment also included mice with highly expressed PTGDS transgenes. Apc Min/+ mice with transgenic PTGDS had fewer large adenomas (63% of control) and lower levels of v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) mRNA in the colon. Heterozygous Pparg knockouts appeared to blunt the tumor-suppressing effect of transgenic PTGDS. However, tumor suppression by PGD 2 was more clearly mediated by receptor PTGDR in our experiments. The suppression mechanism did not appear to involve changes in microvessel density or slower proliferation of tumor cells. The data support a role for PGD 2 signals acting through PTGDR in suppression of intestinal tumors

  5. Crossed beam studies of O-+D2→OD-+D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.G.; Kremer, L.N.; Metral, C.J.; Cross, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Using the crossed-beam machine EVA we have measured the product angular and energy distributions of the reaction O - +D 2 →OD - +D in the relative energy range of 1.2-4.7 eV (5.7-23.1 eV LAB). Below 2.5 eV the product distribution is centered about the center of mass, indicating a long-lived complex. Above 2.5 eV the distribution slowly moves forward. Most of the available energy goes into internal energy of the products

  6. Functional responses of pre- and postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors in rat brain striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Guofen

    2014-01-01

    El sistema dopaminèrgic has estat molt estudiat en els darrers anys, principalment degut a la seva implicació en diverses patologies com la malaltia de Parkinson, la esquizofrènia o la síndrome de Tourette, així com també en l'abús de drogues. S'han descrit cinc subtipus de receptors per la dopamina (DA), tots els quals pertanyen a la família de receptors acoblats a proteïnes G (GPCRs). D'aquests cinc subtipus, els receptors D2 son la diana principal dels antipsicòtics (antagonistes) i també ...

  7. Pressure control modernization for D2O supply system of the fuel machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, T.; Burla, I.; Vasilache, V.

    2005-01-01

    The analog controllers of the D 2 O Supply System (BSI-35260) were replaced at Cernavoda NPP U1 with a modern solution built on a new platform with powerful Fischer and Porter controllers. During two years of operating experience this new solution demonstrated its capabilities to work without any fault. This paper describes briefly the involved system, the hardware and software aspects of this solution, how the software solution was tested using the Full-Scope Simulator facilities and finally, results of the tests done in the real plant are discussed. (authors)

  8. Moessbauer studies of a martensitic transformation and of cryogenic treatments of a D2 tool steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, B. F. O., E-mail: benilde@ci.uc.pt [University of Coimbra, CEMDRX, Department of Physics (Portugal); Blumers, M. [University Mainz, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany); Kortmann, A. [Ingpuls GmbH (Germany); Theisen, W. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institute of Materials (Germany); Batista, A. C. [University of Coimbra, CEMDRX, Department of Physics (Portugal); Klingelhoefer, G. [University Mainz, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    A D2 tool steel X153CrVMo12 with composition C1.53 Cr12 V0.95 Mo0.80 Mn0.40(wt% Fe balanced) was studied by use of Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was observed that the study of carbides by X-ray diffraction was difficult while Moessbauer spectroscopy gives some light on the process occurring during cryogenic treatment. With the increase of the martensitic phase the carbides decrease and are dissolved in solid solution of martensite as well as the chromium element.

  9. Surface Roughness Optimization Using Taguchi Method of High Speed End Milling For Hardened Steel D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazza Faizi Al-Hazza, Muataz; Ibrahim, Nur Asmawiyah bt; Adesta, Erry T. Y.; Khan, Ahsan Ali; Abdullah Sidek, Atiah Bt.

    2017-03-01

    The main challenge for any manufacturer is to achieve higher quality of their final products with maintains minimum machining time. In this research final surface roughness analysed and optimized with maximum 0.3 mm flank wear length. The experiment was investigated the effect of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on the final surface roughness using D2 as a work piece hardened to 52-56 HRC, and coated carbide as cutting tool with higher cutting speed 120-240 mm/min. The experiment has been conducted using L9 design of Taguchi collection. The results have been analysed using JMP software.

  10. Study of Carbide Evolution During Thermo-Mechanical Processing of AISI D2 Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombac, D.; Fazarinc, M.; Podder, A. Saha; Kugler, G.

    2013-03-01

    The microstructure of a cold-worked tool steel (AISI D2) with various thermo-mechanical treatments was examined in the current study to identify th