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Sample records for biocidal efficacy study

  1. Study on management policy of Biocides in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Kyu; Cho, Young Hee [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In the advanced countries, there are active studies on biocide, implying non-agricultural pesticides, at present with increasing interests on this. Among the advanced countries, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are managing biocides the most systematically and have very clear regulations and roles of relevant departments. In addition to efforts of each country, the international organizations are emphasizing the need of biocides management. EU already announced Biocidal Products Directive(BPD) in 1998 and is urging to implement regulations within a guidebook in member countries from 2000. Furthermore, OECD is well aware of biocides management trend of each member country and is planning to set up a specific management guide based on this. In this study, it recommends a biocides management policy in Korea with regulations, relevant departments, and regulation contents of biocides implemented in the advanced countries and regulation trend of biocides in Korea. 47 refs., 27 tabs.

  2. Control of multidrug-resistant planktonic Acinetobacter baumannii: biocidal efficacy study by atmospheric-pressure air plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe, RUAN; Yajun, GUO; Jing, GAO; Chunjun, YANG; Yan, LAN; Jie, SHEN; Zimu, XU; Cheng, CHENG; Xinghao, LIU; Shumei, ZHANG; Wenhui, DU; Paul, K. CHU

    2018-04-01

    In this research, an atmospheric-pressure air plasma is used to inactivate the multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in liquid. The efficacy of the air plasma on bacterial deactivation and the cytobiological variations after the plasma treatment are investigated. According to colony forming units, nearly all the bacteria (6-log) are inactivated after 10 min of air plasma treatment. However, 7% of the bacteria enter a viable but non-culturable state detected by the resazurin based assay during the same period of plasma exposure. Meanwhile, 86% of the bacteria lose their membrane integrity in the light of SYTO 9/PI staining assay. The morphological changes in the cells are examined by scanning electron microscopy and bacteria with morphological changes are rare after plasma exposure in the liquid. The concentrations of the long-living RS, such as H2O2, {{{{NO}}}3}-, and O3, in liquid induced by plasma treatment are measured, and they increase with plasma treatment time. The changes of the intracellular ROS may be related to cell death, which may be attributed to oxidative stress and other damage effects induced by RS plasma generated in liquid. The rapid and effective bacteria inactivation may stem from the RS in the liquid generated by plasma and air plasmas may become a valuable therapy in the treatment of infected wounds.

  3. Comparative analysis of copper and zinc based agrichemical biocide products: materials characteristics, phytotoxicity and in vitro antimicrobial efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikishan Kannan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, copper based biocides have been extensively used in food crop protection including citrus, small fruits and in all garden vegetable production facilities. Continuous and rampant use of copper based biocides over decades has led to accumulation of this metal in the soil and the surrounding ecosystem. Toxic levels of copper and its derivatives in both the soil and in the run off pose serious environmental and public health concerns. Alternatives to copper are in great need for the agriculture industry to produce food crops with minimal environmental risks. A combination of copper and zinc metal containing biocide such as Nordox 30/30 or an improved version of zinc-only containing biocide would be a good alternative to copper-only products if the efficacy can be maintained. As of yet there is no published literature on the comparative study of the materials characteristics and phyto-compatibility properties of copper and zinc-based commercial products that would allow us to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of both versions of pesticides. In this report, we compared copper hydroxide and zinc oxide based commercially available biocides along with suitable control materials to assess their efficacy as biocides. We present a detailed material characterization of the biocides including morphological studies involving electron microscopy, molecular structure studies involving X-ray diffraction, phytotoxicity studies in model plant (tomato and antimicrobial studies involving surrogate plant pathogens (Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Zinc based compounds were found to possess comparable to superior antimicrobial properties while exhibiting significantly lower phytotoxicity when compared to copper based products thus suggesting their potential as an alternative.

  4. Efficacy of biocides used in the modern food industry to control salmonella enterica, and links between biocide tolerance and resistance to clinically relevant antimicrobial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condell, Orla; Iversen, Carol; Cooney, Shane; Power, Karen A; Walsh, Ciara; Burgess, Catherine; Fanning, Séamus

    2012-05-01

    Biocides play an essential role in limiting the spread of infectious disease. The food industry is dependent on these agents, and their increasing use is a matter for concern. Specifically, the emergence of bacteria demonstrating increased tolerance to biocides, coupled with the potential for the development of a phenotype of cross-resistance to clinically important antimicrobial compounds, needs to be assessed. In this study, we investigated the tolerance of a collection of susceptible and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica strains to a panel of seven commercially available food-grade biocide formulations. We explored their abilities to adapt to these formulations and their active biocidal agents, i.e., triclosan, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, and benzalkonium chloride, after sequential rounds of in vitro selection. Finally, cross-tolerance of different categories of biocidal formulations, their active agents, and the potential for coselection of resistance to clinically important antibiotics were investigated. Six of seven food-grade biocide formulations were bactericidal at their recommended working concentrations. All showed a reduced activity against both surface-dried and biofilm cultures. A stable phenotype of tolerance to biocide formulations could not be selected. Upon exposure of Salmonella strains to an active biocidal compound, a high-level of tolerance was selected for a number of Salmonella serotypes. No cross-tolerance to the different biocidal agents or food-grade biocide formulations was observed. Most tolerant isolates displayed changes in their patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial compounds. Food industry biocides are effective against planktonic Salmonella. When exposed to sublethal concentrations of individual active biocidal agents, tolerant isolates may emerge. This emergence was associated with changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities.

  5. Evaluation of biocidal efficacy of copper alloy coatings in comparison with solid metal surfaces: generation of organic copper phosphate nanoflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, H; Portman, T; Pershin, V; Ringuette, M

    2013-03-01

    To analyse the biocidal efficacy of thermal sprayed copper surfaces. Copper alloy sheet metals containing >60% copper have been shown to exhibit potent biocidal activity. Surface biocidal activity was assessed by epifluorescence microscopy. After 2-h exposure at 20 °C in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), contact killing of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis by brass sheet metal and phosphor bronze was 3-4-times higher than that by stainless steel. SEM observations revealed that the surface membranes of both bacterial strains were slightly more irregular when exposed to brass sheet metal than stainless steel. However, when exposed to phosphor bronze coating, E. coli were 3-4 times larger with irregular membrane morphology. In addition, the majority of the cells were associated with spherical carbon-copper-phosphate crystalline nanostructures characteristic of nanoflowers. The membranes of many of the S. epidermidis exhibited blebbing, and a small subset was also associated with nanoflowers. Our data indicate that increasing the surface roughness of copper alloys had a pronounced impact on the membrane integrity of Gram-positive and, to a lesser degree, Gram-negative bacteria. In the presence of PBS, carbon-copper-phosphate-containing nanoflowers were formed, likely nucleated by components derived from killed bacteria. The intimate association of the bacteria with the nanoflowers and phosphor bronze coating likely contributed to their nonreversible adhesion. Thermal spraying of copper alloys provides a strategy for the rapid coating of three-dimensional organic and inorganic surfaces with biocidal copper alloys. Our study demonstrates that the macroscale surface roughness generated by the thermal spray process enhances the biocidal activity of copper alloys compared with the nanoscale surface roughness of copper sheet metals. Moreover, the coating surface topography provides conditions for the rapid formation of organic copper

  6. Evaluation of the Biocidal Efficacy of Different Forms of Silver Against Cupriavidus (formerly Wautersia) Species Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Schultz, John R.; Wong, Wing; Algate, Michelle T.; Bryant, Becky; Castro, Victoria A.

    2009-01-01

    Contingency Water Containers (CWCs) are used to store potable and technical water that is transferred to the International Space Station (ISS) from the Shuttle orbiter vehicles. When CWCs are filled, water from the orbiter galley is passed through an ion exchange/activated carbon cartridge that removes the residual iodine biocide used on Shuttle before silver biocide is added. Removal of iodine and addition of silver is necessary to inhibit microbial growth inside CWCs and maintain compatibility with the water systems in the Russian segment of ISS. As part of nominal water transfer activities, crewmembers collect samples from several CWCs for postflight analysis. Results from the analysis of water transfer samples collected during the docked phases of STS-118/13A.1 and STS-120/10A showed that several of the CWCs contained up to 10(exp 4) CFU/mL of bacteria despite the fact that the silver concentrations in the CWCs were within acceptable limits. The samples contained pure cultures of a single bacteria, a Cupriavidus (formerly Wautersia) species that has been shown to be resistant to metallic biocides. As part of the investigation into the cause and remediation of the bacterial contamination in these CWCs, ground studies were initiated to evaluate the resistance of the Cupriavidus species to the silver biocides used on ISS and to determine the minimum effective concentration for the different forms of silver present in the biocides. The initial findings from those experiments are discussed herein.

  7. Antimicrobial biocides in the healthcare environment: efficacy, usage, policies, and perceived problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2005-12-01

    Biocides are heavily used in the healthcare environment, mainly for the disinfection of surfaces, water, equipment, and antisepsis, but also for the sterilization of medical devices and preservation of pharmaceutical and medicinal products. The number of biocidal products for such usage continuously increases along with the number of applications, although some are prone to controversies. There are hundreds of products containing low concentrations of biocides, including various fabrics such as linen, curtains, mattresses, and mops that claim to help control infection, although evidence has not been evaluated in practice. Concurrently, the incidence of hospital-associated infections (HAIs) caused notably by bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains high. The intensive use of biocides is the subject of current debate. Some professionals would like to see an increase in their use throughout hospitals, whereas others call for a restriction in their usage to where the risk of pathogen transmission to patients is high. In addition, the possible linkage between biocide and antibiotic resistance in bacteria and the role of biocides in the emergence of such resistance has provided more controversies in their extensive and indiscriminate usage. When used appropriately, biocidal products have a very important role to play in the control of HAIs. This paper discusses the benefits and problems associated with the use of biocides in the healthcare environment and provides a constructive view on their overall usefulness in the hospital setting.

  8. Articles Treated with Biocidal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Söyleriz, Yüksel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, articles treated with biocidal products have been assessed in the scope of Directive 98/8/EC Concerning the Placing of Biocidal Products on the Market and of Regulation (EU) No 528/2012 concerning the Making Available on the Market and Use of Biocidal Products.

  9. Emerging biocide resistance among multidrug-resistant bacteria: Myth or reality? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Possible linkage between biocide and antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a major area of concern. Aim: To evaluate the susceptibility of multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria to four commonly used biocides. Settings and Design: A pilot study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital from April to November 2017. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four MDR bacterial isolates, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, were obtained from various clinical samples of inpatients. These isolates were subjected to tube dilution method for determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of four commonly used biocides in our hospital, namely 5% w/v povidone iodine, absolute ethanol (99.9%, sodium hypochlorite (4% available chlorine, and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs (3.39%. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of these biocides was determined as per standard guidelines. Similar tests were also performed on corresponding American Type Culture Collection (ATCC bacterial strains. Statistical Analysis: The Fisher exact test. Results: Twenty-two MDR bacterial isolates had higher MIC values for QACs than their corresponding ATCC strains. Statistically significant difference in proportion of test isolates exhibiting higher MIC values for QACs and absolute ethanol was observed (P-value = 0.02. Twenty-four MDR bacterial isolates exhibited higher MBC values for sodium hypochlorite than their corresponding ATCC strains. The difference in proportion of test isolates exhibiting higher MBC values for sodium hypochlorite and absolute ethanol, respectively, was statistically significant (P-value <0.0001. The difference in proportion of test isolates exhibiting higher MBC values for absolute ethanol versus QACs and povidone iodine, respectively, was statistically significant (P-values = 0.0003 and 0.0076. Statistically significant differences in susceptibility to biocides among test isolates were also

  10. Study of a Mathematical Model of Biocide Effect on a Biofilm Isolated from a Cooling System Using the Microtiter Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Shakeri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial colonization on metal surfaces and their metabolic activities lead to biocorrosion. In fact, any agent removing the biofilm or decreasing its thickness is capable of preventing biocorrosion. Biocides make up one such agent. These agents can control bacterial biofilms, remove these structures, or kill cells within them. The object of this research is to study the thermodynamic model of biocide penetration into the biofilm using the microtiter plate test. First, the biofilm bacteria were isolated to form a mix- bacterial biofilm. The biocide effect on the mix-biofilm was then determined using the microtiter plate test. Results from this test were compared with those from a thermodynamic model and it was revealed that the effects of oxidizing biocides such as sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide are in good agreement with the results from the model. The results indicated that increased biocide concentration leads to the removal of the biofilm or to the kill-off of the cells within it. However, in the case of non-oxidizing biocides such as sulfathiazol, glutaraldehyde, and alkyl dimethyl ammonium chloride, the efficiency results did not agree well with the results from the thermodynamic model such that increased biocide concentration did not remove the biofilm nor did it kill off the cells within it

  11. Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeschau, Margit; Kraetke, Renate

    2005-01-01

    The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents. - For alternative antifouling paints efficacy as well as adverse effects on non-target organisms and the aquatic environment should be carefully assessed

  12. Resistance of Bacteria to Biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2018-04-01

    Biocides and formulated biocides are used worldwide for an increasing number of applications despite tightening regulations in Europe and in the United States. One concern is that such intense usage of biocides could lead to increased bacterial resistance to a product and cross-resistance to unrelated antimicrobials including chemotherapeutic antibiotics. Evidence to justify such a concern comes mostly from the use of health care-relevant bacterial isolates, although the number of studies of the resistance characteristics of veterinary isolates to biocides have increased the past few years. One problem remains the definition of "resistance" and how to measure resistance to a biocide. This has yet to be addressed globally, although the measurement of resistance is becoming more pressing, with regulators both in Europe and in the United States demanding that manufacturers provide evidence that their biocidal products will not impact on bacterial resistance. Alongside in vitro evidence of potential antimicrobial cross-resistance following biocide exposure, our understanding of the mechanisms of bacterial resistance and, more recently, our understanding of the effect of biocides to induce a mechanism(s) of resistance in bacteria has improved. This article aims to provide an understanding of the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria following a biocide exposure. The sections provide evidence of the occurrence of bacterial resistance and its mechanisms of action and debate how to measure bacterial resistance to biocides. Examples pertinent to the veterinary field are used where appropriate.

  13. Biocidas. Eficacia. Criterios para su evaluación y autorización Biocides. Efficacy. Criteria for its assessment and authorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covadonga Caballo Diéguez

    2006-12-01

    .Article 13 of Royal Decree 865/2003, 4 July, establishes hygienic-sanitary criteria for prevention and control of Legionellosis, provides for the use of disinfectants duly authorized by Public Health General Directorate, in the course of hygienic-sanitary maintenance operations.In accordance with existing national laws among requirements necessary to effect said authorization are the due efficacy assay product, physic-chemical properties, data on toxicity and ecotoxicity and information on incompatibility with other chemicals used in installations, as well as materials constitutive of the latter.Public Health General Directorate, General Subdirectorate of Environmental Health and Labour Health, studies and assesses the information provided by the applicant if appropriate the product is included in the Public Health General Directorate Official Register.Up until 1st June 2006, 183 disinfectants products against Legionella are registered in the Public Health General Directorate. The said disinfectant products may be classified according to their action substances, and the way in which they act, into oxidants and non-oxidants all of them interacting the different with factors linked to Legionella proliferation. Nonetheless, efficacy of oxidant and non-oxidant biocides will depend on conditions such as: specific characteristics of the installation itself (dimensions, material, technology, usage and maintenance frequency, location, use of products that might interfere with the used biocide.Although efficacy assays conducted to register these biocides rest mostly on laboratory studies, their “in vivo” efficacy should not be questioned without considering the above listed factors.

  14. Biocidal and Sporicidal Efficacy of Pathoster® 0.35% and Pathoster® 0.50% Against Bacterial Agents in Potential Bioterrorism Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeliere, Antonio; Donatiello, Adelia; Pagano, Stefania; Iatarola, Michela; Tolve, Francesco; Antonino, Leonardo; Fasanella, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The use of products that can neutralize or significantly reduce the microbial load and that are not harmful to human health and the environment represents a milestone in the fight against the spread of infectious diseases. Peracetic acid, besides being an excellent sterilizing and sporicidal agent, is harmless to humans and the environment when it is used in a common dosage. However, the high costs and loss of efficacy of the product very quickly after its reconstitution limit its use. We evaluated the efficacy and stability of 2 commercial products, based on stabilized peracetic acid (Pathoster® 0.35% and Pathoster® 0.50%) used against spores of Bacillus anthracis and spores of Bacillus cereus and vegetative forms of Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella melitensis. The efficacy tests were based on the direct contact of the products with a standard suspension of the bacteria. The stability of the products was defined as the period of time during which the biocidal and sporicidal properties remained unchanged. The limit of effectiveness was the period after which the product was unable to exert a complete sterilization after a contact of 5 minutes with at least 1 of the 8 bacteria used in this work. Both formulations showed good efficacy against the microorganisms used in the study, confirming the utility of peracetic acid as a sterilizing product. After the reconstitution, Pathoster® 0.35% was stable until 16±1 days, while Pathoster® 0.50% was stable until 24±1 days. The formulations used in this study showed good performance and a significant stability of peracetic acid. PMID:27482880

  15. Benzalkonium runoff from roofs treated with biocide products - In situ pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromaire, M C; Van de Voorde, A; Lorgeoux, C; Chebbo, G

    2015-09-15

    Roof maintenance practices often involve the application of biocide products to fight against moss, lichens and algae. The main component of these products is benzalkonium chloride, a mixture of alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides with mainly C12 and C14 alkyl chain lengths, which is toxic for the aquatic environment. This paper describes, on the basis of an in-situ pilot scale study, the evolution of roof runoff contamination over a one year period following the biocide treatment of roof frames. Results show a major contamination of roof runoff immediately after treatment (from 5 to 30 mg/L), followed by an exponential decrease. 175-375 mm of cumulated rainfall is needed before the runoff concentrations become less than EC50 values for fish (280 μg/l). The residual concentration in the runoff water remains above 4 μg/L even after 640 mm of rainfall. The level of benzalkonium ions leaching depends on the roofing material, with lower concentrations and total mass leached from ceramic tiles than from concrete tiles, and on the state of the tile (new or worn out). Mass balance calculations indicate that a large part of the mass of benzalkonium compounds applied to the tiles is lost, probably due to biodegradation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of biocide efficacy on microbiological induced corrosion of pipes and equipment from the 'process water system' of Embalse nuclear power plant (CNE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte Giacobone, A F; Burkart, A L; Pizarro, R; Rodriguez S; Belloni, M; Croatto, F; Ferrari, F; Herrera, C; Mendizabal, M; Montes, J; Rodriguez Aliciardi, M; Saucedo, R; Ovando, L

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve water quality, and mitigate recurrent bio corrosion phenomena affecting the components of the Process Water System of the CNE, a combined water treatment adding a commercial biocide product, based on bromide, to the currently injected chlorine was proposed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the added biocide on the kinetics of biofilm formation and growth, which is the precursor process to microbiological corrosion, and on the corrosion rates of carbon steel of pipes, heat exchanger shells and other system devices. For this purpose, a test bench was designed and built, reproducing the flow conditions at certain parts of the system. This facility was installed in the filtration shed of the Water Plant of the CNE. The test bench consisted of two parallel chambers, I and II, each in turn divided into a section for determining biofilm growth and corrosion rates of carbon steel coupons and another one to measure the kinetics of biofilm growth on stainless steel coupons. Both chambers received lake water chlorinated for 15 minutes each day. The chamber II received also the biocide. The corrosion rate in carbon steel coupons was evaluated by weight loss and Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) measurements. The kinetics of biofilm growth on carbon steel coupons was measured using disruptive methods followed by quantification of the protein and carbohydrate content as an estimation of total biomase. The following bacterial groups were quantified through the dilution-extinction method: total aerobic bacteria, acid-producing bacteria, total anaerobic bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria precipitating iron and manganese. On the stainless steel coupons, the percent of coverage was evaluated by epi fluorescence microscopy. The corrosion rate results obtained both by weight loss as by LPR, showed no significant differences between both chambers, with and without biocide. Regarding the kinetics of biofilm growth on carbon steel

  17. Eficacia de algunos biocidas contra estafilococos hospitalarios sensibles y resistentes a la meticilina en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Efficacy of biocides against hospital isolates of Staphylococcus sensitive and resistant to methicillin, in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Beatriz Reynaldo

    2004-09-01

    ímicos contra los microorganismos que han sido expuestos a antibióticos.OBJECTIVE: To assess the response to the action of different antiseptics and disinfectants usually used in Argentinian hospitals of hospital staphylococci sensitive and resistant to methicillin. To test the effectiveness of the biocides by measuring their effective bactericidal concentrations, and to determine whether there is any correlation between biocide resistance and methicillin resistance in this bacterial population. METHODS: The action of seven biocides was tested against 25 strains of nosocomial Staphylococcus spp. sensitive and resistant to methicillin, and in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. Hospital strains were obtained from April, 2000 to May, 2002, from clinical samples (blood culture, urine culture, catheter tip or abscess from male and female inpatients and outpatients at two tertiary hospitals. After isolation, antibiotic sensitivity was tested with the agar diffusion method of Kirby and Bauer. The action of hospital biocides on the strains was studied with the Kelsey-Sykes test, which establishes the effective bactericide concentrations of these compounds. RESULTS: The results showed that the response of strains sensitive and resistant to methicillin varied in comparison to the collection strain. Chlorhexidine digluconate, povidone iodine, weak tincture of iodine and alkaline glutaraldehyde were effective against most strains, regardless of whether they were sensitive or resistant to methicillin. CONCLUSIONS: We found no indication of a relationship between resistance to methicillin and resistance to biocides. Our study shows that further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of chemical agents against microorganisms that have been exposed to antibiotic therapies.

  18. Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Blanca Sánchez

    Full Text Available Biocides are used without restriction for several purposes. As a consequence, large amounts of biocides are released without any control in the environment, a situation that can challenge the microbial population dynamics, including selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Previous work has shown that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF and induces expression of this pump triggering transient low-level resistance. In the present work we analyze if two other common biocides, benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene, trigger antibiotic resistance in S. maltophilia. Bioinformatic and biochemical methods showed that benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene bind the repressor of smeDEF, SmeT. Only benzalkonium chloride triggers expression of smeD and its effect in transient antibiotic resistance is minor. None of the hexachlorophene-selected mutants was antibiotic resistant. Two benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presented reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and were impaired in growth. Metabolic profiling showed they were more proficient than their parental strain in the use of some dipeptides. We can then conclude that although bioinformatic predictions and biochemical studies suggest that both hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride should induce smeDEF expression leading to transient S. maltophilia resistance to antibiotics, phenotypic assays showed this not to be true. The facts that hexachlorophene resistant mutants are not antibiotic resistant and that the benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presenting altered susceptibility to antibiotics were impaired in growth suggests that the risk for the selection (and fixation of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants by these biocides is likely low, at least in the absence of constant selection pressure.

  19. Common Problems Encountered in the Microbiological Analysis of Biocidal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Güven

    2015-01-01

    As many parameters that affect the success of a biocidal product, under laboratory conditions there are also factors affecting the reliability and accuracy of tests to determine the microbiological efficacy of these products. The assessment of the microbiological efficacy of the biocidal products and in order to ensure standardization between laboratories it is essential the use of internationally accepted methods.

  20. Bromination vis-a-vis chlorination as a biocide feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, S.K.; Nagaigh, N.; Mittal, S.

    2000-01-01

    Water is used extensively as a cooling medium in various heat transfer equipment's of a power industry such as condenser, heat exchangers and cooling towers. At elevated temperature, the breeding of microbiological growth can form slimes, underneath of this, accelerated corrosion can take place resulting into sudden and catastrophic failure of equipment's. The microbiological growth unchecked in the various systems especially in low velocity areas can lead to large growth of micro organisms such as algae which can even reduce the flow of the fluid thus affecting the efficiency of plant equipment's. Therefore, chlorination is a mandatory requirement in industrial cooling water to reduce biofouling in heat transfer equipment's. The chlorination in drinking water produces germicidal effect and thus reduces the bacterial counts. At NAPS the water quality is good and mild doses of chlorine (5 ppm) two times a day, as envisaged in design is noticed to be satisfactory. The chlorination of recirculating condenser cooling water presently is being done with the established doses for a fixed time twice a day. Some of the problems noticed with the chlorination process are : Corrosion of constructional material of chlorination plant and equipment's and pipelines causing large input of efforts on maintenance for keeping high availability of the chlorination plant. In addition to this, the leakages in the equipment could be a potential safety hazard. The effectiveness of chlorine is observed to be less in alkaline pH (above 9.0) as encountered at NAPS. This results is large quantities of chlorine injection for extended periods. The cost of chlorine and bleaching powder keeps fluctuating in the market as noticed in past few years. Many a times this results in scarcity of chlorine/bleaching powder causing interruption in biofouling control programme. Hence it was felt prudent to work on the alternative biocides which could be cost effective, non-polluting and nature and user

  1. Effect of biocides on biofilms of some multidrug resistant clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerogenes to form biofilms was most affected. There was little inhibition of biofilm formation by the biocides on Staphylococcus aureus. This study has shown a relationship between biocide and multidrug resistance. Keywords: Biocides, Multi drug resistance, sodium hypochlorite, ...

  2. A Photodegradation Study of Three Common Paint and Plaster Biocides under monochromatic UV Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minelgaite, Greta; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2014-01-01

    Photodegradation of the three common paint-and-plaster biocides (carbendazim, diuron and terbutryn) was investigated at controlled laboratory conditions. Samples prepared in two types of water (demineralized water and pond water) were subjected to 254 nm monochromatic UV light. Light intensity (W m......-2) in the experimental chamber was measured by a fiber optic spectrometer. The observed decline in biocide concentration was related with the light energy, accumulated during the time of degradation (kJ m-2), and 1st order photodegradation rate constants (m2 kJ-1) were determined. The obtained...... at selected laboratory conditions, as well as emphasize the importance of water type when investigating pollutant’s photo fate, as certain constituents might act as reaction enhancers or inhibitors....

  3. Comparison of biocides for disinfection treatment of open recirculating cooling circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soreau, Sylvie; Prisset, Frederic; Carvajal, Nathalie

    2012-09-01

    Open recirculating cooling circuits of nuclear power plants are likely to face pathogenic proliferations like Legionella and amoebae (Naegleria fowleri). To reduce such risks, biocide treatments are usually implemented. However, the selection of a treatment is never easy due to the large size of the cooling circuits. Indeed, the range of treatment options is limited due to potential health or environmental impacts of chemicals in case of chemical treatments or because of the technical difficulties to implement treatment units appropriate to the size of the cooling circuits in case of physical treatments. In the aim of finding the best compromise between efficacy, nature and quantity of chemical releases and industrial feasibility, several biocide treatments were compared at lab and pilot scale using semi-industrial pilot plants simulating recirculating cooling circuit of a nuclear power plant. These pilots were fed with river water or pre-treated water (lime softening or clari-flocculation). They were equipped with materials and surfaces representative of those found on a full-scale plant. These pilots operated at summer temperatures favoring microbial growth. Three industrial biocides were compared: chlorine, monochloramine and chlorine dioxide. The results indicate that the transit in the cooling system strongly affects the consumption of biocides and therefore their efficacy, the quantity of biocide needed and chemical releases so that the ranking of treatments defined on the basis of laboratory tests can be strongly modified. The results show different areas of consumption along the process line depending on biocides and highlight the significant role of the cooling tower. The behavior of biocides in the different compartments of the circuit (cooling tower, condenser, basins) is described and the consequences on pathogenic micro-organisms removal in bio-films and on chemical releases are considered as function of the studied biocide. Moreover, the influence of

  4. Consumers' perceptions of biocidal products in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieck, Stefanie; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2018-03-01

    Biocidal products are commonly used in households and can pose a risk to human health and the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' use and understanding of biocidal products in order to identify starting points for minimising their exposure to these products and reducing possible emissions to the environment. In a case study, standardised questionnaires were used to interview consumers in 133 households in three neighbourhoods in Northern Germany, representing the urban-rural typologies in Europe: predominantly urban, intermediate and predominantly rural regions. The questions focussed on the comprehension of the term 'biocide', pest control habits, sources of information, risk perception of different product groups and possible emission reduction measures. Only 21% of the respondents understood the term 'biocide' correctly, whereas 29% thought of 'something that had to do with organic pest control', and 28% were not able to think of a possible meaning. The risk perception of biocidal products compared to plant protection products varied depending on the living conditions. In the urban neighbourhood, biocidal products were perceived as more dangerous than in the rural area. The main pests to be fought were ants, mould and fruit fly. The results of the study indicate that there is a considerable difference between the types of biocidal products that interviewees claimed to own and those that they actually did have in their households. Most notably, respondents did not realise that they owned surface disinfectants. This result indicates that consumers often seem not to be aware of using specific biocidal products. Also, this shows the limitations of collecting data on products owned with only one method, as the results from products inventories of the households deviate from the data collected in interviews. Our results show that the term 'biocide' is not fully understood by many people. To communicate possible risks of biocidal products

  5. Chemical Interactions of Hydraulic Fracturing Biocides with Natural Pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolazio, Nizette A.

    (-Br) group is easily reduced. For methylene bis(thiocyanate), hydrolysis was a noteworthy elimination mechanism since the thiocyanate (-SCN) functionality is a good leaving group. Benzisothiazolinone and methyl isothiazolinone were stable at low pH due to the stabilizing donor-acceptor interactions between the organic biocides' carbonyl (-C=O) groups and salts in the solution. This body of work has illustrated that pristine pyrite can undergo redox reactions with brominated biocides used in hydraulic fracturing, reducing their persistence and altering the product distribution. This will change the efficacy and the risks associated with the use of these biocides in shales containing pyrite, particularly at lower pH where organic compounds are more stable to hydrolysis. However, at higher pH hydrolysis becomes more important, and additional studies will need to be conducted to investigate the pyrite contribution under these conditions. Conversely, the FeIII surface groups on oxidized pyrite can catalyze the hydrolysis of dazomet and may do so for other labile, sulfur-containing biocides as well. Overall, this research has shown that the physicochemical properties (such as the acid dissociation constant and the standard reduction potential) that govern the environmental reactivity of a molecule can be used to anticipate its reactivity in hydraulic fracturing.

  6. Regulation of sporicides under the European Biocidal Products Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, A

    2011-03-01

    Disinfectants (including sporicides) used in the healthcare setting fall within the scope of the European Biocidal Products Directive (98/8/EC). The active substances used in these products will be evaluated as part of an EU wide review programme, to determine whether they can be used in biocidal products without undue risks to humans, animals and the environment, and that these products will be effective. Following the review of an active substance, biocidal products containing the active substance will become subject to regulatory controls in all EU Member States. This paper discusses how the Directive operates, both through the review programme and the authorisation of biocidal products at the Member State level, together with the requirements to provide data on the efficacy of both the active substances and end-use biocidal products. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biocide Runoff from Building Facades: Degradation Kinetics in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Fernández-Calviño, David; Brandt, Kristian K; Storgaard, Morten S; Sanderson, Hans; Bester, Kai

    2017-04-04

    Biocides are common additives in building materials. In-can and film preservatives in polymer-resin render and paint, as well as wood preservatives are used to protect facade materials from microbial spoilage. Biocides leach from the facade material with driving rain, leading to highly polluted runoff water (up to several mg L -1 biocides) being infiltrated into the soil surrounding houses. In the present study the degradation rates in soil of 11 biocides used for the protection of building materials were determined in laboratory microcosms. The results show that some biocides are degraded rapidly in soil (e.g., isothiazolinones: T 1/2 soils; thus, rainfall events control how often new input to the soil occurs. Time intervals between rainfall events in Northern Europe are shorter than degradation half-lives even for many rapidly degraded biocides. Consequently, residues of some biocides are likely to be continuously present due to repeated input and most biocides can be considered as "pseudo-persistent"-contaminants in this context. This was verified by (sub)urban soil screening, where concentrations of up to 0.1 μg g -1 were detected for parent compounds as well as terbutryn degradation products in soils below biocide treated facades.

  8. Studies on the biocidal and cell membrane disruption potentials of stem bark extracts of Afzelia africana (Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID A AKINPELU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We had recently reported antibacterial activity in the crude extract of the stem bark of Afzelia africana (Akinpelu et al., 2008. In this study, we assessed the biocidal and cell membrane disruption potentials of fractions obtained from the crude extract of the plant. The aqueous (AQ and butanol (BL fractions exhibited appreciable antibacterial activities against the test bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the AQ and BL fractions ranged between 0.313 and 2.5 mg/ml, while their minimum bactericidal concentrations varied between 0.625 and 5.0 mg/ml. Also, the AQ fraction killed about 95.8% of E. coli cells within 105 min at a concentration of 5 mg/ml, while about 99.1% of Bacillus pumilus cells were killed by this fraction at the same concentration and exposure time. A similar trend was observed for the BL fraction. At a concentration of 5 mg/ml, the butanol fraction leaked 9.8 μg/ml of proteins from E. coli cells within 3 h, while the aqueous fraction leaked 6.5 μg/ml of proteins from the same organisms at the same concentration and exposure time. We propose that the stem bark of Afzelia africana is a potential source of bioactive compounds of importance to the pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Biocide Selective TolC-Independent Efflux Pumps in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipski, Carmine J; Zhanel, George G; Bay, Denice C

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial resistance to biocides used as antiseptics, dyes, and disinfectants is a growing concern in food preparation, agricultural, consumer manufacturing, and health care industries, particularly among Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, some of the most common community and healthcare-acquired bacterial pathogens. Biocide resistance is frequently associated with antimicrobial cross-resistance leading to reduced activity and efficacy of both antimicrobials and antiseptics. Multidrug resistant efflux pumps represent an important biocide resistance mechanism in Enterobacteriaceae. An assortment of structurally diverse efflux pumps frequently co-exist in these species and confer both unique and overlapping biocide and antimicrobial selectivity. TolC-dependent multicomponent systems that span both the plasma and outer membranes have been shown to confer clinically significant resistance to most antimicrobials including many biocides, however, a growing number of single component TolC-independent multidrug resistant efflux pumps are specifically associated with biocide resistance: small multidrug resistance (SMR), major facilitator superfamily (MFS), multidrug and toxin extruder (MATE), cation diffusion facilitator (CDF), and proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) families. These efflux systems are a growing concern as they are rapidly spread between members of Enterobacteriaceae on conjugative plasmids and mobile genetic elements, emphasizing their importance to antimicrobial resistance. In this review, we will summarize the known biocide substrates of these efflux pumps, compare their structural relatedness, Enterobacteriaceae distribution, and significance. Knowledge gaps will be highlighted in an effort to unravel the role that these apparent "lone wolves" of the efflux-mediated resistome may offer.

  10. N-halamine biocidal coatings via a layer-by-layer assembly technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerkez, Idris; Kocer, Hasan B; Worley, S D; Broughton, R M; Huang, T S

    2011-04-05

    Two N-halamine copolymer precursors, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid potassium salt) and poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl methacrylate-co-trimethyl-2-methacryloxyethylammonium chloride) have been synthesized and successfully coated onto cotton fabric via a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. A multilayer thin film was deposited onto the fiber surfaces by alternative exposure to polyelectrolyte solutions. The coating was rendered biocidal by a dilute household bleach treatment. The biocidal efficacies of tested swatches composed of treated fibers were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It was determined that chlorinated samples inactivated both S. aureus and E. coli O157:H7 within 15 min of contact time, whereas the unchlorinated control samples did not exhibit significant biocidal activities. Stabilities of the coatings toward washing and ultraviolet light exposure have also been studied. It was found that the stability toward washing was superior, whereas the UVA light stability was moderate compared to previously studied N-halamine moieties. The layer-by-layer assembly technique can be used to attach N-halamine precursor polymers onto cellulose surfaces without using covalently bonding tethering groups which limit the structure designs. In addition, ionic precursors are very soluble in water, thus promising for biocidal coatings without the use of organic solvents.

  11. Choice of optimal biocide combination to control flies (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Kavran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Flies – by feeding on decaying matter, human waste and food – have been implicated in the spread of numerous animal and human diseases. Excessive fly populations are generally associated with livestock units and domestic waste due to decaying organic matter. A large number of flies cause extreme disturbance in the behavior of the host, resulting in skin irritation, lesions, wounds, and secondary infections are likely to appear. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined applications of larvicide (cyromazine and adulticides (acetamiprid in formulation with pheromone and thiamethoxam on the suppression of fly populations. Materials and methods. The study was conducted on a pig farm. The piglet farms are one of the most favorable places for fly breeding. Three units were used for biocide applications and a fourth unit as the control where biocides were not applied. The monitoring of pre- and post-treatment of adult fly populations was carried out by glued cardboards. The cards were hung on metal rods above piglet’s cage. This monitoring method served as a parameter for the estimation of biological effectiveness. Results. The highest degree of fly control (88.4% mortality 8 days after treatment was achieved when a combination of cyromazine and thiamethoxam was used. A biocide based on sex pheromone (Z-9-tricosene + acetamiprid was the most effective on flies 3 days after biocide application, with a mortality rate of 69.1 %. Thiamethoxam achieved the highest reduction of flies 6 days after treatment, with 78.19% obtained mortality. Conclusion. Biological efficacy of the applied biocides in combination ciromazine + thiamethoxam and thiamethoxam alone was justified.

  12. Biocide Runoff from Building Facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Fernández-Calviño, David; Brandt, Kristian K.

    2017-01-01

    Biocides are common additives in building materials. In-can and film preservatives in polymer-resin render and paint, as well as wood preservatives are used to protect facade materials from microbial spoilage. Biocides leach from the facade material with driving rain, leading to highly polluted...

  13. Kinetics of strength gain of biocidal cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodin Aleksandr Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion becomes the determinative durability factor of buildings and constructions. Damages of construction materials caused by bacteria, filamentous fungi, actinomycetes constitute a serious danger to the constructions of a building or a structure and to the health of people. Biodeteriorations are typical both in old and new constructions. A great quantity of destruction factors of industrial and residential buildings under the influence of microorganisms was established in practice. Providing products and constructions based on concretes fungicidal and bactericidal properties is an important direction of modern construction material science. The most efficient way to solve this task is creation of biocidal cements. The article presents the results of experimental studies of kinetic dependences of strength gain by biocidal cements by physico-mechanical and physico-chemical analysis methods. The identical velocity character of initial hydration of the developed compositions of biocidal cements is set, as well as a more calm behavior of hardening processes at later terms. It has been established that the compositions of biocidal cements modified by sodium sulfate and sodium fluoride possess the greatest strength.

  14. Development of bacterial resistance to biocides and antimicrobial agents as a consequence of biocide usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seier-Petersen, Maria Amalie

    to antimicrobial agents. So far, only few studies have investigated the susceptibility of livestock-associated isolates to biocides used in their environment. Pigs are increasingly recognised as a potential reservoir of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), especially clones...... be of potential risk for human health, since these disinfectants are widely used at hospitals and in the food industry. Mobile genetic elements such as conjugative transposons are important vectors in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants. Tn916 including the tetracycline resistance gene tet......Biocides are chemical compounds with antimicrobial properties and they are widely used for disinfection, antiseptic and preservation purposes. Biocides have been applied for centuries due to early empirical approaches, such as cleansing of wounds with wine, vinegar and honey and salting of fish...

  15. Ecotoxicological potential of the biocides terbutryn, octhilinone and methylisothiazolinone: Underestimated risk from biocidal pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresmann, Simon; Arokia, Arokia Hansel Rajan; Koch, Christoph; Sures, Bernd

    2018-06-01

    The use of biocides by industry, agriculture and households increased throughout the last two decades. Many new applications with known substances enriched the variety of biocidal pollution sources for the aquatic environment. While agriculture was the major source for a long time, leaching from building facades and preservation of personal care and cleaning products was identified as new sources in the last few years. With the different usage forms of biocidal products the complexity of legislative regulation increased as well. The requirements for risk assessment differ from one law to another and the potential risk of substances under different regulations might be underestimated. Still EC 50 and predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) values gained from testing with different species are the core of environmental risk assessment, but ecotoxicological data is limited or lacking for many biocides. In this study the biocides widely used in facade coatings and household products terbutryn, octhilinone and methylisothiazolinone were tested with the Daphnia magna acute immobilisation assay, the neutral red uptake assay and the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay, performed with rainbow trout liver (RTL-W1) cells. Further, the MTT assay with the ovarian cell line CHO-9 from Chinese hamster was used as mammalian model. Octhilinone induced the strongest effects with EC 50 values of 156μg/l in the D. magna assay, while terbutryn showed the weakest effects with 8390μg/l and methylisothiazolinone 513μg/l respectively. All other assays showed higher EC 50 values and thus only weak effects. EROD assays did not show any effects. With additional literature and database records PNEC values were calculated: terbutryn reached 0.003μg/l, octhilinone 0.05μg/l and methylisothiazolinone 0.5μg/l. Potential ecotoxicological risks of these biocides are discussed, considering environmental concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biocide patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Veien, Niels

    1985-01-01

    Routine patch testing with a series of 6 industrial biocides containing methylene-bis-thiocyanate (Cytox 3522), benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT), chlorocresol (Preventol CMK), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Kathon 893), polyhydroxymethylene monobenzylether (Preventol D2) or 1,3,5-tris (hydroxy......-ethyl) hexahydrotriazine (Grotan BK) was carried out in 6 Danish out-patient clinics to evaluate guinea pig allergy test results with the same compounds. A total of 1652 consecutive patients with dermatitis were tested. The usefulness of this patch test battery was limited. There were a few positive reactions to Cytox...... of male patients and atopics, but significant differences in the frequencies of occupational cases, hand eczemas, and leg ulcers/stasis dermatitis, indicating possible variations in referral patterns, use of patch tests, and/or environmental factors....

  17. Comparing a microbial biocide and chlorine as zebra mussel control strategies in an Irish drinking water treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Meehan; Frances E. Lucy; Bridget Gruber; Sarahann Rackl

    2013-01-01

    A need exists for an environmentally friendly mussel control method to replace chlorine and other traditional control methods currentlyutilised in drinking water plants and other infested facilities. Zequanox® is a newly commercialised microbial biocide for zebra and quaggamussels comprised of killed Pseudomonas fluorescens CL145A cells. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of adevelopmental formulation of Zequanox (referred to as MBI 401 FDP) and chlorine treatments on adu...

  18. New biocides for antifouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazziotti, Isabella; Massanisso, Paolo; Cremisini, Carlo; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Fantini, Michele; Morabito, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The antifouling paints are used for protecting the hulls of the boasts from the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces (marine biological fouling). These paints constitute a potential risk for the marine environment, because of the presence in their formulation, among the other potentially toxic components, of organic compounds acting as biocide. The environmental problems associated with the use of the organotin compounds as biocides in the antifouling paints, have lead to the international ban of these compounds. In the article the new antifouling paints coming up the national and international market are shortly introduced and discussed, with particular attention respect to the new organic compounds used as biocides. In Italy quite a few marine monitoring campaigns have been carried out for organotin compounds, on the contrary there is a lack of data regarding the presence of other biocides [it

  19. Biocidal products: endorsement procedure for placing on the market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Scripcariu,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocidal products are active substances and preparations containing one or more active substances, putin a form that is supplied to the user, with aim to destroy, to prevent the action or to exercise control over adifferent effect any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.By definition, these products are susceptible to have harmful effects on humans, animals and theenvironment as the main objective of European legislative regulations in this area is to ensure the highestlevel protection by restricting the placing on the market and use only those biocidal products which have anacceptable risk of danger to humans or the environment.The favourable opinion for the placing on the market is made after the evaluation of technicaldocumentation of biocidal products, completed by preparing a report of assessment with the formulation of theproposal to issue notice for placing on the market by the National Commission of Biocidal Products.ICBMV is designated as an authority competent to assess technical documentations on efficacy,chemistry and toxicity data of biocidal products, product type 3: Veterinary hygiene products.

  20. 'High throughput': new technique to evaluation of biocides for biofouling control in oil fields; 'High throughput': nova tecnologia para avaliacao da eficacia de biocidas no controle de biofilme na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Bei [DOW, IL(United States); Yang, Jeff [DOW, Shangai (China); Bertheas, Ute [DOW, Horgen (Switzerland); Takahashi, Debora F. [DOW, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The wide metabolism diversifications and versatile surviving mechanisms lead to the broad existence of microorganisms in oil fields. Water flooding in secondary production can encourage microbial growth and biofilm build-up. Microbial contamination in oil field can cause many problems including microbiologically induced corrosion, oil and gas souring, deposition of iron sulfide, degradation of polymer additives, and plugging oil and gas pipelines and water purification systems. In general, biocides are needed both topside and down hole to control problematic microorganisms. In this study, a high throughput test method was developed that enables a more realistic determination of biocides efficacy against anaerobic microorganisms commonly found in oil field environments. Using this method, a thorough comparison of several commonly used biocides products in oil field for their efficacy against oil field anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolates was executed. This study showed that for each individual application, it is important to screen biocides and their combinations against microorganisms cultured from the field. Since biocides vary in their mode of action, this study also demonstrated the critical importance of utilizing the high throughput method for determining the best and most customized solution for each application. (author)

  1. The biocides market for nano actives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Brinch, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Information is emerging on which nanomaterials might be used in biocides, but new test methods are needed.......Information is emerging on which nanomaterials might be used in biocides, but new test methods are needed....

  2. Biofilm Inhibition by Novel Natural Product- and Biocide-Containing Coatings Using High-Throughput Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Salta

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural products (NPs as possible alternative biocidal compounds for use in antifouling coatings has been the focus of research over the past decades. Despite the importance of this field, the efficacy of a given NP against biofilm (mainly bacteria and diatoms formation is tested with the NP being in solution, while almost no studies test the effect of an NP once incorporated into a coating system. The development of a novel bioassay to assess the activity of NP-containing and biocide-containing coatings against marine biofilm formation has been achieved using a high-throughput microplate reader and highly sensitive confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, as well as nucleic acid staining. Juglone, an isolated NP that has previously shown efficacy against bacterial attachment, was incorporated into a simple coating matrix. Biofilm formation over 48 h was assessed and compared against coatings containing the NP and the commonly used booster biocide, cuprous oxide. Leaching of the NP from the coating was quantified at two time points, 24 h and 48 h, showing evidence of both juglone and cuprous oxide being released. Results from the microplate reader showed that the NP coatings exhibited antifouling efficacy, significantly inhibiting biofilm formation when compared to the control coatings, while NP coatings and the cuprous oxide coatings performed equally well. CLSM results and COMSTAT analysis on biofilm 3D morphology showed comparable results when the NP coatings were tested against the controls, with higher biofilm biovolume and maximum thickness being found on the controls. This new method proved to be repeatable and insightful and we believe it is applicable in antifouling and other numerous applications where interactions between biofilm formation and surfaces is of interest.

  3. The use of machine learning methodologies to analyse antibiotic and biocide susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Rosado Coelho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rise of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a significant problem for the treatment of infectious diseases. Resistance is usually selected by the antibiotic itself; however, biocides might also co-select for resistance to antibiotics. Although resistance to biocides is poorly defined, different in vitro studies have shown that mutants presenting low susceptibility to biocides also have reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. However, studies with natural bacterial isolates are more limited and there are no clear conclusions as to whether the use of biocides results in the development of multidrug resistant bacteria. METHODS: The main goal is to perform an unbiased blind-based evaluation of the relationship between antibiotic and biocide reduced susceptibility in natural isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. One of the largest data sets ever studied comprising 1632 human clinical isolates of S. aureus originated worldwide was analysed. The phenotypic characterization of 13 antibiotics and 4 biocides was performed for all the strains. Complex links between reduced susceptibility to biocides and antibiotics are difficult to elucidate using the standard statistical approaches in phenotypic data. Therefore, machine learning techniques were applied to explore the data. RESULTS: In this pioneer study, we demonstrated that reduced susceptibility to two common biocides, chlorhexidine and benzalkonium chloride, which belong to different structural families, is associated to multidrug resistance. We have consistently found that a minimum inhibitory concentration greater than 2 mg/L for both biocides is related to antibiotic non-susceptibility in S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Two important results emerged from our work, one methodological and one other with relevance in the field of antibiotic resistance. We could not conclude on whether the use of antibiotics selects for biocide resistance or vice versa. However, the observation of

  4. Effects of biocides on chlorophyll contents of detached basil leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titima Arunrangsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides and insecticides have been widely and intensively used in agricultural areas worldwide to enhance crop yield. However, many biocides cause serious environmental problems. In addition, the biocides may also have some effects on the treated agricultural crops. To study effects of biocides on chlorophyll content in detached basil leaves, 2,4-D dimethylamine salt (2,4 D-Amine, paraquat, carbosulfan, and azadirachtin, were chosen as representatives of biocide. After applying the chemicals to detached basil leaves overnight in darkness, chlorophyll contents were determined. Only treatment with 2,4 D-Amine resulted in reduction of chlorophyll contents significantly compared to treatment with deionized (DI water. In the case of paraquat and carbosulfan, chlorophyll contents were not significantly changed, while slightly higher chlorophyll contents, compared to DI water, after the treatment with azadirachtin, were observed. The results indicated that 2,4 D-Amine shows an ability to accelerate chlorophyll degradation, but azadirachtin helps to retard chlorophyll degradation, when each biocide is used at the concentration recommended by the manufacturer.

  5. SOLUBILITY OF ORGANIC BIOCIDES IN SUPERCRITICAL CO2 AND CO2+ COSOLVENT MIXTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solubilities of four organic biocides in supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2) were measured using a dynamic flowr apparatus over a pressure range of 10 to 30 MPa and temperature of 35-80 degrees C. The biocides studied were: Amical-48 (diiodomethyl p-tolyl sulfone), chlorothalo...

  6. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  7. Assessment on urban soil pollution by biocides from building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2015-01-01

    . Based on a monitoring study of stormwater runoff from a residential catchment as well as direct façade runoff analysis, the present study was assessing the pollution of urban soil to biocides from building material. The stormwater runoff of a residential catchment in Silkeborg (Denmark) was monitored...... from a freshly painted or rendered house, it is obvious that a huge part is actually draining directly to the soil and not to the sewer system. Consequently, the soil in urban areas is exposed to stormwater highly polluted by biocides which might affect the microbial community there....

  8. Biocide Usage in Plastic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kavak, Nergizhan; Çakır, Ayşegül; Koltuk, Fatmagül; Uzun, Utku

    2015-01-01

    People’s demand of improving their life quality caused to the term of hygiene become popular and increased the tendency to use more reliable and healthy products. This tendency makes the continuous developments in the properties of the materials used in manufactured goods compulsory. It is possible to create anti-bacterial plastic products by adding biocidal additives to plastic materials which have a wide-range of application in the areas such as health (medicine), food and many other indust...

  9. Biocidal Products and Borderline Products

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Biocidal product is defined as preparations sold in ready form to use that contains one or more active substances and has control effect, movement restriction or destruction against harmful organisms which has harmful effect on products that people use or produce or animals or environment. These substances which are composed mostly chemicals and ease our lifes are used in increasingly every areas of our life on the other hand they carry variety of risks and threaten our lives. In terms of env...

  10. Toxicity Tests Applied to the Biocidal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Karabay Yavaşoğlu, N.Ülkü

    2015-01-01

    Biocides are defined as chemical substances used to suppress, destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism to human or animal health, or that cause damage to natural or manufactured materials. Biocidal products (BPs) containing biocides are disinfectants, products related to human and veterinary hygiene, products used for pests such as insects, rodents etc., repellents and industrial chemicals like anti-fouling paints for ship and material preservativ...

  11. Biocides from facade coatings in urban surface waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Styszko, Katarzyna; Ou, Yi

    2015-01-01

    catchment was performed in order to get knowledge about emission rates and processes. A first estimation of the leachability of a biocide is usually done using its octanol-water partition constant as well as water solubility. The present study introduces the possiblity of using the polyacrylate...

  12. Consumer exposure to biocides - identification of relevant sources and evaluation of possible health effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heger Wolfgang

    2010-02-01

    -2-methyl-2H-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-2H-isothiazolin-3-one, CMI/MI, glutardialdehyde, formaldehyde and chloroacetamide may be present in household products in concentrations which have induced sensitization in experimental studies. Conclusions Exposure to biocides from household products may contribute to induction of sensitization in the population. The use of biocides in consumer products should be carefully evaluated. Detailed risk assessments will become available within the framework of the EU Biocides Directive.

  13. Effects of two diamine biocides on the microbial community from an oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telang, A.; Voordouw, G.; Ebert, S.; Foght, J. M.; Westlake, D. W. S.

    1998-01-01

    Oil production facilities are routinely treated with biocides to control or eliminate microbes responsible for souring odor, or microbially influenced corrosion. In this study the effects of diamine biocides A and B on the microbial population from an oil field were investigated using reverse sample genome probing (RSGP), a technique designed to track multiple oil field bacteria in a single assay. RSGP studies of sessile microbial populations scraped from corrosion coupons obtained from biocide-treated oil field installations indicate dominance of Desulfovibrio species Lac6 and Eth3. Laboratory studies suggest that batchwise application of high doses (400 ppm) of biocide A is capable of killing planktonic populations of Desulfovibrio spp. Lac6 and Eth3. Batchwise application of similar doses of biocide B did not have this effect. Overall results indicate that the application of 400 ppm biocide B and 40 ppm biocide A may actually promote survival of selected Desulfovibrio spp., which may then effectively colonize available metal surfaces. 15 refs., 3 figs

  14. Case study: Use of isothiazolinone and nitro-morpholine biocides to control microbial contamination in diesel and gasoline storage and distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesneau, H.L.; Passman, F.J.; Daniels, D.

    1995-05-01

    Responding to feed-back from its retail outlet network, a major, vertically integrated petroleum company undertook to diagnose and remediate diesel and gasoline performance problems. Analysis of samples from tanks at refinery, distribution terminal and retail outlet sites established that uncontrolled microbial contamination was rampant throughout the distribution system. The company then developed and instituted a two-phase action plan. During Phase I, all tanks received corrective (shock) biocide treatment preceding mechanical tank cleaning and fuel polishing. An ongoing Phase II program currently includes routine sampling and analysis combined with periodic preventive biocide treatment. This paper describes the initial problem diagnosis, corrective action plan and preventive program; recommending the Phase II program as a model for all companies involved with refining, distribution or retailing gasoline.

  15. Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Meseguer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT. The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine, zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

  16. Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms. PMID:22408407

  17. Modelling biocide release based on coating properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erich, S.J.F.; Baukh, V.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of micro-organisms on coated substrates is a common problem, since it reduces the performance of materials, in terms of durability as well as aesthetics. In order to prevent microbial growth biocides are frequently added to coatings. Unfortunately, early release of these biocides reduces the

  18. Research and applications of N-halamine biocidal materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG Zhenzhen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available N-halamines,a new class of biocides,overcome some of the disadvantages caused by the traditional biocides in practical applications.They are environmentally friendly germicides due to their fast and efficient sterilization,storage stability,and regeneration.Earlier studies on N-halamines mainly focused on the syntheses and applications of small molecular organic N-halamines such as fivemembered and six-membered heterocyclic N-halamine compounds.Compared to traditional inorganic halogen-containing disinfectants such as chlorine gas,sodium hypochlorite,chlorine dioxide,these heterocyclic N-halamines can maintain disinfection capacity in the water for longer time due to their better stability.Since the late 20th century,non-leaching biocial N-halamine materials have received much attention.Some novel N-halmine precursors with binding groups have been covalently bounded to various materials such as cellulose fiber,silica gel,polystyrene,polyethylene,and polyurethane to produce nonleaching biocidal materials.Specially,the successful development of macroporous cross-linked N-halamine polymer resin materials (Halopure and related technologies created a new era for the applications of N-halamine materials in the disinfection of drinking water.In this review paper,the antibacterial mechanism and synthetic methods of N-halamine biocidal materials and their application prospects in various fields of daily life were introduced.Their development prospects were also made.

  19. Biocidal properties of maltose reduced silver nanoparticles against American foulbrood diseases pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çulha, Mustafa; Kalay, Şaban; Sevim, Elif; Pinarbaş, Müberra; Baş, Yıldız; Akpinar, Rahşan; Karaoğlu, Şengül Alpay

    2017-12-01

    Bee disease caused by spore-forming Paenibacillus larvae and Paenibacillus alvei is a serious problem for honey production. Thus, there is an ongoing effort to find an effective agent that shows broad biocidal activity with minimal environmental hazard. In this study, the biocidal effect of maltose reduced silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is evaluated against American foulbrood and European foulbrood pathogens. The results demonstrate that the maltose reduced AgNPs are excellent short and long-term biocides against P. larvae isolates. The long-term effect suggests that the Ag + ions are released from the AgNPs with increasing time in a controlled manner.

  20. Nanosilver against fungi. Silver nanoparticles as an effective biocidal factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulit, Jolanta; Banach, Marcin; Szczygłowska, Renata; Bryk, Mirosław

    2013-01-01

    The work presents a method of obtaining an aqueous raspberry extract as well as its physicochemical and analytical characteristics. The paper also contains a description of the method of preparation of nanosilver suspensions based on this extract. The raspberry extract served as a source of phenolic compounds which acted as both reducing and stabilizing agents. Suspensions of silver nanoparticles were obtained with the use of chemical reduction method. The silver ions concentration, pH value and temperature of samples incubation were independent variables. The next step of the research was to measure the antifungal activity of the received silver nanoparticles as well as to perform a mycological efficacy resistance analysis of the tested preparations in relation to different concentrations of nanostructured silver. Tests were conducted in compliance with the Eucast guidelines. The results of microbiological study of (the samples') biocidal effect against Cladosporium cladosporoides and Aspergillus niger are described. It was found that using nanosilver suspension at the concentration of 50 ppm inhibited the growth of Cladosporium cladosporoides and Aspergillus niger by 90% and 70%, respectively.

  1. Characterization of biocide-tolerant bacteria isolated from cheese and dairy small-medium enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Márquez, Ma Luisa; Grande Burgos, Ma José; López Aguayo, Ma Carmen; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2017-04-01

    A collection of 120 bacterial isolates from small medium enterprises involved in the production of cow milk and the manufacture of goat cheese were screened for sensitivity to biocides benzalkonium chloride (BC), cetrimide (CT), hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP), triclosan (TC), hexachlorophene (CF) and poly-(hexamethylen guanidinium) hydrochloride (PHMG). Nineteen isolates were selected according to biocide tolerance and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactococcus sp. (6) Enterococcus sp. (1), Lactobacillus sp. (4), Bacillus sp. (1) Escherichia sp. (5), Enterobacter sp. (1) and Helicobacter sp. (1). These were further characterised regarding antimicrobial resistance phenotype and genotype. Several isolates were multiply (3 or more) tolerant to biocides or resistant to antibiotics, but only two Escherichia sp. isolates and Enterobacter sp. were multiply resistant to biocides and antibiotics. Statistical analysis of biocide tolerance and antibiotic resistance revealed significant positive correlations between different biocides and between biocides and antibiotics. The biocide tolerance genes most frequently found were qacEΔ1 and qacA/B. The sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 was found in two Escherichia sp. isolates and in Enterobacter sp., all of which also carried qacEΔ1. Beta-lactam (bla CTX-M , bla PSE ) and tetracycline resistance genes [tet(A), tet(C) and tet(D)] were detected. Efflux pump genes acrB and mdfA were found in most Gram-negative isolates. Results from the study suggest that exposure to biocides can indirectly select for antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Considerations on Directive 98/8 of the European Commission - the biocide directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patryn, Rafał; Jarosz, Mirosław J; Włoszczak-Szubzda, Anna; Sak, Jarosław; Pawlikowski, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    poisonings with these products. The presented study constitutes an in-depth presentation and analysis of the European law concerning biocides and the current regulations applying to them.

  3. Chemical composition of silica-based biocidal modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishina Anna Nikolaevna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increase of the amount of fungi spores and micotixines causes the increase in the number of different diseases. Because of this, ensuring the biological safety in buildings is becoming more and more important today. The preferred way to guarantee the biological safety of a building is to employ modern building materials that prevent the settlement of the fungi colonies on the inner surfaces of walls. Such building materials can be produced using novel biocidal modifiers that allow controlling the number of microorganisms on the surface and in the bulk of a composite construction. The precipitation product of zinc hydrosilicates and sodium sulfate is one of the mentioned modifiers. Till now, the exact chemical composition of such precipitation product is controversial; it is obvious, though, that the efficacy of the biocidal modifier is mostly determined by the type of the copper compounds. In the present work an integrated approach is used for the investigation of the chemical composition of the biocidal modifier. Such an approach consists in the examination of the modifier’s composition by means of different, yet complementary, research methods: X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and DTA. It is shown that the chemical composition of the modifier mainly depends on the amount of precipitant. X-ray diffraction reveals that the major part of the modifier is represented by amorphous phase. Along with the increase of the precipitant’s amount the crystalline phase Zn4SO4(OH6•xH2O formation takes place. Such a crystalline phase is not appropriate as a component of the biocidal modifier. Another two methods - DTA and IR spectroscopy - reveal that the amorphous phase consists essentially of zinc hydrosilicates.

  4. Green biocides, a promising technology: current and future applications to industry and industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Ullah, Saleem; Ahmad, Irshad; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Balkhair, Khaled S; Abdur Rehman, Muhammad

    2014-02-01

    The study of biofilms has skyrocketed in recent years due to increased awareness of the pervasiveness and impact of biofilms. It costs the USA literally billions of dollars every year in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination and medical infections. But biofilms also offer huge potential for cleaning up hazardous waste sites, filtering municipal and industrial water and wastewater, and forming biobarriers to protect soil and groundwater from contamination. The complexity of biofilm activity and behavior requires research contributions from many disciplines such as biochemistry, engineering, mathematics and microbiology. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of emerging novel antimicrobial techniques, including those using myriad organic and inorganic products as well as genetic engineering techniques, the use of coordination complex molecules, composite materials and antimicrobial peptides and the use of lasers as such or their modified use in combination treatments. This review also addresses advanced and recent modifications, including methodological changes, and biocide efficacy enhancing strategies. This review will provide future planners of biofilm control technologies with a broad understanding and perspective on the use of biocides in the field of green developments for a sustainable future. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. biological and biochemical effects of biocides and gamma radiation on pathogen attacked some horticulture crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, I.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    the present investigation was aimed to study the possibility of formulation of some essential oils having antimicrobial activity to be used as biocides. the results of this study showed that fennel, peppermint and caraway oils were the most inhibitory effective oils against some post harvest pathogens. the used oils. were formulated as biocides using different emulsifiers with the addition of different types of fixed oils . the prepared biocides were effective for controlling the growth of the studied microorganisms in vitro and in vivo on the host plant products. also , the interaction of biocides and different doses of gamma radiation were effective for extending the shelf life of potato tubers and orange fruits during storage at room temperature for periods of 150 and 75 days, respectively. biochemical changes in potato tubers and orange fruits as a result of treatments were studied

  6. Impact of feed spacer and membrane modification by hydrophilic, bactericidal and biocidal coating on biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Araú jo, Paula A.; Miller, Daniel J.; Correia, Patrí cia B.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Kruithof, Joop C.; Freeman, Benny Dean; Paul, Donald; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2012-01-01

    surface modification agents expected to resist protein and bacterial adhesion, while copper feed spacer coatings and biocides infused in feed spacers are expected to restrict biological growth. Our studies showed that polydopamine and polydopamine-. g

  7. Silver Biocide Analysis & Control Device, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rapid, accurate measurement and process control of silver ion biocide concentrations in future space missions is needed. The purpose of the Phase II program is to...

  8. Controlling the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata: an ecotoxicity assessment of four potential biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellyman, P G; Clearwater, S J; Clayton, J S; Kilroy, C; Blair, N; Hickey, C W; Biggs, B J F

    2011-07-01

    In 2004, an invasive mat-forming freshwater diatom, Didymosphenia geminata (didymo), was found in New Zealand causing concern with regard to potential consequences for local freshwater ecosystems. A four-stage research program was initiated to identify methods to control D. geminata. This article reports the results of Stage 2, in which four potential control compounds [Gemex™ (a chelated copper formulation), EDTA, Hydrothol®191, and Organic Interceptor™ (a pine oil formulation)] selected in Stage 1 were evaluated for their biocidal efficacy on D. geminata and effects on non-target organisms using both artificial stream and laboratory trials. Artificial stream trials evaluated the mortality rates of D. geminata and fishes to three concentrations of the four biocides, whereas laboratory toxicity trials tested the response of green alga and cladocera to a range of biocide concentrations and exposure times. In artificial stream trials, Gemex and Organic Interceptor were the most effective biocides against D. geminata for a number of measured indices; however, exposure of fishes to Organic Interceptor resulted in high mortality rates. Laboratory toxicity testing indicated that Gemex might negatively affect sensitive stream invertebrates, based on the cladoceran sensitivity at the proposed river control dose. A decision support matrix evaluated the four biocides based on nine criteria stipulated by river stakeholders (effectiveness, non-target species impacts, stalk removal, degradation profile, risks to health and safety, ease of application, neutralization potential, cost, and local regulatory requirements) and Gemex was identified as the product warranting further refinement prior to an in-river trial.

  9. Evaluation of the release characteristics of covalently attached or electrostatically bound biocidal polymers utilizing SERS and UV-Vis absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Mathioudakis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biocidal polymers with antimicrobial quaternized ammonium groups introduced in the polymer biocidal chains either through covalent attachment or electrostatic interaction have been separately incorporated in a poly (methyl methacrylate polymer matrix. The objective of present study was to highlight the release characteristics of biocidal polymers, primarily in saline but also in water ethanol solutions, utilizing UV-Vis absorption and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS. It is shown that through the combination of UV-Vis and SERS techniques, upon the release process, it is possible the discrimination of the polymeric backbone and the electrostatically bound biocidal species. Moreover, it is found that electrostatically bound and covalently attached biocidal species show different SERS patterns. The long term aim is the development of antimicrobial polymeric materials containing both ionically bound and covalently attached quaternary ammonium thus achieving a dual functionality in a single component polymeric design.

  10. Biofilm Surface Density Determines Biocide Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High resistance of biofilms for chemical challenges is a serious industrial and medical problem. In this work a gradient of surface covered with biofilm has been produced and correlated to the effectiveness of different commercially available oxidative biocides. The results for thin Escherichia coli biofilms grown in rich media supplemented with glucose or lactose on glass or poly methyl methacrylate surfaces indicate that the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide or chlorine dioxide and quaternary ammonium compounds is inversely proportional to the fraction of the surface covered with the biofilm. In areas where biofilm covered more than 90% of the available surface the biocide treatment was inefficient after 60 min of incubation. The combined effect of oxidant and surfactant increased the effectiveness of the biocide. On the other hand, the increased biofilm viscoelasticity reduced biocide effectiveness. The results emphasize differential biocide effectiveness depending on the fraction of the attached bacterial cells. The results suggest that biofilm biocide resistance is an acquired property that increases with biofilm maturation. The more dense sessile structures present lower log reductions compared to less dense ones.

  11. Possible underestimations of risks for the environment due to unregulated emissions of biocides from households to wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieck, Stefanie; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of household products as possible sources of biocidal active substances in municipal wastewater and their regulation under the Biocidal Products Regulation (EU) 528/2012. In 131 households, we investigated the prevalence of products used to control pests, washing and cleaning agents and select personal care products with high release to wastewater. Inventories of these products were established with the help of barcode scanning. All uses of biocidal active substances were evaluated regarding their assessment under the Biocidal Products Regulation. 2963 products were scanned in total, with 48% being washing and cleaning agents, 43% personal care products and 9% products used to control pests. Biocidal active substances were found in each household. These were observed primarily in washing and cleaning agents and personal care products (90%), while only a small percentage of the observations of biocidal active substances was in biocidal products. 64% of the observations of biocidal active substances were in applications that do not fall under the Biocidal Products Regulation and are thus not subject to its environmental risk assessment. This study shows clearly that risks for the environment are underestimated because unregulated emissions to wastewater occur. It demonstrates that there are gaps in the current chemical legislation that lead to a release of substances into wastewater that were not subject to environmental risk assessment under the Biocidal Products Regulation. This is one example of the limitations of scientific risk assessment of chemicals - its complexity is immense. From our point of view, the results underline the importance of a sustainable use of the substances as this is the only way to decrease yet unidentified risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biocide leaching from CBA treated wood — A mechanistic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupsea, Maria; Mathies, Helena; Schoknecht, Ute; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia; Schiopu, Nicoleta

    2013-01-01

    Treated wood is frequently used for construction. However, there is a need to ensure that biocides used for the treatment are not a threat for people or environment. The paper focused on Pinus sylvestris treated with copper–boron–azole (CBA), containing tebuconazole as organic biocide and monoethanolamine (Mea). This study investigates chemical mechanisms of fixation and mobilisation involved in the leaching process of the used inorganic and organic biocides in CBA. A pH dependent leaching test was performed, followed by a set of complementary analysis methods in order to identify and quantify the species released from wood. The main findings of this study are: -Organic compounds are released from untreated and treated wood; the quantity of released total organic carbon, carboxylic and phenolic functions increasing with the pH. -Nitrogen containing compounds, i.e. mainly Mea and its reaction products with extractives, are released in important quantities from CBA treated wood, especially at low pH. -The release of copper is the result of competitive reactions: fixation via complexation reactions and complexation with extractives in the liquid phase. The specific pH dependency of Cu leaching is explained by the competition of ligands for protonation and complexation. -Tebuconazole is released to a lesser extent relative to its initial content. Its fixation on solid wood structure seems to be influenced by pH, suggesting interactions with -OH groups on wood. Boron release appears to be pH independent and very high. This confirms its weak fixation on wood and also no or weak interaction with the extractives. - Highlights: ► A pH dependent leaching mechanism for CBA treated wood is described. ► The fixation and mobilisation of inorganic and organic biocides was investigated. ► Extractives' quantity and nature depend on pH. ► Competition of ligands for protonation and complexation explains Cu behaviour. ► Tebuconazole seems to interact with -OH groups on

  13. Biocides in hydraulic fracturing: hazard and vulnerability with respect to potential groundwater pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Wilson, Miles; Davies, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Biocides are one possible chemical additive to frack fluids and their role is to control bacterial growth. Bacterial growth might lead to biofilm build up; and acid sulfide species and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production: biofilm build up may reduce formation permeability and hinder gas extraction. Kahrilas et al. (2014) published a review of common biocides used in fracking in the USA. The biocides assessed in the review were the sixteen most commonly used in the USA, based on the hydraulic fracturing chemical registry Frac Focus (Frac Focus, 2015). However, the review of Kahrilas et al. (2014) contained no data or observations and so the objective of this study was to consider whether biocides proposed for use in hydrofacturing could be a threat to English groundwater. The study considered all groundwater samples analysed for biocides in English groundwater between 2005 and 2014. The monitoring records were compared to: records of application (both amount and area); and chemical and molecular data for the biocides. The study did not use traditional adsorption and degradation data as these parameters are to prone to variability and are not pure molecular parameters. The study then used the approach of Worrall and Thomsen (2004) to consider the hazard represented by proposed frack biocides and the approach of Worrall and Kolpin (2003) to consider the vulnerability of the areas of potential shale gas exploitation. The study showed that of the 113 biocides tested for in English groundwaters in the decade 2005 - 2014 that 95 were detected above 0.1 g/l . Of these 95, 41 were compounds that were not recorded as being applied during the period of record and the detection of these 41 compounds did not decline over the 10 year period which implies very long residence times and that once compounds do pollute an aquifer then they will be a persistent problem. Furthermore, the solubility of the range of biocides used in frack fluids would imply a potentially higher hazard

  14. Phenotypic changes contributing to Enterobacter gergoviae biocide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périamé, M; Philippe, N; Condell, O; Fanning, S; Pagès, J-M; Davin-Regli, A

    2015-08-01

    Enterobacter gergoviae is a recurrent contaminant of cosmetic and hygiene products. To understand how this bacterium adapts to biocides, we studied Ent. gergoviae CIP 76.01 and its triclosan and Methylisothiazolinone-chloromethylisothiazolinone (MIT-CMIT) tolerant isogenic mutants. They were compared with others also isolated from contaminated cosmetics. Phenotypic differences were noted and these included changes in the bacterial envelope and flagella along with differences in motility, and biofilm growth rates. Triclosan and MIT-CMIT derivatives expressed flagella and other MIT-CMIT derivatives exhibited some external appendages. Those bacteria expressing a high-level minimal inhibitory concentration to MIT-CMIT, expressed a strong biofilm formation. No differential phenotypes were noted for carbon source utilisation. Enterobacter gergoviae demonstrated a diverse response to both of these preservatives contained in cosmetic preparations, depending on their concentrations. Interestingly, this adaptive response is associated with modifications of filament structure-related proteins contributing to increase the organism motility and the production of biofilm. Recurrent contaminations of cosmetics products by Ent. gergoviae, needed a better understanding concerning the bacterial adaptation to preservative agents, with particular concern to triclosan and MIT-CMIT. We demonstrated that bacteria response is associated to various mechanisms represented by expression of external appendages (pili or fimbriae) that control cell motility and biofilm formation and evolving as the concentration of biocides adaptation increased. Such mechanisms which are not chemical specific can also promote a cross-resistance to other biocidal agents. The characterization of Ent. gergoviae adaptability to biocides allows industry to adjust the ranges of concentrations and composition of preservatives in formula. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Biocidal properties of anti-icing additives for aircraft fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neihof, R A; Bailey, C A

    1978-04-01

    The biocidal and biostatic activities of seven glycol monoalkyl ether compounds were evaluated as part of an effort to find an improved anti-icing additive for jet aircraft fuel. Typical fuel contaminants, Cladosporium resinae, Gliomastix sp., Candida sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture containing sulfate-reducing bacteria were used as assay organisms. Studies were carried out over 3 to 4 months in two-phase systems containing jet fuel and aqueous media. Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, triethylene glycol monomethyl ether, triethylene glycol monoethyl ether, and 2-methoxyethanol were generally biocidal in aqueous concentrations of 10 to 17% for all organisms except Gliomastix, which required 25% or more. 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-propoxyethanol, and 2-butoxyethanol were biocidal at progressively lower concentrations down to 1 to 2% for 2-butoxyethanol. The enhanced antimicrobial activity of these three compounds was attributed to cytoplasmic membrane damage because of the correlation between surface tension measurements and lytic activity with P. aeruginosa cells. The mechanism of action of the less active compounds appeared to be due to osmotic (dehydrating) effects. When all requirements are taken into account, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether appears to be the most promising replacement for the currently used additive, 2-methoxyethanol.

  16. Towards a more realistic picture of in situ biocide actions: Combining physiological and microscopy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, M., E-mail: speranzamariela@gmail.com [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, MNCN-CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Wierzchos, J.; De Los Rios, A.; Perez-Ortega, S. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, MNCN-CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Souza-Egipsy, V. [Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, ICA-CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ascaso, C., E-mail: ascaso@mncn.csic.es [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, MNCN-CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, we combined chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlaF) measurements, using pulse-amplitude-modulate (PAM) equipment, with scanning electron microscopy in backscattered electron mode (SEM-BSE) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images to evaluate the actions of Koretrel at lower concentrations on Verrucaria nigrescens colonising a dolostone. ChlaF measurements are good indicators of the damaging effects of biocides. However, these indicators only provide an incomplete view of the mechanism of biocides used to control biodeterioration agents. The death of the V. nigrescens photobiont at two biocide concentrations was revealed by PAM, SEM-BSE and TEM. Once Koretrel was applied, the Fv/Fm ratios markedly fell in the first few hours after the 1.5% treatment, and ratios for the 3% dilution remained close to zero throughout the study. The algal zone shows the plasmolysed appearance of the photobiont cells, and important aspects related to the action of the biocide on free and lichenised fungi were also detected using SEM-BSE. Many of the mycobiont cells had only their cell walls preserved; although, some fungal hyphae in lichen thalli and some microorganisms in endolithic clusters maintained lipid storage in their cytoplasm. These results indicated that the combination of physiological and microscopy techniques improves the assessment of biocide action in situ and this will help to optimize protocols in order to reduce the emission of these compounds to the environment. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined ChlaF measurements with EM images to analyses the biocides action on stone biodeterioration agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At lower biocide concentrations damage to photobiont and mycobiont cells integrity, ultrastructure and vitality were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The limited action of biocides on fungi and algae were detected using SEM-BSE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combination of physiological and microscopy

  17. NANOTECHNOLOGY: A NOVEL APPROACH TO PREVENT BIOCIDE LEACHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will demonstrate the environmental benefits of introducing biocide into wood using hydrophobic nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle and controlled release device for organic and inorganic biocides. The primary benefits expected from use of nanoparticles as controll...

  18. Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Human norovirus (NoV) causes more than 80% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Europe and the United States. NoV transmission via contaminated surfaces may be significant for the spread of viruses. Therefore, measures for prevention and control, such as surface disinfection, are necessary to interrupt the dissemination of human NoV. Murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate for human NoV was used to study the efficacy of active ingredients of chemical disinfectants for virus inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides were tested in a quantitative carrier test with stainless steel discs without mechanical action. Vacuum-dried MNV was exposed to different concentrations of alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA) or glutaraldehyde (GDA) for 5 minutes exposure time. Detection of residual virus was determined by endpoint-titration on RAW 264.7 cells. Results PAA [1000 ppm], GDA [2500 ppm], ethanol [50% (v/v)] and 1-propanol [30% (v/v)] were able to inactivate MNV under clean conditions (0.03% BSA) on the carriers by ≥ 4 log10 within 5 minutes exposure time, whereas 2-propanol showed a reduced effectiveness even at 60% (v/v). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in virus reduction whatever interfering substances were used. When testing with ethanol, 1- and 2-propanol, results under clean conditions were nearly the same as in the presence of dirty conditions (0.3% BSA plus 0.3% erythrocytes). Conclusion Products based upon PAA, GDA, ethanol and 1-propanol should be used for NoV inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Our data provide valuable information for the development of strategies to control NoV transmission via surfaces. PMID:19583832

  19. Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmann Jörg

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human norovirus (NoV causes more than 80% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Europe and the United States. NoV transmission via contaminated surfaces may be significant for the spread of viruses. Therefore, measures for prevention and control, such as surface disinfection, are necessary to interrupt the dissemination of human NoV. Murine norovirus (MNV as a surrogate for human NoV was used to study the efficacy of active ingredients of chemical disinfectants for virus inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides were tested in a quantitative carrier test with stainless steel discs without mechanical action. Vacuum-dried MNV was exposed to different concentrations of alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA or glutaraldehyde (GDA for 5 minutes exposure time. Detection of residual virus was determined by endpoint-titration on RAW 264.7 cells. Results PAA [1000 ppm], GDA [2500 ppm], ethanol [50% (v/v] and 1-propanol [30% (v/v] were able to inactivate MNV under clean conditions (0.03% BSA on the carriers by ≥ 4 log10 within 5 minutes exposure time, whereas 2-propanol showed a reduced effectiveness even at 60% (v/v. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in virus reduction whatever interfering substances were used. When testing with ethanol, 1- and 2-propanol, results under clean conditions were nearly the same as in the presence of dirty conditions (0.3% BSA plus 0.3% erythrocytes. Conclusion Products based upon PAA, GDA, ethanol and 1-propanol should be used for NoV inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Our data provide valuable information for the development of strategies to control NoV transmission via surfaces.

  20. Efficacy and Ecotoxicity of Novel Anti-Fouling Nanomaterials in Target and Non-Target Marine Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelelas, Francisco; Martins, Roberto; Oliveira, Tânia; Maia, Frederico; Malheiro, Eliana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana; Tedim, João

    2017-04-01

    Biofouling is a global problem that affects virtually all the immersed structures. Currently, several novel environmentally friendly approaches are being tested worldwide to decrease the toxicity of biocides in non-fouling species, such as the encapsulation/immobilization of commercially available biocides, in order to achieve control over the leaching rate. The present study addresses the toxicity of two widely used booster biocides, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and copper pyrithione (CuPT), in its free and incorporated forms in order to assess their toxicity and anti-fouling efficacy in target and non-target species. To achieve this goal, the following marine organisms were tested; the green microalgae Tetraselmis chuii (non-target species) and both target species, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the mussel Mytilus edulis. Organisms were exposed to both biocides, two unloaded nanostructured materials and nanomaterials loaded with biocides, from 10 μg/L to 100 mg/L total weight, following standard protocols. The most eco-friendly and simultaneously efficient anti-fouling solution against the two photosynthetic species (nanoclays loaded with ZnPT) was then tested on mussels to assess its lethal efficacy (LC 50  = 123 μg/L) and compared with free biocide (LC 50  = 211 μg/L) and unloaded material (LC 50  > 1000 μg/L). A second exposure test with sub-lethal concentrations (lower than 100 μg/L), using mussels, was carried out to assess biochemical changes caused by the tested compounds. Oxidative stress, detoxification and neurotransmission markers were not responsive; however, different antioxidant patterns were found with free ZnPT and loaded nanoclay exposures. Thus, the immobilization of the biocide ZnPT into nanoclays proved to be a promising efficient and eco-friendly anti-fouling strategy.

  1. Human exposure assessment: Approaches for chemicals (REACH) and biocides (BPD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.

    2008-01-01

    The approaches that are indicated in the various guidance documents for the assessment of human exposure for chemicals and biocides are summarised. This reflects the TNsG (Technical notes for Guidance) version 2: human exposure assessment for biocidal products (1) under the BPD (Biocidal Products

  2. Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Weir, Natalee; Oehler, Bill; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry; Lukens, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously. Criteria for that down-select included: the need for safe, non-intrusive implementation and operation in a functioning system; the ability to control existing planktonic and biofilm residing microorganisms; a negligible impact on system-wetted materials of construction; and a negligible reactivity with existing coolant additives. Candidate testing to provide data for the selection of an optimal alternate biocide is now in the final stages. That testing has included rapid biocide effectiveness screening using Biolog MT2 plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (amount that will inhibit visible growth of microorganisms), time kill studies to determine the exposure time required to completely eliminate organism growth, materials compatibility exposure evaluations, coolant compatibility studies, and bench-top simulated coolant testing. This paper reports the current status of the effort to select an alternate biocide for the ISS ITCS coolant. The results of various test results to select the optimal candidate are presented.

  3. Correlation between antibiotic and biocide resistance in mesophilic and psychrotrophic Pseudomonas spp. isolated from slaughterhouse surfaces throughout meat chain production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Casado Muñoz, María del Carmen; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biocide susceptibility in mesophilic and psychrotrophic pseudomonads isolated from surfaces of a goat and lamb slaughterhouse, which was representative of the region. To determine biocide resistance in pseudomonads, we determined for the first time the epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) of benzalkonium, cetrimide, chlorhexidine, hexachlorophene, P3 oxonia, polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG), topax 66 and triclosan being generally very similar in different Pseudomonas spp. with some exceptions. Thus, resistance of pseudomonads was mainly shown to triclosan, and in lesser extent to cetrimide and benzalkonium chloride depending on the species, however they were highly susceptible to industrial formulations of biocides. By means of statistical analysis, positive correlations between antibiotics, biocides and both antimicrobials in pseudomonads were detected suggesting a co- or cross resistance between different antimicrobials in goat and lamb slaughterhouse environment. Cross-resistance between biocides and antibiotics in pseudomonads were especially detected between PHMG or triclosan and different antibiotics depending on the biocide and the population type. Thus, the use of those biocides as disinfectant in slaughterhouse zones must be carefully evaluated because of the selection pressure effect of antimicrobials on the emergence of resistant bacteria which could be spread to the consumer. It is noteworthy that specific industrial formulations such as topax 66 and oxonia P3 showed few correlations with antibiotics (none or 1-2 antibiotics) which should be taken into consideration for disinfection practices in goat and lamb slaughterhouse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Authorization/Registration/Notification Processes among Biocidal Products, Cosmetics, Plant Protection Products and Human Medicinal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Söyleriz, Yüksel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, comparison of the authorization/registration/notification processes of biocidal products, cosmetics, plant protection products and medicinal products are made and in this respect, the situation in EU is assessed.

  5. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  6. Emission of biocides from treated materials: test procedures for water and air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoknecht, Ute; Wegner, Robby; Horn, Wolfgang; Jann, Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Methods for the determination of biocide emissions from treated materials into water and air were developed and tested in order to support a comparative ecological assessment of biocidal products. Leaching tests, experiments with simulated rain, extraction cleaning of carpets and emission chamber tests were performed with a series of treated materials. The experiments focused on the effect of changes in the procedure as well as characteristics of the specimens and demonstrate the suitability of the proposed methods for biocides of different product types. It was demonstrated that emissions of biocides into water can be compared on the basis of leaching tests in which the emission kinetics of the active ingredients are recorded. However, the water volume per surface area and the timetable for water changes have to be defined in such tests. Functions of flux rates related to time can be well described for inorganic compounds, whereas modelling of the data is more complicated for organic substances. Emission chamber tests using 20-litre and 23-litre glass exsiccators, originally developed to study volatile organic compounds, were successfully adapted for the investigation of the emission of biocides from treated materials which are usually semi volatile organic compounds. However test parameters and the method of analysis have to be adapted to the substances to be determined. Generally, it was found that the emission curves for the semi volatile organic compounds investigated differ from those of volatile organic compounds.

  7. Biocides in hydraulic fracturing: A comparison to agricultural and assessment of hazard and vulnerability with respect to groundwater pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Wilson, Miles; Davies, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Biocides are one possible chemical additive to frack fluids and their role is to control bacterial growth. Since biocides are designed to be toxic to particular organisms, their accidental or deliberate release into the environment has become a growing topic of concern, especially with regards to fracking. The objective of this study was to consider whether biocides proposed for use in fracking, could be a threat to English groundwater based on past groundwater monitoring data. The study considered all groundwater samples analysed for biocides in English groundwater between 2005 and 2014. The monitoring records were compared to: records of application (both amount and area); and chemical and molecular data for the biocides. The study did not use traditional adsorption and degradation data as these parameters are prone to variability and are not pure molecular parameters. The study showed that of the 110 biocides tested for in English groundwaters in the decade 2005 - 2014. The total number of detections was 2234 out of 1475000 observations of 95 compounds, and 38 were compounds that were not applied during the period of record. The detection of these 38 compounds did not decline over the 10 year period implying very long residence times and that once compounds do pollute an aquifer, then they will be a persistent problem. The study was able to develop binomial regression models of the probability of detecting pesticide in groundwater based upon molecular and application variables; and solely upon molecular properties. The solubility of the range of biocides used in frack fluids would imply a potentially higher hazard than for most agricultural biocides, but molecular modelling implied that one compound could be safer than others.

  8. A systems integration approach to the optimum operation and scheduling of biocide usage and discharge for seawater cooling systems

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Abdullah Bin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a systematic approach to the optimal design and integration of seawater cooling systems in industrial facilities along with the usage and discharge of biocides. Specifically, the paper will address the following tasks: 1 identification of the reaction pathways for the biocide from the mixing basin to the discharge points 2 kinetic modelling of the biocide and by-products throughout the process 3 a process integration framework to provide a holistic approach to optimising the design and operation of the seawater cooling systems, along with the dosage and discharge systems. A hierarchical procedure is developed to first identify design modifications for heat integration and energy efficiency. Then, a multi-period, multi-segment optimisation formulation is developed and solved to identify the optimal operation and scheduling of biocide usage and discharge. A case study is solved to illustrate the applicability of the devised approach.

  9. Time-Dependent Antimicrobial Activity of Filtering Nonwovens with Gemini Surfactant-Based Biocides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Majchrzycka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on nonwovens used for respiratory protective devices (RPDs were related to equipment intended for short-term use. There is only limited research on the development of biocidal nonwoven fabrics for reusable RPDs that could be used safely in an industrial work environment where there is a risk of microbial growth. Moreover, a new group of biocides with high antimicrobial activity—gemini surfactants, has never been explored for textile’s application in previous studies. The aim of this study was to develop high-efficiency melt-blown nonwovens containing gemini surfactants with time-dependent biocidal activity, and to validate their antimicrobial properties under conditions simulating their use at a plant biomass-processing unit. A set of porous biocidal structures (SPBS was prepared and applied to the melt-blown polypropylene (PP nonwovens. The biocidal properties of the structures were triggered by humidity and had different activation rates. Scanning electron microscopy was used to undertake structural studies of the modified PP/SPBS nonwovens. In addition, simulation of plant biomass dust deposition on the nonwovens was performed. The biocidal activity of PP/SPBS nonwovens was evaluated following incubation with Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger from the American Type Culture Collection, and with Pseudomonas fluorescens and Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from the biomass. PP/SPBS nonwovens exhibited antimicrobial activity to varying levels. Higher antimicrobial activity was noted for bacteria (R = 87.85–97.46% and lower for moulds (R = 80.11–94.53%.

  10. Thermal degradation of biocidal organic N-halamines and N-halamine polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylińska, Marta; Kaczmarek, Halina, E-mail: halina@chem.umk.pl

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Novel biocidal N-halamines have been substituted to poly(p-methyl styrene). • Thermal stability of all obtained compounds has been studied by thermogravimetry. • Stabilization of selected polymer has been achieved using octyl tin mercaptide. • The mechanism of thermal degradation of N-halamine polymers has been proposed. - Abstract: Novel biocidal organic N-halamines (based on imidazoline dione rings) were used as a substituents for poly(p-methyl styrene). The biocidal polymers and substituents have been investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal resistance of investigated compounds was compared to those of non-halogenated precursors. The introduction of chlorine atoms to polymers decreases their thermal resistance comparing to precursors but efficient stabilization is possible by using octyl tin mercaptide. The complex mechanism of thermal decomposition of polymers has been discussed.

  11. Biofilms and Oxidizing Biocides; Evaluation of Disinfection and Removal Effects by Using Established Microbial Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilms and their disinfection and removal have been important subjects in the maintenance of water quality in areas such as public spas, swimming pools, food processing lines, industrial water systems, and in the hygienic control of medical devices, hospital procedures, etc. Presented here is an outline of biofilm formation, as well as studies on the disinfection and removal of biofilms by oxidizing biocides using established biofilms. These studies using established biofilms may increase the understanding of the variable response of biofilms to planktonic bacteria, and the unique aspects of oxidizing biocides in the disinfection and removal of biofilms.

  12. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, J J

    1999-06-30

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence, approaches are presented for the exposure assessment to be used for estimation of risks in authorization procedures under the recently accepted Directive 98/8/EC. Gaps in knowledge are indicated, making it possible to study the issues involved in a comprehensive and cost-effective way. Some recommendations are given on how to best do this. The current project has been detailed in a final report.

  13. Biocide leaching from CBA treated wood — A mechanistic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupsea, Maria [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, ESE/Environment, 24 rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Mathies, Helena; Schoknecht, Ute [BAM — Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.1, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Tiruta-Barna, Ligia, E-mail: ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Schiopu, Nicoleta [Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, ESE/Environment, 24 rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France)

    2013-02-01

    Treated wood is frequently used for construction. However, there is a need to ensure that biocides used for the treatment are not a threat for people or environment. The paper focused on Pinus sylvestris treated with copper–boron–azole (CBA), containing tebuconazole as organic biocide and monoethanolamine (Mea). This study investigates chemical mechanisms of fixation and mobilisation involved in the leaching process of the used inorganic and organic biocides in CBA. A pH dependent leaching test was performed, followed by a set of complementary analysis methods in order to identify and quantify the species released from wood. The main findings of this study are: -Organic compounds are released from untreated and treated wood; the quantity of released total organic carbon, carboxylic and phenolic functions increasing with the pH. -Nitrogen containing compounds, i.e. mainly Mea and its reaction products with extractives, are released in important quantities from CBA treated wood, especially at low pH. -The release of copper is the result of competitive reactions: fixation via complexation reactions and complexation with extractives in the liquid phase. The specific pH dependency of Cu leaching is explained by the competition of ligands for protonation and complexation. -Tebuconazole is released to a lesser extent relative to its initial content. Its fixation on solid wood structure seems to be influenced by pH, suggesting interactions with -OH groups on wood. Boron release appears to be pH independent and very high. This confirms its weak fixation on wood and also no or weak interaction with the extractives. - Highlights: ► A pH dependent leaching mechanism for CBA treated wood is described. ► The fixation and mobilisation of inorganic and organic biocides was investigated. ► Extractives' quantity and nature depend on pH. ► Competition of ligands for protonation and complexation explains Cu behaviour. ► Tebuconazole seems to interact with -OH groups

  14. Use of a predictive protocol to measure the antimicrobial resistance risks associated with biocidal product usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesgate, Rebecca; Grasha, Pierre; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2016-04-01

    In this study we assessed the propensity of biocide exposure in the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Our protocol is based on reporting changes in established antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in biocides and antibiotics after during use exposure to a product. The during use exposure reflects worse conditions of product use during application. It differs from the term low concentration, which usually reflects a concentration below the minimal inhibitory concentration, but not necessarily a concentration that occurs in practice. Our results showed that exposure to triclosan (0.0004%) was associated with a high risk of developing resistance and cross-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. This was not observed with exposure to chlorhexidine (0.00005%) or a hydrogen peroxide-based biocidal product (in during use conditions). Interestingly, exposure to a low concentration of hydrogen peroxide (0.001%) carried a risk of emerging resistance to antibiotics if the presence of the oxidizing agent was maintained. We observed a number of unstable clinical resistances to antibiotics after exposure to the cationic biocide and oxidizing agent, notably to tobramycin and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid. Using a decision tree based on the change in antimicrobial susceptibility test results, we were able to provide information on the effect of biocide exposure on the development of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Such information should address the call from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Union Biocidal Products Regulation for manufacturers to provide information on antimicrobial resistance and cross-resistance in bacteria after the use of their product. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biocidal packaging for pharmaceuticals, foods, and other perishables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Alyssa M; Klibanov, Alexander M

    2013-01-01

    Many consumer goods must be protected from bacterial and fungal colonization to ensure their integrity and safety. By making these items' packaging biocidal, the interior environment can be preserved from microbial spoilage without altering the products themselves. Herein we briefly review this concept, referred to as active packaging, and discuss existing methods for constructing active packaging systems. They are based on either packaging materials that release biocides or those that are themselves intrinsically biocidal (or biostatic), with numerous variations within each category.

  16. Teachers’ work ability: a study of relationships between collective efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidetti G

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Gloria Guidetti,1 Sara Viotti,1 Andreina Bruno,2 Daniela Converso1 1Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; 2Department of Education Science, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy Introduction: Work ability constitutes one of the most studied well-being indicators related to work. Past research highlighted the relationship with work-related resources and demands, and personal resources. However, no studies highlight the role of collective and self-efficacy beliefs in sustaining work ability. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether and by which mechanism work ability is linked with individual and collective efficacies in a sample of primary and middle school teachers. Materials and methods: Using a dataset consisting of 415 primary and middle school Italian teachers, the analysis tested for the mediating role of self-efficacy between collective efficacy and work ability. Results: Mediational analysis highlights that teachers’ self-efficacy totally mediates the relationship between collective efficacy and perceived work ability. Conclusion: Results of this study enhance the theoretical knowledge and empirical evidence regarding the link between teachers’ collective efficacy and self-efficacy, giving further emphasis to the concept of collective efficacy in school contexts. Moreover, the results contribute to the study of well-being in the teaching profession, highlighting a process that sustains and promotes levels of work ability through both collective and personal resources. Keywords: collective efficacy, mediation, self-efficacy, teachers, work ability

  17. Development of detection techniques for monitoring and optimizing biocide dosing in seawater flooding systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Moniee, M.A.; Al-Abeedi, F.N.; Koopal, C.G.J.; Akmal, N.; Sanders, P.F.; Veen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms which are frequently associated with corrosion fail Control of bacterial activity are posing major challenge in Saudi Arabia's massive seawater flooding systems. Biocides are used to control bacteria throughout the oil industry. A study to explore the feasibility to develop

  18. The Evaluation of the Products Examined within the Scope of the Market Surveillance and Inspection of Biocidal Product in the City of Çorum

    OpenAIRE

    Yapar, Zafer; Terzi, Özlem; Türkmen, Elif Nur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed that the variety of the products examined within the scope of the market surveillance of biocidal products performed. Method: In this study planned to be of a descriptive nature, the data were obtained through a retrospective examination of the biocidal product inspection forms filled out in the City of Çorum within the scope of the Legislation of Biocidal Products dated 2013-14. Findings: In the course of the studies performed, it was determined that an...

  19. Effect of biocides and anionic homopolymeric inhibitors on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the effect of biocides and of the anionic homopolymeric inhibitors on the precipitation behavior of calcium fluoride (CaF2).The efficiency of inhibitors in the presence and absence of biocides was calculated using the half-life (t1/2) approach, where 50% of the concentration has been precipitated.

  20. Operational efficiency of ballast water biocides at low water temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    In the period 2013-2015 the effect of two biocides used for the treatment of ballast water has been evaluated at low ambient temperatures. Peraclean® Ocean and sodium hypochlorite were used as biocides. Most of the tests were conducted during winter and early spring at the laboratories of IMARES in

  1. Progress in human exposure assessment for biocidal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    2004-01-01

    An important shortcoming in our present knowledge required for risk assessment of biocidal products is the assessment of human exposure. This knowledge gap has been filled in a preliminary fashion with the TNsG on human exposure to biocidal products (available from the ECB website). Explicit User

  2. Biocidal treatment and preservation of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegert, W.

    1995-05-01

    Strict microbiological limit values are the result of damage caused by microorganisms in fuels. With MAR 71, a biocide based on methylenebisoxazolidine, a product is available which has been tested and approved by leading car manufacturers, the mineral oil industry, and NATO. Depending on the degree of microbiological contamination, different decontamination concepts are presented, and recommendations for the treatment of fuels which are contaminated when purchased are given. In order to avoid recontamination, planning principles or the new design of tanks are necessary. The possibility of convenient, economical and regular drainage is a key factor.

  3. Enterococcus hirae biofilm formation on hospital material surfaces and effect of new biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lodovico, Silvia; Cataldi, Valentina; Di Campli, Emanuela; Ancarani, Elisabetta; Cellini, Luigina; Di Giulio, Mara

    2017-08-02

    Nowadays, the bacterial contamination in the hospital environment is of particular concern because the hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), also known as nosocomial infections, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. This work evaluated the capability of Enterococcus hirae to form biofilm on different surfaces and the action of two biocides on the produced biofilms. The biofilm formation of E. hirae ATCC 10541 was studied on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces through the biomass quantification and the cell viability at 20 and 37 °C. The effect of LH IDROXI FAST and LH ENZYCLEAN SPRAY biocides on biomasses was expressed as percentage of biofilm reduction. E. hirae at 20 and 37 °C produced more biofilm on the stainless steel in respect to the polystyrene surface. The amount of viable cells was greater at 20 °C than with 37 °C on the two analyzed surfaces. Biocides revealed a good anti-biofilm activity with the most effect for LH ENZYCLEAN SPRAY on polystyrene and stainless steel at 37 °C with a maximum biofilm reduction of 85.72 and 86.37%, respectively. E. hirae is a moderate biofilm producer depending on surface material and temperature, and the analyzed biocides express a remarkable antibiofilm action. The capability of E. hirae to form biofilm can be associated with its increasing incidence in hospital-acquired infections, and the adoption of suitable disinfectants is strongly recommended.

  4. Microfouling on biocidal and non-biocidal antifouling coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumahal Muthukrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although antifouling marine paints have been used to prevent biofouling, not much is known about their effectiveness in preventing attachment of microorganisms. The current study aims at estimating the abundance of bacteria within biofilms developed on various commercial antifouling coatings in Marina Bandar Rowdha and Marina Shangri La, Oman. Coatings tested included Pettit #1863 and #1792, West Marine #11046620, #5566252 and #10175206, Hempel Hard Racing #76484, Hempel Olympic #86950, Hempasil X3 and International YBA920. All coatings were applied on clean plastic slides. Slides without any coating were used as controls. Microbial biofilms were harvested after 2, 7 and 14 days of biofouling. Bacterial density was estimated using epifluorescence microscopy. There was a significant difference between the various treatments (coatings and control after 2, 7 and 14 days of biofouling. Although there were significant differences between both locations after 2 and 14 days of biofouling, no significant difference was observed after 7 days of biofouling at both locations. At Shangri La, the lowest bacterial density was found on International YBA920, Pettit #1792 and Hempasil X3 after 2 days, 7 days and 14 days respectively in comparison to the control treatments. However at Bandar Rowdha, International YBA920 showed the lowest bacterial density after 2 days while West Marine #10175206 showed the lowest bacterial density after both 7 days and 14 days of biofouling in comparison to the control treatment. The differential performance of tested antifouling coatings may be attributed to several factors including varying environmental conditions, difference in microfouling communities, time of exposure and physical and chemical properties of antifouling coating.

  5. Development and evaluation of a biocide release system for prolonged antifungal activity in finishing materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eversdijk, J.; Erich, S.J.F.; Hermanns, S.P.M.; Adan, O.C.G.; Bolle, de M.; Meyer, de K.; Bylemans, D.; Bekker, M.; Cate, ten A.T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of modified nano-clay particles as a controlled release system for biocides from building materials. Different (model) biocides were incorporated in a biocide/nano-clay composite and subsequently the release of the biocides was monitored under different environmental

  6. The use of nanomaterials as an alternative to biocidal antifouling coatings and their environmental impact; Einsatz von Nanomaterialien als Alternative zu biozidhaltigen Antifouling-Anstrichen und deren Umweltauswirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watermann, B T; Daehne, D; Fuerle, C [LimnoMar - Labor fuer limnische/marine Forschung und vergleichende Pathologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    This study revealed that a variety of nanomaterials are already in use for antifouling paint systems. On the market for leisure boats 22 antifouling products and 3 under water coatings to reduce the friction could be identified (after an update in Mai 2010 only 14 products could be identified). These products are available on the German, the European and the global market. For all antifouling systems and underwater coatings on the market, the specification of the used nanomaterials was not specified e.g. in the Technical Data Sheets or Safety and Health Data Sheets. A clear labelling for the consumer would be helpful and necessary Actually, nanotechnology based antifouling systems on the leisure boat market and on the professional market cannot be regarded as alternatives to antifouling systems which are not using nanotechnology This is partly due to the lacking evidence of efficacy, the fact that some products contain biocides without declaring them, some of them are even not allowed to be used as biocides in antifouling paints (e.g. zinc oxide and silver) and due to the lack of specified nanomaterials which make a risk assessment or ecotoxicological evaluation impossible. It can be expected that the next generation of nanotechnology based antifouling systems will be much more sophisticated and effective, despite of the lack of scientific sound data on their environmental impact. (orig.)

  7. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores by a Combination of Biocides and Heating under High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization Conditions ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sa; Labuza, Theodore P.; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The milk supply is considered a primary route for a bioterrorism attack with Bacillus anthracis spores because typical high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization conditions cannot inactivate spores. In the event of intentional contamination, an effective method to inactivate the spores in milk under HTST processing conditions is needed. This study was undertaken to identify combinations and concentrations of biocides that can inactivate B. anthracis spores at temperatures in the HTST range in less than 1 min. Hydrogen peroxide (HP), sodium hypochlorite (SH), and peroxyacetic acid (PA) were evaluated for their efficacy in inactivating spores of strains 7702, ANR-1, and 9131 in milk at 72, 80, and 85°C using a sealed capillary tube technique. Strains ANR-1 and 9131 were more resistant to all of the biocide treatments than strain 7702. Addition of 1,260 ppm SH to milk reduced the number of viable spores of each strain by 6 log CFU/ml in less than 90 and 60 s at 72 and 80°C, respectively. After neutralization, 1,260 ppm SH reduced the time necessary to inactivate 6 log CFU/ml (TTI6-log) at 80°C to less than 20 s. Treatment of milk with 7,000 ppm HP resulted in a similar level of inactivation in 60 s. Combined treatment with 1,260 ppm SH and 1,800 ppm HP inactivated spores of all strains in less than 20 s at 80°C. Mixing 15 ppm PA with milk containing 1,260 ppm SH resulted in TTI6-log of 25 and 12 s at 72 and 80°C, respectively. TTI6-log of less than 20 s were also achieved at 80°C by using two combinations of biocides: 250 ppm SH, 700 ppm HP, and 150 ppm PA; and 420 ppm SH (pH 7), 1,100 ppm HP, and 15 ppm PA. These results indicated that different combinations of biocides could consistently result in 6-log reductions in the number of B. anthracis spores in less than 1 min at temperatures in the HTST range. This information could be useful for developing more effective thermal treatment strategies which could be used in HTST milk plants to process

  8. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores by a combination of biocides and heating under high-temperature short-time pasteurization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sa; Labuza, Theodore P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2008-06-01

    The milk supply is considered a primary route for a bioterrorism attack with Bacillus anthracis spores because typical high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization conditions cannot inactivate spores. In the event of intentional contamination, an effective method to inactivate the spores in milk under HTST processing conditions is needed. This study was undertaken to identify combinations and concentrations of biocides that can inactivate B. anthracis spores at temperatures in the HTST range in less than 1 min. Hydrogen peroxide (HP), sodium hypochlorite (SH), and peroxyacetic acid (PA) were evaluated for their efficacy in inactivating spores of strains 7702, ANR-1, and 9131 in milk at 72, 80, and 85 degrees C using a sealed capillary tube technique. Strains ANR-1 and 9131 were more resistant to all of the biocide treatments than strain 7702. Addition of 1,260 ppm SH to milk reduced the number of viable spores of each strain by 6 log CFU/ml in less than 90 and 60 s at 72 and 80 degrees C, respectively. After neutralization, 1,260 ppm SH reduced the time necessary to inactivate 6 log CFU/ml (TTI6-log) at 80 degrees C to less than 20 s. Treatment of milk with 7,000 ppm HP resulted in a similar level of inactivation in 60 s. Combined treatment with 1,260 ppm SH and 1,800 ppm HP inactivated spores of all strains in less than 20 s at 80 degrees C. Mixing 15 ppm PA with milk containing 1,260 ppm SH resulted in TTI6-log of 25 and 12 s at 72 and 80 degrees C, respectively. TTI6-log of less than 20 s were also achieved at 80 degrees C by using two combinations of biocides: 250 ppm SH, 700 ppm HP, and 150 ppm PA; and 420 ppm SH (pH 7), 1,100 ppm HP, and 15 ppm PA. These results indicated that different combinations of biocides could consistently result in 6-log reductions in the number of B. anthracis spores in less than 1 min at temperatures in the HTST range. This information could be useful for developing more effective thermal treatment strategies which could be

  9. Comparative toxicological effects of two antifouling biocides on the marine diatom Chaetoceros lorenzianus: Damage and post-exposure recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Pooja; Kumar, Rajesh; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam; Venugopalan, Vayalam P

    2017-10-01

    Antifouling biocides are commonly used in coastal electric power stations to prevent biofouling in their condenser cooling systems. However, the environmental impact of the chemical biocides is less understood than the thermal stress effects caused by the condenser effluents. In this study, Chaetoceros lorenzianus, a representative marine diatom, was used to analyse the toxicity of two antifouling biocides, chlorine and chlorine dioxide. The diatom cells were subjected to a range of concentrations of the biocides (from 0.05 to 2mg/L, as total residual oxidants, TRO) for contact time of 30min. They were analysed for viability, genotoxicity, chlorophyll a and cell density endpoints. The cells were affected at all concentrations of the biocides (0.05-2mg/L), showing dose-dependent decrease in viability and increase in DNA damage. The treated cells were later incubated in filtered seawater devoid of biocide to check for recovery. The cells were able to recover in terms of overall viability and DNA damage, when they had been initially treated with low concentrations of the biocides (0.5mg/L of Cl 2 or 0.2mg/L of ClO 2 ). Chlorophyll a analysis showed irreparable damage at all concentrations, while cell density showed increasing trend of reduction, if treated above 0.5mg/L of Cl 2 and 0.2mg/L of ClO 2 . The data indicated that in C. lorenzianus, cumulative toxic effects and recovery potential of ClO 2 up to 0.2mg/L were comparable with those of Cl 2 , up to 0.5mg/L concentration in terms of the studied endpoints. The results indicate that at the biocide levels currently being used at power stations, recovery of the organism is feasible upon return to ambient environment. Similar studies should be carried out on other planktonic and benthic organisms, which will be helpful in the formulation of future guidelines for discharge of upcoming antifouling biocides such as chlorine dioxide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Photodegradation of three stormwater biocides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minelgaite, Greta; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2017-01-01

    in demineralized water compared with pond water. The outdoors experiments showed limited degradation of the compounds for the duration of the test (8–17 days). The results emphasize the importance of water type, the wavelength and energy of the light when investigating pollutant’s photo fate. Also, this study...... to the accumulated light energy during the degradation time. Diuron and terbutryn were degradable under UV light following 1st order degradation kinetics, while no significant decrease of carbendazim was observed throughout the duration of experiments. Photodegradation of diuron and terbutryn was slightly faster...

  11. Biocide-mediated corrosion of coiled tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mohita; An, Dongshan; Liu, Tao; Pinnock, Tijan; Cheng, Frank; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Coiled tubing corrosion was investigated for 16 field water samples (S5 to S20) from a Canadian shale gas field. Weight loss corrosion rates of carbon steel beads incubated with these field water samples averaged 0.2 mm/yr, but injection water sample S19 had 1.25±0.07 mm/yr. S19 had a most probable number of zero acid-producing bacteria and incubation of S19 with carbon steel beads or coupons did not lead to big changes in microbial community composition. In contrast other field water samples had most probable numbers of APB of 102/mL to 107/mL and incubation of these field water samples with carbon steel beads or coupons often gave large changes in microbial community composition. HPLC analysis indicated that all field water samples had elevated concentrations of bromide (average 1.6 mM), which may be derived from bronopol, which was used as a biocide. S19 had the highest bromide concentration (4.2 mM) and was the only water sample with a high concentration of active bronopol (13.8 mM, 2760 ppm). Corrosion rates increased linearly with bronopol concentration, as determined by weight loss of carbon steel beads, for experiments with S19, with filtered S19 and with bronopol dissolved in defined medium. This indicated that the high corrosion rate found for S19 was due to its high bronopol concentration. The corrosion rate of coiled tubing coupons also increased linearly with bronopol concentration as determined by electrochemical methods. Profilometry measurements also showed formation of multiple pits on the surface of coiled tubing coupon with an average pit depth of 60 μm after 1 week of incubation with 1 mM bronopol. At the recommended dosage of 100 ppm the corrosiveness of bronopol towards carbon steel beads was modest (0.011 mm/yr). Higher concentrations, resulting if biocide is added repeatedly as commonly done in shale gas operations, are more corrosive and should be avoided. Overdosing may be avoided by assaying the presence of residual biocide by HPLC

  12. Partitioning of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanczyk, Michal; Bollmann, Ulla E.; Bester, Kai

    The use of biocides as additives for building materials has gained importance in recent years. These biocides are, e.g., applied to renders and paints to prevent them from microbial spoilage. However, these biocides can leach out into the environment. In order to better understand this leaching...... compared. The partitioning constants for calcium carbonate varied between 0.1 (isoproturon) and 1.1 (iodocarb) and 84.6 (dichlorooctylisothiazolinone), respectively. The results for barite, kaolinite and mica were in a similar range and usually the compounds with high partitioning constants for one mineral...

  13. Biocidal Efficacy of a Flocculating Emergency Water Purification Tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    size filters (Millipore, Bedford, Mass.). A 2-g waters were challenged with 107 Giardia muris cysts per liter portion of the recovered floc was...of Giardia muris cyst inactivation by lower microbial counts. Although CF tablets will remove some 1chlorine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 5O-1 15-1117...removed poliovirus type I from water at low temperatures genie dye as measures of Giardia muris cyst inactivation by ozone. even at high pH

  14. Study of Doxicycline Efficacy in Broilers’ Colibacilosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Teodor Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is a therapeutic assessment of doxicycline’s hyclate efficacy, a wide spectrum antibiotic (efficient in majority of bacterial Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections and mycoplasmas, frequently isolated in poultry in a colisepticemia outbreak in a 3,000 chicken farm. Disease started at the broiler’s age of 20 days and mortality rate reached 32.5%. The behaviour to antibiotics of isolated bacterial strains was tested and antibiogram (Sanofi was used, doxicycline revealing a very good antibiotic activity. The treatments (with the dose of 10 mg x kg.b.w.-1 were done individually for five days, clinical evolution being observed until day ten of the experiment. Analyzing evolutions after treatments it was observed that the mortality diminished progressively from 14.2% in the first day, to 8.3% - 5.9% - 2.5% - 1.7% and respectively 0.8% in the sixth treatments day, in days seven, eight, nine, and ten of the study not being registered any mortality cases. In our opinion the favorable clinical evolution was recorded after the third treatment day, at the end of experiment from 120 remaining live 80 chickens (representing 66.7% proving the fact that doxicycline was efficient, confirmed also by the average daily weight gain for the remaining live chickens.

  15. Study Skills Course Impact on Academic Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernersbach, Brenna M.; Crowley, Susan L.; Bates, Scott C.; Rosenthal, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Although study skills courses improve student retention, the impact of study skills courses on students' academic self-efficacy has not been investigated. The present study examined pre- and posttest levels of academic self-efficacy in college students enrolled in a study skills course (n = 126) compared to students enrolled in a general education…

  16. Evolution in the Lab: Biocide Resistance in E.coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welden, Charles W.; Hossler, Rex A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment on resistance to teach about evolution and issues of misuse of antimicrobial compounds. Investigates Escherichia coli's response to treatment of triclosan, a biocide used in consumer products. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  17. Modelling inorganic biocide emission from treated wood in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiruta-Barna, Ligia, E-mail: Ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR792, Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Schiopu, Nicoleta [Universite Paris-Est, CSTB- Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, ESE/Environment, 24, rue Joseph Fourier, 38400 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} We developed a mechanistic model for biocide metals fixation/mobilisation in wood. {center_dot} This is the first chemical model explaining the biocide leaching from treated wood. {center_dot} The main fixation mechanism is the surface complexation with wood polymers. {center_dot} The biocide mobilization is due to metal-DOC complexation and pH effect. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to develop a chemical model for explaining the leaching behaviour of inorganic biocides from treated wood. The standard leaching test XP CEN/TS14429 was applied to a commercial construction material made of treated Pinus sylvestris (Copper Boron Azole preservative). The experimental results were used for developing a chemical model under PHREEQC (a geochemical software, with LLNL, MINTEQ data bases) by considering the released species detected in the eluates: main biocides Cu and B, other trace biocides (Cr and Zn), other elements like Ca, K, Cl, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, dissolved organic matter (DOC). The model is based on chemical phenomena at liquid/solid interfaces (complexation, ion exchange and hydrolysis) and is satisfactory for the leaching behaviour representation. The simulation results confronted with the experiments confirmed the hypotheses of: (1) biocide fixation by surface complexation reactions with wood specific sites (carboxyl and phenol for Cu, Zn, Cr(III), aliphatic hydroxyl for B, ion exchange to a lesser extent) and (2) biocide mobilisation by extractives (DOC) coming from the wood. The maximum of Cu, Cr(III) and Zn fixation occurred at neutral pH (including the natural pH of wood), while B fixation was favoured at alkaline pH.

  18. Combined treatments of enterocin AS-48 with biocides to improve the inactivation of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus planktonic and sessile cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Gómez, Natacha; Abriouel, Hikmate; Grande, M José; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio

    2013-05-15

    Control of staphylococci during cleaning and disinfection is important to the food industry. Broad-spectrum bacteriocins with proved anti-staphylococcal activity, such as enterocin AS-48, could open new possibilities for disinfection in combination with biocides. In the present study, enterocin AS-48 was tested singly or in combination with biocides against a cocktail of six Staphylococcus aureus strains (including three methicillin-resistant strains) in planktonic state as well as in biofilms formed on polystyrene microtiter plates. Cells were challenged with enterocin, biocides or enterocin/biocide combinations. Inactivation of planktonic cells increased significantly (penterocin AS-48 (25mg/l) was tested in combination with benzalkonium chloride (BC), cetrimide (CT) and hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP), and non-significantly in combination with didecyldimethylammonium bromide (AB), triclosan (TC), hexachlorophene (CF), polyhexamethylen guanidinium chloride (PHMG), chlorhexidine (CH) or P3-oxonia (OX). In the sessile state (24h biofilms), staphylococci required higher biocide concentrations in most cases, except for OX. Inactivation of sessile staphylococci increased remarkably when biocides were applied in combination with enterocin AS-48, especially when the bacteriocin was added at 50mg/l. During storage, the concentrations of sessile as well as planktonic cells in the treated samples decreased remarkably for BC, TC and PHMG, but OX failed to inhibit proliferation of the treated biofilms as well as growth of planktonic cells. The observed inhibitory effects during storage were potentiated when the biocides were combined with 50 mg/l enterocin AS-48. Results from this study suggest that selected combinations of enterocin AS-48 and biocides offer potential use against planktonic and sessile, methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Antifouling Biocides on Molecular and Biochemical Defense System in the Gill of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Seon; Kim, Young Dae; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Youn-Jung; Kim, Jang Kyun; Rhee, Jae-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Antifouling biocides such as organotin compounds and their alternatives are potent toxicants in marine ecosystems. In this study, we employed several molecular and biochemical response systems of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to understand a potential mode of action of antifouling biocides (i.e. tributyltin (TBT), diuron and irgarol) after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μg L-1) for 96 h. As a result, all the three antifouling biocides strongly induced the antioxidant defense system. TBT reduced both enzymatic activity and mRNA expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Lower levels of both Na+/K+-ATPase activity and AChE mRNA expression were observed in the diuron-exposed oysters compared to the control, while the irgarol treatment reduced only the transcriptional expression of AChE gene. We also analyzed transcript profile of heat shock protein (Hsp) superfamily in same experimental conditions. All antifouling biocides tested in this study significantly modulated mRNA expression of Hsp superfamily with strong induction of Hsp70 family. Taken together, overall results indicate that representative organotin TBT and alternatives have potential hazardous effects on the gill of C. gigas within relatively short time period. Our results also suggest that analyzing a series of molecular and biochemical parameters can be a way of understanding and uncovering the mode of action of emerging antifouling biocides. In particular, it was revealed that Pacific oysters have different sensitivities depend on the antifouling biocides. PMID:28006823

  20. Effects of Antifouling Biocides on Molecular and Biochemical Defense System in the Gill of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Seon; Kim, Young Dae; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Youn-Jung; Kim, Jang Kyun; Rhee, Jae-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Antifouling biocides such as organotin compounds and their alternatives are potent toxicants in marine ecosystems. In this study, we employed several molecular and biochemical response systems of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to understand a potential mode of action of antifouling biocides (i.e. tributyltin (TBT), diuron and irgarol) after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μg L-1) for 96 h. As a result, all the three antifouling biocides strongly induced the antioxidant defense system. TBT reduced both enzymatic activity and mRNA expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Lower levels of both Na+/K+-ATPase activity and AChE mRNA expression were observed in the diuron-exposed oysters compared to the control, while the irgarol treatment reduced only the transcriptional expression of AChE gene. We also analyzed transcript profile of heat shock protein (Hsp) superfamily in same experimental conditions. All antifouling biocides tested in this study significantly modulated mRNA expression of Hsp superfamily with strong induction of Hsp70 family. Taken together, overall results indicate that representative organotin TBT and alternatives have potential hazardous effects on the gill of C. gigas within relatively short time period. Our results also suggest that analyzing a series of molecular and biochemical parameters can be a way of understanding and uncovering the mode of action of emerging antifouling biocides. In particular, it was revealed that Pacific oysters have different sensitivities depend on the antifouling biocides.

  1. Study on the formation of the nanogel and microgels polypropylene modified by gamma radiation and incorporation of silver nanoparticles to biocides activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliani, Washington Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The study consists of the synthesis of HMSPP (polypropylene with high melt strength), also called polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation from iPP (isotactic polypropylene) in presence of acetylene at 110 kPa pressure and irradiated with γ of 60 Co source at doses of 5, 12.5 and 20 kGy. The gel fraction of the samples was determined by extracting in xylene. The soluble portion of the samples was decanted to deposition on glass substrate until complete volatilization of xylene at room temperature of 25 °C. On the soluble portion of 12.5 kGy irradiated sample were added silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in proportions of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 wt%. These gel samples were characterized by: scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM / EDS), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with field emission (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), reduction of colony forming unit (CFU) (%) and cytotoxicity assay. In this study of the morphology, it has been observed the formation of microgels in polypropylene increasing with the dose PP 5 kGy < PP 12.5 kGy < 20 kGy. Nanoscale structures of gels polypropylene (nanogels and nanofibers) were found in samples of PP 12.5 kGy and 20 kGy. The nanogels are formation of crosslinking, branching and entanglement that are nucleated in regions of high energy concentration (spurs) of one irradiated sample. Efficiency in tests of bactericide activity of the gels with AgNPs was observed versus E. coli and S. aureus from 1% AgNPs and non cytotoxicity were characterized in those samples for mammalian cells. In a second stage of this work films of the blend of PP and modified PP (50/50) were produced in a twin screw extruder. AgNPs were added to the extrusion processing in proportions of 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 1.0 PVP; 2.0 and 4.0 wt%. The films obtained were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry

  2. TetrakisHydroxymethylPhosphonium Sulfate (THPS), a new industrial biocide with low environmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downward, B.L.; Talbot, R.E.; Haack, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    THPS is a new biocide active designed for use in a variety of environmentally sensitive applications such as industrial cooling systems and oilfield situations. EPA registration has recently been achieved thus permitting, for the first time, the use of THPS based biocides in the US. This paper reviews the chemistry of THPS and reports a variety of case histories where THPS has successfully been used for the control of bacteria, algae and fungi in industrial cooling systems in Western Europe. An extensive data package, including field applications and laboratory studies, is available for THPS providing many exciting opportunities for this product in the US. Case studies are presented for a cooling system in a fuel reprocessing plant, a process water system for a textile plant, and cooling systems for a chemical plant and a confectionary site

  3. Impedimetric test for rapid determination of performic acid (PFA) biocidal activity toward Echerichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Lasik; Renata Dobrucka; Piotr Konieczny

    2013-01-01

      Background. Performic acid has recently become available on a commercial scale for potential use in waste-water disinfection and can become an innovative biocide for various purposes in food processing. The aim of our study was: 1) to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of performic acid as high active and non toxic chemical disinfectant against Escherichi coli (hygiene indicator test  microorganism used in industrial micro- biology) and 2) to evaluate the electrical impedanc...

  4. Assesment of the legislation about biocidal products produced by nanotechnology in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Terzi, Özlem; Köksal, Elif Nur

    2018-01-01

    The aimofthis study is to determine whether the legislations in Turkey includebiocidal products produced by nanotechnology. The data were obtained fromscientific articles and Official Gazette website. Results: In our daily life,due to their antibacterial and antifungal characteristics, nanoparticles (NP)derived from some metal and metal oxides are used in food and textile productsas protector. In addition, antimicrobial features of biocidal products becomemore effective by means of nanotechno...

  5. A gender study investigating physics self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawtelle, Vashti

    The underrepresentation of women in physics has been well documented and a source of concern for both policy makers and educators. My dissertation focuses on understanding the role self-efficacy plays in retaining students, particularly women, in introductory physics. I use an explanatory mixed methods approach to first investigate quantitatively the influence of self-efficacy in predicting success and then to qualitatively explore the development of self-efficacy. In the initial quantitative studies, I explore the utility of self-efficacy in predicting the success of introductory physics students, both women and men. Results indicate that self-efficacy is a significant predictor of success for all students. I then disaggregate the data to examine how self-efficacy develops differently for women and men in the introductory physics course. Results show women rely on different sources of self-efficacy than do men, and that a particular instructional environment, Modeling Instruction, has a positive impact on these sources of self-efficacy. In the qualitative phase of the project, this dissertation focuses on the development of self-efficacy. Using the qualitative tool of microanalysis, I introduce a methodology for understanding how self-efficacy develops moment-by-moment using the lens of self-efficacy opportunities. I then use the characterizations of self-efficacy opportunities to focus on a particular course environment and to identify and describe a mechanism by which Modeling Instruction impacts student self-efficacy. Results indicate that the emphasizing the development and deployment of models affords opportunities to impact self-efficacy. The findings of this dissertation indicate that introducing key elements into the classroom, such as cooperative group work, model development and deployment, and interaction with the instructor, create a mechanism by which instructors can impact the self-efficacy of their students. Results from this study indicate that

  6. Synergistic sub-lethal effects of a biocide mixture on the springtail Folsomia fimetaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnug, Lisbeth; Leinaas, Hans Petter; Jensen, John

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of three biocides, esfenvalerate, picoxystrobin and triclosan, on adult survival and recruitment of juveniles was studied in the springtail Folsomia fimetaria, both in single and mixture experiments. Recruitment of juveniles was more sensitive to biocide exposure than adult survival. The concepts of concentration addition and independent action returned almost identical toxicity predictions, though both models failed to predict the observed toxicity due to synergistic deviations at high exposure concentrations. A comparison with a similar study on earthworms showed that response-patterns were species-specific. Consequently, there is no single reference concept which is applicable for all species of one ecosystem, which in turn questions the usefulness of such mixture prediction concepts in ecological risk assessment. -- Highlights: • Toxicity of esfenvalerate, picoxystrobin and triclosan to Folsomia fimetaria was assessed. • Both, the single biocides and the mixture affected recruitment stronger than survival. • Concentration addition and independent action predictions were almost identical. • Inhibition of recruitment after mixture exposure was stronger than predicted. • Comparison with an earthworm study showed that responses are species-specific. -- The concepts of concentration addition and independent action failed to predict mixture toxicity due to dose-dependent synergistic effects

  7. Promising silicones modified with cationic biocides for the development of antimicrobial medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamrawi, Sarah; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Tarasyuk, Oksana; Rogalsky, Sergiy; Lyoshina, Lyudmila; Bulko, Olga; Bardeau, Jean-François

    2017-06-01

    We have tested silicones containing 2% or 5% of the cationic biocides polyhexamethylene guanidine dodecylbenzenesulfonate (PHMG-DBS), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (OMIM-BF 4 ) or 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (DMIM-BF 4 ) against the major relevant bacterial and yeast species in health care-associated infections (HCAI). Study conducted according to the international standard ISO 22196 revealed that silicones containing 2% or 5% DMIM-BF 4 or 5% PHMG-DBS presented the highest antimicrobial activity, leading to a logarithmic growth reduction of 3.03 to 6.46 and 3.65 to 4.85 depending on the bacterial or fungal species. Heat-pretreated silicones containing 2% DMIM-BF 4 kept a high activity, with at least a 3-log reduction in bacterial growth, except against P. aeruginosa where there was only a 1.1-log reduction. After 33days, the release ratio of cationic biocide from silicone films containing 5% of DMIM-BF 4 was found to be 5.6% in pure water and 1.9% in physiological saline solution, respectively. No leaching of PHMG-DBS polymeric biocide was detected under the same conditions. These results demonstrate unambiguously that silicones containing 2% DMIM-BF 4 or 5% PHMG-DBS present high antimicrobial activity, as well as high leaching resistance and therefore may be good candidates for the development of safer medical devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimal scheduling of biocide dosing for seawater-cooled power and desalination plants

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Abdullah Bin

    2011-02-13

    Thermal desalination systems are typically integrated with power plants to exploit the excess heat resulting from the power-generation units. Using seawater in cooling the power plant and the desalination system is a common practice in many parts of the world where there is a shortage of freshwater. Biofouling is one of the major problems associated with the usage of seawater in cooling systems. Because of the dynamic variation in the power and water demands as well as the changes in the characteristics of seawater and the process, there is a need to develop an optimal policy for scheduling biocide usage and cleaning maintenance of the heat exchangers. The objective of this article is to introduce a systematic procedure for the optimization of scheduling the dosing of biocide and dechlorination chemicals as well as cleaning maintenance for a power production/thermal desalination plant. A multi-period optimization formulation is developed and solved to determine: the optimal levels of dosing and dechlorination chemicals; the timing of maintenance to clean the heat-exchange surfaces; and the dynamic dependence of the biofilm growth on the applied doses, the seawater-biocide chemistry, the process conditions, and seawater characteristics for each time period. The technical, economic, and environmental considerations of the system are accounted for. A case study is solved to elucidate the applicability of the developed optimization approach. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Does limited virucidal activity of biocides include duck hepatitis B virucidal action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is agreement that the infectivity assay with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV is a suitable surrogate test to validate disinfectants for hepatitis B virucidal activity. However, since this test is not widely used, information is necessary whether disinfectants with limited virucidal activity also inactivate DHBV. In general, disinfectants with limited virucidal activity are used for skin and sensitive surfaces while agents with full activity are more aggressive. The present study compares the activity of five different biocides against DHBV and the classical test virus for limited virucidal activity, the vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV or the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA. Methods Virucidal assay was performed as suspension test according to the German DVV/RKI guideline. Duck hepatitis B virus obtained from congenitally infected Peking ducks was propagated in primary duck embryonic hepatocytes and was detected by indirect immunofluorescent antigen staining. Results The DHBV was inactivated by the use of 40% ethanol within 1-min and 30% isopropanol within 2-min exposure. In comparison, 40% ethanol within 2-min and 40% isopropanol within 1-min exposure were effective against VACV/MVA. These alcohols only have limited virucidal activity, while the following agents have full activity. 0.01% peracetic acid inactivated DHBV within 2 min and a concentration of 0.005% had virucidal efficacy against VACV/MVA within 1 min. After 2-min exposure, 0.05% glutardialdehyde showed a comparable activity against DHBV and VACV/MVA. This is also the case for 0.7% formaldehyde after a contact time of 30 min. Conclusions Duck hepatitis B virus is at least as sensitive to limited virucidal activity as VACV/MVA. Peracetic acid is less effective against DHBV, while the alcohols are less effective against VACV/MVA. It can be expected that in absence of more direct tests the results may be extrapolated to HBV.

  10. Current uses of nanomaterials in biocidal products and treated articles in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Mackevica, Aiga; Revilla Besora, Pau; Brinch, Anna; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are currently being used for a wide variety of products, and a number of them are utilized as biocides due to their antimicrobial or antifungal properties. Little is known to what extent these biocides are available on the market as consumer products. In the EU, the Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR) lays out a list of requirements that manufacturers of biocidal products have to comply with before they can place their products on the market. It is not entirely clear which c...

  11. Chapter 14: Evaluating the Leaching of Biocides from Preservative-Treated Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Leaching of biocides is an important consideration in the long term durability and any potential for environmental impact of treated wood products. This chapter discusses factors affecting biocide leaching, as well as methods of evaluating rate and quantity of biocide released. The extent of leaching is a function of preservative formulation, treatment methods, wood...

  12. Preliminary study on the dye removal efficacy of immobilized marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary study on the dye removal efficacy of immobilized marine and freshwater microalgal beads from textile wastewater. SD Kumar, P Santhanam, R Nandakumar, S Anath, B Balaji Prasath, A Shenbaga Devi, S Jeyanthi, T Jayalakshima, P Ananthi ...

  13. Molecular Characterization of Reduced Susceptibility to Biocides in Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Active efflux is regarded as a common mechanism for antibiotic and biocide resistance. However, the role of many drug efflux pumps in biocide resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii remains unknown. Using biocide-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates, we investigated the incidence of 11 known/putative antimicrobial resistance efflux pump genes (adeB, adeG, adeJ, adeT1, adeT2, amvA, abeD, abeM, qacE, qacEΔ1, and aceI and triclosan target gene fabI through PCR and DNA sequencing. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR was conducted to assess the correlation between the efflux pump gene expression and the reduced susceptibility to triclosan or chlorhexidine. The A. baumannii isolates displayed high levels of reduced susceptibility to triclosan, chlorhexidine, benzalkonium, hydrogen peroxide, and ethanol. Most tested isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Efflux resistance genes were widely distributed and generally expressed in A. baumannii. Although no clear relation was established between efflux pump gene expression and antibiotic resistance or reduced biocide susceptibility, triclosan non-susceptible isolates displayed relatively increased expression of adeB and adeJ whereas chlorhexidine non-susceptible isolates had increased abeM and fabI gene expression. Increased expression of adeJ and abeM was also demonstrated in multiple antibiotic resistant isolates. Exposure of isolates to subinhibitory concentrations of triclosan or chlorhexidine induced gene expression of adeB, adeG, adeJ and fabI, and adeB, respectively. A point mutation in FabI, Gly95Ser, was observed in only one triclosan-resistant isolate. Multiple sequence types with the major clone complex, CC92, were identified in high level triclosan-resistant isolates. Overall, this study showed the high prevalence of antibiotic and biocide resistance as well as the complexity of intertwined resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of A. baumannii, which highlights the

  14. Cytotoxic effects of air freshener biocides in lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Taek; Lee, Mimi; Seo, Gun-Baek; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Shim, Ilseob; Lee, Doo-Hee; Kim, Taksoo; Seo, Jung Kwan; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of mixtures of citral (CTR) and either benzisothiazolinone (BIT, Mix-CTR-BIT) or triclosan (TCS, Mix-CTR-TCS) in human A549 lung epithelial cells. We investigated the effects of various mix ratios of these common air freshener ingredients on cell viability, cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage. Mix-CTR-BIT and Mix-CTR-TCS significantly decreased the viability of lung epithelial cells and inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, both mixtures increased ROS generation, compared to that observed in control cells. In particular, cell viability, growth, and morphology were affected upon increase in the proportion of BIT or TCS in the mixture. However, comet analysis showed that treatment of cells with Mix-CTR-BIT or Mix-CTR-TCS did not increase DNA damage. Taken together, these data suggested that increasing the content of biocides in air fresheners might induce cytotoxicity, and that screening these compounds using lung epithelial cells may contribute to hazard assessment.

  15. Fabrication of polypropylene/silver nanocomposites for biocidal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliani, Washington Luiz, E-mail: washoliani@usp.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 – Cidade Universitária – CEP, 05508-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Komatsu, Luiz Gustavo Hiroki [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 – Cidade Universitária – CEP, 05508-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Lincopan, Nilton [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, 05508-000, São Paulo (Brazil); Department of Clinical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, University of São Paulo, 05508-000, São Paulo (Brazil); Rangari, Vijaya Kumar [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tuskegee University, AL 36088 (United States); Lugao, Ademar Benevolo [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 – Cidade Universitária – CEP, 05508-000 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a study on biocidal effect of polymer nanocomposite films of gamma irradiated polypropylene (PP) and silver nanoparticles. The modified polypropylene was obtained from isotactic polypropylene (iPP) in pellets form by irradiation with gamma rays in the presence of acetylene. A new morphology with long chain branching of PP and distinct rheology is obtained by this process. The blend of 50/50 wt% neat PP and PP modified by gamma radiation were further mixed using a twin screw extruder. The AgNPs were infused into this polymer blend at different concentrations of: 0.1%; 0.25%; 0.5%; 1.0%; 1.0% (PVP), 2.0% and 4.0% by wt%. These polymer nanocomposites were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytotoxicity test and Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion techniques. The bactericidal effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were assessed in detail. - Highlights: • PP film was obtained from iPP in pellets form by γ rays with acetylene and AgNPs • Bactericidal effect of P aeruginosa and S aureus were assessed.

  16. Determination of biocides as well as some biocide metabolites from facade run-off waters by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatographic separation and tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, K; Lamani, X

    2010-08-06

    Biocides are used to protect buildings, boats, and other materials from microbial infestations. A huge variety of compounds are being used: isothiazolinones, e.g., to prevent bacterial growth in paints, triazines and phenylureas against algal growth on water exposed materials while carbamates are used against fungal investations. However these biocides can be leached from the respective materials. As these are very effective compounds it is important to know the concentrations of these biocides in the leachates as well as their leaching behaviour to assess their risk to the environment. In this study, a method for the determination of biocides from facade material run-off water by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. Due to the amphiphilic character and the expected varying pH-values in the samples, the extractions as well as the HPLC-method development proved to be demanding. The water samples (leachates) were buffered with a phosphate buffer to pH 7. As some of the biocides are very hydrophilic, different SPE cartridges were tested to identify the SPE material with the highest recovery rates for all compounds. For gaining a good separation, analyte trapping was performed on the HPLC column. Quantification was performed using a mass spectrometer in multi-reaction monitoring with two transitions per compound. The final recovery rates were conducted using a cartridge with a divenylbenzyl polymer sorbent. A combination of methanol and acetonitrile as eluents was used to reach recovery rates in the range of 70-100%. The limit of quantification for the compounds of interest ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 microg/L. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Not only biocidal products: Washing and cleaning agents and personal care products can act as further sources of biocidal active substances in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieck, Stefanie; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2018-06-01

    The emission sources of biocidal active substances in households have been under discussion since these substances have been detected frequently in municipal wastewater and receiving surface water bodies. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the products responsible for the emission of these substances to wastewater. We analysed the wastewater of two streets for a set of biocidal active substances. Time-proportional sampling was conducted for one week of each season during one year in each street. The 14 substances analysed with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one (BIT), C 12 -benzalkonium chloride, carbendazim, 5-chloro-2-methyl-2H-isothiazol-3-one (CMIT), dichlorooctylisothiazolinone (DCOIT), N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), diuron, icaridine, 2-octyl-2H-isothiazol-3-one (OIT), piperonyl butoxide (PBO), triclosan, tebuconazole, terbutryn and tetramethrin. Using data available from household product inventories of the two streets, we searched the lists of ingredients for the products possibly being responsible for the emissions. Except for four substances, all substances have been detected in at least 10% of the samples. Highest concentrations were measured for C 12 -benzalkonium chloride with an average concentration in the daily samples of 7.7 μg/L in one of the streets. Next to C 12 -benzalkonium chloride, BIT, DEET and icaridine were detected in all samples in average concentrations above 1 μg/L in at least one street. The results show that washing and cleaning agents were important sources for preservatives such as BIT and OIT, while triclosan was apparently mainly emitted through personal care products. The mosquito repelling substances DEET and icaridine were found throughout the year, with highest emissions in summer and autumn. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the sources of biocidal active substances in municipal wastewater are complex and that measures for the

  18. Occurrence of imidacloprid, carbendazim, and other biocides in Italian house dust: Potential relevance for intakes in children and pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Severyn; Testa, Cecilia; Roncada, Paola; Armorini, Sara; Rubattu, Nicola; Ferrari, Angelo; Miniero, Roberto; Brambilla, Gianfranco

    2017-09-02

    The occurrence of pesticides intended for non-agricultural use was investigated in 206 dust samples drawn from vacuum-cleaner bags from residential flats in Italy. The multi-residue analysis targeted on 95 different active principles was performed with UPLC-MS/MS, with a Limit of Quantification (LOQ) of 0.008 μg/g dry weight. The results indicated the presence of imidacloprid (IMI) and carbendazim (CARB) in 30% and 26% of the samples, with a mean and P95 concentration between 1.6 and 39 and between 0.08 and 4.9 μg/g, respectively. Combined presence of two biocides was noted in 19.4% samples, of three biocides in 9.2% samples, of four biocides in 3.4% samples, and of five and six biocides in 0.5% and 1% samples, respectively. According to the estimated dust intake in infants/toddlers aged 6-24 months (16-100 mg d -1 ) and cats (200 mg d -1 ), it was possible to obtain risk characterization with respect to the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for IMI of 0.060 mg/kg body weight (bw) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the chronic Population Adjusted Dose (cPAD) of 0.019 mg/kg bw d -1 by US-EPA. Under the worst-case scenario, the presence of IMI in dust indicates potential exceedance of the cPAD in kittens, to be considered as sentinel also accounting for combined exposure. This study highlights the relevance of consumer empowerment about the responsible use of pesticides as biocidal products in indoor environment.

  19. An experimental study about efficacy of the drain catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Bum Gyu; Nho, Joon Young; Woo, Hyo Cheol; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Park, Choong Ki; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Although percutaneous abscess drainage has become and accepted alternative from of therapy for selected patients with abscess, it is well known that there are several factors in the failure of adequate drainage such as pre- and post-procedural management, technique itself, various features of abscess, and selection and application of catheters. Among these factors, we made an experiment about drainage efficacy of commonly used various catheters with different viscosities of water-glycerin solution under the two different pressure gradients. The experimental values of flow rate were very lower than the calculated values. An efficacy of experimental value was 4-14%. Because the inner diameter of fittings and stopcocks was usually smaller than the inner diameter of catheters, these factors also affected the drain efficacy. Finally, we thought that it will be very helpful to the treatment of patient as well as to study about the catheter drainage, if the drain efficacy of individual catheters has been notified.

  20. Biocides in the Yangtze River of China: Spatiotemporal distribution, mass load and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wang-Rong; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen biocides were investigated in the Yangtze River to understand their spatiotemporal distribution, mass loads and ecological risks. Fourteen biocides were detected, with the highest concentrations up to 166 ng/L for DEET in surface water, and 54.3 ng/g dry weight (dw) for triclocarban in sediment. The dominant biocides were DEET and methylparaben, with their detection frequencies of 100% in both phases. An estimate of 152 t/y of 14 biocides was carried by the Yangtze River to the East China Sea. The distribution of biocides in the aquatic environments was significantly correlated to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN), suggesting dominant input sources from domestic wastewater of the cities along the river. Risk assessment showed high ecological risks posed by carbendazim in both phases and by triclosan in sediment. Therefore, proper measures should be taken to reduce the input of biocides into the river systems. - Highlights: • Biocides were ubiquitous in the surface water and sediment of the Yangtze River. • The dominant biocides in the Yangtze River were DEET and methylparaben. • Annual flux of biocides was 152 tons from the Yangtze River to the East China Sea. • Domestic wastewater was the main source of the biocides. • Carbendazim and triclosan posed high ecological risks. - Biocides showed wide presence in the Yangtze River and some of them could pose high ecological risks to aquatic organisms

  1. Technical Protocol. Transformation of biocides in liquid manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert; Schlag, Patrick; Teigeler, Jennifer; Hartmann, Constanze; Cvetkovi, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The Reference Manure Concept, already developed for laboratory tests on fate and behavior of veterinary medicinal products in liquid manures and manured soils, was successfully applied for biocides used for disinfection purposes and control of insects in animal houses. Since the representative and reproducible sampling of manures from high-volume tanks has been considered impossible, excrement samples of cattle and pigs individually kept at an experimental animal house were taken. These samples were thoroughly matrix characterized. Then, tap water was added to prepare reference manures of definite dry substance contents. Subsequently, the long-term transformation of the biocides imazalil and cyanamide applied as {sup 14}C-labeled radiotracers was investigated in these manure samples. On the basis of the transformation tests, test manures with 7-day aged biocide residues were prepared and applied in laboratory tests on transformation and sorption in manured soil. By means of this experimental approach, the impacts of aging processes during manure storage and of the manure matrix on the fate of biocides in soils can be assessed already under laboratory conditions. These laboratory tests have been directed as closely as possible to agricultural practice as well as to analytical practicability and quality assurance. Finally, the methodological aspects have been compiled in a Technical Protocol (Draft version). (orig.)

  2. Evaluation Of Biocides for Potential Treatment of Ballast Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    gather data on toxicology and ecotoxicology ; (3) provide information on the processes used in the production of the new substance, as well as the...Data Bank 2004 Target Organism Treatment Dosage Citation algae reduced by 92% filamentous algae or common macrophytes (Potamogeton foliosus...Sea Nine 211; RH-25287 Citations Laws and Regulations Shipboard Use DEPA, , . 2000. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Antifouling Biocides and

  3. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence,

  4. Biocide leaching during field experiments on treated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoknecht, Ute; Mathies, Helena; Wegner, Robby

    2016-01-01

    Biocidal products can be sources of active substances in surface waters caused by weathering of treated articles. Marketing and use of biocidal products can be limited according to the European Biocidal Products Regulation if unacceptable risks to the environment are expected. Leaching of active substances from treated articles was observed in field experiments to obtain information on leaching processes and investigate the suitability of a proposed test method. Leaching under weathering conditions proceeds discontinuously and tends to decrease with duration of exposure. It does not only mainly depend on the availability of water but is also controlled by transport processes within the materials and stability of the observed substances. Runoff amount proved to be a suitable basis to compare results from different experiments. Concentrations of substances are higher in runoff collected from vertical surfaces compared to horizontal ones, whereas the leached amounts per surface area are higher from horizontal surfaces. Gaps in mass balances indicate that additional processes such as degradation and evaporation may be relevant to the fate of active substances in treated articles. Leached amounts of substances were considerably higher when the materials were exposed to intermittent water contact under laboratory conditions as compared to weathering of vertically exposed surfaces. Experiences from the field experiments were used to define parameters of a procedure that is now provided to fulfil the requirements of the Biocidal Products Regulation. The experiments confirmed that the amount of water which is in contact with exposed surfaces is the crucial parameter determining leaching of substances.

  5. Enhanced Biocide Treatments with D-amino Acid Mixtures against a Biofilm Consortium from a Water Cooling Tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ru; Li, Yingchao; Al-Mahamedh, Hussain H; Gu, Tingyue

    2017-01-01

    Different species of microbes form mixed-culture biofilms in cooling water systems. They cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and biofouling, leading to increased operational and maintenance costs. In this work, two D-amino acid mixtures were found to enhance two non-oxidizing biocides [tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) and NALCO 7330 (isothiazoline derivatives)] and one oxidizing biocide [bleach (NaClO)] against a biofilm consortium from a water cooling tower in lab tests. Fifty ppm (w/w) of an equimass mixture of D-methionine, D-leucine, D-tyrosine, D-tryptophan, D-serine, D-threonine, D-phenylalanine, and D-valine (D8) enhanced 15 ppm THPS and 15 ppm NALCO 7330 with similar efficacies achieved by the 30 ppm THPS alone treatment and the 30 ppm NALCO 7330 alone treatment, respectively in the single-batch 3-h biofilm removal test. A sequential treatment method was used to enhance bleach because D-amino acids react with bleach. After a 4-h biofilm removal test, the sequential treatment of 5 ppm bleach followed by 50 ppm D8 achieved extra 1-log reduction in sessile cell counts of acid producing bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, and general heterotrophic bacteria compared with the 5 ppm bleach alone treatment. The 10 ppm bleach alone treatment showed a similar efficacy with the sequential treatment of 5 ppm bleach followed by 50 ppm D8. The efficacy of D8 was found better than that of D4 (an equimass mixture of D-methionine, D-leucine, D-tyrosine, and D-tryptophan) in the enhancement of the three individual biocides against the biofilm consortium.

  6. Enhanced Biocide Treatments with D-amino Acid Mixtures against a Biofilm Consortium from a Water Cooling Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Jia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Different species of microbes form mixed-culture biofilms in cooling water systems. They cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC and biofouling, leading to increased operational and maintenance costs. In this work, two D-amino acid mixtures were found to enhance two non-oxidizing biocides [tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS and NALCO 7330 (isothiazoline derivatives] and one oxidizing biocide [bleach (NaClO] against a biofilm consortium from a water cooling tower in lab tests. Fifty ppm (w/w of an equimass mixture of D-methionine, D-leucine, D-tyrosine, D-tryptophan, D-serine, D-threonine, D-phenylalanine, and D-valine (D8 enhanced 15 ppm THPS and 15 ppm NALCO 7330 with similar efficacies achieved by the 30 ppm THPS alone treatment and the 30 ppm NALCO 7330 alone treatment, respectively in the single-batch 3-h biofilm removal test. A sequential treatment method was used to enhance bleach because D-amino acids react with bleach. After a 4-h biofilm removal test, the sequential treatment of 5 ppm bleach followed by 50 ppm D8 achieved extra 1-log reduction in sessile cell counts of acid producing bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, and general heterotrophic bacteria compared with the 5 ppm bleach alone treatment. The 10 ppm bleach alone treatment showed a similar efficacy with the sequential treatment of 5 ppm bleach followed by 50 ppm D8. The efficacy of D8 was found better than that of D4 (an equimass mixture of D-methionine, D-leucine, D-tyrosine, and D-tryptophan in the enhancement of the three individual biocides against the biofilm consortium.

  7. Determination of biocides and pesticides by on-line solid phase extraction coupled with mass spectrometry and their behaviour in wastewater and surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Heinz; Jaus, Sylvia; Hanke, Irene; Lueck, Alfred; Hollender, Juliane; Alder, Alfredo C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the input of hydrophilic biocides into the aquatic environment and on the efficiency of their removal in conventional wastewater treatment by a mass flux analysis. A fully automated method consisting of on-line solid phase extraction coupled to LC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous trace determination of different biocidal compounds (1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one (BIT), 3-Iodo-2-propynylbutyl-carbamate (IPBC), irgarol 1051 and 2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolinone (octhilinone, OIT), carbendazim, diazinon, diuron, isoproturon, mecoprop, terbutryn and terbutylazine) and pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole) in wastewater and surface water. In the tertiary effluent, the highest average concentrations were determined for mecoprop (1010 ng/L) which was at comparable levels as the pharmaceuticals diclofenac (690 ng/L) and sulfamethoxazole (140 ng/L) but 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the other biocidal compounds. Average eliminations for all compounds were usually below 50%. During rain events, increased residual amounts of biocidal contaminants are discharged to receiving surface waters. - Incomplete removal of biocides and pesticides during wastewater treatment.

  8. Determination of biocides and pesticides by on-line solid phase extraction coupled with mass spectrometry and their behaviour in wastewater and surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Heinz; Jaus, Sylvia; Hanke, Irene; Lueck, Alfred; Hollender, Juliane [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Alder, Alfredo C., E-mail: alfredo.alder@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    This study focused on the input of hydrophilic biocides into the aquatic environment and on the efficiency of their removal in conventional wastewater treatment by a mass flux analysis. A fully automated method consisting of on-line solid phase extraction coupled to LC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous trace determination of different biocidal compounds (1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one (BIT), 3-Iodo-2-propynylbutyl-carbamate (IPBC), irgarol 1051 and 2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolinone (octhilinone, OIT), carbendazim, diazinon, diuron, isoproturon, mecoprop, terbutryn and terbutylazine) and pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole) in wastewater and surface water. In the tertiary effluent, the highest average concentrations were determined for mecoprop (1010 ng/L) which was at comparable levels as the pharmaceuticals diclofenac (690 ng/L) and sulfamethoxazole (140 ng/L) but 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the other biocidal compounds. Average eliminations for all compounds were usually below 50%. During rain events, increased residual amounts of biocidal contaminants are discharged to receiving surface waters. - Incomplete removal of biocides and pesticides during wastewater treatment.

  9. Kinetics of dissolution of a biocide soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L.; Silva, A. C. da; Mello-Castanho, S. R.; Pacharroman, C.; Moya, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have studied the lixiviation kinetics of silver nanoparticles, as well as the solubility of a particulate system ( 2 lixiviation followed a Jander model (α 2 /4 ≈ Kt). It has been proven that nanostructured soda-lime glass/nAg composed by particles <30 μm with a 20 wt% of silver are a strong biocide versus Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. This soda-lime glass/nAg acts as a perfect dispenser of silver nanoparticles to the liquid media, avoiding the fast increasing of its concentration over the toxicity limit for human cells and for the environment.

  10. Concentration patterns of agricultural pesticides and urban biocides in surface waters of a catchment of mixed land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, C.; Wittmer, I.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Alder, A.; Lück, A.; Hanke, I.; Singer, H.

    2009-04-01

    Organic pesticides and biocides that are found in surface waters, can originate from agricultural and urban sources. For a long time, agricultural pesticides have received substantially more attention than biocidal compounds from urban use like material protection or in-can preservatives (cosmetics etc.). Recent studies however revealed that the amounts of urban biocides used may exceed those of agricultural pesticides. This study aims at comparing the input of several important pesticides and biocides into a small Swiss stream with a special focus on loss events triggered by rainfall. A set of 16 substances was selected to represent urban and agricultural sources. The selected substances are either only used as biocides (irgarol, isothiazolinones, IPBC), as pesticides (atrazine, sulcotrione, dichlofluanid, tolylfluanid) or have a mixed use (isoproturon, terbutryn, terbutylazine, mecoprop, diazinon, carbendazim) The study catchment has an area of 25 km2 and is inhabited by about 12'000 people. Four sampling sites were selected in the river system in order to reflect different urban and agricultural sources. Additionally, we sampled a combined sewer overflow, a rain sewer and the outflow of a wastewater treatment plant. At each site discharge was measured continuously from March to November 2007. During 16 rain events samples were taken by automatic devices at a high temporal resolution. The results, based on more than 500 analyzed samples, revealed distinct concentration patterns for different compounds and sources. Agricultural pesticides exhibited a strong seasonality as expected based on the application periods. During the first one or two rain events after application the concentrations reached up to several thousand ng/l during peak flow (atrazine, isoproturon). The temporal patterns of urban biocides were more diverse. Some compounds obviously stem from permanent sources independent of rainfall because they were found mostly in the outlet of the wastewater

  11. Evaluation of the potential of ozone as a power plant biocide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattice, J.S.; Trabalka, J.R.; Adams, S.M.; Faust, R.A.; Jolley, R.L.

    1978-09-01

    A review of the literature on the chemistry and biological effects of ozone was conducted to evaluate the potential of ozone to function as a power plant biocide. Evaluation of this potential is dependent upon determining the ability of ozone to maintain the integrity of both the condenser cooling system and the associated ecosystem. The well-known bactericidal capacity of ozone and the limited biofouling control studies conducted thus far suggest that ozone can control both slime and macroinvertebrate fouling at power plants. However, full-scale demonstrations of the minimum levels of ozone required and of solution of the practical aspects of application have not been performed.

  12. Distribution of anti fouling biocides in coastal seawater of Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massanisso, Paolo; Ubaldi, Carla; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Pezza, Massimo; Cannarsa, Sigfrido; Bordone, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The pollution level due to anti fouling biocides in the Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands (MPA) has been evaluated by both grab and passive sampling. Analyses of tributyltin (TBT), diuron, irgarol, chlorothalonil and dichlofluanid have been carried out on seawater and sediments. The results indicate a good condition of the coastline, but further studies with passive sampling for TBT are required to help the MPA administrators to control the status of the seawater with a methodology suitable to reach the Environmental Quality Standard values established by the Water Framework Directive [it

  13. Influence of growth media on the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cationic biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Florian; Goroncy-Bermes, Peter; Sand, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the influence of culturing Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa under different growth conditions on their inactivation by the cationic active compounds benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine digluconate and octenidine dihydrochloride was investigated. Cells were grown in non-agitated tryptone soya broth as well as on tryptone soya agar according to national and international standards for evaluating chemical disinfectants. In quantitative suspension tests, cells of both test organisms grown on agar were significantly more sensitive to all three biocides than cells grown in broth. The differences in antimicrobial activity were greater in the case of S. aureus than in the case of P. aeruginosa. With S. aureus cultures, differences in the reduction factor of up to 5 log steps were found, with P. aeruginosa up to 2.5 log steps. The results of our uptake tests performed with S. aureus and octenidine dihydrochloride indicated that the growth conditions and the associated different stress factors either had an influence on the composition of the cell surface of this test organism or induced the formation of an efflux system. Cells of S. aureus cultured in broth took up only one-fifth of the amount of biocide molecules compared to cells from agar cultures. These data correlated with the results of the suspension tests. A low uptake of biocides apparently led to a reduced killing rate. In contrast to S. aureus, no significant differences in the uptake of octenidine dihydrochloride by cells of P. aeruginosa could be observed. These cells took up the same amount of the antimicrobial substance, whether on agar or in broth. In view of these results, possible consequences should be considered prior to changing test regulations.

  14. Biocide and corrosion inhibition use in the oil and gas industry: Effectiveness and potential environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, D.M.; Fillo, J.P.; Morris, A.E.; Evans, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment chemicals are used in all facets of the natural gas industry (NGI) from well development through transmission and storage of natural gas. The multitude of chemicals used, combined with the dozens of chemical manufacturers and/or suppliers has lead to the availability of hundreds of possible chemical products. Because of the widespread use of chemical products and their numerous sources, the NGI needs access to consistent data regarding their effectiveness and potential environmental impacts. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and potential environmental impacts of, chemical products used in the NGI. This assessment was initially focused on biocides and corrosion inhibitors and their use in the gas production, storage and transmission facilities, The overall approach was obtain the necessary data on chemical use and effectiveness directly from the oil and gas industry, supplemented with data/information obtained from the published literature. Five case histories of chemical use were documented and evaluated to assess the effectiveness of these chemicals. Potential environmental impacts were addressed by performing a screening environmental assessment on the use of glutaraldehyde, a widely used biocide. Prototype discharge scenarios were formulated and modeled to evaluate potential impacts to groundwater and surface water. The paper describes the basis for the study, provides an overview of chemical use with a focus on biocides and corrosion inhibitors, describes and assesses the specific uses of chemicals, and presents the results of the environmental assessment. It was found that various chemicals can be effective in treating microbiologically influenced corrosion and souring, but that the effectiveness of specific chemicals is dependent on the operational scenario and the site-specific conditions

  15. New promising antifouling agent based on polymeric biocide polyhexamethylene guanidine molybdate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasov, Alexander; Bardeau, Jean-Francois; Morozovskaya, Irina; Boretska, Mariia; Cherniavska, Tetiana; Petrus, Lyudmyla; Tarasyuk, Oksana; Metelytsia, Larisa; Kopernyk, Iryna; Kalashnikova, Larisa; Dzhuzha, Oleg; Rogalsky, Sergiy

    2017-09-01

    A new polymeric biocide polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) molybdate has been synthesized. The obtained cationic polymer has limited water solubility of 0.015 g/100 mL and is insoluble in paint solvents. The results of acute toxicity studies indicate moderate toxicity of PHMG molybdate, which has a median lethal dose at 48 h of 0.7 mg/L for Daphnia magna and at 96 h of 17 mg/L for Danio rerio (zebrafish) freshwater model organisms. Commercial ship paint was then modified by the addition of a low concentration of polymeric biocide 5% (w/w). The painted steel panels were kept in Dnipro River water for the evaluation of the dynamics of fouling biomass. After 129-d exposure, Bryozoa dominated in biofouling of tested substrates, forming 86% (649 g/m 2 ) of the total biomass on control panel surfaces. However, considerably lower Bryozoa fouling biomass (15 g/m 2 ) was detected for coatings containing PHMG molybdate. Dreissenidae mollusks were found to form 88% (2182 g/m 2 ) of the fouling biomass on the control substrates after 228 d of exposure, whereas coatings containing PHMG molybdate showed a much lower biomass value of 23.6 g/m 2 . The leaching rate of PHMG molybdate in water was found to be similar to rates for conventional booster biocides ranging from 5.7 μg/cm 2 /d at the initial stage to 2.2 μg/cm 2 /d at steady state. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2543-2551. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Antibiotics and common antibacterial biocides stimulate horizontal transfer of resistance at low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkina, J; Marathe, N P; Flach, C-F; Larsson, D G J

    2018-03-01

    There is a rising concern that antibiotics, and possibly other antimicrobial agents, can promote horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. For most types of antimicrobials their ability to induce conjugation below minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) is still unknown. Our aim was therefore to explore the potential of commonly used antibiotics and antibacterial biocides to induce horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance. Effects of a wide range of sub-MIC concentrations of the antibiotics cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and the antibacterial biocides chlorhexidine digluconate, hexadecyltrimethylammoniumchloride and triclosan were investigated using a previously optimized culture-based assay with a complex bacterial community as a donor of mobile resistance elements and a traceable Escherichia coli strain as a recipient. Chlorhexidine (24.4μg/L), triclosan (0.1mg/L), gentamicin (0.1mg/L) and sulfamethoxazole (1mg/L) significantly increased the frequencies of transfer of antibiotic resistance whereas similar effects were not observed for any other tested antimicrobial compounds. This corresponds to 200 times below the MIC of the recipient for chlorhexidine, 1/20 of the MIC for triclosan, 1/16 of the MIC for sulfamethoxazole and right below the MIC for gentamicin. To our best knowledge, this is the first study showing that triclosan and chlorhexidine could stimulate the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance. Together with recent research showing that tetracycline is a potent inducer of conjugation, our results indicate that several antimicrobials including both common antibiotics and antibacterial biocides at low concentrations could contribute to antibiotic resistance development by facilitating the spread of antibiotic resistance between bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A retrospective study evaluating the efficacy of identification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Title: A retrospective study evaluating the efficacy of identification and management of sepsis at a district-level hospital internal medicine department in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, in comparison with the guidelines stipulated in the 2012 Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Background. Currently there is little ...

  18. Efficacy of 22Na turnover in ecopbysiological studies of carnivores

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of 22Na turnover in ecopbysiological studies of carnivores. loS. Wilkinson and J.D. Skinner*. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 8 December 1986; accepted 11 August 1987. 22Na turnover rates gave overestimates of mean 23Na intake in both ...

  19. The Efficacy of Self-Paced Study in Multitrial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Mario; Tabbers, Huib K.; Pecher, Diane; Jang, Yoonhee; Zeelenberg, René

    2015-01-01

    In 2 experiments we investigated the efficacy of self-paced study in multitrial learning. In Experiment 1, native speakers of English studied lists of Dutch-English word pairs under 1 of 4 imposed fixed presentation rate conditions (24 × 1 s, 12 × 2 s, 6 × 4 s, or 3 × 8 s) and a self-paced study condition. Total study time per list was equated for…

  20. Water driven leaching of biocides from paints and renders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bester, Kai; Vollertsen, Jes; Bollmann, Ulla E

    ) were so high, that rather professional urban gardening (flower and greenhouses) than handling of biocides from construction materials seem to be able to explain the findings. While the use in agriculture is restricted, the use in greenhouses is currently considered legal in Denmark. Leaching....../partitioning: Considering material properties, it was found out that, for all of the compounds the sorption (and leaching) is highly pH-dependent. It must be take into account that the pH in the porewater of the tested render materials is between 9 and 10 while the rainwater is around 5, thus making prediction difficult...... at this stage. For some of the compounds the sorption is dependent on the amount of polymer in the render, while it is only rarely of importance which polymer is used. Considering the interaction of weather with the leaching of biocides from real walls it turned out that a lot of parameters such as irradiation...

  1. Silver-enhanced block copolymer membranes with biocidal activity

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima

    2014-11-12

    Silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface and pore walls of block copolymer membranes with highly ordered pore structure. Pyridine blocks constitute the pore surfaces, complexing silver ions and promoting a homogeneous distribution. Nanoparticles were then formed by reduction with sodium borohydride. The morphology varied with the preparation conditions (pH and silver ion concentration), as confirmed by field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Silver has a strong biocide activity, which for membranes can bring the advantage of minimizing the growth of bacteria and formation of biofilm. The membranes with nanoparticles prepared under different pH values and ion concentrations were incubated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and compared with the control. The strongest biocidal activity was achieved with membranes containing membranes prepared under pH 9. Under these conditions, the best distribution with small particle size was observed by microscopy.

  2. Silver-enhanced block copolymer membranes with biocidal activity

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima; Hong, Pei-Ying; Sougrat, Rachid; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface and pore walls of block copolymer membranes with highly ordered pore structure. Pyridine blocks constitute the pore surfaces, complexing silver ions and promoting a homogeneous distribution. Nanoparticles were then formed by reduction with sodium borohydride. The morphology varied with the preparation conditions (pH and silver ion concentration), as confirmed by field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Silver has a strong biocide activity, which for membranes can bring the advantage of minimizing the growth of bacteria and formation of biofilm. The membranes with nanoparticles prepared under different pH values and ion concentrations were incubated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and compared with the control. The strongest biocidal activity was achieved with membranes containing membranes prepared under pH 9. Under these conditions, the best distribution with small particle size was observed by microscopy.

  3. Current uses of nanomaterials in biocidal products and treated articles in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Revilla Besora, Pau; Brinch, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Product Regulation (BPR) lays out a list of requirements that manufacturers of biocidal products have to comply with before they can place their products on the market. It is not entirely clear which commercially available articles in the EU have been treated with or incorporate NMs to provide biocidal...... properties to the product. To obtain an insight into what biocidal products are on the EU market, we used The Nanodatabase (nanodb.dk) for analyzing which NMs are being used and what product categories they represent. In this paper, we address the issue of the current uses of NMs in biocidal products...... and discuss how they are currently regulated under the BPR. Even though the BPR already entails nanospecific provisions, correct labelling of biocidal products containing NMs is virtually non-existent. By using The Nanodatabase, it was possible to identify 88 biocidal products containing NMs available...

  4. The Self-Efficacy Scale: A Construct Validity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Mark; Adams, Carol

    Self-efficacy is defined as the belief that one can successfully perform a behavior. Self-efficacy theory asserts that self-efficacy expectancies exert powerful influence on behavior and behavior change. The Self-efficacy Scale, which was developed to assess generalized self-efficacy expectations, consists of two subscales: general self-efficacy…

  5. Legionella control in power station cooling towers using oxidising biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Christian; Rawlinson, Julia; Killeen, Paul [Ecolab PTY LTD, Ascot, WA (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    Power stations have used oxidising biocides such as chlorine or bromine for many years to control microbial growth in their cooling towers. In this paper Ecolab trademark looks at the direct effect halogen concentration has on Legionella populations in order to determine the most effective halogenation rate required to ensure that the site key performance indicator (KPI) of < 100 colony-forming units (cfu) per mL can be maintained. (orig.)

  6. Usage Possibilities of Insecticide Effective Biocidals in Organic Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Şimşek, Muharrem; Yağcı, Mürşide; Yaşarer, Haluk

    2016-01-01

    In conventional agriculture it is aimed that mainly increase in the amount of products, synthetic chemicals and fertilizers are used extensively to provide it. Today, terms such as safe food, human and environment health have become more important. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the share of organic agriculture which have less negative impacts to human health and environment, and sustainable use of natural resources. Herein environmentally insecticide effective biocidals to pest contr...

  7. Glass-(nAg, nCu) Biocide Coatings on Ceramic Oxide Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Malpartida, Francisco; Díaz, Luis Antonio; Torrecillas, Ramón; Rojo, Fernando; Moya, José Serafín

    2012-01-01

    The present work was focused on obtaining biocide coatings constituted by a glassy soda-lime matrix containing silver or copper nanoparticles on ceramic (alumina and zirconia based) substrates. Both glassy coatings showed a high biocide activity against Gram-, Gram+ bacteria and yeast, reducing cell numbers more than three logarithms. Silver nanoparticles had a significantly higher biocide activity than copper nanoparticles, since the lixiviation levels required to reduce cell numbers more th...

  8. Safety and efficacy of venom immunotherapy: a real life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołaczek, Agnieszka; Skorupa, Dawid; Antczak-Marczak, Monika; Kuna, Piotr; Kupczyk, Maciej

    2017-04-01

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is recommended as the first-line treatment for patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom. To analyze the safety and efficacy of VIT in a real life setting. One hundred and eighty patients undergoing VIT were studied to evaluate the safety, efficacy, incidence and nature of symptoms after field stings and adverse reactions to VIT. Significantly more patients were allergic to wasp than bee venom (146 vs. 34, p bees, and were not associated with angiotensin convertase inhibitors (ACEi) or β-adrenergic antagonists use. Systemic reactions were observed in 4 individuals on wasp VIT (2.7%) and in 6 patients allergic to bees (17.65%). The VIT was efficacious as most patients reported no reactions (50%) or reported only mild local reactions (43.75%) to field stings. The decrease in sIgE at completion of VIT correlated with the dose of vaccine received ( r = 0.53, p = 0.004). Beekeeping (RR = 29.54, p venom allergy. Venom immunotherapy is highly efficacious and safe as most of the adverse events during the induction and maintenance phase are mild and local. Side effects of VIT are more common in subjects on bee VIT. Beekeeping and female sex are associated with a higher risk of allergy to Hymenoptera venom.

  9. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  10. Study of Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Social Studies Teacher Candidates on Educational Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Özkan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at examining the self-efficacy perceptions of social studies teacher candidates with respect to educational internet use. This research was conducted on a sample of 174 social studies teacher candidates enrolled in Gaziantep University Nizip Faculty of Education. The "Educational Internet Self-Efficacy Scale," developed…

  11. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Gabriella; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte

    2017-01-01

    As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067) and teachers (n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying. PMID:29261114

  12. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Olsson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067 and teachers (n = 1251 in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.

  13. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Gabriella; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte

    2017-12-20

    As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people's lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students ( n = 6067) and teachers ( n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.

  14. Analysis and imaging of biocidal agrochemicals using ToF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, Valerio; Fearn, Sarah; Ware, Ecaterina; McPhail, David S; Flemming, Anthony J; Bundy, Jacob G

    2017-09-06

    ToF-SIMS has been increasingly widely used in recent years to look at biological matrices, in particular for biomedical research, although there is still a lot of development needed to maximise the value of this technique in the life sciences. The main issue for biological matrices is the complexity of the mass spectra and therefore the difficulty to specifically and precisely detect analytes in the biological sample. Here we evaluated the use of ToF-SIMS in the agrochemical field, which remains a largely unexplored area for this technique. We profiled a large number of biocidal active ingredients (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides); we then selected fludioxonil, a halogenated fungicide, as a model compound for more detailed study, including the effect of co-occurring biomolecules on detection limits. There was a wide range of sensitivity of the ToF-SIMS for the different active ingredient compounds, but fludioxonil was readily detected in real-world samples (wheat seeds coated with a commercial formulation). Fludioxonil did not penetrate the seed to any great depth, but was largely restricted to a layer coating the seed surface. ToF-SIMS has clear potential as a tool for not only detecting biocides in biological samples, but also mapping their distribution.

  15. EU Regulation of Nanobiocides: Challenges in Implementing the Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brinch

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR contains several provisions for nanomaterials (NMs and is the first regulation in the European Union to require specific testing and risk assessment for the NM form of a biocidal substance as a part of the information requirements. Ecotoxicological data are one of the pillars of the information requirements in the BPR, but there are currently no standard test guidelines for the ecotoxicity testing of NMs. The overall objective of this work was to investigate the implications of the introduction of nano-specific testing requirements in the BPR and to explore how these might be fulfilled in the case of copper oxide nanoparticles. While there is information and data available in the open literature that could be used to fulfill the BPR information requirements, most of the studies do not take the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s nanospecific test guidelines into consideration. This makes it difficult for companies as well as regulators to fulfill the BPR information requirements for nanomaterials. In order to enable a nanospecific risk assessment, best practices need to be developed regarding stock suspension preparation and characterization, exposure suspensions preparation, and for conducting ecotoxicological test.

  16. EU Regulation of Nanobiocides: Challenges in Implementing the Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinch, Anna; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Hartmann, Nanna B; Baun, Anders

    2016-02-16

    The Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR) contains several provisions for nanomaterials (NMs) and is the first regulation in the European Union to require specific testing and risk assessment for the NM form of a biocidal substance as a part of the information requirements. Ecotoxicological data are one of the pillars of the information requirements in the BPR, but there are currently no standard test guidelines for the ecotoxicity testing of NMs. The overall objective of this work was to investigate the implications of the introduction of nano-specific testing requirements in the BPR and to explore how these might be fulfilled in the case of copper oxide nanoparticles. While there is information and data available in the open literature that could be used to fulfill the BPR information requirements, most of the studies do not take the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's nanospecific test guidelines into consideration. This makes it difficult for companies as well as regulators to fulfill the BPR information requirements for nanomaterials. In order to enable a nanospecific risk assessment, best practices need to be developed regarding stock suspension preparation and characterization, exposure suspensions preparation, and for conducting ecotoxicological test.

  17. Collective efficacy versus self-efficacy in coping responses to stressors and control: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, J; Lam, S S; Xie, J L

    2000-08-01

    This study examined how cultural differences and efficacy perceptions influence the role of job control in coping with job demands. Perceiving higher control mitigated the effects of demands on psychological health symptoms and turnover intentions only among American bank tellers reporting high job self-efficacy. Among American tellers reporting low job self-efficacy, perceived control exacerbated the effects of demands. However, in a matched Hong Kong sample, collective efficacy interacted in the same way with control and demands as job self-efficacy had in the American sample. These differences appear to be explained by the individual attributes of idiocentrism and allocentrism that are linked to the societal norms of individualism and collectivism, respectively.

  18. Green and brown propolis: efficient natural biocides for the control of bacterial contamination of alcoholic fermentation of distilled beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of natural biocides, brown and green propolis, for the control of bacterial contamination in the production of sugarcane spirit. The treatments consisted of brown and green propolis extracts, ampicillin, and a control and were assessed at the beginning and end of harvest season in ten fermentation cycles. In the microbiological analyses, the lactic acid bacteria were quantified in the inoculum before and after the treatment with biocides, and the viability of yeast cells during fermentation was evaluated. The levels of acids, glycerol, total residual reducing sugars, and ethanol were analyzed for the wine resulting from each fermentation cycle. A reduction in the number of bacterial contaminants in the inoculum in the treatments with the natural biocides was observed, but it did not affect the viability of yeast cells. The control of the contaminants led to the production of higher levels of ethanol and reduced acidity in the wine produced. The results of the use of brown and green propolis to control the growth microorganisms in the fermentation of sugarcane spirit can be of great importance for using alternative strategies to synthetic antibacterials in fermentation processes including other distilled beverage or spirits.

  19. The wide spectrum high biocidal potency of Bioxy formulation when dissolved in water at different concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Fadi

    2017-01-01

    Traditional surface disinfectants that have long been applied in medicine, animal husbandry, manufacturing and institutions are inconvenient at best and dangerous at worst. Moreover, some of these substances have adverse environmental impacts: for example, quaternary ammonium compounds (“quats”) are reproductive toxicants in both fish and mammals. Halogens are corrosive both to metals and living tissues, are highly reactive, can be readily neutralized by metals, and react with organic matter to form toxic, persistent by-products such as dioxins and furans. Aldehydes may be carcinogenic to both human and animals upon repeated exposures, are corrosive, cross-link living tissues and many synthetic materials, and may lose efficacy when pathogens enzymatically adapt to them. Alcohols are flammable and volatile and can be enzymatically degraded by certain bacterial pathogens. Quats are highly irritating to mucous membranes and over time can induce pathogen resistance, especially if they are not alternated with functionally different disinfectants. In contrast, peracetic acid (PAA), a potent oxidizer, liberates hydrogen peroxide (itself a disinfectant), biodegrades to carbon dioxide, water and oxygen, and is at least as efficacious as contact biocides e.g., halogens and aldehydes. Nevertheless, the standard form of liquid PAA is highly corrosive, is neutralized by metals and organic matter, gives off noxious odours and must be stored in vented containers. For the reasons stated above, Bioxy formulations were developed, a series of powder forms of PAA, which are odourless, stable in storage and safe to transport and handle. They generate up to 10% PAA in situ when dissolved in water. A 0.2% aqueous solution of Bioxy (equivalent to 200 ppm PAA) effected a 6.76 log reduction in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) within 2 minutes after application. A 5% aqueous solution of Bioxy achieved a 3.93 log reduction in the bovine tuberculosis bacillus

  20. Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of four commonly used biocides on the conjugative transfer of Tn916 in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seier-Petersen, Maria Amalie; Jasni, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Large amounts of biocides are used to reduce and control bacterial growth in the healthcare sector, food production and agriculture. This work explores the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of four commonly used biocides (ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine digluconate...

  1. Comparing a microbial biocide and chlorine as zebra mussel control strategies in an Irish drinking water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Meehan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A need exists for an environmentally friendly mussel control method to replace chlorine and other traditional control methods currentlyutilised in drinking water plants and other infested facilities. Zequanox® is a newly commercialised microbial biocide for zebra and quaggamussels comprised of killed Pseudomonas fluorescens CL145A cells. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of adevelopmental formulation of Zequanox (referred to as MBI 401 FDP and chlorine treatments on adult and juvenile zebra mussels byrunning a biobox trial in conjunction with chlorine treatments at an infested Irish drinking water treatment plant. Since 2009, the plantmanagement has used a residual chlorine concentration of 2 mg/L in autumn to control both adult zebra mussels and juvenile settlement intheir three concrete raw water chambers. Juvenile mussel settlement was monitored in three bioboxes as well as in three treatment chambersin the plant for three months prior to treatment. Adult mussels were seeded into the chambers and bioboxes four days before treatment. InOctober 2011, the bioboxes were treated with MBI 401 FDP at 200 mg active substance/L, while chlorine treatment took place in the waterchambers. The MBI 401 FDP treatment lasted only 8 hours while chlorine treatment lasted seven days. Juvenile numbers were reduced tozero in both the bioboxes and treated chambers within seven days. Adult mussel mortality reached 80% for both the chlorine and MBI 401FDP treatment; however, mortality was achieved faster in the chlorine treatment. These results provided important insights into zebra musselcontrol alternatives to chlorine and supported further development of the now commercial product, Zequanox.

  2. A Study on Emotional Healing Efficacy of Fiction for Undergraduate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-May Sheih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, undergraduates may encounter multiple pressures and thus feel the sense of alienation, anxiety, disturbance and depression. For undergraduates, reading can be independently conducted without the intervention of an instructor; therefore, undergraduates who feel reluctant to expose private emotions to counselors can help themselves through the reading of emotional healing books. This is the application of bibliotherapy. Among various resources, fiction can serve as an appropriate emotional reading material. The researcher deployed semi-structured in-depth interview, and interviewed 21 undergraduates in Taipei City and Taipei County. This study is aimed to understand the kinds of fictions undergraduates read when they are upset and to analyze the emotional healing process of identification, catharsis, and insight so that the emotional healing efficacy can be evaluated. The findings showed that romance, realistic fiction, fantasy, martial arts novel, inspirational fiction, historical fiction, and science fiction can provide full process of emotional healing efficacy. However, detective fiction, online novel, psychological fiction, and horror fiction can only provide parts of the healing process. Besides, the healing efficacy of a specific fiction is different from reader to reader.

  3. Alflutop clinical efficacy assessment in osteoarthritis (two-years study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Chodyrev

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess alflutop clinical efficacy and safety during long-term course treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Methods. 51 pts with definite knee osteoarthritis of I-III stage according to Kellgren-Lawrence classification were included in an open controlled study. 20 pts received 6 intra-articular injections of alflutop 2 ml with subsequent intramuscular treatment during 3 months. Such courses were repeated 6 months apart for 2 years. 31 pts of control group received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID only. Pain on visual analog scale, Leken functional score, changes of NSAID treatment and radiological picture were used for assessment of efficacy. Clinical examination was performed before and after every treatment course and 3 months after the last course. Results. Every alflutop treatment course provided significant stepwise decrease of pain with improvement of mobility, reduction of NSAID requirement and absence of osteoarthritis radiological progression. Doctor and pts clinical efficacy and safety assessment coincided. Conclusion. Alflutop is an effective drug for knee osteoarthritis treatment. It has anti-inflammatory and probably chondroprotective activity with good safety.

  4. Premarket safety and efficacy studies for ADHD medications in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence T Bourgeois

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing.We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug's clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials.A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419. Eleven drugs (55% were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70% after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9, with 5 (38% drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77% after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed.Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved.

  5. Bioassays and selected chemical analysis of biocide-free antifouling coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watermann, B.T.; Daehne, B.; Sievers, S.; Dannenberg, R.; Overbeke, J.C.; Klijnstra, J.W.; Heemken, O.

    2005-01-01

    Over the years several types of biocide-free antifouling paints have entered the market. The prohibition of biocidal antifouling paints in special areas of some European countries such as Sweden, Denmark and Germany has favoured the introduction of these paints to the market. Several types of

  6. EU Regulation of Nanobiocides: Challenges in Implementing the Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Anna; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Hartmann, Nanna B.

    2016-01-01

    The Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR) contains several provisions for nanomaterials (NMs) and is the first regulation in the European Union to require specific testing and risk assessment for the NM form of a biocidal substance as a part of the information requirements. Ecotoxicological data...

  7. Structure, tribocorrosion and biocide characterization of Ca, P and I containing TiO{sub 2} coatings developed by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáenz de Viteri, V., E-mail: virginia.saenzdeviteri@tekniker.es [IK4-Tekniker, Polo Tecnológico de Eibar, Calle Iñaki Goenaga, 5, Eibar 20600 (Spain); Bayón, R.; Igartua, A. [IK4-Tekniker, Polo Tecnológico de Eibar, Calle Iñaki Goenaga, 5, Eibar 20600 (Spain); Barandika, G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Apartado 644, Bilbao E-48080 (Spain); Moreno, J. Esteban; Peremarch, C. Pérez-Jorge; Pérez, M. Martínez [Department of Clinical Microbiology, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Av. Reyes Católicos 2, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ca, P and I doped TiO{sub 2} coatings were developed by means of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique. • Microstructure and chemical composition of the developed coating were in depth analyzed. • The effect of wear-corrosion synergy was studied through tribocorrosion tests. • Antibacterial efficiency of iodine as biocide agent was analyzed by means of bacterial adhesion study. • A TiO{sub 2} coating with improved wear-corrosion resistance, suitable surface for cell adhesion and biocide properties was achieved. - Abstract: In hip joint implants, in particular in the stems, wear-corrosion effects can accelerate the degradation of the biomaterial. The lack of osseointegration and the risk of contracting implant-associated infections may be other reasons for a premature failure of the implant. In this work, TiO{sub 2} coatings have been developed by means of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique in order to achieve wear-resistant hard coatings with osseointegration ability and biocide characteristics. During the PEO process, elements that favor cell growth, like Ca and P, were introduced into the coating. With the purpose of providing the coating with antibacterial properties iodine was added like biocide agent. The microstructure and chemical composition of the developed coatings were analyzed in order to see if the surface of the films was suitable for the cell attachment. The effect of wear-corrosion synergy was studied by means of tribocorrosion tests. Finally, the biocide capacity of iodine against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was analyzed through bacterial adhesion tests. High wear and corrosion resistance was shown in one of the developed coatings. The achieved surface microstructures seem to be appropriate to improve the osseointegration with proper pore size and porosity index. The antibacterial capacity of iodine was confirmed for S. epidermidis.

  8. Evaluation of bactericidal and anti-biofilm properties of a novel surface-active organosilane biocide against healthcare associated pathogens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biolfilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Murray

    Full Text Available Healthcare acquired infections (HAI pose a great threat in hospital settings and environmental contamination can be attributed to the spread of these. De-contamination and, significantly, prevention of re-contamination of the environment could help in preventing/reducing this threat. Goldshield (GS5 is a novel organosilane biocide marketed as a single application product with residual biocidal activity. We tested the hypothesis that GS5 could provide longer-term residual antimicrobial activity than existing disinfectants once applied to surfaces. Thus, the residual bactericidal properties of GS5, Actichlor and Distel against repeated challenge with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC43300 were tested, and showed that GS5 alone exhibited longer-term bactericidal activity for up to 6 days on 316I stainless steel surfaces. Having established efficacy against S. aureus, we tested GS5 against common healthcare acquired pathogens, and demonstrated that, on average, a 1 log10 bactericidal effect was exhibited by GS5 treated surfaces, although biocidal activity varied depending upon the surface type and the species of bacteria. The ability of GS5 to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation was measured in standard microtitre plate assays, where it had no significant effect on either biofilm formation or development. Taken together the data suggests that GS5 treatment of surfaces may be a useful means to reducing bacterial contamination in the context of infection control practices.

  9. Multiple comparisons in drug efficacy studies: scientific or marketing principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    When researchers design an experiment to compare a given medication to another medication, a behavioral therapy, or a placebo, the experiment often involves numerous comparisons. For instance, there may be several different evaluation methods, raters, and time points. Although scientifically justified, such comparisons can be abused in the interests of drug marketing. This article provides two recent examples of such questionable practices. The first involves the case of the arthritis drug celecoxib (Celebrex), where the study lasted 12 months but the authors only presented 6 months of data. The second case involves the NIMH Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) study evaluating the efficacy of stimulant medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder where ratings made by several groups are reported in contradictory fashion. The MTA authors have not clarified the confusion, at least in print, suggesting that the actual findings of the study may have played little role in the authors' reported conclusions.

  10. High performance polypyrrole coating for corrosion protection and biocidal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Amit; Qiao, Mingyu; Cook, Jonathan Edwin; Zhang, Xinyu; Huang, Tung-Shi

    2018-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) coating was electrochemically synthesized on carbon steel using sulfonic acids as dopants: p-toluene sulfonic acid (p-TSA), sulfuric acid (SA), (±) camphor sulfonic acid (CSA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS). The effect of acidic dopants (p-TSA, SA, CSA) on passivation of carbon steel was investigated by linear potentiodynamic and compared with morphology and corrosion protection performance of the coating produced. The types of the dopants used were significantly affecting the protection efficiency of the coating against chloride ion attack on the metal surface. The corrosion performance depends on size and alignment of dopant in the polymer backbone. Both p-TSA and SDBS have extra benzene ring that stack together to form a lamellar sheet like barrier to chloride ions thus making them appropriate dopants for PPy coating in suppressing the corrosion at significant level. Further, adhesion performance was enhanced by adding long chain carboxylic acid (decanoic acid) directly in the monomer solution. In addition, PPy coating doped with SDBS displayed excellent biocidal abilities against Staphylococcus aureus. The polypyrrole coatings on carbon steels with dual function of anti-corrosion and excellent biocidal properties shows great potential application in the industry for anti-corrosion/antimicrobial purposes.

  11. Evaluation of eco toxicity, biocide effectiveness and corrosiveness of fluid for pipelines hydro testing; Avaliacao da ecotoxicidade, eficiencia biocida e da corrosividade de fluidos para teste hidroestatico de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia A.; Veiga, Leticia F.; Penna, Monica O.; Souza, Leonardo S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, Juliana R.; Oliveira, Fabio F.; Amigo, Alexandre A.; Chaves, Claudia [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Before the installation of subsea pipelines for draining the oil and gas production, the line need to be submitted to hydrostatic tests. In these, the lines are flooded with sea water and chemicals and pressurized to check the leakage occurrence. By the end of the test, the fluid needs to be discharged in-situ. Based on the environmental restrictions, this study began, and the three most important aspects in relation to the environmental risks had been evaluated: the toxicity, the biocide efficiency and the fluids' corrosiveness. By the partial results, it was observed that the fluids which had presented the best results in all studied aspects were the ones that contained the biocide THPS, combined with U.V. and a quaternary salt. In relation to the corrosion, it could be established that the studied fluids do not present impacts in internal corrosion, since during the test, the pipes are totally flooded with the fluid, remaining stamped and all the internal air having been removed. An important aspect is: even with concentrations below of the recommended ones for biocides, in order to guarantee lower environmental risks, by making use of alternative techniques (U.V.) and efficient biocide products, it is also possible to reach success in terms of biocide's efficiency. A regular monitoring procedure of the fulfilling fluid's quality is essential. (author)

  12. Triterpenoids from Psidium guajava with Biocidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.; Mandal, A.; Chakraborty, P.; Rasul, M. G.; Chakraborty, Madhumita; Saha, A.

    2010-01-01

    In continuation of our studies on the phytochemical investigation of medicinal plants available in the foothills of Darjeeling and Teri, we report herein the isolation of two triterpenoids betulinic acid and lupeol from the leaf extract of Psidium guajava and their potential antimicrobial and phytotoxic activities. All the structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed by spectral (IR, NMR) analysis and by comparison with the literature reports. PMID:21218065

  13. Biocide by-products in aquatic environments. Annual report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Bean, R.M.; Gibson, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    The Biocide By-Products in Aquatic Environments Program is composed of analytical chemistry and biological phases with freshwater and marine biological subdivisions. The objectives of the analytical studies are: to identify those chloroorganic chemical compounds that result from the addition of chlorine to fresh or saltwater; to develop methods for detecting chlorinated organics in the effluents discharged to receiving water bodies from nuclear stations; and to verify laboratory findings through analysis for chlorination by-products in water and biota samples from cooling water bodies of nuclear power stations. The objectives of the biological studies are: to investigate the immediate toxicity of specific chlorination by-products (chloroform in freshwater and bromoform in marine waters); to evaluate the chronic toxicity of chlorination by-products; to follow their pathways of action; and to analyze for bioaccumulation or biomagnification of halogenated hydrocarbons on selected aquatic or marine biota

  14. Image Cytometric Analysis of Algal Spores for Evaluation of Antifouling Activities of Biocidal Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il Koo, Bon; Lee, Yun-Soo; Seo, Mintae; Seok Choi, Hyung; Leng Seah, Geok; Nam, Taegu; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2017-07-31

    Chemical biocides have been widely used as marine antifouling agents, but their environmental toxicity impose regulatory restriction on their use. Although various surrogate antifouling biocides have been introduced, their comparative effectiveness has not been well investigated partly due to the difficulty of quantitative evaluation of their antifouling activity. Here we report an image cytometric method to quantitatively analyze the antifouling activities of seven commercial biocides using Ulva prolifera as a target organism, which is known to be a dominant marine species causing soft fouling. The number of spores settled on a substrate is determined through image analysis using the intrinsic fluorescence of chlorophylls in the spores. Pre-determined sets of size and shape of spores allow for the precise determination of the number of settled spores. The effects of biocide concentration and combination of different biocides on the spore settlement are examined. No significant morphological changes of Ulva spores are observed, but the amount of adhesive pad materials is appreciably decreased in the presence of biocides. It is revealed that the growth rate of Ulva is not directly correlated with the antifouling activities against the settlement of Ulva spores. This work suggests that image cytometric analysis is a very convenient, fast-processable method to directly analyze the antifouling effects of biocides and coating materials.

  15. Sodium lauryl sulfate - a biocide for controlling acidity development in bulk commercially formed solid elemental sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyne, J. B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1996-04-01

    Acidification of bulk elemental sulfur caused by Thiobacillus species which consume elemental sulfur by converting it into oxidized sulfur forms, was studied. Contributory factors, such as length of time in transit or in storage, warm temperatures, the presence of air and moisture, particle size and form of sulfur, and the presence of sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients, were reviewed. Laboratory experiments with adding sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a known biocide, to sulfur inoculated with Thiobacillus, proved to be an efficient method for controlling acidity development. At the concentration required for effectiveness SLS did not interfere with purity specifications, had negligible effect on moisture, and appeared to be compatible with current dust suppression application practices. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Glass-(nAg, nCu) biocide coatings on ceramic oxide substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Malpartida, Francisco; Díaz, Luis Antonio; Torrecillas, Ramón; Rojo, Fernando; Moya, José Serafín

    2012-01-01

    The present work was focused on obtaining biocide coatings constituted by a glassy soda-lime matrix containing silver or copper nanoparticles on ceramic (alumina and zirconia based) substrates. Both glassy coatings showed a high biocide activity against Gram-, Gram+ bacteria and yeast, reducing cell numbers more than three logarithms. Silver nanoparticles had a significantly higher biocide activity than copper nanoparticles, since the lixiviation levels required to reduce cell numbers more than 3 logarithms was of almost 1-2 µg/cm(2) in the case of silver nanoparticles, and 10-15 µg/cm(2) for the copper nanoparticles.

  17. Glass-(nAg, nCu biocide coatings on ceramic oxide substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Esteban-Tejeda

    Full Text Available The present work was focused on obtaining biocide coatings constituted by a glassy soda-lime matrix containing silver or copper nanoparticles on ceramic (alumina and zirconia based substrates. Both glassy coatings showed a high biocide activity against Gram-, Gram+ bacteria and yeast, reducing cell numbers more than three logarithms. Silver nanoparticles had a significantly higher biocide activity than copper nanoparticles, since the lixiviation levels required to reduce cell numbers more than 3 logarithms was of almost 1-2 µg/cm(2 in the case of silver nanoparticles, and 10-15 µg/cm(2 for the copper nanoparticles.

  18. Correlational Study between Teacher Perceived High School Principal Leadership Style and Teacher Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study addressed the concept that teacher-perceived high school principal leadership style correlated with teacher self-efficacy. A relationship existed between teacher self-efficacy and student outcomes and research indicated a relationship between leadership style and teacher self-efficacy. Also, the effect of…

  19. Occurrence and overlooked sources of the biocide carbendazim in wastewater and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merel, Sylvain; Benzing, Saskia; Gleiser, Carolin; Di Napoli-Davis, Gina; Zwiener, Christian

    2018-08-01

    Carbendazim is a fungicide commonly used as active substance in plant protection products and biocidal products, for instance to protect facades of buildings against fungi. However, the subsequent occurrence of this fungicide and potential endocrine disruptor in the aqueous environment is a major concern. In this study, high resolution mass spectrometry shows that carbendazim can be detected with an increasing abundance from the source to the mouth of the River Rhine. Unexpectedly, the abundance of carbendazim correlates poorly with that of other fungicides used as active ingredients in plant protection products (r 2 of 0.32 for cyproconazole and r 2 of 0.57 for propiconazole) but it correlates linearly with that of pharmaceuticals (r 2 of 0.86 for carbamazepine and r 2 of 0.89 for lamotrigine). These results suggest that the occurrence of carbendazim in surface water comes mainly from the discharge of treated domestic wastewater. This hypothesis is further confirmed by the detection of carbendazim in wastewater effluents (n = 22). In fact, bench-scale leaching tests of textiles and papers revealed that these materials commonly found in households could be a source of carbendazim in domestic wastewater. Moreover, additional river samples collected nearby two paper industries indicate that the discharge of their treated process effluents is also a source of carbendazim in the environment. While characterizing paper and textile as overlooked sources of carbendazim, this study also shows the biocide as a possible ubiquitous wastewater contaminant that would require further systematic and worldwide monitoring due to its toxicological properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Decay model for biocide treatment of unballasted vessels: application for the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Larissa L; Bartell, Steven M; Landrum, Peter F

    2005-10-01

    A biocide decay model was developed to assess the potential efficacy and environmental impacts associated with using glutaraldehyde to treat unballasted overseas vessels trading on the Laurentian Great Lakes. The results of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that effective glutaraldehyde concentrations can be maintained for the duration of a vessel's oceanic transit (approximately 9-12 days): During this transit, glutaraldehyde concentrations were predicted to decrease by approximately 10% from initial treatment levels (e.g., 500 mgL(-1)). In terms of environmental impacts, mean glutaraldehyde concentrations released at Duluth-Superior Harbor, MN were predicted to be 100-fold lower than initial treatment concentrations, and ranged from 3.2 mgL(-1) (2 SD: 2.74) in April to 0.7 mgL(-1) (2 SD: 1.28) in August. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the re-ballasting dilution factor was the major variable governing final glutaraldehyde concentrations; however, lake surface temperatures became increasingly important during the warmer summer months.

  1. The efficacy of acupuncture on menopausal symptoms (ACOM study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kamma Sundgaard; Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Around 75% of menopausal women experience hot flushes (HF) and 10-20% of all postmenopausal women find this very distressing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture on moderate-to-severe menopausal symptoms in general and HF in particular. METHODS: An un......-blinded randomised trial (cross-over) with 1:1 allocation to early (intervention) versus late (control) acupuncture. The included women suffer from moderate-to-severe HF and will receive a weekly treatment during five consecutive weeks in the following predefined acupuncture points: CV-3, CV-4, LR-8, SP-6, SP-9. All...... acupuncturists will be medical doctors educated in acupuncture. The primary outcome is change in HF from baseline to week 6 measured by the HF scale from the MenoScores Questionnaire (MSQ). Secondary outcomes are change in other menopausal symptoms, in particular day and night sweats and menopausal...

  2. Organic biocides hosted in layered double hydroxides: enhancing antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Alejandra Santana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of layered double hydroxides containing carbonates as compensating anions were prepared by the urea method. These LDHs were used as hosts of anions coming from pipemidic and nalidixic acid. XRD results confirm that these anions were hosted in the interlayer space of LDHs. Further, from 27Al NMR MAS characterization of an interaction between the brucite-like layers and anions was suggested. Then the hybrids LDHs were used as biocide of Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. The release profile of pipemidic and nalidixic anions from hybrid LDHs occurs for periods as long as 3.5 hours. The free-organic acid LDHs were not able to kill S. Typhi, neither E. coli. In contrast, the hybrids LDHs eliminate almost completely bacteria within short times.

  3. Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy of University Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Basol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the entrepreneurial self-efficacy perceptions among university students across two countries, i.e., Poland and Turkey. Data were obtained through questionnaires designed to assess the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. In all, 365 Polish and 278 Turkish students completed the questionnaires. Results indicated that Polish and Turkish students did not differ significantly in regard to the overall measure of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Our study contributed to the entrepreneurship literature by performing a cross-cultural comparison of the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Thus, it provided recommendations for fostering entrepreneurial self efficacy among university students.

  4. THE BIOCIDE TRIBUTYLTIN ALTERS TESTOSTERONE ESTERIFICATION IN MUD SNAILS (ILYANASSA OBSOLETA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biocide Tributyltin Alters Testosterone Esterification in Mud Snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta)Meredith P. Gooding and Gerald A. LeBlanc Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633Tributyltin (TBT...

  5. Sibutramine in weight control: a dose-ranging, efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, M; Rubio, A; Golik, A; Byrne, L; Scheinbaum, M L

    1991-09-01

    We tested the safety and efficacy of sibutramine, 5 and 20 mg, and placebo on weight loss. Medication was added to caloric restriction, behavior modification, and exercise in a parallel-group, double-blind clinical trial. Participants were 130% to 180% of ideal body weight and in good health. The study lasted 12 weeks over Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year's Day. Weight loss during 8 weeks of study medication was: placebo, 1.4 +/- 2.1 kg (n = 19); 5 mg sibutramine, 2.9 +/- 2.3 kg (n = 18); and 20 mg sibutramine, 5.0 +/- 2.7 kg (n = 18) (p less than 0.05 sibutramine, 5 and 20 mg, versus placebo; p less than 0.05 sibutramine, 20 mg versus 5 mg). There is a significant dose-effect relationship. Five participants left the study before completion, all because of adverse events; placebo (one patient), 5 mg sibutramine (one patient), and 20 mg sibutramine (three patients). Sleep difficulties were noted by eight participants (20 mg sibutramine, seven patients; 5 mg, one patient; and placebo, no patients). Six of 21 participants receiving 20 mg complained of irritability, unusual impatience, or "excitation." Sibutramine, 5 and 20 mg, added to a multimodal program assisted participants in losing weight.

  6. Study of archaeological underwater finds: deterioration and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisci, G. M.; La Russa, M. F.; Macchione, M.; Malagodi, M.; Palermo, A. M.; Ruffolo, S. A.

    2010-09-01

    This study is aimed at an assessment of the methodologies, instruments and new applications for underwater archaeology. Research focused on study of the various kinds of degradation affecting underwater finds and stone materials aged in underwater environment, efficiency evaluation of various surface cleaning methods and study and mixing of protective products with consolidating resins and antimicrobial biocides to be applied to restored underwater finds. Transmitted light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study surface biofilms and the interactions with samples of different stone materials such as brick, marble and granite immersed in the submarine archaeological area of Crotone (South of Italy). Surface cleaning tests were performed with application of ion exchange resins, EDTA, hydrogen peroxide and ultrasound techniques. Capillary water absorption, simulated solar ageing and colourimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate hydrophobic and consolidant properties; to assess biocidal efficacy, heterotrophic micro-organisms ( Aspergillus niger) were inoculated on agar plates and growth inhibition was measured.

  7. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageshwar Iyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case-controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970 participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7 th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants.

  8. Genetic relatedness, antimicrobial and biocide susceptibility comparative analysis of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Natacha; Belas, Adriana; Couto, Isabel; Perreten, Vincent; Pomba, Constança

    2014-08-01

    Forty methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP and MSSP, respectively) from colonization and infection in dogs and cats were characterized for clonality, antimicrobial, and biocide susceptibility. MSSP were genetically more diverse than MRSP by multi-locus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Three different spa types (t06, t02, t05) and two SCCmec types (II-III and V) were detected in the MRSP isolates. All MRSP and two MSSP strains were multidrug-resistant. Several antibiotic resistance genes (mecA, blaZ, tet(M), tet(K), aac(6')-Ie-aph(2')-Ia, aph(3')-III, ant(6)-Ia, sat4, erm(B), lnu(A), dfr(G), and catp(C221)) were identified by microarray and double mutations in the gyrA and grlA genes and a single mutation in the rpoB gene were detected by sequence analysis. No differences were detected between MSSP and MRSP in the chlorhexidine acetate (CHA) minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). However, two MSSP had elevated MIC to triclosan (TCL) and one to benzalkonium chloride and ethidium bromide. One MSSP isolate harboured a qacA gene, while in another a qacB gene was detected. None of the isolates harboured the sh-fabI gene. Three of the biocide products studied had high bactericidal activity (Otodine(®), Clorexyderm Spot Gel(®), Dermocanis Piocure-M(®)), while Skingel(®) failed to achieve a five log reduction in the bacterial counting. S. pseudintermedius have become a serious therapeutic challenge in particular if methicillin- resistance and/or multidrug-resistance are involved. Biocides, like CHA and TCL, seem to be clinically effective and safe topical therapeutic options.

  9. Toxicity of antifouling biocides to the intertidal harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus (Crustacea, Copepoda): Effects of temperature and salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, K.W.H.; Leung, K.M.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Intertidal harpacticoid copepods are commonly used in eco-toxicity tests worldwide. They predominately live in mid-high shore rock pools and often experience a wide range of temperature and salinity fluctuation. Most eco-toxicity tests are conducted at fixed temperature and salinity and thus the influence of these environmental factors on chemical toxicity is largely unknown. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and salinity on the acute toxicity of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus against two common biocides, copper (Cu) and tributyltin (TBT) using a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial design (i.e. two temperatures: 25 and 35 o C; three salinities: 15.0 per mille , 34.5 per mille and 45.0 per mille ; three levels of the biocide plus a control). Copper sulphate and tributyltin chloride were used as the test chemicals while distilled water and acetone were utilised as solvents for Cu and TBT respectively. 96h-LC50s of Cu and TBT were 1024 and 0.149 μg l -1 respectively (at 25 o C; 34.5 per mille ) and, based on these results, nominal biocide concentrations of LC0 (i.e. control), LC30, LC50 and LC70 were employed. Analysis of Covariance using 'concentration' as the covariate and both 'temperature' and 'salinity' as fixed factors, showed a significant interaction between temperature and salinity effects for Cu, mortality increasing with temperature but decreasing with elevated salinity. A similar result was revealed for TBT. Both temperature and salinity are, therefore, important factors affecting the results of acute eco-toxicity tests using these marine copepods. We recommend that such eco-toxicity tests should be conducted at a range of environmentally realistic temperature/salinity regimes, as this will enhance the sensitivity of the test and improve the safety margin in line with the precautionary principle

  10. Toxicity of antifouling biocides to the intertidal harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus (Crustacea, Copepoda): Effects of temperature and salinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, K.W.H. [Swire Institute of Marine Science, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Leung, K.M.Y. [Swire Institute of Marine Science, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: kmyleung@hkucc.hku.hk

    2005-07-01

    Intertidal harpacticoid copepods are commonly used in eco-toxicity tests worldwide. They predominately live in mid-high shore rock pools and often experience a wide range of temperature and salinity fluctuation. Most eco-toxicity tests are conducted at fixed temperature and salinity and thus the influence of these environmental factors on chemical toxicity is largely unknown. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and salinity on the acute toxicity of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus against two common biocides, copper (Cu) and tributyltin (TBT) using a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial design (i.e. two temperatures: 25 and 35 {sup o}C; three salinities: 15.0 per mille , 34.5 per mille and 45.0 per mille ; three levels of the biocide plus a control). Copper sulphate and tributyltin chloride were used as the test chemicals while distilled water and acetone were utilised as solvents for Cu and TBT respectively. 96h-LC50s of Cu and TBT were 1024 and 0.149 {mu}g l{sup -1} respectively (at 25 {sup o}C; 34.5 per mille ) and, based on these results, nominal biocide concentrations of LC0 (i.e. control), LC30, LC50 and LC70 were employed. Analysis of Covariance using 'concentration' as the covariate and both 'temperature' and 'salinity' as fixed factors, showed a significant interaction between temperature and salinity effects for Cu, mortality increasing with temperature but decreasing with elevated salinity. A similar result was revealed for TBT. Both temperature and salinity are, therefore, important factors affecting the results of acute eco-toxicity tests using these marine copepods. We recommend that such eco-toxicity tests should be conducted at a range of environmentally realistic temperature/salinity regimes, as this will enhance the sensitivity of the test and improve the safety margin in line with the precautionary principle.

  11. Combined effects of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, biocides and organic contaminants on the growth of Skeletonema pseudocostatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Karina; Heiaas, Harald Hasle; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2014-05-01

    Organisms in the environment are exposed to a number of pollutants from different compound groups. In addition to the classic pollutants like the polychlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols, biocides, etc. other compound groups of concern are constantly emerging. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) can be expected to co-occur with other organic contaminants like biocides, PAHs and alkylphenols in areas affected by wastewater, industrial effluents and intensive recreational activity. In this study, representatives from these four different compound groups were tested individually and in mixtures in a growth inhibition assay with the marine algae Skeletonema pseudocostatum (formerly Skeletonema costatum) to determine whether the combined effects could be predicted by models for additive effects; the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) prediction model. The eleven tested compounds reduced the growth of S. pseudocostatum in the microplate test in a concentration-dependent manner. The order of toxicity of these chemicals were irgarol>fluoxetine>diuron>benzo(a)pyrene>thioguanine>triclosan>propranolol>benzophenone 3>cetrimonium bromide>4-tert-octylphenol>endosulfan. Several binary mixtures and a mixture of eight compounds from the four different compound groups were tested. All tested mixtures were additive as model deviation ratios, the deviation between experimental and predicted effect concentrations, were within a factor of 2 from one or both prediction models (e.g. CA and IA). Interestingly, a concentration dependent shift from IA to CA, potentially due to activation of similar toxicity pathways at higher concentrations, was observed for the mixture of eight compounds. The combined effects of the multi-compound mixture were clearly additive and it should therefore be expected that PPCPs, biocides, PAHs and alkylphenols will collectively contribute to the risk in areas contaminated by such complex

  12. Efficacy of zolpidem for dystonia: a study among different subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimichi eMiyazaki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although there are some newly-developed options to treat dystonia, its medical treatment is not always satisfactory. Zolpidem, an imidazopyridine agonist with a high affinity on benzodiazepine subtype receptor BZ1(ω1 , was found to improve clinical symptoms of dystonia in a limited number of case reports. To investigate what subtype of dystonia is responsive to the therapy, we conducted an open label study to assess the efficacy of zolpidem (5-20mg in 34 patients suffering from miscellaneous types of dystonia using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS. Patients were entered into the study if they had been refractory to other medications as evaluated by BFMDRS (no change in the previous 2 successive visits. After zolpidem therapy, the scores in the patients as a whole were decreased from 7.2±7.9 to 5.5±5.0 (P=0.042. Patients with generalized dystonia, Meige syndrome/blepharospasm, and hand dystonia improved in the scale by 27.8%, 17.8% and 31.0%, respectively, whereas no improvement was found in cervical dystonia patients. Overall response rate among patients were comparable to that of trihexyphenidyl. Zolpidem may be a therapeutic option for generalized dystonia, Meige syndrome and hand dystonia including musician’s. Drowsiness was the dose-limiting factor.

  13. Efficacy of Zolpidem for Dystonia: A Study Among Different Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yoshimichi; Sako, Wataru; Asanuma, Kotaro; Izumi, Yuishin; Miki, Tetsuro; Kaji, Ryuji

    2012-01-01

    Although there are some newly developed options to treat dystonia, its medical treatment is not always satisfactory. Zolpidem, an imidazopyridine agonist with a high affinity on benzodiazepine subtype receptor BZ1 (ω1), was found to improve clinical symptoms of dystonia in a limited number of case reports. To investigate what subtype of dystonia is responsive to the therapy, we conducted an open label study to assess the efficacy of zolpidem (5–20 mg) in 34 patients suffering from miscellaneous types of dystonia using the Burke–Fahn–Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). Patients were entered into the study if they had been refractory to other medications as evaluated by BFMDRS (no change in the previous two successive visits). After zolpidem therapy, the scores in the patients as a whole were decreased from 7.2 ± 7.9 to 5.5 ± 5.0 (P = 0.042). Patients with generalized dystonia, Meige syndrome/blepharospasm, and hand dystonia improved in the scale by 27.8, 17.8, and 31.0%, respectively, whereas no improvement was found in cervical dystonia patients. Overall response rate among patients were comparable to that of trihexyphenidyl. Zolpidem may be a therapeutic option for generalized dystonia, Meige syndrome, and hand dystonia including musician’s. Drowsiness was the dose-limiting factor. PMID:22529836

  14. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M.

    2003-01-01

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated

  15. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M

    2003-05-01

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated.

  16. Significant Differences Characterise the Correlation Coefficients between Biocide and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggioni, Marco R; Coelho, Joana Rosado; Furi, Leonardo; Knight, Daniel R; Viti, Carlo; Orefici, Graziella; Martinez, Jose-Luis; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Coque, Teresa M; Morrissey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern by regulatory authorities for the selection of antibiotic resistance caused by the use of biocidal products. We aimed to complete the detailed information on large surveys by investigating the relationship between biocide and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of a large number of Staphylococcus aureus isolates using four biocides and antibiotics commonly used in clinical practice. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most clinically-relevant antibiotics was determined according to the standardized methodology for over 1600 clinical S. aureus isolates and compared to susceptibility profiles of benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. The relationship between antibiotic and biocide susceptibility profiles was evaluated using non-linear correlations. The main outcome evidenced was an absence of any strong or moderate statistically significant correlation when susceptibilities of either triclosan or sodium hypochlorite were compared for any of the tested antibiotics. On the other hand, correlation coefficients for MICs of benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine were calculated above 0.4 for susceptibility to quinolones, beta-lactams, and also macrolides. Our data do not support any selective pressure for association between biocides and antibiotics resistance and furthermore do not allow for a defined risk evaluation for some of the compounds. Importantly, our data clearly indicate that there does not involve any risk of selection for antibiotic resistance for the compounds triclosan and sodium hypochlorite. These data hence infer that biocide selection for antibiotic resistance has had so far a less significant impact than feared.

  17. Efficacy of glutathione mesotherapy in burns: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buz, A; Görgülü, T; Olgun, A; Kargi, E

    2016-12-01

    Thermal burns are the leading cause of trauma worldwide. Currently, no consensus on optimal treatment of deep partial-thickness (second-degree) burns has emerged, as reflected by the wide variability in available wound-care materials. The relative efficacies of products used for treatment of partial-thickness thermal burns remain unclear. Mesotherapy features intradermal administration of various agents, depending on burn location. In the present experimental study, we explored the efficacy of mesotherapy used to treat partial-thickness thermal burns in 50 male Wistar rats divided into five groups of equal number. No procedure was performed after infliction of thermal burns in control group (Group 1). Mesotherapy was applied with physiological saline in sham group (Group 2), glutathione, taurine, and L-carnitine were separately applied in Group 3, Group 4, and Group 5, respectively. Mesotherapeutic agents were injected intradermally into the reticular layer of the dermis using the point technique. The first course of mesotherapy was given within the first 2 h after infliction of thermal burns, and therapy was continued to day 10. On day 22, unhealed thermal burn areas were measured prior to sacrifice, and biopsies covering the total areas of burns were performed to allow of pathological evaluation. Group 3 (the glutathione group) showed the best extent of healing, followed by Group 4 (the taurine group) and Group 5 (the L-carnitine group). The healed thermal burn areas in these groups were significantly greater than those in the control and sham groups (P = 0.001). All of healing, acute and chronic inflammation, the amount of granulation tissue, the level of fibroblast maturation, the amount of collagen, the extent of re-epithelization and neovascularization, and ulcer depth were scored upon pathological examination of tissue cross-sections. The best outcomes were evident in the glutathione group, with statistical significance. Although wound healing in the L

  18. Study on the relationship between project management and organizational efficacy in nonprofit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao I-Chan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study treats the members in nonprofit organizations (NPOs as subjects, and explores the origination, planning, control, and completion of project management in NPOs, as well as the general performance of organizational efficacy, such as environmental satisfaction, organizational atmosphere, operational performance, job engagement, and work quality. It also probes into the relationship and effect. By various research methods, such as literature review and questionnaire survey, this study attempts to determine if project management in NPOs can significantly enhance organizational efficacy. This study finds that different NPOs have significant differences in the general performance of project management and organizational efficacy. When the performance of project management in NPOs is more significant, organizational efficacy is higher. Project management in NPOs has a significant path relationship to organizational efficacy; therefore, reinforcement of vocational training in the project management of NPOs could improve performance, which would have significant effect on enhancing organizational efficacy.

  19. Formulation of Biocides Increases Antimicrobial Potency and Mitigates the Enrichment of Nonsusceptible Bacteria in Multispecies Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sarah; Cowley, Nicola; Mistry, Hitesh; Amézquita, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current investigation aimed to generate data to inform the development of risk assessments of biocide usage. Stabilized domestic drain biofilm microcosms were exposed daily over 6 months to increasing concentrations (0.01% to 1%) of the biocide benzalkonium chloride (BAC) in a simple aqueous solution (BAC-s) or in a complex formulation (BAC-f) representative of a domestic cleaning agent. Biofilms were analyzed by culture, differentiating by bacterial functional group and by BAC or antibiotic susceptibility. Bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, and changes in biofilm composition were assessed by high-throughput sequencing. Exposure to BAC-f resulted in significantly larger reductions in levels of viable bacteria than exposure to BAC-s, while bacterial diversity greatly decreased during exposure to both BAC-s and BAC-f, as evidenced by sequencing and viable counts. Increases in the abundance of bacteria exhibiting reduced antibiotic or BAC susceptibility following exposure to BAC at 0.1% were significantly greater for BAC-s than BAC-f. Bacteria with reduced BAC and antibiotic susceptibility were generally suppressed by higher BAC concentrations, and formulation significantly enhanced this effect. Significant decreases in the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from the systems before and after long-term BAC exposure were not detected. In summary, dose-dependent suppression of bacterial viability by BAC was enhanced by formulation. Biocide exposure decreased bacterial diversity and transiently enriched populations of organisms with lower antimicrobial susceptibility, and the effects were subsequently suppressed by exposure to 1% BAC-f, the concentration most closely reflecting deployment in formulated products. IMPORTANCE Assessment of the risks of biocide use has been based mainly on the exposure of axenic cultures of bacteria to biocides in simple aqueous solutions. The current investigation aimed to assess the

  20. Alflutop clinical efficacy in vertebral osteochondrosis (12-mohth study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Hodyrev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study clinical efficacy of aiflutop (A in lumbar osteochondrosis (LO with chronic back pain syndrome. Material and Methods. 32 pts with LO were included. 14 from them (group 1 during a year received 2 courses of A intramuscular injections (I ml/day, 30 ml total and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs if necessary. 18 pts (group 2 received NSAIDs only. Clinical examination of pts was performed at the stert of the study, before and after each A course and in 3 months after the last course. Results. Pain in the spine at rest and forward bending significantly decreased in group 1 pts (p<0,05 after each A course. Full pain disappearance after the first A course was achieved in 7,1% and after the second course - in 35,7% of group I pts and was not shown in control group. Significant stepped decrease of Thomayer's test value (p<0,00l was also shown in group 1: 3,6 times decrease in comparison with baseline was achieved in 3 months after completion of treatment with A. During treatment period these pts showed 2-2,5 times increase of static and dynamic spine load (according to Vxdel chronic inability index. 42,9% of group I pts stopped NSAIDs after A treatment completion. Only 5,6% of control group pts stopped NSAIDs during follow up. A tolerability was good. It can be combined with any other medications the pts received due to comorbid diseases.

  1. Inhalational and dermal exposures during spray application of biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Boehncke, Andrea; Könnecker, Gustav; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Holthenrich, Dagmar; Koch, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Data on inhalational and potential dermal exposures during spray application of liquid biocidal products were generated. On the one hand, model experiments with different spraying devices using fluorescent tracers were carried out to investigate the influence of parameters relevant to the exposure (e.g. spraying equipment, nozzle size, direction of application). On the other hand, measurements were performed at selected workplaces (during disinfection operations in food and feed areas; pest control operations for private, public and veterinary hygiene; wood protection and antifouling applications) after application of biocidal products such as Empire 20, Responsar SC, Omexan-forte, Actellic, Perma-forte; Fendona SC, Pyrethrum mist; CBM 8, Aldekol Des 03, TAD CID, Basileum, Basilit. The measurements taken in the model rooms demonstrated dependence of the inhalation exposure on the type of spraying device used, in the following order: "spraying with low pressure" < "airless spraying" < "fogging" indicating that the particle diameter of the released spray droplets is the most important parameter. In addition inhalation exposure was lowest when the spraying direction was downward. Also for the potential dermal exposure, the spraying direction was of particular importance: overhead spraying caused the highest contamination of body surfaces. The data of inhalational and potential dermal exposures gained through workplace measurements showed considerable variation. During spraying procedures with low-pressure equipments, dose rates of active substances inhaled by the operators ranged from 7 to 230 microg active substance (a.s.)/h. An increase in inhaled dose rates (6-33 mg a.s./h) was observed after use of high application volumes/time unit during wood protection applications indoors. Spraying in the veterinary sector using medium-pressure sprayers led to inhaled dose rates between 2 and 24mga.s./h. The highest inhaled dose rates were measured during fogging (114 mg a

  2. Organotins and new antifouling biocides in water and sediments from three Korean Special Management Sea Areas following ten years of tributyltin regulation: Contamination profiles and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nguyen Hoang; Jeong, Hui-Ho; Kang, Su-Dong; Kim, Dae-Jin; Ju, Mi-Jo; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Cho, Hyeon-Seo

    2017-08-15

    A simultaneous monitoring study on organotins (butyltins and phenyltins) and most frequently used alternative antifouling biocides (Irgarol 1051, Diuron, Sea-Nine 211 and M1) in water and sediments (n=44) collected from three Special Management Sea Areas operated by Korean government. The lower concentration of butyltins (BTs) than that of new antifouling biocides (NEW) was found in water but the significant greater concentration of BTs than that of NEW was still found in sediments. The tributyltin (TBT) levels in water exceeded the chronic criterion to protect seawater aquatic life at several sites. Even ten years after the ban of the use of TBT-based antifouling paint, the concentrations of TBT, Diuron and Irgarol 1051 in sediments from shipyards exceeded global sediment quality guidelines and potentially poses adverse risks on marine organisms and extremely high concentration of TBT up to 2304ng/g was found for a sediment collected at a shipyard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biocide and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella isolates obtained before and after cleaning at six Danish pig slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantzhorn, Mette Rørbæk; Pedersen, Karl; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2014-01-01

    between susceptibilities to biocides and antibiotics, and to examine if cleaning and disinfection select isolates with changed susceptibility toward biocides or antibiotics.Salmonella sp. was isolated from the environment in Danish pig slaughterhouses before and after cleaning and disinfection....... The susceptibility toward three different biocides, triclosan and two commercial disinfection products: Desinfect Maxi, a quaternary ammonium compound, and Incimaxx DES, an acetic compound, was determined. We found no resistance toward the biocides tested, but we did find that isolates obtained after cleaning had...

  4. Loading and release mechanisms of a biocide in polystyrene-block-poly(acrylic acid) block copolymer micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2008-07-24

    The kinetics of loading of polystyrene197-block-poly(acrylic acid)47 (PS197-b-PAA47) micelles, suspended in water, with thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole biocide and its subsequent release were investigated. Loading of the micelles was found to be a two-step process. First, the surface of the PS core of the micelles is saturated with biocide, with a rate determined by the transfer of solid biocide to micelles during transient micelle-biocide contacts. Next, the biocide penetrates as a front into the micelles, lowering the Tg in the process (non-Fickian case II diffusion). The slow rate of release is governed by the height of the energy barrier that a biocide molecule must overcome to pass from PS into water, resulting in a uniform biocide concentration within the micelle, until Tg is increased to the point that diffusion inside the micelles becomes very slow. Maximum loading of biocide into micelles is approximately 30% (w/w) and is achieved in 1 h. From partition experiments, it can be concluded that the biocide has a similar preference for polystyrene as for ethylbenzene over water, implying that the maximum loading is governed by thermodynamics.

  5. THE STUDY THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Effective treatment of patients with infectious and inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes often involves the use of antimicrobial agents.The purpose of the study was an in vitro estimation of cytotoxicity and the efficiency of national resources for local use: gel with bacteriophages («Otofag», «Fagogin», «Fagoderm», «Fagodent» and antiseptic — «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin».Materials and Methods. To study the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents they used to provide crop strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes as one of the most common representatives of pathogens. The study of cell viability and cytotoxicity antimicrobials performed on cell lines KB — epidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity of a human. For this purpose we use mikrotetrazoly test, which is widely used in the assessment of the effects on the cells of toxins, pharmaceuticals, adverse environmental factors, allowing to evaluate the toxicity of investigational drugs in vitro.The results showed that the efficacy against pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, has even a 10‑fold dilution of «Сhlorhexidine» 0.05% and gels with bacteriophages. Antiseptic «Miramistin» is effective only on the initial concentration. The study of cytotoxicity showed that the processing of epidermoid carcinoma cells with «Chlorhexidine» and «Мiramistin» invokes the irreversible reactions, while the composition processing of gels based on bacteriophages not further affect cell viability.Conclusions The results of the experiment confirmed the significant toxicity of tools such as «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin» in proposed concentrations in the pharmacy network. Despite the high efficiency of these vehicles with regard to the studied pathogens, their long-term use in treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes can cause a slowing of repair processes. Gel means with bacteriophages

  6. An Empirical Study to Determine The Relationship between Occupational Self-Efficacy and Organizational Silence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem KAHYA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of occupational self-efficacy means the efficacy perceptions of employees in their occupational fields, and the concept of organizational silence means the employees avoid to voice their ideas and suggestions about organizational issues. The main aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the concepts of occupational self-efficacy and organizational silence by revealing employees’ perceptions of occupational self-efficacy and organizational silence level. With this aim, the survey study was conducted on total 114 academicians who work in University of Bayburt. As a result of research, while the significant relationship was found between employees’ perceptions of occupational self-efficacy and organizational silence level, there was reached a result that this relationship incurred the negatively relationship between perceptions of occupational self-efficacy and negative silence.

  7. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Zawane Kamarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ( C. moschata against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM , methanol ( MEOH and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using K irby- B auer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus ( 21 mm whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli ( 8 mm . MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa ( 19 mm . B roth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6 . 25 mg/m L . T he minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. T he minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3 . 12 mg/m L to 100 . 00 mg/m L . T he screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: P eel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  8. Study of the efficacy of carboxytherapy in alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doghaim, Noha Nabil; El-Tatawy, Rania Ahmed; Neinaa, Yomna Mazid El-Hamd; Abd El-Samd, Marwa Mohsen

    2018-02-20

    Management of alopecia areata (AA) and androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is often challenging. The use of carboxytherapy may be a novel therapeutic option for such cases. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of carboxytherapy in alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia. This study was conducted on 80 patients with alopecia divided into two groups; Group I included 40 AA patients (Group IA received carboxytherapy and Group IB control received placebo), and Group II included 40 AGA patients (Group IIA received carboxytherapy and Group IIB control received placebo), and followed up monthly for 3 months. They were evaluated clinically (by assessment of Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score in group I, and Sinclair scale and Norwood-Hamilton scale in group II), by dermoscopy and digital dermoscopy at each visit. Group IA patients showed significant clinical improvement in SALT score and dermoscopic improvement after carboxytherapy and at the end of follow-up period with significant reduction in dystrophic hair, black dots, yellow dots, and tapered hair coinciding with significant emergence of regrowing hair. Group IIA patients showed significant clinical and dermoscopic improvement after carboxytherapy with significant increase in hair density measured by digital dermoscopy. However, regression of these results was observed during the follow-up period but was still significantly better than before treatment. There were statistically significant improvements in clinical score, global assessments, dermoscopic, and digital dermoscopic findings in both group IA and group IIA received carboxytherapy in comparison with group IB and group IIB received placebo injections, respectively. Carboxytherapy seems to be a promising therapeutic option for patchy AA and could be helpful as an adjuvant therapy of AGA but more than 6 sessions are required and adjuvants are recommended for maintenance of the results. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Preliminary studies on the phytochemistry and efficacy of extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemistry of Spondias mombin bark, a known anti –tumour plant used traditionally, revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenolic compound and eugenol. The efficacy of the plant material tested on induced cancer in rats showed significant recovery using water extract treatment when compared with ...

  10. Environmentally friendly procedure based on VA-MSPD for the determination of booster biocides in fish tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Augusto A; Caldas, Sergiane S; Escarrone, Ana Laura Venquiaruti; Arias, Jean Lucas de Oliveira; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    Booster biocides have been widely applied to ships and other submerged structures. These compounds can be released into the marine environment as the result of vessel hull leaching and may remain in different environmental compartments. This study aimed at introducing an environmentally friendly procedure for the extraction of irgarol and diuron from fish samples by vortex-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion (VA-MSPD) with detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Different types of solid supports and solvents were evaluated. The best results were found when 0.5g mussel shell, 0.5g sodium sulfate and 5mL ethanol were used. Analytical recoveries ranged from 81 to 110%, with RSD below 10%, whereas the matrix effect was between -17 and 1% (for all samples under study). LOQ values of irgarol and diuron were 5 and 50ngg -1 , respectively. The method under investigation proved to be a promising alternative to controlling contamination of fish by booster biocides, with low consumption of biodegradable reagents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Emission Scenario Document for Biocides Emission scenarios for all 23 product types of the Biocidal Products Directive (EU Directive 98/8/EC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel P van der; Bakker J; CSR

    2002-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van de beschikbare emissiescenario's voor niet-landbouwbestrijdingsmiddelen voor alle 23 productgroepen uit de biocide richtlijn (EU Richtlijn 98/8/EC). Het betreft scenario's die reeds in USES 3.0 zijn opgenomen, alsmede scenario's die

  12. Emission Scenario Document for Biocides Emission scenarios for all 23 product types of the Biocidal Products Directive (EU Directive 98/8/EC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel P van der; Bakker J; CSR

    2002-01-01

    This report presents an overview of all available emission scenarios for all 23 product types of biocides according to EU Directive 98/8/EC. The scenarios presented are already present in USES 3.0 or have been reported by RIVM or within the scope of the project "Gathering, review and development of

  13. Teacher Perceptions of the Impact of Self-Efficacy on Classroom Management Style: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Patty Jo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to develop an understanding of how current and former middle school teachers in a suburban school district in northeast Georgia perceive low self-efficacy impacts their classroom management style. The theory guiding this study was Bandura's (1977) self-efficacy theory as it supported the idea that…

  14. 21 CFR 201.200 - Disclosure of drug efficacy study evaluations in labeling and advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... labeling and advertising. 201.200 Section 201.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Efficacy Study § 201.200 Disclosure of drug efficacy study evaluations in labeling and advertising. (a)(1... bringing to the attention of the prescribers of prescription items the conclusions of the expert panels...

  15. A Study on the Relationship between Teacher Self Efficacy and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Ahmet Cezmi; Bozgeyik, Yunus; Eser, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between teacher self efficacy and burnout. In order to collect the related data, "Maslach Burnout Inventory" and "Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale" were used. The sample of the study consisted of 163 randomly chosen teachers who worked in various primary and…

  16. The Effect of Teacher's Assistance on Malaysian Rural Learners' Writing Self-Efficacy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaluddin, Ilyana; Yunus, Melor Md.; Yamat, Hamidah

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore the Malaysian rural learners' self-efficacy in writing after assistance given by a teacher. The social cognitive theory and socio-cultural theory are used as the theoretical framework to pursue the discussion on the effects of teacher's assistance on learners' writing self-efficacy. A case study approach is…

  17. One-pot facile green synthesis of biocidal silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudrat Hazarika, Shabiha; Gupta, Kuldeep; Shamin, Khan Naseem Ahmed Mohammed; Bhardwaj, Pushpender; Boruah, Ratan; Yadav, Kamlesh K.; Naglot, Ashok; Deb, P.; Mandal, M.; Doley, Robin; Veer, Vijay; Baruah, Indra; Namsa, Nima D.

    2016-07-01

    The plant root extract mediated green synthesis method produces monodispersed spherical shape silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a size range of 15-30 nm as analyzed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. The material showed potent antibacterial and antifungal properties. Synthesized AgNPs display a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at 420 nm in UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray diffractometer analysis revealed the crystalline and face-centered cubic geometry of in situ prepared AgNPs. Agar well diffusion and a colony forming unit assay demonstrated the potent biocidal activity of AgNPs against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas diminuta and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Intriguingly, the phytosynthesized AgNPs exhibited activity against pathogenic fungi, namely Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus versicolor and Candida albicans. Scanning electron microscopy observations indicated morphological changes in the bacterial cells incubated with silver nanoparticles. The genomic DNA isolated from the bacteria was incubated with an increasing concentration of AgNPs and the replication fidelity of 16S rDNA was observed by performing 18 and 35 cycles PCR. The replication efficiency of small (600 bp) and large (1500 bp) DNA fragments in the presence of AgNPs were compromised in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that the Thalictrum foliolosum root extract mediated synthesis of AgNPs could be used as a promising antimicrobial agent against clinical pathogens.

  18. Searching for “Environmentally-Benign” Antifouling Biocides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ting Cui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the ecological impacts from the use of tributyltins (TBT in shipping, environmental legislation for the registration of chemicals for use in the environment has grown to a monumental challenge requiring product dossiers to include information on the environmental fate and behavior of any chemicals. Specifically, persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, collectively known as PBT, are properties of concern in the assessment of chemicals. However, existing measurements of PBT properties are a cumbersome and expensive process, and thus not applied in the early stages of the product discovery and development. Inexpensive methods for preliminary PBT screening would minimize risks arising with the subsequent registration of products. In this article, we evaluated the PBT properties of compounds reported to possess anti-fouling properties using QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship prediction programs such as BIOWIN™ (a biodegradation probability program, KOWWIN™ (log octanol-water partition coefficient calculation program and ECOSAR™ (Ecological Structure Activity Relationship Programme. The analyses identified some small (Mr < 400 synthetic and natural products as potential candidates for environmentally benign biocides. We aim to demonstrate that while these methods of estimation have limitations, when applied with discretion, they are powerful tools useful in the early stages of research for compound selection for further development as anti-foulants.

  19. In vitro activity of seven hospital biocides against Mycobacterium abscessus: Implications for patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Caskey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary infection has recently emerged as a significant pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF and is associated with significant morbidity and accelerated pulmonary decline. There is a paucity of data describing the activity of hospital biocides against this organism. Methods: M. abscessus isolates (n = 13 were recovered from CF and non-CF respiratory specimens. Seven commonly employed hospital biocides with generic ingredients as follows: acetone, propan-2-ol, diethylene glycol, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, chlorine dioxide, 4% chlorhexidine, alcohol, and disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide, 10% sodium hypochlorite were assayed for their biocidal activity against M. abscessus. Fresh cultures of M. abscessus were exposed to biocide in liquid medium as per manufacturers' instruction and were immediately plated following the completion of the contact period. The mean concentration of M. abscessus plated was 9.82 × 106 colony-forming units (range: 1.63 × 105–1.12 × 108. In addition, the remaining bacteria/biocide solution was enriched nonselectively in Mueller Hinton broth (37°C/1 week and then plated. Results: All M. abscessus isolates survived in alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, 5-chloro-2-methyl-2H-isothiazol-3-one (EC No. 247-500-7 and 2-methyl-2H-isothiazol-3-one, 4% Chlorhexidine™, O-phenylphenol and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate™ and disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide. One out of 13 M. abscessus cultures was killed by Chlorine Dioxide™ and one by Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate™, representing a 5-log kill. Two isolates were killed by Alcohol™ again representing a 5 log kill. Following enrichment, O-phenylphenol and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate™ showed the greatest biocidal activity with 11/13 isolates, whereas 2/13 cultures were killed by sodium dichloroisocyanurate™. All other biocide/culture combinations

  20. In vitro activity of seven hospital biocides against Mycobacterium abscessus: Implications for patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Steven; Moore, John E; Rendall, Jacqueline C

    2018-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary infection has recently emerged as a significant pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with significant morbidity and accelerated pulmonary decline. There is a paucity of data describing the activity of hospital biocides against this organism. M. abscessus isolates (n = 13) were recovered from CF and non-CF respiratory specimens. Seven commonly employed hospital biocides with generic ingredients as follows: acetone, propan-2-ol, diethylene glycol, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, chlorine dioxide, 4% chlorhexidine, alcohol, and disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide, 10% sodium hypochlorite were assayed for their biocidal activity against M. abscessus. Fresh cultures of M. abscessus were exposed to biocide in liquid medium as per manufacturers' instruction and were immediately plated following the completion of the contact period. The mean concentration of M. abscessus plated was 9.82 × 10 6 colony-forming units (range: 1.63 × 10 5 -1.12 × 10 8 ). In addition, the remaining bacteria/biocide solution was enriched nonselectively in Mueller Hinton broth (37°C/1 week) and then plated. All M. abscessus isolates survived in alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, 5-chloro-2-methyl-2H-isothiazol-3-one (EC No. 247-500-7) and 2-methyl-2H-isothiazol-3-one, 4% Chlorhexidine™, O-phenylphenol and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate™ and disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide. One out of 13 M. abscessus cultures was killed by Chlorine Dioxide™ and one by Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate™, representing a 5-log kill. Two isolates were killed by Alcohol™ again representing a 5 log kill. Following enrichment, O-phenylphenol and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate™ showed the greatest biocidal activity with 11/13 isolates, whereas 2/13 cultures were killed by sodium dichloroisocyanurate™. All other biocide/culture combinations yielded growth. These data indicate that M

  1. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Manzoli

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both.Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up.Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet.Adults (30-75 years were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers, users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers, or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers. Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence.Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily.We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit.Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%. All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35-8.02, whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall.Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate smoking cessation or reduction. If e-cigarette safety will be confirmed, however, the use of e

  2. Leaching of biocides used in façade coatings under laboratory test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoknecht, Ute; Gruycheva, Jana; Mathies, Helena; Bergmann, Hannelore; Burkhardt, Michael

    2009-12-15

    The European Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC requires a risk assessment concerning possible effects of active ingredients on the environment. Biocides can be leached from treated materials exposed to outdoor use. These emissions have to be estimated and evaluated during the authorization procedure. Different immersion and irrigation tests were performed to investigate leaching of biocides from façade coatings. Several marketed formulations of textured coatings and paints spiked with a mixture of commonly used active ingredients (OIT, DCOIT, IPBC, carbendazim, isoproturon, diuron, terbutryn, and Irgarol 1051) were investigated. The emission process can be described by time-dependent functions that depend on the test conditions. The results of all test procedures confirm that leachability is related to water solubility and n-octanol-water partition coefficient of the active ingredients and that leaching of biocides from façade coatings is mainly a diffusion controlled process. Other factors like the composition of the product, availability and transport of water, concentration of active ingredients in the coatings, as well as UV-exposure of the coatings influence biocide emissions.

  3. Sustained antimicrobial activity and reduced toxicity of oxidative biocides through biodegradable microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofokleous, Panagiotis; Ali, Shanom; Wilson, Peter; Buanz, Asma; Gaisford, Simon; Mistry, Dharmit; Fellows, Adrian; Day, Richard M

    2017-12-01

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments. Small molecule precursor compounds that produce oxidative biocides with well-established antimicrobial properties could provide a range of new therapeutic products to combat resistant infections. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel biomaterials-based approach for the manufacture, targeted delivery and controlled release of a peroxygen donor (sodium percarbonate) combined with an acetyl donor (tetraacetylethylenediamine) to deliver local antimicrobial activity via a dynamic equilibrium mixture of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid. Entrapment of the pre-cursor compounds into hierarchically structured degradable microparticles was achieved using an innovative dry manufacturing process involving thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) that circumvented compound decomposition associated with conventional microparticle manufacture. The microparticles provided controlled release of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid that led to rapid and sustained killing of multiple drug-resistant organisms (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli) without associated cytotoxicity in vitro nor intracutaneous reactivity in vivo. The results from this study demonstrate for the first time that microparticles loaded with acetyl and peroxygen donors retain their antimicrobial activity whilst eliciting no host toxicity. In doing so, it overcomes the detrimental effects that have prevented oxidative biocides from being used as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. The manuscript explores a novel approach to utilize the antimicrobial activity of oxidative species for sustained killing of multiple drug-resistant organisms without causing collateral tissue damage. The results demonstrate, for the first time, the ability to load pre-cursor compounds into porous polymeric structures that results in their release and conversion into oxidative species in a

  4. Loss and gain cycles? A longitudinal study about burnout, engagement and self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Llorens-Gumbau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present longitudinal study (two waves, conducted on a population of 274 secondary-school teachers, expands on previous research on burnout and work engagement. Accordingly, the effect of organizational factors (obstacles, facilitators as well as personal resources (self-efficacy on burnout and engagement is tested longitudinally following the Social Cognitive Theory. More specifically, we test the loss and gain cycles, and reciprocal relationships concerning burnout, engagement, and self-efficacy over time. Four questions are addressed: (1 Are obstacles positively related to burnout and work self-efficacy over time? (2 Are facilitators positively related to engagement and self-efficacy over time? (3 Is work self-efficacy negatively related to burnout and obstacles over time? and (4 Is work self-efficacy positively related to engagement and facilitators over time? The results of a hard-copy survey carried out at two waves (8 months between the two times, which were computed on Structural Equation Modeling show that obstacles are positively related to burnout, which in turn is positively related to self-efficacy over time. Likewise, facilitators are positively related to engagement and self-efficacy, which in turn is positively related to facilitators over time. These findings suggest a positive gain cycle in which self-efficacy plays a central role.

  5. Developing Teaching Self-Efficacy in Research Institutions: A Study of Award-Winning Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David B.; Usher, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sources of award-wining research professors' (six women; six men) teaching self-efficacy through the framework of Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Semi-structured interviews revealed that mastery experiences and social persuasions were particularly influential sources of self-efficacy and that…

  6. Mindfulness predicts student nurses' communication self-efficacy: A cross-national comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundling, Vibeke; Sundler, Annelie J; Holmström, Inger K; Kristensen, Dorte Vesterager; Eide, Hilde

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare student nurses' communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness across two countries, and to analyse the relationship between these qualities. The study had a cross-sectional design. Data was collected from final year student nurses in Norway and Sweden. Communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness were reported by questionnaires; Clear-cut communication with patients, Jefferson Scale of Empathy, and Langer 14 items mindfulness scale. The study included 156 student nurses, 94 (60%) were Swedish. The mean communication self-efficacy score was 119 (95% CI 116-122), empathy score 115 (95% CI 113-117) and mindfulness score 79 (95% CI 78-81). A Mann-Whitney test showed that Swedish students scored significantly higher on communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness than Norwegian students did. When adjusted for age, gender, and country in a multiple linear regression, mindfulness was the only independent predictor of communication self-efficacy. The Swedish student nurses in this study scored higher on communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness than Norwegian students did. Student nurses scoring high on mindfulness rated their communication self-efficacy higher. A mindful learning approach may improve communication self-efficacy and possibly the effect of communication skills training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Longitudinal Study on Mathematics Teaching Efficacy: Which Factors (Un)Support the Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiksal-Bostan, Mine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine prospective teachers' mathematics teaching efficacy belief during their enrollment in teacher education program and at the end of their first year of teaching. In addition, the factors that enhance or inhibit participants' efficacy belief and how these factors affect their mathematics teaching…

  8. Developing Self-Efficacy through a Massive Open Online Course on Study Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla Rodriguez, Brenda Cecilia; Armellini, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a strong predictor of academic performance, and an area of interest for higher education institutions. This paper reports on a massive open online course (MOOC) on study skills, aimed at increasing self-efficacy. Participants (n = 32) were from Mexico and Colombia, with ages ranging from 21 to 45 years. At the beginning and the…

  9. Organizational Structure, Collegial Trust, and College Faculty Teaching Efficacy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpogba, Desmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to explore the relationship between faculty self-efficacy, organizational structure, and collegial trust. The concepts of teacher self-efficacy, organizational structure, and collegial trust were used to investigate any possible empirical relationships existing between these variables in a private,…

  10. The interplay between motivation, self-efficacy, and approaches to studying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat-Sala, Mercè; Redford, Paul

    2010-06-01

    The strategies students adopt in their study are influenced by a number of social-cognitive factors and impact upon their academic performance. The present study examined the interrelationships between motivation orientation (intrinsic and extrinsic), self-efficacy (in reading academic texts and essay writing), and approaches to studying (deep, strategic, and surface). The study also examined changes in approaches to studying over time. A total of 163 first-year undergraduate students in psychology at a UK university took part in the study. Participants completed the Work Preference Inventory motivation questionnaire, self-efficacy in reading and writing questionnaires and the short version of the Revised Approaches to Study Inventory. The results showed that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation orientations were correlated with approaches to studying. The results also showed that students classified as high in self-efficacy (reading and writing) were more likely to adopt a deep or strategic approach to studying, while students classified as low in self-efficacy (reading and writing) were more likely to adopt a surface approach. More importantly, changes in students' approaches to studying over time were related to their self-efficacy beliefs, where students with low levels of self-efficacy decreased in their deep approach and increased their surface approach across time. Students with high levels of self-efficacy (both reading and writing) demonstrated no such change in approaches to studying. Our results demonstrate the important role of self-efficacy in understanding both motivation and learning approaches in undergraduate students. Furthermore, given that reading academic text and writing essays are essential aspects of many undergraduate degrees, our results provide some indication that focusing on self-efficacy beliefs amongst students may be beneficial to improving their approaches to study.

  11. Genomic and transcriptomic insights into how bacteria withstand high concentrations of benzalkonium chloride biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjae; Hatt, Janet K; Weigand, Michael R; Krishnan, Raj; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2018-04-13

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are commonly used biocides in broad-spectrum disinfectant solutions. How microorganisms cope with BAC exposure remains poorly understood, despite its importance for disinfection and disinfectant-induced antibiotic resistance. To provide insights into these issues, we exposed two isolates of an opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , to increasing concentrations of BAC. One isolate was pre-adapted to BAC as it originated from a bioreactor fed with sub-inhibitory concentrations of BAC for 3 years, while the other originated from a bioreactor that received no BAC. Replicated populations of both isolates were able to survive high concentrations of BAC, up to 1200 and 1600mg/L for the non- and pre-adapted ones, respectively, exceeding typical application doses. RNA-seq analysis revealed up-regulation of efflux pump genes and decreased expression of porins related to BAC transport as well as reduced growth rate. Increased expression of spermidine (a polycation) synthase genes and mutations in the pmrB (polymyxin resistance) gene, which cause a reduction in membrane negative charge, suggested that a major adaptation to exposure to the cationic surfactant BAC was to actively stabilize cell surface charge. Collectively, these results revealed that P. aeruginosa adapts to BAC exposure by a combination of mechanisms, and provided genetic markers to monitor BAC-resistant organisms that may have applications in the practice of disinfection. Importance Benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are widely used as biocides in disinfectant solutions, food processing lines, domestic households, and healthcare facilities. Due to their wide use and mode of action, there has been rising concern that BAC may promote antibiotic resistance. Consistently, at least 40 outbreaks have been attributed to infection by disinfectant- and antibiotic-resistant pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that bacteria deal with BAC

  12. Analysis of metal and biocides resistance genes in drug resistance and susceptible Salmonella enterica from food animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Generally drug resistant bacteria carry antibiotic resistance genes and heavy metal and biocide resistance genes on large conjugative plasmids. The presence of these metal and biocide resistance genes in susceptible bacteria are not assessed comprehensively. Hence, WGS data of susceptib...

  13. Human exposure assessment for biocides in the EU development of step by step guidance and worked examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen-Ebben, R.M.G.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Directive 98/8/EC(1) concerns EU harmonisation of placing biocidal products on the market. In the present short paper the preliminary results of an ongoing project are presented in which step by step guidance on human exposure assessment with worked examples is developed. For all 23 biocidal product

  14. Effects of single and repeated exposure to biocidal active substances on the barrier function of the skin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Heer, C. de

    2005-01-01

    The dermal route of exposure is important in worker exposure to biocidal products. Many biocidal active substances which are used on a daily basis may decrease the barrier function of the skin to a larger extent than current risk assessment practice addresses, due to possible skin effects of

  15. Preliminary studies of adaptation of Self- efficacy Scale for Sources of Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Flores, Celia María

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of educational psychologically the construct of self-efficacy has received special attention. It has been shown that those students who trust in their own abilities get better academic performance. However, few studies analyze the sources of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy believes are developed according to how people interpret information coming from four different sources: experience skills, vicarious learning, social persuasion, and physiological states. Recently, Usher & Pajares (2009 developed an instrument to assess sources of self-efficacy in Math. The goal of the present work was to evaluate psychometric properties of this scale in a local sample of adolescents from 13 to 15 years old. Preliminary results supported the use of this measure as an adequate alternative to assess self-efficacy in Math. However, more studies are needed in order to obtain a measure more contextualized to the educational system of local students.

  16. Gender fairness in self-efficacy? A Rasch-based validity study of the General Academic Self-efficacy scale (GASE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Vang, Maria Louison; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Studies have reported gender differences in academic self-efficacy. However, how and if academic self-efficacy questionnaires are gender-biased has not been psychometrically investigated. The psychometric properties of a general version of The Physics Self-Efficacy Questionnaire – the General...... Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (GASE) – were analyzed using Rasch measurement models, with data from 1018 Danish university students (psychology and technical), focusing on gender invariance and the sufficiency of the score. The short 4-item GASE scale was found to be essentially objective and construct...... valid and satisfactorily reliable, though differential item functioning was found relative to gender and academic discipline, and can be used to assess students’ general academic self-efficacy. Research on gender and self-efficacy needs to take gender into account and equate scores appropriately...

  17. Impact of feed spacer and membrane modification by hydrophilic, bactericidal and biocidal coating on biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Araújo, Paula A.

    2012-06-01

    The influence of polydopamine- and polydopamine-. graft-poly(ethylene glycol)-coated feed spacers and membranes, copper-coated feed spacers, and commercially-available biostatic feed spacers on biofouling has been studied in membrane fouling simulators. Feed spacers and membranes applied in practical membrane filtration systems were used; biofouling development was monitored by feed channel pressure drop increase and biomass accumulation. Polydopamine and polydopamine-. g-PEG are hydrophilic surface modification agents expected to resist protein and bacterial adhesion, while copper feed spacer coatings and biocides infused in feed spacers are expected to restrict biological growth. Our studies showed that polydopamine and polydopamine-. g-PEG coatings on feed spacers and membranes, copper coatings on feed spacers, and a commercial biostatic feed spacer did not have a significant impact on feed channel pressure drop increase and biofilm accumulation as measured by ATP and TOC content. The studied spacer and membrane modifications were not effective for biofouling control; it is doubtful that feed spacer and membrane modification, in general, may be effective for biofouling control regardless of the type of applied coating. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Leading by Example: A Case Study of the Influence of Principal Self-Efficacy on Collective Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versland, Tena M.; Erickson, Joanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a perceived judgment that one has the ability to execute a course of action that brings about a desired result. Principal self-efficacy describes a set of beliefs that enable a principal to enact policies and procedures that promote the effectiveness of a school. Principal self-efficacy beliefs are also important because they…

  19. Prior Self-Efficacy Interacts with Experiential Valence to Influence Self-Efficacy among Engineering Students: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yevvon Yi-Chi; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Self-efficacy toward science learning has been shown to play a crucial role in determining students' motivation and achievements. Social cognitive theory proposes that positive and negative task outcomes affect mastery experiences from which self-efficacy develops. The current research examined whether prior level of self-efficacy would serve as a…

  20. Use of bromine as biocide in cooling waters (Preprint No. CA-19)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriraman, A K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Water Chemistry Div.

    1989-04-01

    In all fresh water circuits, the slime forming bacteria develop an insulating layer on the condenser surfaces. If these bacteria are not controlled, they induce bacterial promoted corrosion of the materials in contact with cooling water. Chlorination is effective against slime forming bacteria, fungi and algae. The algistatic nature of the chlorine is partly compensated by the use of other non-oxidisable biocides. Amongst the various alternative biocides such as bromine, methyl bis-isocyanate, sodium pentachlorophenate etc, bromine is the most simple biocide, which is being increasingly used in cooling water systems. In this context, the chemistry of bromination and its bactericidal properties is examined along with those of chlorination. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Development of a concept for the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products for authorization purposes. (BIOEXPO) Part 1: Framework and data requirements for environmental compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, H.P. van; Scholten, M.C.T.; Bakker, D.J.; Jak, R.G.; Bowmer, C.T.

    1998-01-01

    The BIOEXPO project is focussed on test data, required for the authorization of biocidal products. The draft EC Biocidal Products Directive distinguishes between a common core data set (Annex II) and an additional data set, with specific data requirements for biocidal product types (Annex III). The

  2. The impact of subacute whiplash-associated disorders on functional self-efficacy: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunketorp-Käll, Lina Sofia; Andersson, Caroline; Asker, Barbita

    2007-09-01

    Self-efficacy is increasingly being recognized as an important factor to consider in medical research, especially in different pain conditions such as whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). When pain is not effectively treated or relieved, it may negatively affect patients' life situation and cause a decline in perceived self-efficacy. Knowledge of what level of self-efficacy can be considered an actual deficit in patients with WAD is, however, sparse. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether subacute WAD has an impact on self-efficacy beliefs. A cohort study was designed to identify the impact of WAD on self-efficacy beliefs. The exposed group consisted of 47 patients with subacute WAD following a whiplash trauma. The control group representing the general population consisted of 212 participants, and was randomly selected to match the distribution of age and sex in the exposed group. The Self-Efficacy Scale was used to assess the individuals' confidence in their ability to successfully carry out activities of daily living. In the exposed group, 47 responded (100%), and in the control group, 113 (53%) responded. The results show that the total scores on the Self-Efficacy Scale were significantly lower in the exposed group compared with the control group, concerning both the mean (P<0.001) and median (P<0.001) scores. In conclusion, patients with subacute WAD experience a decline in functional self-efficacy, which stresses the importance of incorporating these beliefs in clinical practice and research.

  3. Quantitative comparison of the results obtained by the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay for various biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Noda, Tsutomu

    2005-07-01

    We compared the results of the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay (LLNA) for various biocides. Thirteen out of 17 positive biocides in the GPMT gave positive results in the LLNA. In the GPMT, the minimum first induction doses ranged over four orders (0.00005-0.5%), while elicitation-threshold doses, which were evaluated using an optimally sensitized group of animals in the multiple-dose studies, ranged over five orders (0.00006-2.8%). In the LLNA, minimum induction doses ranged over more than three orders (0.01-30%). With respect to 13 biocides that were positive in both the GPMT and the LLNA, results were quantitatively compared. When compared after conversion to corresponding area doses (microg/cm), the minimum doses required to elicit skin reaction in guinea pigs were always lower than that for induction in mice with all biocides. Correlation between minimum induction doses from the GPMT and the LLNA seemed poor (r=0.57), while that between minimum induction doses in the LLNA and elicitation-threshold doses in the GPMT was relatively good (r=0.73). The results suggest the possibility to estimate human elicitation-threshold doses, which are definitely lacking in the process of risk assessment for skin-sensitizers, from the data of the LLNA.

  4. Quantitative comparison of the results obtained by the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay for various biocides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Noda, Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    We compared the results of the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay (LLNA) for various biocides. Thirteen out of 17 positive biocides in the GPMT gave positive results in the LLNA. In the GPMT, the minimum first induction doses ranged over four orders (0.00005-0.5%), while elicitation-threshold doses, which were evaluated using an optimally sensitized group of animals in the multiple-dose studies, ranged over five orders (0.00006-2.8%). In the LLNA, minimum induction doses ranged over more than three orders (0.01-30%). With respect to 13 biocides that were positive in both the GPMT and the LLNA, results were quantitatively compared. When compared after conversion to corresponding area doses (μg/cm), the minimum doses required to elicit skin reaction in guinea pigs were always lower than that for induction in mice with all biocides. Correlation between minimum induction doses from the GPMT and the LLNA seemed poor (r = 0.57), while that between minimum induction doses in the LLNA and elicitation-threshold doses in the GPMT was relatively good (r = 0.73). The results suggest the possibility to estimate human elicitation-threshold doses, which are definitely lacking in the process of risk assessment for skin-sensitizers, from the data of the LLNA

  5. Effects of antifouling biocides to the germination and growth of the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Jackie H. [School of Ecology and Environment, Deakin University, P.O. Box 423, Warrnambool, Victoria 3280 (Australia) and Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia) and School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)]. E-mail jhmyers@deakin.edu.au; Gunthorpe, Leanne [Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia)]. E-mail Leanne.Gunthorpe@dpi.vic.gov.au; Allinson, Graeme [School of Ecology and Environment, Deakin University, P.O. Box 423, Warrnambool, Victoria 3280 (Australia)]. E-mail graemea@deakin.edu.au; Duda, Susan [Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia)]. E-mail Susan.Duda@dpi.vic.gov.au

    2006-09-15

    The International Maritime Organisation's (IMO) ban on the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has inevitability increased the use of old fashioned antifoulants and/or the development of new paints containing 'booster biocides'. These newer paints are intended to be environmentally less harmful, however the broader environmental effects of these 'booster biocides' are poorly known. Germination and growth inhibition tests using the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of four new antifouling biocides in relation to tributyltin-oxide (TBTO). Each of the biocides significantly inhibited germination and growth of Hormosira banksii spores. Toxicity was in increasing order: diuron < zineb < seanine 211 < zinc pyrithione < TBTO. However, the lack of knowledge on partitioning in the environment makes it difficult to make a full assessment on whether the four biocides tested offer an advantage over organotin paints in terms of environmental impact.

  6. Effects of antifouling biocides to the germination and growth of the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Jackie H. . E-mail jhmyers@deakin.edu.au; Gunthorpe, Leanne . E-mail Leanne.Gunthorpe@dpi.vic.gov.au; Allinson, Graeme . E-mail graemea@deakin.edu.au; Duda, Susan . E-mail Susan.Duda@dpi.vic.gov.au

    2006-01-01

    The International Maritime Organisation's (IMO) ban on the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has inevitability increased the use of old fashioned antifoulants and/or the development of new paints containing 'booster biocides'. These newer paints are intended to be environmentally less harmful, however the broader environmental effects of these 'booster biocides' are poorly known. Germination and growth inhibition tests using the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of four new antifouling biocides in relation to tributyltin-oxide (TBTO). Each of the biocides significantly inhibited germination and growth of Hormosira banksii spores. Toxicity was in increasing order: diuron < zineb < seanine 211 < zinc pyrithione < TBTO. However, the lack of knowledge on partitioning in the environment makes it difficult to make a full assessment on whether the four biocides tested offer an advantage over organotin paints in terms of environmental impact

  7. Control of Microbial Sulfide Production with Biocides and Nitrate in Oil Reservoir Simulating Bioreactors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eXue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil reservoir souring by the microbial reduction of sulfate to sulfide is unwanted, because it enhances corrosion of metal infrastructure used for oil production and processing. Reservoir souring can be prevented or remediated by the injection of nitrate or biocides, although injection of biocides into reservoirs is not commonly done. Whether combined application of these agents may give synergistic reservoir souring control is unknown. In order to address this we have used up-flow sand-packed bioreactors injected with 2 mM sulfate and volatile fatty acids (VFA, 3 mM each of acetate, propionate and butyrate at a flow rate of 3 or 6 pore volumes per day. Pulsed injection of the biocides glutaraldehyde (Glut, benzalkonium chloride (BAC and cocodiamine was used to control souring. Souring control was determined as the recovery time (RT needed to re-establish an aqueous sulfide concentration of 0.8-1 mM (of the 1.7-2 mM before the pulse. Pulses were either for a long time (120 h at low concentration (long-low or for a short time (1 h at high concentration (short-high. The short-high strategy gave better souring control with Glut, whereas the long-low strategy was better with cocodiamine. Continuous injection of 2 mM nitrate alone was not effective, because 3 mM VFA can fully reduce both 2 mM nitrate to nitrite and N2 and, subsequently, 2 mM sulfate to sulfide. No synergy was observed for short-high pulsed biocides and continuously injected nitrate. However, use of continuous nitrate and long-low pulsed biocide gave synergistic souring control with BAC and Glut, as indicated by increased RTs in the presence, as compared to the absence of nitrate. Increased production of nitrite, which increases the effectiveness of souring control by biocides, is the most likely cause for this synergy.

  8. Mechanical performance of a biocompatible biocide soda-lime glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Esteban, S; Bartolomé, J F; Dí Az, L A; Esteban-Tejeda, L; Prado, C; López-Piriz, R; Torrecillas, R; Moya, J S

    2014-06-01

    A biocompatible soda-lime glass-ceramic in the SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO-B2O3 system containing combeite and nepheline as crystalline phases, has been obtained at 750°C by two different routes: (i) pressureless sintering and (ii) Spark Plasma Sintering. The SPS glass-ceramic showed a bending strength, Weibull modulus, and toughness similar values to the cortical human bone. This material had a fatigue limit slightly superior to cortical bone and at least two times higher than commercial dental glass-ceramics and dentine. The in vitro studies indicate that soda-lime glass-ceramic is fully biocompatible. The in vivo studies in beagle jaws showed that implanted SPS rods presented no inflammatory changes in soft tissues surrounding implants in any of the 10 different cases after four months implantation. The radiological analysis indicates no signs of osseointegration lack around implants. Moreover, the biocide activity of SPS glass-ceramic versus Escherichia coli, was found to be >4log indicating that it prevents implant infections. Because of this, the SPS new glass-ceramic is particularly promising for dental applications (inlay, crowns, etc). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antifouling paint booster biocides (Irgarol 1051 and diuron) in marinas and ports of Bushehr, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Abolfazl; Molaei, Saeideh; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Abedi, Ehsan

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, antifouling paint booster biocides, Irgarol 1051 and diuron were measured in ports and marinas of Bushehr, Iran. Results showed that in seawater samples taken from ports and marinas, Irgarol was found at the range of less than LOD to 63.4ngL(-1) and diuron was found to be at the range of less than LOD to 29.1ngL(-1) (in Jalali marina). 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), as a degradation product of diuron, was also analyzed and its maximum concentration was 390ngL(-1). Results for analysis of Irgarol 1051 in sediments showed a maximum concentration of 35.4ngg(-1) dry weight in Bandargah marina. A comparison between the results of this study and those of other published works showed that Irgarol and diuron pollutions in ports and marinas of Bushehr located in the Persian Gulf were less than the average of reports from other parts of the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Shared Relationship Efficacy of Dyad Can Increase Life Satisfaction in Close Relationships: Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenichi; Yoshida, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of relationship itself play an important role in determining well-being of individuals who participate in the relationship. We used efficacy expectations mutually shared between close friends or romantic partners as a characteristic of relationship and investigated its impact on their life satisfaction. In Study 1, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 137 pairs of close same-sex friends to test whether the efficacy expectations shared between friends are associated with levels of life satisfaction. In Study 2, we conducted a longitudinal study among 114 heterosexual romantic couples to test predictive validity of the efficacy expectations shared between couples predict levels of life satisfaction 2 month later. In both studies we found a consistent result that as degrees of the efficacy expectations shared between individuals in a relationship increased, the degree of their life satisfaction also increased. Underlying mechanisms that explain how characteristics of relationship itself increase life satisfaction are discussed. PMID:27437946

  11. A study of self-efficacy in job-related context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Frlec

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The article stems from an attempt to transfer the Bandura's social cognitive theory into organisational praxis. Beliefs of self-efficacy, which is defined as people's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances, are constructed from 4 principal sources of information: enactive mastery experiences; vicarious experiences that alter efficacy beliefs through transmission of competencies and comparison with the attainment of others; verbal persuasion and allied types of social influences that one possesses certain capabilities; and physiological and affective states from which people partly judge their capableness, strength, and vulnerability to dysfunction. The study of self-efficacy in job-related context involved 295 employees from 3companies belonging to the same business group. Self-efficacy was assed using Schwarzer's scale, while rating scales were used for assessing the 4 principal sources of influence upon it. First, differences between companies regarding demographic characteristics of the employees, job characteristics and self-efficacy were analyzed. Dependence of employee's self-efficacy on his/her age, gender, education, work experience, employment status, job type and the four principal influence sources was tested using a regression model. Finally, we identified typical employee profiles with respect to the studied factors. We hope that our study will help human-resources specialists design appropriate interventions for developing a resilient sense of self-efficacy in the employees.

  12. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Prashanth, Vishwakarma K.; Mali, Gaurao Vasant

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. Materials and Methods: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical i...

  13. General self-efficacy and posttraumatic stress after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Egil; Hussain, Ajmal; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond

    2016-04-06

    Self-efficacy may be an important factor in individuals' recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions after a natural disaster. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated whether self-efficacy predicts the course of posttraumatic recovery beyond lower initial levels of distress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether general self-efficacy is related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions from a longitudinal perspective. A total of 617 Norwegians exposed to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami completed self-report questionnaires measuring their level of disaster exposure and general self-efficacy at 6 months and posttraumatic stress reactions 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Predictors of changes in posttraumatic stress reactions were analyzed with multivariate mixed effects models. Self-efficacy at 6 months post-disaster was unrelated to trauma exposure and inversely related to posttraumatic stress reactions at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. However, self-efficacy was not related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions between 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. In conclusion, general self-efficacy is related to lower levels of posttraumatic stress reactions in the first months after a disaster but does not appear to be related to improved recovery rates over the longer term.

  14. A multilevel study on the relationships between work characteristics, self-efficacy, collective efficacy, and organizational citizenship behavior: the case of Taiwanese police duty-executing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hsi Vivian; Kao, Rui-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Public security, traffic management, and service for the people are the 3 major functions of policing in Taiwan. This definition encompasses not only the traditional job characteristics, but also the level of contextual characteristics and social characteristics because of police work's characteristics and its frequent interaction with the public. Thus, the present study conducted a multilevel model analysis by taking self-efficacy and collective efficacy as the mediating variables. The purpose was to investigate the influences of motivational work characteristics (knowledge-oriented) and social work characteristics (socially and contextually oriented) of work-design model on the police officers' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), by using first-line police officers in Taiwan as the research objects. The study showed not only that knowledge characteristics will influence the self-efficacy of a police officer and that self-efficacy can in turn influence individual police officers' OCB, but also the contextual effect of social characteristics, contextual characteristics, and collective efficacy on self-efficacy and individuals' OCB. Additionally, there was a crosslevel moderating effect from contextual characteristics on the relationship between knowledge characteristics and self-efficacy and the relationship between self-efficacy and the individuals' OCB. The authors conclude the article with research implications.

  15. Risk assessment of herbicides and booster biocides along estuarine continuums in the Bay of Vilaine area (Brittany, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caquet, Th; Roucaute, M; Mazzella, N; Delmas, F; Madigou, C; Farcy, E; Burgeot, Th; Allenou, J-P; Gabellec, R

    2013-02-01

    A 2-year study was implemented to characterize the contamination of estuarine continuums in the Bay of Vilaine area (NW Atlantic Coast, Southern Brittany, France) by 30 pesticide and biocide active substances and metabolites. Among these, 11 triazines (ametryn, atrazine, desethylatrazine, desethylterbuthylazine, desisopropyl atrazine, Irgarol 1051, prometryn, propazine, simazine, terbuthylazine, and terbutryn), 10 phenylureas (chlortoluron, diuron, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea, fenuron, isoproturon, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, linuron, metoxuron, and monuron), and 4 chloroacetanilides (acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and metazachlor) were detected at least once. The objectives were to assess the corresponding risk for aquatic primary producers and to provide exposure information for connected studies on the responses of biological parameters in invertebrate sentinel species. The risk associated with contaminants was assessed using risk quotients based on the comparison of measured concentrations with original species sensitivity distribution-derived hazardous concentration values. For EU Water Framework Directive priority substances, results of monitoring were also compared with regulatory Environmental Quality Standards. The highest residue concentrations and risks for primary producers were recorded for diuron and Irgarol 1051 in Arzal reservoir, close to a marina. Diuron was present during almost the all survey periods, whereas Irgarol 1051 exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with highest concentrations recorded in June and July. These results suggest that the use of antifouling biocides is responsible for a major part of the contamination of the lower part of the Vilaine River course for Irgarol 1051. For diuron, agricultural sources may also be involved. The presence of isoproturon and chloroacetanilide herbicides on some dates indicated a significant contribution of the use of plant protection products in

  16. Environmental risk assessment of biocidal products: identification of relevant components and reliability of a component-based mixture assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Vollmar, Pia; Heim, Jennifer; Sacher, Frank; Kehrer, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Biocidal products are mixtures of one or more active substances (a.s.) and a broad range of formulation additives. There is regulatory guidance currently under development that will specify how the combined effects of the a.s. and any relevant formulation additives shall be considered in the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products. The default option is a component-based approach (CBA) by which the toxicity of the product is predicted from the toxicity of 'relevant' components using concentration addition. Hence, unequivocal and practicable criteria are required for identifying the 'relevant' components to ensure protectiveness of the CBA, while avoiding unnecessary workload resulting from including by default components that do not significantly contribute to the product toxicity. The present study evaluated a set of different criteria for identifying 'relevant' components using confidential information on the composition of 21 wood preservative products. Theoretical approaches were complemented by experimentally testing the aquatic toxicity of seven selected products. For three of the seven tested products, the toxicity was underestimated for the most sensitive endpoint (green algae) by more than factor 2 if only the a.s. were considered in the CBA. This illustrated the necessity of including at least some additives along with the a.s. Considering additives that were deemed 'relevant' by the tentatively established criteria reduced the underestimation of toxicity for two of the three products. A lack of data for one specific additive was identified as the most likely reason for the remaining toxicity underestimation of the third product. In three other products, toxicity was overestimated by more than factor 2, while prediction and observation fitted well for the seventh product. Considering all additives in the prediction increased only the degree of overestimation. Supported by theoretical calculations and experimental verifications, the present

  17. An Exploratory Study into the Efficacy of Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Farha, Ph.D.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning objects have quickly become a widely accepted approach to instructional technology, particularly in on-line and computer-based learning environments. While there is a substantial body of literature concerning learning objects, very little of it verifies their efficacy. This research investigated the effectiveness of learning objects by comparing learning outcomes using a learning object with outcomes using a traditional textbook-based method of instruction. Participants were 327 undergraduate college students at a traditional public four-year coed institution, a private four-year women’s college, a private four-year engineering institution, and a public two-year community college. Through a series of independent samples t-tests and Analyses of Variance, results revealed mean scores for the learning object group that were nearly three times higher than the mean scores for the textbook-taught group. Gaming experience, age, gender, and learner preference were evaluated for their potential influence on the results; no statistically significant differences were found, implying that the learning object itself was central to the outcomes achieved. The future of learning objects is bright, and more empirical research is called for in the area of learning object effectiveness.

  18. A passive apparatus for controlled-flux delivery of biocides: hydrogen peroxide as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stefan Møller; Pedersen, L.T.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    A new test method has been developed to estimate the required release rate of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to prevent marine biofouling. The technique exploits a well-defined concentration gradient of biocide across a cellulose acetate membrane. A controlled flux of H2O2, an environmentally friendly ...

  19. Controlled release for crop and wood protection: Recent progress toward sustainable and safe nanostructured biocidal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Bruno D; Tardy, Blaise L; Magalhães, Washington L E; Rojas, Orlando J

    2017-09-28

    We review biocide delivery systems (BDS), which are designed to deter or control harmful organisms that damage agricultural crops, forests and forest products. This is a timely topic, given the growing socio-economical concerns that have motivated major developments in sustainable BDS. Associated designs aim at improving or replacing traditional systems, which often consist of biocides with extreme behavior as far as their solubility in water. This includes those that compromise or pollute soil and water (highly soluble or volatile biocides) or those that present low bioavailability (poorly soluble biocides). Major breakthroughs are sought to mitigate or eliminate consequential environmental and health impacts in agriculture and silviculture. Here, we consider the most important BDS vehicles or carriers, their synthesis, the environmental impact of their constituents and interactions with the active components together with the factors that affect their rates of release such as environmental factors and interaction of BDS with the crops or forest products. We put in perspective the state-of-the-art nanostructured carriers for controlled release, which need to address many of the challenges that exist in the application of BDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of enterocin AS-48 in combination with biocides on planktonic and sessile Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Natacha Caballero; Abriouel, Hikmate; Grande, M A José; Pulido, Rubén Pérez; Gálvez, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Enterocin AS-48 was tested on a cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes strains in planktonic and sessile states, singly or in combination with biocides benzalkonium chloride, cetrimide, hexadecylpyridinium chloride, didecyldimethylammonium bromide, triclosan, poly-(hexamethylen guanidinium) hydrochloride, chlorhexidine, hexachlorophene, and the commercial sanitizers P3 oxonia and P3 topax 66. Combinations of sub-inhibitory bacteriocin concentrations and biocide concentrations 4 to 10-fold lower than their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) completely inhibited growth of the planktonic listeriae. Inactivation of Listeria in biofilms formed on polystyrene microtiter plates required concentrations of enterocin AS-48 greater than 50 μg/ml, and biocide concentrations ten to 100-fold higher. In combination with enterocin AS-48 (25 or 50 μg/ml), microbial inactivation increased remarkably for all biocides except P3 oxonia and P3 topax 66 solutions. Polystyrene microtiter plates conditioned with enterocin solutions (0.5-25 μg/ml) decreased the adherence and biofilm formation of the L. monocytogenes cell cocktail, avoiding biofilm formation for at least 24 h at a bacteriocin concentration of 25 μg/ml. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring of the booster biocide dichlofluanid in water and marine sediment of Greek marinas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamwijk, C.; Schouten, A.; Foekema, E.M.; Ravensberg, J.C.; Collombon, M.T.; Schmidt, K.; Kugler, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dichlofluanid (N-dichlorofluoromethylthio-N′-dimethyl-N- phenylsulphamide) is used as booster biocide in antifouling paints. The occurrence of dichlofluanid and its metabolite DMSA (N′-dimethyl-N-phenyl- sulphamide) was monitored in seawater and marine sediment from three Greek marinas. Seawater and

  2. Decreased bio-inhibition of building materials due to transport of biocides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erich, S.J.F.; Mendoza, S.M.; Floor, W.; Hermanns, S.P.M.; Homan, W.J.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Bio-inhibition of buildings and structures is an important issue. In many cases building materials have biocides added to prevent growth of micro-organisms. Growth of microorganisms on building materials has several negative effects; (1) Aesthetic damage, e.g. fungi, algae grow on the material,

  3. Optimization of the cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and biocides using computational techniques: Pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette

    This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...

  4. Alkyl ammonium cation stabilized biocidal polyiodides with adaptable high density and low pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunlin; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-05-26

    The effective application of biocidal species requires building the active moiety into a molecular back bone that can be delivered and decomposed on demand under conditions of low pressure and prolonged high-temperature detonation. The goal is to destroy storage facilities and their contents while utilizing the biocidal products arising from the released energy to destroy any remaining harmful airborne agents. Decomposition of carefully selected iodine-rich compounds can produce large amounts of the very active biocides, hydroiodic acid (HI) and iodine (I2). Polyiodide anions, namely, I3(-), I5(-), which are excellent sources of such biocides, can be stabilized through interactions with large, symmetric cations, such as alkyl ammonium salts. We have designed and synthesized suitable compounds of adaptable high density up to 3.33 g cm(-3) that are low-pressure polyiodides with various alkyl ammonium cations, deliverable iodine contents of which range between 58.0-90.9%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. BIOCIDAL PRODUCTS – IMPLICATIONS OF THEIR USAGE IN THE ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE INITIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dumitrache

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocidal products are necessary in our lives in order to protect us against pathogenic microorganisms. But their use must be subject to a strict regulation because their harmful potential on human and animal health and environment is huge. Biocidal products must be authorized by a competent authority before placing them on the market and all active substances from their composition must be tested and certified to ensure they are in compliance with regulatory requirements in the field. Also biocides, with antimicrobials, may be involved in causing the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance. Their misuse can lead to the emergence of resistant organisms, through mechanisms similar to those that appear in incorrect treatment with antibiotics. We should, therefore, be aware of this aspect particularly important to prevent unwanted effects of cross resistance to antibiotics and biocides. The more so as, lately, there are pulled many alarm signals about the fact that, in a very short time, mankind is in danger of remaining without the main arsenal for fighting harmful microorganisms.

  6. Leaching of biocides from building facades: Upscaling of a local two-region leaching model to the city scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, S.; Rota, C.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Facades are protected by paints that contain biocides as protection against degradation. These biocides are leached by rainfall (albeit at low concentrations). At the city scale, however, the surface area of building facades is significant, and leached biocides are a potential environmental risk to receiving waters. A city-scale biocide-leaching model was developed based on two main steps. In the first step, laboratory experiments on a single facade were used to calibrate and validate a 1D, two-region phenomenological model of biocide leaching. The same data set was analyzed independently by another research group who found empirically that biocide leachate breakthrough curves were well represented by a sum of two exponentials. Interestingly, the two-region model was found analytically to reproduce this functional form as a special case. The second step in the method is site-specific, and involves upscaling the validated single facade model to a particular city. In this step, (i) GIS-based estimates of facade heights and areas are deduced using the city's cadastral data, (ii) facade flow is estimated using local meteorological data (rainfall, wind direction) and (iii) paint application rates are modeled as a stochastic process based on manufacturers' recommendations. The methodology was applied to Lausanne, Switzerland, a city of about 200,000 inhabitants. Approximately 30% of the annually applied mass of biocides was estimated to be released to the environment.

  7. Developing Self-Efficacy through a Massive Open Online Course on Study Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-efficacy is a strong predictor of academic performance, and an area of interest for higher education institutions. This paper reports on a massive open online course (MOOC on study skills, aimed at increasing self-efficacy. Participants (n=32 were from Mexico and Colombia, with ages ranging from 21 to 45 years. At the beginning and the end of the MOOC, learners answered a survey that included the General Self-Efficacy Scale, items on specific study skills, and space for optional comments. Findings show statistically significant increases in general self-efficacy after completing the MOOC, as well as in the perceived self-efficacy related to five out of six study skills. Comments suggest that participants are aware of and value their own improvement. For students, MOOCs can represent low-risk, formative opportunities to widen their knowledge and increase their self-efficacy. For academic institutions, well-designed MOOCs on study skills provide a means to support students.

  8. Teaching efficacy of nurses in clinical practice education: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyeung; Shin, Sujin

    2017-07-01

    Clinical nurses play a vital role in clinical practice education; thus, it is necessary to help clinical nurses have teaching efficacy through the development and application of systematic education programs. To identify nurses' teaching efficacy for clinical education and analyze the influencing factors of teaching efficacy. The study used a cross-sectional design. We used a convenience sample of 263 nurses from two hospitals. Teaching efficacy, general characteristics, and perception of clinical practice education were collected via self-reported questionnaires. Teaching efficacy was measured using Hwang's (2006) questionnaire, while perception of clinical practice education was measured using the Clinical Nurse Teacher Survey developed by Nishioka et al. (2014). Participants completed the questionnaire directly. The collected data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVAs, and multiple regression analysis with PASW Statistics 18.0. The mean total score of teaching efficacy was 72.5 (range 21-105). The leadership for students subscale had the highest score (3.56±0.59). The factors influencing teaching efficacy were length of clinical career (β=0.26, pteaching efficacy in nurses. Based on these results, nursing educators might need to develop greater confidence in their knowledge and enhance control of their teaching strategies. Nursing schools and hospitals might need to provide greater support and educational opportunities to nurse clinical practice instructors. Furthermore, constructing a system of cooperation between these colleges and educational hospitals, developing programs to enhance teaching efficacy, and identifying the clinical instructor's role are all necessary to promote clinical practice education. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Relationship between Pedagogical Beliefs and Teacher Efficacy: A Case Study of Chinese Foreign Language Teachers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, I-Chun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated an emerging language learning culture by examining the relationship between teachers' pedagogical beliefs and perceived efficacy in two cities in southern Texas. Drawing on Bandura's (1994) theory of self-efficacy and Ashton and Webb's (1986) notions about teacher efficacy, a multi-sited case study was conducted to explore…

  10. A Study of Self-efficacy in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Its Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzat Paryad; Touba Hosseinzade; Ehsan Kazemnejad; Shahla Asiri

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Enhancement of empowerment in patients with coronary artery disease has a major role in the promotion of their health behaviors. Promotion of self-efficacy is a one of the ways for improving this skill, which has a significant impact on improving patients’ condition and on preventing complications and readmission. The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of general, exercise, and diet behavior self-efficacies in coronary artery disease patients.Me...

  11. Measuring Efficacy of Information Security Policies : A Case Study of UAE based company

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Sohail

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays information security policies are operative in many organizations. Currently few organizations take the pain of verifying the efficacy of these policies. Different standards and procedures exist about methods of measuring efficacy of information security policies. Choosing and implementing them depends mainly on the key performance indicators (KPIs) and key risk indicators (KRIs) of any particular organization. This thesis is a case study of an organization in United Arab Emirates (U...

  12. Concurrent progressive-ratio schedules: built-in controls in the study of delayed reward efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmolowicz, David P; Hudnall, Jennifer L

    2014-08-15

    Delayed rewards maintain lower rates of operant responding than immediate rewards, and when given a choice between immediate and delayed rewards, individuals typically choose the immediate reward, even when it is smaller (a phenomenon called delay discounting). The behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying these behavioral patterns, however, are not conclusively understood. The present study developed a method to examine the efficacy of delayed rewards in a way that is suitable for pharmacological manipulation of delayed reward efficacy (while controlling for general changes in reward efficacy). The progressive ratio (PR) paradigm often used to examine reward efficacy was modified such that two PR schedules for lever pressing concurrently yet independently were presented. Across a series of conditions, a range of delays (3-81s) were arranged on one of the levers while the reward on the other lever remained immediate. PR breakpoints (the highest ratio completed on each lever, our measure of reward efficacy) systematically decreased on the delayed, but not on the immediate reward lever, suggesting that delays decreased reward efficacy. This decrease in breakpoint resulted in bias in within-session responding that was accounted for by models that adjusted reward value by the delay to that reward. Unlike the standard PR paradigm, the present arrangement provided the controls needed to differentiate delay specific from general changes in reward efficacy. The present method should be helpful in the study of the behavioral and neural mechanisms of delayed reward efficacy. Modifications of the present paradigm should be useful for pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants on the endospores of Rhinosporidium seeberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseculeratne S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available No data exists on the activity of biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants on Rhinosporidium seeberi that causes rhinosporidiosis in humans and animals. On account of the inability to culture R. seeberi, in vitro , dyes were used to assess the morphological integrity and viability of biocide-treated endospores that are considered to be the infective stage of this pathogen. Evan′s Blue (EvB identifies the morphological integrity of the endospores while MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide identifies metabolic activity through its reduction by cellular dehydrogenases to microscopically visible deposits of insoluble formazan. MTT-negativity has earlier been shown to correlate with absence of growth of yeast and mycelial fungi in culture and could thus indicate the loss of viability of MTT-negative rhinosporidial endospores. Hydrogen peroxide, glutaraldehyde, chloroxylenol, chlorhexidine, cetrimide, thimerosal, 70% ethanol, iodine in 70% ethanol, 10% formalin, povidone-iodine, sodium azide and silver nitrate were tested on freshly-harvested endospores and all biocides caused metabolic inactivation with or without altered structural integrity as shown by absence of MTT-staining after 3, 24 or 36 hour after exposure, while EvB stained only the endospores treated with sodium azide, ethanol, thimerosal, chloroxylenol, glutaraldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. With clinically useful biocides - chlorhexidine, cetrimide-chlorhexidine, 70% ethanol, povidone-iodine and silver nitrate, a total period of exposure of endospores to the biocide, for seven minutes, produced metabolic inactivation of the endospores. Anti-rhinosporidial antiseptics that could be used in surgery on rhinosporidial patients include povidone-iodine in nasal packs for nasal and naso-pharyngeal surgery, chlorhexidine and cetrimide-chlorhexidine on the skin, while povidone-iodine and silver nitrate could have application in ocular rhinosporidiosis.

  14. Development of a concept for the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products for authorization purposes (BIOEXPO). Executive summary

    OpenAIRE

    Dokkum, H.P. van; Scholten, M.C.Th.; Bakker, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Biocidal Products Directive (Draft 97/C69/03; latest version December 12' 1997, 95/0465 (COD); PE CONS 3633/97) will complete the European chemicals regulation, which consists of the directives on existing substances (Council regu-lation 793/93), new substances (Directive 92/32/EC) and agricultural pesticides (Directive 91/414/EC). Biocides include a wide range of product types, such as pest control products, disinfectants, preservatives, and antifouling products. In Annex V of the Biocid...

  15. Commercial biocides induce transfer of prophage Φ13 from human strains of Staphylococcus aureus to livestock CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yuanyue; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Hvitved, Annemette

    2017-01-01

    if exposure to biocidal products induces phage transfer, and find that during co-culture, Φ13 from strain 8325, belonging to ΦSa3 group, is induced and transferred from a human strain to LA-MRSA CC398 when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial biocides containing hydrogen peroxide. Integration...... variation in CC398 strains that disrupts the phage attachment site, but not the expression of β-hemolysin. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide present in biocidal products stimulate transfer of ΦSa3 from human to LA-MRSA CC398 strains and that in these strains prophage stability depends...

  16. Toward making the invisible visible: Studying science teaching self-efficacy beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Catherine J.

    This dissertation consists of two articles to be submitted for publication. The first, a literature review, makes visible common influences on science teaching self-efficacy beliefs and also points to potentially invisible validation concerns regarding the instrument used. The second investigates the participants' invisible science teaching self-efficacy beliefs and, through the use of a more focused interview, makes those beliefs visible. Science teaching self-efficacy beliefs are science teachers' perceptions of their abilities to teach science effectively. The construct "teaching self-efficacy" originated in social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1977). The first article reviews the mixed results from teaching self-efficacy research in science contexts. The review focuses upon factors that facilitate or inhibit the development of self-efficacy beliefs among science teachers across stages of their careers. Although many studies of science teaching self-efficacy beliefs have utilized the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument - STEBI (Enochs & Riggs, 1990; Riggs & Enochs, 1990), this review also includes non-STEBI studies in order to represent diverse lines of research methodology. The review's findings indicate that antecedent factors such as science activities in and out of school, teacher preparation, science teaching experiences and supportive job contexts are significant influences on the development of science teaching self-efficacy beliefs. The review also indicates that the majority of these studies are short term and rely on a single STEBI administration with the collection of antecedent/demographic and/or interview data. The second article documents a study that responded to the above literature review findings. This study utilized multiple STEBI administrations during the preservice and beginning year of teaching for two science teachers. Rather than general questions, these participants were asked item specific, yet open-ended, questions to determine

  17. Comparative Virucidal Efficacy of Seven Disinfectants Against Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus, Surrogates of Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, William; Mauroy, Axel; Farnir, Frederic; Thiry, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and can be transmitted either by person-to-person contact or by consumption of contaminated food. A knowledge of an efficient disinfection for both hands and food-contact surfaces is helpful for the food sector and provides precious information for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seven disinfectants belonging to different groups of biocides (alcohol, halogen, oxidizing agents, quaternary ammonium compounds, aldehyde and biguanide) on infectious viral titre and on genomic copy number. Due to the absence of a cell culture system for HuNoV, two HuNoV surrogates, such as murine norovirus and feline calicivirus, were used and the tests were performed in suspension, on gloves and on stainless steel discs. When, as criteria of efficacy, a log reduction >3 of the infectious viral titre on both surrogates and in the three tests is used, the most efficacious disinfectants in this study appear to be biocidal products B, C and D, representing the halogens, the oxidizing agents group and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde, respectively. In addition, these three disinfectants also elicited a significant effect on genomic copy number for both surrogate viruses and in all three tests. The results of this study demonstrate that a halogen compound, oxidizing agents and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde are advisable for HuNoV disinfection of either potentially contaminated surfaces or materials in contact with foodstuffs.

  18. EFFICACY OF IBUPROFEN IN TREATMENT OF PAIN IN CHILDREN: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Saygitov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of systematic review of data on prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen. Data search was performed by PubMed database and Google search. 27 publications for analysis were available. Prophylactic efficacy of ibuprofen was studied in 14 studies. Summarizing of the results showed that ibuprofen prevents pain and decreases its following intensity after different surgical or dental operations. There is no significant difference in prophylactic efficacy of single dose ibuprofen and acetaminophen. Therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen was described in 13 studies. Administration of the drug for pain stopping in children is reasonable. The analgesic effect of ibuprofen compared to placebo was shown in all studies of patients with migraine and diseases of ENT-organs. 5 studies performed in last 5 years showed efficacy of ibuprofen in trauma patients, including children with non-complicated fractures of extremities.Key words: children, pain, ibuprofen, prophylaxis, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:52-62

  19. Self-efficacy and quality of life after low-intensity neuropsychological rehabilitation: A pre-post intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Ingrid; Custers, Maud; van Heugten, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Being highly self-efficacious is a key factor in successful chronic disease self-management. It is unknown whether neuropsychological rehabilitation improves self-efficacy in managing the consequences of brain injury. To investigate whether levels of general and brain injury specific self-efficacy and quality of life (QoL) increased after neuropsychological rehabilitation and whether cognitive performance was associated with self-efficacy. We conducted a retrospective clinical cohort study of 62 patients with acquired brain injury and cognitive complaints with measurements before start and after completion of treatment. QoL was measured with the visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) of the EuroQol (EQ-5D); self-efficacy with the TBI Self-efficacy Questionnaire (SEsx) and the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES). Cognitive performance was measured as a compound score of tests for memory, attention and information processing speed. Self-efficacy for managing brain injury-specific symptoms and QoL increased significantly after neuropsychological rehabilitation. Both general and brain injury-specific self-efficacy were positively associated with QoL after completion of the programme. Cognitive performance was not associated with self-efficacy for managing brain injury-specific symptoms nor with general self-efficacy. Self-efficacy and QoL improve after treatment. Further research is needed to identify the specific ingredients responsible for improvement of self-efficacy in patients with cognitive complaints.

  20. Outcomes of usual chiropractic, harm & efficacy, the ouch study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Bruce F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adverse events occur during chiropractic treatment. However, because of these studies design we do not know the frequency and extent of these events when compared to sham treatment. The principal aims of this study are to establish the frequency and severity of adverse effects from short term usual chiropractic treatment of the spine when compared to a sham treatment group. The secondary aim of this study is to establish the efficacy of usual short term chiropractic care for spinal pain when compared to a sham intervention. Methods One hundred and eighty participants will be randomly allocated to either usual chiropractic care or a sham intervention group. To be considered for inclusion the participants must have experienced non-specific spinal pain for at least one week. The study will be conducted at the clinics of registered chiropractors in Western Australia. Participants in each group will receive two treatments at intervals no less than one week. For the usual chiropractic care group, the selection of therapeutic techniques will be left to the chiropractors' discretion. For the sham intervention group, de-tuned ultrasound and de-tuned activator treatment will be applied by the chiropractors to the regions where spinal pain is experienced. Adverse events will be assessed two days after each appointment using a questionnaire developed for this study. The efficacy of short term chiropractic care for spinal pain will be examined at two week follow-up by assessing pain, physical function, minimum acceptable outcome, and satisfaction with care, with the use of the following outcome measures: Numerical Rating Scale, Functional Rating Index, Neck Disability Index, Minimum Acceptable Outcome Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, and a global measure of treatment satisfaction. The statistician, outcome assessor, and participants will be blinded to treatment allocation. Trial

  1. A flow-through aqueous standard generation system for thin film microextraction investigations of UV filters and biocides partitioning to different environmental compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Fardin; Sparham, Chris; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    In this paper problems associated with preparation of aqueous standard of highly hydrophobic compounds such as partial precipitation, being lost on the surfaces, low solubility in water and limited sample volume for accurate determination of their distribution coefficients are addressed. The following work presents two approaches that utilize blade thin film microextraction (TFME) to investigate partitioning of UV filters and biocides to humic acid (dissolved organic carbon) and sediment. A steady-state concentration of target analytes in water was generated using a flow-through aqueous standard generation (ASG) system. Dialysis membranes, a polytetrafluoroethylene permeation tube, and a frit porous (0.5 μm) coated by epoxy glue were basic elements used for preparation of the ASG system. In the currently presented study, negligible depletion TFME using hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) and octadecyl silica-based (C18) sorbents was employed towards the attainment of free concentration values of target analytes in the studied matrices. Thin film geometry provided a large volume of extraction phase, which improved the sensitivity of the method towards highly matrix-bound analytes. Extractions were performed in the equilibrium regime so as to prevent matrix effects and with aims to reach maximum method sensitivity for all analytes under study. Partitioning of analytes on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was investigated in ASG to facilitate large sample volume conditions. Binding percentages and DOC distribution coefficients (Log K DOC ) ranged from 20 to 98% and 3.71–6.72, respectively. Furthermore, sediment-water partition coefficients (K d ), organic-carbon normalized partition coefficients (Log K OC ), and DOC distribution coefficients (Log K DOC ) were investigated in slurry sediment, and ranged from 33 to 2860, 3.31–5.24 and 4.52–5.75 Lkg -1 , respectively. The obtained results demonstrated that investigations utilizing ASG and TFME can yield reliable

  2. Pesticides and biocides in a karst catchment: Identification of contaminant sources and related flow components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Thomas; Bollmann, Ulla E.; Bester, Kai; Birk, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    Karst aquifers are widely used as drinking water resources. However, their high vulnerability to chemical and bacterial contamination due to the heterogeneity in aquifer properties (highly conductive solution conduits embedded in the less conductive fissured rock) is difficult to assess and thus poses major challenges to the management of karst water resources. Contamination of karst springs by organic micro-pollutants has been observed in recent studies. Within this study the water from different springs draining one karst aquifer as well as the main sinking stream replenishing it were analysed before, during and after a storm water event in order to examine the occurrence of different pesticides and biocides. Contaminants from both urban as well as agricultural origin could be detected in the water with concentrations in the low ng/L range (tebuconazole, carbendazim, diuron, isoproturon, terbutryn, atrazine, dichlorobenzamide (BAM), which is a metabolite of dichlobenil). While some compounds could be followed from the sinking stream to the springs (e.g. dichlorobenzamide) some seem to have a source in the autogenic recharge from the karst plateau (Tebuconazole: wood preservative in buildings). These compounds appear to be related to fast flow components with residence times in the order of days, which are known from a number of tracer tests with fluorescent dyes. However, the occurrence of the pesticide atrazine (banned since 1995 in Austria) in the springs, while on the other hand no current input into the karst occurs, shows that some compounds have long residence times in the karst aquifer. These differences in residence times can hardly be attributed to differences in physico-chemical properties of the compounds and must thus be due to the presence of slow and fast flow components. This is in agreement with the duality of karst aquifers due to highly conductive networks of solution conduits embedded in less conductive fissured carbonate rocks.

  3. Astronomy Teaching Self-Efficacy Belief Scale: The Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Filiz; Ozyurek, Cengiz

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and safe scale for determining the self-efficacy levels of science teachers in the teaching of astronomy subjects. The study used a survey approach, which is a qualitative research method. The study was conducted with a total of 106 science teachers working in the secondary schools of Ordu city…

  4. A Study on Physical Education Teachers: The Correlation between Self-Efficacy and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between self-efficacy and job satisfaction among the physical education teachers. The study was carried out in correlational survey model and the study sample was made up by 306 physical education teachers who worked in different geographical regions of Turkey. The data were assessed using SPSS…

  5. Lesson study: Professional development and its impact on science teacher self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan Rae

    This study focuses on an analysis of a professional development program known as lesson study via data obtained during an in-service professional development program for secondary school science teachers. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of one group of science teachers related to their experiences in a lesson study. Another purpose for this research, aligned with the first, included a theoretical analysis of the lesson study construct to see if its design promoted positive self-efficacy beliefs of its participants. The research is framed within the context of social constructivism and self-efficacy and is qualitative in nature and utilized descriptive analysis as a means of research. Case studies were conducted detailing two of the six participants. Data sources included researcher field notes and transcriptions of all planning and debriefing sessions; individual interviews with each participant and the schools' principal; a participant questionnaire, and the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument. Themes that emerged included the positive perceptions of lesson study as a collaborative and teacher-centered experience; the understanding that lesson study can instill a sense of professionalism to those who participate in the process; the sense that discussing student learning using objective observations from classroom is a powerful way to assess learning and uncover personal teacher beliefs; and the insight that the time commitment that lesson study requires can inhibit teachers and schools from sustaining it as a form of on-going professional development. Although these themes are consistent with the research on lesson study in Japan and elsewhere in the United States, they also extend the research on self-efficacy and science teacher professional development. In the end, this study supported some of the conclusions of the self-efficacy research as it relates to professional development while also adding that interpersonal

  6. Preliminary study of the efficacy of the combination of tamsulosin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.S. Abdelaziz

    2016-12-13

    day) and combinations of it with trospium .... Hence, we left with a total of. 126 patients: ..... symptoms on quality of life, work productivity, sexuality and emotional well-being in men and women: results from the EPIC study. BJU Int.

  7. A systems integration approach to the optimum operation and scheduling of biocide usage and discharge for seawater cooling systems

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Abdullah Bin; Atilhan, Selma; Batchelor, Bill; Linke, Patrick; Wahab, Ahmed Abdel; Halwagi, Mahmoud M. El

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a systematic approach to the optimal design and integration of seawater cooling systems in industrial facilities along with the usage and discharge of biocides. Specifically, the paper will address

  8. The Effect of Teacher's Assistance on Malaysian Rural L Writing Self-efficacy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyana Jalaluddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to explore the Malaysian rural learners self-efficacy in writing after assistance given by a teacher. The social cognitive theory aid socio-cultural theory are used as the theoretical framework to pursue the discussion on the effects of teacher’s assistance on learners writing self-efficacy. A case study approach is adopted where three learners and a teacher were chosen from a form four class through purposive sampling. Learnei-s’ Titing self-efficacy is evaluated using a writing self-efficacy scale adapted from Bottomley. Henk and Melnick (1998 and also classroom observation. Wang and Pape (2007 categories were used as guidelines to analyze observation data in order to understand the participants self-efficacy phenomena in their learning to write. Overall, this study places a heavy emphasis on the perceptions and actions of the selected form four learners and teacher through non-participant classroom observations, interviews with each learner and teacher.

  9. The efficacy of the 'mind map' study technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Paul; Hussain, Fearzana; Hennessy, Enid

    2002-05-01

    To examine the effectiveness of using the 'mind map' study technique to improve factual recall from written information. To obtain baseline data, subjects completed a short test based on a 600-word passage of text prior to being randomly allocated to form two groups: 'self-selected study technique' and 'mind map'. After a 30-minute interval the self-selected study technique group were exposed to the same passage of text previously seen and told to apply existing study techniques. Subjects in the mind map group were trained in the mind map technique and told to apply it to the passage of text. Recall was measured after an interfering task and a week later. Measures of motivation were taken. Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London. 50 second- and third-year medical students. Recall of factual material improved for both the mind map and self-selected study technique groups at immediate test compared with baseline. However this improvement was only robust after a week for those in the mind map group. At 1 week, the factual knowledge in the mind map group was greater by 10% (adjusting for baseline) (95% CI -1% to 22%). However motivation for the technique used was lower in the mind map group; if motivation could have been made equal in the groups, the improvement with mind mapping would have been 15% (95% CI 3% to 27%). Mind maps provide an effective study technique when applied to written material. However before mind maps are generally adopted as a study technique, consideration has to be given towards ways of improving motivation amongst users.

  10. A New, Sensitive Marine Microalgal Recombinant Biosensor Using Luminescence Monitoring for Toxicity Testing of Antifouling Biocides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ferandin, Sophie; Leroy, Fanny; Bouget, François-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose the use of the marine green alga Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest free-living eukaryotic cell known to date, as a new luminescent biosensor for toxicity testing in the environment. Diuron and Irgarol 1051, two antifouling biocides commonly encountered in coastal waters, were chosen to test this new biosensor along with two degradation products of diuron. The effects of various concentrations of the antifoulants on four genetic constructs of O. tauri (based on genes involved in photosynthesis, cell cycle, and circadian clock) were compared using 96-well culture microplates and a luminometer to automatically measure luminescence over 3 days. This was compared to growth inhibition of O. tauri wild type under the same conditions. Luminescence appeared to be more sensitive than growth inhibition as an indicator of toxicity. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKA), a protein involved in the cell cycle, fused to luciferase (CDKA-Luc) was found to be the most sensitive of the biosensors, allowing an accurate determination of the 50% effective concentration (EC50) after only 2 days (diuron, 5.65 ± 0.44 μg/liter; Irgarol 1015, 0.76 ± 0.10 μg/liter). The effects of the antifoulants on the CDKA-Luc biosensor were then compared to growth inhibition in natural marine phytoplankton. The effective concentrations of diuron and Irgarol 1051 were found to be similar, indicating that this biosensor would be suitable as a reliable ecotoxicological test. The advantage of this biosensor over cell growth inhibition testing is that the process can be easily automated and could provide a high-throughput laboratory approach to perform short-term toxicity tests. The ability to genetically transform and culture recombinant O. tauri gives it huge potential for screening many other toxic compounds. PMID:23144143

  11. Biofilms of a Bacillus subtilis hospital isolate protect Staphylococcus aureus from biocide action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Bridier

    Full Text Available The development of a biofilm constitutes a survival strategy by providing bacteria a protective environment safe from stresses such as microbicide action and can thus lead to important health-care problems. In this study, biofilm resistance of a Bacillus subtilis strain (called hereafter ND(medical recently isolated from endoscope washer-disinfectors to peracetic acid was investigated and its ability to protect the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus in mixed biofilms was evaluated. Biocide action within Bacillus subtilis biofilms was visualised in real time using a non-invasive 4D confocal imaging method. The resistance of single species and mixed biofilms to peracetic acid was quantified using standard plate counting methods and their architecture was explored using confocal imaging and electronic microscopy. The results showed that the ND(medical strain demonstrates the ability to make very large amount of biofilm together with hyper-resistance to the concentration of PAA used in many formulations (3500 ppm. Evidences strongly suggest that the enhanced resistance of the ND(medical strain was related to the specific three-dimensional structure of the biofilm and the large amount of the extracellular matrix produced which can hinder the penetration of peracetic acid. When grown in mixed biofilm with Staphylococcus aureus, the ND(medical strain demonstrated the ability to protect the pathogen from PAA action, thus enabling its persistence in the environment. This work points out the ability of bacteria to adapt to an extremely hostile environment, and the necessity of considering multi-organism ecosystems instead of single species model to decipher the mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobials agents.

  12. In-vitro archaeacidal activity of biocides against human-associated archaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Khelaifia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several methanogenic archaea have been detected in the human intestinal microbiota. These intestinal archaea may contaminate medical devices such as colonoscopes. However, no biocide activity has been reported among these human-associated archaea. METHODOLOGY: The minimal archaeacidal concentration (MAC of peracetic acid, chlorhexidine, squalamine and twelve parent synthetic derivatives reported in this study was determined against five human-associated methanogenic archaea including Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis and two environmental methanogens Methanobacterium beijingense and Methanosaeta concilii by using a serial dilution technique in Hungates tubes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MAC of squalamine derivative S1 was 0.05 mg/L against M. smithii strains, M. oralis, M. arboriphilicus, M. concilii and M. beijingense whereas MAC of squalamine and derivatives S2-S12 varied from 0.5 to 5 mg/L. For M. stadtmanae and M. luminyensis, MAC of derivative S1 was 0.1 mg/L and varied from 1 to ≥ 10 mg/L for squalamine and its parent derivatives S2-S12. Under the same experimental conditions, chlorhexidine and peracetic acid lead to a MAC of 0.2 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively against all tested archaea. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Squalamine derivative S1 exhibited a 10-200 higher archaeacidal activity than other tested squalamine derivatives, on the majority of human-associated archaea. As previously reported and due to their week corrosivity and their wide spectrum of antibacterial and antifungal properties, squalamine and more precisely derivative S1 appear as promising compounds to be further tested for the decontamination of medical devices contaminated by human-associated archaea.

  13. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  14. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  15. Legislature agrees to fund study of marijuana efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    California could be the first State to conduct a research study on medical uses for marijuana under the "Medical Research Act of 1999". S.B. 847 would authorize a three-year program, administered by the University of California, to study which methods of ingesting marijuana are most effective in treating pain and side effects of treatments for AIDS, cancer, glaucoma and seizures. The sponsor of the bill, Sen. John Vasconcellos, initially wanted $1 million in annual funding, but the program will be funded through the normal appropriations process.

  16. Analysis of the proposed EU regulation concerning biocide products and its opportunities for alternative approaches and a toxicology for the 21st century (t4 report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Daniele; Rabbit, Richard R

    2012-01-01

    On June 12, 2009, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Regulation concerning the placement on the market and use of biocidal products, which, when it enters into force on January 1, 2013, will repeal and replace Directive 98/8/EC. The main reason for the revision of the current Directive was to promote best practices for environmental and human health protection, along with implementation of current developments in safety testing in order to create safer biocides. Moreover, the proposed Regulation aims to take into consideration the newest legislation on chemicals. This article evaluates the proposed Regulation in comparison to Directive 98/8/EC. Although the new proposal requires the sharing of vertebrate animal test data, both for product authorization and for newly developed active substances, it misses - in contrast to REACH - the opportunity to recognize the accelerating development of alternative approaches to animal testing, most recently with new momentum provided by "Toxicity Testing for the 21st Century", and to support the evolution of toxicology towards a new approach to testing. The new methods promise not only to decrease animal pain and suffering, but also to provide faster results and better prediction for human risk assessment compared to traditional methods. Unfortunately, methods mandated for human risk assessment in the proposal are still mainly based on traditional animal study extrapolation. We put forward and discuss possible alternative strategies, such as in vitro testing, integrated testing strategies, toxicokinetics, "omics", systems biology, bioinformatics, and computational modeling, all of which could be more encouraged by the proposal. Current opportunities to improve our tools for biocide risk assessment are discussed, delineating advantages, limitations, and development needs. It is suggested to open the proposed Regulation to alternative approaches that are based on human biology more than on extrapolation from animals

  17. Characteristics of caring self-efficacy in pediatric nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Azam; Bahrami, Masoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Yousefy, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify pediatric nurses' characteristics of caring self-efficacy. This study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis approach. The participants included 27 pediatric nurses and clinical instructors, selected purposively. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and were analyzed using the content analysis method. Data analysis generated four main themes as attributes of a self-efficient pediatric nurse including: (a) professional communications; (b) management of care; (c) altruism; and (d) proficiency. Nursing managers and instructors can use these results to help develop nurses' empowerment and self-efficacy, especially in pediatric care. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Flowing together : a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Cifre, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study

  19. Testing the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention: A Conceptual Replication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doabler, Christian T.; Clarke, Ben; Kosty, Derek B.; Kurtz-Nelson, Evangeline; Fien, Hank; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this closely aligned conceptual replication study was to investigate the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention. The replication study differed from the initial randomized controlled trial on three important elements: geographical region, timing of the intervention, and instructional context of the…

  20. The Interplay between Motivation, Self-Efficacy, and Approaches to Studying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat-Sala, Merce; Redford, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background: The strategies students adopt in their study are influenced by a number of social-cognitive factors and impact upon their academic performance. Aims: The present study examined the interrelationships between motivation orientation (intrinsic and extrinsic), self-efficacy (in reading academic texts and essay writing), and approaches to…

  1. Textbook-Bundled Metacognitive Tools: A Study of LearnSmart's Efficacy in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadani, Vandana; Bouvier-Brown, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    College textbook publishers increasingly bundle sophisticated technology-based study tools with their texts. These tools appear promising, but empirical work on their efficacy is needed. We examined whether LearnSmart, a study tool bundled with McGraw-Hill's textbook "Chemistry" (Chang & Goldsby, 2013), improved learning in an…

  2. Modelling inorganic and organic biocide leaching from CBA-amine (Copper–Boron–Azole) treated wood based on characterisation leaching tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupsea, Maria [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F–31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, DEE/Environment and Life Cycle Engineering Team, 24 Rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Tiruta-Barna, Ligia, E-mail: ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F–31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Schiopu, Nicoleta [Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, DEE/Environment and Life Cycle Engineering Team, 24 Rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Schoknecht, Ute [BAM — Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.1, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Numerical simulation of the leaching behaviour of treated wood is the most pertinent and less expensive method for the prediction of biocides' release in water. Few studies based on mechanistic leaching models have been carried out so far. In this work, a coupled chemistry-mass transport model is developed for simulating the leaching behaviour of inorganic (Cu, B) and organic (Tebuconazole) biocides from CBA-amine treated wood. The model is based on experimental investigations (lab-scale leaching tests coupled with chemical and structural analysis). It considers biocides' interactions with wood solid components and with extractives (literature confirmed reactions), as well as transport mechanisms (diffusion, convection) in different compartments. Simulation results helped at identifying the main fixation mechanisms, like (i) direct complexation of Cu by wood-phenolic and -carboxylic sites (and not via monoethanolamine; complex) on lignin and hemicellulose and strong dependence on extractives' nature, (ii) pH dependent binding of tebuconazole on polarized -OH moieties on wood. The role of monoethanolamine is to provide a pore-solution pH of about 7.5, when copper solubility is found to be weakest. The capability of the developed model to simulate the chemical and transport behaviour is the main result of this study. Moreover, it proved that characterization leaching tests (pH dependency and dynamic tests), combined with appropriate analytical methods are useful experimental tools. Due to its flexibility for representing and simulating various leaching conditions, chemical-transport model developed could be used to further simulate the leaching behaviour of CBA treated wood at larger scales. - Highlights: • Biocide and extractives leaching from ammonia-CBA treated wood were modelled. • The chemical-transport model identifies the main fixation/solubilisation mechanisms. • The model describes well the results of equilibrium and dynamic leaching

  3. [Immunological and clinical study on therapeutic efficacy of inosine pranobex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołebiowska-Wawrzyniak, Maria; Markiewicz, Katarzyna; Kozar, Agata; Derentowicz, Piotr; Czerwińska-Kartowicz, Iwona; Jastrzebska-Janas, Krystyna; Wacławek, Jolanta; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew M; Siwińska-Gołebiowska, Henryka

    2005-09-01

    Many studies in vitro and in vivo have shown immunomodulating and antiviral activities of inosine pranobex. The object of this research was to examine the potential beneficial effects of inosine pranobex (Groprinosin) on immune system in children with cellular immunodeficiency as a prophylaxis of recurrent infections, mainly of viral origin. 50 mg/kg b.w/day of inosine pranobex in divided doses was given to the group of 30 children aged 3-15 years for 10 days in 3 following months. Clinical and immunological investigations were done before and after the treatment. Statistically significant rise of CD3T lymphocytes number (p = 0.02) and in this CD4T lymphocytes number (p = 0.02) as well as statistically significant improvement of their function (p = 0.005) evaluated with blastic transformation method were found. These laboratory findings were parallel to clinical benefits. Control study was performed in the group of children completed by randomization and treated in the same way with garlic (Alliofil).

  4. Efficacy study of multimedia rheumatoid arthritis patient education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unk, Julie A; Brasington, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The research goal of improving patient adherence was assessed in this randomized controlled trial of the outcomes of a 15-min multimedia educational program when compared to educational literature for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. One hundred eight RA patients from a Midwestern rheumatology outpatient clinic completed the self-reported Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ), the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) at baseline and 1 month after education. A paired samples t-test was use for data analyses to determine if there was a significant difference in the change between the groups at preintervention and 1-month postintervention. There were no significant differences in the scores between the two groups from pretest to posttest. Results from this study showed that medication adherence, illness perception, and disability were not improved by use of multimedia or the literature within 1 month. Findings from this research study showed that a short multimedia educational program is as effective as printed materials to educate patients with RA about their disease and treatment. However, neither multimedia nor literature affects medication adherence, illness perception, or disability as self-reported by patients with RA. ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  5. Efficacy of Arthroscopic Teaching Methods: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Luke; Spanyer, Jonathon; Yenna, Zachary; Burchell, Patrick; Garber, Andrew; Riehl, John

    Arthroscopic education research recently has been focused on the use of skills labs to facilitate resident education and objective measure development to gauge technical skill. This study evaluates the effectiveness of three different teaching methods. Medical students were randomized into three groups. The first group received only classroom-based lecture. The second group received the same lecture and 28 minutes of lab-based hands-off arthroscopy instruction using a cadaver and arthroscopy setup. The final group received the same lecture and 7 minutes of hands-on arthroscopy instruction in the lab on a cadaver knee. The arthroscopic knee exam that followed simulated a diagnostic knee exam and subjects were measured on task completion and by the number of look downs. The number of look downs and the number of tasks completed did not achieve statistical significance between groups. Posttest survey results revealed that the hands-on group placed significantly more value on their educational experience as compared with the other two groups. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances.

  6. Studies examining the efficacy of ankle foot orthoses should report activity level and mechanical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Jaap; Brehm, Merel; Becher, Jules G; Bregman, Daan J J; Buurke, Jaap; Holtkamp, Fred; De Groot, Vincent; Nollet, Frans

    2010-09-01

    Ankle Foot Orthoses (AFOs) to promote walking ability are a common treatment in patients with neurological or muscular diseases. However, guidelines on the prescription of AFOs are currently based on a low level of evidence regarding their efficacy. Recent studies aiming to demonstrate the efficacy of wearing an AFO in respect to walking ability are not always conclusive. In this paper it is argued to recognize two levels of evidence related to the ICF levels. Activity level evidence expresses the gain in walking ability for the patient, while mechanical evidence expresses the correct functioning of the AFO. Used in combination for the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of orthotic treatment, a conjunct improvement at both levels reinforces the treatment algorithm that is used. Conversely, conflicting outcomes will challenge current treatment algorithms and the supposed working mechanism of the AFO. A treatment algorithm must use relevant information as an input, derived from measurements with a high precision. Its result will be a specific AFO that matches the patient's needs, specified by the mechanical characterization of the AFO footwear combination. It is concluded that research on the efficacy of AFOs should use parameters from two levels of evidence, to prove the efficacy of a treatment algorithm, i.e., how to prescribe a well-matched AFO.

  7. Biocidal action of ozone-treated polystyrene surfaces on vegetative and sporulated bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahfoudh, Ahlem; Barbeau, Jean; Moisan, Michel; Leduc, Annie; Seguin, Jacynthe

    2010-01-01

    Surfaces of materials can be modified to ensure specific interaction features with microorganisms. The current work discloses biocidal properties of polystyrene (PS) Petri-dish surfaces that have been exposed to a dry gaseous-ozone flow. Such treated PS surfaces are able to inactivate various species of vegetative and sporulated bacteria on a relatively short contact time. Denaturation of proteins seems likely based on a significant loss of enzymatic activity of the lysozyme protein. Characterization of these surfaces by atomic-force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals specific structural and chemical modifications as compared to untreated PS. Persistence of the biocidal properties of these treated surfaces is observed. This ozone-induced process is technically simple to achieve and does not require active precursors as in grafting.

  8. Synthesis of biocidal polymers containing metal NPs using an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwonyong; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Yoon, Jeyong; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2012-01-01

    Metal containing antibacterial polymers were prepared by the polymerization of methylmethacrylate and methacrylic acid with copper or zinc. When the thin film of the polymers coated on a glass was irradiated with an electron beam, nanoparticles were obtained. It was found that these polymers exhibited a potent antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli. The metal containing polymers showed a 99.999% (5.0 logs) reduction in E. coli at a contact time of 12 h. In addition, polymers had a good antifouling effect against marine organisms. - Graphical abstract: Biocidal activity of Cu nanoparticle/polymer composite film against Gram-negative bacteria. Highlights: ► Metal containing antibacterial polymers were prepared with copper. ► Using the electron beam, nanoparticles were obtained. ► It was found that these polymers exhibited potent biocidal activity against E. coli. ► The metal containing polymers showed a 99.999% reduction of E. coli.

  9. Assessment of TBT and organic booster biocide contamination in seawater from coastal areas of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Sook; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Hong, Sang Hee; Ha, Sung Yong; Han, Gi Myung; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2014-01-15

    Seawater samples from major enclosed bays, fishing ports, and harbors of Korea were analyzed to determine levels of tributyltin (TBT) and booster biocides, which are antifouling agents used as alternatives to TBT. TBT levels were in the range of not detected (nd) to 23.9 ng Sn/L. Diuron and Irgarol 1051, at concentration ranges of 35-1360 ng/L and nd to 14 ng/L, respectively, were the most common alternative biocides present in seawater, with the highest concentrations detected in fishing ports. Hot spots were identified where TBT levels exceeded environmental quality targets even 6 years after a total ban on its use in Korea. Diuron exceeded the UK environmental quality standard (EQS) value in 73% of the fishing port samples, 64% of the major bays, and 42% of the harbors. Irgarol 1051 levels were marginally below the Dutch and UK EQS values at all sites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-09-26

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification-solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide-polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology.

  11. Emission of biocides from hospitals: comparing current survey results with European Union default values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczkiewicz, Inga; Bitsch, Annette; Hahn, Stefan; Hahn, Torsten

    2010-04-01

    Under the European Union (EU) Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC, comprehensive evaluations on substances of the Third Priority List were conducted until 31 July 2007. This list includes, among other categories, disinfectants for human hygiene (e.g., skin and surface disinfection). For environmental exposure assessment of biocides, the EU emission scenarios apply. Currently available default values for disinfectants are based on consumption data from not more than 8 hospitals and were originally assembled for other purposes. To revalidate these default values, a survey on annual consumption data was performed in 27 German hospitals. These data were analyzed to provide consumption data per bed and day and per nurse and day for particular categories of active ingredients and were compared with default values from the EU emission scenario documents. Although several deviations were detected, an overall acceptable correspondence between Emission Scenario Documents default values and the current survey data was found. (c) 2009 SETAC

  12. Development of a biocidal treatment regime to inhibit biological growths on cultural heritage: BIODAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. E.; Alakomi, H.-L.; Fortune, I.; Gorbushina, A. A.; Krumbein, W. E.; Maxwell, I.; McCullagh, C.; Robertson, P.; Saarela, M.; Valero, J.; Vendrell, M.

    2008-12-01

    Existing chemical treatments to prevent biological damage to monuments often involve considerable amounts of potentially dangerous and even poisonous biocides. The scientific approach described in this paper aims at a drastic reduction in the concentration of biocide applications by a polyphasic approach of biocides combined with cell permeabilisers, polysaccharide and pigment inhibitors and a photodynamic treatment. A variety of potential agents were screened to determine the most effective combination. Promising compounds were tested under laboratory conditions with cultures of rock deteriorating bacteria, algae, cyanobacteria and fungi. A subsequent field trial involved two sandstone types with natural biofilms. These were treated with multiple combinations of chemicals and exposed to three different climatic conditions. Although treatments proved successful in the laboratory, field trials were inconclusive and further testing will be required to determine the most effective treatment regime. While the most effective combination of chemicals and their application methodology is still being optimised, results to date indicate that this is a promising and effective treatment for the control of a wide variety of potentially damaging organisms colonising stone substrates.

  13. Emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity during the Mars 520 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcová, Iva; Gushin, Vadim; Vinokhodova, Alla; Lukavský, Jirí

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the dynamics of changes in emotional energy, work self-efficacy and perceived similarity in the crew of the Mars 520 experimental study. The study comprised six volunteers, all men, between 27-38 yr of age (M = 32.16; SD = 4.99). The Mars 520 experimental study simulated all the elements of the proposed Mars mission that could be ground simulated, i.e., traveling to Mars, orbiting it, landing, and returning to Earth. During the simulation, measures of emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity were repeated every month. The data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models. Emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity gradually increased in the course of the simulation. There was no evidence for a so-called third quarter phenomenon (the most strenuous period of group isolation, psychologically, emotionally, and socially) in our data. On the contrary, work self-efficacy, emotional energy, and group cohesion (indexed here by the subject's perceived similarity to others) increased significantly in the course of the simulation, with the latter two variables showing positive growth in the group functioning.

  14. Influence of endodontic instrument-holder on sterilization efficacy. A pilot in-vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Carrizo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Infection control is crucial in dentistry and various methods have been designed to assure its efficacy. However, little information exists regarding the influence it could have the instrument-holder of endodontic files. The aim of this research was to determine the influence of three instruments-holders on sterilization efficacy of endodontic files. Methods: A pilot in-vitro study. 60 endodontic files were contaminated by biomechanical preparation of extracted molars with periapical abscess, then processed according to the standard washing method. The endodontic files were divided into 3 groups (n=20 and assigned to 3 instrument-holders: Metallic box (MB, surgical gauze (SG and synthetic sponge (SS. Then, the files were packaged and sterilized by autoclaving (134°C/45min. Microbiological culture was performed in thioglycolate solution for each endodontic file (37ºC/5days. Results: The overall sterilization efficacy was 91.7%, 80% for MB, 100% for SS, and 95% for SG, with no statistically significant differences (p=0.06 between the groups. Conclusions: The lack of differences in the efficacy of sterilization may be due to the reduced sample; therefore, a full-size study is necessary to confirm this outcomes. The results of this study discourage the use of the MB as instrument-holder until a full-size study can confirm this data.

  15. Exercise Self-Efficacy and Perceived Wellness among College Students in a Basic Studies Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Cara L.; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Hritz, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    University basic studies courses provide a valuable opportunity for facilitating the knowledge, skills, and beliefs that develop healthy behaviors to last a lifetime. Belief in one's ability to participate in physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, is a psychological construct that has had a documented impact on physical activity. Although…

  16. Investigating the Efficacy of Practical Skill Teaching: A Pilot-Study Comparing Three Educational Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…

  17. Traditional-Aged College Juniors' Career Planning Self-Efficacy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Dawn C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to explore and describe traditional-age college juniors' reports of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) regarding Career Planning (Barker & Kellen, 1998). More specifically, the career planning confidence levels of college juniors enrolled in a required career development course at a private business…

  18. Collaborative Curriculum Design to Increase Science Teaching Self-Efficacy: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, C.H.; Fisser, Petra; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether participation in a teacher design team (TDT) is an effective way to increase the science teaching self-efficacy of primary school teachers who vary in their levels of experience and interest in science. A TDT is a group of at least 2 teachers from

  19. Collaborative Curriculum Design to Increase Science Teaching Self-Efficacy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velthuis, Chantal; Fisser, Petra; Pieters, Jules

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether participation in a teacher design team (TDT) is an effective way to increase the science teaching self-efficacy of primary school teachers who vary in their levels of experience and interest in science. A TDT is a group of at least 2 teachers from the same or related subjects working together to…

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Anemic Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, Anouk; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly caused by iron deficiency and can have severe consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in pregnant women. Methods.

  1. Bullying Behaviors and Self Efficacy among Nursing Students at Clinical Settings: Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Awatef Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nursing students who experienced bullying behaviors feel anger and missing their concentration, their capability to achieve a desired outcome. Also self-efficacy, often referred to as self-confidence, is essential to nursing students' ability and performance in the clinical setting. Aim: Study aimed to examine relation between bullying…

  2. Spinal cord stimulation in chronic intractable angina pectoris : A randomized, controlled efficacy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, RWM; DeJongste, MJL; Staal, MJ; van Gilst, WH; Lie, KI

    1998-01-01

    Background Spinel cord stimulation is known to be a successful treatment for chronic intractable angina pectoris. its effect may be anti-ischemic. It is uncertain if the clinical effect is partly caused by a placebo effect of surgery For implantation of a stimulator. In this study, clinical efficacy

  3. L2 Motivational Self-System and Self-Efficacy: A Quantitative Survey-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshandel, Javad; Ghonsooly, Behzad; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh

    2018-01-01

    The present study explored English as a foreign language (EFL) students' motivation and self-efficacy. This is accomplished by incorporating the ten subfactors of L2 motivational self-system namely; criterion measures, ideal L2 self, ought-to L2 self, family influence, instrumentality promotion, instrumentality prevention, attitudes towards…

  4. A Cross-Cultural Study of CKCM Efficacy in an Undergraduate Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Cobern, William W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cross-culturally investigate the instructional efficacy of the Common Knowledge Construction Model (CKCM) with college students learning about "factors affecting solubility" focusing on students' conceptual understanding, attitudes and scientific habits of mind. Even though the CKCM is a decade old, there has…

  5. Practice, efficacy, and costs of thyroid nodule evaluation: a retrospective study in a Dutch university hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, Lotty; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Boers, Maarten; van Tulder, Maurits W.; van Diest, Paul; Lips, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules has markedly reduced the role of thyroid scintigraphy. This is often limited to nondiagnostic or follicular (tumor) FNA classifications. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and cost of such a strategy in a university center. From 1992-1998, 995

  6. Math and Science Pursuits: A Self-Efficacy Intervention Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Elizabeth D.; Porter, Sarah H.; Israel, Tania; Brown, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared two interventions to increase math self-efficacy among undergraduate students. Ninety-nine first-year undergraduate students participated in an intervention involving performance accomplishment or an intervention combining performance accomplishment and belief-perseverance techniques in which participants constructed a…

  7. Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Two Regimens of Single-Shot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess and compare the satisfaction and efficacy of two regimens of single-shot spinal blocks for the relief of labor pain in women who present in active phase of labour. Design: A prospective randomised single-blind observational study. Setting: Labour ward of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Subjects: All ...

  8. A Quantitative Study Examining Teacher Stress, Burnout, and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Timar D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to examine the relationships between stress, burnout, and self-efficacy in public school teachers in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Teacher Stress Inventory was used to collect data on teacher stress, the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey was used to obtain data on teacher…

  9. Researching Learner Self-Efficacy and Online Participation through Speech Functions: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Castro, Olga; Strambi, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the potential contribution of Eggins and Slade's (2004) Speech Functions as tools for describing learners' participation patterns in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (SCMC). Our analysis focuses on the relationship between learners' self-efficacy (i.e. personal judgments of second language performance capabilities)…

  10. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Multipurpose Disinfecting Solutions in the Presence of Contact Lenses and Lens Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Manal M; McAnally, Cindy; Bartell, John

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use antimicrobial efficacy endpoint methodology to determine compatibility of multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPSs), lens cases, and hydrogel lenses for disinfection (AEEMC) against International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-specified microorganisms and clinical ocular isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Six MPSs (PQ/Aldox 1, 2, and 3; PQ/Alexidine; PQ/PHMB; and PHMB) were challenged against ISO-specified microorganisms and S. maltophilia using the AEEMC test. AEEMC tests were performed with and without balafilcon A, etafilcon A, and senofilcon A lenses in lens cases with organic soil. Exposure times included disinfection time (DT) and 24 hr. Additionally, all six MPSs were challenged with two strains of S. maltophilia, based on the ISO Stand-alone test. The efficacy against bacteria for PQ/Aldox and PQ/Alexidine MPSs was not diminished by the presence of lenses. The efficacy of PQ/PHMB and PHMB MPSs against Serratia marcescens was significantly reduced compared with the no-lens control at DT for at least one lens type. The PHMB MPS with lenses present also demonstrated reduced efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus at DT versus the control. PQ/Aldox MPSs retained activity against Fusarium solani with lenses present; however, all other test MPSs demonstrated reduced F. solani efficacy at DT with lenses present. With lenses, all MPSs showed reduced efficacy against Candida albicans. AEEMC antimicrobial efficacy test results vary based on challenge microorganism, contact lenses, and MPS biocide systems. This study highlights the importance of evaluating MPSs for compatibility with lenses and lens cases.

  11. A Correlational Study of iPad Efficacy and 21st Century Teaching among Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Christopher F.

    2017-01-01

    This study was a longitudinal correlational study that applied the quantitative methodology of bi-variate correlation as well as a paired-samples "t"-test to the data. The purpose was to study the nature of the relationship between iPad efficacy, 21st century teaching, teacher efficacy, and teacher characteristics. The study also…

  12. To evaluate the efficacy of biodegradable plating system for fixation of maxillofacial fractures: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Bali, Rishi K.; Sharma, Parveen; Jindal, Shalu; Gaba, Shivani

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of biodegradable plating system for fixation of maxillofacial fractures and to study the morbidity associated with the use of biodegradable plates and screws. Materials and Methods: This prospective study consisted of 10 patients with maxillofacial fractures requiring open reduction and internal fixation. Fractures with infection, comminuted and pathological fractures were excluded. All were plated with biodegradable system (Inio...

  13. Does self-efficacy causally influence initial smoking cessation? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude; Cervone, Daniel; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2017-10-01

    Self-efficacy has been associated with smoking cessation outcomes in many correlational research studies, but strong causal inferences are lacking. This study tested whether self-efficacy affects initial smoking cessation in a laboratory experiment, which will allow for stronger causal inferences in this domain of inquiry. Participants (n=103 motivated adult smokers) were provided with brief cessation treatment over three days in preparation for quitting on a target quit day (TQD). In addition, participants were randomized to one of two standard self-efficacy manipulations in the form of bogus feedback about their chances of quitting smoking. Participants in the Average Chances of Quitting (ACQ) condition took a computerized test and were told (falsely) that the test showed that they had the same chances of quitting as everyone else in the study. Participants in the High Chances of Quitting (HCQ) condition took the same computerized test and were told (falsely) that the test showed that they had a greater chance of quitting compared to everyone else in the study. The main outcome was whether participants were able to quit for 24h on the TQD. Results revealed that HCQ participants had a significantly greater chance of quitting smoking compared to ACQ participants. However, these effects were not attributable to changes in self-efficacy brought about by the manipulation. An exploration of other potential mediators showed that the manipulation actually influenced smoking outcome expectancies, and changes in these outcome expectancies influenced initial smoking cessation. The results highlight the conceptual and empirical challenges with manipulating self-efficacy in the smoking literature. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frédéric; de Vos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial) was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females), aged over 6 months and weighing 4-18 kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collected prior to allocation, were randomly divided into two equal groups. Dogs in Group 1 were not treated. Dogs in Group 2 were treated on Days 0 and 28. On Days 0 (pre-treatment), 28 (pre-treatment) and 56, five skin scrapings of similar size were taken from different sites with lesions suggestive of sarcoptic mange. The extent of lesions was also recorded on Days 0, 28 and 56, and photographs were taken. Dogs treated orally with afoxolaner had significantly (p dogs at these times (100% efficacy based on mite counts). In addition, dogs treated with NexGard had significantly (p dog showed pruritus compared to 7/10 dogs in the control group, 1/9 treated dogs had crusts compared to 5/10 controls and 8/9 dogs recovered 90% of hairs on lesions compared to 0/10 control dogs. © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  15. Susceptibility of 169 USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates to two copper-based biocides, CuAL42 and CuWB50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Vicki Ann; Hall, Tony J; King, Debbie S; Cannons, Andrew C

    2010-05-01

    To test the activity of two copper-based biocides, CuAL42 and CuWB50, and benzalkonium chloride against 169 isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pulsotype USA300, a virulent, multiply resistant, widespread clone in the USA. Tests including MIC, MBC and time-kill studies were performed multiple times. The MIC range, MIC(50) and MIC(90) (0.59-18.75, 4.69 and 4.69 ppm, respectively) and the MBC range, MBC(50) and MBC(90) (1.17-18.75, 4.69 and 9.38 ppm, respectively) for CuAL42 were identical with those obtained with CuWB50, except that the MBC range for CuWB50 was wider (0.59-37.5 ppm). In time-kill studies, a 6 log(10) reduction of cfu was achieved within 1 h (150 ppm) and 0.5 h (300 ppm) for CuAL42, and 1.5 h (150 ppm) and 0.75 h (300 ppm) for CuWB50. Both copper-based biocides can effectively kill USA300 MRSA and may facilitate the eradication of the organism from healthcare settings.

  16. The effect of a self-efficacy-based educational programme on maternal breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Yi; Ip, Wan Yim; Choi, Kai Chow

    2016-05-01

    breast feeding has a number of well-documented benefits. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate an effective approach to increase the breast feeding rate, duration and exclusive breast feeding rate, in which maternal breast feeding self-efficacy was determined as one of the major contributors. Although numerous breast feeding educational programmes have been developed to enhance maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, results on the effectiveness of these programmes remain inconclusive. this study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a self-efficacy-based breast feeding educational programme (SEBEP) in enhancing breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates among mothers in Hong Kong. eligible pregnant women were randomized to attend a 2.5-hour breast feeding workshop at 28-38 weeks of gestation and receive 30-60minutes of telephone counselling at two weeks post partum, whereas both intervention and control groups received usual care. At two weeks postpartum, the Breast feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and a self-developed post partum questionnaire were completed via telephone interviews. The breast feeding duration, pattern of breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding rates were recorded at two weeks, four weeks, eight weeks and six months post partum. results of analyses based on an intention-to-treat (ITT) assumption showed a significant difference (p<0.01) in the change in BSES-SF mean scores between the mothers who received SEBEP and those who did not receive SEBEP at two weeks post partum. The exclusive breast feeding rate was 11.4% for the intervention group and 5.6% for the control group at six months post partum. the findings of this study highlight the feasibility of a major trial to implement breast feeding education targeted at increasing breast feeding self-efficacy and exclusive breast feeding rates in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Persian version of the Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale: psychometric study among subjects with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajati, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Masoud; Hasandokht, Tolou; Hosseini, Seyed Younes; Akbarzadeh, Rasool; Ashtarian, Hossein

    2017-11-01

    Self-efficacy plays a key role in varying areas of human conditions which can be measured by different scales. The present study was aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES) in Iranian Subjects with Physical Disability (SWPD). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and self-report surveys from 214 subjects. The face and content validity, and reliability were evaluated. Discriminates were evaluated between the sub-groups of disability levels, physical activity, and health condition levels. The concurrent, convergent, divergent, and construct validity were assessed by short form health survey scale (SF-36), general self-efficacy scale (GSES), hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), respectively. Replaceable exploratory factor analysis was evaluated. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. There were acceptable face and content validity, and reliability. Furthermore, significant correlation was found between PSES and SF-36 (p disability levels (p = 0.02), physical activity levels (p disability problems. Implications for rehabilitation Psychometric properties of the Persian version of self-Efficacy scale (PSES) appear to be similar to original, English version. The PSES has been shown to have validity and reliability in Persian physical disables and can be used for patients with more different types of physical disability than individuals suffering from only Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). The PSES can be used in clinical practice and research work to evaluate the patients' confidence in performing daily activities.

  18. Comparative study of the analgesic efficacy of rectal tramadol versus intravenous tramadol for adult tonsillectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Gadani, Hina N.; Chaudhary, Virendra Pratap

    2010-01-01

    Background: The optimal method for intra- and post-operative analgesia for adult tonsillectomy is uncertain. Tramadol hydrochloride is an analgesic with mixed mu and nonopioid activities, having less/no respiratory depression. Aim: The aim of our study was to compare the analgesic efficacy and nausea/vomiting produced by tramadol via intravenous and rectal administration during the first 24 h after anesthesia for adult tonsillectomy. Materials and Methods: The study design was prospective, ra...

  19. The Quest for Comparability: Studying the Invariance of the Teachers? Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES) Measure across Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Ronny; Jansen, Malte; Nilsen, Trude; Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers’ self-efficacy is an important motivational construct that is positively related to a variety of outcomes for both the teachers and their students. This study addresses challenges associated with the commonly used ‘Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES)’ measure across countries and provides a synergism between substantive research on teachers’ self-efficacy and the novel methodological approach of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). These challenges include adequately ...

  20. Accuracy and bias of ICT self-efficacy: an empirical study into students' over- and underestimation of their ICT competences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aesaert, K.; Voogt, J.; Kuiper, E.; van Braak, J.

    2017-01-01

    Most studies on the assessment of ICT competences use measures of ICT self-efficacy. These studies are often accused that they suffer from self-reported bias, i.e. students can over- and/or underestimate their ICT competences. As such, taking bias and accuracy of ICT self-efficacy into account,

  1. Empowering the Middle: A High School Study Skills Program and Its Impact on Academic Achievement and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Stephanie Yvette

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a self-regulatory skills course on the academic achievement and self-efficacy of 11th-grade students. The researcher compared intervention and control groups participants' pre- and posttest scores on the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Learning and Study Skills Assessment Inventory-High School version. Scores…

  2. Quantitative Study on Computer Self-Efficacy and Computer Anxiety Differences in Academic Major and Residential Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Zachary Wayne McClellan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety within 61 students across two academic majors, Aviation and Sports and Exercise Science, while investigating the impact residential status, age, and gender has on those two psychological constructs. The purpose of the study is to find if computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety…

  3. Teacher Self-Efficacy with Teaching Students to Lead IEP Meetings: A Correlation Study on Administrator Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Laron A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy has been closely linked to teacher performance of instructional tasks. Previous studies on teacher self-efficacy focused on general activities and were less specific regarding special education teachers' perceived ability to perform a given task. The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to evaluate high school special…

  4. An international multi-centre prospective study on the efficacy of an intraarticular polyacrylamide hydrogel in horses with osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tnibar, Aziz; Schougaard, Hans; Camitz, Linus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) was evaluated recently to treat osteoarthritis (OA) in horses with highly encouraging results; however no long term field-study was done to explore its clinical efficacy and lasting effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PAAG...

  5. Therapeutic efficacy of cyclic home elemental enteral alimentation in Crohn's disease: Japanese cooperative Crohn's disease study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, K; Shoda, R; Takazoe, M; Hiwatashi, N; Bamba, T; Kobayashi, K; Saito, T; Terano, A; Yao, T

    1995-11-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) often flares up and requires frequent hospitalization and/or surgery. Cyclic home elemental enteral alimentation (C-HEEA) was developed to prevent flare-up of CD and to minimize patient hospitalization. However, its therapeutic efficacy has not been studied in a large patient population. Therefore, questionnaires were sent to members of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Research Group of Japan to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of C-HEEA and to define the factors that may affect the efficacy of the treatment. Data for 410 patients (C-HEEA-treated n = 322; drug-treated n = 88) were collected from 29 institutions and analysis showed the following results. The cumulative remission and non-hospitalization rates of the C-HEEA treated group were significantly higher than the rates of the drug-treated group in all patients and in those with ileitis and ileo-colitis (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.01, respectively), but no significant difference was noted in patients with colitis. Cumulative remission and non-hospitalization rates were also influenced by the daily calorie content of the elemental diet (ED); more than 1200 kcal of the ED per day was found to be more effective than lower amounts to maintain remission and to prevent hospitalization. The therapeutic efficacy of C-HEEA was shown to be superior to that of drug treatment in patients with CD with ileal involvement, and it is suggested that more than 1200kcal per day should be supplied by the ED to enhance its therapeutic efficacy.

  6. Effects of single and repeated exposure to biocidal active substances on the barrier function of the skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Harrie E; van de Sandt, Johannes J M; van Burgsteden, Johan A; de Heer, Cees

    2005-10-01

    The dermal route of exposure is important in worker exposure to biocidal products. Many biocidal active substances which are used on a daily basis may decrease the barrier function of the skin to a larger extent than current risk assessment practice addresses, due to possible skin effects of repeated exposure. The influence of repeated and single exposure to representative biocidal active substances on the skin barrier was investigated in vitro. The biocidal active substances selected were alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC), boric acid, deltamethrin, dimethyldidecylammonium chloride (DDAC), formaldehyde, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide, sodium bromide, and tebuconazole. Of these nine compounds, only the quaternary ammonium chlorides ADBAC and DDAC had a clear and consistent influence on skin permeability of the marker compounds tritiated water and [(14)C]propoxur. For these compounds, repeated exposure increased skin permeability more than single exposure. At high concentrations the difference between single and repeated exposure was quantitatively significant: repeated exposure to 300 mg/L ADBAC increased skin permeability two to threefold in comparison to single exposure. Therefore, single and repeated exposure to specific biocidal products may significantly increase skin permeability, especially when used undiluted.

  7. Optical emission spectroscopy for quantification of ultraviolet radiations and biocide active species in microwave argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattieaux, G., E-mail: gaetan.wattieaux@laplace.univ-tlse.fr; Yousfi, M.; Merbahi, N.

    2013-11-01

    This work deals with absorption and mainly emission spectrometry of a microwave induced surfatron plasma jet launched in ambient air and using an Argon flow carrier gas. The Ar flow rate varies between 1 and 3 L/min and the microwave power between 40 and 60 W. The analysis of the various spectra has led to the determination of the ozone and atomic oxygen concentrations, ultraviolet (UV) irradiance separating UVA, UVB and UVC, gas temperature, plasma electron density and excitation temperature. Most of these diagnostics are spatially resolved along the plasma jet axis. It is shown more particularly that rotational temperature obtained from OH(A-X) spectra ranges between 800 K to 1000 K while the apparent temperature of the plasma jet remains lower than about 325 K which is compatible with biocide treatment without significant thermal effect. The electron density reaches 1.2 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}, the excitation temperature is about 4000 K, the UVC radiation represents only 5% of the UV radiations emitted by the device, the ozone concentration is found to reach 88 ± 27 ppm in the downstream part of the plasma jet at a distance of 30 mm away from the quartz tube outlet of the surfatron and the atomic oxygen concentration lies between 10 and 80 ppm up to a distance of 20 mm away from the quartz tube outlet. Ozone is identified as the main germicidal active species produced by the device since its concentration is in accordance with bacteria inactivation durations usually reported using such plasma devices. Human health hazard assessment is carried out all along this study since simple solutions are reminded to respect safety standards for exposures to ozone and microwave leakage. In this study, an air extraction unit is used and a Faraday cage is set around the quartz tube of the surfatron and the plasma jet. These solutions should be adopted by users of microwave induced plasma in open air conditions because according to the literature, this is not often the

  8. Optical emission spectroscopy for quantification of ultraviolet radiations and biocide active species in microwave argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattieaux, G.; Yousfi, M.; Merbahi, N.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with absorption and mainly emission spectrometry of a microwave induced surfatron plasma jet launched in ambient air and using an Argon flow carrier gas. The Ar flow rate varies between 1 and 3 L/min and the microwave power between 40 and 60 W. The analysis of the various spectra has led to the determination of the ozone and atomic oxygen concentrations, ultraviolet (UV) irradiance separating UVA, UVB and UVC, gas temperature, plasma electron density and excitation temperature. Most of these diagnostics are spatially resolved along the plasma jet axis. It is shown more particularly that rotational temperature obtained from OH(A-X) spectra ranges between 800 K to 1000 K while the apparent temperature of the plasma jet remains lower than about 325 K which is compatible with biocide treatment without significant thermal effect. The electron density reaches 1.2 × 10 14 cm −3 , the excitation temperature is about 4000 K, the UVC radiation represents only 5% of the UV radiations emitted by the device, the ozone concentration is found to reach 88 ± 27 ppm in the downstream part of the plasma jet at a distance of 30 mm away from the quartz tube outlet of the surfatron and the atomic oxygen concentration lies between 10 and 80 ppm up to a distance of 20 mm away from the quartz tube outlet. Ozone is identified as the main germicidal active species produced by the device since its concentration is in accordance with bacteria inactivation durations usually reported using such plasma devices. Human health hazard assessment is carried out all along this study since simple solutions are reminded to respect safety standards for exposures to ozone and microwave leakage. In this study, an air extraction unit is used and a Faraday cage is set around the quartz tube of the surfatron and the plasma jet. These solutions should be adopted by users of microwave induced plasma in open air conditions because according to the literature, this is not often the case

  9. Biocide Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus CC398 and CC30 Isolates from Pigs and Identification of the Biocide Resistance Genes, qacG and qacC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seier-Petersen, Maria Amalie; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Ingmer, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in particular clonal complex (CC) 398, is increasingly found in livestock. Recently, MRSA CC30 was identified in Danish pigs. We determined the susceptibility of porcine S. aureus isolates of CC398 and CC30 to disinfectants used in pig......)-encoding virulence factors were investigated. Methods: Susceptibilities to biocides and antimicrobial agents of 79 porcine S. aureus isolates were determined by the microdilution method. Isolates comprised 21 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 40 MRSA isolates belonging to CC398 and 13 MSSA and 5 MRSA...... isolates belonging to CC30. The presence of quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) resistance efflux pumps was analyzed using an ethidium bromide accumulation assay. The presence of qac resistance genes in active efflux pump positive isolates was determined by whole-genome sequencing data. All isolates were...

  10. Moral disengagement, self-efficacy and bullying: the framework of coexistence studies

    OpenAIRE

    Luciene Tognetta; José María Avilés; Pedro Rosário; Natividad Alonso

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between bullying and moral disengagements. In a research study conducted with 2,600 adolescents, between 14 and 16 years old, an attempt to verify their involvement in bullying, their self-efficacy beliefs regarding their academic performance and their possible moral disengagements was undertaken. A correlation between being bullying by others and the "dehumanization of the victim" was found. The participation in the bullying situation as authors, victi...

  11. Distributed leadership and teacher’ self-efficacy : the case studies of three Chinese schools in Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Meng

    2011-01-01

    This study looks into the distributed leadership and its influence on teachers’ self-efficacy in three Chinese schools in Shanghai. Against the background of the eighth national curriculum reform launched in 2002, the Chinese schools are seeking for the new way to enhance the school-based curriculum. On top of that, the trend of decentralization also encourages the school principals to involve the teachers in the school leadership practice. The relationship between distributed leadership...

  12. Associations between self-esteem, general self-efficacy and approaches to studying in occupational therapy students: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Sadeghi, Talieh; Thørrisen, Mikkel Magnus

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore associations between self-esteem, general self-efficacy, and the deep, strategic, and surface approaches to studying. Norwegian occupational therapy students (n = 125) completed questionnaires measuring study approaches, self-esteem, and general self-efficacy. Regression analyses were used to explore the direct relationships between self-esteem, general self-efficacy and the approaches to studying, after controlling for age, gender, prior higher education,...

  13. Collective Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ying; Zhou, Xiaohu; Klyver, Kim

    2018-01-01

    at manufacturing companies show that benevolent leadership and moral leadership, both components of paternalistic leadership, are positively related to organizational commitment and further that collective efficacy mediates the moral leadership–organizational commitment relationship. We did not find a relationship...... between authoritarian leadership and organizational commitment. Besides, it was found that team cohesion negatively moderates the relationship between moral leadership and collective efficacy and positively moderates the relationship between collective efficacy and organizational commitment. Explanations......Based on social cognitive theory, we theorize that collective efficacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between paternalistic leadership and organizational commitment and that this mediating role depends on team cohesion. The empirical results from a study of 238 employees from 52 teams...

  14. The Impact of Instructor Grouping Strategies on Student Efficacy in Inquiry Science Labs: A Phenomenological Case Study of Grouping Perceptions and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathaniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Abundant educational research has integrated Albert Bandura's concepts of self-efficacy and collective efficacy within educational settings. In this phenomenological case study, the investigation sought to capture the manifestation of self-efficacy and collective efficacy within inquiry-based science laboratory courses. Qualitative data was…

  15. Effects of Social Persuasion from Parents and Teachers on Chinese Students' Self-Efficacy: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yuen Yi; Chan, Joanne Chung Yan

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of social persuasion from parents and teachers on students' self-efficacy in reading comprehension in English as a foreign language. Ninety-nine Grade 8 Chinese students in a secondary school in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire with six scenarios which tapped their self-efficacy after receiving positive and…

  16. Adult Attachment, Social Self-Efficacy, Self-Disclosure, Loneliness, and Subsequent Depression for Freshman College Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Russel, Daniel W.; Zakalik, Robyn A.

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether social self-efficacy and self-disclosure serve as mediators between attachment and feelings of loneliness and subsequent depression. Participants were 308 freshmen at a large Midwestern university. Results indicated that social self-efficacy mediated the association between attachment anxiety and feelings…

  17. Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Children with Severe Autistic Disorders and Symptoms of ADHD: An Open-Label Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnsil, Chawanun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with severe autistic disorder. Method: Children with severe autistic disorder who had symptoms of ADHD were given atomoxetine for 10 weeks. The efficacy of atomoxetine was evaluated by using the…

  18. Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Petersen, Camilla Tang; Eriksson, Eva

    2014-01-01

    in Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet...... to 116 mg h(-1) carbendazim or 73 mg h(-1) mecoprop) supporting the hypothesis that the biocides were washed off by wind driven rain. Contrary, the biocide emissions during dry weather were rather related to household activities than with emissions from buildings, i.e., emissions were highest during...... morning and evening hours (up to 50 mg h(-1)). Emissions during night were significantly lower than during daytime. Only for propiconazole a different emission behaviour during dry weather was observed: the mass load peaked in the late afternoon (3 g h(-1)) and declined slowly afterwards. Most likely...

  19. Efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors versus nootropics in Alzheimer's disease: a retrospective, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolaki, M; Pantazi, T; Kazis, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of nootropics (piracetam, aniracetam, nimodopine and dihydroergicristine) versus acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-Is) (tacrine and donepezil) in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is a retrospective study of 510 patients with Alzheimer's disease. To determine clinical efficacy of treatment, we used the mean change over time in scores for the following tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); the Cambridge Cognitive Examination for the Elderly; and the Functional Rating Scale for Symptoms of Dementia. In all patients and in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (baseline MMSE nootropics (-4.38 for AChE-Is group versus 1.48 for nootropics group). For patients with mild dementia (baseline MMSE score between 21 and 26), there was a significantly greater deterioration on the MMSE scale for each time-point in the nootropics group compared with the AChE-Is group. In conclusion, we did not find any strong evidence that a difference in efficacy exists between AChE-Is and nootropics in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Thematic strategy on sustainable use of plant protection products. Prospects and requirements for transferring proposals for plant protection products to biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Lueskow, Heike [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik GmbH (OEKOPOL), Hamburg (Germany); Gross, Rita [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The sustainable use of pesticides pursues, independent of the authorisation of single products, the aim to minimise existing environmental risks of pesticide use and therefore contribute to the reduction of its impact on the environmental protection goals. The Thematic Strategy (TS) and the Framework Directive 2009/128/EC (FWD) on sustainable use of pesticides have so far only been implemented for plant protection products (PPP). For biocides there exists no harmonised approach. Within the project the possibilities and requirements for transferring measures of the FWD to the biocide area have been analysed, with specific focus on wood preservatives, insecticides, and antifouling products. Several biocidal active substances are found in the outlets of sewage treatment plants and in surface water, but an inventory of the present environmental impact as well as reliable data on biocide consumption and use patterns, which could be used to identify key action areas, are generally missing. These data are urgently needed for the development of suitable indicators and the definition of the objectives. Sustainable use of biocides addresses the three issues; social, environmental and economic impact at which the ecological background assigns the borderline and beam barrier of the economic and social development. A systematic analysis of the instruments for improving sustainable use of pesticides described in TS and FWD indicated that many issues can be transferred to the biocide area. This concerns e.g. education and training, requirements for sales, the establishment of awareness programmes, control of the machinery for biocide application, the development of best practice standards based on integrated pest management principles, and the collection of statistics on biocide consumption. Some biocide specific characteristics need to be considered: E.g. unlike PPP, the intended use of some biocides is to be directly applied in water bodies or indoors. Furthermore for some

  1. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®, Merial was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females, aged over 6 months and weighing 4–18 kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collected prior to allocation, were randomly divided into two equal groups. Dogs in Group 1 were not treated. Dogs in Group 2 were treated on Days 0 and 28. On Days 0 (pre-treatment, 28 (pre-treatment and 56, five skin scrapings of similar size were taken from different sites with lesions suggestive of sarcoptic mange. The extent of lesions was also recorded on Days 0, 28 and 56, and photographs were taken. Dogs treated orally with afoxolaner had significantly (p < 0.001 lower mite counts than untreated control animals at Days 28 and 56 with no mites recovered from treated dogs at these times (100% efficacy based on mite counts. In addition, dogs treated with NexGard had significantly (p < 0.05 better lesion resolution at Day 56 than Day 0; no treated dog showed pruritus compared to 7/10 dogs in the control group, 1/9 treated dogs had crusts compared to 5/10 controls and 8/9 dogs recovered 90% of hairs on lesions compared to 0/10 control dogs.

  2. Efficacy of botulinum toxin in treating myofascial pain in bruxers: a controlled placebo pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Manfredini, Daniele; Salamone, Milena; Salmaso, Luigi; Tonello, Stefano; Ferronato, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    The present investigation is a preliminary double-blind, controlled placebo, randomized clinical trial with a six month follow-up period. The study aimed to assess the efficacy of type A botulinum toxin (Botox, Allergan, Inc. Irvine, CA) to treat myofascial pain symptoms and to reduce muscle hyperactivity in bruxers. Twenty patients (ten males, ten females; age range 25-45) with a clinical diagnosis of bruxism and myofascial pain of the masticatory muscles were enrolled in a double-blind, controlled placebo, randomized clinical trial, with a treatment group (ten subjects treated with botulinum toxin injections- BTX-A) and a control group (ten subjects treated with saline placebo injections). A number of objective and subjective clinical parameters (pain at rest and during chewing; mastication efficiency; maximum nonassisted and assisted mouth opening, protrusive and laterotrusive movements; functional limitation during usual jaw movements; subjective efficacy of the treatment; tolerance of the treatment) were assessed at baseline time and at one week, one month, and six months follow-up appointments. Descriptive analysis showed that improvements in both objective (range of mandibular movements) and subjective (pain at rest; pain during chewing) clinical outcome variables were higher in the Botox treated group than in the placebo treated subjects. Patients treated with BTX-A had a higher subjective improvement in their perception of treatment efficacy than the placebo subjects. Differences were not significant in some cases due to the small sample size. Results from the present study supported the efficacy of BTX-A to reduce myofascial pain symptoms in bruxers, and provided pilot data which need to be confirmed by further research using larger samples.

  3. Ayahuasca's entwined efficacy: An ethnographic study of ritual healing from 'addiction'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talin, Piera; Sanabria, Emilia

    2017-06-01

    A range of studies has demonstrated the efficacy of the psychoactive Amazonian brew ayahuasca in addressing substance addiction. These have revealed that physiological and psychological mechanisms are deeply enmeshed. This article focuses on how interactive ritual contexts support the healing effort. The study of psychedelic-assisted treatments for addiction has much to gain from ethnographic analyses of healing experiences within the particular ecologies of use and care, where these interventions are rendered efficacious. This is an ethnographically grounded, qualitative analysis of addiction-recovery experiences within ayahuasca rituals. It draws on long-term fieldwork and participant observation in ayahuasca communities, and in-depth, semi-structured interviews of participants with histories of substance misuse. Ayahuasca's efficacy in the treatment of addiction blends somatic, symbolic and collective dimensions. The layering of these effects, and the direction given to them through ritual, circumscribes the experience and provides tools to render it meaningful. Prevailing modes of evaluation are ill suited to account for the particular material and semiotic efficacy of complex interventions such as ayahuasca healing for addiction. The article argues that practices of care characteristic of the ritual spaces in which ayahuasca is collectively consumed, play a key therapeutic role. The ritual use of ayahuasca stands in strong contrast to hegemonic understandings of addiction, paving new ground between the overstated difference between community and pharmacological interventions. The article concludes that fluid, adaptable forms of caregiving play a key role in the success of addiction recovery and that feeling part of a community has an important therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of the dedicated education unit on nursing student self-efficacy: A quasi-experimental research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lynn E; Locasto, Lisa W; Pyo, Katrina A; W Cline, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Although the Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) has shown initial promise related to satisfaction with the teaching/learning environment, few studies have examined student outcomes related to the use of the DEU as a clinical education model beyond student satisfaction. The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to compare student outcomes from the traditional clinical education (TCE) model with those from the DEU model. Participants were students enrolled in a four-year baccalaureate program in nursing (n = 193) who had clinical education activities in one of three clinical agencies. Participants were assigned to either the DEU or a TCE model. Pre-clinical and post-clinical self-efficacy scores were measured for each group using an adapted Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer and Jerusalem, 1995). Both groups experienced a significant increase in self-efficacy scores post clinical education. The increase in self-efficacy for the DEU students was significantly greater than the increase in self-efficacy for the traditional students. Self-efficacy is considered an important outcome of nursing education because high self-efficacy has been linked to making an easier transition from student to nursing professional. This study supports the quality of the DEU as a clinical education model by examining student self-efficacy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Appraisal of the biocide activity of products for the control of microorganisms associated with corrosive processes in the Bacia de Campos pipelines; Avaliacao da acao biocida de produtos para o controle de microrganismos associados a processos corrosivos em oledutos da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Monica de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Biotecnologia e Ecossistemas]. E-mail: mpena@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Andrade, Cynthia de Azevedo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Tecnologia de Materiais, Equipamentos e Corrosao]. E-mail: cynthiaandrade@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Nascimento, Juliana Rangel do; Silva, Edilson Domingos da; Souza, Leonardo Suhett de [Fundacao GORCEIX, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: julianarn@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; edilson@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; suhett@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2001-12-01

    The possible effect of corrosion inhibitors on bacteria has significant interest for the oil and gas industry since, in addition to presenting lower operational costs than biocides due to the low concentrations used, they allow a simultaneous activity on the inhibition of corrosion and adhesion of sulfate reducing-bacteria. In the case of pipes with low BSW oil fluid low, the benefit of using corrosion inhibitors in microorganism combat is even more significant in view of their dispersing characteristics during the oil phase. Herein presented are the laboratorial analysis results of the biocidal effects of six commercial products, four of which having corrosion inhibition function and two with biocidal quality. During this analysis, an oil sample collected from a Petrobras pipeline and a mixed culture of sulfate-reducing mesophilic bacteria (m-BRS) obtained from this sample were used. The study was divided in two phases: the first phase performed in semi-static conditions and, the second phase performed in dynamic conditions (loop). Compositions were analyzed according to their activities regarding the growth control of sulfate-reducing planktonic bacteria, according to their time reducing performance regarding microbial growth (activity) detection and regarding sessile bacteria (pre-adhered bacteria). Results showed that the two biocidal products had the best performance in the presence of oil and that the tetra kishidroximethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) at 75% was the most effective. Of the four corrosion inhibitors tested for efficiency regarding BRS growth in solution, three were slightly stimulating and the fourth was intensely stimulating. (author)

  6. [A study of factors influenced by self-efficacy for exercise among community-dwelling elderly men in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Itsushi

    2012-01-01

    It is important to promote self-efficacy for exercise for developing exercise habit. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influenced by self-efficacy for exercise among community-dwelling elderly men in urban areas. The subjects were 69 elderly men (mean age of 74.2±2.0 SD) who had given approval for participation in the study. We examined the following factors: family situation, history of falls, frequency of going out, stage model of a change, self-efficacy for exercise, fall efficacy scale (FES), geriatric depression scale (GDS), subjective health, functional ability and motor function (5 m walking time, chair stand test-5times). Analysis of variance was used to assess a stage model of a change differences in self-efficacy for exercise and other measures. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the relationships between self-efficacy for exercise and other measures. We found that self-efficacy of exercise, FES, GDS (pSelf-efficacy for exercise was found to correlate with psychological factors and functional ability (|r|=0.47-0.67). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the independent factors related to self-efficacy for exercise were FES and GDS. FES and GDS were found to be significant and independent predictors of self-efficacy for exercise in community-dwelling elderly men in urban areas. We should consider not only the approach based on behavioral science but also mental support for depression and fear of falling to promote exercise self-efficacy.

  7. Tire tread wear particles in ambient air--a previously unknown source of human exposure to the biocide 2-mercaptobenzothiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Bergvall, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2014-10-01

    Urban particulate matter (PM), asphalt, and tire samples were investigated for their content of benzothiazole and benzothiazole derivates. The purpose of this study was to examine whether wear particles, i.e., tire tread wear or road surface wear, could contribute to atmospheric concentrations of benzothiazole derivatives. Airborne particulate matter (PM10) sampled at a busy street in Stockholm, Sweden, contained on average 17 pg/m(3) benzothiazole and 64 pg/m(3) 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and the total suspended particulate-associated benzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole concentrations were 199 and 591 pg/m(3), respectively. This indicates that tire tread wear may be a major source of these benzothiazoles to urban air PM in Stockholm. Furthermore, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was determined in urban air particulates for the first time in this study, and its presence in inhalable PM10 implies that the human exposure to this biocide is underestimated. This calls for a revision of the risk assessments of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole exposure to humans which currently is limited to occupational exposure.

  8. Safety and efficacy of thromboprophylaxis using enoxaparin sodium after cesarean section: A multi-center study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Goto

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The current study demonstrates the safety and efficacy of enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after C/S. Further studies are required to determine the best method of preventing asymptomatic DVT.

  9. Antimicrobial properties and death-inducing mechanisms of saccharomycin, a biocide secreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branco, Patrícia; Francisco, Diana; Monteiro, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    . cerevisiae strains also secrete natural biocide fractions during alcoholic fermentation, although at different levels, which correlates with the antagonistic effect exerted against non-Saccharomyces yeasts. We, therefore, term this biocide saccharomycin. The native AMPs were purified by gel......-filtration chromatography and its antimicrobial activity was compared to that exhibited by chemically synthesized analogues (AMP1 and AMP2/3). Results show that the antimicrobial activity of the native AMPs is significantly higher than that of the synthetic analogues (AMP1 and AMP2/3), but a conjugated action of the two...... species during alcoholic fermentations....

  10. A Qualitative Study on the Emotional Healing Efficacy of Movies for Undergraduates Suffering Breakups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-may Sheih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Breakups with significant others are among the main reasons for emotional disturbance problems in Taiwanese undergraduates. Most undergraduates lack emotional regulation; therefore, their negative emotions can easily accumulate, influencing their mental health. Exacerbating these effects, the accumulation of negative emotions can lead to social problems. Therefore, helping undergraduates appropriately cope with negative emotions generated by breakups is a topic worth exploring. Movie therapy involves watching appropriate movies for soothing negative emotions. To investigate the emotional healing efficacy of movies, this study employed content analysis to select movies about breakups and recruited 14 undergraduates suffering from breakups. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted after the subjects viewed one of the movies, and the emotional healing efficacy of movies was analyzed based on whether the subjects experienced the processes of identification, catharsis, and insight. The findings indicated that 14 movies had emotional healing efficacy. The subjects experienced emotional healing from movies that contained three critical elements: similarity of backgrounds between the viewer and the movie characters, the extroversive expression of the movie characters’ emotions, and the characters’ demonstration of concrete solutions to the problems. [Article content in Chinese

  11. Analysis of isothiazolinone biocides in paper for food packaging by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Q-B; Wang, T-J; Song, H; Li, B

    2010-12-01

    A novel and simple method to detect isothiazolinone-type biocides (2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (MI), 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (CMI), 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BIT) and 2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (OIT)) in paper used for food packaging by ultrasonic extraction coupled with UPLC-MS/MS was developed. Parameters affecting process efficiency such as extraction solvents, UPLC mobile phase, gradient elution procedure and MS/MS conditions were studied to optimise the operating conditions. Using the optimised gradient elution procedure, the retention time was less than 6 min. The limits of detection (LODs) were found to be between 0.001 and 0.010 mg kg⁻¹, which was validated using actual concentrations. After diluting the standard solution with a blank matrix, the linear calibration curve ranges were 0.002-1.000 mg kg⁻¹ for BIT and OIT, 0.005-1.000 mg kg⁻¹ for MI, and 0.020-1.000 mg kg⁻¹ for CMI, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9985 (n = 6). A good level of precision with a mean recovery greater than 81.3% and a relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 6.2% were also obtained. A methodology has been proposed for the analysis of isothiazolinones in paper.

  12. Effect of diesel leakage in circulating cooling water system on preponderant bacteria diversity and bactericidal effect of biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huiyun; Liu, Fang; Lu, Jinjin; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Chaocheng

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products leakage results in adverse effect on the normal operation of a circulating cooling water system. However, relatively little research has been done to explore the effect of petroleum products leakage on circulating cooling water quality and biofilm preponderant bacteria diversity. Also, normal biocides application modes cannot fulfil the need for biofilm control. In this study, diesel oil was used as the experimental subject representing leaking petroleum products; the effect of diesel addition on biofilm preponderant bacteria diversity and the bactericidal effect of chlorine dioxide and tetradecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (1427) was investigated. Bacterial community structures were examined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and PCR cloning of 16S rDNA genes. Except for 100 mg/L diesel, increasing diesel concentration enhanced the biofilm detachment ratio compared with the control test. The microstructure of biofilm samples with 0, 300 and 900 mg/L diesel addition was observed. The species of preponderant bacteria in the biofilm sample with 300 mg/L diesel addition were more and the bacterial distribution was more uniform than those in the biofilm sample with 900 mg/L diesel addition. With ClO2 and 1427 addition, chemical oxygen demand increased, lipid phosphorus and bacterial count first decreased and then remained stable, and the bactericidal ratio first increased and then remained stable. Diesel addition variation has more obvious effect on ClO2 than 1427.

  13. [Efficacy of rasagiline in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease with motor fluctuation (azimut study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, O S; Boĭko, A N; Ivanov, A K

    2010-01-01

    An open observational 3-month study of efficacy and safety of selective MAO B inhibitor rasagiline (АZIlect) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with mоtor fluctuations on the long-term levodopa therapy (the "АZIMUT" study) has been conducted. Forty five non-demented patients with PD (mean age 64,7±8,4 years, mean duration of disease 9,5±4,0 years, mean Hoehn-Yahr stage 3,0±0,4, mean levodopa dose 673,9 mg/d) have been included in the study. All patients received rasagiline at a dose of 1 mg once daily as an adjunct to a stable anti-parkinsonian therapy. Patient's clinical state has been assessed at baseline and after 1 and 3 months of therapy. Forty two (93%) patients have completed the study. At the end of the third month of therapy, the daily off-time was decreased by 1,7 h. The ADL score (off-state) decreased by 22%, and the UPDRS-III score (on-state) decreased by 10%. The Global Clinical Improvement Scale revealed the marked improvement in 12% patients and moderate improvement in 43% patients. The severity of freezing of gait declined by 15%. Moreover, the initial severity of freezing seems to be a predictor of rasagiline clinical efficacy. The clinical effect of rasagiline steadily increased over 3 months. The fair tolerability of the drug and low rate of dyskinesias and other complications were demonstrated. In conclusion, the study has shown that rasagiline effectively reduces the off-time duration as well as the disability in off- and on-time and optimizes levodopa efficacy at the routine clinical practice setting.

  14. Are Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Social Studies Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Related to Their Learning Approaches in a Social Studies Teaching Methods Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the growing literature on learning approaches and teacher self-efficacy beliefs by examining associations between prospective elementary school teachers' learning approaches in a social studies teaching methods course and their social studies teaching efficacy beliefs. One hundred ninety-two prospective elementary…

  15. The mediating role of spirituality on professional values and self-efficacy: a study of senior nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Gyungjoo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the significance of spirituality in enhancing self-efficacy related to professional values in senior nursing students. Self-efficacy can predict job satisfaction and performance as professional nurses in clinical settings. Senior nursing students should have the level of self-efficacy that enables them to perform professional roles based on professional values, because they will enter clinical settings immediately after graduation. Spirituality may help senior nursing students during the transition to professional life to reflect on their skills, knowledge and situations to enhance self-efficacy based on professional values. An exploratory, cross-sectional design was used in this study. A total of 194 senior nursing students in South Korea were recruited in 2014. They completed self-reported questionnaires consisting of demographic questions, Spiritual Assessment Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale and Nursing Professional Values inventory. A Sobel test was done to determine the mediating effect of spirituality on the relationship between nursing professional values and self-efficacy. The findings showed a positive correlation between professional values, spirituality and self-efficacy in nursing students. According to the Sobel test, spirituality had a mediating effect on the relationship between professional values and self-efficacy in senior nursing students. Spirituality can be a foundation that provides senior nursing students with higher self-efficacy so that they are able to perform their professional roles based on their professional values. The findings can guide nursing educators to include spiritual development of nursing students to enhance the self-efficacy of senior nursing students, the future of the nursing profession. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Surface-attached cells, biofilms and biocide susceptibility: implications for hospital cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, J A; Vickery, K; Walker, J T; deLancey Pulcini, E; Stoodley, P; Goldenberg, S D; Salkeld, J A G; Chewins, J; Yezli, S; Edgeworth, J D

    2015-01-01

    Microbes tend to attach to available surfaces and readily form biofilms, which is problematic in healthcare settings. Biofilms are traditionally associated with wet or damp surfaces such as indwelling medical devices and tubing on medical equipment. However, microbes can survive for extended periods in a desiccated state on dry hospital surfaces, and biofilms have recently been discovered on dry hospital surfaces. Microbes attached to surfaces and in biofilms are less susceptible to biocides, antibiotics and physical stress. Thus, surface attachment and/or biofilm formation may explain how vegetative bacteria can survive on surfaces for weeks to months (or more), interfere with attempts to recover microbes through environmental sampling, and provide a mixed bacterial population for the horizontal transfer of resistance genes. The capacity of existing detergent formulations and disinfectants to disrupt biofilms may have an important and previously unrecognized role in determining their effectiveness in the field, which should be reflected in testing standards. There is a need for further research to elucidate the nature and physiology of microbes on dry hospital surfaces, specifically the prevalence and composition of biofilms. This will inform new approaches to hospital cleaning and disinfection, including novel surfaces that reduce microbial attachment and improve microbial detachment, and methods to augment the activity of biocides against surface-attached microbes such as bacteriophages and antimicrobial peptides. Future strategies to address environmental contamination on hospital surfaces should consider the presence of microbes attached to surfaces, including biofilms. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigations of the Effects of Biocide Dosing and Chemical Cleaning on the Organic Carbon Removal in an Integrated Ultrafiltration - Nanofiltration Desalination Pilot Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Khojah, Bayan A.

    2017-12-01

    Membrane desalination has become one of the most important desalination technologies used in the world. It provides high water quality for numerous applications and it demonstrates excellent desalination efficiency. One of the most troubling drawbacks of membrane desalination is membrane fouling. It decreases the performance of the membranes and increases the energy requirement. Two of the most important causes of fouling are microbes and organic matter. Hence, to maintain an optimized desalination performance, routine inspection of microbial and organic contents of water is crucial for desalination plants. In this study, water samples were obtained from different treatment points in an ultrafiltration (UF)/nanofiltration (NF) seawater desalination pilot plant. This was performed to better understand how the water quality changes along the desalination scheme. The effect of fouling control techniques, including Chemically Enhanced Backwash (CEB), Cleaning in Place (CIP), and the addition of a biocide (DBNPA) was studied. Different analytical tools were applied, including Bactiquant, Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC), and Liquid Chromatography for Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD). Out results showed that UF did not decrease TOC but it was sufficient in removing up to 99.7% of bacteria. Nanofiltration, removed up to 95% of TOC. However, NF permeate had a high increase in AOC as compared to the raw seawater sample. The LC-OCD results suggested that this might be due to the increased low molecular weight neutrals which were the most common organic species in the NF permeate. The fouling control techniques showed various effects on the desalination efficiency. Daily CEB did not cause a reduction in TOC or bacteria but decreased AOC in the UF filtrate. The biocide addition resulted in an adequate membranes protection from fouling and it did not affect the investigated water parameters. When the dosing of biocide was stopped, the water quality

  18. effect of biocides on biofilms of some multidrug resistant clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    They are used on medical devices to limit contamination. This study investigated the effects of some ... The antibiotic sensitivity test of the isolates was done following the Kirby-Bauer disc .... Table 1: Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of bacterial isolates from various clinicalspecimens in. Yola, Nigeria. Bacterial Isolates. CPX.

  19. Efficacy of chemical disinfectants for the containment of the salamander chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rooij, Pascale; Pasmans, Frank; Coen, Yanaïka; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) causes European salamander declines. Proper hygiene protocols including disinfection procedures are crucial to prevent disease transmission. Here, the efficacy of chemical disinfectants in killing Bsal was evaluated. At all tested conditions, Biocidal (R), Chloramine-T (R), Dettol medical (R), Disolol (R), ethanol, F10 (R), Hibiscrub (R), potassium permanganate, Safe4 (R), sodium hypochlorite, and Virkon S (R), were ...

  20. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY AND TOLERABILITY OF TRAMADOL AND ACECLOFENAC IN TREATMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a leading cause of musculoskeletal disability in elderly patients. It is a slow evolving disorder causing degeneration of articular cartilage associated with symptoms of joint tenderness, stiffness and limitation of movement. These symptoms get more worsened with weight bearing and movement. Non-steroidal anti- inflammatory (NSAIDS drugs and often Opioid analgesics offers a symptomatic relief in the management of osteoarthritis. So, the present study is conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of Tramadol and Aceclofenac in patients of osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study is a randomized, single centered, prospective clinical study and was conducted on 140 patients. INCLUSION CRITERIA Patients of sex, aged 40-60 years, suffering with symptoms of OA of knee who are radiologically diagnosed. EXCLUSION CRITERIA  Patients 60 years of age.  Patients with a history of peptic ulcers and hypersensitivity to NSAIDs/Opioids.  Patients with history of bleeding tendencies, cirrhosis and oesophageal varices.  Patients who have previously received Tramadol or Aceclofenac for treatment of osteoarthritis. After initial clinical assessment and baseline investigations, Aceclofenac tablet was given to 70 patients and Tramadol tablet was given orally to another 70 patients for 8 weeks. At the follow up, the results were analysed and compared statistically by paired t- test, unpaired t-test, Fischer’s exact test. RESULTS Aceclofenac has shown significant change than Tramadol in efficacy parameters like Western Ontario Mac Master (WOMAC scores (p<0.0001, joint tenderness (p<0.0001, investigator assessment for disease status (p=0.01 and response to therapy (p=0.038. Incidence of adverse effects is significant with Tramadol (p=0.02. DISCUSSION Aceclofenac was found superior than Tramadol in improving the patient’s clinical condition. Aceclofenac was found to be well tolerated than Tramadol in terms of

  1. Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    agent (GA). During a reaction the GA generates nucleation sites that promote the formation of bubbles. As the reaction wave passes, the gas pockets...studies have shown iodine producing reactive materials are effective against spore forming bacteria, but are sensitive to the relative humidity in the...testing environment. Results from tests run in relative high humidity environments show a decreased ability of iodine to effectively neutralize

  2. Nursing Student Self-efficacy in Psychomotor Skills: Findings From a Validation, Longitudinal, and Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfone, Giampiera; Fida, Roberta; Ghezzi, Valerio; Macale, Loreana; Sili, Alessandro; Alvaro, Rosaria; Palese, Alvisa

    Student perceptions of self-efficacy (SE) prevent stress and burnout and improve engagement in nursing education, thus increasing learning outcomes. The study aims were to (1) validate a scale measuring nursing SE in psychomotor skills (NSE-PS), (2) describe changes in NSE-PS over time, and (3) explore NSE-PS correlations with burnout and engagement. A total of 1117 nursing students participated. A significant increase in the NSE-PS scores over the years has emerged; in addition, all NSE-PS dimensions were correlated negatively with burnout and positively with engagement.

  3. Coach training can improve the self-efficacy of neonatal nurses. A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this pilot study we have investigated the impact of coach training offered to neonatal nurses on their assessment of their ability to meet the needs of the mothers and fathers. METHODS: The effect of a 3-day coaching training offered to neonatal nurses was investigated...... significant. CONCLUSION: Coaching can improve nurses' self-efficacy in relation to meet the needs of the mothers and fathers. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Coaching could be a method that can maximize the personal and professional potential of the staff, and prepare them for the mindful being-in-relation approach...

  4. Long-term Efficacy of Trabeculectomy on Chinese Patients with Pigmentary Glaucoma: A Prospective Case Series Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ping Qing

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: All surgical PG eyes in this study had satisfactory IOP control 8 years after the surgery with well-preserved visual function. The long-term efficacy and safety of trabeculectomy are promising in PG patients.

  5. Efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses: A short-term clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by utilizing natural beneficial bacteria commonly found in healthy mouths to provide a natural defense against those bacteria thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. However, data are still sparse on the probiotic action in the oral cavity. The review article on probiotics in children published by Twetman and Stecksen- Blicks in 2008 showed only one study of dental interest on probiotics in children. Aim and Objectives: The present study evaluated clinically the efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingival accumulation in children. The trial design is a double-blind parallel group, 14 days comparative study between a probiotic mouth rinse and a chlorhexidine mouth rinse, which included 45 healthy children in the age group of 6-8 years. Results: The Probiotic and Chlorhexidine groups had less plaque accumulations compared with the Control group at the end of 14 years (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. But, unlike the plaque score, there was a significant difference in the Gingival Index between the Probiotic and the Chlorhexidine groups (P = 0.009, Probiotic group being better than the Chlorhexidine group (mean = 0.2300 and 0.6805, respectively. Conclusion: The Probiotic mouth rinse was found effective in reducing plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Therefore, probiotic mouth rinse obviously has a potential therapeutic value and further long-term study is recommended to determine its efficacy.

  6. Superb hydroxyl radical-mediated biocidal effect induced antibacterial activity of tuned ZnO/chitosan type II heterostructure under dark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, Soumik; Halder, Suman; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Das, Dipankar; Ghosh, Chandan Kr.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the most dominating factor for bacteria cell toxicity due to release of oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radical ("·OH) is a strong oxidizing ROS that has high impact on biocidal activity. This present paper highlights "·OH influenced antibacterial activity and biocidal propensity of tuned ZnO/chitosan (ZnO/CS) nanocomposite against Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) in the absence of light for the first time. For this purpose, the CS proportion was increased by 25 % (w/w) of ZnO during the preparation of ZnO/CS nanocomposite and a systematic study of different ROS like superoxide anion (O_2"·"−), hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) and "·OH production as well as their kinetics was carried out both under UV irradiation and in dark by UV–Vis spectroscopy using NBT dye, starch and iodine reaction and fluorescence spectroscopy using terephthalic acid. The decoration of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO·NPs) with CS tuning was characterized by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy, revealing sustained crystallinity and surface coating of ZnO NP (size about ~24 nm) by CS molecule. The hybridization of ZnO nanoparticles with CS@50 wt% (w/w) resulted superior biocidal activity (81 %) within 3 h in dark mediated by optimum production of "·OH among all ROS. Here we have proposed the enhanced production of "·OH in ZnO/CS due to generation of holes by entrapment of electrons in acceptor level formed in nanocomposite for the first time, and the acceptor levels were probed by Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The increase in non-positronium (non-Ps) formation probability (I_2) in ZnO/CS nanocomposite confirmed the acceptor levels. This work also confirms surface defect-mediated ROS generation in dark, and zinc interstitials are proposed as active defect sites for generation of holes and "·OH for the first time and confirmed by steady-state room temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. Finally, a plausible mechanism was hypothesized focusing on hole

  7. Superb hydroxyl radical-mediated biocidal effect induced antibacterial activity of tuned ZnO/chitosan type II heterostructure under dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Soumik; Halder, Suman; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Das, Dipankar; Ghosh, Chandan Kr.

    2016-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the most dominating factor for bacteria cell toxicity due to release of oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radical (·OH) is a strong oxidizing ROS that has high impact on biocidal activity. This present paper highlights ·OH influenced antibacterial activity and biocidal propensity of tuned ZnO/chitosan (ZnO/CS) nanocomposite against Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) in the absence of light for the first time. For this purpose, the CS proportion was increased by 25 % (w/w) of ZnO during the preparation of ZnO/CS nanocomposite and a systematic study of different ROS like superoxide anion (O 2 ·- ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ·OH production as well as their kinetics was carried out both under UV irradiation and in dark by UV-Vis spectroscopy using NBT dye, starch and iodine reaction and fluorescence spectroscopy using terephthalic acid. The decoration of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO·NPs) with CS tuning was characterized by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy, revealing sustained crystallinity and surface coating of ZnO NP (size about 24 nm) by CS molecule. The hybridization of ZnO nanoparticles with CS@50 wt% (w/w) resulted superior biocidal activity (81 %) within 3 h in dark mediated by optimum production of ·OH among all ROS. Here we have proposed the enhanced production of ·OH in ZnO/CS due to generation of holes by entrapment of electrons in acceptor level formed in nanocomposite for the first time, and the acceptor levels were probed by Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The increase in non-positronium (non-Ps) formation probability (I2) in ZnO/CS nanocomposite confirmed the acceptor levels. This work also confirms surface defect-mediated ROS generation in dark, and zinc interstitials are proposed as active defect sites for generation of holes and ·OH for the first time and confirmed by steady-state room temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. Finally, a plausible mechanism was hypothesized focusing on hole generation in ZnO NP and

  8. Superb hydroxyl radical-mediated biocidal effect induced antibacterial activity of tuned ZnO/chitosan type II heterostructure under dark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podder, Soumik [Jadavpur University, School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology (India); Halder, Suman [Jadavpur University, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology (India); Roychowdhury, Anirban; Das, Dipankar [Kolkata Centre, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research (India); Ghosh, Chandan Kr., E-mail: chandu-ju@yahoo.co.in [Jadavpur University, School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology (India)

    2016-10-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the most dominating factor for bacteria cell toxicity due to release of oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radical ({sup ·}OH) is a strong oxidizing ROS that has high impact on biocidal activity. This present paper highlights {sup ·}OH influenced antibacterial activity and biocidal propensity of tuned ZnO/chitosan (ZnO/CS) nanocomposite against Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) in the absence of light for the first time. For this purpose, the CS proportion was increased by 25 % (w/w) of ZnO during the preparation of ZnO/CS nanocomposite and a systematic study of different ROS like superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ·−}), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and {sup ·}OH production as well as their kinetics was carried out both under UV irradiation and in dark by UV–Vis spectroscopy using NBT dye, starch and iodine reaction and fluorescence spectroscopy using terephthalic acid. The decoration of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO·NPs) with CS tuning was characterized by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy, revealing sustained crystallinity and surface coating of ZnO NP (size about ~24 nm) by CS molecule. The hybridization of ZnO nanoparticles with CS@50 wt% (w/w) resulted superior biocidal activity (81 %) within 3 h in dark mediated by optimum production of {sup ·}OH among all ROS. Here we have proposed the enhanced production of {sup ·}OH in ZnO/CS due to generation of holes by entrapment of electrons in acceptor level formed in nanocomposite for the first time, and the acceptor levels were probed by Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The increase in non-positronium (non-Ps) formation probability (I{sub 2}) in ZnO/CS nanocomposite confirmed the acceptor levels. This work also confirms surface defect-mediated ROS generation in dark, and zinc interstitials are proposed as active defect sites for generation of holes and {sup ·}OH for the first time and confirmed by steady-state room temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. Finally, a

  9. Developing a Measurement Tool for Assessing Physiotherapy Students' Self-Efficacy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anne; Sheppard, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine if self-efficacy can be correlated with prior academic achievement and whether self-efficacy can be an outcome measure of education. A self-efficacy instrument was developed and administered to physiotherapy students following completion of their pre-clinical theory experience. The questionnaire results…

  10. A Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety of Eberconazole versus Terbinafine in Patients of Tinea Versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Kaushal, Jyoti; Aggarwal, Kamal

    2018-01-01

    Tinea versicolor (TV) is characterised by the appearance of maculosquamous lesions sometimes associated with mild erythema and pruritus in characteristic areas of the body. Eberconazole and terbinafine though drugs of different classes provide both mycological and clinical cure. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of eberconazole versus terbinafine in patients of TV. An open-label, randomised, comparative clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients. The patients were randomly divided into two study groups. Group A: Eberconazole 1% cream once daily and Group B: Terbinafine 1% cream once daily for 2 weeks. Efficacy assessment was done by observing signs and symptoms, i.e., Physician assessment 4-point scale, microscopic KOH examination, Wood's lamp examination, global clinical response assessment, and patient's assessment on visual analog scale at the end of 2 weeks and subsequently patients were reassessed at the end of 4 and 8 weeks to check any relapse. Safety assessment was also done. There was a significant improvement in all the parameters in both groups over a period of 2 weeks. Both the treatment groups, i.e., eberconazole and terbinafine were found to be safe and efficacious at the end of 2 weeks, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding complete cure, i.e., mycological and clinical cure (80% vs. 63.33%), respectively. However, early response (at the end of week 1) was observed with eberconazole. No relapse was seen with eberconazole, but one patient had relapse at 8 weeks with terbinafine. Both drugs had similar safety profile. Although both the drugs cured the disease, eberconazole showed better response as clinical cure and mycological cure were observed earlier and no patient relapsed in the follow-up.

  11. A comparative study of efficacy and safety of eberconazole versus terbinafine in patients of tinea versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tinea versicolor (TV is characterised by the appearance of maculosquamous lesions sometimes associated with mild erythema and pruritus in characteristic areas of the body. Eberconazole and terbinafine though drugs of different classes provide both mycological and clinical cure. Aim: This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of eberconazole versus terbinafine in patients of TV. Materials and Methods: An open-label, randomised, comparative clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients. The patients were randomly divided into two study groups. Group A: Eberconazole 1% cream once daily and Group B: Terbinafine 1% cream once daily for 2 weeks. Efficacy assessment was done by observing signs and symptoms, i.e., Physician assessment 4-point scale, microscopic KOH examination, Wood's lamp examination, global clinical response assessment, and patient's assessment on visual analog scale at the end of 2 weeks and subsequently patients were reassessed at the end of 4 and 8 weeks to check any relapse. Safety assessment was also done. Results: There was a significant improvement in all the parameters in both groups over a period of 2 weeks. Both the treatment groups, i.e., eberconazole and terbinafine were found to be safe and efficacious at the end of 2 weeks, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding complete cure, i.e., mycological and clinical cure (80% vs. 63.33%, respectively. However, early response (at the end of week 1 was observed with eberconazole. No relapse was seen with eberconazole, but one patient had relapse at 8 weeks with terbinafine. Both drugs had similar safety profile. Conclusion: Although both the drugs cured the disease, eberconazole showed better response as clinical cure and mycological cure were observed earlier and no patient relapsed in the follow-up.

  12. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Prashanth, Vishwakarma K; Mali, Gaurao Vasant

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical isolates of the aforementioned test organisms. The well variant of agar disk diffusion test using Mueller-Hinton agar was used for evaluating the antimicrobial efficacy of hand sanitizers. McFarland 0.5 turbidity standard was taken as reference to adjust the turbidity of bacterial suspensions. Fifty microliters of the hand sanitizer was introduced into each of the 4 wells while the 5 th well incorporated with sterile water served as a control. This was done for all the test organisms and plates were incubated in an incubator for 24 h at 37΀C. After incubation, antimicrobial effectiveness was determined using digital caliper (mm) by measuring the zone of inhibition. The mean diameters of zones of inhibition (in mm) observed in Group A (Sterillium), Group B (PureHands), Group C (Lifebuoy), and Group D (Dettol) were 22 ± 6, 7.5 ± 0.5, 9.5 ± 1.5, and 8 ± 1, respectively. Maximum inhibition was found with Group A against all the tested organisms. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, followed by post hoc test for group-wise comparisons. The difference in the values of different sanitizers was statistically significant at P hand sanitizer to maintain the hand hygiene.

  13. Development of an Aotus nancymaae Model for Shigella Vaccine Immunogenicity and Efficacy Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Michael; Lugo-Roman, Luis A.; Galvez Carrillo, Hugo; Tilley, Drake Hamilton; Baldeviano, Christian; Simons, Mark P.; Reynolds, Nathanael D.; Ranallo, Ryan T.; Suvarnapunya, Akamol E.; Venkatesan, Malabi M.; Oaks, Edwin V.

    2014-01-01

    Several animal models exist to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of candidate Shigella vaccines. The two most widely used nonprimate models for vaccine development include a murine pulmonary challenge model and a guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model. Nonhuman primate models exhibit clinical features and gross and microscopic colonic lesions that mimic those induced in human shigellosis. Challenge models for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Campylobacter spp. have been successfully developed with Aotus nancymaae, and the addition of a Shigella-Aotus challenge model would facilitate the testing of combination vaccines. A series of experiments were designed to identify the dose of Shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457T that induces an attack rate of 75% in the Aotus monkey. After primary challenge, the dose required to induce an attack rate of 75% was calculated to be 1 × 1011 CFU. Shigella-specific immune responses were low after primary challenge and subsequently boosted upon rechallenge. However, preexisting immunity derived from the primary challenge was insufficient to protect against the homologous Shigella serotype. A successive study in A. nancymaae evaluated the ability of multiple oral immunizations with live-attenuated Shigella vaccine strain SC602 to protect against challenge. After three oral immunizations, animals were challenged with S. flexneri 2a 2457T. A 70% attack rate was demonstrated in control animals, whereas animals immunized with vaccine strain SC602 were protected from challenge (efficacy of 80%; P = 0.05). The overall study results indicate that the Shigella-Aotus nancymaae challenge model may be a valuable tool for evaluating vaccine efficacy and investigating immune correlates of protection. PMID:24595138

  14. Evaluation of Efficacy of Herbal Intrauterine Infusion Uterofix Liquid in Treatment of Various Reproductive Disorders in Cows: A Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Satinder; Choudhary, Adarsh; Maini, Shivi; Ravikanth, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid in the treatment of various reproductive disorders in cows. Materials and Methods: Based on symptoms of endometritis, anestrous, metritis, and repeat breeders, 28 cows were selected to study the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid (M/S Ayurvet Limited) in uterine infections study. Group T0 (n = 8) cows served as control group, no treatment was given to this group, Group T1 (n = 5) repeat b...

  15. A study to evaluate the field efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate, with preliminary observations on the efficacy of doramectin, as anthelmintics in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Davies

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate and doramectin was evaluated under field conditions at 2 sites in the Free State Province of South Africa. The study involved 25 horses at each site, divided into 5 groups of equal size. Ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate were administered orally at doses of 0.2, 10 and 19 mg/kg respectively. Doramectin was administered by intramuscular injection at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg. Treatment efficacy was based on the mean faecal egg count reduction 14 days post treatment. At site A a faecal egg count reduction of 100 % was found after treatment with ivermectin, fenbendazole and doramectin. A 96.1 % reduction was found after treatment with pyrantel pamoate. At site B ivermectin and doramectin produced a 100 %reduction in faecal egg counts, fenbendazole produced an 80.8 % reduction and pyrantel pamoate a 94.1 %reduction. Doramectin produced a 100 %reduction in faecal egg counts at both sites, despite not being registered for use in horses. In addition, the results indicated reduced efficacy of fenbendazole at site B, which suggested benzimidazole resistance. Larval cultures showed that cyathostomes accounted for between 86 and 96 %of pre-treatment parasite burdens at both sites. Other helminths identified in the faecal samples were Strongylus spp. and Trichostrongylus axei.

  16. Prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day: a WHO multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, P; Amin, M; Agarwal, A K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day to patients with bipolar disorder or recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. METHODS: The study was carried out as a WHO multicentre study in five different psychiatric clinics: Russia (Moscow), Canada (Montreal......), India (Lucknow), Germany (Munich) and South Korea (Pusan), with the lithium tablets being supplied from Denmark (Copenhagen). Participation in the study was conditional on the patient having been in prophylactic lithium treatment for the preceding 2-year period and having been free of depressive...... of bipolar disorder and five with a diagnosis of recurrent unipolar depressive disorder, participated in the study. The number of patients from each centre ranged from six to 11. The mean lithium dose every second day was 36 mmol lithium, leading to a mean 12-h standard serum lithium concentration during...

  17. Micropollutants in closed life-support systems: the case of triclosan, a biocide excreted via urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Pycke, Benny; Boon, Nico; de Wever, Heleen; Hendrickx, Larissa; Mastroleo, Felice; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max; Verstraete, Willy

    OBJECTIVES: The impact of triclosan on the growth and physiology of the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum was studied in the frame of the regenerative life-support system, Micro- Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA). A wide range of compounds, such as steroid hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, might enter the life support system via the excrements that are to be treated and recycled. Triclosan was chosen as the first compound to be tested because MELiSSA is a closed system, which is consequently particularly sensitive to compounds inhibiting the microbial metabolism. Because triclosan is increasingly used as an antimicrobial biocide in hygienic formulations (such as toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants, etc.) and due to its chemical stability, it is considered an emerging pollutant in terrestrial ecosystems. METHODS: In a first phase, the triclosan concentration expected in the life-support system was estimated, the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined via plating, and the effect on growth kinetics was assessed by comparing growth parameters in the Gompertz model. In a second phase, the secondary effects of triclosan on cell physiology and gene expression were studied through flow-cytometry and microarray analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Based on the pharmacokinetic data from literature, the predicted concentration range is estimated to be 6-25µg/L triclosan in the Rhodospirillum rubrum compartment of the MELiSSA. The minimal inhibitory concentration of triclosan was determined to be 71 µg/L after 7 days of exposure on Sistrom medium. Upon exposure to 50-200µg/L triclosan, triclosan-resistant mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum arose spontaneously at high frequency (3.1 ∗ 10 - 4). Analysis of the growth kinetics of the wild-type revealed that triclosan causes an important elongation of the lag-phase and a decrease in growth rate. At concentrations higher than 75mg/L(LD = 500mg/L), triclosan is bactericidal to wild

  18. Efficacy and Stability studies of microbial folate fortified fruit juices prepared using probiotic microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, S; Ojha, S; Kundu, S

    2017-07-31

    Folate, natural form of water soluble vitamin folic acid, is significant for humans as involved in most important metabolic reactions i.e. nucleotide synthesis and amino acid inter conversions. Thus its deficiency causes neural tube defects in newborns and cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Humans cannot synthesize folate de novo so consumption through diet is essential. Natural food sources, supplements and fortified food products are the choices available to complete the Daily recommended intake. However microbial fortification using probiotics recently gained wide attention due to dual advantage of natural food matrix with enhanced folate content along with the probiotics benefits. Current study was focused on the microbial fortification of fruit juices and their efficacy and stability studies. Freshly filtered orange and tomato juice was prepared and inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus NCIM 2904. Incubation was done at 40°C and samples were collected at different time interval. Folate extraction was done using human plasma and content was measured by microbiological assay using Lactobacillus casei NCIM No. 2364. Efficacy and stability studies were carried out to ensure the quality of juices to be consumed in terms of folate content, viable cell count and pH after 4 weeks of storage at low temperature. Positive results were observed as folate content was quite stable whereas viable cell count was also found to be significant till some time without adding any preservatives. The results indicated that fortified fruit juices could be used as probiotic beverages with enhanced folate content.

  19. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peedikayil, Faizal C; Remy, Vimal; John, Seena; Chandru, T P; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Bijapur, Gufran Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the most common organism causing dental caries. Various chemotherapeutic agents are available that help in treating the bacteria, with each having their own merits and demerits. Recent research has shown that coconut oil has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action. Therefore, the present was conducted to determine the antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and to compare it with chlorhexidine. A total of fifty female children aged 8-12 years were included in the study. Twenty five children were randomly distributed to each group, i.e., the study group (coconut oil) and the control group (chlorhexidine). The participants were asked to routinely perform oil swishing with coconut oil and chlorhexidine and rinse every day in the morning after brushing for 2-3 minutes. S. mutans in saliva and plaque were determined using a chairside method, i.e., the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test. Patients were instructed to continue oil swishing for 30 days. S. mutans . counts in plaque and saliva on day 1, day 15, and day 30 were recorded and the results were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. The results showed that there is a statistically significant decrease in S. mutans . count from coconut oil as well as chlorhexidine group from baseline to 30 days. The study also showed that in comparison of coconut oil and chlorhexidine there is no statistically significant change regarding the antibacterial efficacy. Coconut oil is as effective as chlorhexidine in the reduction of S. mutans .

  20. Efficacy of electroacupuncture for symptoms of menopausal transition: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhishun; Wang, Yang; Xu, Huanfang; Wu, Jiani; He, Liyun; Jiang, John Yi; Yan, Shiyan; Du, Ruosang; Liu, Baoyan

    2014-06-21

    Previous studies have shown that acupuncture can alleviate postmenopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes, but few studies have assessed symptoms during the menopausal transition (MT) period. Thus, the effect of acupuncture upon MT symptoms is unclear. We designed a large-scale trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy of electroacupuncture for MT symptoms compared with sham electroacupuncture and at observing the safety of electroacupuncture. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 360 women will be randomized to either an electroacupuncture group or a sham electroacupuncture group. During the 8-week-long treatment, a menopause rating scale, average 24-hour hot flash score, Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire score, and level of female hormones will be observed. Follow-ups at the 20th and 32nd week will be made. Though there is no completely inert placebo acupuncture and blinding is difficult in acupuncture trials, the placebo effect of EA can still be partially excluded in this study. For the placebo control, we use non-points and a tailor-made sham needle. This needle is different from a retractable needle, which is usually used for sham acupuncture. The needle in this trial is more simply constructed and more acceptable to Chinese people. We expect to evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture for MT symptoms and clarify its effect on these symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01849172 (Date of registration: 05/05/2013).

  1. Efficacy of triclosan as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential impact on antimicrobial resistance: a focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Christopher A; Rybak, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Triclosan is a synthetic biocide found in many household products, including antimicrobial hand soap. Levels of triclosan have been found throughout the environment and in human urine, blood, and even breast milk. Increasing levels of exposure to triclosan have led to concerns over the development of resistance to triclosan and cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. We performed a literature search to assess whether the widespread use of triclosan displays a favorable benefit: risk ratio, defined by evaluation of triclosan's efficacy as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential effect on the development of antimicrobial resistance. Data from laboratory-based studies regarding the efficacy of triclosan are conflicting, although well-designed studies suggest no significant difference in efficacy over nonantimicrobial soap. In addition, when triclosan was introduced in a community setting, no beneficial effects were observed on the reduction of infections over nonantimicrobial soap. Resistance to triclosan and cross-resistance to antimicrobials have been consistently demonstrated in laboratory settings, although overall resistance rates and cross-resistance rates in the community setting are low. Based on the available evidence, the risk of potential antimicrobial resistance outweighs the benefit of widespread triclosan use in antimicrobial soaps. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation following biocide treatment improves Calocedrus decurrens survival and growth in nursery and outplanting sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Amaranthus; David Steinfeld

    2005-01-01

    Commercial production of tree seedlings often includes various biocidal soil treatments for disease control. Such treatments can be effective in eliminating or reducing disease organisms in the soil, but may also eliminate non-targeted beneficial soil organisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi, that improve seedling performance, both in the nursery as well as the outplanted...

  3. Development of a concept for the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products for authorization purposes (BIOEXPO). Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, H.P. van; Scholten, M.C.Th.; Bakker, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Biocidal Products Directive (Draft 97/C69/03; latest version December 12' 1997, 95/0465 (COD); PE CONS 3633/97) will complete the European chemicals regulation, which consists of the directives on existing substances (Council regu-lation 793/93), new substances (Directive 92/32/EC) and

  4. Assessing the Efficacy of an App-Based Method of Family Planning: The Dot Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Rebecca G; Shattuck, Dominick C; Jennings, Victoria H

    2017-01-18

    Some 222 million women worldwide have unmet needs for contraception; they want to avoid pregnancy, but are not using a contraceptive method, primarily because of concerns about side effects associated with most available methods. Expanding contraceptive options-particularly fertility awareness options that provide women with information about which days during their menstrual cycles they are likely to become pregnant if they have unprotected intercourse-has the potential to reduce unmet need. Making these methods available to women through their mobile phones can facilitate access. Indeed, many fertility awareness applications have been developed for smartphones, some of which are digital platforms for existing methods, requiring women to enter information about fertility signs such as basal body temperature and cervical secretions. Others are algorithms based on (unexplained) calculations of the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Considering particularly this latter (largely untested) group, it is critical that these apps be subject to the same rigorous research as other contraceptive methods. Dynamic Optimal Timing, available via the Dot app as a free download for iPhone and Android devices, is one such method and the only one that has published the algorithm that forms its basis. It combines historical cycle data with a woman's own personal cycle history, continuing to accrue this information over time to identify her fertile period. While Dot has a theoretical failure rate of only 3 in 100 for preventing pregnancy with perfect use, its effectiveness in typical use has yet to be determined. The study objective is to assess both perfect and typical use to determine the efficacy of the Dot app for pregnancy prevention. To determine actual use efficacy, the Institute for Reproductive Health is partnering with Cycle Technologies, which developed the Dot app, to conduct a prospective efficacy trial, following 1200 women over the course of 13 menstrual cycles to

  5. Comparative study with two different enrichments in the culture media used in the disinfectant efficacy assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabagh, Bruna Peres; Souto, Aline da Silva Soares; Reis, Louise Moreira; Silva, Sérgio Alves da; Pereira, Daniella Cristina Rodrigues; Neves, Marta de Campos; Pinheiro, Rodrigo Rollin; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Miyazaki, Neide Hiromi Tokumaru; Bôas, Maria Helena Simões Villas

    2012-02-01

    Recent changes in Brazilian legislation for commercial disinfectants have been published due to the recent epidemic of nosocomial infections caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) in many states of Brazil over the last 8years. One of these documents requires that all the manufacturers provide evidence of efficacy of sterilizing and disinfectant products, used for semi critical medical devices, against the Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau and Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii INCQS 00594 strains by using the Confirmative in vitro Test for Determining Tuberculocidal Activity of Disinfectants recommended by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. These changes have caused additional costs and increased problems for importation of enrichment products at national laboratories where disinfectant efficacy assay service is performed. Middlebrook ADC Enrichment (ADC) is provided by a unique manufacturer and used in the official protocol. The aim of the present study was to evaluate an alternative in house low-cost enrichment composed of fetal bovine serum and glucose (FBSG) with ADC for performance of disinfectant efficacy assay against mycobacteria. After obtaining the growth curves for M. abscessus ATCC 19977, M. abscessus subsp. bolletii INCQS 00594, Mycobacterium chelonae ATCC 35752, and Mycobacterium fortuitum ATCC 6841 by using ADC enrichment and FBSG in Kirchners and 7H9 culture media. Through statistical analysis via the Kruskal-Wallis test on the evaluation of microorganism growth rate, it was observed that there was no inhibition of RGM growth by any of the enrichments used. These results suggest that low-cost enrichment FBSG may be used as a potential substitute of ADC for composition of media for mycobacterial growth, including in disinfectant tests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth Hormone Protects the Intestine Preserving Radiotherapy Efficacy on Tumors: A Short-Term Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Caz

    Full Text Available The efficacy of radiotherapy on tumors is hampered by its devastating adverse effects on healthy tissue, particularly that of the gastrointestinal tract. These effects cause acute symptoms that are so disruptive to patients that they can lead to interruption of the radiotherapy program. These adverse effects could limit the intensity of radiation received by the patient, resulting in a sublethal dose to the tumor, thus increasing the risk of tumor resistance. The lack of an effective treatment to protect the bowel during radiation therapy to allow higher radiation doses that are lethal to the tumor has become a barrier to implementing effective therapy. In this study, we present a comparative analysis of both intestinal and tumor tissue in regard to the efficacy and the preventive impact of a short-term growth hormone (GH treatment in tumor-bearing rats as a protective agent during radiotherapy. Our data show that the exogenous administration of GH improved intestinal recovery after radiation treatment while preserving the therapeutic effect against the tumor. GH significantly increased proliferation in the irradiated intestine but not in the irradiated tumors, as assessed by Positron Emission Tomography and the proliferative markers Ki67, cyclin D3, and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen. This proliferative effect was consistent with a significant increase in irradiated intestinal villi and crypt length. Furthermore, GH significantly decreased caspase-3 activity in the intestine, whereas GH did not produce this effect in the irradiated tumors. In conclusion, short-term GH treatment protects the bowel, inducing proliferation while reducing apoptosis in healthy intestinal tissue and preserving radiotherapy efficacy on tumors.

  7. Intravenous Lacosamide in Pediatric Status Epilepticus: An Open-Label Efficacy and Safety Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Karan; Sharma, Rohan; Ng, Yu-Tze

    2016-08-01

    Lacosamide is an antiepilepsy drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for patients aged 17 years and older for partial-onset seizures as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy. We reviewed the use of intravenous lacosamide in children aged less than 17 years with status epilepticus. Children who received at least one dose of intravenous lacosamide for status epilepticus at our tertiary care children's hospital from December 2011 to March 2014 were studied. Status epilepticus was defined as continuous seizure activity for longer than 20 minutes or two or more recurrent seizures without regaining baseline level of awareness. Efficacy was defined as seizure freedom or more than 50% reduction of seizures within 24 hours of administering lacosamide. Nine children with a mean age of 5.7 years (range: three months to 16 years) were included. The mean initial or loading dose was 8.7 mg/kg, with seven of nine patients receiving a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average total amount of intravenous lacosamide administered within the initial 24 hours was 13.8 mg/kg. Lacosamide was found to be efficacious in seven of nine (77.8%) patients. Four patients (44.4%) became seizure free. Two patients continued to have status epilepticus within 24 hours of lacosamide administration. Bradycardia was observed in one patient. In children with status epilepticus, intravenous lacosamide was efficacious in 78% of the patients and 44% become seizure free. In addition, no significant adverse reactions were observed. An appropriate safe, effective initial, or loading dose may be 10 mg/kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Field study on the safety and efficacy of intradermal versus intramuscular vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beffort, Lisa; Weiß, Christine; Fiebig, Kerstin; Jolie, Rika; Ritzmann, Mathias; Eddicks, Matthias

    2017-09-30

    The present study compares the safety and efficacy of a needle-free, intradermal Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to an intramuscular one. 420 piglets (21+3 days of age) were randomly assigned to two vaccination groups (intradermal vaccination V1 (n=138), intramuscular vaccination V2 (n=144)) and one unvaccinated control group (CG, n=138). As safety parameters clinical observations, local injection site reactions (ISR) and rectal temperatures were assessed. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and pneumonic lung lesions (LL) were measured as efficacy parameters. ISRs were minor in V1. After both vaccinations, no adverse impact on appetite was observed and mean rectal temperatures remained within physiological range. ADWG during the fattening period was significantly higher in vaccinated groups (V1: 913.4 g, V2: 924.5 g) compared with CG (875.6 g). No differences in ADWG were observed between V1 and V2. Vaccinated pigs had a significantly reduced mean extent of LL compared with CG. V1 was superior in reducing the extent and prevalence of LL compared with V2. These results reveal that a needle-free intradermal vaccination is safe and efficacious in reducing both the prevalence and extent of lung lesions, as well as in improving performance parameters, in a farrow-to-finish farm with a late onset of M hyopneumonia e infection. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Monitoring the performance of innovative and traditional biocides mixed with consolidants and water-repellents for the prevention of biological growth on stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Daniela; Salvadori, Barbara; Galeotti, Monica

    2012-04-15

    In this study, some mixtures of consolidants or water-repellent products and biocides developed to prevent biological growth, were tested over time on three stone substrates with different bioreceptivity. The performance of both traditional (tetraethylorthosilicate, methylethoxy polysiloxane, Paraloid B72, tributyltin oxide, dibutyltin dilaurate) and innovative compounds (copper nanoparticles) was assessed using colour measurements, the water absorption by contact sponge method, and observation under stereo and optical microscopes. The application of the mixtures had also the purpose of controlling re-colonization on stone after a conservation treatment. The study site was the archaeological Area of Fiesole; the mixtures were applied in situ to sandstone, marble and plaster which had been cleaned beforehand. An innovative aspect of the study is that, by using non-invasive methods, it also permitted monitoring the mixtures' effectiveness in preventing biological growth. The monitoring results made it possible to assess the bioreceptivity of the treated stones (sandstone, marble, plaster) over a period of almost three years. The results showed that the mixtures of consolidants or water-repellent products with biocides were effective in preventing biological growth on both a substrate with low bioreceptivity like plaster and a substrate with high bioreceptivity such as marble. The innovative mixture of nano-Cu particles with a water-repellent yielded good results in terms of preventing biological colonization. Moreover, they apparently did not affect the substrates' colour. Mixtures of nano-Cu particles with a consolidant and a water-repellent hold great promise for preventing re-colonization of stone after conservation treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sterilization by pure oxygen plasma and by oxygen-hydrogen peroxide plasma: an efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscariol, M R; Moreira, A J; Mansano, R D; Kikuchi, I S; Pinto, T J A

    2008-04-02

    Plasma is an innovative sterilization method characterized by a low toxicity to operators and patients, and also by its operation at temperatures close to room temperatures. The use of different parameters for this method of sterilization and the corresponding results were analyzed in this study. A low-pressure inductive discharge was used to study the plasma sterilization processes. Oxygen and a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were used as plasma source gases. The efficacy of the processes using different combinations of parameters such as plasma-generation method, type of gas, pressure, gas flow rate, temperature, power, and exposure time was evaluated. Two phases were developed for the processes, one using pure oxygen and the other a mixture of gases. Bacillus subtilis var. niger ATCC 9372 (Bacillus atrophaeus) spores inoculated on glass coverslips were used as biological indicators to evaluate the efficacy of the processes. All cycles were carried out in triplicate for different sublethal exposure times to calculate the D value by the enumeration method. The pour-plate technique was used to quantify the spores. D values of between 8 and 3 min were obtained. Best results were achieved at high power levels (350 and 400 W) using pure oxygen, showing that plasma sterilization is a promising alternative to other sterilization methods.

  11. Career interest, self-efficacy, and perception in undecided and nursing undergraduate students: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillman, Valentina M

    2015-01-01

    Career choice variables of career interest, self-efficacy, and perception were chosen based upon Social Cognitive Career Theory concepts for study between nursing and undecided undergraduate student groups. Components of the Career Search Questionnaire and Perceptions of Professional Nursing instruments were combined and adapted to form the Career Choice Survey for use in this research. This web-based survey totaling 40 questions was sent to 577 undergraduate students with a 12% response rate (N=68). Due to the need to increase nursing recruitment and retention, hypotheses were developed that distinguish if any relationship existed between groups. Findings of this quantitative study resulted in statistically significant results on two of the three variable hypotheses (p=.006 for career interest, p=.002 for self-efficacy, p=.395 for perception), aligning with previous research and provide insight into the change in nursing perception. Overall, scores for each subscale were encouraging to current nurses and expected from undecided students. Implications for practice include increases in accurate nursing portrayal in the media and early career counseling to younger populations. Nurse educators can further research in career choice with focus on continuing education for current nurses and recruitment of young nursing hopefuls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on the impact, detection, and control of microbiology influenced corrosion related to pitting failures in the Russian oil and gas industry. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, D.

    2006-09-30

    effect of carbon steel. More than three times decrease of corrosion rate on steel surface was observed after lignosulfonate electropolymerization, exceeding protective effect of standard commercially available corrosion inhibitor. Solikamsky lignin could be a promising candidate as a base for the development of the future green corrosion inhibitor. A protective effect of isothiazolones in compositions with other biocides and inhibitors was investigated. Additionally to high biocidal properties, combination of kathon 893 and copper sulfate may also produce a strong anticorrosion effect depending on concentrations of the biocides. Based on its joint biocidal and anticorrosion properties, this combination can be recommended for protection of pipelines against carbon dioxide-induced corrosion. By means of linear polarization resistance test, corrosion properties of biocides of different classes were studied. Isothiazolones can be recommended for treating oil-processing waters in Tatarstan to curb carbon dioxide - induced corrosion. A laboratory research on evaluation of the efficiency of biocides, inhibitors and penetrants by biological and physical-and-chemical methods has been carried out. It was shown that action of corrosion inhibitors and biocides strongly depends on character of their interaction with mineral substances available in waters on oil-exploration sites. It was found that one of approaches to designing environmentally safe ('green') antimicrobial formulations may be the use of synergetic combinations, which allow one to significantly decrease concentrations of biocides. It was shown that the efficacy of biocides and inhibitors depends on physicochemical characteristics of the environment. Anticorrosion and antimicrobial effects of biocides and inhibitors depended in much on the type of medium and aeration regimen. Effects of different biocides, corrosion inhibitors. penetrants and their combinations on the biofilm were investigated. It has been

  13. Biocide activity of Annona coriacea seeds extract on Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Pinheiro Carneiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic insecticides for insect control may lead to different kind of problems, such as vector resistance to insecticides. To avoid these problems, a new research area to study botanical products as possible disease vectors controls, has become a feasible alternative. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the biocide activity of the ethanol extract of seeds of Annona coriacea on Rhodnius neglectus (Chagas disease vector nymphs and adults. For this, different concentrations extracts were evaluated: 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/ mL, and water in DMSO (20% was used as control. The experimental design was completely randomized and we conducted the bioassay with nymphs and adults, with 10 nymphs and 10 adults (five males and five females per treatment. Extract action was evaluated in both bioassays, in order to identify possible effects of mortality and life cycle interruption of nymphs and adults during a 28-day-period. The results obtained showed that the extract of A. coriacea was able to disrupt the development of nymphs and adults of R. neglectus, with a mortality rate of more than 90%, 36% and 100%, at the highest concentrations, respectively. There was also molting inhibition in nymphs, lower reproductive capacity in females, feeding deterrence and morphological changes in nymphs and adults. We concluded that the extract of A. coriacea has insecticide action on nymphs and adults of R. neglectus.La enfermedad de Chagas se convirtió en un problema de salud debido a su importancia epidemiológica, es producida por el protista Trypanosoma cruzi, cuyos insectos vectores son del género Triatoma y Panstrongylus. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad biocida del extracto de Annona coriacea en las ninfas de Rhodnius neglectus y en sus adultos. Se evaluaron 14 concentraciones de 25, 50, 100 y 200mg/ml del extracto etanólico, así como el control, en este caso agua de DMSO (20%. Se utilizo un diseño completamente

  14. Relationship of Triamine-Biocide Tolerance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg to Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Serum Resistance and Outer Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futoma-Kołoch, Bożena; Dudek, Bartłomiej; Kapczyńska, Katarzyna; Krzyżewska, Eva; Wańczyk, Martyna; Korzekwa, Kamila; Rybka, Jacek; Klausa, Elżbieta; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela

    2017-07-11

    A new emerging phenomenon is the association between the incorrect use of biocides in the process of disinfection in farms and the emergence of cross-resistance in Salmonella populations. Adaptation of the microorganisms to the sub-inhibitory concentrations of the disinfectants is not clear, but may result in an increase of sensitivity or resistance to antibiotics, depending on the biocide used and the challenged Salmonella serovar. Exposure of five Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Senftenberg ( S. Senftenberg) strains to triamine-containing disinfectant did not result in variants with resistance to antibiotics, but has changed their susceptibility to normal human serum (NHS). Three biocide variants developed reduced sensitivity to NHS in comparison to the sensitive parental strains, while two isolates lost their resistance to serum. For S. Senftenberg, which exhibited the highest triamine tolerance (6 × MIC) and intrinsic sensitivity to 22.5% and 45% NHS, a downregulation of flagellin and enolase has been demonstrated, which might suggest a lower adhesion and virulence of the bacteria. This is the first report demonstrating the influence of biocide tolerance on NHS resistance. In conclusion, there was a potential in S. Senftenberg to adjust to the conditions, where the biocide containing triamine was present. However, the adaptation did not result in the increase of antibiotic resistance, but manifested in changes within outer membrane proteins' patterns. The strategy of bacterial membrane proteins' analysis provides an opportunity to adjust the ways of infection treatments, especially when it is connected to the life-threating bacteremia caused by Salmonella species.

  15. Efficacy of Epley’s Maneuver in Treating BPPV Patients: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Gaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo and balance disorders are among the most common symptoms encountered in patients who visit ENT outpatient department. This is associated with risk of falling and is compounded in elderly persons with other neurologic deficits and chronic medical problems. BPPV is the most common cause of peripheral vertigo. BPPV is a common vestibular disorder leading to significant morbidity, psychosocial impact, and medical costs. The objective of Epley’s maneuver, which is noninvasive, inexpensive, and easily administered, is to move the canaliths out of the canal to the utricle where they no longer affect the canal dynamics. Our study aims to analyze the response to Epley’s maneuver in a series of patients with posterior canal BPPV and compares the results with those treated exclusively by medical management alone. Even though many studies have been conducted to prove the efficacy of this maneuver, this study reinforces the validity of Epley’s maneuver by comparison with the medical management.

  16. Resource loss, self-efficacy, and family support predict posttraumatic stress symptoms: a 3-year study of earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Lisa Marie; Gutiérrez-Doña, Benicio; Villegas Angulo, Maricela; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Social support and self-efficacy are regarded as coping resources that may facilitate readjustment after traumatic events. The 2009 Cinchona earthquake in Costa Rica serves as an example for such an event to study resources to prevent subsequent severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms. At Time 1 (1-6 months after the earthquake in 2009), N=200 survivors were interviewed, assessing resource loss, received family support, and posttraumatic stress response. At Time 2 in 2012, severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms and general self-efficacy beliefs were assessed. Regression analyses estimated the severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms accounted for by all variables. Moderator and mediator models were examined to understand the interplay of received family support and self-efficacy with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Baseline posttraumatic stress symptoms and resource loss (T1) accounted for significant but small amounts of the variance in the severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms (T2). The main effects of self-efficacy (T2) and social support (T1) were negligible, but social support buffered resource loss, indicating that only less supported survivors were affected by resource loss. Self-efficacy at T2 moderated the support-stress relationship, indicating that low levels of self-efficacy could be compensated by higher levels of family support. Receiving family support at T1 enabled survivors to feel self-efficacious, underlining the enabling hypothesis. Receiving social support from relatives shortly after an earthquake was found to be an important coping resource, as it alleviated the association between resource loss and the severity of posttraumatic stress response, compensated for deficits of self-efficacy, and enabled self-efficacy, which was in turn associated with more adaptive adjustment 3 years after the earthquake.

  17. Advance of study on the influence of different drugs on the efficacy of 131I treatment for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Tan Jian

    2011-01-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. 131 I treatment is one main treatment method for Graves' disease, and being used on an increasing scale in China recently. During the peritherapeutic period, however, the application of other drugs may affect the efficacy of 131 I treatment. In this review, the advances of study were summarized on the influence of different drugs on the efficacy of 131 I treatment in recent years. (authors)

  18. Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Nationwide Retrospective Study of Efficacy and Tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Helene Køstner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Advanced HCC is a clinical challenge with limited treatment options. The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the first and only agent showing a survival benefit in these patients. In this study we evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sorafenib in an unselected patient population. Furthermore we explore the role of alpha-fetoprotein (αFP as a potential biomarker for treatment efficacy and correlation to survival. Methods. Seventy-six patients with advanced HCC, not eligible for locoregional therapy, treated with sorafenib between 2007 and 2009 were included. Followup was until 2011. Results. Patients in PS 0-1 had a median overall survival (mOS of 6.2 months, compared to 1.8 months in patients with poorer PS (P=0.005. Child-Pugh A patients had a mOS of 6.6 months versus 3.6 months among patients in Child-Pugh B or C (P=0.0001. Serum αFP ≥ 200 at baseline was prognostic for a shorter survival. All patients with radiologically verified tumor response and baseline αFP ≥ 200 experienced a significant decline in αFP within the first four weeks of treatment. Conclusion. The survival of patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib is dependent on performance status and liver function. Treatment of patients with compromised liver function and poor performance status cannot be recommended. The correlation between αFP and objective tumor response warrants further investigation.

  19. Efficacy of insurance for organisational disaster recovery: case study of the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charlotte; Seville, Erica; Vargo, John

    2017-04-01

    Insurance is widely acknowledged to be an important component of an organisation's disaster preparedness and resilience. Yet, little analysis exists of how well current commercial insurance policies and practices support organisational recovery in the wake of a major disaster. This exploratory qualitative research, supported by some quantitative survey data, evaluated the efficacy of commercial insurance following the sequence of earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010 and 2011. The study found that, generally, the commercial insurance sector performed adequately, given the complexity of the events. However, there are a number of ways in which insurers could improve their operations to increase the efficacy of commercial insurance cover and to assist organisational recovery following a disaster. The most notable of these are: (i) better wording of policies; (ii) the availability of sector-specific policies; (iii) the enhancement of claims assessment systems; and (iv) risk-based policy pricing to incentivise risk reduction measures. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  20. Comparison of antiemetic efficacy of granisetron and ondansetron in Oriental patients: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, R. T.; Chow, L. W.

    1998-01-01

    A double-blind randomized crossover trial was performed to compare the antiemetic efficacy of two 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, granisetron and ondansetron, in Chinese patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil) for breast cancer. Twenty patients were randomized to receive chemotherapy with either granisetron on day 1 and ondansetron on day 8 of the first cycle followed by the reverse order in the second cycle, or vice versa. The number of vomiting episodes and the severity of nausea in the first 24 h (acute vomiting/nausea) and the following 7 days (delayed vomiting/nausea) were studied. Acute vomiting was completely prevented in 29 (72.5%) cycles with granisetron and 27 (67.5%) cycles with ondansetron, and treatment failure (>5 vomiting episodes) occurred in two (5%) cycles with each agent (P = NS). Acute nausea was completely controlled in 15 (37.5%) cycles with granisetron and 14 (35%) cycles with ondansetron, whereas severe acute nausea occurred in four (10%) cycles with each agent (P = NS). However, complete response for delayed vomiting was observed in only 21 (52.5%) cycles with granisetron and 22 (55%) cycles with ondansetron (P = NS), and delayed nausea was completely controlled in only 11 (27.5%) and ten (25%) cycles respectively (P = NS). In conclusion, both granisetron and ondansetron are effective in controlling acute nausea and vomiting in Chinese patients, with equivalent antiemetic efficacy. Control of delayed nausea and vomiting is less satisfactory. PMID:9635849

  1. Paliperidone ER in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of Efficacy and Tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Bellino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotics are recommended for the treatment of impulsive dyscontrol and cognitive perceptual symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD. Three reports supported the efficacy of oral risperidone on BPD psychopathology. Paliperidone ER is the metabolite of risperidone with a similar mechanism of action, and its osmotic release reduces plasmatic fluctuations and antidopaminergic effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in BPD patients. 18 outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of BPD were treated for 12 weeks with paliperidone ER (3–6 mg/day. They were assessed at baseline, week 4, and week 12, using the CGI-Severity item, the BPRS, the HDRS, the HARS, the SOFAS, the BPD Severity Index (BPDSI, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11. Adverse events were evaluated with the DOTES. Paliperidone ER was shown to be effective and well tolerated in reducing severity of global symptomatology and specific BPD symptoms, such as impulsive dyscontrol, anger, and cognitive-perceptual disturbances. Results need to be replicated in controlled trials.

  2. Efficacy of extremely low-frequency magnetic field in fibromyalgia pain: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Teresa; Piccinini, Giulia; Iosa, Marco; Piermattei, Cristina; de Angelis, Simona; Grasso, Maria Rosaria; Zangrando, Federico; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the efficacy of an extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) in decreasing chronic pain in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Thirty-seven females were recruited and randomized into two groups: one group was first exposed to systemic ELF-MF therapy (100 microtesla, 1 to 80 Hz) and then to sham therapy, and the other group received the opposite sequence of intervention. Pain, FM-related symptoms, and the ability to perform daily tasks were measured using the Visual Analog Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Fibromyalgia Assessment Scale (FAS), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) at baseline, end of first treatment cycle, beginning of second treatment cycle (after 1 mo washout), end of second treatment cycle, and end of 1 mo follow-up. ELF-MF treatment significantly reduced pain, which increased on cessation of therapy but remained significantly lower than baseline levels. Short-term benefits were also observed in FIQ, FAS, and HAQ scores, with less significant effects seen in the medium term. ELF-MF therapy can be recommended as part of a multimodal approach for mitigating pain in FM subjects and improving the efficacy of drug therapy or physiotherapy.

  3. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland: a national study of prevalence and testing efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lynge Pedersen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of GDM among Greenlanders and non-Greenlanders living in Greenland and to estimate the efficacy of testing for GDM. Design: This study was performed as an observational, cross-sectional study including all women with permanent address in Greenland who had given birth to a singleton during 2014. The prevalence of GDM was calculated as the proportion of all pregnant women tested with a 75-g 2-h glucose tolerance test who had a 2-h capillary whole-blood glucose value of 8.5 mmol/l or above. Testing efficacy was calculated as the proportion of women who fulfilled the testing criteria who were actually tested in Greenland in 2014. Results: A total of 794 women (727 Greenlanders and 67 non-Greenlanders were included in the study. The prevalence of GDM among tested women was 3.3% (confidence interval, CI: 0.9–5.6 among Greenlanders and 12.5% (CI: 0–25.7 among non-Greenlanders, corresponding, respectively, to 1.0% (CI: 0.3–1.3 and 4.5% (CI: 0–9.4 of all singleton pregnancies in Greenland in 2014. The overall testing efficacy was 69.0% among all eligible residents of Greenland and 85.1% among eligible residents in the capital city, Nuuk. Conclusion: In conclusion, the prevalence of GDM seems quite low in Greenland. Although diagnostic testing activity has improved within the last 6 years, still around one-third of all pregnant women in all Greenland fulfilling the testing criteria were not tested. Universal testing for GDM may be needed to improve testing of GDM in Greenland.

  4. Moral disengagement, self-efficacy and bullying: the framework of coexistence studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Tognetta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between bullying and moral disengagements. In a research study conducted with 2,600 adolescents, between 14 and 16 years old, an attempt to verify their involvement in bullying, their self-efficacy beliefs regarding their academic performance and their possible moral disengagements was undertaken. A correlation between being bullying by others and the "dehumanization of the victim" was found. The participation in the bullying situation as authors, victims and spectators was also associated with "victim-blaming", showing the fragile profile of bullying victims and their diminished value. The results of this study allows for the understanding of the psychological mechanisms present in bullying, so that the school may re-think interventions and preventative measures that can be taken such that life is valued.

  5. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howarth, P; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Molimard, M

    2011-01-01

    them. Thus, clinical studies of AIT can neither establish baseline symptom levels nor limit the enrolment of patients to those with the most severe symptoms. Allergen immunotherapy treatment effects are therefore diluted by patients with low symptoms for a particular pollen season. The objective...... tertiles). The difference observed in the average score in each tertile in active vs placebo-treated patients was assessed. This allowed an estimation of the efficacy that could be achieved in patients from sites where symptoms were high during the pollen season. Results:  An increased treatment effect...... of this analysis was to assess the effect possible to achieve with AIT in the groups of patients presenting the most severe allergic symptoms. Methods:  Study centres were grouped into tertiles categorized according to symptom severity scores observed in the placebo patients in each centre (low, middle and high...

  6. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-01-01

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification–solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide–polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology. PMID:28952560

  7. Energy and Biocides Storage Compounds: Synthesis and Characterization of Energetic Bridged Bis(triiodoazoles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunlin; Zhao, Gang; Hooper, Joseph P; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2017-11-06

    Energetic bridged triiodopyrazoles and triiodoimidazoles were designed and synthsized by reacting potassium triiodopyrazolate or triiodoimidazolate with corresponding dichloro compounds. All compounds were fully characterized by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analyses. The structure of compound 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All of the compounds exhibit good thermal stability with decomposition temperatures between 199 and 270 °C and high densities ranging from 2.804 to 3.358 g/cm 3 . The detonation performances and the detonation products were calculated by CHEETAH 7. Compound 3 (D v = 4765 m s -1 ; P = 17.9 GPa) and compound 7 (D v = 4841 m s -1 ; P = 18.5 GPa) show comparable detonation pressure to TNT, and high iodine content makes them promising as energy and biocides storage compounds.

  8. Efficacy and safety of acupuncture for dizziness and vertigo in emergency department: a pilot cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Wen; Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Hsu, Po-Chi; Chen, Chia-Yun; Chang, Shun-Chang; Chiang, John Y; Lo, Lun-Chien

    2015-06-09

    Dizziness and vertigo account for roughly 4% of chief symptoms in the emergency department (ED). Pharmacological therapy is often applied for these symptoms, such as vestibular suppressants, anti-emetics and benzodiazepines. However, every medication is accompanied with unavoidable side-effects. There are several research articles providing evidence of acupuncture treating dizziness and vertigo but few studies of acupuncture as an emergent intervention in ED. We performed a pilot cohort study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in treating patients with dizziness and vertigo in ED. A total of 60 participants, recruited in ED, were divided into acupuncture and control group. Life-threatening conditions or central nervous system disorders were excluded to ensure participants' safety. The clinical effect of treating dizziness and vertigo was evaluated by performing statistical analyses on data collected from questionnaires of Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of dizziness and vertigo, and heart rate variability (HRV). The variation of VAS demonstrated a significant decrease (p-value: 0.001 and p-value: 0.037) between two groups after two different durations: 30 mins and 7 days. The variation of DHI showed no significant difference after 7 days. HRV revealed a significant increase in high frequency (HF) in the acupuncture group. No adverse event was reported in this study. Acupuncture demonstrates a significant immediate effect in reducing discomforts and VAS of both dizziness and vertigo. This study provides clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of acupuncture to treat dizziness and vertigo in the emergency department. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02358239 . Registered 5 February 2015.

  9. Combined biocidal action of silver nanoparticles and ions against Chlorococcales (Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris) and filamentous algae (Klebsormidium sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouzelka, Radek; Cihakova, Pavlina; Rihova Ambrozova, Jana; Rathousky, Jiri

    2016-05-01

    Despite the extensive research, the mechanism of the antimicrobial and biocidal performance of silver nanoparticles has not been unequivocally elucidated yet. Our study was aimed at the investigation of the ability of silver nanoparticles to suppress the growth of three types of algae colonizing the wetted surfaces or submerged objects and the mechanism of their action. Silver nanoparticles exhibited a substantial toxicity towards Chlorococcales Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris, and filamentous algae Klebsormidium sp., which correlated with their particle size. The particles had very good stability against agglomeration even in the presence of multivalent cations. The concentration of silver ions in equilibrium with nanoparticles markedly depended on the particle size, achieving about 6 % and as low as about 0.1 % or even less for the particles 5 nm in size and for larger ones (40-70 nm), respectively. Even very limited proportion of small particles together with larger ones could substantially increase concentration of Ag ions in solution. The highest toxicity was found for the 5-nm-sized particles, being the smallest ones in this study. Their toxicity was even higher than that of silver ions at the same silver concentration. When compared as a function of the Ag(+) concentration in equilibrium with 5-nm particles, the toxicity of ions was at least 17 times higher than that obtained by dissolving silver nitrite (if not taking into account the effect of nanoparticles themselves). The mechanism of the toxicity of silver nanoparticles was found complex with an important role played by the adsorption of silver nanoparticles and the ions released from the particles on the cell surface. This mechanism could be described as some sort of synergy between nanoparticles and ions. While our study clearly showed the presence of this synergy, its detailed explanation is experimentally highly demanding, requiring a close cooperation between materials scientists

  10. Unimpeded permeation of water through biocidal graphene oxide sheets anchored on to 3D porous polyolefinic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mural, Prasanna Kumar S.; Jain, Shubham; Kumar, Sachin; Madras, Giridhar; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2016-04-01

    3D porous membranes were developed by etching one of the phases (here PEO, polyethylene oxide) from melt-mixed PE/PEO binary blends. Herein, we have systematically discussed the development of these membranes using X-ray micro-computed tomography. The 3D tomograms of the extruded strands and hot-pressed samples revealed a clear picture as to how the morphology develops and coarsens over a function of time during post-processing operations like compression molding. The coarsening of PE/PEO blends was traced using X-ray micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of annealed blends at different times. It is now understood from X-ray micro-computed tomography that by the addition of a compatibilizer (here lightly maleated PE), a stable morphology can be visualized in 3D. In order to anchor biocidal graphene oxide sheets onto these 3D porous membranes, the PE membranes were chemically modified with acid/ethylene diamine treatment to anchor the GO sheets which were further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface Raman mapping. The transport properties through the membrane clearly reveal unimpeded permeation of water which suggests that anchoring GO on to the membranes does not clog the pores. Antibacterial studies through the direct contact of bacteria with GO anchored PE membranes resulted in 99% of bacterial inactivation. The possible bacterial inactivation through physical disruption of the bacterial cell wall and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) is discussed herein. Thus this study opens new avenues in designing polyolefin based antibacterial 3D porous membranes for water purification.3D porous membranes were developed by etching one of the phases (here PEO, polyethylene oxide) from melt-mixed PE/PEO binary blends. Herein, we have systematically discussed the development of these membranes using X-ray micro-computed tomography. The 3D tomograms of the extruded strands and

  11. Acanthamoeba encystment: multifactorial effects of buffers, biocides, and demulcents present in contact lens care solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs CJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher J Kovacs, Shawn C Lynch, Marjorie J Rah, Kimberly A Millard, Timothy W Morris Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Rochester, NY, USA Purpose: To determine whether agents which are purportedly capable of inducing encystment of Acanthamoeba can recapitulate the signal when tested in differing formulations. Methods: In accordance with the International Standard ISO 19045, Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 50370 trophozoites were cultured in antibiotic-free axenic medium, treated with test solutions, and encystment rates plus viability were measured via bright field and fluorescent microscopy. Test solutions included phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, borate-buffered saline, biguanide- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-based biocides, propylene glycol (PG and povidone (POV ophthalmic demulcents, and one-step H2O2-based contact lens disinfection systems. Results: Only PBS solutions with 0.25 ppm polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB and increasing concentrations of PG and POV stimulated A. castellanii encystment in a dose-dependent manner, whereas PBS solutions containing 3% H2O2 and increasing concentrations of PG and POV did not stimulate encystment. Borate-buffered saline and PBS/citrate solutions containing PG also did not stimulate encystment. In addition, no encystment was observed after 24 hours, 7 days, or 14 days of exposures of trophozoites to one-step H2O2 contact lens disinfection products or related solutions. Conclusion: The lack of any encystment observed when trophozoites were treated with existing or new one-step H2O2 contact lens care products, as well as when trophozoites were exposed to various related test solutions, confirms that Acanthamoeba encystment is a complex process which depends upon simultaneous contributions of multiple factors including buffers, biocides, and demulcents. Keywords: propylene glycol, contact lens care system, hydrogen peroxide disinfecting solution

  12. Poly(lactic acid)/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites as alternative biocidal and antifungal materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Carmen; Ochoa, Almudena [POLCA, Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Química y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería y Diseño Industrial, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, Madrid (Spain); Ulloa, Maria Teresa; Alvarez, Eduardo [Programa de Microbiología y Micología. ICBM-Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Chile, Dirección, Avenida Independencia 1027, Comuna Independencia, Santiago (Chile); Canales, Daniel [Grupo Polímeros, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Zapata, Paula A., E-mail: paula.zapata@usach.cl [Grupo Polímeros, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-12-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) ~ 10-nm nanoparticles were produced by the melting process and their main properties were evaluated. The nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the matrix with a low degree of agglomeration, as seen by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO{sub 2} was added, showing that the nanoparticles acted as nucleating agents this trend was confirmed by optical images. The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA at 5 wt.% of nanoparticles. Despite these improvements, PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites showed lower shear viscosity than neat PLA, possibly reflecting degradation of the polymer due to the particles. Regarding biocidal properties, after 2 h of contact the PLA/TiO{sub 2} composites with 8 wt.% TiO{sub 2} showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of ~ 82% under no UVA irradiation compared to pure PLA. This biocidal characteristic can be increased under UVA irradiation, with nanocomposites containing 8 wt.% TiO{sub 2} killing 94% of the bacteria. The PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against Aspergillus fumigatus under the UVA irradiation. - Highlights: • PLA composites with titanium oxide (10 nm) were produced by the melting process. • The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO{sub 2} was added. • The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA. • The PLA/TiO{sub 2} composites showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of 94%. • The PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against fungi.

  13. Toxic indole alkaloids avrainvillamide and stephacidin B produced by a biocide tolerant indoor mold Aspergillus westerdijkiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A; Hautaniemi, Maria; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2015-06-01

    Toxic Aspergillus westerdijkiae were present in house dust and indoor air fall-out from a residence and a kindergarten where the occupants suffered from building related ill health. The A. westerdijkiae isolates produced indole alkaloids avrainvillamide (445 Da) and its dimer stephacidin B (890 Da). It grew and sporulated in presence of high concentrations of boron or polyguanidine (PHMB, PHMG) based antimicrobial biocides used to remediate mold infested buildings. The boar sperm cells were used as sensor cells to purify toxins from HPLC fractions of the fungal biomass. Submicromolar concentrations (EC50 0.3-0.4 μM) blocked boar spermatozoan motility and killed porcine kidney tubular epithelial cells (PK-15). Plate grown hyphal mass of the A. westerdijkiae isolates contained 300-750 ng of avrainvillamide and 30-300 ng of stephacidin B per mg (wet weight). The toxins induced rapid (30 min) loss of boar sperm motility, followed (24 h) by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Apoptotic cell death was observed in PK-15 cell monolayers, prior to cessation of glucose uptake or loss of ΔΨm. Avrainvillamide and stephacidin B were 100-fold more potent towards the porcine cells than the mycotoxins stephacidin A, ochratoxin A, sterigmatocystin and citrinin. The high toxicity of stephacidin B indicates a role of nitrone group in the mechanism of toxicity. Avrainvillamide and stephacidin B represent a new class of toxins with possible a threat to human health in buildings. Furthermore, the use of biocides highly enhanced the growth of toxigenic A. westerdijkiae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From TBT to booster biocides: Levels and impacts of antifouling along coastal areas of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Andrade, Jahir Antonio; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Batista, Rodrigo Moço; Castro, Italo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    Antifouling biocides in surface sediments and gastropod tissues were assessed for the first time along coastal areas of Panama under the influence of maritime activities, including one of the world's busiest shipping zones: the Panama Canal. Imposex incidence was also evaluated in five muricid species distributed along six coastal areas of Panama. This TBT-related biological alteration was detected in three species, including the first report in Purpura panama. Levels of organotins (TBT, DBT, and MBT) in gastropod tissues and surficial sediments ranged from TBT inputs were observed in areas considered as moderate to highly contaminated mainly by inputs from fishing and leisure boats. Regarding booster biocides, TCMTB and dichlofluanid were not detected in any sample, while irgarol 1051, diuron and DCOIT levels ranged from TBT (149 ng Sn g -1 ) and irgarol 1051 (2.8 ng g -1 ), as well as relevant level of DCOIT (5.7 ng g -1 ), were detected in a marina used by recreational boats. Additionally, relatively high diuron values (14.1 ng g -1 ) were also detected in the Panama Canal associate to a commercial port. DCOIT concentrations were associated with the presence of antifouling paint particles in sediments obtained nearby shipyard or boat maintenance sites. The highest levels of TBT, irgarol 1051, and diuron exceeded international sediment quality guidelines indicating that toxic effects could be expected in coastal areas of Panama. Thus, the simultaneous impacts produced by new and old generations of antifouling paints highlight a serious environmental issue in Panamanian coastal areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. SeaNine 211 as antifouling biocide: A coastal pollutant of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianguo; Lam, James C W

    2017-11-01

    SeaNine 211, with 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) being the biocidal ingredient, is a widely-used antifouling agent to deter the undesirable biofouling phenomenon. It is commercially promoted as an environmentally acceptable antifoulant mainly due to its claimed rapid degradation in marine environment. However, increasing researches document varying degradative kinetics in different environments, proving that SeaNine 211 is actually not degraded equally fast around the world (half-life between antifouling coatings has also caused global contamination of marine environment in various compartments. For example, accumulation of SeaNine 211 is detected as high as 3700ng/L in Spanish seawater and 281ng/g dry weight in Korean sediment. Considering that SeaNine 211 is highly toxic against non-target marine organisms, environmental risk assessment finds that most marine organisms are endangered by SeaNine 211 in worst-case scenario. Its endocrine disrupting and reproductive impairing effects at environmentally worst-case concentrations further constitute a long-term threat to the maintenance of population stability. Therefore, in the light of the varying degradability, environmental pollution and high toxicity, especially the endocrine disruption, SeaNine 211 as an antifouling agent is likely to cause non-negligible damages to the marine ecosystem. There is an urgency to perform a systematic ecological risk assessment of SeaNine 211 to prevent the potential impacts on the health of marine environment. A regular monitoring also becomes necessary to place the usage of antifouling biocides under control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Designing N-halamine based antibacterial surface on polymers: Fabrication, characterization, and biocidal functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yong, E-mail: ychen168@126.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, 579 Qianwangang Rd., Huangdao Zone, Qingdao 266510 (China); Han Qiuxia [Department of Biological Engineering, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266510 (China)

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrate a valuable method to generate reactive groups on inert polymer surfaces and bond antibacterial agents for biocidal ability. Polystyrene (PS) surfaces were functionalized by spin coating of sub-monolayer and monolayer films of poly(styrene-b-tert-butyl acrylate) (PS-PtBA) block copolymer from solutions in toluene. PS-PtBA self-assembled to a bilayer structure on PS that contains a surface layer of the PtBA blocks ordering at the air-polymer interface and a bottom layer of the PS blocks entangling with the PS substrate. The thickness of PtBA layer could be linearly controlled by the concentration of the spin coating solution and a 2.5 nm saturated monolayer coverage of PtBA was achieved at 0.35% (w/w). Carboxyl groups were generated by exposing the tert-butyl ester groups of PtBA on saturated surface to trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) to bond tert-butylamine via amide bonds that were further chlorinated to N-halamine with NaOCl solution. The density of N-halamine on the chlorinated surface was calculated to be 1.05 x 10{sup -5} mol/m{sup 2} by iodimetric/thiosulfate titration. Presented data showed the N-halamine surface provided powerful antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Over 50% of the chlorine lost after UVA irradiation could be regained upon rechlorination. This design concept can be virtually applied to any inert polymer by choosing appropriate block copolymers and antibacterial agents to attain desirable biocidal activity.

  17. Poly(lactic acid)/TiO2 nanocomposites as alternative biocidal and antifungal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Carmen; Ochoa, Almudena; Ulloa, Maria Teresa; Alvarez, Eduardo; Canales, Daniel; Zapata, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) ~ 10-nm nanoparticles were produced by the melting process and their main properties were evaluated. The nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the matrix with a low degree of agglomeration, as seen by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO 2 was added, showing that the nanoparticles acted as nucleating agents this trend was confirmed by optical images. The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA at 5 wt.% of nanoparticles. Despite these improvements, PLA/TiO 2 nanocomposites showed lower shear viscosity than neat PLA, possibly reflecting degradation of the polymer due to the particles. Regarding biocidal properties, after 2 h of contact the PLA/TiO 2 composites with 8 wt.% TiO 2 showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of ~ 82% under no UVA irradiation compared to pure PLA. This biocidal characteristic can be increased under UVA irradiation, with nanocomposites containing 8 wt.% TiO 2 killing 94% of the bacteria. The PLA/TiO 2 nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against Aspergillus fumigatus under the UVA irradiation. - Highlights: • PLA composites with titanium oxide (10 nm) were produced by the melting process. • The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO 2 was added. • The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA. • The PLA/TiO 2 composites showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of 94%. • The PLA/TiO 2 nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against fungi

  18. Occurrence and persistence of antifouling biocide Irgarol 1051 and its main metabolite in the coastal waters of Southern England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, John L.

    2008-01-01

    The toxicity and persistence of antifouling booster biocides are of major concern. This study reports the occurrence of Irgarol 1051 and its degradation product M1, in coastal waters of Southern England, during 2004-2005. The highest concentrations of Irgarol 1051 were 89 ng/L in water and 45 ng/g dry weight in sediments, with an overall mean (n = 108) of 13 ng/L and 16 ng/g in water and sediments, respectively. As the degradation product of Irgarol 1051, M1 was less widespread, with the highest concentration of 30 ng/L in water and 14 ng/g in sediments, with an overall mean (n = 108) of 5 ng/L and 4 ng/g in water and sediments, respectively. Overall, the concentration of Irgarol 1051 and M1 decreased significantly during the sampling period and in comparison to earlier studies during 2000 to early 2004, indicating that control measures by restricting the use of Irgarol 1051 are effective in reducing its concentrations in coastal waters. The distribution of Irgarol 1051 between sediments and water was significantly related to sediment organic carbon content. In addition, significantly higher concentrations of Irgarol 1051 were detected in paint particles than in sediment. The rate of release of Irgarol 1051 from paint residues is very slow, with a half life of approximately 1 y. Two important findings are emerging, first the importance of organic rich sediments and paint residues as major sites of storage for Irgarol 1051, and secondly Irgarol 1051 may be classified as a persistent organic pollutant due to its long half life

  19. Beauty in Baobab: a pilot study of the safety and efficacy of Adansonia digitata seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baatile M. Komane

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently there has been a renewed impetus in the search for novel ingredients to be used in the cosmetic industry and Baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae seed oil has received high interest. In this study, a commercial Baobab seed oil sample was characterised (fatty acid content using GCxGC-ToF-MS and a pilot study on the safety and efficacy of the seed oil was performed. The safety and efficacy of Baobab seed oil after topical application was determined using healthy adult female caucasian participants (n = 20. A 2× magnifying lamp was used for visual analysis, while for monitoring and evaluation of the irritancy level, transepidermal water loss (TEWL and hydration level of the skin, Chromameter®, Aquaflux® and Corneometer® instruments, respectively, were used. In addition, Aquaflux® and Corneometer® instruments were used to assess occlusive effects. Thirteen methyl esters were identified using GCxGC-ToF-MS. The major fatty acids included 36.0% linoleic acid, 25.1% oleic acid and 28.8% palmitic acid with 10.1% constituting trace fatty acids. The irritancy of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS in the patch test differed significantly compared to both de-ionised water (p < 0.001 and Baobab seed oil (p < 0.001 but the difference between the irritancy of Baobab seed oil and de-ionised water was not significant (p = 0.850. The moisture efficacy test indicated a reduced TEWL (p = 0.048 and an improved capacitance moisture retention (p < 0.001 for all the test products (Baobab oil, liquid paraffin, Vaseline® intensive care lotion and Vaseline®. The occlusivity wipe-off test indicated an increased moisture hydration (p < 0.001 and decreased TEWL particularly when Baobab oil was applied. Baobab possesses hydrating, moisturising and occlusive properties when topically applied to the skin. Baobab seed oil could be a valuable functional ingredient for cosmeceutical applications.

  20. The English and Spanish Self-Efficacy to Manage Chronic Disease Scale measures were validated using multiple studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Philip L; Lorig, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Self-efficacy theory, as developed by Bandura, suggests that self-efficacy is an important predictor of future behavior. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program was designed to enhance self-efficacy as one approach to improving health behaviors and outcomes for people with varying chronic diseases. The six-item Self-Efficacy to Manage Chronic Disease Scale (SEMCD) and the four-item Spanish-language version (SEMCD-S) were developed to measure changes in self-efficacy in program participants and have been used in a numerous evaluations of chronic disease self-management programs. This study describes the development of the scales and their psychometric properties. Secondary analyses of questionnaire data from 2,866 participants in six studies are used to quantify and evaluate the SEMCD. Data from 868 participants in two studies are used for the SEMCD-S. Subjects consisted of individuals with various chronic conditions, who enrolled in chronic disease self-management programs (either small group or Internet based). Subjects came from United States, England, Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Descriptive statistics are summarized, reliability tested (Cronbach alpha), and principal component analyses applied to items. Baseline and change scores are correlated with baseline and change scores for five medical outcome variables that have been shown to be associated with self-efficacy measures in past studies. Principal component analyses confirmed the one-dimensional structure of the scales. The SEMCD had means ranging from 4.9 to 6.1 and the SEMCD-S 6.1 and 6.2. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach alpha, 0.88-0.95). The scales were sensitive to change and significantly correlated with health outcomes. The SEMCD and SEMCD-S are reliable and appear to be valid instruments for assessing self-efficacy for managing chronic disease. There was remarkable consistency across a range of studies from varying countries using two languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Immunogenicity and efficacy of Hoshino strain of mumps vaccine in Iran; two years study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avijgan, M; Hafizi, M; Moghni, M; Kheiri, S; Esteghamati, A; Sarikhani, S

    2011-06-01

    This report describes the immunogenicity and efficacy and long term immunity of Hoshino strain of Mumps (included in MMR Vaccine) in shahr-e-kord, Islamic Republic of Iran (I.R.Iran). A total of 338 Children aged 3-18 years were tested for Mumps IgG using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of susceptible, mumps IgG negative, children was 19.8% (67 subjects). Of the 67 susceptible children, 36 received the MMR vaccination and successfully completed the study. Blood was collected by venipuncture 3, 12, and 24 months after vaccination and serum samples were tested by ELISA for detection of Mumps IgM and IgG. The overall seroconversion rate was 86.1%, 77.7% and 75% at 3, 12, and 24 months after vaccination respectively.

  2. Studies on the efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract for domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Kolawole

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract in wastewater treatment was investigated. Chemical analysis found the bark to contain potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron and copper. Phytochemical tests revealed the bark to contain tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids. Comparative studies using varying concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 % w/v with alum and ferric chloride showed that the bark extract was effective in the clarification and sedimentation of total solids in the waste water sample. The optimum dose achieved was 2.5 % w/v with a minimum of 24 hours contact time. The total bacteria counts were reduced by 46 % after 24 hours when the extract was used whereas ferric chloride achieved 50 % reduction and alum achieved 55 % reduction under similar conditions. The feasibility of using the bark extract as an additional coagulant is therefore discussed.

  3. The Role of Perceived Stress and Self-Efficacy in Young People's Life Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kaspar; Samuel, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Life satisfaction is an important indicator of successful development. However, adolescents' life satisfaction tends to be relatively unsteady, and environmental influences play a critical role in shaping life satisfaction among adolescents in the transition to young adulthood. Given the paramount importance that education plays in adolescents' lives, adolescents' life satisfaction may vary as a function of school-related stress experience. At the same time, coping resources may help reduce adverse effects of stress on life satisfaction. With this in mind, we examined whether, and to what extent, perceived stress in education and general self-efficacy (a resource that facilitates coping) affect the life satisfaction of adolescents in transition to young adulthood. We distinguished between baseline levels of stress and self-efficacy and within-person change in stress and self-efficacy to determine whether life satisfaction is sensitive to fluctuations in stress and self-efficacy when person-specific levels of stress and self-efficacy are taken into account. Estimating growth curve models on data from a panel study on the life trajectories of compulsory-school leavers (n = 5126, 55.3 % female), we found that baseline levels of stress and self-efficacy, as well as within-person change in stress and self-efficacy, affected adolescents' life satisfaction. Moreover, our results showed that baseline self-efficacy mitigated the negative effect of baseline stress on life satisfaction. These findings improve our understanding of two major psychological determinants of adolescents' life satisfaction and extend our knowledge of life satisfaction trajectories during the transition to young adulthood.

  4. Association of learning styles with research self-efficacy: study of short-term research training program for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbauld, Jill; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A; Daly, Rebecca; Curran, Maureen A; Winegarden, Babbi; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-12-01

    With a growing need for developing future physician scientists, identifying characteristics of medical students who are likely to benefit from research training programs is important. This study assessed if specific learning styles of medical students, participating in federally funded short-term research training programs, were associated with research self-efficacy, a potential predictor of research career success. Seventy-five first-year medical students from 28 medical schools, selected to participate in two competitive NIH-supported summer programs for research training in aging, completed rating scales to evaluate learning styles at baseline, and research self-efficacy before and after training. We examined associations of individual learning styles (visual-verbal, sequential-global, sensing-intuitive, and active-reflective) with students' gender, ranking of medical school, and research self-efficacy. Research self-efficacy improved significantly following the training programs. Students with a verbal learning style reported significantly greater research self-efficacy at baseline, while visual, sequential, and intuitive learners demonstrated significantly greater increases in research self-efficacy from baseline to posttraining. No significant relationships were found between learning styles and students' gender or ranking of their medical school. Assessments of learning styles may provide useful information to guide future training endeavors aimed at developing the next generation of physician-scientists. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Impact of multidimensional poverty on the self-efficacy of older people: Results from an Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J

    2017-02-01

    Self-efficacy has numerous benefits for active and healthy aging, including giving the people the ability to make positive changes to their living standards and lifestyles. The present study aims to determine whether falling into multidimensional poverty lowers self-efficacy. Longitudinal analysis of waves 7-11 (2007-2011) of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey using linear regression models. The analysis focused on the Australian population aged 65 years and older. The Freedom Poverty Measure was used to identify those in multidimensional poverty. Those who fell into multidimensional poverty for 3 or 4 years between 2007 and 2011 had their self-efficacy scores decline by an average of 27 points (SD 21.2). Those who fell into poverty had significantly lower self-efficacy scores in 2011 - up to 57% lower (-66.6%, -45.7% P poverty for 3 or 4 years between 2007 and 2011 than those who were never in poverty. Falling into multidimensional poverty lowers the self-efficacy scores of older people. In order to improve the chances of older people making long-term changes to improve their living standards, feelings of self-efficacy should first be assessed and improved. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 308-314. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Impact of biofeedback on self-efficacy and stress reduction in obesity: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Martin; Stephan, Kerstin; Kowalski, Axel; Käsberger, Saskia; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2013-09-01

    Biofeedback application is an evidence-based technique to induce relaxation. A primary mechanism of action is the improvement of self-efficacy, which is needed to facilitate the translation of health behavioral intentions into action. Obesity is often associated with low self-efficacy and dysfunctional eating patterns, including comfort eating as an inexpedient relaxation technique. This is the first study investigating the effects of biofeedback on self-efficacy and relaxation in obesity. In the present experiment, 31 women, mean body mass index 35.5 kg/m², were randomized to a food-specific biofeedback paradigm, a non-specific relaxation biofeedback paradigm, or a waiting list control. Eight sessions of biofeedback of the electrodermal activity were performed while presenting either a challenging food stimulus or a non-specific landscape stimulus. Self-efficacy, stress, ability to relax, eating behavior, and electrodermal activity were assessed before, directly after, and 3 months after the intervention. The food-specific biofeedback predominantly showed effects on food-related self-efficacy and perceived stress. The non-specific relaxation biofeedback showed effects on the ability to relax. Self-reported improvements were confirmed by corresponding decrease in the electrodermal reaction to food stimuli. Biofeedback treatment is effective in improving self-efficacy in individuals with obesity and might therefore be a valuable additional intervention in obesity treatment.

  7. The relationship between self-efficacy and reading proficiency of first-year students: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi A.N.Y. Boakye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-efficacy, which is the belief about one’s ability to perform a task successfully, has been widely acknowledged as important in learning. This affective factor, though not explicitly evident, has been said to play an important role in academic performance. However, its role in reading development has not been widely investigated. To determine the relationship between self-efficacy and reading proficiency, a study was conducted with first-year students in a South African tertiary institution. Students’ self-efficacy levels were elicited through a questionnaire and their reading proficiency was obtained through the Test of Academic Literacy levels (TALL, which essentially assesses reading proficiency. An analysis of variance showed a robust relationship between reading self-efficacy and reading proficiency for this cohort of students. Regression analysis conducted with other affective factors showed self-efficacy as the best predictor of students’ reading proficiency. Results are discussed as they relate to previous research and recommendations are made to include the development of self-efficacy in reading instruction.

  8. Efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine infusion for patients undergoing awake craniotomy: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Charu; Rath, Girija Prasad; Singh, Gyaninder Pal; Mishra, Nitasha; Sokhal, Suman; Bithal, Parmod Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The goal of awake craniotomy is to maintain adequate sedation, analgesia, respiratory, and hemodynamic stability and also to provide a cooperative patient for neurologic testing. An observational study carried out to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine sedation for awake craniotomy. Adult patients with age >18 year who underwent awake craniotomy for intracranial tumor surgery were enrolled. Those who were uncooperative and had difficult airway were excluded from the study. In the operating room, the patients received a bolus dose of dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg followed by an infusion of 0.2-0.7 μg/kg/h (bispectral index target 60-80). Once the patients were sedated, scalp block was given with bupivacaine 0.25%. The data on hemodynamics at various stages of the procedure, intraoperative complications, total amount of fentanyl used, intravenous fluids required, blood loss and transfusion, duration of surgery, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and hospital stay were collected. The patients were assessed for Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score and patient satisfaction score (PSS). A total of 27 patients underwent awake craniotomy during a period of 2 years. Most common intraoperative complication was seizures; observed in five patients (18.5%). None of these patients experienced any episode of desaturation. Two patients had tight brain for which propofol boluses were administered. The average fentanyl consumption was 161.5 ± 85.0 μg. The duration of surgery, ICU, and hospital stays were 231.5 ± 90.5 min, 14.5 ± 3.5 h, and 4.7 ± 1.5 days, respectively. The overall PSS was 8 and GOS was good in all the patients. The use of dexmedetomidine infusion with regional scalp block in patients undergoing awake craniotomy is safe and efficacious. The absence of major complications and higher PSS makes it close to an ideal agent for craniotomy in awake state.

  9. Allopregnanolone preclinical acute pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies to predict tolerability and efficacy for Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W Irwin

    /kg. The predicted MTD in human female is 0.37mg/kg. In male rats the NOAEL and MTD were less than those determined for female. Outcomes of these PK/PD studies predict a safe and efficacious dose range for initial clinical trials of allopregnanolone for Alzheimer's disease. These findings have translational relevance to multiple neurodegenerative conditions.

  10. Influencing Science Teaching Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Primary School Teachers: A Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Merryn; Lamberts, Rod

    2014-01-01

    The science teaching self-efficacy beliefs of primary school teachers influence teaching practice. The purpose of this research was to determine if informal education institutions, such as science centres, could provide professional development that influences the science teaching self-efficacy beliefs of pre-service and in-service primary school…

  11. Empirical Study on Learners' Self-Efficacy in ESL/EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    With the popularity of learner-oriented approach in language teaching, research on learners is gaining more and more importance. This paper attempts to review the empirical researches on self-efficacy in the ESL/EFL settings during the past 10 years with the purpose of depicting the extent to which the self-efficacy research in ESL/EFL has…

  12. The Study, Evaluation, and Improvement of University Student Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartimote-Aufflick, Kathryn; Bridgeman, Adam; Walker, Richard; Sharma, Manjula; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    In this review of 64 articles published since the year 2000, a strong association between self-efficacy and student learning outcomes was apparent. Self-efficacy is also related to other factors such as value, self-regulation and metacognition, locus of control, intrinsic motivation, and strategy learning use. The review revealed that university…

  13. The development of neural stimulators: a review of preclinical safety and efficacy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robert K; Villalobos, Joel; Burns, Owen; Nayagam, David

    2018-05-14

    Given the rapid expansion of the field of neural stimulation and the rigorous regulatory approval requirements required before these devices can be applied clinically, it is important that there is clarity around conducting preclinical safety and efficacy studies required for the development of this technology. The present review examines basic design principles associated with the development of a safe neural stimulator and describes the suite of preclinical safety studies that need to be considered when taking a device to clinical trial. Neural stimulators are active implantable devices that provide therapeutic intervention, sensory feedback or improved motor control via electrical stimulation of neural or neuro-muscular tissue in response to trauma or disease. Because of their complexity, regulatory bodies classify these devices in the highest risk category (Class III), and they are therefore required to go through a rigorous regulatory approval process before progressing to market. The successful development of these devices is achieved through close collaboration across disciplines including engineers, scientists and a surgical/clinical team, and the adherence to clear design principles. Preclinical studies form one of several key components in the development pathway from concept to product release of neural stimulators. Importantly, these studies provide iterative feedback in order to optimise the final design of the device. Key components of any preclinical evaluation include: in vitro studies that are focussed on device reliability and include accelerated testing under highly controlled environments; in vivo studies using animal models of the disease or injury in order to assess safety and, given an appropriate animal model, the efficacy of the technology under both passive and electrically active conditions; and human cadaver and ex vivo studies designed to ensure the device's form factor conforms to human anatomy, to optimise the surgical approach and to

  14. Comparative Study for Efficacy and Safety of Adenoidectomy according to the Surgical Method: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Whun Kim

    Full Text Available There have been several operative techniques for adenoidectomy and their efficacy and morbidity are different according to the technique. This prospective multicenter study was aimed to compare the efficacy and morbidity of coblation adenoidectomy (CA with those of power-assisted adenoidectomy.Prospective multi-institutional study.Children who underwent CA, power-assisted adenoidectomy with cauterization (PAA+C or without cauterization (PAA-C due to adenoid hypertrophy were enrolled from 13 hospitals between July 2013 and June 2014. Mean operation time, degree of intraoperative bleeding and postoperative bleeding rate were evaluated.A total of 388 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 6.6 ± 2.5 years; 245 males and 143 females were included. According to the adenoidectomy technique, the children were classified into 3 groups: (1 CA (n = 116; (2 PAA+C (n = 153; and (3 PAA-C (n = 119. Significant differences were not found in age and sex among three groups. In the CA group, mean operation time was significantly shorter (P < 0.001 and degree of intraoperative bleeding was significantly less (P < 0.001 compared to PAA+C or PAA-C group. Delayed postoperative bleeding rate of PAA-C group was significantly higher than that of CA or PAA+C group (P = 0.016.This prospective multicenter study showed that CA was superior to PAA in terms of mean operation time and degree of intraoperative bleeding.

  15. Chronic electrical stimulation with a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis: a preclinical safety and efficacy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A X Nayagam

    stable for stimulation durations of up to 15 weeks. This study has demonstrated the safety and efficacy of suprachoroidal stimulation with charge balanced stimulus currents.

  16. [Epidemiologic and therapeutic study on gonococcal infections--clinical efficacy of cefetamet pivoxil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, M; Kumamoto, Y; Hirose, T; Hayashi, K; Tsukamoto, T; Gohro, T; Ikegaki, S; Kamito, H; Inoke, T; Henmi, I

    1990-07-01

    We studied the epidemiology of 109 cases of gonococcal infections (105 males with urethritis and 4 females with cervicitis), together with the basic and clinical effects of cefetamet pivoxil in the cases. The peak of age distribution of the male patients was in the younger half of their twenties, and all of the 4 female cases were between 20 and 39 years old. The major source of infections in the males younger than 25 years old was their girl friends or so-called pick-up friends, and that of the males older than 25 years old workers serving at an amusement center, for example, bars and so-called special massage parlor, which accounted for about three fourths of the male cases between 35 and 44 years old. The distribution of the MIC (inoculum size; 10(6) CFU/ml) of Cefetamet against beta-lactamase non penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (non-PPNG) ranged from 0.025 to 0.1 microgram/ml and that against beta-lactamase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae ranged from 0.025 to 0.05 microgram/ml. The isolation rate of PPNG was 10.2% (9/88). In male patients with gonococcal urethritis, the efficacy rate was 100% on days 3 and 7 for 1,000 mg single dose and 7-day treatment and 500 mg single dose treatment. One of the cases treated with 250 mg single dose therapy was unchanged at 3, but the efficacy rate of the remaining cases was 100% at day 7. Complicated urethritis with C. trachomatis was noticed in 25.7% (5/105) of the male urethritis and in 25.0% (1/4) of the female cervicitis cases. The only side effect was diarrhea observed in 1 of the 124 case (0.8%).

  17. Temperature affects thrombolytic efficacy using rt-PA and eptifibatide, an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jason M; Chang, Wan-Tsu W; Bluett, Brent; Wenker, Evan; Lindsell, Christopher J; Shaw, George J

    2012-09-01

    The potential for hypothermia as a neuroprotectant during stroke has led to its increase in clinical use. At the same time, combination pharmaceutical therapies for ischemic stroke using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), and GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors, such as Eptifibatide (Epf ), are under study. However, there is little data on how the reactions triggered by these agents are impacted by temperature. Here, clot lysis during exposure to the combination of rt-PA and Epf is measured in an in vitro human clot model at hypothermic temperatures. The hypothesis is that lytic efficacy of rt-PA and Epf decreases with decreasing temperature. Whole blood clots from 31 volunteers were exposed to rt-PA (0.5 μg/mL) and Epf (0.63 μg/mL) in human fresh-frozen plasma (rt-PA+Epf ), rt-PA alone in plasma (rt-PA Alone), or to plasma alone (Control), at temperatures from 30°C to 37°C, for 30 minutes. Clot lysis was measured using a microscopic imaging technique; the mean fractional clot loss (FCL) at 30 minutes was used to determine lytic efficacy. Temperature had a significant impact on FCL in clots exposed to rt-PA+Epf, with the FCL being lower at 30°C to 36°C than at 37°C. The FCL remained significantly higher for rt-PA+Epf–treated clots than Controls regardless of temperature, with the exception of measurements made at 30°C when no significant differences in the FCL were observed between groups. The use of hypothermia as a neuroprotectant may negatively impact the therapeutic benefit of thrombolytic agents.

  18. Dose-expanded study in the reinforcement of efficacy of simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichayanrat, Apichati

    2002-04-01

    Two hundred and twenty two hyperlipidemic patients were recruited for a 12-week prospective, multicenter, open-label, titrate-to-goal study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 20 to 40 mg per day of simvastatin in a Thai population. The efficacy on lipid lowering was evaluated at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after medication. Based on NCEP ATP II guideline and ADA position statement, subjects were categorized into three groups according to LDL-C goals; group I: patients without CHD and with or = 2 CHD risk factors and group III: CHD patients or diabetic patients with > or = 1 risk factors. Significant changes of all lipid parameters from baselines were noted at 4 weeks after medication except for HDL-C levels. Reduction of serum LDL-C, TC and TG by 40 per cent, 29 per cent and 16 per cent respectively and increase of serum HDL-C by 5 per cent were observed at 8 weeks of therapy (p<0.05). At 4 weeks after taking simvastatin 20 mg/day, 78.9 per cent of patients in group I, 67.4 per cent in group II and 40.9 per cent in group III achieved LDL-C goals. Seventeen per cent of the patients who were evaluated at 8 weeks increased the simvastatin dosage to 40 mg per day in the second month of treatment. At 8 weeks of therapy with simvastatin 20-40 mg/day, 90.1 per cent of patients in group I, 77.4 per cent in group II and 66.7 per cent in group III achieved LDL-C goals. Adverse symptoms during therapy, mostly mild, developed in 6.3 per cent of the 222 patients. Simvastatin 20-40 mg/day was effective and well tolerated in managing lipid parameters in Thai patients similar to other ethnic populations.

  19. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Morrissey

    Full Text Available To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635 and Salmonella spp. (N = 901 but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368, Candida albicans (N = 200, Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60, Enterobacter spp. (N = 54, Enterococcus faecium (N = 53, and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56. From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC, E. coli (MBC and MIC and S. aureus (MBC and MIC. There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

  20. Deficiency of Self-Efficacy in Problem-Solving as a Contributory Factor in Family Instability: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmovahed, Zahra; Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saied; Zareei Mahmoodabadi, Hassan; Tavangar, Hossein; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba; Vaezi, Ali Akbar

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Problem-solving ability is one of the most important means of family stability that enables the families to understand their roles, functions, and performances. Self-efficacy deficiency in problem-solving runs through many families. This qualitative study was conducted to investigate and describe how couples solve problems in their families. Method: This study was conducted to detect couples' self-efficacy deficiency in problem-solving using purposive sampling method. Several deep semi-structured interviews based on McMaster model and observations were conducted by nine family therapists and psychiatrists on four couples (eight persons) living in Yazd (Iran).The interviews were performed, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. The analysis was interpreted through directed content analysis methods. Results: Families in Yazd (Iran) made some attempts to solve their problems, but their efforts were not enough, and thus they suffered from self-efficacy deficiency, which included 8 categories. The main theme distilled from the data of 17 participants was self-efficacy deficiency, which included the following categories: avoidance, insolvency, interference from others, ineffective self-treatment, behavioral problems, stubbornness, superficiality, and denial. Conclusion: It is of paramount importance to identify self-efficacy deficiency in families and promote problem- solving programs to increase family stability. In the present study, the main deficiencies in problem-solving were detected.

  1. The Quest for Comparability: Studying the Invariance of the Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES) Measure across Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Ronny; Jansen, Malte; Nilsen, Trude; Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers’ self-efficacy is an important motivational construct that is positively related to a variety of outcomes for both the teachers and their students. This study addresses challenges associated with the commonly used ‘Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES)’ measure across countries and provides a synergism between substantive research on teachers’ self-efficacy and the novel methodological approach of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). These challenges include adequately representing the conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy in a measurement model (cross-loadings) and comparing means and factor structures across countries (measurement invariance). On the basis of the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013 data set comprising 32 countries (N = 164,687), we investigate the effects of cross-loadings in the TSES measurement model on the results of measurement invariance testing and the estimation of relations to external constructs (i.e., working experience, job satisfaction). To further test the robustness of our results, we replicate the 32-countries analyses for three selected sub-groups of countries (i.e., Nordic, East and South-East Asian, and Anglo-Saxon country clusters). For each of the TALIS 2013 participating countries, we found that the factor structure of the self-efficacy measure is better represented by ESEM than by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models that do not allow for cross-loadings. For both ESEM and CFA, only metric invariance could be achieved. Nevertheless, invariance levels beyond metric invariance are better achieved with ESEM within selected country clusters. Moreover, the existence of cross-loadings did not affect the relations between the dimensions of teachers’ self-efficacy and external constructs. Overall, this study shows that a conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy exists and can be well-represented by ESEM. We further argue for the cross

  2. The Quest for Comparability: Studying the Invariance of the Teachers' Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES) Measure across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Ronny; Jansen, Malte; Nilsen, Trude; Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Marsh, Herbert W

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' self-efficacy is an important motivational construct that is positively related to a variety of outcomes for both the teachers and their students. This study addresses challenges associated with the commonly used 'Teachers' Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES)' measure across countries and provides a synergism between substantive research on teachers' self-efficacy and the novel methodological approach of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). These challenges include adequately representing the conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy in a measurement model (cross-loadings) and comparing means and factor structures across countries (measurement invariance). On the basis of the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013 data set comprising 32 countries (N = 164,687), we investigate the effects of cross-loadings in the TSES measurement model on the results of measurement invariance testing and the estimation of relations to external constructs (i.e., working experience, job satisfaction). To further test the robustness of our results, we replicate the 32-countries analyses for three selected sub-groups of countries (i.e., Nordic, East and South-East Asian, and Anglo-Saxon country clusters). For each of the TALIS 2013 participating countries, we found that the factor structure of the self-efficacy measure is better represented by ESEM than by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models that do not allow for cross-loadings. For both ESEM and CFA, only metric invariance could be achieved. Nevertheless, invariance levels beyond metric invariance are better achieved with ESEM within selected country clusters. Moreover, the existence of cross-loadings did not affect the relations between the dimensions of teachers' self-efficacy and external constructs. Overall, this study shows that a conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy exists and can be well-represented by ESEM. We further argue for the cross

  3. To evaluate the efficacy of biodegradable plating system for fixation of maxillofacial fractures: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Rishi K; Sharma, Parveen; Jindal, Shalu; Gaba, Shivani

    2013-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of biodegradable plating system for fixation of maxillofacial fractures and to study the morbidity associated with the use of biodegradable plates and screws. This prospective study consisted of 10 patients with maxillofacial fractures requiring open reduction and internal fixation. Fractures with infection, comminuted and pathological fractures were excluded. All were plated with biodegradable system (Inion CPS) using standard plating principles and observed for a total period of 24 weeks. Characteristics of the fractures, ease of use of bioresorbable plate/screw system and post operative complications were assessed. Of total 10 patients, eight patients were of midface fracture and two pediatric patients with mandibular fracture, with nine male and one female. The mean age was 32.8 years. Out of 20 plates and 68 screws applied to the 10 fractures sites; there were three incidences of screw breakage with no other intraoperative difficulties. Paresthesia of the infraorbital nerve was present in two patients, and recovered completely in four weeks after surgery. Fracture reduction was considered to be satisfactory in all cases. One patient developed postsurgical infection and was managed with oral antibiotics and analgesics. Favorable healing can be observed through the use of biodegradable plates and screws to stabilize selected midface fractures in patients of all ages, as well as mandible fractures in early childhood, however further studies with more sample size are required.

  4. COMPOSITE MATERIALS BASED ON ZINC SULFIDE AND ZINC OXIDE: STRUCTURAL AND BIOCIDAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhodub L.B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The widespread use of drugs with antimicrobial action has led to the formation of microorganism resistance against wide range of antibiotics. One of the approaches to dissolving this problem is the substances modification by inorganic bioactive ions in oder to initiate a controlled reaction in the bone tissues and provision of antimicrobial activity. It is known that ZnO-based materials have a pronounced biocompatibility, they are characterized by high limit strength, absolute mechanical hardness, as well as the ability to withstand the harsh operating conditions. The aim of this work is the study of structural and biocidal properties of composite material based on zinc oxide and zinc sulfide (ZnS-ZnO and its complex with an organic substance - sodium alginate (ZnS-ZnO-Alg for use in biomedical purpose. Materials and methods. For the synthesis of ZnS-ZnO composite 50 ml 0.2M solution zinc nitrate was added to the 50 ml 0.2M thiourea CS (NH ₂ ₂ solution and stirred in a shaker for 60 minutes. The formation of the compound took place when added to a mixture of 25 mas.% solution of ammonia with the subsequent heating at 80 oC for 30 minutes. Synthesis of the metalorganic complex of ZnS-ZnO-Alg was performed by above mentioned procedure, but to the thiourea solution was previously added 1 ml of 3 mas.% solution of sodium alginate under ultrasonic mixing.. For the next research composites were dried or lyophilized. Study of antibacterial activity of the ZnS-ZnO and ZnS-ZnO-Alg particles was carried out with the use of nutrient mediums: Muller Hinton, meat-pepton nutrient (MPN. As the reference cultures were used E. coli ATCC 25922, S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATSS 29213, S. aureus ATSS-6538, C albicans ATCC 885-653. Determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was carried out by a modified serial diluted method in liquid nutrient broth followed plating on solid Muller Hinton nutrient medium. In addition, the

  5. In-situ Growth of Biocidal AgCl Crystals in the Top Layer of Asymmetric Polytriazole Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Chisca, Stefan; Cheng, Hong; Hong, Pei-Ying; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Scalable fabrication strategies to concentrate biocidal materials in only the surface of membranes are highly desirable. In this letter, tight-UF polytriazole membranes with a high concentration of biocide silver chloride (AgCl) crystals dispersed in only their top layer are presented. They were made following a simple dual-bath process that is compatible with current commercial membrane casting facilities. These membranes can achieve a 150-fold increase in their antimicrobial character compared to their silver-free counterpart. Moreover, fine-tuning of their properties is straightforward. A change in the silver concentration in one of the baths is enough to tune the permeance, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) and silver loading of the final membrane.

  6. The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel in cooling tower water containing a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnoş, Bihter; Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Çotuk, Ayşın; Güngör, Nihal Doğruöz; Cansever, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel in cooling tower water containing a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor was investigated over a 10-month period in a hotel. Planktonic and sessile numbers of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic bacteria were monitored. The corrosion rate was determined by the weight loss method. The corrosion products were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. A mineralized, heterogeneous biofilm was observed on the coupons. Although a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor were regularly added to the cooling water, the results showed that microorganisms, such as SRB in the mixed species biofilm, caused corrosion of galvanized steel. It was observed that Zn layers on the test coupons were completely depleted after 3 months. The Fe concentrations in the biofilm showed significant correlations with the weight loss and carbohydrate concentration (respectively, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01).

  7. In-situ Growth of Biocidal AgCl Crystals in the Top Layer of Asymmetric Polytriazole Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco

    2016-05-06

    Scalable fabrication strategies to concentrate biocidal materials in only the surface of membranes are highly desirable. In this letter, tight-UF polytriazole membranes with a high concentration of biocide silver chloride (AgCl) crystals dispersed in only their top layer are presented. They were made following a simple dual-bath process that is compatible with current commercial membrane casting facilities. These membranes can achieve a 150-fold increase in their antimicrobial character compared to their silver-free counterpart. Moreover, fine-tuning of their properties is straightforward. A change in the silver concentration in one of the baths is enough to tune the permeance, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) and silver loading of the final membrane.

  8. Quorum Sensing and the Use of Quorum Quenchers as Natural Biocides to Inhibit Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giantommaso Scarascia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB are one of the main protagonist groups of biocorrosion in the seawater environment. Given their principal role in biocorrosion, it remains a crucial task to develop strategies to reduce the abundance of SRBs. Conventional approaches include the use of biocides and antibiotics, which can impose health, safety, and environmental concerns. This review examines an alternative approach to this problem. This is achieved by reviewing the role of quorum sensing (QS in SRB populations and its impact on the biofilm formation process. Genome databases of SRBs are mined to look for putative QS systems and homologous protein sequences representative of autoinducer receptors or synthases. Subsequently, this review puts forward the potential use of quorum quenchers as natural biocides against SRBs and outlines the potential strategies for the implementation of this approach.

  9. Quorum Sensing and the Use of Quorum Quenchers as Natural Biocides to Inhibit Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Scarascia, Giantommaso; Wang, Tiannyu; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are one of the main protagonist groups of biocorrosion in the seawater environment. Given their principal role in biocorrosion, it remains a crucial task to develop strategies to reduce the abundance of SRBs. Conventional approaches include the use of biocides and antibiotics, which can impose health, safety, and environmental concerns. This review examines an alternative approach to this problem. This is achieved by reviewing the role of quorum sensing (QS) in SRB populations and its impact on the biofilm formation process. Genome databases of SRBs are mined to look for putative QS systems and homologous protein sequences representative of autoinducer receptors or synthases. Subsequently, this review puts forward the potential use of quorum quenchers as natural biocides against SRBs and outlines the potential strategies for the implementation of this approach.

  10. Quorum Sensing and the Use of Quorum Quenchers as Natural Biocides to Inhibit Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Scarascia, Giantommaso

    2016-12-15

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are one of the main protagonist groups of biocorrosion in the seawater environment. Given their principal role in biocorrosion, it remains a crucial task to develop strategies to reduce the abundance of SRBs. Conventional approaches include the use of biocides and antibiotics, which can impose health, safety, and environmental concerns. This review examines an alternative approach to this problem. This is achieved by reviewing the role of quorum sensing (QS) in SRB populations and its impact on the biofilm formation process. Genome databases of SRBs are mined to look for putative QS systems and homologous protein sequences representative of autoinducer receptors or synthases. Subsequently, this review puts forward the potential use of quorum quenchers as natural biocides against SRBs and outlines the potential strategies for the implementation of this approach.

  11. Factors Affecting Burnout and School Engagement among High School Students: Study Habits, Self- Efficacy Beliefs, and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Filiz; Tuzgol Dost, Meliha; Cetin, Bayram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines high school students' levels of burnout and school engagement with respect to academic success, study habits, and self-efficacy beliefs. The data were gathered during the 2011-2012 school year from 633 students attending six high schools located in Ankara, Turkey. The analyses were conducted on responses from 605 students. The…

  12. Service Learning and Its Influenced to Pre-Service Teachers: Social Responsibility and Self-Efficacy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertsang, Parichart; Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Pumipuntu, Chaloey

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study pre-service teachers on social responsibility and self-efficacy through service learning. The mixed methodology included two major procedures (i) the actual use of a developed service learning instructional model by means of action research principles and qualitative research and (ii) the study into the…

  13. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced gastric cancer, a phase I/II feasibility and efficacy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trip, Anouk K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Poppema, Boelo J. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen (Netherlands); Berge Henegouwen, Mark I. van [Department of Surgical Oncology, Academic Medical Centre – University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Siemerink, Ester [Department of Internal Medicine, Ziekenhuisgroep Twente, Hengelo (Netherlands); Beukema, Jannet C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen (Netherlands); Verheij, Marcel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Plukker, John T.M. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen (Netherlands); Richel, Dick J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Centre – University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre – University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sandick, Johanna W. van [Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cats, Annemieke [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jansen, Edwin P.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hospers, Geke A.P., E-mail: g.a.p.hospers@umcg.nl [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15

    Objectives: This study was initiated to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of preoperative radiotherapy with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin in locally advanced gastric cancer. Methods: In a prospective study, patients with locally advanced gastric cancer stage IB-IV(M0) were treated with chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery 4–6 weeks after the last irradiation. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of radiation to a total dose of 45 Gy given in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy, combined with concurrent weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel. Results: Between December 2007 and January 2012, 25 patients with cT3 (64%) or cT4 (36%) gastric cancer were included. One patient discontinued concurrent chemotherapy in the 4th week due to toxicity, but completed radiotherapy. Another patient discontinued chemoradiotherapy after the 3rd week due to progressive disease. Grade III adverse events of chemoradiotherapy were: gastrointestinal 12%, haematological 12% and other 8%. All patients, except one who developed progressive disease, were operated. Surgical complications were: general/infectious 48%, anastomotic leakage 12%, and bowel perforation 8%. Postoperative mortality was 4%. Microscopically radical resection rate was 72%. Pathological complete response rate was 16% and near complete response rate 24%. Conclusions: In this study, preoperative chemoradiotherapy for patients with locally advanced gastric cancer was associated with manageable toxicity and encouraging pathological response rates.

  14. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced gastric cancer, a phase I/II feasibility and efficacy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trip, Anouk K.; Poppema, Boelo J.; Berge Henegouwen, Mark I. van; Siemerink, Ester; Beukema, Jannet C.; Verheij, Marcel; Plukker, John T.M.; Richel, Dick J.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Sandick, Johanna W. van; Cats, Annemieke; Jansen, Edwin P.M.; Hospers, Geke A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was initiated to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of preoperative radiotherapy with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin in locally advanced gastric cancer. Methods: In a prospective study, patients with locally advanced gastric cancer stage IB-IV(M0) were treated with chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery 4–6 weeks after the last irradiation. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of radiation to a total dose of 45 Gy given in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy, combined with concurrent weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel. Results: Between December 2007 and January 2012, 25 patients with cT3 (64%) or cT4 (36%) gastric cancer were included. One patient discontinued concurrent chemotherapy in the 4th week due to toxicity, but completed radiotherapy. Another patient discontinued chemoradiotherapy after the 3rd week due to progressive disease. Grade III adverse events of chemoradiotherapy were: gastrointestinal 12%, haematological 12% and other 8%. All patients, except one who developed progressive disease, were operated. Surgical complications were: general/infectious 48%, anastomotic leakage 12%, and bowel perforation 8%. Postoperative mortality was 4%. Microscopically radical resection rate was 72%. Pathological complete response rate was 16% and near complete response rate 24%. Conclusions: In this study, preoperative chemoradiotherapy for patients with locally advanced gastric cancer was associated with manageable toxicity and encouraging pathological response rates

  15. Treating Small Bowel Obstruction with a Manual Physical Therapy: A Prospective Efficacy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Rice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel obstructions (SBOs caused by adhesions are a common, often life-threatening postsurgical complication with few treatment options available for patients. This study examines the efficacy of a manual physical therapy treatment regimen on the pain and quality of life of subjects with a history of bowel obstructions due to adhesions in a prospective, controlled survey based study. Changes in six domains of quality of life were measured via ratings reported before and after treatment using the validated Small Bowel Obstruction Questionnaire (SBO-Q. Improvements in the domains for pain (p=0.0087, overall quality of life (p=0.0016, and pain severity (p=0.0006 were significant when average scores before treatment were compared with scores after treatment. The gastrointestinal symptoms (p=0.0258 domain was marginally significant. There was no statistically significant improvement identified in the diet or medication domains in the SBO-Q for this population. Significant improvements in range of motion in