WorldWideScience

Sample records for biocidal efficacy study

  1. Importance of Porins for Biocide Efficacy against Mycobacterium smegmatis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Elrike; Schmidt, Stefan; Niederweis, Michael; Steinhauer, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacteria are among the microorganisms least susceptible to biocides but cause devastating diseases, such as tuberculosis, and increasingly opportunistic infections. The exceptional resistance of mycobacteria to toxic solutes is due to an unusual outer membrane, which acts as an efficient permeability barrier, in synergy with other resistance mechanisms. Porins are channel-forming proteins in the outer membrane of mycobacteria. In this study we used the alamarBlue assay to show that the deletion of Msp porins in isogenic mutants increased the resistance of Mycobacterium smegmatis to isothiazolinones (methylchloroisothiazolinone [MCI]/methylisothiazolinone [MI] and octylisothiazolinone [2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one; OIT]), formaldehyde-releasing biocides {hexahydrotriazine [1,3,5-tris (2-hydroxyethyl)-hexahydrotriazine; HHT] and methylenbisoxazolidine [N,N′-methylene-bis-5-(methyloxazolidine); MBO]}, and the lipophilic biocides polyhexamethylene biguanide and octenidine dihydrochloride 2- to 16-fold. Furthermore, the susceptibility of the porin triple mutant against a complex disinfectant was decreased 8-fold compared to wild-type (wt) M. smegmatis. Efficacy testing in the quantitative suspension test EN 14348 revealed 100-fold improved survival of the porin mutant in the presence of this biocide. These findings underline the importance of porins for the susceptibility of M. smegmatis to biocides. PMID:21398489

  2. Importance of porins for biocide efficacy against Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Elrike; Schmidt, Stefan; Niederweis, Michael; Steinhauer, Katrin

    2011-05-01

    Mycobacteria are among the microorganisms least susceptible to biocides but cause devastating diseases, such as tuberculosis, and increasingly opportunistic infections. The exceptional resistance of mycobacteria to toxic solutes is due to an unusual outer membrane, which acts as an efficient permeability barrier, in synergy with other resistance mechanisms. Porins are channel-forming proteins in the outer membrane of mycobacteria. In this study we used the alamarBlue assay to show that the deletion of Msp porins in isogenic mutants increased the resistance of Mycobacterium smegmatis to isothiazolinones (methylchloroisothiazolinone [MCI]/methylisothiazolinone [MI] and octylisothiazolinone [2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one; OIT]), formaldehyde-releasing biocides {hexahydrotriazine [1,3,5-tris (2-hydroxyethyl)-hexahydrotriazine; HHT] and methylenbisoxazolidine [N,N'-methylene-bis-5-(methyloxazolidine); MBO]}, and the lipophilic biocides polyhexamethylene biguanide and octenidine dihydrochloride 2- to 16-fold. Furthermore, the susceptibility of the porin triple mutant against a complex disinfectant was decreased 8-fold compared to wild-type (wt) M. smegmatis. Efficacy testing in the quantitative suspension test EN 14348 revealed 100-fold improved survival of the porin mutant in the presence of this biocide. These findings underline the importance of porins for the susceptibility of M. smegmatis to biocides. PMID:21398489

  3. Comparative biocidal efficacy vs. sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of antimicrobial compounds commonly used in cooling water, paper making, and oilfield systems were evaluated for their ability to control sessile and planktonic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). While all the biocides tested are known to be effective against common planktonic, general aerobic bacteria, most were unable to control either planktonic or sessile SRB. In addition, low levels of sulfide, an SRB by-product, were found to have some effect on biocide efficacy

  4. Biocidal Efficacy of a Flocculating Emergency Water Purification Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Edmund M.; Hernandez, C.(Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, United States of America); Boutros, S. N.; Harper, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    Chlor-Floc (CF) emergency water purification tablets were tested for bactericidal, virucidal, and cysticidal efficacy in water at temperatures ranging from 5 to 25°C. The minimal required log reduction was achieved for bacteria, Giardia muris, and rotavirus, but CF did not achieve the required log reduction of poliovirus at any of the temperatures or times investigated. The biocidal properties of the CF tablet were equivalent to if not greater than those of the Globaline iodine tablet, and th...

  5. SCHIFF BASES: FACILE SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOCIDAL STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaivani, S.; N. Padma Priya; S. Arunachalam

    2013-01-01

    A family of Schiff bases was synthesized by the reactions of o-aminobenzoic acid and Knovenegal condensate of β-ketoesters in 1:1 ratio. The newly synthesized Schiff bases were characterized by Elemental analyses and spectral (FT-IR, UV–Vis and 1H-NMR) studies and the structures have been proposed tentatively. These compounds were subjected to study their biocidal efficacy against S. epidermidis, E. coli, B. cinerea and A. niger.

  6. SCHIFF BASES: FACILE SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOCIDAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalaivani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A family of Schiff bases was synthesized by the reactions of o-aminobenzoic acid and Knovenegal condensate of β-ketoesters in 1:1 ratio. The newly synthesized Schiff bases were characterized by Elemental analyses and spectral (FT-IR, UV–Vis and 1H-NMR studies and the structures have been proposed tentatively. These compounds were subjected to study their biocidal efficacy against S. epidermidis, E. coli, B. cinerea and A. niger.

  7. Importance of Porins for Biocide Efficacy against Mycobacterium smegmatis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Frenzel, Elrike; Schmidt, Stefan; Niederweis, Michael; Steinhauer, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacteria are among the microorganisms least susceptible to biocides but cause devastating diseases, such as tuberculosis, and increasingly opportunistic infections. The exceptional resistance of mycobacteria to toxic solutes is due to an unusual outer membrane, which acts as an efficient permeability barrier, in synergy with other resistance mechanisms. Porins are channel-forming proteins in the outer membrane of mycobacteria. In this study we used the alamarBlue assay to show that the de...

  8. Study on management policy of Biocides in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Kyu; Cho, Young Hee [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In the advanced countries, there are active studies on biocide, implying non-agricultural pesticides, at present with increasing interests on this. Among the advanced countries, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are managing biocides the most systematically and have very clear regulations and roles of relevant departments. In addition to efforts of each country, the international organizations are emphasizing the need of biocides management. EU already announced Biocidal Products Directive(BPD) in 1998 and is urging to implement regulations within a guidebook in member countries from 2000. Furthermore, OECD is well aware of biocides management trend of each member country and is planning to set up a specific management guide based on this. In this study, it recommends a biocides management policy in Korea with regulations, relevant departments, and regulation contents of biocides implemented in the advanced countries and regulation trend of biocides in Korea. 47 refs., 27 tabs.

  9. Efficacy of natural biocide on control of microbial induced corrosion in oil pipelines mediated by Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meeta Lavania; Priyangshu M. Sarma; Ajoy K. Mandal; Simrita Cheema; Banwari Lal

    2011-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of a natural biocide with four chemical tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfonate,benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride,and formaldehyde,glutaraldehyde,to control microbial induced corrosion in oil pipelines.The efficacy of biocides were monitored against Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas in experimental pipes by measuring cell counts,H2S production,Fe(II) production,production of extracellular polymeric substances and structure of biofilm.The treatment with cow urine had minimum planktonic cell counts of 3 × 102 CFU/mL as well as biofiim cell counts of 9 × 101 CFU/mL as compared with tetrakishydroxyl methyl phosphonium sulfonate,benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride,formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde.Sulfide production was the lowest with cow urine (0.08 mmol/L),followed by tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfonate 0.72 mmoi/L.On day 90 of treatment,Fe(II) production was also found to be the lowest with cow urine.The scanning electron microscopic studies indicated that the biofilm bacteria were killed by cow urine.These results demonstrate the cow urine mediated control of microbially induced corrosion,and this is indicative of its potential as a viable substitute of toxic biocides.To the best of our knowledge,this seems to be the first report which screens possible biocidal activity by cow urine as compared to the most common biocides which oil industry is currently using.

  10. Efficacy of natural biocide on control of microbial induced corrosion in oil pipelines mediated by Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, Meeta; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Mandal, Ajoy K; Cheema, Simrita; Lal, Banwari

    2011-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of a natural biocide with four chemical tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfonate, benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, and formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, to control microbial induced corrosion in oil pipelines. The efficacy of biocides were monitored against Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas in experimental pipes by measuring cell counts, H2S production, Fe(II) production, production of extracellular polymeric substances and structure of biofilm. The treatment with cow urine had minimum planktonic cell counts of 3 x 10(2) CFU/mL as well as biofilm cell counts of 9 x 10(1) CFU/mL as compared with tetrakishydroxyl methyl phosphonium sulfonate, benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. Sulfide production was the lowest with cow urine (0.08 mmol/L), followed by tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfonate 0.72 mmol/L. On day 90 of treatment, Fe(II) production was also found to be the lowest with cow urine. The scanning electron microscopic studies indicated that the biofilm bacteria were killed by cow urine. These results demonstrate the cow urine mediated control of microbially induced corrosion, and this is indicative of its potential as a viable substitute of toxic biocides. To the best of our knowledge, this seems to be the first report which screens possible biocidal activity by cow urine as compared to the most common biocides which oil industry is currently using. PMID:22128548

  11. Evaluation of the Biocidal Efficacy of Different Forms of Silver Against Cupriavidus (formerly Wautersia) Species Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Schultz, John R.; Wong, Wing; Algate, Michelle T.; Bryant, Becky; Castro, Victoria A.

    2009-01-01

    Contingency Water Containers (CWCs) are used to store potable and technical water that is transferred to the International Space Station (ISS) from the Shuttle orbiter vehicles. When CWCs are filled, water from the orbiter galley is passed through an ion exchange/activated carbon cartridge that removes the residual iodine biocide used on Shuttle before silver biocide is added. Removal of iodine and addition of silver is necessary to inhibit microbial growth inside CWCs and maintain compatibility with the water systems in the Russian segment of ISS. As part of nominal water transfer activities, crewmembers collect samples from several CWCs for postflight analysis. Results from the analysis of water transfer samples collected during the docked phases of STS-118/13A.1 and STS-120/10A showed that several of the CWCs contained up to 10(exp 4) CFU/mL of bacteria despite the fact that the silver concentrations in the CWCs were within acceptable limits. The samples contained pure cultures of a single bacteria, a Cupriavidus (formerly Wautersia) species that has been shown to be resistant to metallic biocides. As part of the investigation into the cause and remediation of the bacterial contamination in these CWCs, ground studies were initiated to evaluate the resistance of the Cupriavidus species to the silver biocides used on ISS and to determine the minimum effective concentration for the different forms of silver present in the biocides. The initial findings from those experiments are discussed herein.

  12. Copper (Cu)-silica nanocomposite containing valence-engineered Cu: a new strategy for improving the antimicrobial efficacy of Cu biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mikaeel; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2014-07-01

    Copper (Cu) compounds are widely used as antibacterial/antifungal agents for protecting food crops. Prolonged use of Cu biocides would lead to undesirable Cu levels in agricultural soil. In the absence of a suitable alternative, prudent use of Cu biocides is required. This paper reports for the first time a composite material of sol-gel silica host matrix loaded with mixed-valence Cu as an alternative to conventional biocides. In this composite material, Cu is present in different oxidation states. The hydrophilic silica matrix serves as a water-dispersible delivery vehicle for antimicrobial Cu. It is hypothesized that a mixed-valence Cu system, specifically enriched with Cu(0) and Cu(I), will exhibit enhanced antimicrobial efficacy over traditional Cu(II) compounds. Materials were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for the determination of particle size, morphology, crystallinity, and Cu oxidation states. Antimicrobial studies against Xanthomonas alfalfae and Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentration) showed improved efficacy in MV-CuSiNG treatment compared to CuSiNG and other controls. Phytotoxicity studies performed (in Vinca sp. and Hamlin orange) under greenhouse conditions showed that the newly prepared nanocomposite is safe for plants, demonstrating potential usefulness of the material in agricultural biocides. PMID:24911959

  13. Comparison of the efficacy of natural-based and synthetic biocides to disinfect silicone and stainless steel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, I B; Malheiro, J; Mergulhão, F; Maillard, J-Y; Simões, M

    2016-06-01

    New biocidal solutions are needed to combat effectively the evolution of microbes developing antibiotic resistance while having a low or no environmental toxicity impact. This work aims to assess the efficacy of commonly used biocides and natural-based compounds on the disinfection of silicone and stainless steel (SS) surfaces seeded with differentStaphylococcus aureusstrains. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for synthetic (benzalkonium chloride-BAC, glutaraldehyde-GTA,ortho-phthalaldehyde-OPA and peracetic acid-PAA) and natural-based (cuminaldehyde-CUM), eugenol-EUG and indole-3-carbinol-I3C) biocides by the microdilution method. The efficacy of selected biocides at MIC, 10 × MIC and 5500 mg/L (representative in-use concentration) on the disinfection of sessileS. aureuson silicone and SS was assessed by viable counting. Silicone surfaces were harder to disinfect than SS. GTA, OPA and PAA yielded complete CFU reduction of sessile cells for all test concentrations as well as BAC at 10 × MIC and 5500 mg/L. CUM was the least efficient compound. EUG was efficient for SS disinfection, regardless of strains and concentrations tested. I3C at 10 × MIC and 5500 mg/L was able to cause total CFU reduction of silicone and SS deposited bacteria. Although not so efficient as synthetic compounds, the natural-based biocides are promising to be used in disinfectant formulations, particularly I3C and EUG. PMID:26926153

  14. Antimicrobial biocides in the healthcare environment: efficacy, usage, policies, and perceived problems

    OpenAIRE

    Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2005-01-01

    Biocides are heavily used in the healthcare environment, mainly for the disinfection of surfaces, water, equipment, and antisepsis, but also for the sterilization of medical devices and preservation of pharmaceutical and medicinal products. The number of biocidal products for such usage continuously increases along with the number of applications, although some are prone to controversies. There are hundreds of products containing low concentrations of biocides, including various fabrics such ...

  15. The Study of Biocidal Mechanisms of Spark Discharge Plasma Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova I.P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the biocidal mechanisms of spark discharge plasma radiation. Materials and Methods. The suspensions of studied bacterial strains were treated in optimal discharge conditions: pulse capacitor capacity C=3.3 nF, ballast resistance R=10 MOhm, power supply voltage UPS=11 kV, pulse recurrence frequency — 10 Hz. Biocidal effect of plasma radiation was estimated by the number of colony-forming units. The analysis of oxidative process intensity in procariotic cells after plasma radiation exposure was performed according to relative concentration of lipid peroxidation products and fluorescence level of bityrosine, tryptophan and glycated proteins, cell membrane hydrophoby change was studied by fluorescence intensity of 1.6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. The character of metabolic changes in cells after plasma radiation exposure was studied by pyridine nucleotides fluorescence intensity, surface structures condition — by the concentration of sialic acids in extracellular medium. Extracellular pH change was assessed pH-metrically, and intracellular рH was analyzed by means of fluorometry, using fluoroscein probe. Results. 100% gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria growth inhibition was found after plasma radiation exposure within 60 s. Surface carbohydrate structures of gram-positive bacteria were revealed to be destroyed to a greater degree. There was observed the increase of membrane and intracellular pH hydrophoby after the treatment of bacterial cells suspension. The level decrease of molecular products of lipid peroxidation was found. The proteins of gram-negative bacteria were shown to be exposed to more pronounced oxidative modification than those of gram-positive ones. Pyridine nucleotides in oxidized condition were found to prevail in cells after plasma radiation exposure.

  16. Role of dose concentration in biocide efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, K J; Zahller, J; Stewart, P S

    2002-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa entrapped in alginate gel beads to form artificial biofilms resisted killing by chlorine, glutaraldehyde, 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA), and an alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium compound (ADBAC). The degree of resistance was quantified by a resistance factor that compared killing times for biofilm and planktonic cells in response to the same concentration of antimicrobial agent. Resistance factors averaged 120 for chlorine, 34 for glutaraldehyde, 29 for DBNPA, and 1900 for ADBAC. In every case, resistance factors decreased with increasing concentration of the antimicrobial agent. An independent analysis of the concentration dependence of the apparent rates of killing of planktonic and biofilm bacteria showed that elevating the treatment concentration increased bacterial killing more in the biofilm than it did in a suspension culture. Calculation of a transport modulus comparing the rates of biocide reaction and diffusion suggested that at least part of the biofilm resistance to chlorine, glutaraldehdye, and DBNPA could be attributed to incomplete or slow penetration of these agents into the biofilm. Time-kill curves were nonlinear for biofilm bacteria in some cases. The shapes of these curves implicated retarded antimicrobial penetration for chlorine and glutaraldehyde and the presence of a tolerant subpopulation for DBNPA and ADBAC. The results indicate that treating biofilms with a concentrated dose of biocide is more effective than using prolonged doses of a lower concentration. PMID:12080421

  17. Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löschau, Margit; Krätke, Renate

    2005-11-01

    The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents. PMID:15955603

  18. Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents. - For alternative antifouling paints efficacy as well as adverse effects on non-target organisms and the aquatic environment should be carefully assessed

  19. Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeschau, Margit [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Technischen Umweltschutz, Sekretariat CR1, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: loeschau@ut.tu-berlin.de; Kraetke, Renate [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Technischen Umweltschutz, Sekretariat CR1, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: r.kraetke@bfr.bund.de

    2005-11-15

    The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents. - For alternative antifouling paints efficacy as well as adverse effects on non-target organisms and the aquatic environment should be carefully assessed.

  20. Biocidas. Eficacia. Criterios para su evaluación y autorización Biocides. Efficacy. Criteria for its assessment and authorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covadonga Caballo Diéguez

    2006-12-01

    .Article 13 of Royal Decree 865/2003, 4 July, establishes hygienic-sanitary criteria for prevention and control of Legionellosis, provides for the use of disinfectants duly authorized by Public Health General Directorate, in the course of hygienic-sanitary maintenance operations.In accordance with existing national laws among requirements necessary to effect said authorization are the due efficacy assay product, physic-chemical properties, data on toxicity and ecotoxicity and information on incompatibility with other chemicals used in installations, as well as materials constitutive of the latter.Public Health General Directorate, General Subdirectorate of Environmental Health and Labour Health, studies and assesses the information provided by the applicant if appropriate the product is included in the Public Health General Directorate Official Register.Up until 1st June 2006, 183 disinfectants products against Legionella are registered in the Public Health General Directorate. The said disinfectant products may be classified according to their action substances, and the way in which they act, into oxidants and non-oxidants all of them interacting the different with factors linked to Legionella proliferation. Nonetheless, efficacy of oxidant and non-oxidant biocides will depend on conditions such as: specific characteristics of the installation itself (dimensions, material, technology, usage and maintenance frequency, location, use of products that might interfere with the used biocide.Although efficacy assays conducted to register these biocides rest mostly on laboratory studies, their “in vivo” efficacy should not be questioned without considering the above listed factors.

  1. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium immunogenum and Pseudomonas fluorescens to Formaldehyde and Non-Formaldehyde Biocides in Semi-Synthetic Metalworking Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaraju, Suresh B.; Yadav, Jagjit S.; Khan, Izhar U. H.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium immunogenum, a newly identified member of the Mycobacterium chelonae_M. abscessus complex is considered a potential etiological agent for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in machine workers exposed to contaminated metalworking fluid (MWF). This study investigated the biocidal efficacy of the frequently applied commercial formaldehyde-releasing (HCHO) biocides Grotan and Bioban CS 1135 and non-HCHO type biocides Kathon 886 MW (isothiazolone) and Preventol CMK 40 (phenolic) towar...

  2. Comparative environmental assessment of biocides used in antifouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N

    2002-05-01

    In response to increasing scientific evidence on the toxicity and persistence of organotin residues from antifouling paints in the aquatic environment, the use of triorganotin antifouling products was banned on boats of less than 25 m length in many countries during 1987. Alternatives to tributyltin (TBT) paint are mainly copper based coatings containing organic booster biocides to improve the efficacy of the formulation, and have been utilised on small boats for the last 10 years. With policies encouraging a total ban on TBT, it is expected that these biocides will be used to a greater extent in the future. Limited data and information are available on the environmental occurrence, fate, toxicity, and persistence of these biocides, and thus any decisions on policies regulating antifoulants cannot be fully informed. In this study, a multicriteria comparison of alternative biocides, based on a general assessment of available information in the literature, provided support for the use of the precautionary principle with respect to policies on antifouling products. This assessment was validated by a more detailed comparison of four selected biocides and TBT. Results indicate that TCMS pyridine and TCMTB demonstrate environmental characteristics similar to TBT and thus detail risk assessments are needed before their use is permitted. The widespread use of the other biocides should be allowed only after research to fill the gaps in knowledge with respect to their toxicity and persistence in aquatic environments. PMID:12079074

  3. Enhanced Biocide Mitigation of Field Biofilm Consortia by a Mixture of D-Amino Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yingchao; Jia, Ru; Al-Mahamedh, Hussain H.; Xu, Dake; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a major problem in the oil and gas industry as well as in many other industries. Current treatment methods rely mostly on pigging and biocide dosing. Biocide resistance is a growing concern. Thus, it is desirable to use biocide enhancers to improve the efficacy of existing biocides. D-Amino acids are naturally occurring. Our previous work demonstrated that some D-amino acids are biocide enhancers. Under a biocide stress of 50 ppm (w/w) hydroxyme...

  4. Benzalkonium runoff from roofs treated with biocide products - In situ pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromaire, M C; Van de Voorde, A; Lorgeoux, C; Chebbo, G

    2015-09-15

    Roof maintenance practices often involve the application of biocide products to fight against moss, lichens and algae. The main component of these products is benzalkonium chloride, a mixture of alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides with mainly C12 and C14 alkyl chain lengths, which is toxic for the aquatic environment. This paper describes, on the basis of an in-situ pilot scale study, the evolution of roof runoff contamination over a one year period following the biocide treatment of roof frames. Results show a major contamination of roof runoff immediately after treatment (from 5 to 30 mg/L), followed by an exponential decrease. 175-375 mm of cumulated rainfall is needed before the runoff concentrations become less than EC50 values for fish (280 μg/l). The residual concentration in the runoff water remains above 4 μg/L even after 640 mm of rainfall. The level of benzalkonium ions leaching depends on the roofing material, with lower concentrations and total mass leached from ceramic tiles than from concrete tiles, and on the state of the tile (new or worn out). Mass balance calculations indicate that a large part of the mass of benzalkonium compounds applied to the tiles is lost, probably due to biodegradation processes. PMID:26081434

  5. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium immunogenum and Pseudomonas fluorescens to Formaldehyde and Non-Formaldehyde Biocides in Semi-Synthetic Metalworking Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B. Selvaraju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium immunogenum, a newly identified member of the Mycobacterium chelonae_M. abscessus complex is considered a potential etiological agent for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP in machine workers exposed to contaminated metalworking fluid (MWF. This study investigated the biocidal efficacy of the frequently applied commercial formaldehyde-releasing (HCHO biocides Grotan and Bioban CS 1135 and non-HCHO type biocides Kathon 886 MW (isothiazolone and Preventol CMK 40 (phenolic toward this emerging mycobacterial species (M. immunogenum in HP-linked MWFs, alone and in presence of a representative of the Gram-negative bacterial contaminants, Pseudomonas fluorescens, using two semi-synthetic MWF matrices (designated Fluid A and Fluid B. Relative biocide susceptibility analysis indicated M immunogenum to be comparatively more resistant (2–1600 fold than P. fluorescens to the tested biocides under the varied test conditions. In terms of minimum inhibitory concentration, Kathon was the most effective biocide against M. immunogenum. Fluid factors had a major effect on the biocide susceptibility. Fluid A formulation provided greater protective advantage to the test organisms than Fluid B. Fluid dialysis (Fluid A led to an increased biocidal efficacy of Grotan, Kathon and Preventol against M. immunogenum further implying the role of native fluid components. Used fluid matrix, in general, increased the resistance of the two test organisms against the biocides, with certain exceptions. M. immunogenum resistance increased in presence of the co-contaminant P. fluorescens. Collectively, the results show a multifactorial nature of the biocide susceptibility of MWF-colonizing mycobacteria and highlight the importance of more rigorous efficacy testing and validation of biocides prior to and during their application in metalworking fluid operations.

  6. Efficacy of burning, tillage, and biocides in controlling bacteria released at field sites and effects on indigenous bacteria and fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Donegan, K; Fieland, V; Fowles, N; Ganio, L; Seidler, R

    1992-01-01

    Decontamination treatments of burning and biocide application, alone and in combination with tillage, were evaluated for their ability to reduce populations of bacteria applied to the leaves of plants in field plots. In addition, the effects of these control methods on indigenous leaf and soil bacteria and fungi were assessed. Field plots of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), sprayed with the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, or Erwinia herbicola, received the following t...

  7. Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, María Blanca; Decorosi, Francesca; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Martínez, José Luis; Hernández, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Biocides are used without restriction for several purposes. As a consequence, large amounts of biocides are released without any control in the environment, a situation that can challenge the microbial population dynamics, including selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Previous work has shown that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF and induces expression of this pump triggering transient low-level resistance. In the present work we analyze if two other common biocides, benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene, trigger antibiotic resistance in S. maltophilia. Bioinformatic and biochemical methods showed that benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene bind the repressor of smeDEF, SmeT. Only benzalkonium chloride triggers expression of smeD and its effect in transient antibiotic resistance is minor. None of the hexachlorophene-selected mutants was antibiotic resistant. Two benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presented reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and were impaired in growth. Metabolic profiling showed they were more proficient than their parental strain in the use of some dipeptides. We can then conclude that although bioinformatic predictions and biochemical studies suggest that both hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride should induce smeDEF expression leading to transient S. maltophilia resistance to antibiotics, phenotypic assays showed this not to be true. The facts that hexachlorophene resistant mutants are not antibiotic resistant and that the benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presenting altered susceptibility to antibiotics were impaired in growth suggests that the risk for the selection (and fixation) of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants by these biocides is likely low, at least in the absence of constant selection pressure. PMID:26201074

  8. Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Blanca Sánchez

    Full Text Available Biocides are used without restriction for several purposes. As a consequence, large amounts of biocides are released without any control in the environment, a situation that can challenge the microbial population dynamics, including selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Previous work has shown that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF and induces expression of this pump triggering transient low-level resistance. In the present work we analyze if two other common biocides, benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene, trigger antibiotic resistance in S. maltophilia. Bioinformatic and biochemical methods showed that benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene bind the repressor of smeDEF, SmeT. Only benzalkonium chloride triggers expression of smeD and its effect in transient antibiotic resistance is minor. None of the hexachlorophene-selected mutants was antibiotic resistant. Two benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presented reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and were impaired in growth. Metabolic profiling showed they were more proficient than their parental strain in the use of some dipeptides. We can then conclude that although bioinformatic predictions and biochemical studies suggest that both hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride should induce smeDEF expression leading to transient S. maltophilia resistance to antibiotics, phenotypic assays showed this not to be true. The facts that hexachlorophene resistant mutants are not antibiotic resistant and that the benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presenting altered susceptibility to antibiotics were impaired in growth suggests that the risk for the selection (and fixation of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants by these biocides is likely low, at least in the absence of constant selection pressure.

  9. Bromination vis-a-vis chlorination as a biocide feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is used extensively as a cooling medium in various heat transfer equipment's of a power industry such as condenser, heat exchangers and cooling towers. At elevated temperature, the breeding of microbiological growth can form slimes, underneath of this, accelerated corrosion can take place resulting into sudden and catastrophic failure of equipment's. The microbiological growth unchecked in the various systems especially in low velocity areas can lead to large growth of micro organisms such as algae which can even reduce the flow of the fluid thus affecting the efficiency of plant equipment's. Therefore, chlorination is a mandatory requirement in industrial cooling water to reduce biofouling in heat transfer equipment's. The chlorination in drinking water produces germicidal effect and thus reduces the bacterial counts. At NAPS the water quality is good and mild doses of chlorine (5 ppm) two times a day, as envisaged in design is noticed to be satisfactory. The chlorination of recirculating condenser cooling water presently is being done with the established doses for a fixed time twice a day. Some of the problems noticed with the chlorination process are : Corrosion of constructional material of chlorination plant and equipment's and pipelines causing large input of efforts on maintenance for keeping high availability of the chlorination plant. In addition to this, the leakages in the equipment could be a potential safety hazard. The effectiveness of chlorine is observed to be less in alkaline pH (above 9.0) as encountered at NAPS. This results is large quantities of chlorine injection for extended periods. The cost of chlorine and bleaching powder keeps fluctuating in the market as noticed in past few years. Many a times this results in scarcity of chlorine/bleaching powder causing interruption in biofouling control programme. Hence it was felt prudent to work on the alternative biocides which could be cost effective, non-polluting and nature and user

  10. A Photodegradation Study of Three Common Paint and Plaster Biocides under monochromatic UV Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minelgaite, Greta; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning;

    2014-01-01

    Photodegradation of the three common paint-and-plaster biocides (carbendazim, diuron and terbutryn) was investigated at controlled laboratory conditions. Samples prepared in two types of water (demineralized water and pond water) were subjected to 254 nm monochromatic UV light. Light intensity (W m......-2) in the experimental chamber was measured by a fiber optic spectrometer. The observed decline in biocide concentration was related with the light energy, accumulated during the time of degradation (kJ m-2), and 1st order photodegradation rate constants (m2 kJ-1) were determined. The obtained...... selected laboratory conditions, as well as emphasize the importance of water type when investigating pollutant’s photo fate, as certain constituents might act as reaction enhancers or inhibitors....

  11. Comparison of biocides for disinfection treatment of open recirculating cooling circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open recirculating cooling circuits of nuclear power plants are likely to face pathogenic proliferations like Legionella and amoebae (Naegleria fowleri). To reduce such risks, biocide treatments are usually implemented. However, the selection of a treatment is never easy due to the large size of the cooling circuits. Indeed, the range of treatment options is limited due to potential health or environmental impacts of chemicals in case of chemical treatments or because of the technical difficulties to implement treatment units appropriate to the size of the cooling circuits in case of physical treatments. In the aim of finding the best compromise between efficacy, nature and quantity of chemical releases and industrial feasibility, several biocide treatments were compared at lab and pilot scale using semi-industrial pilot plants simulating recirculating cooling circuit of a nuclear power plant. These pilots were fed with river water or pre-treated water (lime softening or clari-flocculation). They were equipped with materials and surfaces representative of those found on a full-scale plant. These pilots operated at summer temperatures favoring microbial growth. Three industrial biocides were compared: chlorine, monochloramine and chlorine dioxide. The results indicate that the transit in the cooling system strongly affects the consumption of biocides and therefore their efficacy, the quantity of biocide needed and chemical releases so that the ranking of treatments defined on the basis of laboratory tests can be strongly modified. The results show different areas of consumption along the process line depending on biocides and highlight the significant role of the cooling tower. The behavior of biocides in the different compartments of the circuit (cooling tower, condenser, basins) is described and the consequences on pathogenic micro-organisms removal in bio-films and on chemical releases are considered as function of the studied biocide. Moreover, the influence of

  12. Differential effects of biocide treatments on saxicolous communities: Case study of the Segovia cathedral cloister (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos, Asunción de los; Pérez Ortega, Sergio; Wierzchos, Jacek; Ascaso, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the differential elimination of surface lichen thalli and their penetrating hyphae and epilithic and endolithic cyanobacteria by two biocide treatments applied on a small scale to the cloister of the Segovia cathedral. Both chemical treatments were followed by mechanical cleaning, and their effects were determined by scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron imaging (SEM–BSE). Both treatments were effective at killing epilithic lichens and cyanobacteria, a...

  13. Laboratory observations of biocide efficiency against Legionella in model cooling tower systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.M.; Eccles, J.; Fricker, C.

    1999-07-01

    The efficacy of specific oxidizing and non-oxidizing biocides was examined using a model cooling system inoculated with a microcosm containing an environmental isolate of Legionella pneumophila. The microcosm was prepared in a two-stage chemostat, which provided a consistent source of microbiological inoculum for the study. The microcosm consisted of both sessile (within biofilms) and planktonic Legionella in association with other microorganisms, including Pseudomonas species and cyst-forming ameobae. A procedure was established to successfully transfer the chemostat grown inoculum to the model cooling system and establish both sessile and planktonic forms of Legionella in the model cooling system. The greatest biocidal effect for all of the biocides was observed immediately after dosing. This effect was relatively short-lived even for the slow acting biocides such isothiazolin (as 8 ppm active) where an effect was only observed over the first 12 hours. The faster acting biocides, DBNPA (as 8 ppm active) and gluteraldehyde (as 27 ppm active), did initially reduce Legionella populations but did not totally eliminate Legionella or provide lasting control. Chlorine and bromine (as 0.5--1.5 ppm free halogen), and ozone (as 0.1--0.5 ppm free reserve) reduced and controlled Legionella populations so long as a free reserve of oxidant was maintained. Legionella recovered quickly after biocide dosing, reestablishing similar levels to those observed before dosing.

  14. Influence of Gamma Radiation in Combination with Biocides on Sulfur Reducing Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The counts of sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB) of the water samples collected from a gas treatment plant of a petroleum field in middle delta-Egypt were determined. The data showed a significant counts of (SRB) in the collected samples and there was a mild increase in the bacterial counts through the system stages which revealed the presence of appropriate conditions required for the growth of (SRB) microflora. Three groups of non-oxidizing biocides were screened for their bactericidal activities. It was found that the biocides IA and IB were slightly superior in respect to the antibacterial efficacy compared to their analogues of aldehydic and cationic forms, respectively. So, these biocides were selected for the study of the combined treatment with gamma radiation to maximize the efficiency on sulfate reducing bacteria treatment using the minimum effective dose of both radiation and biocides, and to eliminate their negative impacts, This treatment demonstrated that it is possible to minimize the amount of chemical biocides that are injected into targeted systems and released to the environment by exposing the waste water to ionizing radiation after biocides addition

  15. Radiologic evaluation of bone loss at implants with biocide coated titanium abutments: a study in the dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto López-Píriz

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to evaluate bone loss at implant abutments coated with a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles subjected to experimental peri-implantitis. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiments, 3 implants were installed in each quadrant of the mandibles. Glass/n-Ag coted abutments were connected to implant platform. Cotton floss ligatures were placed in a submarginal position around the abutment necks and the animals were subject to a diet which allowed plaque accumulation, and after 15 weeks the dogs were sacrificed. Radiographs of all implant sites were obtained at the beginning and at the end of the experimentally induced peri-implantitis. The radiographic examination indicated that significant amounts of additional bone loss occurred in implants without biocide coating, considering both absolute and relative values of bone loss. Percentages of additional bone loss observed in implants dressed with a biocide coated abutment were about 3 times lower (p<0.006 distal aspect; and p<0.031 at mesial aspect than the control ones. Within the limits of the present study it seems promising the use of soda-lime glass/nAg coatings on abutments to prevent peri-implant diseases.

  16. Antibiofilm activities of certain biocides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gharavi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can produce biofilm. Biofilm is a complex, three dimensional structure in which microorganisms are attached to a surface and embedded in a matrix made of extracellular polymers. Due to high resistance to antimicrobial agents, biofilms create difficulties in various situations in healthcare. In this study, antibiofilm activities of some biocides in P. aeruginosa were studied."nMaterials and methods: The biofilm production ability of P. aeruginosa strain 214 (a clinical isolate was determined in the presence of six biocides including of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, silver nitrate (AgNO3, bismuth ethanedithiol (BisEDT, bismuth dimercaprol (BisBAL, bismuth-2-mercaptoethanol (BisMEO and bismuth propanedithiol (BisPDT using the modified microtiter plate method. Bactericidal activity of the biocides against biofilm and planktonic cells was investigated. In this study, permeation of biocides through alginate layer was evaluated with a sandwich cup method."nResults: The results demonstrated that in the presence of bismuth thiols, biofilm production in MIC and sub MIC concentrations was considerably inhibited. Bismuththiols had lower antibiofilm bactericidal activity than EDTA and silver nitrate. One possible mechanism of biofilm resistance is exopolysaccharide production which prevents the access of antimicrobial agents to cells inside the biofilm. Bismuth thiols could not penetrate, while EDTA and silver nitrate had high penetration rate."nConclusions: Due to the frequent use of silver nitrate and EDTA in various applications, low efficacy in the inhibition of biofilm production, unstudied toxicity of BTs for humans and high efficacy in the inhibition of biofilm production, it is suggested that combinatory effect of BTs with silver nitrate or EDTA on biofilms and biofilm production be investigated.

  17. Produced water exposure alters bacterial response to biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Amit; Lipus, Daniel; Bibby, Kyle

    2014-11-01

    Microbial activity during the holding and reuse of wastewater from hydraulic fracturing operations, termed produced water, may lead to issues with corrosion, sulfide release, and fouling. Biocides are applied to control biological activity, often with limited efficacy, which is typically attributed to chemical interactions with the produced water. However, it is unknown whether there is a biologically driven mechanism to biocide tolerance in produced water. Here, we demonstrate that produced water exposure results in an enhanced tolerance against the typically used biocide glutaraldehyde and increased susceptibility to the oxidative biocide hypochlorite in a native and a model bacteria and that this altered resistance is due to the salinity of the produced water. In addition, we elucidate the genetic response of the model organism Pseudomonas fluorescens to produced water exposure to provide a mechanistic interpretation of the altered biocide resistance. The RNA-seq data demonstrated the induction of genes involved in osmotic stress, energy production and conversion, membrane integrity, and protein transport following produced water exposure, which facilitates bacterial survival and alters biocide tolerance. Efforts to fundamentally understand biocide resistance mechanisms, which enable the optimization of biocide application, hold significant implications for greening of the fracturing process through encouraging produced water recycling. Specifically, these results suggest the necessity of optimizing biocide application at the level of individual shale plays, rather than historical experience, based upon produced water characteristics and salinity. PMID:25279933

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF BIOCIDE STRATEGIES ON FINE PAPER MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Kiuru

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study a rapid at-line ATP (adenosine triphosphate analysis is applied in papermaking. This ATP analysis takes less than a minute, and the information can be utilized instantly to adapt the biocide program. The study shows the effect of different biocide strategies at paper mills. Comparison is made between oxidative and reductive biocides on the one hand, and on the other hand between continuous vs. batch additions of biocide. Continuous biocide addition keeps the microbial activity at a constant level. However, a long production period without a boil-out might result in accumulation of resistant bacteria, which cannot be eliminated without changing the biocide strategy. Batch addition of biocide creates a high temporary concentration of biocide in the process. This causes lower temporary microbial activity in the process, but between the doses the microbial activity may rise to an intolerable level. Batch addition causes chemical variation to the wet end of a paper machine more easily than continuous addition. This can affect the performance of papermaking chemicals and cause problems with retention, fixing, etc. Both biocide addition strategies can be used if they are monitored and optimized properly. Rapid ATP analysis is a suitable tool for both purposes.

  19. Biocides from façade coatings in urban surface waters: Estimating the leaching of biocides from render by polyacrylate-water partitioning constants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Styszko, Kartarzyna; Ou, Yi; Mayer, Philipp; Trapp, Stefan; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Leaching of biocides from façade coatings attracts more and more attention within recent years. In-can as well as film preserving biocides are added to polymer resin based renders and paints in order protect from microbial spoilage. However, several studies revealed that biocides leach from the...... façade coating and are detectable in urban stormwater runoff. The present study focussed on the occurrence of biocides in the aqueous environment - both in urban water close to the sources as well as further away in fresh and marine waters. It could be shown that biocides are ubiquitous in the aqueous...

  20. A NEW DUAL BIOCIDE CONCEPT FOR FINE PAPERMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Kiuru Mail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical generation of oxidants was studied to find new solutions to control microbial contamination at paper mills. Laboratory and semi-pilot trials using a Wet End Simulator indicated that the combination of an electrochemically produced halogen-containing oxidant together with sodium percarbonate was an efficient new biocide concept, especially in fine papermaking. Addition of sodium percarbonate considerably reduced the need for halogen-containing biocides, thus lessening risk of corrosion. The trials with samples from fine paper machines indicated that the new concept required halogenated biocides to be dosed first, and the time delay between additions of biocide needed to be sufficient to ensure that no residual halogen was left when sodium percarbonate was added. Electrochemical generation enables on-site biocide production, which decreases transportation cost, risk associated with storage of hazardous chemicals, and biocide lost due to degradation. Thus, on-site generation of biocides together with potential reduction in amount of halogen containing oxidants make this dual concept economically attractive and environmentally positive.

  1. Partitioning of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanczyk, Michal; Bollmann, Ulla E.; Bester, Kai

    , the partitioning of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render was studied. In this study the partitioning constants of benzoisothiazolinone, carbendazim, dichlorooctylisothiazolinone, diuron, iodocarb, isoproturon, irgarol, mecoprop, methylisothiazolinone, octylisothiazolinone, terbutryn...

  2. Biocide patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Veien, Niels

    1985-01-01

    Routine patch testing with a series of 6 industrial biocides containing methylene-bis-thiocyanate (Cytox 3522), benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT), chlorocresol (Preventol CMK), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Kathon 893), polyhydroxymethylene monobenzylether (Preventol D2) or 1,3,5-tris (hydroxy......-ethyl) hexahydrotriazine (Grotan BK) was carried out in 6 Danish out-patient clinics to evaluate guinea pig allergy test results with the same compounds. A total of 1652 consecutive patients with dermatitis were tested. The usefulness of this patch test battery was limited. There were a few positive reactions to Cytox...... male patients and atopics, but significant differences in the frequencies of occupational cases, hand eczemas, and leg ulcers/stasis dermatitis, indicating possible variations in referral patterns, use of patch tests, and/or environmental factors....

  3. Encapsulation of biocides by cyclodextrins: toward synergistic effects against pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Nardello-Rataj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Host–guest chemistry is useful for the construction of nanosized objects. Some of the widely used hosts are probably the cyclodextrins (CDs. CDs can form water-soluble complexes with numerous hydrophobic compounds. They have been widespread used in medicine, drug delivery and are of interest for the biocides encapsulation. Indeed, this enables the development of more or less complex systems that release antimicrobial agents with time. In this paper, the general features of CDs and their applications in the field of biocides have been reviewed. As the key point is the formation of biocide–CD inclusion complexes, this review deals with this in depth and the advantages of biocide encapsulation are highlighted throughout several examples from the literature. Finally, some future directions of investigation have been proposed. We hope that scientists studying biocide applications receive inspiration from this review to exploit the opportunities offered by CDs in their respective research areas.

  4. Photodegradation of three stormwater biocides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minelgaite, Greta; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Pedersen, Morten Lauge;

    2016-01-01

    Photodegradation of carbendazim, diuron and terbutryn was investigated at controlled laboratory conditions under UV light and under natural sunlight. Demineralized water and two different waters from stormwater retention ponds were used. An observed decline in biocide concentration was related to...

  5. Biocidal products: endorsement procedure for placing on the market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Scripcariu,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocidal products are active substances and preparations containing one or more active substances, putin a form that is supplied to the user, with aim to destroy, to prevent the action or to exercise control over adifferent effect any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.By definition, these products are susceptible to have harmful effects on humans, animals and theenvironment as the main objective of European legislative regulations in this area is to ensure the highestlevel protection by restricting the placing on the market and use only those biocidal products which have anacceptable risk of danger to humans or the environment.The favourable opinion for the placing on the market is made after the evaluation of technicaldocumentation of biocidal products, completed by preparing a report of assessment with the formulation of theproposal to issue notice for placing on the market by the National Commission of Biocidal Products.ICBMV is designated as an authority competent to assess technical documentations on efficacy,chemistry and toxicity data of biocidal products, product type 3: Veterinary hygiene products.

  6. 'High throughput': new technique to evaluation of biocides for biofouling control in oil fields; 'High throughput': nova tecnologia para avaliacao da eficacia de biocidas no controle de biofilme na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Bei [DOW, IL(United States); Yang, Jeff [DOW, Shangai (China); Bertheas, Ute [DOW, Horgen (Switzerland); Takahashi, Debora F. [DOW, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The wide metabolism diversifications and versatile surviving mechanisms lead to the broad existence of microorganisms in oil fields. Water flooding in secondary production can encourage microbial growth and biofilm build-up. Microbial contamination in oil field can cause many problems including microbiologically induced corrosion, oil and gas souring, deposition of iron sulfide, degradation of polymer additives, and plugging oil and gas pipelines and water purification systems. In general, biocides are needed both topside and down hole to control problematic microorganisms. In this study, a high throughput test method was developed that enables a more realistic determination of biocides efficacy against anaerobic microorganisms commonly found in oil field environments. Using this method, a thorough comparison of several commonly used biocides products in oil field for their efficacy against oil field anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolates was executed. This study showed that for each individual application, it is important to screen biocides and their combinations against microorganisms cultured from the field. Since biocides vary in their mode of action, this study also demonstrated the critical importance of utilizing the high throughput method for determining the best and most customized solution for each application. (author)

  7. The Use of Machine Learning Methodologies to Analyse Antibiotic and Biocide Susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Joana Rosado; Carriço, João André; Knight, Daniel; Martínez, Jose-Luis; Morrissey, Ian; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Freitas, Ana Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Background The rise of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a significant problem for the treatment of infectious diseases. Resistance is usually selected by the antibiotic itself; however, biocides might also co-select for resistance to antibiotics. Although resistance to biocides is poorly defined, different in vitro studies have shown that mutants presenting low susceptibility to biocides also have reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. However, studies with natural bacterial is...

  8. Enhanced Biocide Mitigation of Field Biofilm Consortia by a Mixture of D-Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchao; Jia, Ru; Al-Mahamedh, Hussain H; Xu, Dake; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a major problem in the oil and gas industry as well as in many other industries. Current treatment methods rely mostly on pigging and biocide dosing. Biocide resistance is a growing concern. Thus, it is desirable to use biocide enhancers to improve the efficacy of existing biocides. D-Amino acids are naturally occurring. Our previous work demonstrated that some D-amino acids are biocide enhancers. Under a biocide stress of 50 ppm (w/w) hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) biocide, 1 ppm D-tyrosine and 100 ppm D-methionine used separately successfully mitigated the Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm on carbon steel coupons. The data reported in this work revealed that 50 ppm of an equimolar mixture of D-methionine, D-tyrosine, D-leucine, and D-tryptophan greatly enhanced 50 ppm THPS biocide treatment of two recalcitrant biofilm consortia containing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB), and fermentative bacteria, etc., from oil-field operations. The data also indicated that individual D-amino acids were inadequate for the biofilm consortia. PMID:27379039

  9. Synergistic activity of biocides and antibiotics on resistant bacteria from organically produced foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fuentes, Miguel Angel; Abriouel, Hikmate; Gadea, Rebeca; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio; Ortega, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Synergism between biocides and antibiotics was investigated in 20 biocide and antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains that were previously isolated from organically produced foods, according to their antimicrobial resistance profiles. Most of the antibiotic/biocide combinations yielded synergistic interactions, reducing the inhibitory concentrations of biocides and antibiotics by 4- to 16-fold. Among enterococci, synergism with biocides was detected for amoxicillin (AM), cefuroxime (CX), erythromycin (EM), ciprofloxacin (CP), and trimethoprim/sulphametoxazol (T/S). Among staphylococci, interactions were synergistic (AM) and either synergistic or indifferent (CX and EM, depending on biocide). Among the three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains included in the study, the combinations of methicillin and triclosan or hexachlorophene acted synergistically in all strains, but interactions were either synergistic or indifferent for the other biocides, depending on the strain. All combinations tested were synergistic for Lactobacillus (AM, CX, EM, and CP) and Micrococcus (AM, EM). In Salmonella, interactions were indifferent (AM, CX, EM, and CP) or synergistic (T/S). Synergism with biocides was also detected in Klebsiella isolates (AM, CX, and T/S), Enterobacter sp. (AM, CX, EM, and T/S), Pantoea (AM, CX, EM, CP, and T/S), and Chryseobacterium sp. (EM). These results suggest that combinations of biocides and antibiotics may open new possibilities to combat antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24660956

  10. The use of machine learning methodologies to analyse antibiotic and biocide susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Rosado Coelho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rise of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a significant problem for the treatment of infectious diseases. Resistance is usually selected by the antibiotic itself; however, biocides might also co-select for resistance to antibiotics. Although resistance to biocides is poorly defined, different in vitro studies have shown that mutants presenting low susceptibility to biocides also have reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. However, studies with natural bacterial isolates are more limited and there are no clear conclusions as to whether the use of biocides results in the development of multidrug resistant bacteria. METHODS: The main goal is to perform an unbiased blind-based evaluation of the relationship between antibiotic and biocide reduced susceptibility in natural isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. One of the largest data sets ever studied comprising 1632 human clinical isolates of S. aureus originated worldwide was analysed. The phenotypic characterization of 13 antibiotics and 4 biocides was performed for all the strains. Complex links between reduced susceptibility to biocides and antibiotics are difficult to elucidate using the standard statistical approaches in phenotypic data. Therefore, machine learning techniques were applied to explore the data. RESULTS: In this pioneer study, we demonstrated that reduced susceptibility to two common biocides, chlorhexidine and benzalkonium chloride, which belong to different structural families, is associated to multidrug resistance. We have consistently found that a minimum inhibitory concentration greater than 2 mg/L for both biocides is related to antibiotic non-susceptibility in S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Two important results emerged from our work, one methodological and one other with relevance in the field of antibiotic resistance. We could not conclude on whether the use of antibiotics selects for biocide resistance or vice versa. However, the observation of

  11. Effects of biocides on chlorophyll contents of detached basil leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titima Arunrangsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides and insecticides have been widely and intensively used in agricultural areas worldwide to enhance crop yield. However, many biocides cause serious environmental problems. In addition, the biocides may also have some effects on the treated agricultural crops. To study effects of biocides on chlorophyll content in detached basil leaves, 2,4-D dimethylamine salt (2,4 D-Amine, paraquat, carbosulfan, and azadirachtin, were chosen as representatives of biocide. After applying the chemicals to detached basil leaves overnight in darkness, chlorophyll contents were determined. Only treatment with 2,4 D-Amine resulted in reduction of chlorophyll contents significantly compared to treatment with deionized (DI water. In the case of paraquat and carbosulfan, chlorophyll contents were not significantly changed, while slightly higher chlorophyll contents, compared to DI water, after the treatment with azadirachtin, were observed. The results indicated that 2,4 D-Amine shows an ability to accelerate chlorophyll degradation, but azadirachtin helps to retard chlorophyll degradation, when each biocide is used at the concentration recommended by the manufacturer.

  12. Polyacrylate-water partitioning of biocidal compounds: enhancing the understanding of biocide partitioning between render and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Ou, Yi; Mayer, Philipp; Trapp, Stefan; Bester, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the application of polymer-based renders and paints for façade coatings of buildings has risen enormously due to the increased mounting of thermal insulation systems. These materials are commonly equipped with biocides - algaecides, fungicides, and bactericides - to protect the materials from biological deterioration. However, the biocides need to be present in the water phase in order to be active and, hence, they are flushed of the material by rain water. In order to increase the knowledge about the partitioning of biocides from render into the water phase, partition constants between the polymer - in this case polyacrylate - and water were studied using glass fibre filters coated with polyacrylate. The polyacrylate-water partition constants (logKAcW) of ten biocides used in construction material varied between 1.66 (isoproturon) and 3.57 (dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone). The correlation of the polyacrylate-water partition constants with the octanol-water partition constants is significant, but the polyacrylate-water partition constants were predominantly below octanol-water partition constants (Kow). The comparison with render-water distribution constants showed that estimating the leaching of biocides from render based on polymer-water partitioning is a useful and practical tool. PMID:25303663

  13. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Castro-Wallace, Sarah L.; Kuo, C. K. Mike; Loh, Leslie J.; Hudson, Edgar; Gazda, Daniel B.; Lewis, John F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. A major risk factor, potentially jeopardizing the safety of the water supply, is the presense of microorganisms. Historically, the challenge of controlling microbial proliferation has been addressed through the maintenance of residual biocide levels. While chemical biocides are effective, their use requires carefeul consideration towards materials selection for the water storage containers, as surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are passivated stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system, ionic silver, will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium alloy, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium alloys, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose

  14. Alkylphenoxyalkylstannanes as biocidal additives to lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, P.S.; Gulo, R.A.; Komarova, N.N.; Korenev, K.D.; Poddubnyi, V.N.; Tsvetkov, O.N.

    1980-01-01

    The synthesis of akylphenoxyalkylstannanes with different numbers and lengths of akyl radicals on the tin atom and different structures and lengths of radicals on the aromatic ring is described. They were investigated as biocidal additives to lubricants. Alkylphenoxytriethylstannanes have the best protective properties. In 0.25% concentration (by wt) neither the structure nor the alkyl substituent (C/sub 1/-C/sub 16/) length has an effect on their antiseptic properties. From the results of the conducted studies, for antiseptization of lubricating compositions, the additive AFOTAS a reaction product of an industrial alkylphenol and bis(triethylol) oxide is recommended.

  15. Worldwide occurrence and effects of antifouling paint booster biocides in the aquatic environment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, I K; Albanis, T A

    2004-04-01

    Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to organotin compounds in antifouling products, after restrictions imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT) in 1987. Replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. This ban has led to an increase in alternative coating products containing the above biocides. The most commonly used biocides in antifouling paints are: Irgarol 1051, diuron, Sea-nine 211, dichlofluanid, chlorothalonil, zinc pyrithione, TCMS (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl) pyridine, TCMTB [2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole], and zineb. Since 1993, several studies have demonstrated the presence of these biocides in European coastal environment as a result of their increased use. More recently, the presence of these biocides was also revealed in waters from Japan, United States, Singapore, Australia and Bermuda. This paper reviews the currently available data on the occurrence of these biocides in the aquatic environment. Some data dealing with the environmental fate, partitioning, behaviour and risk assessment of antifouling paint booster biocides are also reported in order to discuss the detected levels of contamination. PMID:14749112

  16. Role of cationic and nonionic surfactants on biocidal efficiency in diesel-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, N; Maruthamuthu, S; Palaniswamy, N

    2007-06-15

    Biodegradation occurs at the interface between diesel and water. The microbial contamination can result in inhibitor/fuel degradation that leads to the unacceptable level of turbidity, filter plugging, corrosion of storage tanks, pipeline and souring of stored products. Hence, selection of biocides/inhibitors is an important aspect in petroleum product transporting pipeline. Three biocides (cationic and nonionic) were employed to study the biodegradation of diesel in diesel-water interface. The biocidal efficiency on biodegradation of diesel was examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Polyoxyethyleneglycol dodecyl ether [BRIJ-35] and polyethylene glycol-p-isooctylphenyl ether [TRITON-X-100] had higher bactericidal efficiency than Dodecyl ethyl dimethyl ammonium bromide [DDAB]. But the cationic biocide (DDAB) gave good biocidal efficiency at the interface. The data are explained in terms of a model that postulates the formation of "micelle" at the diesel-water interface. PMID:17363228

  17. Classification and Labelling for Biocides

    OpenAIRE

    Rubbiani, Maristella

    2015-01-01

    CLP and biocides The EU Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures, the CLP-Regulation, entered into force on 20th January, 2009. Since 1st December, 2010 the classification, labelling and packaging of substances has to comply with this Regulation. For mixtures, the rules of this Regulation are mandatory from 1st June, 2015; this means that until this date classification, labelling and packaging could either be carried out according to D...

  18. Harmful Effects of Biocides on Honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Gürel, Yasemin; Çarhan, Ahmet; KOÇ, Feride; Daş, Yavuz Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    Biocides are chemical substances which are use to fight against harmful insects around residential areas and enviroment. Furthermore, drink water disinfectans, hospital and food industry disinfectants are also included as biocidal products. Recently, biocidal products are blamed for the honeybee loss and colony collapse disorder (CCD). There are several factors have been determined for CCD in some countries (Fletcher and Barnett, 2003, Rortais and col., 2005; Underwood and vanEngelsdorp ve co...

  19. The role of kaolin particles in the performance of a carbamate-based biocide for water bacterial control

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Olivia Pereira; Maria João Vieira; Melo, Luis F.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of kaolin particles on the activity of Pseudomonas fuorescens and on the efficacy of a carbamate-based biocide was investigated. The results indicated that kaolin particles stimulated the activity of the bacteria for all buffered pH values studied (5, 7, and 9); this effect being more evident for the tests carried out at pH 5 and 9. The presence of the clay in P. fuorescens suspensions decreased the efficiency of disinfection of the carbamate. The results also showed that kaolin...

  20. Consumer exposure to biocides - identification of relevant sources and evaluation of possible health effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heger Wolfgang

    2010-02-01

    -2-methyl-2H-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-2H-isothiazolin-3-one, CMI/MI, glutardialdehyde, formaldehyde and chloroacetamide may be present in household products in concentrations which have induced sensitization in experimental studies. Conclusions Exposure to biocides from household products may contribute to induction of sensitization in the population. The use of biocides in consumer products should be carefully evaluated. Detailed risk assessments will become available within the framework of the EU Biocides Directive.

  1. Effects of two diamine biocides on the microbial community from an oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil production facilities are routinely treated with biocides to control or eliminate microbes responsible for souring odor, or microbially influenced corrosion. In this study the effects of diamine biocides A and B on the microbial population from an oil field were investigated using reverse sample genome probing (RSGP), a technique designed to track multiple oil field bacteria in a single assay. RSGP studies of sessile microbial populations scraped from corrosion coupons obtained from biocide-treated oil field installations indicate dominance of Desulfovibrio species Lac6 and Eth3. Laboratory studies suggest that batchwise application of high doses (400 ppm) of biocide A is capable of killing planktonic populations of Desulfovibrio spp. Lac6 and Eth3. Batchwise application of similar doses of biocide B did not have this effect. Overall results indicate that the application of 400 ppm biocide B and 40 ppm biocide A may actually promote survival of selected Desulfovibrio spp., which may then effectively colonize available metal surfaces. 15 refs., 3 figs

  2. Biocidal Activity of Formaldehyde and Nonformaldehyde Biocides toward Mycobacterium immunogenum and Pseudomonas fluorescens in Pure and Mixed Suspensions in Synthetic Metalworking Fluid and Saline

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaraju, Suresh B.; Khan, Izhar U. H.; Yadav, Jagjit S.

    2005-01-01

    The microbicidal activity of four different biocides was studied in synthetic metalworking fluid (MWF) against Mycobacterium immunogenum, a suspected causative agent for hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, a representative for the predominant gram-negative bacterial contaminants of MWF. The results indicated that M. immunogenum is more resistant than P. fluorescens to the tested formaldehyde-releasing biocides (Grotan and Bioban), isothiazolone (Kathon), and phenolic bi...

  3. Radiologic Evaluation of Bone Loss at Implants with Biocide Coated Titanium Abutments: A Study in the Dog

    OpenAIRE

    López-Píriz, R.; Bartolomé, J. F.; Cabal, B.; Esteban-Tejeda, L.; Torrecillas, Ramón; J. S. Moya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate bone loss at implant abutments coated with a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles subjected to experimental peri-implantitis. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiments, 3 implants were installed in each quadrant of the mandibles. Glass/n-Ag coted abutments were connected to implant platform. Cotton floss ligatures were placed in a submarginal position around the abutment necks and the animals were subject to a diet which allowed...

  4. Comparative antibacterial potential of selected aldehyde-based biocides and surfactants against planktonic Pseudomonas fluorescens

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, M; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Machado, Idalina; Simões, Lúcia C; Vieira, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial efficacy of two aldehydebased biocides (glutaraldehyde, GTA, and orthophthalaldehyde, OPA) and two surfactants (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, CTAB, and sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS) was tested against planktonic Pseudomonas fluorescens. The antimicrobial effects were evaluated by respiratory activity as a measure of the oxygen uptake rate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release, outer membrane proteins (OMP) expression and cellular colour changes. The results were com...

  5. biological and biochemical effects of biocides and gamma radiation on pathogen attacked some horticulture crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the present investigation was aimed to study the possibility of formulation of some essential oils having antimicrobial activity to be used as biocides. the results of this study showed that fennel, peppermint and caraway oils were the most inhibitory effective oils against some post harvest pathogens. the used oils. were formulated as biocides using different emulsifiers with the addition of different types of fixed oils . the prepared biocides were effective for controlling the growth of the studied microorganisms in vitro and in vivo on the host plant products. also , the interaction of biocides and different doses of gamma radiation were effective for extending the shelf life of potato tubers and orange fruits during storage at room temperature for periods of 150 and 75 days, respectively. biochemical changes in potato tubers and orange fruits as a result of treatments were studied

  6. Development of bacterial resistance to biocides and antimicrobial agents as a consequence of biocide usage

    OpenAIRE

    Seier-Petersen, Maria Amalie; Ussery, David; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Agersø, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Biocider er kemiske stoffer med antimikrobielle egenskaber og bruges i vid udstrækning til desinfektion, antisepsis og til konservering. Biocider er blevet anvendt i århundreder til eksempelvis rensning af sår med vin, eddike eller honning og til saltning af fisk og kød på grund af tidlige empiriske tilgange. I dag, bliver store mængder af biocider anvendt til desinfektion for at opnå et tilfredsstillende niveau af hygiejne i forskellige miljøer og anvendelsen af biocider er blevet en integre...

  7. Evaluation of oxidising biocide for biofouling control in cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouling-induced blockage of process seawater heat exchangers in Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) exists in spite of chlorination. A bromine-based biocide (Actibromide) is being used to control fouling in these heat exchangers. Efficacy of this biocide was assessed using biofilms and fouling mussel Modiolus striatulus in the laboratory. Biofilms (48h old) were developed on glass microscopic slides and exposed to O.5mg/L TRO of chlorine and a combination (1:1) of chlorine and actibromide for different contact times. Three different size groups of the fouling mussel M striatulus were also exposed to two concentrations (5mg/L and 9mg/L) of chlorine and the test biocide. The data indicated that chlorine along with actibromide is more effective in killing M. striatulus when compared to chlorine alone. However it is less effective in controlling bacterial films, when compared to chlorine. (author)

  8. DATABASE ON BIOCIDES FOR TEXTILE PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Roman; Rodica Diaconescu; Luminita Scripcariu; Aurelia Grigoriu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the desire to control bacteria, fungi, mold, algae and eliminate some human healthproblems, damage, stains, smells, a number of materials that have been antimicrobially modified increasedconsiderably. Biocides are used to maintain textiles in good hygienic conditions to avoid formation of mold andtheir deterioration. This paper aims to provide an analysis tool for the most common biocides used in textile industry for the protection materials. We designed and developed a datab...

  9. Efeects of Biocidal Regulations on Polymer Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Özeral, Cem; Öztoprak, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Biocide actives can be hazardous for both human health and environment so their amount of usage is limited by particular regulations. Recently second revision of EC 1272/2008 GHS, also known as CLP regulation in European Union is announced. The usage limits of biocide actives which may cause allergic reactions, have been lowered with the revision in EUH 208 statement. Organik Kimya has different business units; which produce emulsion polymerization products for Pressure Sensitive Adhesives &a...

  10. Quaternary ammonium biocides as antimicrobial agents protecting historical wood and brick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Koziróg, Anna; Otlewska, Anna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Brycki, Bogumił; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used in disinfection of water, surfaces and instruments as well as in textile, leather and food industries because of their relatively low toxicity, broad antimicrobial spectrum, non-volatility and chemical stability. Due to these advantages, QACs are also used in restoration and can be applied on historical material. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of biocides based on quaternary ammonium salts and containing various excipients in the protection of historical materials against microbial growth. The study determined the antimicrobial activity of three biocides against bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus muralis, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians, and moulds: Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium citreonigrum, Cladosporium cladosporioides I, Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium cladosporioides II, all isolated from historical wood and brick. Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians bacteria, and Cladosporium cladosporioides I and Acremonium strictum moulds showed high sensitivity to quaternary ammonium biocides. Historical wood can be effectively disinfected by three applications of biocide A (30% v/v) containing dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), citric acid, propiconazole and propanol. Disinfection of historical brick can be carried out by three applications of 6% v/v solutions of biocide B (based on DDAC and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid - EDTA) or biocide C (containing a non-ionic surfactant, DDAC and EDTA). Effective protection of historical building materials against microbial growth for a period of seven days can be achieved by the application of biocide A (30% v/v) on the wood surface and biocide B (6% v/v) on the brick surface. PMID:26629794

  11. Evaluation of the release characteristics of covalently attached or electrostatically bound biocidal polymers utilizing SERS and UV-Vis absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Mathioudakis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biocidal polymers with antimicrobial quaternized ammonium groups introduced in the polymer biocidal chains either through covalent attachment or electrostatic interaction have been separately incorporated in a poly (methyl methacrylate polymer matrix. The objective of present study was to highlight the release characteristics of biocidal polymers, primarily in saline but also in water ethanol solutions, utilizing UV-Vis absorption and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS. It is shown that through the combination of UV-Vis and SERS techniques, upon the release process, it is possible the discrimination of the polymeric backbone and the electrostatically bound biocidal species. Moreover, it is found that electrostatically bound and covalently attached biocidal species show different SERS patterns. The long term aim is the development of antimicrobial polymeric materials containing both ionically bound and covalently attached quaternary ammonium thus achieving a dual functionality in a single component polymeric design.

  12. Assessment on urban soil pollution by biocides from building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Biocides are common additives in building material. In-can and film preservatives in render and paint, as well as wood preservatives are used in order to protect façade materials from microbial spoilage. However, it is known that these compounds with fungicidal, bactericidal and algaecidal activity...... leach out of the material when it gets in contact with rainwater. While in city centers the total façade runoff drains on paved surfaces like streets and terraces and further into the sewer system, the runoff in residential areas drains to a certain amount to beds or the lawn surrounding the houses....... Based on a monitoring study of stormwater runoff from a residential catchment as well as direct façade runoff analysis, the present study was assessing the pollution of urban soil to biocides from building material. The stormwater runoff of a residential catchment in Silkeborg (Denmark) was monitored...

  13. Possible underestimations of risks for the environment due to unregulated emissions of biocides from households to wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieck, Stefanie; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of household products as possible sources of biocidal active substances in municipal wastewater and their regulation under the Biocidal Products Regulation (EU) 528/2012. In 131 households, we investigated the prevalence of products used to control pests, washing and cleaning agents and select personal care products with high release to wastewater. Inventories of these products were established with the help of barcode scanning. All uses of biocidal active substances were evaluated regarding their assessment under the Biocidal Products Regulation. 2963 products were scanned in total, with 48% being washing and cleaning agents, 43% personal care products and 9% products used to control pests. Biocidal active substances were found in each household. These were observed primarily in washing and cleaning agents and personal care products (90%), while only a small percentage of the observations of biocidal active substances was in biocidal products. 64% of the observations of biocidal active substances were in applications that do not fall under the Biocidal Products Regulation and are thus not subject to its environmental risk assessment. This study shows clearly that risks for the environment are underestimated because unregulated emissions to wastewater occur. It demonstrates that there are gaps in the current chemical legislation that lead to a release of substances into wastewater that were not subject to environmental risk assessment under the Biocidal Products Regulation. This is one example of the limitations of scientific risk assessment of chemicals - its complexity is immense. From our point of view, the results underline the importance of a sustainable use of the substances as this is the only way to decrease yet unidentified risks. PMID:27448707

  14. Biocidal Product Applications and Technical Issues in EU

    OpenAIRE

    Gjerdevik, Kjersti

    2015-01-01

    Antifouling paints are Product Type 21 in EU’s Biocidal Products Directive. There are ten active substances in the review process and two new active substances available for this product type. Most antifouling paints contain dicopper oxide (or copper thiocyanate), and the BPR application submission deadline for these is expected to be 31 December 2017. GLP is not required for phys/chem studies, but the laboratory must be certified to an international standard (for example ISO 9001 – Quality m...

  15. Inorganic nitrogen in soil green manured with biocidal crops

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Rosa; Casadei, Nerio; Marino, Antonio; Sghedoni, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of the dynamics of inorganic N in soil may help to establish the most suitable timing for green manure (GM) incorporation, which leads to the improvement of crop N use efficiency in conventional as well as organic agriculture. The practice of green manuring with crop species belonging to the Brassicaceae family has recently expanded, in Italy and abroad, due to their demonstrated biocidal effect against soil-borne pathogens. In this plot-scale study we monitored the release of s...

  16. Research and development of an electrochemical biocide reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, G. G.; Bodo, C. A.; Glennon, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    An alternate disinfecting process to chemical agents, heat, or radiation in an aqueous media has been studied. The process is called an electrochemical biocide and employs cyclic, low-level voltages at chemically inert electrodes to pass alternating current through water and, in the process, to destroy microorganisms. The paper describes experimental hardware, methodology, and results with a tracer microorganism (Escherichia coli). The results presented show the effects on microorganism kill of operating parameters, including current density (15 to 55 mA/sq cm (14 to 51 ASF)), waveform of applied electrical signal (square, triangular, sine), frequency of applied electrical signal (0.5 to 1.5 Hz), process water flow rate (100 to 600 cc/min (1.6 to 9.5 gph)), and reactor resident time (0 to 4 min). Comparisons are made between the disinfecting property of the electrochemical biocide and chlorine, bromine, and iodine.

  17. Development of bacterial resistance to biocides and antimicrobial agents as a consequence of biocide usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seier-Petersen, Maria Amalie

    bacterial isolates become less susceptible to biocides used in their environment and if this can lead to spread of antimicrobial resistant clones due to co-selection. Furthermore, the objective was to examine if exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of biocides induce development of resistance to...... prone to adapt to humans. Residues or inaccurate use of biocides may lead to bacterial exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations. The bacterial response to such exposure is however unclear. It has been suggested that the SOS response contribute to antimicrobial resistance development in bacteria by...... action, especially at sub-inhibitory concentrations, and the bacterial response to such exposure, is relatively limited. The increasing use of biocides has within recent years lead to concerns about development and emergence of biocide resistant microorganisms that might make the task of eradication of...

  18. Biocide leaching from CBA treated wood — A mechanistic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treated wood is frequently used for construction. However, there is a need to ensure that biocides used for the treatment are not a threat for people or environment. The paper focused on Pinus sylvestris treated with copper–boron–azole (CBA), containing tebuconazole as organic biocide and monoethanolamine (Mea). This study investigates chemical mechanisms of fixation and mobilisation involved in the leaching process of the used inorganic and organic biocides in CBA. A pH dependent leaching test was performed, followed by a set of complementary analysis methods in order to identify and quantify the species released from wood. The main findings of this study are: -Organic compounds are released from untreated and treated wood; the quantity of released total organic carbon, carboxylic and phenolic functions increasing with the pH. -Nitrogen containing compounds, i.e. mainly Mea and its reaction products with extractives, are released in important quantities from CBA treated wood, especially at low pH. -The release of copper is the result of competitive reactions: fixation via complexation reactions and complexation with extractives in the liquid phase. The specific pH dependency of Cu leaching is explained by the competition of ligands for protonation and complexation. -Tebuconazole is released to a lesser extent relative to its initial content. Its fixation on solid wood structure seems to be influenced by pH, suggesting interactions with -OH groups on wood. Boron release appears to be pH independent and very high. This confirms its weak fixation on wood and also no or weak interaction with the extractives. - Highlights: ► A pH dependent leaching mechanism for CBA treated wood is described. ► The fixation and mobilisation of inorganic and organic biocides was investigated. ► Extractives' quantity and nature depend on pH. ► Competition of ligands for protonation and complexation explains Cu behaviour. ► Tebuconazole seems to interact with -OH groups on

  19. Comparative efficacy of chlorine and chlorine dioxide regimes for condenser slime control in seawater cooled heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorination has long been used as an effective and economic biocide for biofouling control in seawater cooling systems. However, the efficacy of chlorine is reduced in the presence of organic content of seawater and the inability of chlorine to effectively penetrate biofilms. Chlorine dioxide is being projected as a possible alternative to chlorine. Experiments were carried out with the help of a seawater circulating facility, in which direct comparison of the efficacy of the two biocides was possible using test condenser tube assemblies. The test condenser tubes made of titanium, SS 316L and Cu-Ni 90/10 were dosed with chlorine and chlorine dioxide. Each dose was evaluated for 30 days. Continuous and intermittent additions of chlorine (0.38 - 0.45 mg L-1 TRO) and chlorine dioxide (0.4 - 0.5 mg L-1) were used, along with control. The flow velocity in the tubes was maintained at 1.5 m/s. Results of the study showed that the efficacy of the biocide to control biofilms depended on the biocide and the material. Continuous chlorination resulted in 75% reduction of viable counts on titanium, followed by 24% reduction on CuNi and 6% reduction on SS 316L surfaces, as compared to the control. When compared to continuous chlorination, increase in bacterial density in the tubes was observed at different regimes of intermittent chlorination. On SS 316L and Cu-Ni surfaces, intermittent chlorination for 1h, once every 3 h, appeared to give adequate protection. Continuous addition of chlorine dioxide resulted in 99% reduction of viable counts on titanium surfaces, followed by 28% reduction on SS 316 L surfaces and 52% reduction on Cu-Ni surfaces, as compared to the controls. The data indicate that the efficacy of biocides to control biofilms depend on not only the biocide and its frequency of application but also the material of construction. (author)

  20. Comparative efficacy of chlorine and chlorine dioxide regimes for condenser slime control in seawater cooled heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, P.S.; Veeramani, P.; Ershath, M.; Rajamohan, R.; Harinath, Y.V.; Mohan, T.V.K.; Venugopalan, V.P. [BARC Facilities, Water and Steam Chemistry Div., Kalpakkam, Tamil nadu (India)

    2010-07-01

    Chlorination has long been used as an effective and economic biocide for biofouling control in seawater cooling systems. However, the efficacy of chlorine is reduced in the presence of organic content of seawater and the inability of chlorine to effectively penetrate biofilms. Chlorine dioxide is being projected as a possible alternative to chlorine. Experiments were carried out with the help of a seawater circulating facility, in which direct comparison of the efficacy of the two biocides was possible using test condenser tube assemblies. The test condenser tubes made of titanium, SS 316L and Cu-Ni 90/10 were dosed with chlorine and chlorine dioxide. Each dose was evaluated for 30 days. Continuous and intermittent additions of chlorine (0.38 - 0.45 mg L{sup -1} TRO) and chlorine dioxide (0.4 - 0.5 mg L{sup -1}) were used, along with control. The flow velocity in the tubes was maintained at 1.5 m/s. Results of the study showed that the efficacy of the biocide to control biofilms depended on the biocide and the material. Continuous chlorination resulted in 75% reduction of viable counts on titanium, followed by 24% reduction on CuNi and 6% reduction on SS 316L surfaces, as compared to the control. When compared to continuous chlorination, increase in bacterial density in the tubes was observed at different regimes of intermittent chlorination. On SS 316L and Cu-Ni surfaces, intermittent chlorination for 1h, once every 3 h, appeared to give adequate protection. Continuous addition of chlorine dioxide resulted in 99% reduction of viable counts on titanium surfaces, followed by 28% reduction on SS 316 L surfaces and 52% reduction on Cu-Ni surfaces, as compared to the controls. The data indicate that the efficacy of biocides to control biofilms depend on not only the biocide and its frequency of application but also the material of construction. (author)

  1. Biocides in hydraulic fracturing: hazard and vulnerability with respect to potential groundwater pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Wilson, Miles; Davies, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Biocides are one possible chemical additive to frack fluids and their role is to control bacterial growth. Bacterial growth might lead to biofilm build up; and acid sulfide species and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production: biofilm build up may reduce formation permeability and hinder gas extraction. Kahrilas et al. (2014) published a review of common biocides used in fracking in the USA. The biocides assessed in the review were the sixteen most commonly used in the USA, based on the hydraulic fracturing chemical registry Frac Focus (Frac Focus, 2015). However, the review of Kahrilas et al. (2014) contained no data or observations and so the objective of this study was to consider whether biocides proposed for use in hydrofacturing could be a threat to English groundwater. The study considered all groundwater samples analysed for biocides in English groundwater between 2005 and 2014. The monitoring records were compared to: records of application (both amount and area); and chemical and molecular data for the biocides. The study did not use traditional adsorption and degradation data as these parameters are to prone to variability and are not pure molecular parameters. The study then used the approach of Worrall and Thomsen (2004) to consider the hazard represented by proposed frack biocides and the approach of Worrall and Kolpin (2003) to consider the vulnerability of the areas of potential shale gas exploitation. The study showed that of the 113 biocides tested for in English groundwaters in the decade 2005 - 2014 that 95 were detected above 0.1 g/l . Of these 95, 41 were compounds that were not recorded as being applied during the period of record and the detection of these 41 compounds did not decline over the 10 year period which implies very long residence times and that once compounds do pollute an aquifer then they will be a persistent problem. Furthermore, the solubility of the range of biocides used in frack fluids would imply a potentially higher hazard

  2. Desorption of biocides from renders modified with acrylate and silicone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styszko, Katarzyna; Bollmann, Ulla E; Wangler, Timothy P; Bester, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Biocides are used in the building industry to prevent algal, bacterial and fungal growth on polymericrenders and thus to protect buildings. However, these biocides are leached into the environment. To better understand this leaching, the sorption/desorption of biocides in polymeric renders was assessed. In this study the desorption constants of cybutryn, carbendazim, iodocarb, isoproturon, diuron, dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone and tebuconazole towards acrylate and silicone based renders were assessed at different pH values. At pH 9.5 (porewater) the constants for an acrylate based render varied between 8 (isoproturon) and 9634 (iodocarb) and 3750 (dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone), respectively. The values changed drastically with pH value. The results for the silicone based renders were in a similar range and usually the compounds with high sorption constants for one polymer also had high values for the other polymer. Comparison of the octanol water partitioning constants (Kow) with the render/water partitioning constants (Kd) revealed similarities, but no strong correlation. Adding higher amounts of polymer to the render material changed the equilibria for dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone, tebuconazole, cybutryn, carbendazim but not for isoproturon and diuron. PMID:24059976

  3. Towards a more realistic picture of in situ biocide actions: Combining physiological and microscopy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, M., E-mail: speranzamariela@gmail.com [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, MNCN-CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Wierzchos, J.; De Los Rios, A.; Perez-Ortega, S. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, MNCN-CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Souza-Egipsy, V. [Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, ICA-CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ascaso, C., E-mail: ascaso@mncn.csic.es [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, MNCN-CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, we combined chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlaF) measurements, using pulse-amplitude-modulate (PAM) equipment, with scanning electron microscopy in backscattered electron mode (SEM-BSE) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images to evaluate the actions of Koretrel at lower concentrations on Verrucaria nigrescens colonising a dolostone. ChlaF measurements are good indicators of the damaging effects of biocides. However, these indicators only provide an incomplete view of the mechanism of biocides used to control biodeterioration agents. The death of the V. nigrescens photobiont at two biocide concentrations was revealed by PAM, SEM-BSE and TEM. Once Koretrel was applied, the Fv/Fm ratios markedly fell in the first few hours after the 1.5% treatment, and ratios for the 3% dilution remained close to zero throughout the study. The algal zone shows the plasmolysed appearance of the photobiont cells, and important aspects related to the action of the biocide on free and lichenised fungi were also detected using SEM-BSE. Many of the mycobiont cells had only their cell walls preserved; although, some fungal hyphae in lichen thalli and some microorganisms in endolithic clusters maintained lipid storage in their cytoplasm. These results indicated that the combination of physiological and microscopy techniques improves the assessment of biocide action in situ and this will help to optimize protocols in order to reduce the emission of these compounds to the environment. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined ChlaF measurements with EM images to analyses the biocides action on stone biodeterioration agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At lower biocide concentrations damage to photobiont and mycobiont cells integrity, ultrastructure and vitality were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The limited action of biocides on fungi and algae were detected using SEM-BSE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combination of physiological and microscopy

  4. NANOTECHNOLOGY: A NOVEL APPROACH TO PREVENT BIOCIDE LEACHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will demonstrate the environmental benefits of introducing biocide into wood using hydrophobic nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle and controlled release device for organic and inorganic biocides. The primary benefits expected from use of nanoparticles as controll...

  5. The Side Effects of Insecticide Efficient Biocidals to Beneficial Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Şimşek, Muharrem; ÖZKAN, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Unawares usage of biocidals effects not only natural resources, environment and human health but also can damage beneficial insects which suppresses pests. Herein, the side effects of insecticide efficient biocidals to important beneficial insects was handled and measures on sustainable biocidal usages was discussed. The side effects of Deltamethrin, Azadirachtin, Spinosad and Bacillus thuringinensis biocidals to certain important beneficial insects were evaluated with literature data. Negati...

  6. Correlation between antibiotic and biocide resistance in mesophilic and psychrotrophic Pseudomonas spp. isolated from slaughterhouse surfaces throughout meat chain production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Casado Muñoz, María del Carmen; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biocide susceptibility in mesophilic and psychrotrophic pseudomonads isolated from surfaces of a goat and lamb slaughterhouse, which was representative of the region. To determine biocide resistance in pseudomonads, we determined for the first time the epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) of benzalkonium, cetrimide, chlorhexidine, hexachlorophene, P3 oxonia, polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG), topax 66 and triclosan being generally very similar in different Pseudomonas spp. with some exceptions. Thus, resistance of pseudomonads was mainly shown to triclosan, and in lesser extent to cetrimide and benzalkonium chloride depending on the species, however they were highly susceptible to industrial formulations of biocides. By means of statistical analysis, positive correlations between antibiotics, biocides and both antimicrobials in pseudomonads were detected suggesting a co- or cross resistance between different antimicrobials in goat and lamb slaughterhouse environment. Cross-resistance between biocides and antibiotics in pseudomonads were especially detected between PHMG or triclosan and different antibiotics depending on the biocide and the population type. Thus, the use of those biocides as disinfectant in slaughterhouse zones must be carefully evaluated because of the selection pressure effect of antimicrobials on the emergence of resistant bacteria which could be spread to the consumer. It is noteworthy that specific industrial formulations such as topax 66 and oxonia P3 showed few correlations with antibiotics (none or 1-2 antibiotics) which should be taken into consideration for disinfection practices in goat and lamb slaughterhouse. PMID:26187825

  7. Biocide monitoring goes high-tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbowski, R.J. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States). Larkin Lab.

    1997-08-01

    Maximum efficiency of water treatment programs requires precise control of chemical concentrations. Detecting low levels of non-oxidizing biocides can be difficult in the field and is further complicated by water turnover and, in some cases, the natural degradation of the chemical. At the same time, ever-increasing concerns about effluent toxicity make it desirable to have this capability. An antibody-based immunoassay has recently been developed for the industrial biocide 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) which provides for the first time a sensitive and selective field-friendly method of analysis.

  8. Biocidal textiles can help fight nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkow, Gadi; Gabbay, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    The rates of nosocomial infections, especially by those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, are increasing alarmingly over the globe. Although more rigorous infection control measures are being implemented, it is clear that the current modalities to reduce nosocomial infections are not sufficient. Textiles are an excellent substrate for bacterial growth under appropriate moisture and temperature conditions. Patients shed bacteria and contaminate their pyjamas and sheets. The temperature and humidity between the patients and the bed are appropriate conditions allowing for effective bacterial proliferation. Several studies have found that personnel in contact with contaminated textiles were the source of transmission of the micro-organisms to susceptible patients. Furthermore, it has been reported that bed making in hospitals releases large quantities of micro-organisms into the air, which contaminate the immediate and non-immediate surroundings. Contaminated textiles in hospitals can thus be an important source of microbes contributing to endogenous, indirect-contact, and aerosol transmission of nosocomial related pathogens. We hypothesize that the use of antimicrobial textiles, especially in those textiles that are in close contact with the patients, may significantly reduce bioburden in clinical settings and consequently reduce the risk of nosocomial infections. These textiles should possess broad spectrum biocidal properties. They should be safe for use and highly effective against antibiotic resistant micro-organisms, including those that are commonly involved in hospital-acquired infections, and they should not permit the development of resistant micro-organisms to the active compound. PMID:17959322

  9. Nanopatterned antimicrobial enzymatic surfaces combining biocidal and fouling release properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Ista, Linnea K.; López, Gabriel P.

    2014-04-01

    Surfaces incorporating the antimicrobial enzyme, lysozyme, have been previously demonstrated to effectively disrupt bacterial cellular envelopes. As with any surface active antimicrobial, however, lysozyme-expressing surfaces become limited in their utility by the accumulation of dead bacteria and debris. Surfaces modified with environmentally responsive polymers, on the other hand, have been shown to reversibly attach and release both live and dead bacterial cells. In this work, we combine the antimicrobial activity of lysozyme with the fouling release capability of the thermally responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), which has a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water at ~32 °C. Nanopatterned PNIPAAm brushes were fabricated using interferometric lithography followed by surface-initiated polymerization. Lysozyme was then adsorbed into the polymer-free regions of the substrate between the brushes to achieve a hybrid surface with switchable antimicrobial activity and fouling-release ability in response to the change of temperature. The temperature triggered hydration and conformational change of the nanopatterned PNIPAAm brushes provide the ability to temporally regulate the spatial concealment and exposure of adsorbed lysozyme. The biocidal efficacy and release properties of the hybrid surface were tested against Escherichia coli K12 and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The hybrid surfaces facilitated the attachment of bacteria at 37 °C for E. coli and 25 °C for S. epidermidis and when the temperature is above the LCST, collapsed and dehydrated PNIPAAm chains expose lysozyme to kill attached bacteria. Changing temperature across the LCST of PNIPAAm (e.g. from 37 °C to 25 °C for E. coli or from 25 °C to 37 °C for S. epidermidis) to induce a hydration transition of PNIPAAm promoted the release of dead bacteria and debris from the surfaces upon mild shearing. These results suggest that nano-engineered surfaces can provide an effective

  10. Comparison of Authorization/Registration/Notification Processes among Biocidal Products, Cosmetics, Plant Protection Products and Human Medicinal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Söyleriz, Yüksel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, comparison of the authorization/registration/notification processes of biocidal products, cosmetics, plant protection products and medicinal products are made and in this respect, the situation in EU is assessed.

  11. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  12. Comparative Bio-activity Guided Characterization of Biocide from Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communius L Seeds Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Asnake G. Ede; Abebe G. Demissie

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the characterization of biocide from Jatropha (Jatropha curca) and castor (Ricinus communius L) seeds oil. The biocide potential of the seeds oil was evaluated against termite (Odontotermes obesus) and cockroach (Blattela germanica). The bioassay study showed that Jatropha 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 48 hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. Castor 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 60hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. The L...

  13. Adaptation of Campylobacter jejuni to biocides used in the food industry affects biofilm structure, adhesion strength, and cross-resistance to clinical antimicrobial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techaruvichit, Punnida; Takahashi, Hajime; Kuda, Takashi; Miya, Satoko; Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Kimura, Bon

    2016-08-01

    The emergence of biocide-adapted Campylobacter jejuni strains that developed into biofilms and their potential to develop clinical resistance to antimicrobial compounds was studied. C. jejuni was grown in sub-lethal concentrations of five biocides used in the food industry. C. jejuni exhibited adaptation to these biocides with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations. The 3-D structures of the biofilms produced by the biocide-adapted cells were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed marked variability in biofilm architecture, including ice-crystal-like structures. Adaptation to the biocides enhanced biofilm formation, with significant increases in biovolume, surface coverage, roughness, and the surface adhesion force of the biofilms. Adaptation to commercial biocides induced resistance to kanamycin and streptomycin. This study suggests that the inappropriate use of biocides may lead to cells being exposed to them at sub-lethal concentrations, which can result in adaptation of the pathogens to the biocides and a subsequent risk to public health. PMID:27353218

  14. Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Petersen, Camilla Tang; Eriksson, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, exterior thermal insulation systems became more and more important leading to an increasing amount of houses equipped with biocide-containing organic façade coatings or fungicide treated wood. It is known that these biocides, e.g. terbutryn, carbendazim, and diuron, as well as wood...... preservatives as propiconazole, leach out of the material through contact with wind driven rain. Hence, they are present in combined sewage during rain events in concentrations up to several hundred ng L(-1). The present study focused on the occurrence of these biocides in five wastewater treatment plants in...... Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet...

  15. A systems integration approach to the optimum operation and scheduling of biocide usage and discharge for seawater cooling systems

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Abdullah Bin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a systematic approach to the optimal design and integration of seawater cooling systems in industrial facilities along with the usage and discharge of biocides. Specifically, the paper will address the following tasks: 1 identification of the reaction pathways for the biocide from the mixing basin to the discharge points 2 kinetic modelling of the biocide and by-products throughout the process 3 a process integration framework to provide a holistic approach to optimising the design and operation of the seawater cooling systems, along with the dosage and discharge systems. A hierarchical procedure is developed to first identify design modifications for heat integration and energy efficiency. Then, a multi-period, multi-segment optimisation formulation is developed and solved to identify the optimal operation and scheduling of biocide usage and discharge. A case study is solved to illustrate the applicability of the devised approach.

  16. Biocides from facade coatings in urban surface waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Styszko, Katarzyna; Ou, Yi;

    2015-01-01

    catchment was performed in order to get knowledge about emission rates and processes. A first estimation of the leachability of a biocide is usually done using its octanol-water partition constant as well as water solubility. The present study introduces the possiblity of using the polyacrylate......-water partitioning constant in comparison to render-water distribution constants. This was done based on the hypothesis that the render-water distribution constant can be described as the sum of the partitioning to polyacrylate, carbonates, sand particles and other render ingredients....

  17. Thermal degradation of biocidal organic N-halamines and N-halamine polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylińska, Marta; Kaczmarek, Halina, E-mail: halina@chem.umk.pl

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Novel biocidal N-halamines have been substituted to poly(p-methyl styrene). • Thermal stability of all obtained compounds has been studied by thermogravimetry. • Stabilization of selected polymer has been achieved using octyl tin mercaptide. • The mechanism of thermal degradation of N-halamine polymers has been proposed. - Abstract: Novel biocidal organic N-halamines (based on imidazoline dione rings) were used as a substituents for poly(p-methyl styrene). The biocidal polymers and substituents have been investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal resistance of investigated compounds was compared to those of non-halogenated precursors. The introduction of chlorine atoms to polymers decreases their thermal resistance comparing to precursors but efficient stabilization is possible by using octyl tin mercaptide. The complex mechanism of thermal decomposition of polymers has been discussed.

  18. Polyacrylate–water partitioning of biocidal compounds: Enhancing the understanding of biocide partitioning between render and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Ou, Yi; Mayer, Philipp;

    2014-01-01

    between the polymer - in this case polyacrylate - and water were studied using glass fibre filters coated with polyacrylate. The polyacrylate-water partition constants (logKAcW) of ten biocides used in construction material varied between 1.66 (isoproturon) and 3.57 (dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone). The...... correlation of the polyacrylate-water partition constants with the octanol-water partition constants is significant, but the polyacrylate-water partition constants were predominantly below octanol-water partition constants (Kow). The comparison with render-water distribution constants showed that estimating...

  19. Comprehensive Evaluation of Biological Growth Control by Chlorine-Based Biocides in Power Plant Cooling Systems Using Tertiary Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth in cooling systems using tertiary treated wastewater as makeup, based on their biocidal efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Optimal chemical regimens for achieving successful biological growth control were elucidated based on batch-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments. Biocide usage and biological activity in planktonic and sessile phases were carefully monitored to understand biological growth potential and biocidal efficiency of the three disinfectants in this particular environment. Water parameters, such as temperature, cycles of concentration, and ammonia concentration in recirculating water, critically affected the biocide performance in recirculating cooling systems. Bench-scale recirculating tests were shown to adequately predict the biocide residual required for a pilot-scale cooling system. Optimal residuals needed for proper biological growth control were 1, 2-3, and 0.5-1 mg/L as Cl2 for NaOCl, preformed NH2Cl, and ClO2, respectively. Pilot-scale tests also revealed that Legionella pneumophila was absent from these cooling systems when using the disinfectants evaluated in this study. Cost analysis showed that NaOCl is the most cost-effective for controlling biological growth in power plant recirculating cooling systems using tertiary-treated wastewater as makeup. PMID:23781129

  20. Study of Doxicycline Efficacy in Broilers’ Colibacilosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Teodor Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is a therapeutic assessment of doxicycline’s hyclate efficacy, a wide spectrum antibiotic (efficient in majority of bacterial Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections and mycoplasmas, frequently isolated in poultry in a colisepticemia outbreak in a 3,000 chicken farm. Disease started at the broiler’s age of 20 days and mortality rate reached 32.5%. The behaviour to antibiotics of isolated bacterial strains was tested and antibiogram (Sanofi was used, doxicycline revealing a very good antibiotic activity. The treatments (with the dose of 10 mg x kg.b.w.-1 were done individually for five days, clinical evolution being observed until day ten of the experiment. Analyzing evolutions after treatments it was observed that the mortality diminished progressively from 14.2% in the first day, to 8.3% - 5.9% - 2.5% - 1.7% and respectively 0.8% in the sixth treatments day, in days seven, eight, nine, and ten of the study not being registered any mortality cases. In our opinion the favorable clinical evolution was recorded after the third treatment day, at the end of experiment from 120 remaining live 80 chickens (representing 66.7% proving the fact that doxicycline was efficient, confirmed also by the average daily weight gain for the remaining live chickens.

  1. Susceptibility of 194 Salmonella Isolates to 17 Chemicals used as Sanitizers and Biocides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Meat processing facilities use a wide variety of antimicrobial interventions to reduce Salmonella contamination. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sanitizers and biocides...

  2. Role and Importance of Safety Data Sheet for Biocidal Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Ötegen, Volkan Recai; Akbaba, Muhsin; Nazlıcan, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    Safety Data Sheet is legally required component for professional biocidal workers that enables exposure measures and hazard communication for the protection of the environment and human health. Reporting of biocidal exposure will also be beneficial for both short and long-term understanding of its effects.

  3. ELECTROCHEMICALLY GENERATED BIOCIDES FOR CONTROLLING CONTAMINATION IN PAPERMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Kiuru

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility of electrochemically generated biocides in papermaking was evaluated in pilot scale trials. The trials indicated that electrochemically generated biocides prevent microbial growth and proliferation in broke systems, as well as in water circulations. The spoilage of broke can be delayed, and already spoiled broke can be recovered using these biocides. The improved broke quality increases the stability of the paper machine and, consequently, less broke is produced. The biocides can be added to water or pulp, and they have hardly any negative effect on the process or the end product. The presence of reducing compounds may cause limitations in the use of these oxidative biocides. It was observed that electrochemically generated biocide was also efficient against heat-resistant spores. However, the biocide was less efficient against spores as compared to vegetative cells, both aerobic and anaerobic, especially when the spore numbers were higher than 104 cfu/ml. Onsite oxidant production eliminates the transportation and storage of biocides. Moreover, due to the short time between the production and use, the degradation of the active compounds can be minimized.

  4. Udredning om flammehæmmere og biocider i isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2001-01-01

    Resume af rapport om flammehæmmere og biocider i isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af COWI under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af rapport om flammehæmmere og biocider i isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af COWI under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  5. The use of nanomaterials as an alternative to biocidal antifouling coatings and their environmental impact; Einsatz von Nanomaterialien als Alternative zu biozidhaltigen Antifouling-Anstrichen und deren Umweltauswirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watermann, B.T.; Daehne, D.; Fuerle, C. [LimnoMar - Labor fuer limnische/marine Forschung und vergleichende Pathologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    This study revealed that a variety of nanomaterials are already in use for antifouling paint systems. On the market for leisure boats 22 antifouling products and 3 under water coatings to reduce the friction could be identified (after an update in Mai 2010 only 14 products could be identified). These products are available on the German, the European and the global market. For all antifouling systems and underwater coatings on the market, the specification of the used nanomaterials was not specified e.g. in the Technical Data Sheets or Safety and Health Data Sheets. A clear labelling for the consumer would be helpful and necessary Actually, nanotechnology based antifouling systems on the leisure boat market and on the professional market cannot be regarded as alternatives to antifouling systems which are not using nanotechnology This is partly due to the lacking evidence of efficacy, the fact that some products contain biocides without declaring them, some of them are even not allowed to be used as biocides in antifouling paints (e.g. zinc oxide and silver) and due to the lack of specified nanomaterials which make a risk assessment or ecotoxicological evaluation impossible. It can be expected that the next generation of nanotechnology based antifouling systems will be much more sophisticated and effective, despite of the lack of scientific sound data on their environmental impact. (orig.)

  6. Outer membrane protein shifts in biocide-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, C L; Al-Adham, I S; Abdel Malek, S M; Buultjens, T E; Horrocks, A J; Collier, P J

    2000-08-01

    Benzisothiazolone (BIT), N-methylisothiazolone (MIT) and 5-chloro-N-methylisothiazolone (CMIT) are highly effective biocidal agents and are used as preservatives in a variety of cosmetic preparations. The isothiazolones have proven efficacy against many fungal and bacterial species including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, some species are beginning to exhibit resistance towards this group of compounds after extended exposure. This experiment induced resistance in cultures of Ps. aeruginosa exposed to incrementally increasing sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the isothiazolones in their pure chemical forms. The induced resistance was observed as a gradual increase in MIC with each new passage. The MICs for all three test isothiazolones and a thiol-interactive control compound (thiomersal) increased by approximately twofold during the course of the experiment. The onset of resistance was also observed by reference to the altered presence of an outer membrane protein, designated the T-OMP, in SDS-PAGE preparations. T-OMP was observed to disappear from the biocide-exposed preparations and reappear when the resistance-induced cultures were passaged in the absence of biocide. This reappearance of T-OMP was not accompanied by a complete reversal of induced resistance, but by a small decrease in MIC. The induction of resistance towards one biocide resulted in the development of cross-resistance towards other members of the group and the control, thiomersal. It has been suggested that the disappearance of T-OMP from these preparations is associated with the onset of resistance to the isothiazolones in their Kathon form (CMIT and MIT). PMID:10971761

  7. Triclosan as a surrogate for household biocides: an investigation into biocides in aquatic environments of a highly urbanized region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Chen, Jun; Peng, Feng-Jiao; Lai, Hua-Jie; Pan, Chang-Gui

    2014-07-01

    Biocides are widely formulated in household and personal care products. We investigated the distribution and ecological risks of 16 household biocides in aquatic environments of a highly urbanized region in South China, evaluated triclosan as a chemical indicator for this group of household chemicals, and proposed a novel approach to predict the environmental occurrence and fate of these household biocides by using triclosan usage data and a level-III fugacity model. Eleven biocides were quantitatively detected at concentrations up to 264 ± 15.3 ng/L for climbazole in surface water, and up to 5649 ± 748 ng/g for triclocarban in sediment of four rivers in the region. The distribution of biocides in the aquatic environments was significantly correlated with environmental variables such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus and population. Domestic sewage in the region was the dominant pollution source for most biocides such as azole fungicides (fluconazole, climbazole, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and carbendazim) and disinfectants (triclosan and triclocarban). Preliminary risk assessment showed high ecological risks posed by two biocides carbendazim and triclosan in river waters. Mostly important, triclosan was found to be a reliable chemical indicator to surrogate household biocides both in water and sediment based on the correlation analysis. In addition, the fugacity modeling could provide simulated concentrations comparable to the monitoring results. Therefore, with the usage data of the chemical indicator triclosan and correlation formula with other biocides, this model can be applied for predicting the occurrence and fate of various household biocides in a catchment. PMID:24793342

  8. Biofouling control using microparticles carrying a biocide

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, C.; Rosmaninho, R; Simoes, M.; Pereira, MC; Bastos, MMSM; Nunes, OC; Coelho, M; Melo, LF

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a new technological approach to minimize the use of antimicrobial (AMB) agents and their deleterious effects, based on the principle of drug-delivery systems whereby the AMB chemicals are transported on microparticles. The efficacy of microparticles carrying the quaternary ammonium compound (QAC), benzyldimethyldodecyl ammonium chloride (BDMDAC), was assessed against Pseudomonas fluorescens in both the planktonic and the biofilm state. The microparticles were prepared usin...

  9. Persister cells in a biofilm treated with a biocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Lúcia C; Lemos, Madalena; Pereira, Ana M; Abreu, Ana C; Saavedra, Maria J; Simões, Manuel

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the physiology and behaviour following treatment with ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), of Pseudomonas fluorescens in both the planktonic and sessile states. Steady-state biofilms and planktonic cells were collected from a bioreactor and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were extracted using a method that did not destroy the cells. Cell structure and physiology after EPS extraction were compared in terms of respiratory activity, morphology, cell protein and polysaccharide content, and expression of the outer membrane proteins (OMP). Significant differences were found between the physiological parameters analysed. Planktonic cells were more metabolically active, and contained greater amounts of proteins and polysaccharides than biofilm cells. Moreover, biofilm formation promoted the expression of distinct OMP. Additional experiments were performed with cells after EPS extraction in order to compare the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm cells to OPA. Cells were completely inactivated after exposure to the biocide (minimum bactericidal concentration, MBC = 0.55 ± 0.20 mM for planktonic cells; MBC = 1.7 ± 0.30 mM for biofilm cells). After treatment, the potential of inactivated cells to recover from antimicrobial exposure was evaluated over time. Planktonic cells remained inactive over 48 h while cells from biofilms recovered 24 h after exposure to OPA, and the number of viable and culturable cells increased over time. The MBC of the recovered biofilm cells after a second exposure to OPA was 0.58 ± 0.40 mM, a concentration similar to the MBC of planktonic cells. This study demonstrates that persister cells may survive in biocide-treated biofilms, even in the absence of EPS. PMID:21547756

  10. Probabilistic risk assessment of common booster biocides in surface waters of the harbours of Gran Canaria (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-del Pino, Angelo; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2011-05-01

    The presence of booster biocides in the aquatic environment has been associated with a risk to non-target species due to their proven toxicity. The aim of the present study was to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of common booster biocides in different harbours of the island of Gran Canaria (Spain) and evaluate, by means of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), the ecological risk posed by these compounds. With these objectives, a monitoring campaign was conducted between January 2008 and May 2009, collecting a total of 182 seawater samples. Four common booster biocides (TCMTB, diuron, Irgarol 1051 and dichlofluanid) were monitored. Diuron levels ranged between 2.3 and 203 ng/L and Irgarol 1051 between 2.4 and 146.5 ng/L. The ecological risk associated with these levels was always low, however, with probabilities of exceeding the 10th percentile of autotroph toxicity below 3.5%. PMID:21396664

  11. Water driven leaching of biocides from paints and renders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bester, Kai; Vollertsen, Jes; Bollmann, Ulla E

    During the project it could be shown, that the biocide emissions from stormwater and combined sewers lead to considerable concentrations of biocides in urbanized surface waters. These concentrations were highly dependent on the building structures in the catchment as well as on the weather....... Regularly rainfall led to elevated concentrations in those waters that are heavily influenced by biocides. An assessment of a best case for stormwater contamination (separated sewers in a rural catchment with mostly brick surfaces) resulted in still high concentrations of biocides in water. High values for...... water quality standards set in regulations such as the water framework directive or the surface water directive. Other compounds such as carbendazim, isothiazolinones (used as in-can preservatives), azole fungicides, mecoprop, that are used in connection with building protection were found in the...

  12. Evolution in the Lab: Biocide Resistance in E.coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welden, Charles W.; Hossler, Rex A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment on resistance to teach about evolution and issues of misuse of antimicrobial compounds. Investigates Escherichia coli's response to treatment of triclosan, a biocide used in consumer products. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  13. Study on the formation of the nanogel and microgels polypropylene modified by gamma radiation and incorporation of silver nanoparticles to biocides activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study consists of the synthesis of HMSPP (polypropylene with high melt strength), also called polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation from iPP (isotactic polypropylene) in presence of acetylene at 110 kPa pressure and irradiated with γ of 60Co source at doses of 5, 12.5 and 20 kGy. The gel fraction of the samples was determined by extracting in xylene. The soluble portion of the samples was decanted to deposition on glass substrate until complete volatilization of xylene at room temperature of 25 °C. On the soluble portion of 12.5 kGy irradiated sample were added silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in proportions of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 wt%. These gel samples were characterized by: scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM / EDS), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with field emission (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), reduction of colony forming unit (CFU) (%) and cytotoxicity assay. In this study of the morphology, it has been observed the formation of microgels in polypropylene increasing with the dose PP 5 kGy < PP 12.5 kGy < 20 kGy. Nanoscale structures of gels polypropylene (nanogels and nanofibers) were found in samples of PP 12.5 kGy and 20 kGy. The nanogels are formation of crosslinking, branching and entanglement that are nucleated in regions of high energy concentration (spurs) of one irradiated sample. Efficiency in tests of bactericide activity of the gels with AgNPs was observed versus E. coli and S. aureus from 1% AgNPs and non cytotoxicity were characterized in those samples for mammalian cells. In a second stage of this work films of the blend of PP and modified PP (50/50) were produced in a twin screw extruder. AgNPs were added to the extrusion processing in proportions of 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 1.0 PVP; 2.0 and 4.0 wt%. The films obtained were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry

  14. New Mexico nurses' cultural self-efficacy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Lynda Wilson

    2004-01-01

    Health care providers must develop a level of comfort in caring for patients/clients from cultures other than their own. A pilot study of 15 registered nurses caring for multiethnic patients in New Mexico was conducted to determine their level of self-efficacy, to test the Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale, and to determine the feasibility of a larger study. The participants were moderately confident with their knowledge of cultural concepts, cultural nursing skills, and three of the five ethnic groups' cultural life patterns. Although no conclusions can be drawn due to the small convenience sample, this study should lead to larger, more rigorous studies. PMID:15786799

  15. BacMet: antibacterial biocide and metal resistance genes database

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Chandan; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Rensing, Christopher; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D.G. Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a major human health concern due to widespread use, misuse and overuse of antibiotics. In addition to antibiotics, antibacterial biocides and metals can contribute to the development and maintenance of antibiotic resistance in bacterial communities through co-selection. Information on metal and biocide resistance genes, including their sequences and molecular functions, is, however, scattered. Here, we introduce BacMet (http://bacmet.biomedicine.gu.se)—a manua...

  16. Suitability of small environmental chambers to test the emission of biocides from treated materials into the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Wolfgang; Jann, Oliver; Wilke, Olaf

    Biocides are used to protect materials that might be damaged by fungal, microbial or insect activity. The aim of this study is to develop a method for the measurement of these organic compounds, which generally have low or moderate vapor pressures. The biocides considered in this study are permethrin, dichlofluanid, tolylfluanid, iodpropinylbutylcarbamat, octylisothiazolinone, tebuconazole and propiconazole. The emission from two commercial products (plastic foil, wool carpet) containing biocides and of seven types of biocidal formulations applied to wood or clay tiles were investigated in 20-l glass emission test chambers. Each chamber test was performed over a period of 100-200 days, and one investigation was conducted over several years. Compared to volatile organic compounds, low-volatility compounds show totally different emission curves in chamber tests; maximal emission values may be reached in days or weeks. A period of 3 months is sometimes necessary for the determination of area-specific emission rates (SER a's). The SER a's (μg m -2 h -1) from biocide-containing products were determined for permethrin (0.006), propiconazole (0.3), dichlofluanid (2.0), tolylfluanid (1.0), octylisothiazolinone (2.5) and iodpropinylbutylcarbamat (2). In most cases, the SER a stayed at its maximum value or declined slowly over the test period. Additionally, a chamber test begun in 1994 with a piece of wood treated with a typical mixture of biocides dissolved in a technical solvent was continued. SER a's (μg m -2 h -1) for dichlofluanid (0.20), tebuconazole (0.49) and permethrin (0.08) remained detectable after the period of nearly 9 years during which the sample remained continuously in the chamber. This test proved the very slow decrease of emission of low-volatility compounds like permethrin and tebuconazole.

  17. Activated soil filters for removal of biocides from contaminated run-off and waste-waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bester, Kai; Banzhaf, Stefan; Burkhardt, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    . A technical scale activated vertical soil filter (biofilter) with different layers (peat, sand and gravel), was planted with reed (Phragmites australis) and used to study the removal rates and fate of hydrophilic to moderate hydrophobic (log Kow 1.8–4.4) biocides and biocide metabolites such as...... first one (36 d) under low flow conditions (61 L m2 d1) reached removal rates between 82% and 100%. The second one was performed to study high flow conditions: During this experiment, water was added as a pulse to the filter system with a hydraulic load of 255 L m2 within 5 min (retention time <1 h......). During this experiment the removal rates of the compounds decreased drastically. For five compounds (Cybutryn, Descyclopropyl–Cybutryn, Diuron, Isoproturon, and Iodocarb) the removal dropped temporarily below 60%, while it was always above 70% for the others (Terbutryn, Benzo-isothiazolinone, n...

  18. Activated soil filters for removal of biocides from contaminated run-off and waste-waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, Kai; Banzhaf, Stefan; Burkhardt, Michael; Janzen, Niklas; Niederstrasser, Bernd; Scheytt, Traugott

    2011-11-01

    Building facades can be equipped with biocides to prevent formation of algal, fungal and bacterial films. Thus run-off waters may contain these highly active compounds. In this study, the removal of several groups of biocides from contaminated waters by means of an activated soil filter was studied. A technical scale activated vertical soil filter (biofilter) with different layers (peat, sand and gravel), was planted with reed (Phragmites australis) and used to study the removal rates and fate of hydrophilic to moderate hydrophobic (log K(ow) 1.8-4.4) biocides and biocide metabolites such as: Terbutryn, Cybutryn (Irgarol® 1051), Descyclopropyl-Cybutryn (Cybutryn and Terbutryn metabolite), Isoproturon, Diuron, and its metabolite Diuron-desmonomethyl, Benzo-isothiazolinone, n-Octyl-isothiazolinone, Dichloro-n-octylisothiazolinone and Iodocarbamate (Iodocarb). Three experiments were performed: the first one (36 d) under low flow conditions (61 L m(-2) d(-1)) reached removal rates between 82% and 100%. The second one was performed to study high flow conditions: During this experiment, water was added as a pulse to the filter system with a hydraulic load of 255 L m(-2) within 5 min (retention time octylisothiazolinone). However, this removal is a considerable improvement compared to direct discharge into surface waters or infiltration into soil without appropriate removal. In the last experiment the removal efficiencies of the different layers were studied. Though the peat layer was responsible for most of the removal, the sand and gravel layers also contributed significantly for some compounds. All compounds are rather removed by degradation than by sorption. PMID:21855108

  19. Impedimetric test for rapid determination of performic acid (PFA) biocidal activity toward Echerichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Lasik; Renata Dobrucka; Piotr Konieczny

    2013-01-01

      Background. Performic acid has recently become available on a commercial scale for potential use in waste-water disinfection and can become an innovative biocide for various purposes in food processing. The aim of our study was: 1) to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of performic acid as high active and non toxic chemical disinfectant against Escherichi coli (hygiene indicator test  microorganism used in industrial micro- biology) and 2) to evaluate the electrical impedanc...

  20. In-Vitro Archaeacidal Activity of Biocides against Human-Associated Archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Saber Khelaifia; Jean Michel Brunel; Michel Drancourt

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several methanogenic archaea have been detected in the human intestinal microbiota. These intestinal archaea may contaminate medical devices such as colonoscopes. However, no biocide activity has been reported among these human-associated archaea. METHODOLOGY: The minimal archaeacidal concentration (MAC) of peracetic acid, chlorhexidine, squalamine and twelve parent synthetic derivatives reported in this study was determined against five human-associated methanogenic archaea inclu...

  1. Microbiological Spoilage of Aviation Turbine Fuel: Part II Evaluation of a Suitable Biocide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Dayal

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, an anti-icing fuel additive supports microbial growth when added to aviation turbine fuel in low dosages. however, increases in its concentration to certain limits effectively prevents bioactivity in the fuel. The optimum dosage of this biocide for prevention of bioactivity in aviation turbine fuel has been studied by the specified qualitative performance tests after 18 months storage of the inhibited fuel under accelerated conditions of temperature and humidity.

  2. Essential Oils of Plants as Biocides against Microorganisms Isolated from Cuban and Argentine Documentary Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Sofía Borrego; Oderlaise Valdés; Isbel Vivar; Paola Lavin; Patricia Guiamet; Patricia Battistoni; Sandra Gómez de Saravia; Pedro Borges

    2012-01-01

    Natural products obtained from plants with biocidal activity represent an alternative and useful source in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage, without negative environmental and human impacts. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against microorganisms associated with the biodeterioration of documentary heritage. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the agar diffusion m...

  3. Synergistic sub-lethal effects of a biocide mixture on the springtail Folsomia fimetaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity of three biocides, esfenvalerate, picoxystrobin and triclosan, on adult survival and recruitment of juveniles was studied in the springtail Folsomia fimetaria, both in single and mixture experiments. Recruitment of juveniles was more sensitive to biocide exposure than adult survival. The concepts of concentration addition and independent action returned almost identical toxicity predictions, though both models failed to predict the observed toxicity due to synergistic deviations at high exposure concentrations. A comparison with a similar study on earthworms showed that response-patterns were species-specific. Consequently, there is no single reference concept which is applicable for all species of one ecosystem, which in turn questions the usefulness of such mixture prediction concepts in ecological risk assessment. -- Highlights: • Toxicity of esfenvalerate, picoxystrobin and triclosan to Folsomia fimetaria was assessed. • Both, the single biocides and the mixture affected recruitment stronger than survival. • Concentration addition and independent action predictions were almost identical. • Inhibition of recruitment after mixture exposure was stronger than predicted. • Comparison with an earthworm study showed that responses are species-specific. -- The concepts of concentration addition and independent action failed to predict mixture toxicity due to dose-dependent synergistic effects

  4. Mitigation of biocide and fungicide concentrations in flow-through vegetated stream mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Christoph; Elsaesser, David; Bundschuh, Mirco; Ternes, Thomas A; Schulz, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    Organic chemicals entering surface waters may interact with aquatic macrophytes, which in turn may reduce potential negative effects on aquatic organisms. The overall objective of the present study was to determine the significance of aquatic macrophytes to the retention of organic chemicals in slow-flowing streams and thus their contribution to the mitigation of the risks that these compounds may pose to aquatic ecosystems. Hence, we conducted a study on the mitigation of the biocides triclosan and triclocarban and the fungicides imazalil, propiconazole and thiabendazole, which were experimentally spiked to five flow-through stream mesocosms (45 m length, 0.4 m width, 0.26 m water depth, discharge 1 L/s), four of which were planted with the submerged macrophyte (Planch.). Chemical analyses were performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry following solid-phase extraction for water samples and accelerated solvent extraction for macrophyte and sediment samples. The peak reductions of biocide and fungicide concentrations from the inlet to the outlet sampling sites were ≥48% in all stream mesocosms, and the peak reductions in the vegetated stream mesocosms were 20 to 25% greater than in the unvegetated mesocosm. On average, 7 ± 3 to 10 ± 3% and 28 ± 8 to 34 ± 14% of the initially applied amount of fungicides and biocides, respectively, were retained by macrophytes. There was a significant correlation between retention by macrophytes and the lipophility of the compounds. PMID:25602429

  5. Year 3 ASK/FOSS Efficacy Study. CRESST Report 782

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmundson, Ellen; Dai, Yunyun; Herman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    This efficacy study was designed to examine the traditional FOSS curriculum (Delta Publishing, Full Option Science System/FOSS, magnetism and electricity, structures of life, and water modules, 2005), and the new ASK/FOSS curriculum (magnetism and electricity, structures of life, and water modules, 2005), a revised version of the original FOSS…

  6. Optimal scheduling of biocide dosing for seawater-cooled power and desalination plants

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Abdullah Bin

    2011-02-13

    Thermal desalination systems are typically integrated with power plants to exploit the excess heat resulting from the power-generation units. Using seawater in cooling the power plant and the desalination system is a common practice in many parts of the world where there is a shortage of freshwater. Biofouling is one of the major problems associated with the usage of seawater in cooling systems. Because of the dynamic variation in the power and water demands as well as the changes in the characteristics of seawater and the process, there is a need to develop an optimal policy for scheduling biocide usage and cleaning maintenance of the heat exchangers. The objective of this article is to introduce a systematic procedure for the optimization of scheduling the dosing of biocide and dechlorination chemicals as well as cleaning maintenance for a power production/thermal desalination plant. A multi-period optimization formulation is developed and solved to determine: the optimal levels of dosing and dechlorination chemicals; the timing of maintenance to clean the heat-exchange surfaces; and the dynamic dependence of the biofilm growth on the applied doses, the seawater-biocide chemistry, the process conditions, and seawater characteristics for each time period. The technical, economic, and environmental considerations of the system are accounted for. A case study is solved to elucidate the applicability of the developed optimization approach. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Analysis Study of Survey for Safety and Efficacy of Pharmacopuncture

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Kwon-eui

    2010-01-01

    This study was done in order to present clinical trial method for safety and efficacy of Pharmacopuncture. The results were summarized as follow:Objective : The purpose of this study is to verify about safety and effectiveness of pharmacopuncture. Methods : We use questionnaire created by expert group. Survey was conducted to target clinicians who using pharmacopuncture more then 5 years. Results & Conclusion : Pharmacopuncture is effective. and that is widely used in the musculoskeleta...

  8. Bioassays and selected chemical analysis of biocide-free antifouling coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watermann, B.T.; Daehne, B.; Sievers, S.; Dannenberg, R.; Overbeke, J.C.; Klijnstra, J.W.; Heemken, O.

    2005-01-01

    Over the years several types of biocide-free antifouling paints have entered the market. The prohibition of biocidal antifouling paints in special areas of some European countries such as Sweden, Denmark and Germany has favoured the introduction of these paints to the market. Several types of biocid

  9. Study of Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Social Studies Teacher Candidates on Educational Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Özkan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at examining the self-efficacy perceptions of social studies teacher candidates with respect to educational internet use. This research was conducted on a sample of 174 social studies teacher candidates enrolled in Gaziantep University Nizip Faculty of Education. The "Educational Internet Self-Efficacy Scale," developed…

  10. APPLICATION OF "SUPER ANK ANOLYTE" FOR BIOCIDAL TREATMENT OF EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanner N. E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Under the field conditions breeding the young poultry takes place in the eggs out of maternal body. For successful breeding the progeny keeping all the demands to safety and quality of hatching eggs has the important significance. Safety demands are presented in the appropriate Technical Standards (TS. The microbial standards are to be very significant. Moreover, it is necessary to control both the microorganisms note in TS and other species as dangerous factors on during the process of production. The methods and means used presently for disinfection of hatching eggs have some disadvantages, e.g. the method of gazation with using the preparations on a base of formaldehyde, formalin, potassium permanganate; ozone has the toxical, corrosive and inflammable properties and its using must be controlled; chlorine-containing disinfectants have a property to react with cuticle of eggshell and fall their activity. The results of a study on applicating Super ANK Anolyte for biocidal treatment of the eggs are presented in the article

  11. Biocide tolerance in Salmonella from meats in Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marin Garrido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella serovars sampled from meat products in Southern Spain (Andalucía during the period 2002-2007 were analyzed in this study. The serovars most frequently detected (in order were Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Derby, Anatum and Rissen. Isolates (n = 43 were tested for sensitivity to biocides, including the quaternary ammonium compounds benzalkonium chloride (BC, cetrimide (CT and hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP, and the bisphenols triclosan (TC and hexachlorophene (CF. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for the quaternary ammonium compounds was in the range of 25 to 50 mg/L for most isolates, although a few isolates required much higher concentrations, up to 250 mg/L. Bisphenols showed higher inhibitory activity, with a MIC of 2.5 to 25 mg/L. A few isolates showed a “non-wildtype” MIC for TC of up to 250 mg/L. These results indicate a low incidence of tolerance towards quaternary ammonium compounds and triclosan among Salmonellafrom meats and meat products.

  12. Comparative Study of Dermatophytic Fungi for Extra Cellular Proteases Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchita Chaturvedi; Sonal Pathak; Ruchi Upadhyay; Shweta Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are known to produce proteases of different kind. The dermatphytic fungal strains were isolated from human skin tissues for extra cellular proteases efficacy. The present study deals with purification, estimation and comparison of extracellular proteases from five fungal species. (Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp. , Fumigatus Sp. , Aspergillus Sp. and Mucor Sp.). All the five fungal strains showed good amount of extra cellular protease activity in terms of unit total protein content. By test...

  13. Biocides in the Yangtze River of China: Spatiotemporal distribution, mass load and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen biocides were investigated in the Yangtze River to understand their spatiotemporal distribution, mass loads and ecological risks. Fourteen biocides were detected, with the highest concentrations up to 166 ng/L for DEET in surface water, and 54.3 ng/g dry weight (dw) for triclocarban in sediment. The dominant biocides were DEET and methylparaben, with their detection frequencies of 100% in both phases. An estimate of 152 t/y of 14 biocides was carried by the Yangtze River to the East China Sea. The distribution of biocides in the aquatic environments was significantly correlated to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN), suggesting dominant input sources from domestic wastewater of the cities along the river. Risk assessment showed high ecological risks posed by carbendazim in both phases and by triclosan in sediment. Therefore, proper measures should be taken to reduce the input of biocides into the river systems. - Highlights: • Biocides were ubiquitous in the surface water and sediment of the Yangtze River. • The dominant biocides in the Yangtze River were DEET and methylparaben. • Annual flux of biocides was 152 tons from the Yangtze River to the East China Sea. • Domestic wastewater was the main source of the biocides. • Carbendazim and triclosan posed high ecological risks. - Biocides showed wide presence in the Yangtze River and some of them could pose high ecological risks to aquatic organisms

  14. A Study on Emotional Healing Efficacy of Fiction for Undergraduate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-May Sheih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, undergraduates may encounter multiple pressures and thus feel the sense of alienation, anxiety, disturbance and depression. For undergraduates, reading can be independently conducted without the intervention of an instructor; therefore, undergraduates who feel reluctant to expose private emotions to counselors can help themselves through the reading of emotional healing books. This is the application of bibliotherapy. Among various resources, fiction can serve as an appropriate emotional reading material. The researcher deployed semi-structured in-depth interview, and interviewed 21 undergraduates in Taipei City and Taipei County. This study is aimed to understand the kinds of fictions undergraduates read when they are upset and to analyze the emotional healing process of identification, catharsis, and insight so that the emotional healing efficacy can be evaluated. The findings showed that romance, realistic fiction, fantasy, martial arts novel, inspirational fiction, historical fiction, and science fiction can provide full process of emotional healing efficacy. However, detective fiction, online novel, psychological fiction, and horror fiction can only provide parts of the healing process. Besides, the healing efficacy of a specific fiction is different from reader to reader.

  15. Technical Protocol. Transformation of biocides in liquid manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert; Schlag, Patrick; Teigeler, Jennifer; Hartmann, Constanze; Cvetkovi, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The Reference Manure Concept, already developed for laboratory tests on fate and behavior of veterinary medicinal products in liquid manures and manured soils, was successfully applied for biocides used for disinfection purposes and control of insects in animal houses. Since the representative and reproducible sampling of manures from high-volume tanks has been considered impossible, excrement samples of cattle and pigs individually kept at an experimental animal house were taken. These samples were thoroughly matrix characterized. Then, tap water was added to prepare reference manures of definite dry substance contents. Subsequently, the long-term transformation of the biocides imazalil and cyanamide applied as {sup 14}C-labeled radiotracers was investigated in these manure samples. On the basis of the transformation tests, test manures with 7-day aged biocide residues were prepared and applied in laboratory tests on transformation and sorption in manured soil. By means of this experimental approach, the impacts of aging processes during manure storage and of the manure matrix on the fate of biocides in soils can be assessed already under laboratory conditions. These laboratory tests have been directed as closely as possible to agricultural practice as well as to analytical practicability and quality assurance. Finally, the methodological aspects have been compiled in a Technical Protocol (Draft version). (orig.)

  16. Study on the capability of a kind of non-oxidizing biocide for marine creatures%一种非氧化性海生物杀生剂的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田林; 姚光源; 王向明; 李俊文

    2014-01-01

    为了控制珠海天然气发电有限公司海水循环系统中的海生物,开发出环境友好的非氧化性海生物杀生剂TS-8511。评价了TS-8511对海生物的杀灭性能、急性毒性、生物蓄积性及生物降解性,并探讨了TS-8511的作用机理。结果表明,投加5 mg/L TS-8511并作用12 h,海生物的72 h死亡率可达到90%,投加10 mg/L以上,72 h死亡率达100%。 TS-8511具有高效、低毒、生物蓄积性低、易生物降解的特点,对贝类、蛤类杀灭效果好,对鱼类影响小。%In order to control the marine creatures in the seawater circulating system of CNOOC Zhuhai Natural Gas Power Co.,Ltd.,TS-8511,as a kind of environment-friendly non-oxidizing biocide,has been developed. Its biocidal capacibility,acute toxicity,bioaccumulation and biodegradability are evaluated,and its action mechanisms are dis-cussed. The results show that when the dosage of TS-8511 is 5 mg/L and action time 12 h ,its killing of marine crea-tures can reach 90%in 72 h. When the dosage of TS-8511 is 10 mg/L or more ,its killing rate can reach 100%in 72 h. TS-8511 is characterized by high efficiency,low toxicity,less bioaccumulation and readily biodegradable. It can effectively kill shellfishes and clams ,but has little effect on fishes.

  17. Premarket safety and efficacy studies for ADHD medications in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence T Bourgeois

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing.We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug's clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials.A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419. Eleven drugs (55% were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70% after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9, with 5 (38% drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77% after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed.Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved.

  18. Clinical study evaluating efficacy of praziquantel in clonorchiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Yangco, B G; Lerma, C.; Lyman, G H; Price, D L

    1987-01-01

    In 74 patients with clonorchiasis, the efficacy and safety of praziquantel was evaluated in a two-phase study: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of praziquantel versus placebo (42 patients) and an open study (32 patients). All but one of the patients were Laotians. The intensity of clonorchiasis was light in 85% (63 of 74) and moderate in 15% (11 of 74) of the patients. Cure based on our established criteria was noted in 67 of 67 patients (100%) treated with praziquantel at a dose o...

  19. Kinetics of dissolution of a biocide soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study we have studied the lixiviation kinetics of silver nanoparticles, as well as the solubility of a particulate system (2 lixiviation followed a Jander model (α2/4 ≈ Kt). It has been proven that nanostructured soda-lime glass/nAg composed by particles <30 μm with a 20 wt% of silver are a strong biocide versus Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. This soda-lime glass/nAg acts as a perfect dispenser of silver nanoparticles to the liquid media, avoiding the fast increasing of its concentration over the toxicity limit for human cells and for the environment.

  20. Retrospective Study on the Efficacy and Safety of Quinacrine Sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁菊红; 陆卫群; 丁婉华; 朱红; 童建孙

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe and evaluate the efficacy and safety of quinacrine sterilization.Methods A total of 572 cases of quinacrine sterilization preformed during the 4 years from 1993to 1997in Jiangsu and Guizhou Provinces were employed in this study. The efficacy and safety of quinacrine sterilization in those case were studied and evaluated, with 588 cases of surgical sterilization performed at the same time being the control group.Results Both groups were with identical demographic and gynecological characteristics. The result of multiple decrement life table analysis showed the 12th gross cumulative failure rates for quinacrine sterilization was 3. 13% and serious side effects occurred in only 2 cases accounting for O. 35%. One was ectopic pregnancy (20 months after treatment). The other was due to anaphylaxis in 10 minutes after the second insertion). No difference in the liver and nephic functions was detected and no suspected cancer cells or cancer cells were found in the two groups. 99. 6% of the 572 women interviewed accepted the quinacrine sterilization.Conclusions Quinacrine sterilization method is with high acceptability but comparatively low effectiveness. It has been proved to be a safe method of contraception in short-term. However, the safety of long-term still needs further study.

  1. Distribution of anti fouling biocides in coastal seawater of Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pollution level due to anti fouling biocides in the Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands (MPA) has been evaluated by both grab and passive sampling. Analyses of tributyltin (TBT), diuron, irgarol, chlorothalonil and dichlofluanid have been carried out on seawater and sediments. The results indicate a good condition of the coastline, but further studies with passive sampling for TBT are required to help the MPA administrators to control the status of the seawater with a methodology suitable to reach the Environmental Quality Standard values established by the Water Framework Directive

  2. Evaluation of the potential of ozone as a power plant biocide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattice, J.S.; Trabalka, J.R.; Adams, S.M.; Faust, R.A.; Jolley, R.L.

    1978-09-01

    A review of the literature on the chemistry and biological effects of ozone was conducted to evaluate the potential of ozone to function as a power plant biocide. Evaluation of this potential is dependent upon determining the ability of ozone to maintain the integrity of both the condenser cooling system and the associated ecosystem. The well-known bactericidal capacity of ozone and the limited biofouling control studies conducted thus far suggest that ozone can control both slime and macroinvertebrate fouling at power plants. However, full-scale demonstrations of the minimum levels of ozone required and of solution of the practical aspects of application have not been performed.

  3. Analysis Study of Survey for Safety and Efficacy of Pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Kwon-eui

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in order to present clinical trial method for safety and efficacy of Pharmacopuncture. The results were summarized as follow:Objective : The purpose of this study is to verify about safety and effectiveness of pharmacopuncture. Methods : We use questionnaire created by expert group. Survey was conducted to target clinicians who using pharmacopuncture more then 5 years. Results & Conclusion : Pharmacopuncture is effective. and that is widely used in the musculoskeletal diseases. but treatment method has not been organized to objectivity. Some pharmacopuncture causes specific symptoms, but no serious side effects. Generally, pharmacopuncture is effective and safety. * This study is performed under the Research and Development Project of Korean Pharmacopuncture Institiute(2010’s sponsorship.

  4. Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Tang, Camilla; Eriksson, Eva; Jönsson, Karin; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, exterior thermal insulation systems became more and more important leading to an increasing amount of houses equipped with biocide-containing organic façade coatings or fungicide treated wood. It is known that these biocides, e.g. terbutryn, carbendazim, and diuron, as well as wood preservatives as propiconazole, leach out of the material through contact with wind driven rain. Hence, they are present in combined sewage during rain events in concentrations up to several hundred ng L(-1). The present study focused on the occurrence of these biocides in five wastewater treatment plants in Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet weather (up to 100 ng L(-1)); however, for propiconazole noteworthy high concentrations were detected in one catchment (4.5 μg L(-1)). Time resolved sampling (12 × 2 h) enabled assessments about possible sources. The highest mass loads during wet weather were detected when the rain was heaviest (e.g. up to 116 mg h(-1) carbendazim or 73 mg h(-1) mecoprop) supporting the hypothesis that the biocides were washed off by wind driven rain. Contrary, the biocide emissions during dry weather were rather related to household activities than with emissions from buildings, i.e., emissions were highest during morning and evening hours (up to 50 mg h(-1)). Emissions during night were significantly lower than during daytime. Only for propiconazole a different emission behaviour during dry weather was observed: the mass load peaked in the late afternoon (3 g h(-1)) and declined slowly afterwards. Most likely this emission was caused by a point source, possibly from inappropriate cleaning of spray equipment for agriculture or gardening. PMID:24830785

  5. Comparative Study of Dermatophytic Fungi for Extra Cellular Proteases Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchita Chaturvedi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are known to produce proteases of different kind. The dermatphytic fungal strains were isolated from human skin tissues for extra cellular proteases efficacy. The present study deals with purification, estimation and comparison of extracellular proteases from five fungal species. (Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp. , Fumigatus Sp. , Aspergillus Sp. and Mucor Sp.. All the five fungal strains showed good amount of extra cellular protease activity in terms of unit total protein content. By testing all the crude extracts for enzyme activity, Fusarium sp. was found to show the highest activity whereas Mucor sp. showed the lowest. The study supports the notion that fungi can be a good source of extracellular enzymes especially proteases.

  6. A Case Study of an African American Teacher's Self-Efficacy, Stereotype Threat, and Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, H. Richard; Hoy, Anita Woolfolk

    2003-01-01

    This case study examined sources of self-efficacy for a suburban African American high school teacher who persisted despite many challenges that could have affected her self-efficacy. Data from interviews and observations highlighted several themes regarding sources of and influences on self-efficacy (e.g., experience of social and collegial…

  7. Silver-enhanced block copolymer membranes with biocidal activity

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima

    2014-11-12

    Silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface and pore walls of block copolymer membranes with highly ordered pore structure. Pyridine blocks constitute the pore surfaces, complexing silver ions and promoting a homogeneous distribution. Nanoparticles were then formed by reduction with sodium borohydride. The morphology varied with the preparation conditions (pH and silver ion concentration), as confirmed by field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Silver has a strong biocide activity, which for membranes can bring the advantage of minimizing the growth of bacteria and formation of biofilm. The membranes with nanoparticles prepared under different pH values and ion concentrations were incubated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and compared with the control. The strongest biocidal activity was achieved with membranes containing membranes prepared under pH 9. Under these conditions, the best distribution with small particle size was observed by microscopy.

  8. Microbial consortium from nuclear plants show tolerance to biocides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biocides over the last three to four decades have gained in popularity and widespread use in water systems. Industries today routinely incorporate chemical agents into water systems for the purpose of controlling microbial populations. Microorganisms can cause a number of unwanted problems, e.g., fouling, odor, spoilage, corrosion, and health problems in water treatment, manufacturing, food processing, energy production industries. The nuclear industry is no exception to the problems that can be initiated by microbial populations. In some areas the nuclear industry is more susceptible due to the vast number of water systems present and the regulatory limits placed on the water chemistry. Their work has shown that a number of biocides appear to be ineffective in controlling populations that have been isolated from nuclear powerplant water systems

  9. Usage Possibilities of Insecticide Effective Biocidals in Organic Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Şimşek, Muharrem; Yağcı, Mürşide; Erenler, Zuhal; Yaşarer, A. Haluk

    2015-01-01

    In conventional agriculture it is aimed that mainly increase in the amount of products, synthetic chemicals and fertilizers are used extensively to provide it. Today, terms such as safe food, human and environment health have become more important. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the share of organic agriculture which have less negative impacts to human health and environment, and sustainable use of natural resources. Herein environmentally insecticide effective biocidals to pest contr...

  10. Biocidal products: endorsement procedure for placing on the market

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Scripcariu,; Simona Sturzu

    2010-01-01

    Biocidal products are active substances and preparations containing one or more active substances, putin a form that is supplied to the user, with aim to destroy, to prevent the action or to exercise control over adifferent effect any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.By definition, these products are susceptible to have harmful effects on humans, animals and theenvironment as the main objective of European legislative regulations in this area is to ensure the highestlevel prot...

  11. Biocides in the Yangtze River of China: spatiotemporal distribution, mass load and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wang-Rong; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-05-01

    Nineteen biocides were investigated in the Yangtze River to understand their spatiotemporal distribution, mass loads and ecological risks. Fourteen biocides were detected, with the highest concentrations up to 166 ng/L for DEET in surface water, and 54.3 ng/g dry weight (dw) for triclocarban in sediment. The dominant biocides were DEET and methylparaben, with their detection frequencies of 100% in both phases. An estimate of 152 t/y of 14 biocides was carried by the Yangtze River to the East China Sea. The distribution of biocides in the aquatic environments was significantly correlated to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN), suggesting dominant input sources from domestic wastewater of the cities along the river. Risk assessment showed high ecological risks posed by carbendazim in both phases and by triclosan in sediment. Therefore, proper measures should be taken to reduce the input of biocides into the river systems. PMID:25697474

  12. Co-occurrence of resistance genes to antibiotics, biocides and metals reveals novel insights into their co-selection potential

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Chandan; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D. G. Joakim

    2015-01-01

    Background Antibacterial biocides and metals can co-select for antibiotic resistance when bacteria harbour resistance or tolerance genes towards both types of compounds. Despite numerous case studies, systematic and quantitative data on co-occurrence of such genes on plasmids and chromosomes is lacking, as is knowledge on environments and bacterial taxa that tend to carry resistance genes to such compounds. This effectively prevents identification of risk scenarios. Therefore, we aimed to ide...

  13. THE EFFECT OF SEVERAL NON-OXIDIZING BIOCIDES ON FINE PAPER WET-END CHEMISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Huber; Bruno Carré; Elisa Zeno

    2010-01-01

    Biocide programs have become necessary in most fine paper manufacturing circuits, as drastic reduction of fresh water consumption in the industry enhances microbial development. Depending on their chemical nature, biocides may interfere with typical wet-end chemistry additives and furnish. A reference wet-end chemistry was set (including fixing aid, dry strength aid, sizing agent, and retention system), then biocides were added to the furnish (bleached virgin fibres + mineral filler) prior to...

  14. Résistance aux médicaments et aux pesticides (biocides)

    OpenAIRE

    Pasteur, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    The progress of the health of human populations in the 20th century is largely due to development and the marketing of biocides (drugs and pesticides). Biocides limit the proliferation of unwanted organisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoa or metazoa) or even cells (as in cancer). They include anti-bacterial, anti-parasitic, anti-cancer compounds, as well as pesticides (insecticides and herbicides, for example). The efficiency of a large number of biocides is now compromised by the emergence of r...

  15. Testing methods to assess both the efficacy and ecotoxicity of antifouling coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Quiniou, Francoise; Compere, Chantal; Caisey, Xavier; Davy, Romain; Matarere, Marcel; Mazeas, Florence; Peleau, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Since 1998, the European Biocidal Products Directive (BPD; 98/8/EC), applied to 23 product types (PT) for specific uses, including PT 21 the « antifouling products », regulates biocidal products before they are placed on the market. On the one hand, the efficacy of active substances and their formulations must be demonstrated for their specific employment ; on the other hand their non impact on workers neither users and environment must be proved and specifically against non target specie...

  16. Efficacy of two elemental diets: a pair feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggia-Sullam, M; Matarese, L E; Edwards, L L; Fischer, J E

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy and side effects of two elemental diets were studied. Twenty young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of three different diets. Group I (n = 7) was fed Vivonex-HN (VIV) ad lib; group II (n = 7) was given Criticare-HN (CRI), pair-fed to group I (the two elemental diets were given in glass bottles); group III was fed regular rat chow and served as control (CON). Body weight (WT), food intake, and nitrogen balance (NB) were measured daily. After 21 days, change in body weight was similar in the three groups (VIV = 64.9 +/- 3.2%; CRI = 59.6 +/- 3.3%; CON = 63.9 +/- 4.8%). Cumulative nitrogen balance was also similar in the two groups fed elemental diets (VIV = 4788 +/- 277 mg N; CRI = 4690 +/- 118 mg N), but in both these groups it was less than the control group fed chow (8060 +/- 85 mg N). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) on the last day was higher in the VIV group (12.9 +/- 1.22 mg/dl) than in the CRI group (9.43 +/- 0.43 mg/dl), but in both study groups it was lower than in the CON group (17.2 +/- 1.08 mg/dl), although nitrogen intake was higher in the control (ad lib) group. SGPT was similar in the two elemental diets but higher than in CON. Liver weights were higher in the CRI group, probably abnormally so and likely due to increased fat content. Both diets had similar efficacy in nutritional support. PMID:3753732

  17. Studies on the efficacy of herbicides in rice cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echinochloa species are commonly found in the rice growing areas of Hungary. Preemrgent herbicides, including thiobencarb, are used more frequently for the control of these weeds. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the release of thiobencarb from two controlled-release (CR) formulations, and field experiments were conducted to compare the efficacy of several herbicides in the control of weeds and on the growth of rice plants and grain yield in direct seeded as well as transplanted rice. The CR formulations included two corn cob formulations and an alginate formulation. Field experiments were carried out to test the efficacy of a number of herbicides in direct seeded rice. These included CRA and a commercial formulation (SaturnR) of thiobencarb, Stomp 330E formulation of pendimetalin and Molinate 10G. Similarly, the efficacy of CRA and Molinate at 1.5 and 3.0 kg.ha was compared in transplanted rice. In the laboratory tests the release of thiobencarb was faster from TA1 formulation than from TA2. In the field experiments with direct seeded rice Stomp 330E at 1.65 kg/ha was more effective in the control of Echinochloa species than the other herbicides; whereas, the commercial formulation of thiobencarb was somewhat better than the CRA formulation. However, yield of rice grain and total rice biomass was the highest with Molinate used at 5 kg/ha. Grain yield with the CRA formulation was better than with the commercial thiobencarb formulation. Total rice biomass wit the two thiobencarb was the same. When the effect of thiobencarb CRA formulation was compared with that of Molinate in transplanted rice, the rice grain yield for the two herbicides was the same at 1.5 kg/ha, and both treatments resulted in an increased of about 50% rice grain as compared with the control plots. However, when the herbicide rate was increased to 3.0 kg/ha rate, the yield increase was 45% for Molinate and 40% for the CRA formulation. Similar results were obtained with the total rice

  18. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  19. Release and environmental impact of silver nanoparticles and conventional organic biocides from coated wooden façades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study represents for the first time a comprehensive assessment of functionality and environmental impacts of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) compared to conventional organic biocides. Four different transparent, hydrophobic coatings of wooden outdoor façades were tested during one year outdoor weathering. The total silver release from products with Ag-NP was proportional to the overall erosion of the coating. The results indicate that the Ag-NPs are likely transformed to silver complexes, which are considerably less toxic than ionic silver. The protective effect of the silver containing coatings against mold, blue stain and algae was insufficient, even in immaculate and non-weathered conditions. The release of organic biocides from conventional coatings was dependent on the weather conditions, the type of biocide and the use in the base or top coat. The conventional coating showed a good overall performance free from mold, blue stain and algae until the end of the test period. -- Highlights: • The study provides a comprehensive assessment of silver-NPs in wood coatings compared to organic biocides. • The total silver decrease on the façades was proportional to the overall erosion of the coatings. • Silver was not observed as nanosized particles in the runoff water. • Runoff water from the silver containing façades showed no acute toxicity for algae, bacteria and daphnia. • The applied coatings with silver (<50 ppm) were not efficient against mold, blue stain and algae. -- The amount of released silver corresponded with the overall erosion of the coating. The silver in the runoff water was neither in ionic form nor could original Ag-NPs be detected

  20. Comparing a microbial biocide and chlorine as zebra mussel control strategies in an Irish drinking water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Meehan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A need exists for an environmentally friendly mussel control method to replace chlorine and other traditional control methods currentlyutilised in drinking water plants and other infested facilities. Zequanox® is a newly commercialised microbial biocide for zebra and quaggamussels comprised of killed Pseudomonas fluorescens CL145A cells. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of adevelopmental formulation of Zequanox (referred to as MBI 401 FDP and chlorine treatments on adult and juvenile zebra mussels byrunning a biobox trial in conjunction with chlorine treatments at an infested Irish drinking water treatment plant. Since 2009, the plantmanagement has used a residual chlorine concentration of 2 mg/L in autumn to control both adult zebra mussels and juvenile settlement intheir three concrete raw water chambers. Juvenile mussel settlement was monitored in three bioboxes as well as in three treatment chambersin the plant for three months prior to treatment. Adult mussels were seeded into the chambers and bioboxes four days before treatment. InOctober 2011, the bioboxes were treated with MBI 401 FDP at 200 mg active substance/L, while chlorine treatment took place in the waterchambers. The MBI 401 FDP treatment lasted only 8 hours while chlorine treatment lasted seven days. Juvenile numbers were reduced tozero in both the bioboxes and treated chambers within seven days. Adult mussel mortality reached 80% for both the chlorine and MBI 401FDP treatment; however, mortality was achieved faster in the chlorine treatment. These results provided important insights into zebra musselcontrol alternatives to chlorine and supported further development of the now commercial product, Zequanox.

  1. Impedimetric test for rapid determination of performic acid (PFA biocidal activity toward Echerichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lasik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Performic acid has recently become available on a commercial scale for potential use in waste-water disinfection and can become an innovative biocide for various purposes in food processing. The aim of our study was: 1 to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of performic acid as high active and non toxic chemical disinfectant against Escherichi coli (hygiene indicator test  microorganism used in industrial micro- biology and 2 to evaluate the electrical impedance measurement method usefulness for fast and high precise test of antibacterial activity. Material and methods. Four types of antimicrobial disinfectants (commercial 35% hydrogen peroxide, 1% performic acid, 35% hydrogen peroxide and 15% formic acid were tested against Escherichia coli as hygiene indicator test microorganism. By evaluating the biocidal activity of selected disinfectants two methods were compared: electrical impedance measurement and classical serial dilution method with turbidity effect. Results.  It was stated that the performic acid expressed the highest antibacterial activity in comparison to other tested peroxide disinfectants: commercial 35% hydrogen peroxide solution and components required for performic acid production: 35% hydrogen peroxide solution with stabilizers and 15% formic acid solution with stabilizers. It was demonstrated that the proposed alternative microbiology method of electrical imped- ance measurement facilitates a rapidly and more precise analyses of the intensity of disinfectants inhibition effect. Conclusions. It can be postulated that both, the performic acid disinfectants as well as the impedimetric method can be a good advantage in the industrial microbiology.  

  2. EU Regulation of Nanobiocides: Challenges in Implementing the Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brinch

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR contains several provisions for nanomaterials (NMs and is the first regulation in the European Union to require specific testing and risk assessment for the NM form of a biocidal substance as a part of the information requirements. Ecotoxicological data are one of the pillars of the information requirements in the BPR, but there are currently no standard test guidelines for the ecotoxicity testing of NMs. The overall objective of this work was to investigate the implications of the introduction of nano-specific testing requirements in the BPR and to explore how these might be fulfilled in the case of copper oxide nanoparticles. While there is information and data available in the open literature that could be used to fulfill the BPR information requirements, most of the studies do not take the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s nanospecific test guidelines into consideration. This makes it difficult for companies as well as regulators to fulfill the BPR information requirements for nanomaterials. In order to enable a nanospecific risk assessment, best practices need to be developed regarding stock suspension preparation and characterization, exposure suspensions preparation, and for conducting ecotoxicological test.

  3. Biofragmentable bowel anastomosis ring: comparative efficacy studies in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maney, J W; Katz, A R; Li, L K; Pace, W G; Hardy, T G

    1988-01-01

    Three studies were conducted in a total of 178 dogs to determine the efficacy of a biofragmentable bowel anastomosis ring (BAR) composed of polyglycolic acid and 12.5% barium sulfate. Wound strength and healing of BAR, suture, and staple colonic anastomoses were compared for intervals of up to 1 year. The effect of systemic steroid treatment and BAR size on anastomotic wound strength and healing was also studied. The BARs fragmented at a mean time of 15.06 days postoperatively and were passed in the feces without injury. Wound strength was determined by measurements of the pressure required to burst the anastomosed colonic segment and measurements of the tension required to break 10 mm wide longitudinal strips of the anastomosed segment. The studies demonstrated that wound strength had progressed to a point where continued mechanical support (with sutures or staples) was no longer required by 14 days in both nontreated and steroid-treated dogs. Gross healing evaluations at 21 days and beyond showed no differences due to anastomotic method. Microscopic evaluations suggested that residual granulation tissue was less at the sites of BAR asastomoses than at sites of suture or staple anastomoses at the 1-year interval, suggesting that healing may be better with BAR than with standard methods of colon anastomosis. PMID:3336869

  4. Green and brown propolis: efficient natural biocides for the control of bacterial contamination of alcoholic fermentation of distilled beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of natural biocides, brown and green propolis, for the control of bacterial contamination in the production of sugarcane spirit. The treatments consisted of brown and green propolis extracts, ampicillin, and a control and were assessed at the beginning and end of harvest season in ten fermentation cycles. In the microbiological analyses, the lactic acid bacteria were quantified in the inoculum before and after the treatment with biocides, and the viability of yeast cells during fermentation was evaluated. The levels of acids, glycerol, total residual reducing sugars, and ethanol were analyzed for the wine resulting from each fermentation cycle. A reduction in the number of bacterial contaminants in the inoculum in the treatments with the natural biocides was observed, but it did not affect the viability of yeast cells. The control of the contaminants led to the production of higher levels of ethanol and reduced acidity in the wine produced. The results of the use of brown and green propolis to control the growth microorganisms in the fermentation of sugarcane spirit can be of great importance for using alternative strategies to synthetic antibacterials in fermentation processes including other distilled beverage or spirits.

  5. A qualitative study investigating the sources of teacher efficacy beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Minett, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    A teacher’s efficacy beliefs have been found to influence their professional commitment (Coladarci, 1992; Ware and Kitsantas, 2007, 2011; Klassen et al., 2013), their job satisfaction (Caprara et al., 2006, Hoigaard et al., 2012) and how resilient they are in difficult situations (Ashton and Webb, 1986), as well as influencing student achievement and teaching performance (Armor et al., 1976; Caprara et al, 2006; Klassen and Tze, 2014). Bandura (1997) has suggested that self-efficacy beliefs a...

  6. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    El Zawane Kamarudin; Qamar Uddin Ahmed; Zuvairea Nazren Mohd Sirajudin; Ahmad Jalal Khan Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (tropical pumpkin) (C. moschata) against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods:In the present study, dichloromethane (DCM), methanol (MEOH) and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus (21 mm) whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (8 mm). MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa (19 mm). Broth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6.25 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. The minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3.12 mg/mL to 100.00 mg/mL. The screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: Peel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  7. Cost-effective new liquid halogen biocide with better performance and reduced corrosivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim Sang-Hea [Justeq LLC, Northbrook, IL (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Halogen biocides, though widely used and largely effective, are corrosive and are unsatisfactory in controlling surface-attached microbes, such as slime. A newly patented product, composed of stabilized chlorine and unreacted bromide, controls surface-attached microbes, is much less corrosive and is much more cost-effective than other halogen biocides. (orig.)

  8. Predicting herbicide and biocide concentrations in rivers across Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemyss, Devon; Honti, Mark; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Pesticide concentrations vary strongly in space and time. Accordingly, intensive sampling is required to achieve a reliable quantification of pesticide pollution. As this requires substantial resources, loads and concentration ranges in many small and medium streams remain unknown. Here, we propose partially filling the information gap for herbicides and biocides by using a modelling approach that predicts stream concentrations without site-specific calibration simply based on generally available data like land use, discharge and nation-wide consumption data. The simple, conceptual model distinguishes herbicide losses from agricultural fields, private gardens and biocide losses from buildings (facades, roofs). The herbicide model is driven by river discharge and the applied herbicide mass; the biocide model requires precipitation and the footprint area of urban areas containing the biocide. The model approach allows for modelling concentrations across multiple catchments at the daily, or shorter, time scale and for small to medium-sized catchments (1 - 100 km2). Four high resolution sampling campaigns in the Swiss Plateau were used to calibrate the model parameters for six model compounds: atrazine, metolachlor, terbuthylazine, terbutryn, diuron and mecoprop. Five additional sampled catchments across Switzerland were used to directly compare the predicted to the measured concentrations. Analysis of the first results reveals a reasonable simulation of the concentration dynamics for specific rainfall events and across the seasons. Predicted concentration ranges are reasonable even without site-specific calibration. This indicates the transferability of the calibrated model directly to other areas. However, the results also demonstrate systematic biases in that the highest measured peaks were not attained by the model. Probable causes for these deviations are conceptual model limitations and input uncertainty (pesticide use intensity, local precipitation, etc

  9. Exposure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to high level biocide challenge can select multidrug resistant mutants in a single step.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah N Whitehead

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biocides are crucial to the prevention of infection by bacteria, particularly with the global emergence of multiply antibiotic resistant strains of many species. Concern has been raised regarding the potential for biocide exposure to select for antibiotic resistance due to common mechanisms of resistance, notably efflux. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was challenged with 4 biocides of differing modes of action at both low and recommended-use concentration. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the physiological state of the cells after biocide challenge. After 5 hours exposure to biocide, live cells were sorted by FACS and recovered. Cells recovered after an exposure to low concentrations of biocide had antibiotic resistance profiles similar to wild-type cells. Live cells were recovered after exposure to two of the biocides at in-use concentration for 5 hours. These cells were multi-drug resistant and accumulation assays demonstrated an efflux phenotype of these mutants. Gene expression analysis showed that the AcrEF multidrug efflux pump was de-repressed in mutants isolated from high-levels of biocide. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show that a single exposure to the working concentration of certain biocides can select for mutant Salmonella with efflux mediated multidrug resistance and that flow cytometry is a sensitive tool for identifying biocide tolerant mutants. The propensity for biocides to select for MDR mutants varies and this should be a consideration when designing new biocidal formulations.

  10. Transformational and transactional leadership and exercise-related self-efficacy: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Welch, Amy S; Hulley, Angie J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and the self-efficacy ofparticipants involved in a structured 10-week exercise program. Three weeksinto their exercise classes 174 females (M age = 25.36 years, SD = 8.48) provided ratings of their exercise instructor's leadership behaviors as well as their personal efficacy related to scheduling, over-coming barriers and within-class capabilities. Results revealed that for exercise initiates, contingent rewards behaviors were able to explain unique variation in scheduling self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy, but not within-class self-efficacy. For experienced exercisers, none of the leadership behaviors assessed in this study were associated with participant self-efficacy. PMID:17158842

  11. Alflutop clinical efficacy in vertebral osteochondrosis (12-mohth study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Hodyrev

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study clinical efficacy of aiflutop (A in lumbar osteochondrosis (LO with chronic back pain syndrome. Material and Methods. 32 pts with LO were included. 14 from them (group 1 during a year received 2 courses of A intramuscular injections (I ml/day, 30 ml total and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs if necessary. 18 pts (group 2 received NSAIDs only. Clinical examination of pts was performed at the stert of the study, before and after each A course and in 3 months after the last course. Results. Pain in the spine at rest and forward bending significantly decreased in group 1 pts (p<0,05 after each A course. Full pain disappearance after the first A course was achieved in 7,1% and after the second course - in 35,7% of group I pts and was not shown in control group. Significant stepped decrease of Thomayer's test value (p<0,00l was also shown in group 1: 3,6 times decrease in comparison with baseline was achieved in 3 months after completion of treatment with A. During treatment period these pts showed 2-2,5 times increase of static and dynamic spine load (according to Vxdel chronic inability index. 42,9% of group I pts stopped NSAIDs after A treatment completion. Only 5,6% of control group pts stopped NSAIDs during follow up. A tolerability was good. It can be combined with any other medications the pts received due to comorbid diseases.

  12. A green triple biocide cocktail consisting of a biocide, EDDS and methanol for the mitigation of planktonic and sessile sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J; Xu, D; Gu, T; Raad, I

    2012-02-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) cause souring and their biofilms are often the culprit in Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC). The two most common green biocides for SRB treatment are tetrakis-hydroxymethylphosphonium sulfate (THPS) and glutaraldehyde. It is unlikely that there will be another equally effective green biocide in the market any time soon. This means more effective biocide treatment probably will rely on biocide cocktails. In this work a triple biocide cocktail consisting of glutaraldehyde or THPS, ethylenediaminedisuccinate (EDDS) and methanol was used to treat planktonic SRB and to remove established SRB biofilms. Desulfovibrio vulgaris (ATCC 7757), a corrosive SRB was used as an example in the tests. Laboratory results indicated that with the addition of 10-15% (v/v) methanol to the glutaraldehyde and EDDS double combination, mitigation of planktonic SRB growth in ATCC 1249 medium and a diluted medium turned from inhibition to a kill effect while the chelator dosage was cut from 2,000 to 1,000 ppm. Biofilm removal was achieved when 50 ppm glutaraldehyde combined with 15% methanol and 1,000 ppm EDDS was used. THPS showed similar effects when it was used to replace glutaraldehyde in the triple biocide cocktail to treat planktonic SRB. PMID:22806837

  13. Efficacy of Counseling and Psychotherapy in Schools: A Meta-Analytic Review of Treatment Outcome Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Thomas W.; Slaten, Christopher D.; Crosby, Nicole R.; Pufahl, Tiffany; Schneller, Cali L.; Ladell, Monica

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of counseling and psychotherapy interventions for youth in schools. Data were examined for 107 studies that included 132 treatment interventions. Overall efficacy was d = 0.45 and was significantly different from zero. Interventions for adolescents outperformed those of children, treatment groups that were…

  14. A Study on the Relationship between Teacher Self Efficacy and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Ahmet Cezmi; Bozgeyik, Yunus; Eser, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between teacher self efficacy and burnout. In order to collect the related data, "Maslach Burnout Inventory" and "Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale" were used. The sample of the study consisted of 163 randomly chosen teachers who worked in various primary and…

  15. A Study on the Correlation between Self Efficacy and Foreign Language Learning Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubukcu, Feryal

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety in language learning is one of the less researched areas; that is why this study explores whether the anxiety level of foreign language learners is related to their self efficacy levels. For this purpose, 100 participants joined the study and the Foreign Language Learning Anxiety Scale and The Self Efficacy Scale were administered to them.…

  16. THE STUDY THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Effective treatment of patients with infectious and inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes often involves the use of antimicrobial agents.The purpose of the study was an in vitro estimation of cytotoxicity and the efficiency of national resources for local use: gel with bacteriophages («Otofag», «Fagogin», «Fagoderm», «Fagodent» and antiseptic — «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin».Materials and Methods. To study the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents they used to provide crop strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes as one of the most common representatives of pathogens. The study of cell viability and cytotoxicity antimicrobials performed on cell lines KB — epidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity of a human. For this purpose we use mikrotetrazoly test, which is widely used in the assessment of the effects on the cells of toxins, pharmaceuticals, adverse environmental factors, allowing to evaluate the toxicity of investigational drugs in vitro.The results showed that the efficacy against pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, has even a 10‑fold dilution of «Сhlorhexidine» 0.05% and gels with bacteriophages. Antiseptic «Miramistin» is effective only on the initial concentration. The study of cytotoxicity showed that the processing of epidermoid carcinoma cells with «Chlorhexidine» and «Мiramistin» invokes the irreversible reactions, while the composition processing of gels based on bacteriophages not further affect cell viability.Conclusions The results of the experiment confirmed the significant toxicity of tools such as «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin» in proposed concentrations in the pharmacy network. Despite the high efficiency of these vehicles with regard to the studied pathogens, their long-term use in treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes can cause a slowing of repair processes. Gel means with bacteriophages

  17. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Zawane Kamarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ( C. moschata against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM , methanol ( MEOH and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using K irby- B auer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus ( 21 mm whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli ( 8 mm . MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa ( 19 mm . B roth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6 . 25 mg/m L . T he minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. T he minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3 . 12 mg/m L to 100 . 00 mg/m L . T he screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: P eel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  18. An Exploratory Study into the Efficacy of Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farha, Nicholas W.

    2009-01-01

    Learning objects have quickly become a widely accepted approach to instructional technology, particularly in on-line and computer-based learning environments. While there is a substantial body of literature concerning learning objects, very little of it verifies their efficacy. This research investigated the effectiveness of learning objects by…

  19. Antifouling biocides in water and sediments from California marinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Wirth, Edward; Schiff, Kenneth; Fulton, Michael

    2013-04-15

    Irgarol 1051 is a common antifouling biocide and is highly toxic to non-target plant species at low ng/L concentrations. We measured up to 254 ng/L Irgarol in water and up to 9 ng/g dry weight Irgarol in sediments from Southern California recreational marinas. Irgarol's metabolite, M1, concentrations were up to 62 ng/L in water and 5 ng/g dry weight in sediments. Another antifouling biocide, diuron, reached up to 68 ng/L in water and 4 ng/g dry weight in sediments. The maximum Irgarol concentrations in water were greater than the Irgarol concentration recommended as the plant toxicity benchmark (136 ng/L), suggesting that Irgarol concentrations may be high enough to cause changes in phytoplankton communities in the sampled marinas. Irgarol concentrations measured in sediments were greater than calculated Environmental Risk Limits (ERLs) for Irgarol in sediments (1.4 ng/g). Antifouling pesticide accumulation in sediments may present a potential undetermined risk for benthic organisms. PMID:23453818

  20. Influence of antibiotic adsorption on biocidal activities of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Chandni; Vala, Anjana K; Andhariya, Nidhi; Pandey, O P; Chudasama, Bhupendra

    2016-04-01

    Excessive use of antibiotics has posed two major challenges in public healthcare. One of them is associated with the development of multi-drug resistance while the other one is linked to side effects. In the present investigation, the authors report an innovative approach to tackle the challenges of multi-drug resistance and acute toxicity of antibiotics by using antibiotics adsorbed metal nanoparticles. Monodisperse silver nanoparticles (SNPs) have been synthesised by two-step process. In the first step, SNPs were prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO3 with oleylamine and in the second step, oleylamine capped SNPs were phase-transferred into an aqueous medium by ligand exchange. Antibiotics - tetracycline and kanamycin were further adsorbed on the surface of SNPs. Antibacterial activities of SNPs and antibiotic adsorbed SNPs have been investigated on gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis), and gram-negative (Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas fluorescens) bacterial strains. Synergistic effect of SNPs on antibacterial activities of tetracycline and kanamycin has been observed. Biocidal activity of tetracycline is improved by 0-346% when adsorbed on SNPs; while for kanamycin, the improvement is 110-289%. This synergistic effect of SNPs on biocidal activities of antibiotics may be helpful in reducing their effective dosages. PMID:27074856

  1. Evaluation of eco toxicity, biocide effectiveness and corrosiveness of fluid for pipelines hydro testing; Avaliacao da ecotoxicidade, eficiencia biocida e da corrosividade de fluidos para teste hidroestatico de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia A.; Veiga, Leticia F.; Penna, Monica O.; Souza, Leonardo S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, Juliana R.; Oliveira, Fabio F.; Amigo, Alexandre A.; Chaves, Claudia [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Before the installation of subsea pipelines for draining the oil and gas production, the line need to be submitted to hydrostatic tests. In these, the lines are flooded with sea water and chemicals and pressurized to check the leakage occurrence. By the end of the test, the fluid needs to be discharged in-situ. Based on the environmental restrictions, this study began, and the three most important aspects in relation to the environmental risks had been evaluated: the toxicity, the biocide efficiency and the fluids' corrosiveness. By the partial results, it was observed that the fluids which had presented the best results in all studied aspects were the ones that contained the biocide THPS, combined with U.V. and a quaternary salt. In relation to the corrosion, it could be established that the studied fluids do not present impacts in internal corrosion, since during the test, the pipes are totally flooded with the fluid, remaining stamped and all the internal air having been removed. An important aspect is: even with concentrations below of the recommended ones for biocides, in order to guarantee lower environmental risks, by making use of alternative techniques (U.V.) and efficient biocide products, it is also possible to reach success in terms of biocide's efficiency. A regular monitoring procedure of the fulfilling fluid's quality is essential. (author)

  2. Loss and gain cycles? A longitudinal study about burnout, engagement and self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Llorens-Gumbau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present longitudinal study (two waves, conducted on a population of 274 secondary-school teachers, expands on previous research on burnout and work engagement. Accordingly, the effect of organizational factors (obstacles, facilitators as well as personal resources (self-efficacy on burnout and engagement is tested longitudinally following the Social Cognitive Theory. More specifically, we test the loss and gain cycles, and reciprocal relationships concerning burnout, engagement, and self-efficacy over time. Four questions are addressed: (1 Are obstacles positively related to burnout and work self-efficacy over time? (2 Are facilitators positively related to engagement and self-efficacy over time? (3 Is work self-efficacy negatively related to burnout and obstacles over time? and (4 Is work self-efficacy positively related to engagement and facilitators over time? The results of a hard-copy survey carried out at two waves (8 months between the two times, which were computed on Structural Equation Modeling show that obstacles are positively related to burnout, which in turn is positively related to self-efficacy over time. Likewise, facilitators are positively related to engagement and self-efficacy, which in turn is positively related to facilitators over time. These findings suggest a positive gain cycle in which self-efficacy plays a central role.

  3. Organizational Structure, Collegial Trust, and College Faculty Teaching Efficacy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpogba, Desmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to explore the relationship between faculty self-efficacy, organizational structure, and collegial trust. The concepts of teacher self-efficacy, organizational structure, and collegial trust were used to investigate any possible empirical relationships existing between these variables in a private,…

  4. A Survey Study of Chinese In-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy about Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Zan, Fei; Liu, Jiaqiu; Liu, Chunling; Sharma, Umesh

    2012-01-01

    A survey study was conducted to a total of 323 in-service teachers (110 special education teachers and 213 general education teachers) in Shanghai regarding their self-efficacy and concerns about inclusive education. Multivariate analysis results reveal that special teachers have significantly higher self-efficacy about inclusive education than…

  5. Education for Sustainability: A Case Study of Preservice Primary Teachers' Knowledge and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effeney, Gerard; Davis, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between knowledge and efficacy for teaching sustainability in a sample of 266 pre-service primary teachers at a large, metropolitan university in Australia. A survey gathered information about the participant's attitudes and self-efficacy for education for sustainability, along with their perceived…

  6. Emotional Intelligence, Self-efficacy and Diversity Receptiveness of University Students: A Correlation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Behjat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the interrelationship of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy drives, and diversity receptiveness of overseas college students. Factors of emotional intelligence, self-efficacies and diversity receptiveness were examined with these overseas students. Survey data on demographics, the Emotions Scale (EIS, Self-efficacy scale (SES and Diversity Receptive Scale (DRS were collected from eighty nine students enrolled in post graduate business programs. In data collection this study used simple random sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations between emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and diversity receptiveness. The findings of the study indicate that there is a significant relationship between emotional intelligence, the competencies of self-efficacy, and diversity receptiveness of college students.

  7. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Maria; La Vecchia, Carlo; Marzuillo, Carolina; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Liguori, Giorgio; Cicolini, Giancarlo; Capasso, Lorenzo; D'Amario, Claudio; Boccia, Stefania; Siliquini, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both. Design Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up. Data Sources Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet. Methods Adults (30–75 years) were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers), users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers), or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers). Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence. Main Outcome Measures Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily. Data Synthesis We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit. Results Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%). All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35–8.02), whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall). Conclusions Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate

  8. Human insulin: study of safety and efficacy in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, D R; Jones, M. K.; Hayes, T M; Heding, L G; Alberti, K G; Home, P. D.; Burrin, J M; Newcombe, R G

    1981-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of a new highly purified neutral soluble human insulin produced by conversion of porcine insulin was compared with a highly purified neutral soluble porcine insulin in six normal men. The insulins were administered by subcutaneous injection at a dose of 0.075 U/kg body weight. Somatostatin was infused during the experiment to suppress endogenous insulin secretin. No difference was found in the plasma glucose, insulin, or metabolite responses. Thus the potency, onset, a...

  9. An Exploratory Study into the Efficacy of Learning Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas W. Farha

    2009-01-01

    Learning objects have quickly become a widely accepted approach to instructional technology, particularly in on-line and computer-based learning environments. While there is a substantial body of literature concerning learning objects, very little of it verifies their efficacy. This research investigated the effectiveness of learning objects by comparing learning outcomes using a learning object with outcomes using a traditional textbook-based method of instruction. Participants were 327 unde...

  10. Biocides in hydraulic fracturing fluids: a critical review of their usage, mobility, degradation, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrilas, Genevieve A; Blotevogel, Jens; Stewart, Philip S; Borch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Biocides are critical components of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") fluids used for unconventional shale gas development. Bacteria may cause bioclogging and inhibit gas extraction, produce toxic hydrogen sulfide, and induce corrosion leading to downhole equipment failure. The use of biocides such as glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium compounds has spurred a public concern and debate among regulators regarding the impact of inadvertent releases into the environment on ecosystem and human health. This work provides a critical review of the potential fate and toxicity of biocides used in hydraulic fracturing operations. We identified the following physicochemical and toxicological aspects as well as knowledge gaps that should be considered when selecting biocides: (1) uncharged species will dominate in the aqueous phase and be subject to degradation and transport whereas charged species will sorb to soils and be less bioavailable; (2) many biocides are short-lived or degradable through abiotic and biotic processes, but some may transform into more toxic or persistent compounds; (3) understanding of biocides' fate under downhole conditions (high pressure, temperature, and salt and organic matter concentrations) is limited; (4) several biocidal alternatives exist, but high cost, high energy demands, and/or formation of disinfection byproducts limits their use. This review may serve as a guide for environmental risk assessment and identification of microbial control strategies to help develop a sustainable path for managing hydraulic fracturing fluids. PMID:25427278

  11. Occurrence and distribution of antifouling biocide Irgarol-1051 in coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hassan Rashid; Arifin, Marinah Mohd; Sheikh, Mohammed Ali; Mohamed Shazili, Noor Azhar; Bachok, Zainudin

    2013-05-15

    Emerging booster biocides contamination raises particular attention in the marine ecosystem health. This study provides the baseline data on the occurrence of Irgarol-1051 (2-methylthio-4-tert-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamiono-s-triazine) in the selected coastal water around Malaysia. The maximum detected concentration of Irgarol was 2021 ng/L at Klang West, commercial and cargo port. Coral reef Islands (Redang and Bidong) were relatively less contaminated compared to other coastal areas. The temporal variation revealed that only 1% of 28 stations sampled on November, 2011 was above the environmental risk limit of 24 ng/L as suggested by Dutch Authorities, while in January and April, 2012; 46% and 92% of the stations were above the limit respectively. The present findings demonstrate the wide detection of novel antifouling materials Irgarol-1051 which advocates the need for proper monitoring and conservation strategies for the coastal resources. PMID:23490347

  12. Study of archaeological underwater finds: deterioration and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisci, G. M.; La Russa, M. F.; Macchione, M.; Malagodi, M.; Palermo, A. M.; Ruffolo, S. A.

    2010-09-01

    This study is aimed at an assessment of the methodologies, instruments and new applications for underwater archaeology. Research focused on study of the various kinds of degradation affecting underwater finds and stone materials aged in underwater environment, efficiency evaluation of various surface cleaning methods and study and mixing of protective products with consolidating resins and antimicrobial biocides to be applied to restored underwater finds. Transmitted light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study surface biofilms and the interactions with samples of different stone materials such as brick, marble and granite immersed in the submarine archaeological area of Crotone (South of Italy). Surface cleaning tests were performed with application of ion exchange resins, EDTA, hydrogen peroxide and ultrasound techniques. Capillary water absorption, simulated solar ageing and colourimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate hydrophobic and consolidant properties; to assess biocidal efficacy, heterotrophic micro-organisms ( Aspergillus niger) were inoculated on agar plates and growth inhibition was measured.

  13. Field trial of biocides for control of Legionella in cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, R H; Broadbent, C R

    1995-03-01

    Legionella and amebae populations in 16 cooling towers were challenged with three commercially available biocide formulations. The active agents were: a chlorinated phenolic thioether (CPTE), bromo-nitro-propane-diol (BNPD), and bromo-chloro-dimethylhydantoin (BCD, in briquette form). The towers were dosed with these biocides for approximately 4 weeks. BCD was effective against Legionella in each of nine challenge experiments, and CPTE in eight of nine challenges. BNPD was effective in only five of 11 challenges. None of the biocides had any significant effect in reducing planktonic amebae concentrations during the challenges. PMID:7765850

  14. Glass-(nAg, nCu biocide coatings on ceramic oxide substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Esteban-Tejeda

    Full Text Available The present work was focused on obtaining biocide coatings constituted by a glassy soda-lime matrix containing silver or copper nanoparticles on ceramic (alumina and zirconia based substrates. Both glassy coatings showed a high biocide activity against Gram-, Gram+ bacteria and yeast, reducing cell numbers more than three logarithms. Silver nanoparticles had a significantly higher biocide activity than copper nanoparticles, since the lixiviation levels required to reduce cell numbers more than 3 logarithms was of almost 1-2 µg/cm(2 in the case of silver nanoparticles, and 10-15 µg/cm(2 for the copper nanoparticles.

  15. Combined analysis of pharmacokinetic and efficacy data of preclinical studies with statins markedly improves translation of drug efficacy to human trialss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, E. van de; Kleemann, R.; Jansen, H.T.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Offerman, E.H.; Wortelboer, H.M.; DeGroot, J.

    2013-01-01

    Correct prediction of human pharmacokinetics (PK) and the safety and efficacy of novel compounds based on preclinical data, is essential but often fails. In the current study, we aimed to improve the predictive value of ApoE*3Leiden (E3L) trans-genic mice regarding the cholesterol-lowering efficacy

  16. Passivated iodine pentoxide oxidizer for potential biocidal nanoenergetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingyu; Jian, Guoqiang; Liu, Qing; Zachariah, Michael R

    2013-09-25

    Iodine pentoxide (I2O5), also known as diiodine pentoxide, is a strong oxidizer which has been recently proposed as an iodine-rich oxidizer in nanoenergetic formulations, whose combustion products lead to molecular iodine as a biocidal agent. However, its highly hygroscopic nature hinders its performance as a strong oxidizer and an iodine releasing agent and prevents its implementation. In this work, we developed a gas phase assisted aerosol spray pyrolysis which enables creation of iron oxide passivated I2O5. Transmission electron microscopy elemental imaging as well as temperature-jump mass spectrometry confirmed the core shell nature of the material and the fact that I2O5 could be encapsulated in pure unhydrated form. Combustion performance finds an optimal coating thickness that enables combustion performance similar to a high performing CuO based thermite. PMID:23988006

  17. Emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity during the Mars 520 study

    OpenAIRE

    Šolcová, I. (Iva); Gushin, V.; Vinokhodova, A.; Lukavský, J. (Jiří)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the dynamics of changes in emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity in the crew of the Mars 520 experimental study that simulated traveling to Mars, orbiting it, landing, and returning to Earth. The study comprised six volunteers, all men, between 27–38 yr of age. During the simulation, measures of emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity were repeated every month. Emotional energy, work self-effica...

  18. Structure-Activity Relationships for an Ecotoxicological Hazard Assessment of Selected Isothiazol-3-one Biocides and Ionic LiquidsA Mode-of-Action-Based Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Arning, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    In the presented work two case studies using highly reactive Isothiazol-3-one biocides and Ionic liquids are presented. It was the aim of these studies to get a deeper knowledge on the hazard potential of the selected substances by applying a mode of action based testing strategy and a flexible toxicological and ecotoxicological test battery. Summarising the results obtained from both case studies, it could be shown that the applied tiered and mode of action based testing strategy in combinat...

  19. A study of self-efficacy in job-related context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Frlec

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The article stems from an attempt to transfer the Bandura's social cognitive theory into organisational praxis. Beliefs of self-efficacy, which is defined as people's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances, are constructed from 4 principal sources of information: enactive mastery experiences; vicarious experiences that alter efficacy beliefs through transmission of competencies and comparison with the attainment of others; verbal persuasion and allied types of social influences that one possesses certain capabilities; and physiological and affective states from which people partly judge their capableness, strength, and vulnerability to dysfunction. The study of self-efficacy in job-related context involved 295 employees from 3companies belonging to the same business group. Self-efficacy was assed using Schwarzer's scale, while rating scales were used for assessing the 4 principal sources of influence upon it. First, differences between companies regarding demographic characteristics of the employees, job characteristics and self-efficacy were analyzed. Dependence of employee's self-efficacy on his/her age, gender, education, work experience, employment status, job type and the four principal influence sources was tested using a regression model. Finally, we identified typical employee profiles with respect to the studied factors. We hope that our study will help human-resources specialists design appropriate interventions for developing a resilient sense of self-efficacy in the employees.

  20. The Exploration of Elementary School Teachers' Internet Self-Efficacy and Information Commitments: A Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Tien; Wang, Li-Jen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore teachers' Internet self-efficacy and information commitments. More importantly, this study also attempted to identify possible factors that affect the teachers' Internet self-efficacy. The participants were 301 elementary school teachers. In this study, the Internet Self-efficacy Survey (ISS) and the Information…

  1. Acute and sub acute toxicity and efficacy studies of Hippophae rhamnoides based herbal antioxidant supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ali

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The data obtained indicate no toxicity of this antioxidant supplement up to the highest dose studied. Efficacy in terms of increased bioavailability of vitamin A and C in human volunteers indicates the clinical usefulness of the supplement.

  2. A multilevel study on the relationships between work characteristics, self-efficacy, collective efficacy, and organizational citizenship behavior: the case of Taiwanese police duty-executing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hsi Vivian; Kao, Rui-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Public security, traffic management, and service for the people are the 3 major functions of policing in Taiwan. This definition encompasses not only the traditional job characteristics, but also the level of contextual characteristics and social characteristics because of police work's characteristics and its frequent interaction with the public. Thus, the present study conducted a multilevel model analysis by taking self-efficacy and collective efficacy as the mediating variables. The purpose was to investigate the influences of motivational work characteristics (knowledge-oriented) and social work characteristics (socially and contextually oriented) of work-design model on the police officers' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), by using first-line police officers in Taiwan as the research objects. The study showed not only that knowledge characteristics will influence the self-efficacy of a police officer and that self-efficacy can in turn influence individual police officers' OCB, but also the contextual effect of social characteristics, contextual characteristics, and collective efficacy on self-efficacy and individuals' OCB. Additionally, there was a crosslevel moderating effect from contextual characteristics on the relationship between knowledge characteristics and self-efficacy and the relationship between self-efficacy and the individuals' OCB. The authors conclude the article with research implications. PMID:21834327

  3. Decreased bio-inhibition of building materials due to transport of biocides

    OpenAIRE

    Erich, S.J.F.; Mendoza, S.M.; Floor, W.; Hermanns, S.P.M.; Homan, W.J.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Bio-inhibition of buildings and structures is an important issue. In many cases building materials have biocides added to prevent growth of micro-organisms. Growth of microorganisms on building materials has several negative effects; (1) Aesthetic damage, e.g. fungi, algae grow on the material, resulting in early replacement and high cleaning costs, (2) Material damage, and (3) Health problems. However, current legislation forces manufacturers to reduce the biocide load, which requires manufa...

  4. Combined effects of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, biocides and organic contaminants on the growth of Skeletonema pseudocostatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Karina; Heiaas, Harald Hasle; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2014-05-01

    Organisms in the environment are exposed to a number of pollutants from different compound groups. In addition to the classic pollutants like the polychlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols, biocides, etc. other compound groups of concern are constantly emerging. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) can be expected to co-occur with other organic contaminants like biocides, PAHs and alkylphenols in areas affected by wastewater, industrial effluents and intensive recreational activity. In this study, representatives from these four different compound groups were tested individually and in mixtures in a growth inhibition assay with the marine algae Skeletonema pseudocostatum (formerly Skeletonema costatum) to determine whether the combined effects could be predicted by models for additive effects; the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) prediction model. The eleven tested compounds reduced the growth of S. pseudocostatum in the microplate test in a concentration-dependent manner. The order of toxicity of these chemicals were irgarol>fluoxetine>diuron>benzo(a)pyrene>thioguanine>triclosan>propranolol>benzophenone 3>cetrimonium bromide>4-tert-octylphenol>endosulfan. Several binary mixtures and a mixture of eight compounds from the four different compound groups were tested. All tested mixtures were additive as model deviation ratios, the deviation between experimental and predicted effect concentrations, were within a factor of 2 from one or both prediction models (e.g. CA and IA). Interestingly, a concentration dependent shift from IA to CA, potentially due to activation of similar toxicity pathways at higher concentrations, was observed for the mixture of eight compounds. The combined effects of the multi-compound mixture were clearly additive and it should therefore be expected that PPCPs, biocides, PAHs and alkylphenols will collectively contribute to the risk in areas contaminated by such complex

  5. Toxicity of antifouling biocides to the intertidal harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus (Crustacea, Copepoda): Effects of temperature and salinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, K.W.H. [Swire Institute of Marine Science, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Leung, K.M.Y. [Swire Institute of Marine Science, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: kmyleung@hkucc.hku.hk

    2005-07-01

    Intertidal harpacticoid copepods are commonly used in eco-toxicity tests worldwide. They predominately live in mid-high shore rock pools and often experience a wide range of temperature and salinity fluctuation. Most eco-toxicity tests are conducted at fixed temperature and salinity and thus the influence of these environmental factors on chemical toxicity is largely unknown. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and salinity on the acute toxicity of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus against two common biocides, copper (Cu) and tributyltin (TBT) using a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial design (i.e. two temperatures: 25 and 35 {sup o}C; three salinities: 15.0 per mille , 34.5 per mille and 45.0 per mille ; three levels of the biocide plus a control). Copper sulphate and tributyltin chloride were used as the test chemicals while distilled water and acetone were utilised as solvents for Cu and TBT respectively. 96h-LC50s of Cu and TBT were 1024 and 0.149 {mu}g l{sup -1} respectively (at 25 {sup o}C; 34.5 per mille ) and, based on these results, nominal biocide concentrations of LC0 (i.e. control), LC30, LC50 and LC70 were employed. Analysis of Covariance using 'concentration' as the covariate and both 'temperature' and 'salinity' as fixed factors, showed a significant interaction between temperature and salinity effects for Cu, mortality increasing with temperature but decreasing with elevated salinity. A similar result was revealed for TBT. Both temperature and salinity are, therefore, important factors affecting the results of acute eco-toxicity tests using these marine copepods. We recommend that such eco-toxicity tests should be conducted at a range of environmentally realistic temperature/salinity regimes, as this will enhance the sensitivity of the test and improve the safety margin in line with the precautionary principle.

  6. Toxicity of antifouling biocides to the intertidal harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus (Crustacea, Copepoda): Effects of temperature and salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intertidal harpacticoid copepods are commonly used in eco-toxicity tests worldwide. They predominately live in mid-high shore rock pools and often experience a wide range of temperature and salinity fluctuation. Most eco-toxicity tests are conducted at fixed temperature and salinity and thus the influence of these environmental factors on chemical toxicity is largely unknown. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and salinity on the acute toxicity of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus against two common biocides, copper (Cu) and tributyltin (TBT) using a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial design (i.e. two temperatures: 25 and 35 oC; three salinities: 15.0 per mille , 34.5 per mille and 45.0 per mille ; three levels of the biocide plus a control). Copper sulphate and tributyltin chloride were used as the test chemicals while distilled water and acetone were utilised as solvents for Cu and TBT respectively. 96h-LC50s of Cu and TBT were 1024 and 0.149 μg l-1 respectively (at 25 oC; 34.5 per mille ) and, based on these results, nominal biocide concentrations of LC0 (i.e. control), LC30, LC50 and LC70 were employed. Analysis of Covariance using 'concentration' as the covariate and both 'temperature' and 'salinity' as fixed factors, showed a significant interaction between temperature and salinity effects for Cu, mortality increasing with temperature but decreasing with elevated salinity. A similar result was revealed for TBT. Both temperature and salinity are, therefore, important factors affecting the results of acute eco-toxicity tests using these marine copepods. We recommend that such eco-toxicity tests should be conducted at a range of environmentally realistic temperature/salinity regimes, as this will enhance the sensitivity of the test and improve the safety margin in line with the precautionary principle

  7. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated

  8. Efficacy of certain yogic and naturopathic procedures in premature ejaculation: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad Mamidi; Kshama Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Context: Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual disorder of young males. Even though there are number of treatment options available for PE, patient′s satisfaction and drug side effects remain to be a problem. Non-pharmacological treatment options like Yoga and Naturopathy have been implicated in sexual fulfillment, pleasure and efficacy of some of these approaches has been established in previous studies. Aim: To assess the efficacy of certain yogic and naturopathic procedur...

  9. Paliperidone ER in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of Efficacy and Tolerability

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Bellino; Paola Bozzatello; Camilla Rinaldi; Filippo Bogetto

    2011-01-01

    Antipsychotics are recommended for the treatment of impulsive dyscontrol and cognitive perceptual symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Three reports supported the efficacy of oral risperidone on BPD psychopathology. Paliperidone ER is the metabolite of risperidone with a similar mechanism of action, and its osmotic release reduces plasmatic fluctuations and antidopaminergic effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in BPD patients. 18 o...

  10. Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Nationwide Retrospective Study of Efficacy and Tolerability

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Helene Køstner; Morten Sorensen; René Krøjgaard Olesen; Henning Grønbæk; Ulrik Lassen; Morten Ladekarl

    2013-01-01

    Background. Advanced HCC is a clinical challenge with limited treatment options. The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the first and only agent showing a survival benefit in these patients. In this study we evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sorafenib in an unselected patient population. Furthermore we explore the role of alpha-fetoprotein ( α FP) as a potential biomarker for treatment efficacy and correlation to survival. Methods. Seventy-six patients with advanced HCC, not eligible ...

  11. Isolated Pelvic Hyperthermochemotherapeutic Perfusion -An Experimental Study on Isolating Efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Hyperthermochemotherapeutic perfusion model through isolated pelvic vessels was developed to evaluate the leakage of hyperthermia and drugs (such as adriamycin) from the isolated pelvic circulation to systemic circulation and its associated side/toxic effects. The isolated pelvic circulation was perfused through a femoral artery catheter with hyperthermic (48 ℃ to 55 ℃) adriamycin solution (50 μg/ml) for 30 min. The efflux was drained through a femoral vein catheter. And the pelvic temperature was kept at the level of 43±0.5 ℃. The temperature of pelvic circulation was kept at 4 ℃ to 5 ℃ greater than the systemic/core temperature. The adriamycin concentration of pelvic efflux was 12 to 46 folds of that of systemic serum. The difference between them was very significant (P<0.001). As the perfusion pressure was increased, which kept lower than the mean systemic artery pressure, the leakage of the adriamycin from the isolated pelvic circulation to systemic circulation was increased, but there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). During isolated perfusion, the systemic blood dynamics remained stable and there were no organic injuries on the important organs. It was suggested that the isolating efficacy of the modality of isolated pelvic hyperthermochemotherapeutic perfusion through vessels was rather high. The hyperthermia and drugs could be effectively limited in the isolated pelvic region with minor side effects on the systemic circulation and important organs.

  12. An Exploratory Study into the Efficacy of Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Farha

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning objects have quickly become a widely accepted approach to instructional technology, particularly in on-line and computer-based learning environments. While there is a substantial body of literature concerning learning objects, very little of it verifies their efficacy. This research investigated the effectiveness of learning objects by comparing learning outcomes using a learning object with outcomes using a traditional textbook-based method of instruction. Participants were 327 undergraduate college students at a traditional public four-year coed institution, a private four-year women’s college, a private four-year engineering institution, and a public two-year community college. Through a series of independent samples t-tests and Analyses of Variance, results revealed mean scores for the learning object group that were nearly three times higher than the mean scores for the textbook-taught group. Gaming experience, age, gender, and learner preference were evaluated for their potential influence on the results; no statistically significant differences were found, implying that the learning object itself was central to the outcomes achieved. The future of learning objects is bright, and more empirical research is called for in the area of learning object effectiveness.

  13. Applicability of microwave-assisted extraction combined with LC-MS/MS in the evaluation of booster biocide levels in harbour sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2011-01-01

    A new sample treatment method for the determination of four common booster biocides (Diuron, TCMTB, Irgarol 1051 and Dichlofluanid) in harbour sediment samples has been developed that uses liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after microwave-assisted extraction, followed by clean-up and a solid phase extraction preconcentration step (MAE-SPE). The effects of different variables on MAE-SPE were studied. The recoveries obtained were greater than 75%, and the relative standard deviation was less than 7%. The detection limits ranged between 0.1 and 0.3 ng g⁻¹. The developed methodology was successfully applied to the evaluation of the presence of booster biocides in sediment samples from different harbours and marinas of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, Spain). PMID:20947123

  14. Toward making the invisible visible: Studying science teaching self-efficacy beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Catherine J.

    This dissertation consists of two articles to be submitted for publication. The first, a literature review, makes visible common influences on science teaching self-efficacy beliefs and also points to potentially invisible validation concerns regarding the instrument used. The second investigates the participants' invisible science teaching self-efficacy beliefs and, through the use of a more focused interview, makes those beliefs visible. Science teaching self-efficacy beliefs are science teachers' perceptions of their abilities to teach science effectively. The construct "teaching self-efficacy" originated in social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1977). The first article reviews the mixed results from teaching self-efficacy research in science contexts. The review focuses upon factors that facilitate or inhibit the development of self-efficacy beliefs among science teachers across stages of their careers. Although many studies of science teaching self-efficacy beliefs have utilized the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument - STEBI (Enochs & Riggs, 1990; Riggs & Enochs, 1990), this review also includes non-STEBI studies in order to represent diverse lines of research methodology. The review's findings indicate that antecedent factors such as science activities in and out of school, teacher preparation, science teaching experiences and supportive job contexts are significant influences on the development of science teaching self-efficacy beliefs. The review also indicates that the majority of these studies are short term and rely on a single STEBI administration with the collection of antecedent/demographic and/or interview data. The second article documents a study that responded to the above literature review findings. This study utilized multiple STEBI administrations during the preservice and beginning year of teaching for two science teachers. Rather than general questions, these participants were asked item specific, yet open-ended, questions to determine

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study of Engineering Students' Self-Efficacy by Gender, Ethnicity, Year, and Transfer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James P.; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2009-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional study of 519 undergraduate engineering majors' self-efficacy beliefs at a large, research extensive, Midwestern university. Engineering self-efficacy is an individual's belief in his or her ability to successfully negotiate the academic hurdles of the engineering program. Engineering self-efficacy was obtained from four…

  16. Influences of Self-Efficacy, Response Efficacy, and Reactance on Responses to Cigarette Health Warnings: A Longitudinal Study of Adult Smokers in Australia and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Swayampakala, Kamala; Borland, Ron; Nagelhout, Gera; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Thompson, Mary; Hardin, James

    2016-12-01

    Guided by the extended parallel process model (EPPM) and reactance theory, this study examined the relationship between efficacy beliefs, reactance, and adult smokers' responses to pictorial health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packaging, including whether efficacy beliefs or reactance modify the relationship between HWL responses and subsequent smoking cessation behavior. Four waves of data were analyzed from prospective cohorts of smokers in Australia and Canada (n = 7,120 observations) over a period of time after implementation of more prominent, pictorial HWLs. Three types of HWL responses were studied: psychological threat responses (i.e., thinking about risks from smoking), forgoing cigarettes due to HWLs, and avoiding HWLs. The results from Generalized Estimating Equation models indicated that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance were significantly associated with greater psychological threat responses to HWLs. Similar results were found for models predicting forgoing behavior, although response efficacy was inversely associated with it. Only response efficacy was significantly associated with avoiding HWLs, showing a positive relationship. Higher self-efficacy and stronger responses to HWLs, no matter the type, were associated with attempting to quit in the follow-up period; reactance was unassociated. No statistically significant interactions were found. These results suggest that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance are associated with some stronger responses to fear-arousing HWL responses; however, these HWL responses appear no less likely to lead to cessation attempts among smokers with different levels of self-efficacy to quit, of response efficacy beliefs, or of trait reactance against attempts to control their behavior. PMID:27135826

  17. Modelling inorganic and organic biocide leaching from CBA-amine (Copper–Boron–Azole) treated wood based on characterisation leaching tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulation of the leaching behaviour of treated wood is the most pertinent and less expensive method for the prediction of biocides' release in water. Few studies based on mechanistic leaching models have been carried out so far. In this work, a coupled chemistry-mass transport model is developed for simulating the leaching behaviour of inorganic (Cu, B) and organic (Tebuconazole) biocides from CBA-amine treated wood. The model is based on experimental investigations (lab-scale leaching tests coupled with chemical and structural analysis). It considers biocides' interactions with wood solid components and with extractives (literature confirmed reactions), as well as transport mechanisms (diffusion, convection) in different compartments. Simulation results helped at identifying the main fixation mechanisms, like (i) direct complexation of Cu by wood-phenolic and -carboxylic sites (and not via monoethanolamine; complex) on lignin and hemicellulose and strong dependence on extractives' nature, (ii) pH dependent binding of tebuconazole on polarized -OH moieties on wood. The role of monoethanolamine is to provide a pore-solution pH of about 7.5, when copper solubility is found to be weakest. The capability of the developed model to simulate the chemical and transport behaviour is the main result of this study. Moreover, it proved that characterization leaching tests (pH dependency and dynamic tests), combined with appropriate analytical methods are useful experimental tools. Due to its flexibility for representing and simulating various leaching conditions, chemical-transport model developed could be used to further simulate the leaching behaviour of CBA treated wood at larger scales. - Highlights: • Biocide and extractives leaching from ammonia-CBA treated wood were modelled. • The chemical-transport model identifies the main fixation/solubilisation mechanisms. • The model describes well the results of equilibrium and dynamic leaching tests. • Cu is

  18. Synthesis and biocidal activity of modified poly(vinyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Refaie Kenawy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized polymers and their polymer nature give them more advantages than the corresponding small molecules. In this respect, polymeric ammonium and phosphonium salts were prepared by chemical modifications of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA aiming to explore their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The modifications were performed by chloroacetylation with chloroacetyl chloride. Incorporation of the ammonium and phosphonium salts was conducted by the reaction of chloroacetylated poly(vinyl alcohol (CPVA with triethylamine (TEA, triphenylphosphine (TPP, and tributylphosphine (TBP. The antimicrobial activity of the polymers against variety of test microorganisms was examined by the cut plug and viable cell counting methods of shake cultures of 10 times dilute nutrient broth and Sabouraud’s media, seeded with the test microorganisms. It was found that the immobilized polymers exhibited antimicrobial activity against the Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sp. and Salmonella typhi and Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and B. cereus and the dermatophyte fungus (Trichophyton rubrum. The growth inhibition of the test microorganisms (ratio of surviving cell number, M/C varied according to the composition of the active group in the polymer and the test organism. It increased by increasing the concentration of the polymer. Triphenyl phosphonium salt of the modified poly(vinyl alcohol exhibited the most biocidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria after 24 h.

  19. One-pot facile green synthesis of biocidal silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudrat Hazarika, Shabiha; Gupta, Kuldeep; Shamin, Khan Naseem Ahmed Mohammed; Bhardwaj, Pushpender; Boruah, Ratan; Yadav, Kamlesh K.; Naglot, Ashok; Deb, P.; Mandal, M.; Doley, Robin; Veer, Vijay; Baruah, Indra; Namsa, Nima D.

    2016-07-01

    The plant root extract mediated green synthesis method produces monodispersed spherical shape silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a size range of 15–30 nm as analyzed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. The material showed potent antibacterial and antifungal properties. Synthesized AgNPs display a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at 420 nm in UV–Vis spectroscopy. X-ray diffractometer analysis revealed the crystalline and face-centered cubic geometry of in situ prepared AgNPs. Agar well diffusion and a colony forming unit assay demonstrated the potent biocidal activity of AgNPs against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas diminuta and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Intriguingly, the phytosynthesized AgNPs exhibited activity against pathogenic fungi, namely Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus versicolor and Candida albicans. Scanning electron microscopy observations indicated morphological changes in the bacterial cells incubated with silver nanoparticles. The genomic DNA isolated from the bacteria was incubated with an increasing concentration of AgNPs and the replication fidelity of 16S rDNA was observed by performing 18 and 35 cycles PCR. The replication efficiency of small (600 bp) and large (1500 bp) DNA fragments in the presence of AgNPs were compromised in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that the Thalictrum foliolosum root extract mediated synthesis of AgNPs could be used as a promising antimicrobial agent against clinical pathogens.

  20. A Study on Physical Education Teachers: The Correlation between Self-Efficacy and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between self-efficacy and job satisfaction among the physical education teachers. The study was carried out in correlational survey model and the study sample was made up by 306 physical education teachers who worked in different geographical regions of Turkey. The data were assessed using SPSS…

  1. ICT Competence and Lecturers' Job Efficacy: A Study of Two Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Charles P.

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to establish the influence of ICT competence on lecturers' job efficacy in two universities in Nigeria. The sample of the study consisted of 500 university teachers randomly sampled from a population of 1,795 teachers. The results of the study revealed that male and female lecturers did not differ significantly in their level of…

  2. Spectral, magnetic, biocidal screening, DNA binding and photocleavage studies of mononuclear Cu(II) and Zn(II) metal complexes of tricoordinate heterocyclic Schiff base ligands of pyrazolone and semicarbazide/thiosemicarbazide based derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, N.; Selvan, A.; Manisankar, P.

    2010-07-01

    We depict the synthesis and characterization of copper(II) and zinc(II) coordination compounds of 4-(3',4'-dimethoxybenzaldehydene)2-3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-semicarbazone ( 1a), 4-(3',4'-dimethoxybenzaldehydene)2-3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-thiosemicarbazone ( 1b), 4-(3'-hydroxy-4'-nitrobenzaldehydene)2-3-dimeth yl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-semicarbazone ( 1c) and 4-(3'-hydroxy-4'-nitrobenzal dehydene)2-3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-thiosemicarbazone ( 1d). All the remote compounds have the general composition [ML 2] (M = Cu(II) and Zn(II)); L = Schiff base ( 1a- 1d). All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, IR, 1H NMR, UV-vis, ESI-Mass, magnetic susceptibility measurements, cyclic voltammetric measurements, and EPR spectral studies. It has been originated that the Schiff bases with Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions form mononuclear complexes on 1:2 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry. Distorted octahedral environment is suggested for the metal complexes. The conductivity data confirm the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes. The interaction of CuL 21a- 1d complexes with CT DNA was investigated by spectroscopic, electrochemical and viscosity measurements. Results suggest that the copper complexes bind to DNA via an intercalative mode. Moreover, the complexes have been found to promote the photocleavage of plasmid DNA pBR322 under irradiation at 365 nm. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes were screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities against different species of pathogenic fungi and bacteria and their biopotency has been discussed.

  3. Outcomes of usual chiropractic, harm & efficacy, the ouch study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Bruce F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adverse events occur during chiropractic treatment. However, because of these studies design we do not know the frequency and extent of these events when compared to sham treatment. The principal aims of this study are to establish the frequency and severity of adverse effects from short term usual chiropractic treatment of the spine when compared to a sham treatment group. The secondary aim of this study is to establish the efficacy of usual short term chiropractic care for spinal pain when compared to a sham intervention. Methods One hundred and eighty participants will be randomly allocated to either usual chiropractic care or a sham intervention group. To be considered for inclusion the participants must have experienced non-specific spinal pain for at least one week. The study will be conducted at the clinics of registered chiropractors in Western Australia. Participants in each group will receive two treatments at intervals no less than one week. For the usual chiropractic care group, the selection of therapeutic techniques will be left to the chiropractors' discretion. For the sham intervention group, de-tuned ultrasound and de-tuned activator treatment will be applied by the chiropractors to the regions where spinal pain is experienced. Adverse events will be assessed two days after each appointment using a questionnaire developed for this study. The efficacy of short term chiropractic care for spinal pain will be examined at two week follow-up by assessing pain, physical function, minimum acceptable outcome, and satisfaction with care, with the use of the following outcome measures: Numerical Rating Scale, Functional Rating Index, Neck Disability Index, Minimum Acceptable Outcome Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, and a global measure of treatment satisfaction. The statistician, outcome assessor, and participants will be blinded to treatment allocation. Trial

  4. Structure, tribocorrosion and biocide characterization of Ca, P and I containing TiO2 coatings developed by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Viteri, V. Sáenz; Bayón, R.; Igartua, A.; Barandika, G.; Moreno, J. Esteban; Peremarch, C. Pérez-Jorge; Pérez, M. Martínez

    2016-03-01

    In hip joint implants, in particular in the stems, wear-corrosion effects can accelerate the degradation of the biomaterial. The lack of osseointegration and the risk of contracting implant-associated infections may be other reasons for a premature failure of the implant. In this work, TiO2 coatings have been developed by means of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique in order to achieve wear-resistant hard coatings with osseointegration ability and biocide characteristics. During the PEO process, elements that favor cell growth, like Ca and P, were introduced into the coating. With the purpose of providing the coating with antibacterial properties iodine was added like biocide agent. The microstructure and chemical composition of the developed coatings were analyzed in order to see if the surface of the films was suitable for the cell attachment. The effect of wear-corrosion synergy was studied by means of tribocorrosion tests. Finally, the biocide capacity of iodine against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was analyzed through bacterial adhesion tests. High wear and corrosion resistance was shown in one of the developed coatings. The achieved surface microstructures seem to be appropriate to improve the osseointegration with proper pore size and porosity index. The antibacterial capacity of iodine was confirmed for S. epidermidis.

  5. The Effect of Teacher's Assistance on Malaysian Rural L Writing Self-efficacy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyana Jalaluddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to explore the Malaysian rural learners self-efficacy in writing after assistance given by a teacher. The social cognitive theory aid socio-cultural theory are used as the theoretical framework to pursue the discussion on the effects of teacher’s assistance on learners writing self-efficacy. A case study approach is adopted where three learners and a teacher were chosen from a form four class through purposive sampling. Learnei-s’ Titing self-efficacy is evaluated using a writing self-efficacy scale adapted from Bottomley. Henk and Melnick (1998 and also classroom observation. Wang and Pape (2007 categories were used as guidelines to analyze observation data in order to understand the participants self-efficacy phenomena in their learning to write. Overall, this study places a heavy emphasis on the perceptions and actions of the selected form four learners and teacher through non-participant classroom observations, interviews with each learner and teacher.

  6. Open, multicenter study to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of Echinaforce Forte tablets in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Ronald; Büechi, Samuel; Suter, Andy

    2006-01-01

    This open, multicenter study investigated the tolerability and efficacy of a new tablet formulation of Echinacea purpurea extract (Echinaforce Forte; A. Vogel, Bioforce AG, Roggwil, Switzerland) in 80 subjects actively involved in sports. Most investigators (97.5%) rated the treatment as having "very good" or "good" tolerability. About 75% of patients and investigators rated its efficacy during a common cold as "very good" or "good," and 71% of subjects were free of cold episodes. This study is the first to suggest that Echinaforce is effective in the prophylaxis, as well as the treatment, of the common cold in persons who actively participate in sports. PMID:17142219

  7. Comparison of the efficacy of olopatadine and fexofenadine in chronic idiopathic urticaria patients: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Otsuka, Atsushi; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Olopatadine is one of the second-generation H1 antihistamines that were used for treating allergic disorders initially in Asia, and now also in Western countries. Whereas several trials compared the efficacy on chronic urticaria among second-generation H1 antihistamines, no study has directly compared the clinical efficacy between olopatadine and other H1 antihistamines in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). In this study, we address this issue for the first time and conclude that olopatadine is a good candidate for the treatment of CIU. PMID:25592003

  8. Learning Strategies and Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Academic Performance: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research supports the idea that differences in academic performance among students are largely due to their different learning and study strategies. The strategies, in turn, affect the self-efficacy of the students. Two hundred university students were recruited to participate in this study by completing a revised Chinese version of the…

  9. A STUDY OF EFFICACY OF TOPICAL INSULIN THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mahidhar Reddy; Ashika Reddy; Rishita

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds are an economic burden to the patient as they put him out of work and consume quality working days. Local insulin therapy is an innovative method in wound care which accelerates wound healing by increasing angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation. This study aims to evaluate its efficacy. OBJECTIVES: To study the eff...

  10. Examining Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy in a Preservice Social Studies Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Starker, Tehia V.; Salyers, Beth

    2012-01-01

    In a preexperimental study of preservice practitioners' professional dispositions, we examined the relationship between an innovative culturally responsive teaching model in a social studies methods course and teacher candidates' culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy. Findings indicate preservice teachers exposed to an in-depth culturally…

  11. Essential Oils of Plants as Biocides against Microorganisms Isolated from Cuban and Argentine Documentary Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Sofía; Valdés, Oderlaise; Vivar, Isbel; Lavin, Paola; Guiamet, Patricia; Battistoni, Patricia; Gómez de Saravia, Sandra; Borges, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products obtained from plants with biocidal activity represent an alternative and useful source in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage, without negative environmental and human impacts. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against microorganisms associated with the biodeterioration of documentary heritage. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the agar diffusion method against 4 strains of fungi and 6 bacterial strains isolated from repositories air and documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba and the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata, Argentina. Anise and garlic oils showed the best antifungal activity at all concentrations studied, while oregano oil not only was effective against fungi tested but also prevented sporulation of them all. Orange sweet and laurel oils were ineffective against fungi. Clove, garlic, and oregano oils showed the highest antibacterial activity at 25% against Enterobacter agglomerans and Streptomyces sp., while only clove and oregano oils were effective against Bacillus sp. at all concentrations studied. This study has an important implication for the possible use of the natural products from plants in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage. PMID:23762760

  12. A social work study on relationship between coping approaches and general self-efficacy scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Poorkord

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on relationship between coping approaches and general self-efficacy scale among 67 teenagers aged 13-15 who attended guided schools in city of Najaf-Abad, Esfahan, Iran using a cluster random selection. Students were requested to fill in two questionnaires of Coping Strategies Scale-Revised (CSSR and General Self- Efficacy Scale (GSES. The collected data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and stepwise linear regression techniques. The results indicate that effort has a positive correlation re-evaluation, planful problem-solving, Emotion-focused coping (P<0.01 and Active coping (P<0.05. In addition innovation maintains a positive relationship with restraint, emotion-focused coping and re-evaluation (P<0.01 and it has a negative relationship with avoidance coping (P<0.05. In our study, people with higher level of efficacy use planful problem-solving.

  13. Enhanced biocidal activities of Citrullus colocynthis aqueous extracts by green nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shawky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Synthesis of metal nanoparticles is an attractive research area for their divers and potential implications in the field of nanomedicine. Recently, production of nanoparticles by biosynthetic method employing live plant or plant extract has emerged a simple and viable alternative to traditional methods. In the present study the biocidal; antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and larvicidal activities of greenly synthesized silver nanoparticles (SNPs in aqueous extracts (AEs of Citrullus colocynthis were investigated. SNPs Formed in C. colocynthis AEs were spherical and homogenous and their average mean sizes were 19.267 nm, 16.578 nm, 13.376.nm and 7.398 nm in AEs of fruits, seeds, leaves and roots respectively. The biosynthesized SNPs greatly enhanced the activities of C. colocynthis AEs. It showed  a significant inhibitory action against different bacterial species; Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes; antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Geotricum candidum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with inhibition zones ranging from 15.1 ± 0.44 to 25.2 ± 0.37 mm. Transmitted electron microscopic (TEM analysis of the morphological changes in S. aureus and E. coli cells revealed SNPs aggregated and located non-specifically on the cell wall, also, SNPs were seen within the cell wall or the cell of bacteria. The cells became severely distorted and disrupted showing a bactericidal action. Interestingly, a size dependence of SNPs' antiviral activity was observed. We found that the SNPs/ C. colocynthis roots AEs showed the strongest antiviral activity causing 70%, 73% and 75% reduction of the Cytopathic effect (CPE of hepatitis A virus, Herpes simplex virus type I and Herpes simplex virus type II respectively. Also, the SNPs/C. colocynthis showed a significant larvicidal activity against the 3

  14. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  15. Impact of feed spacer and membrane modification by hydrophilic, bactericidal and biocidal coating on biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Araújo, Paula A.

    2012-06-01

    The influence of polydopamine- and polydopamine-. graft-poly(ethylene glycol)-coated feed spacers and membranes, copper-coated feed spacers, and commercially-available biostatic feed spacers on biofouling has been studied in membrane fouling simulators. Feed spacers and membranes applied in practical membrane filtration systems were used; biofouling development was monitored by feed channel pressure drop increase and biomass accumulation. Polydopamine and polydopamine-. g-PEG are hydrophilic surface modification agents expected to resist protein and bacterial adhesion, while copper feed spacer coatings and biocides infused in feed spacers are expected to restrict biological growth. Our studies showed that polydopamine and polydopamine-. g-PEG coatings on feed spacers and membranes, copper coatings on feed spacers, and a commercial biostatic feed spacer did not have a significant impact on feed channel pressure drop increase and biofilm accumulation as measured by ATP and TOC content. The studied spacer and membrane modifications were not effective for biofouling control; it is doubtful that feed spacer and membrane modification, in general, may be effective for biofouling control regardless of the type of applied coating. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effects of single and repeated exposure to biocidal active substances on the barrier function of the skin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Heer, C. de

    2005-01-01

    The dermal route of exposure is important in worker exposure to biocidal products. Many biocidal active substances which are used on a daily basis may decrease the barrier function of the skin to a larger extent than current risk assessment practice addresses, due to possible skin effects of repeate

  17. STUDY OF EFFICACY TOPICAL TACROLIMUS IN DIFFERENT DERMATOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayashree

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Immunological diseases of the skin are serious concern to dermatologist all over the world. Treatment of such diseases is big challenge and topical immune modulators have been proved to be effective in this. Various anti-inflammatory drugs have been used for this purpose since long with multiple adverse effects. 100 Pt. different dermatoses included in this study are atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, pyoderma gangrenosum, psoriasis, contact dermatitis, cutaneous lupus erythematous, chronic actinic dermatitis, vitiligo, lichen sclerosis dyshydrotic palmar eczema. Tacrolimus was found to be effective in the treatment of immunological skin disorder.

  18. STUDIES ON THE EFFICACY OF ALOE VERA ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karpagam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic, petroleum ether and acetone extracts of Aloe vera were screened for anti-microbial activity using the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC method. They were tested against five bacteria (Escherischia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The susceptibility of the microorganisms to the extracts in different concentrations plants were compared. The active component in the extract was determined using HPLC technique. The main aim of this study was to find anti- microbial activity of Aloe vera and to find the presence of active compounds present for the treatment of disease caused by pathogenic microorganism .

  19. Study on Efficacy of Hepatitis B Immunization in Vaccinated Beta-Thalassemia Children in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Mahmoodian Shooshtari; Saeideh Milani; Zohreh Sharifi

    2010-01-01

    Objective:In thalassemic children, HBV infection is common, thus immunization against HBV will reduce and prevent the rate of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of HBV immunization and the prevalence of HBV infection in beta-thalassemic children in Tehran. Methods:To assess the efficacy of immunization and determine the immune response of children with beta-thalassemia, sera of 99 children who had received three doses (10/20 μg) of recombinant HBV vaccine in mont...

  20. Clinical and biometrological efficacy of a hyaluronic acid-based mesotherapy product: a randomised controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Baspeyras, Martine; Rouvrais, Céline; Liégard, Laetitia; Delalleau, Alexandre; Letellier, Sandrine; Bacle, Irène; Courrech, Laetitia; Murat, Pascale; Mengeaud, Valérie; Schmitt, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Data demonstrating the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based mesotherapy for skin rejuvenation are scarce. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of non-reticulated HA-based mesotherapy on skin elasticity and complexion radiance. 55 women with cutaneous ageing signs included in the Full Analysis Set (FAS) population blindly received intradermal micro-injections (50 × 0.02 mL) of non-cross-linked HA filler with mannitol (Glytone 1, HA concentration: 14 mg/g) in one cheek and saline ph...

  1. Antifouling paint booster biocides (Irgarol 1051 and diuron) in marinas and ports of Bushehr, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Abolfazl; Molaei, Saeideh; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Abedi, Ehsan

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, antifouling paint booster biocides, Irgarol 1051 and diuron were measured in ports and marinas of Bushehr, Iran. Results showed that in seawater samples taken from ports and marinas, Irgarol was found at the range of less than LOD to 63.4ngL(-1) and diuron was found to be at the range of less than LOD to 29.1ngL(-1) (in Jalali marina). 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), as a degradation product of diuron, was also analyzed and its maximum concentration was 390ngL(-1). Results for analysis of Irgarol 1051 in sediments showed a maximum concentration of 35.4ngg(-1) dry weight in Bandargah marina. A comparison between the results of this study and those of other published works showed that Irgarol and diuron pollutions in ports and marinas of Bushehr located in the Persian Gulf were less than the average of reports from other parts of the world. PMID:26917092

  2. Mechanical performance of a biocompatible biocide soda-lime glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Esteban, S; Bartolomé, J F; Dí Az, L A; Esteban-Tejeda, L; Prado, C; López-Piriz, R; Torrecillas, R; Moya, J S

    2014-06-01

    A biocompatible soda-lime glass-ceramic in the SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO-B2O3 system containing combeite and nepheline as crystalline phases, has been obtained at 750°C by two different routes: (i) pressureless sintering and (ii) Spark Plasma Sintering. The SPS glass-ceramic showed a bending strength, Weibull modulus, and toughness similar values to the cortical human bone. This material had a fatigue limit slightly superior to cortical bone and at least two times higher than commercial dental glass-ceramics and dentine. The in vitro studies indicate that soda-lime glass-ceramic is fully biocompatible. The in vivo studies in beagle jaws showed that implanted SPS rods presented no inflammatory changes in soft tissues surrounding implants in any of the 10 different cases after four months implantation. The radiological analysis indicates no signs of osseointegration lack around implants. Moreover, the biocide activity of SPS glass-ceramic versus Escherichia coli, was found to be >4log indicating that it prevents implant infections. Because of this, the SPS new glass-ceramic is particularly promising for dental applications (inlay, crowns, etc). PMID:24667693

  3. Efficacy Study of Dolichos biflorus in the Management of Nephrotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarmistha Saha; Ramtej J Verma

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ethylene glycol is widely used as a solvent and automobile antifreeze agent. Therefore, there have been a number of cases of human exposure from accidental or intentional ingestion of antifreeze, with the kidney being the most sensitive target organ. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of seeds of Dolichos biflorus (Fabaceae), on ethylene glycol induced nephrotoxicity in adult female Wistar rats. Methods: The hydro-methanolic (30:70, v/v) extract of D. biflorus was orally administrated at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight/day along with ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v) for 28 days. The results were compared with a parallel study conducted with standard marketed drug cystone under identical dosage conditions. The ionic chemistry was measured in urine and serum. Statistical differences and linear regression analysis were performed using GraphPad prism 5 software. Results: Ethylene glycol induced a significant elevation in the creatinine, uric acid, urea levels in urine as well as in serum and urinary electrolytes (sodium and potassium) excretion levels. D. biflorus significantly (P<0.001) protected the elevated levels of urine and serum parameters. Moreover, D. biflorus shows higher renoprotective index than cystone at identical dose levels. Conclusions: These results provided an evidence of the significant protective effect of D. biflorus towards hyperuricemic and nephrotoxicity and thus can be used as potent dietary food.

  4. Possible implications of biocide accumulation in the environment on the prevalence of bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, A J; Rickard, A H; Gilbert, P

    2002-12-01

    The lethality of biocides depends upon their interaction with a number of distinct biochemical targets. This often reflects reactive chemistry for any given agent, such as thiol oxidation. Susceptibility may vary markedly between different target organisms, and changes within the more sensitive targets can alter the inhibitory effect. The multiplicity of potential targets, however, usually dictates against the development of overt resistance to concentrations used for hygienic applications. Similarly, although changes in cellular permeability toward such agents, mediated either by envelope modification or the induction of efflux-pumps may reduce susceptibility, they rarely influence the outcome of treatments at use-concentration. It has recently been proposed that chronic exposure of the environment to biocides used in a variety of commercial products might expose some microbial communities to subeffective concentrations causing emergence of resistant clones. Such resistance might relate to mutational changes in the most susceptible target or to regulatory mutants that cause the constitutive expression of certain efflux pumps. Although selection of organisms with such modifications is unlikely to influence the effectiveness of the biocides, changes in their susceptibility to third-party antibiotics can be postulated. This is particularly the case where a cellular target is shared between a biocide and an antibiotic, or where induction of efflux is sufficient to confer antibiotic resistance in the clinic. Although such linkage has been demonstrated in the laboratory in pure culture, it has not been documented in environments commonly exposed to biocides. In nature, the effects of chronic stressing with biocides are complicated by competition between microbial community members that may result in clonal expansion of naturally insusceptible clones. PMID:12483474

  5. Assessment on Biocides Bioaccumulation in Mullet Liza klunzingeri in Kuwaiti Waters, off the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. BU-Olayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocides, such as formaldehyde (HCHO, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and glutaraldehyde (C5H8O2 that are commonly used in thermal, desalination and power plants and industries were tested on the commercially important mullet fish, Liza klunzingeri to determine the environmental contamination in the stressed ecosystem of Kuwait Bay sites. Multi-factor Probit analysis toxicity tests (96 h on L. klunzingeri showed the lowest observed effective concentration (LOEC and median lethal concentration (LC50 with NaOCl (0.019 and 0.027 µg Lˉ1 followed by HCHO (0.058 and 0.157 µg Lˉ1 and C5H8O2 (0.056 and 0.072 µg Lˉ1. Site-wise analysis in the absence of feed showed high biocides toxicity in L. klunzingeri reared in seawater from Site I when compared to Sites II-III. Experiments were conducted (2-9 months by rearing fish separately in seawater collected from three Kuwait Bay sites to test the bio-accumulated toxicity levels at LOEC of biocides fed fish using Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR calculation. The lowest FCR was observed in fish fed with biocides in the sequence of NaOCl (0.40-1.1 followed by C5H8O2 (0.91-1.2 and HCHO (0.92-1.3 as well as with fish reared in seawater from Site I followed by Site II and Site III. High FCR was recorded in control (1.2-1.6 without the addition of biocides. These results exemplify the use of L. klunzingeri as an indicator species and may characterize a better quantification of biocides bioaccumulation using FCR calculation in mullet fish.

  6. PROSPECTIVE CLASSROOM TEACHERS' SELF EFFICACY BELIEFS IN MATHEMATICS TEACHING: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin, Tugba; ÖÇAL, Mehmet Fatih

    2010-01-01

    Improving mathematics teaching and as a consequence of it, developing positive attitude towards mathematics in students have gained importance in recent years. In this respect, classroom teachers' beliefs about mathematics teaching are significant. Main purpose of this study was to determine the self efficacy beliefs of senior classroom teaching department students in mathematics teaching and the reasons behind their beliefs. This study was a qualitative case study. Sample of the study was co...

  7. Effects of antifouling biocides to the germination and growth of the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Maritime Organisation's (IMO) ban on the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has inevitability increased the use of old fashioned antifoulants and/or the development of new paints containing 'booster biocides'. These newer paints are intended to be environmentally less harmful, however the broader environmental effects of these 'booster biocides' are poorly known. Germination and growth inhibition tests using the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of four new antifouling biocides in relation to tributyltin-oxide (TBTO). Each of the biocides significantly inhibited germination and growth of Hormosira banksii spores. Toxicity was in increasing order: diuron < zineb < seanine 211 < zinc pyrithione < TBTO. However, the lack of knowledge on partitioning in the environment makes it difficult to make a full assessment on whether the four biocides tested offer an advantage over organotin paints in terms of environmental impact

  8. Math and Science Pursuits: A Self-Efficacy Intervention Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Elizabeth D.; Porter, Sarah H.; Israel, Tania; Brown, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared two interventions to increase math self-efficacy among undergraduate students. Ninety-nine first-year undergraduate students participated in an intervention involving performance accomplishment or an intervention combining performance accomplishment and belief-perseverance techniques in which participants constructed a…

  9. Spinal cord stimulation in chronic intractable angina pectoris : A randomized, controlled efficacy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, RWM; DeJongste, MJL; Staal, MJ; van Gilst, WH; Lie, KI

    1998-01-01

    Background Spinel cord stimulation is known to be a successful treatment for chronic intractable angina pectoris. its effect may be anti-ischemic. It is uncertain if the clinical effect is partly caused by a placebo effect of surgery For implantation of a stimulator. In this study, clinical efficacy

  10. Exploring the Feasibility and Efficacy of a Telehealth Stroke Self-Management Programme: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Huijbregts, Maria P.J.; McEwen, Sara; Taylor, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Moving On after STroke (MOST) is an established self-management programme for persons with stroke and their care partners. Through 18 sessions over 9 weeks, each including discussion and exercise, participants learn about goal-setting, problem-solving, exercise, and community-reintegration skills. This study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of telehealth delivery of MOST.

  11. Self-Efficacy and the First-Year University Student's Authority of Knowledge: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Anne M.

    2005-01-01

    Interviews with a small group of first-year university students assessed perceived self-efficacy in the domain of the ability to locate information in two different research contexts. The study paid particular attention to differences between female and male participant responses. Directions emerged for further research into the relationship…

  12. Exercise Self-Efficacy and Perceived Wellness among College Students in a Basic Studies Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Cara L.; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Hritz, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    University basic studies courses provide a valuable opportunity for facilitating the knowledge, skills, and beliefs that develop healthy behaviors to last a lifetime. Belief in one's ability to participate in physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, is a psychological construct that has had a documented impact on physical activity. Although…

  13. 21 CFR 201.200 - Disclosure of drug efficacy study evaluations in labeling and advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of drug efficacy study evaluations in labeling and advertising. 201.200 Section 201.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Commissioner of Food and Drugs from the National Academy of Sciences (1969).” As the report notes, this...

  14. 77 FR 43337 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Certain Prescription Drugs Offered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Hydrocortisone Acetate and Pramoxine Hydrochloride] Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation... gastrointestinal disorders, and offered an opportunity for hearing regarding its conclusion (48 FR 20495, May 6...-interest to A.H. Robins Co.'s hearing request. A Federal Register notice issued on June 8, 2011 (76...

  15. Comparative efficacy of eptifibatide and abciximab in primary angioplasty study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Jayasinghe

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Rohan Jayasinghe1 Matias Yudi1 Sanjay Jayasinghe21Cardiology Department, Gold Coast Hospital, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; 2Centre for Immunisation Research, Sydney, AustraliaBackground: Primary percutaneous intervention is the safest and most effective treatment modality for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI in centers where catheterization facilities exist. Intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy during the procedures has been proven to provide added benefits. For the two agents, abciximab and eptifibatide, commonly used in this context, there is only limited comparative data available for the clinicians. Hitherto, there is no data published from the Asia–Pacific region on this topic.Method: A retrospective comprehensive analysis was carried out, comparing patients who were treated with abciximab (n = 125 and eptifibatide (n = 125 during primary angioplasty over a 3-year period. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. The other outcome measures studied include MI, stroke, blood transfusion, contrast nephropathy, significant bleeding, and vascular complications. A comparative cost analysis was carried out to ascertain the average overall differential cost.Results: In-hospital mortality, MI, stroke, blood transfusion, contrast nephropathy, significant bleeding, and vascular complication were observed at a higher rate in the patients who were treated with abciximab. However, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Due to the higher cost per unit and longer hospital stay, therapy with abciximab costs more than that with eptifibatide.Conclusions: Both abciximab and eptifibatide are safe and effective adjunct therapeutic agents in the setting of primary angioplasty. However, there is a trend toward higher adverse event with the former agent that was not statistically significant. Therapy with abciximab costs more per patient.Keywords: abciximab, eptifibatide, PCI, STEMI

  16. Rapid method for determining the sensitivity of sulphate-reducing bacteria to biocides.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, A.; Battersby, N; Stewart, D.

    1984-01-01

    The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of a biocide is usually determined by adding it in various concentrations to a suitable growth medium which is then inoculated with the test bacterium. These cultures are then observed for up to 28 days for growth of the organism as shown by its production of black ferrous sulphide. A method has been developed whereby the MIC of a biocide can be found within 4 days. Instead of noting ferrous sulphide production, this new method measures changes in: 1...

  17. Comparative Virucidal Efficacy of Seven Disinfectants Against Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus, Surrogates of Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, William; Mauroy, Axel; Farnir, Frederic; Thiry, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and can be transmitted either by person-to-person contact or by consumption of contaminated food. A knowledge of an efficient disinfection for both hands and food-contact surfaces is helpful for the food sector and provides precious information for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seven disinfectants belonging to different groups of biocides (alcohol, halogen, oxidizing agents, quaternary ammonium compounds, aldehyde and biguanide) on infectious viral titre and on genomic copy number. Due to the absence of a cell culture system for HuNoV, two HuNoV surrogates, such as murine norovirus and feline calicivirus, were used and the tests were performed in suspension, on gloves and on stainless steel discs. When, as criteria of efficacy, a log reduction >3 of the infectious viral titre on both surrogates and in the three tests is used, the most efficacious disinfectants in this study appear to be biocidal products B, C and D, representing the halogens, the oxidizing agents group and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde, respectively. In addition, these three disinfectants also elicited a significant effect on genomic copy number for both surrogate viruses and in all three tests. The results of this study demonstrate that a halogen compound, oxidizing agents and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde are advisable for HuNoV disinfection of either potentially contaminated surfaces or materials in contact with foodstuffs. PMID:26445948

  18. A Study for Determining Computer Programming Students' Attitudes Towards Programming and Their Programming Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZYURT, Özcan; Özyurt, Hacer

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at examining computer programming students’ attitudes towards programming and their programming self-efficacy as well as the relationship between them. The study was conducted in a university located in the north of Turkey in the spring semester of the 2013-2014 academic year. The research sample consisted of 325 students studying in three different Computer Programming programs of the Department of Computer Technologies affiliated to a vocational school of the above-mentione...

  19. Adaptation Of Web Users Self-Efficacy Scale (Wuse) to Turkish: Validity and Rehability Study

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUN, Taner; Palancı, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to adopt Web Users Self-Efficacy Scale (WUSE) developed by Eachus & Cassidy (2006) to Turkish and analyze its validity and reliability. A total of 706 students studying at Karadeniz Technical University (KTU), Gazi University (GU), Sakarya University (SU) and Kırıkkale University (KU) participated in the study. Validity and reliability analyses were done after completing linguistic equivalency and its appropriateness to Turkish. For the structural validity “Explorator...

  20. Social Work Professionals’ Emotional Intelligence, Locus Of Control And Role Efficacy: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sanjay K.

    2006-01-01

    The principal objective of the study was to study social work professionals psychologically. This study was conducted on a sample of 178 participants. The findings depict role efficacy to be associated positively with emotional intelligence and internal locus of control, but negatively with external locus of control. Similarly, emotional intelligence was found to be associated positively with internality, but negatively related to externality. The findings also indicated that emotional intell...

  1. Study of efficacy, safety and cardiotocographic changes during epidural analgesia with ropivacaine in labour

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Jyoti; Gandhi, Mansi U; Bhavsar, Mrugank M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidural analgesia during labour provides effective pain relief along with better maternal and neonatal outcome. Our aim of the study is to check safety and efficacy of Ropivacaine during labour analgesia. We have also compared cardiotocographic changes in labour with versus without epidural analgesia.Material & Methods: 60 Antenatal cases in between 37-41 weeks of pregnancy in active labour were selected for study. They were randomly divided into 2 groups: Study Group (Group-...

  2. Occurrence of antifouling biocides in the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K; Ferrer, I; Hernando, M D; Fernández-Alba, A R; Marcé, R M; Borrull, F; Barceló, D

    2001-05-01

    summer where the boating activity is also higher. This paper shows for the first time that the contamination by the new antifouling pesticides in Spanish coastline, basically marinas and fishing harbours, is permanent along the whole calendar year. So, preventive actions by the harbour authorities will be needed in the near future in order to monitor and control the levels and effects of the new antifouling biocides in the marine environment. PMID:11424731

  3. Risk assessment of herbicides and booster biocides along estuarine continuums in the Bay of Vilaine area (Brittany, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caquet, Th; Roucaute, M; Mazzella, N; Delmas, F; Madigou, C; Farcy, E; Burgeot, Th; Allenou, J-P; Gabellec, R

    2013-02-01

    A 2-year study was implemented to characterize the contamination of estuarine continuums in the Bay of Vilaine area (NW Atlantic Coast, Southern Brittany, France) by 30 pesticide and biocide active substances and metabolites. Among these, 11 triazines (ametryn, atrazine, desethylatrazine, desethylterbuthylazine, desisopropyl atrazine, Irgarol 1051, prometryn, propazine, simazine, terbuthylazine, and terbutryn), 10 phenylureas (chlortoluron, diuron, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea, fenuron, isoproturon, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, linuron, metoxuron, and monuron), and 4 chloroacetanilides (acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and metazachlor) were detected at least once. The objectives were to assess the corresponding risk for aquatic primary producers and to provide exposure information for connected studies on the responses of biological parameters in invertebrate sentinel species. The risk associated with contaminants was assessed using risk quotients based on the comparison of measured concentrations with original species sensitivity distribution-derived hazardous concentration values. For EU Water Framework Directive priority substances, results of monitoring were also compared with regulatory Environmental Quality Standards. The highest residue concentrations and risks for primary producers were recorded for diuron and Irgarol 1051 in Arzal reservoir, close to a marina. Diuron was present during almost the all survey periods, whereas Irgarol 1051 exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with highest concentrations recorded in June and July. These results suggest that the use of antifouling biocides is responsible for a major part of the contamination of the lower part of the Vilaine River course for Irgarol 1051. For diuron, agricultural sources may also be involved. The presence of isoproturon and chloroacetanilide herbicides on some dates indicated a significant contribution of the use of plant protection products in

  4. Mathematics: Self-Efficacy, Identity, and Achievement among African American Males from the High School Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Calvin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity to mathematics achievement among African American males from High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). Subsequently, the extent to which mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity accounted for low and…

  5. A comparative study of efficacy and safety of flupirtine versus piroxicamin patients with low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrish Sharma; Manjunath SM; Nagesh Raju G; Dharmaraj B; MR, Nagendra Gowda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal symptom caused by a variety of disorders that affect the lumbar spine. The most frustrating aspect in the treatment of low back pain is that there is and ldquo;no magic bullets and rdquo;. The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of flupirtine versus piroxicam in patients with back pain. Methods: This was prospective, open labeled, randomized, comparative clinical study conducted by the Departments Orthopedics...

  6. A Study on Primary School English Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Güven, Selvin; Mersin Üniversitesi, Yabancı Diller Yüksekokulu; Çakır, Özler; Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not primary school English language teachers’ self–efficacy beliefs changed according to the variables of (a) the department graduated, (b) taking a course about teaching English to children, (c) taking an in-service training, and (d) experience. The descriptive study was conducted with 266 English language teachers working for the public primary schools in the villages and the city center of Mersin in Turkey in 2004. Two data colle...

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Propofol Sedation During Urgent Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy – A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubičić, Neven; Supanc, Vladimir; Roić, Goran; Sharma, Mirella

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate both the efficacy and safety of sedation with propofol during urgent therapeutic gastroscopy in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This prospective study included a total of 110 patients. Propofol was administered intravenously at the starting dose of 1 mg/kg body weight and was followed by repeated doses. Oxygen saturation and heart rate were monitored by pulse oxymetry. The mean dose of propofol administered was 161 49 mg....

  8. Therapeutic Efficacy of Misoprostol versus Ethacridine Lactate in Second Trimester Abortion – Randomised Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kruti Deliwala; Hiral Shah; Rupa Vyas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abortion is a major health and social issue in our country .Techniques for abortions are highly varied in different areas of country. Present study is to compare newer abortificient misoprostol versus traditionally used ethacridine lactate method. Objective: To observe the efficacy and safety of misoprostol as a second trimester abortificient and to compare it with ethacridine lactate. Methods: This is a prospective study of 100 women with 12 – 20 weeks of gestation. Inclusio...

  9. The Biocide Triclosan Selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Mutants That Overproduce the SmeDEF Multidrug Efflux Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Patricia; Moreno, Eduardo; Jose L Martinez

    2005-01-01

    The possibility that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia mutants overexpressing the multidrug resistance pump SmeDEF is analyzed. Five out of 12 triclosan-selected mutants were less susceptible to antibiotics than the wild-type strain and overproduced SmeDEF. Results are discussed in relation to current debates on the potential selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by household biocides.

  10. Efficacy of Indian polyvalent snake antivenoms against Sri Lankan snake venoms: lethality studies or clinically focussed in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduwage, Kalana; Silva, Anjana; O'Leary, Margaret A; Hodgson, Wayne C; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2016-01-01

    In vitro antivenom efficacy studies were compared to rodent lethality studies to test two Indian snake antivenoms (VINS and BHARAT) against four Sri Lankan snakes. In vitro efficacy was tested at venom concentrations consistent with human envenoming. Efficacy was compared statistically for one batch from each manufacturer where multiple vials were available. In binding studies EC50 for all VINS antivenoms were less than BHARAT for D. russelii [553 μg/mL vs. 1371 μg/mL;p = 0.016), but were greater for VINS antivenoms compared to BHARAT for N. naja [336 μg/mL vs. 70 μg/mL;p viper and 357 μg/mL vs. 6906μg/mL (p Saw-scaled viper. Only VINS antivenom neutralized in vitro neurotoxicity of krait venom. Both antivenoms partially neutralized cobra and didn't neutralize Russell's viper neurotoxicity. Lethality studies found no statistically significant difference in ED50 values between VINS and BHARAT antivenoms. VINS antivenoms appeared superior to BHARAT at concentrations equivalent to administering 10 vials antivenom, based on binding and neutralisation studies. Lethality studies were inconsistent suggesting rodent death may not measure relevant efficacy outcomes in humans. PMID:27231196

  11. Leaching of biocides from building facades: Upscaling of a local two-region leaching model to the city scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, S.; Rota, C.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Facades are protected by paints that contain biocides as protection against degradation. These biocides are leached by rainfall (albeit at low concentrations). At the city scale, however, the surface area of building facades is significant, and leached biocides are a potential environmental risk to receiving waters. A city-scale biocide-leaching model was developed based on two main steps. In the first step, laboratory experiments on a single facade were used to calibrate and validate a 1D, two-region phenomenological model of biocide leaching. The same data set was analyzed independently by another research group who found empirically that biocide leachate breakthrough curves were well represented by a sum of two exponentials. Interestingly, the two-region model was found analytically to reproduce this functional form as a special case. The second step in the method is site-specific, and involves upscaling the validated single facade model to a particular city. In this step, (i) GIS-based estimates of facade heights and areas are deduced using the city's cadastral data, (ii) facade flow is estimated using local meteorological data (rainfall, wind direction) and (iii) paint application rates are modeled as a stochastic process based on manufacturers' recommendations. The methodology was applied to Lausanne, Switzerland, a city of about 200,000 inhabitants. Approximately 30% of the annually applied mass of biocides was estimated to be released to the environment.

  12. A STUDY OF EFFICACY OF TOPICAL INSULIN THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahidhar Reddy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wounds are an economic burden to the patient as they put him out of work and consume quality working days. Local insulin therapy is an innovative method in wound care which accelerates wound healing by increasing angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation. This study aims to evaluate its efficacy. OBJECTIVES: To study the efficacy of topical use of insulin in terms of (1 Rate of wound healing (2 Hospital stay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study carried out in a tertiary health care center in 46 patients after taking informed and written consent. All patients who were satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomised into two groups A and B. Local insulin therapy was given to group A and normal saline dressing were done to group B. Size and depth were recorded at the start of the treatment and every week thereafter during the period of study. Strict glycemic control was maintained. Results were compared at complete wound healing or at the end of 8 weeks which was earlier. RESULTS: Improvement of the wound in the form of diameter and depth is seen. Significantly increased proliferation of granulation tissue is noticed in most of the patients belonging to group A, that is who received local insulin therapy. CONCLUSION: Local insulin therapy appears to be an efficacious method in the treatment of chronic diabetic foot ulcers and is safe and effective without any systemic side effects. It significantly reduces the hospital stay

  13. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howarth, P; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Molimard, M; Devillier, P

    2011-01-01

    To cite this article: Howarth P, Malling H-J, Molimard M, Devillier P. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients. Allergy 2012; 67: 321-327. ABSTRACT: Background:  The assessment of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) efficacy in the...... treatment for seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SAR) symptoms is challenging. Allergen immunotherapy differs from symptomatic therapy in that while symptomatic therapy treats patients after symptoms appear and aims to reduce symptoms, AIT is administered before symptoms are present and aims to prevent...... them. Thus, clinical studies of AIT can neither establish baseline symptom levels nor limit the enrolment of patients to those with the most severe symptoms. Allergen immunotherapy treatment effects are therefore diluted by patients with low symptoms for a particular pollen season. The objective of...

  14. Adhesion and biocides inactivation of Salmonella on stainless steel and polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cesar Tondo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The adhesion of Salmonella (S. strains to stainless steel and polyethylene and their inactivation by biocides used in food industry was investigated. Coupons of stainless steel and polyethylene were immersed in bacterial suspensions of S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Bredeney during 15, 30, and 60 minutes, and submitted to different concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, and quaternary ammonium (Quat sanitizers. Hydrophobicity of the surfaces was evaluated by contact angle measurements using the sessile drop method and bacterial adhesion was accompanied through bacterial counts and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results indicated that the three serovars of Salmonella presented similar adhesion to both materials (5.0 to 6.5 log cfu cm-2. The time of exposure did not influence the counts of adhered cells on both surfaces, however SEM revealed larger clusters of S. Enteritidis on both materials, not found for the other serovars. S. Enteritidis presented lower sessile drop angle on polyethylene, indicating hydrophilic properties of this material. The biocides were not able to inactivate all the microorganisms adhered on both surfaces. At least 1 log cfu cm-2 of all serovars tested remained viable after the exposure to different biocide concentrations. In general, higher counts of survivors were observed on polyethylene disinfected with different concentrations of biocides. S. Bredeney e S. Typhimurium were more resistant than S. Enteritidis to PAA, whilst S. Enteritidis presented smaller reduction rates to NaOCl. This last biocide was able to reduce Salmonella counts in approximately 3.0 to 4.0 log cm-2. When adhered to polyethylene, the serovars S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis were more resistant to Quat than S. Bredeney in all concentrations tested, and the numbers of S. Enteritidis remained almost unaltered. On stainless steel disinfected by Quat, S. Bredeney presented higher numbers of survivors.

  15. The effects of biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants on the endospores of Rhinosporidium seeberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseculeratne S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available No data exists on the activity of biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants on Rhinosporidium seeberi that causes rhinosporidiosis in humans and animals. On account of the inability to culture R. seeberi, in vitro , dyes were used to assess the morphological integrity and viability of biocide-treated endospores that are considered to be the infective stage of this pathogen. Evan′s Blue (EvB identifies the morphological integrity of the endospores while MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide identifies metabolic activity through its reduction by cellular dehydrogenases to microscopically visible deposits of insoluble formazan. MTT-negativity has earlier been shown to correlate with absence of growth of yeast and mycelial fungi in culture and could thus indicate the loss of viability of MTT-negative rhinosporidial endospores. Hydrogen peroxide, glutaraldehyde, chloroxylenol, chlorhexidine, cetrimide, thimerosal, 70% ethanol, iodine in 70% ethanol, 10% formalin, povidone-iodine, sodium azide and silver nitrate were tested on freshly-harvested endospores and all biocides caused metabolic inactivation with or without altered structural integrity as shown by absence of MTT-staining after 3, 24 or 36 hour after exposure, while EvB stained only the endospores treated with sodium azide, ethanol, thimerosal, chloroxylenol, glutaraldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. With clinically useful biocides - chlorhexidine, cetrimide-chlorhexidine, 70% ethanol, povidone-iodine and silver nitrate, a total period of exposure of endospores to the biocide, for seven minutes, produced metabolic inactivation of the endospores. Anti-rhinosporidial antiseptics that could be used in surgery on rhinosporidial patients include povidone-iodine in nasal packs for nasal and naso-pharyngeal surgery, chlorhexidine and cetrimide-chlorhexidine on the skin, while povidone-iodine and silver nitrate could have application in ocular rhinosporidiosis.

  16. Efficacy of a peer education program in multipliers and addresses - an evaluation study

    OpenAIRE

    Appel, Elke

    2010-01-01

    Peer education programs are regarded as an innovative and promising prevention strategy for adolescents. The adolescents are trained by adult experts in a relevant prevention topic. After the end of the training period, the adolescents become active as peer educators (multipliers) within their peer group (addressees) and hold information sessions or organize other types of projects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a peer education program for t...

  17. Multicriteria Optimization Model for the Study of the Efficacy of Skin Antiaging Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Crişan; Guido Cappare; Luciana Neamţiu; Ioana Chiorean; Liana Lupşa; Diana Crişan; Radu Badea

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the cutaneous structure after topical treatment with P63 antiaging complex, assessed with high frequency ultrasound, is studied by means of multicriteria optimization model. Due to the fact that the impact of the treatment may influence the quality of life, a medical index which measures, from this point of view, the efficacy of the treatment is given, also taking into account medical and economical aspects.

  18. Study of efficacy of the combination of carbamazepine with nootropics on cognitive processes in epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov A.V.; Opryshko V.I.

    2013-01-01

    The authors studied the efficacy of combination of carbamazepine with nootropic drugs on cognitive processes in patients with epilepsy in experiment in order to reduce the side effects of anticonvulsant therapy. Analysis of anticonvulsant effect of the combination of drugs was carried out on 36 white nonlinear rats of both sexes weighing 160-180 g by the method of maximum electroshock, and the analysis of antiamnestic effect - using a model of retrograde amnesia on 80 white adult male rats we...

  19. The efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy on chemotherapeutic extravasation ulcers: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Evren Isci; Canter, Halil I.; Mehmet Dadaci; Pergin Atilla; Ayse N Cakar; Abdullah Kecik

    2014-01-01

    Context: The extravasation of the chemotherapeutic agents is not an unusual phenomenon. Necrosis of the skin and underlying structures has been reported, depending on the cytotoxicity of the extravasating drug. Despite the presence of some antidotes, such wounds tend to enlarge with time and are likely to resist the treatment. Aims: The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on extravasation ulcers. Settings and Design: Animals were s...

  20. Loss and gain cycles? A longitudinal study about burnout, engagement and self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Llorens-Gumbau; Marisa Salanova-Soria

    2014-01-01

    The present longitudinal study (two waves), conducted on a population of 274 secondary-school teachers, expands on previous research on burnout and work engagement. Accordingly, the effect of organizational factors (obstacles, facilitators) as well as personal resources (self-efficacy) on burnout and engagement is tested longitudinally following the Social Cognitive Theory. More specifically, we test the loss and gain cycles, and reciprocal relationships concerning burnout, engagement, and se...

  1. RESULTS OF AN OPEN CLINICAL STUDY OF THE EFFICACY OF LEFLUNOMIDE IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    OpenAIRE

    I M Marusenko

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of leflunomide versus methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Subjects and methods. The study included 24 patients receiving leflunomide who underwent the determination of changes in the articular syndrome: the Ritchie index, the number of tender and swollen joints, pain, and the total activity of the disease, by using the visual analogue scale, morning stiffness in minutes. Therapeutic efficiency was evaluated by the EULAR criteria on the ba...

  2. Intraoperative Electrophysiological Studies to Predict the Efficacy of Neurolysis After Nerve Injury—Experiment in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Eldridge, Mary P.; Dzwierzynski, William W; Yan, Yu Hui; Jaradeh, Safwan; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Sanger, James R.; Matloub, Hani S.

    2008-01-01

    Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) can be used to analyze injury and recovery of nerve. This standardized study evaluates the value of CMAP analysis in predicting the long-term efficacy of neurolysis. CMAP amplitude is also used to determine the optimal extent of neurolysis. The left peroneal nerves of 30 rats were crushed. CMAPs were recorded for both crushed (left) and control (right) nerves. Fifteen rats underwent neurolysis 3 months post crush injury; the remaining 15 were sham con...

  3. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Arindam Dutta; Mala Kundabala

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC) and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Materials and Methods: A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups ...

  4. Efficacy of Thematic Units on Language and Literacy: A Collaborative Study of a Shelter Unit Intervention with Struggling First Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Suzan L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of using thematic units in small group instructional settings for struggling readers to increase oral language in the areas of receptive, expressive, and written vocabulary. This research examined the efficacy of using thematic units in small group instructional settings for struggling readers…

  5. Adult Attachment, Social Self-Efficacy, Self-Disclosure, Loneliness, and Subsequent Depression for Freshman College Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Russel, Daniel W.; Zakalik, Robyn A.

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether social self-efficacy and self-disclosure serve as mediators between attachment and feelings of loneliness and subsequent depression. Participants were 308 freshmen at a large Midwestern university. Results indicated that social self-efficacy mediated the association between attachment anxiety and feelings…

  6. Teachers' Sense of Self-Efficacy, English Proficiency, and Instructional Strategies: A Study of Nonnative EFL Teachers in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Zohreh R.; Fatahi, Azizullah

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy beliefs of nonnative English speaking (NNES) Iranian EFL teachers. EFL teachers' perceptions of their teaching efficacy in terms of personal capabilities to teach English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and their perceived English language proficiency level were examined. A modified version of the Teacher Sense of…

  7. The Study of Physical Education Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Scale of Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin ÜNLÜ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study; a scale developing study, which is about the efficacy of the Physical Education Teachers, has been constructed. In the study; primarily, the general teacher efficacy scheme determined by National Education Ministry and primary school’s Physical Education teacher efficacy scheme are used as main data for preparation of the scale. Views of the experts familiar with the issue are used as well as information included in this scheme. Prepared scale has been applied by using face to face interview method to the 92 Physical Education Teachers who teach in Aksaray and Kırşehir provinces. A reliable and valid scale has been obtained through statistic package programs after subjecting the acquired data to the reliability and validity analyses. According to factor analysis, the scale consists of 6 sub-factor and 81 items. In general, reliability coefficient for all dimension of the scale has been changed .71 to .91. It is discovered that the scale is quite reliable from the view of statistics by the outcome of the acquired reliability coefficient.

  8. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF THE DRUG STRUCTUM IN OSTEOARTHRITIS THERAPY (results of multicenlral clinical study in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Nassonova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Study of the efficacy and tolerability of Structum in pts with gonarthritis and coxarthritis during 6 months therapy. Material. Open multicentral study included off -patients of both sexes with osteoarthritis (ОЛ of knee and hip joints with obvious pain syndrome - pain in walking 30 mm and more on visual analog scale, functional Lesquene index more or equal to 4 and less or equal toll, regular NSAIDs taking for 30 days for the last 3 months, radiological I-II-III OA stage according Kellgren-Lawrence and consent of the patient for the study. Total number of pts included was 555 and 192 out of them were experimental group and 363 - controls. Pts from experimental group had Structum - three capsules in the morning and 3 capsules in the evening during meals (one capsule - 250 mg for 3 weeks, then 2 capsules in the morning and 2 in the evening for 21 weeks. Clinical examination of pts was done after the third and sixth month of the treatment. Results. During Structum therapy reliable lessening of pain syndrome in knee and hip joints, improvement of articular function, decrease of NSAIDs dosage or their full cancellation were demonstrated. It was noticed that the assessment of clinical Structum efficacy and tolerability bu physician and patient coincided. Conclusion. Structum (chondroitin sulfate is a new effective drug for treatment of osteoarthritis of knee and hip joints with high clinical efficacy and good tolerability

  9. Organophosphorous biocides reduce tenacity and cellular viability but not esterase activities in a non-target prosobranch (limpet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detecting impacts of organophosphorus biocides (OP) is facilitated by analysing “biomarkers” – biological responses to environmental insults. Understanding is hampered by studying biomarkers in isolation at different levels of biological response and limited work on ecologically-important species. We tested the relevance of esterases as biomarkers of OP-exposure in limpets (Patella vulgata), abundant prosobranchs that structure the assemblages on rocky shores through their grazing. We characterized esterases in haemolymph and tissue, and quantified their dose-dependent inhibition by chlorfenvinphos (0.1–3.0 mM) in vitro. To determine whether esterases are useful biomarkers we exposed limpets to chlorfenvinphos (0–10 μg L−1). Despite reduced tenacity (ability to stick to a surface) and haemocyte-viability, esterases remained unaffected. Tenacity was reduced by >50% at 5 μg L−1 and by 95% at 10 μg L−1, whilst haemocyte-viability was more sensitive with >40% reductions at concentrations of 0.5 μg L−1 and above. We discuss results in relation to linking sub-lethal and ecological impacts at contaminated sites. - Highlights: • We investigated if esterases are useful biomarkers of chlorfenvinphos-exposure. • Esterases in tissues of limpets (Patella vulgata) were characterized. • The dose-dependent inhibition of esterases by chlorfenvinphos was shown in vitro. • In vivo, tenacity and haemocyte-viability were reduced, but not esterase activities. - Organophosphorous biocides reduce tenacity and cellular viability but not esterase activities in the limpet, Patella vulgata

  10. Analgesic efficacy of lidocaine and multimodal analgesia for chest tube removal: A randomized trial study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Valdecy Ferreira de Oliveira; da Costa, José Madson Vidal; Cascudo, Marcelo Matos; Pinheiro, Ênio de Oliveira; Fernandes, Maria Angela Ferreira; de Araujo, Ivonete Batista

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to assess the analgesic efficacy of subcutaneous lidocaine and multimodal analgesia for chest tube removal following heart surgery. Methods: sixty volunteers were randomly allocated in two groups; 30 participants in the experimental group were given 1% subcutaneous lidocaine, and 30 controls were given a multimodal analgesia regime comprising systemic anti-inflammatory agents and opioids. The intensity and quality of pain and trait and state anxiety were assessed. The association between independent variables and final outcome was assessed by means of the Chi-squared test with Yates' correction and Fisher's exact test. Results: the groups did not exhibit significant difference with respect to the intensity of pain upon chest tube removal (p= 0.47). The most frequent descriptors of pain reported by the participants were pressing, sharp, pricking, burning and unbearable. Conclusion: the present study suggests that the analgesic effect of the subcutaneous administration of 1% lidocaine combined with multimodal analgesia is most efficacious. PMID:26625989

  11. Excellent uricosuric efficacy of benzbromarone in cyclosporin-A-treated renal transplant patients: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, R M; Bock, H A; Thiel, G

    1994-01-01

    Patients on cyclosporin A (CsA) often develop hyperuricaemia and gout. In transplant patients the use of uricosuric drugs for treating hyperuricaemia may be preferable to allopurinol because of the known interaction of the latter with azathioprine. We therefore prospectively studied the uricosuric efficacy of 100 mg benzbromarone (Bbr;Desuric) daily in 25 CsA-treated renal transplant patients with stable graft function and hyperuricaemia (> 359 mumol/l for females, > 491 mumol/l for males). Benzbromarone decreased plasma uric acid from 579 + 18 mumol/l to 313 +/- 24 mumol/l (mean +/- SEM; P 25 ml/min. Due to its excellent efficacy and lack of significant side-effects, benzbromarone appears to be preferable to allopurinol in CsA-treated renal transplant recipients with a creatinine clearance over 25 ml/min. PMID:8090336

  12. The health-enhancing efficacy of Zumba® fitness: An 8-week randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domene, Pablo A; Moir, Hannah J; Pummell, Elizabeth; Knox, Allan; Easton, Chris

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a holistic understanding of the efficacy of Zumba® fitness in a community-recruited cohort of overweight and physically inactive women by evaluating (i) its physiological effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory biomarkers and (ii) its mental health-enhancing effects on factors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Participants were randomly assigned to either engagement in one to two 1 h classes of Zumba® fitness weekly (intervention group; n = 10) or maintenance of habitual activity (control group; n = 10). Laboratory assessments were conducted pre- (week 0) and post-intervention (week 8) with anthropometric, physiological, inflammatory and HRQoL data collected. In the intervention group, maximal oxygen uptake significantly increased (P psychosocial health promotion context, our data suggest that Zumba® fitness is indeed an efficacious health-enhancing activity for adults. PMID:26571136

  13. Loratadine versus levocetirizine in chronic idiopathic urticaria: A comparative study of efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU is challenging because of its unpredictable course and negative influence on the quality of life. New treatments are being developed, but antihistaminics remain the cornerstone of the therapeutic approach. Newer generation antihistaminics such as loratadine and levocetirizine have already proved to be safe and efficacious for CIU. Objective : To choose the better drug between loratadine and levocetirizine for CIU, by comparing their efficacy and safety. Methods : A randomized, open, outdoor-based clinical study was conducted on 60 patients of CIU, to compare the two drugs. After initial clinical assessment and baseline investigations, loratadine was prescribed to 30 patients and levocetirizine to another 30 patients for four weeks. At follow-up, the patients were re-evaluated and then compared using different statistical tools. Result : The comparative study showed that the changes in differential eosinophil count (P = 0.006 and absolute eosinophil count (P = 0.003 in the levocetirizine group was statistically significant. The results of the Total Symptom Score showed better symptomatic improvement of CIU with levocetirizine as compared to loratadine. The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was also found to be less in the levocetirizine group. Conclusion : An analysis of the results of all the parameters of safety and efficacy proves the superiority of levocetirizine over loratadine for CIU.

  14. Features of microbiological behavior and biocide properties of electrosynthesized polymethylolacrylamide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolzunova, Lidia G.

    2016-05-01

    The biocide properties of an electrosynthesized of acrylamide, N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide and formaldehyde copolymer films against the Staphylococcus aureus and bacterial association extracted from seawater (marine biological organisms) were investigated. Copolymer films were stable in organic solvents, acids and alkali and insoluble in water, though capable to swelling ability. Besides, the polymer is thermally stable up to 237°C. It was established that the anti-bacterial effect of the films started to be expressed after two days and was maintained from 2 up to 45 days. It was established that the degree of polymer films toxicity depended on the polymer synthesis conditions, pre-treatment method and duration of the biological object exposure to the effect. It was shown that antiseptic properties of the polymer material under study were imparted by formaldehyde both as sorbed by the polymer and as included into the copolymer composition. The toxicological effect of the polymethylolacrylamide films under study on microorganisms can be applied as in medicine (antiseptic materials and implants) as for equipment protection from bio-fouling and bio-corrosion. Microbiological stability and sterilizing effect of electrosynthesized polymethylolacrylamide ultrafiltration membranes enables one not only to prolong the operation time of film membranes, but also to provide partial sterilization of organic solutions to be filtered. It was established that polymer waste can be utilized by means of microbial destruction. It was found that the washed out polymer induced a specific bacteria behavior consisting of a complex of reactions directed to search, capture and consume nutrients.

  15. Prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day: a WHO multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, P; Amin, M; Agarwal, A K; Greil, W; Kim, M J; Panteleyeva, G; Park, J M; Prilipko, L; Rayushkin, V; Sharma, M; Mellerup, E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day to patients with bipolar disorder or recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. METHODS: The study was carried out as a WHO multicentre study in five different psychiatric clinics: Russia (Moscow), Canada (Montreal...... recurrences. The mean 12-h standard serum lithium concentration was lower in the patients who had recurrences than in those who stayed euthymic. The results suggest that to be effective when administered every second day, lithium must be given in a dose leading to a 12-h standard serum lithium concentration...

  16. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  17. In-vitro archaeacidal activity of biocides against human-associated archaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Khelaifia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several methanogenic archaea have been detected in the human intestinal microbiota. These intestinal archaea may contaminate medical devices such as colonoscopes. However, no biocide activity has been reported among these human-associated archaea. METHODOLOGY: The minimal archaeacidal concentration (MAC of peracetic acid, chlorhexidine, squalamine and twelve parent synthetic derivatives reported in this study was determined against five human-associated methanogenic archaea including Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis and two environmental methanogens Methanobacterium beijingense and Methanosaeta concilii by using a serial dilution technique in Hungates tubes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MAC of squalamine derivative S1 was 0.05 mg/L against M. smithii strains, M. oralis, M. arboriphilicus, M. concilii and M. beijingense whereas MAC of squalamine and derivatives S2-S12 varied from 0.5 to 5 mg/L. For M. stadtmanae and M. luminyensis, MAC of derivative S1 was 0.1 mg/L and varied from 1 to ≥ 10 mg/L for squalamine and its parent derivatives S2-S12. Under the same experimental conditions, chlorhexidine and peracetic acid lead to a MAC of 0.2 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively against all tested archaea. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Squalamine derivative S1 exhibited a 10-200 higher archaeacidal activity than other tested squalamine derivatives, on the majority of human-associated archaea. As previously reported and due to their week corrosivity and their wide spectrum of antibacterial and antifungal properties, squalamine and more precisely derivative S1 appear as promising compounds to be further tested for the decontamination of medical devices contaminated by human-associated archaea.

  18. Comparative analysis of Salmonella susceptibility and tolerance to the biocide chlorhexidine identifies a complex cellular defence network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeamusFanning

    2014-08-01

    These data show that sub-lethal concentrations of chlorhexidine induce distinct changes in exposed Salmonella, and our findings provide insights into the mechanisms of action and tolerance to this biocidal agent.

  19. Are Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Social Studies Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Related to Their Learning Approaches in a Social Studies Teaching Methods Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the growing literature on learning approaches and teacher self-efficacy beliefs by examining associations between prospective elementary school teachers' learning approaches in a social studies teaching methods course and their social studies teaching efficacy beliefs. One hundred ninety-two prospective elementary…

  20. Efficacy of curcumin as an adjunct to scaling and root planning in chronic periodontitis patients: A clinical and microbiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Nagasri, M.; Madhulatha, M.; Musalaiah, S. V. V. S.; Kumar, P. Aravind; Krishna, C. H. Murali; Kumar, P. Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Curcumin is a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent with various biologic and medicinal properties. Its therapeutic applications have been studied in a variety of conditions, but only few studies have evaluated the efficacy of curcumin as local drug delivery agent and in the treatment of periodontitis. The present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the adjunctive use of curcumin with scaling/root planing as compared with scaling/root planing alone in the tr...

  1. To Study the Efficacy of Ayurvedic Dhoopan for Operation Theater Sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantkumar V. Shekokar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since Vedic period Homa-havana and Yadnya, sterilization of air by Agnihotra, sterilization of house & place around it by Dhoopan, is going on traditionally. Also it is useful in branches of Ayurveda like Shalya, Shalakya, Kaumarbhrutyat and Prasutistreeroga. Sushruta has also explained the method of treating Vrana, Vranitaagara and Shastrakarmaghruha by this method of Dhoopana. Hence present experimental study was planned to study the efficacy of Ayurvedic Dhoopana Dravya like Guggulu, Aguru, Sarjarasa and Sarshapa, added with Lavana, Nimbapatra & Ghee. After Dhoopan process swab were collected & send to laboratory for testing and significant results was obtained.

  2. Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of four commonly used biocides on the conjugative transfer of Tn916 in Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Seier-Petersen, Maria Amalie; A. Jasni; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Vigre, Håkan; Mullany, P.; Roberts, A. P.; Agersø, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Large amounts of biocides are used to reduce and control bacterial growth in the healthcare sector, food production and agriculture. This work explores the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of four commonly used biocides (ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium hypochlorite) on the conjugative transposition of the mobile genetic element Tn916. Methods Conjugation assays were carried out between Bacillus subtilis strains. The donor containing Tn916 was ...

  3. Comparative analysis of Salmonella susceptibility and tolerance to the biocide chlorhexidine identifies a complex cellular defence network

    OpenAIRE

    SeamusFanning; OrlaCondell; KristianHandler; AineSheridan; KjellSergeant; JUANWANG; JarlathNally

    2014-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is one of the most widely used biocides in health and agricultural settings as well as in the modern food industry. It is a cationic biocide of the biguanide class. Details of its mechanism of action are largely unknown. The frequent use of chlorhexidine has been questioned recently, amidst concerns that an overuse of this compound may select for bacteria displaying an altered susceptibility to antimicrobials, including clinically important anti-bacterial agents. We generat...

  4. Biocide Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus CC398 and CC30 Isolates from Pigs and Identification of the Biocide Resistance Genes, qacG and qacC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seier-Petersen, Maria Amalie; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Ingmer, Hanne;

    2015-01-01

    screened for lukPV and tst genes with PCR, and hemolytic activities were determined using an agar plate assay. Results: S. aureus isolates did not show reduced susceptibility to the biocides tested. However, the QAC resistance gene, qacG, was detected in three MRSA CC30 isolates and the qacC in one MRSA CC......30 isolate. CC30 isolates were generally more susceptible to non-beta-lactam antibiotics than CC398. Isolates generally had low hemolytic activity and none encoded PVL or TSST-1. Conclusion: The presence of qac genes in European porcine S. aureus isolates and in livestock-associated MRSA CC30 is for...

  5. [Efficacy of rasagiline in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease with motor fluctuation (azimut study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, O S; Boĭko, A N; Ivanov, A K

    2010-01-01

    An open observational 3-month study of efficacy and safety of selective MAO B inhibitor rasagiline (АZIlect) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with mоtor fluctuations on the long-term levodopa therapy (the "АZIMUT" study) has been conducted. Forty five non-demented patients with PD (mean age 64,7±8,4 years, mean duration of disease 9,5±4,0 years, mean Hoehn-Yahr stage 3,0±0,4, mean levodopa dose 673,9 mg/d) have been included in the study. All patients received rasagiline at a dose of 1 mg once daily as an adjunct to a stable anti-parkinsonian therapy. Patient's clinical state has been assessed at baseline and after 1 and 3 months of therapy. Forty two (93%) patients have completed the study. At the end of the third month of therapy, the daily off-time was decreased by 1,7 h. The ADL score (off-state) decreased by 22%, and the UPDRS-III score (on-state) decreased by 10%. The Global Clinical Improvement Scale revealed the marked improvement in 12% patients and moderate improvement in 43% patients. The severity of freezing of gait declined by 15%. Moreover, the initial severity of freezing seems to be a predictor of rasagiline clinical efficacy. The clinical effect of rasagiline steadily increased over 3 months. The fair tolerability of the drug and low rate of dyskinesias and other complications were demonstrated. In conclusion, the study has shown that rasagiline effectively reduces the off-time duration as well as the disability in off- and on-time and optimizes levodopa efficacy at the routine clinical practice setting. PMID:21389939

  6. Safety and Efficacy Study of Intramuscularly Administered Sea buckthorn (Hippophae Rhamnoides L. Oil as Depot Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI RASHID

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to assess the sub-chronic toxicity and efficacy study of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L oil administered intramuscularly in New Zealand white rabbits. Seabuckthorn oil was administered intramuscularly, at doses of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 ml/kg body weight in three groups of animals and the dose was scheduled once in a week up to seven weeks. Total antioxidant status was studied after the first intramuscular administration of oil that act as depot and provide sustained effect for prolong period of time. The clinical signs of toxicity data were collected and observed daily. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological, biochemical (AST, ALT, ALP, Uric acid, Urea and creatinine as well as histopathological parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that intramuscular seabuckthorn oil is non toxic even at higher dose level in rabbits. The studies revealed significant increase (p<0.05 in total antioxidant activity in the serum sample with increase in doses. Overall safety and tolerability profile of seabuckthorn oil administered intramuscularly is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects. The results obtained also indicates efficacy of oil in terms of total antioxidant capacity and may be used as a vehicle for sustained release formulations

  7. Long-term Efficacy of Trabeculectomy on Chinese Patients with Pigmentary Glaucoma: A Prospective Case Series Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ping Qing

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: All surgical PG eyes in this study had satisfactory IOP control 8 years after the surgery with well-preserved visual function. The long-term efficacy and safety of trabeculectomy are promising in PG patients.

  8. Biocidal action of ozone-treated polystyrene surfaces on vegetative and sporulated bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surfaces of materials can be modified to ensure specific interaction features with microorganisms. The current work discloses biocidal properties of polystyrene (PS) Petri-dish surfaces that have been exposed to a dry gaseous-ozone flow. Such treated PS surfaces are able to inactivate various species of vegetative and sporulated bacteria on a relatively short contact time. Denaturation of proteins seems likely based on a significant loss of enzymatic activity of the lysozyme protein. Characterization of these surfaces by atomic-force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals specific structural and chemical modifications as compared to untreated PS. Persistence of the biocidal properties of these treated surfaces is observed. This ozone-induced process is technically simple to achieve and does not require active precursors as in grafting.

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY AND TOLERABILITY OF TRAMADOL AND ACECLOFENAC IN TREATMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a leading cause of musculoskeletal disability in elderly patients. It is a slow evolving disorder causing degeneration of articular cartilage associated with symptoms of joint tenderness, stiffness and limitation of movement. These symptoms get more worsened with weight bearing and movement. Non-steroidal anti- inflammatory (NSAIDS drugs and often Opioid analgesics offers a symptomatic relief in the management of osteoarthritis. So, the present study is conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of Tramadol and Aceclofenac in patients of osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study is a randomized, single centered, prospective clinical study and was conducted on 140 patients. INCLUSION CRITERIA Patients of sex, aged 40-60 years, suffering with symptoms of OA of knee who are radiologically diagnosed. EXCLUSION CRITERIA  Patients 60 years of age.  Patients with a history of peptic ulcers and hypersensitivity to NSAIDs/Opioids.  Patients with history of bleeding tendencies, cirrhosis and oesophageal varices.  Patients who have previously received Tramadol or Aceclofenac for treatment of osteoarthritis. After initial clinical assessment and baseline investigations, Aceclofenac tablet was given to 70 patients and Tramadol tablet was given orally to another 70 patients for 8 weeks. At the follow up, the results were analysed and compared statistically by paired t- test, unpaired t-test, Fischer’s exact test. RESULTS Aceclofenac has shown significant change than Tramadol in efficacy parameters like Western Ontario Mac Master (WOMAC scores (p<0.0001, joint tenderness (p<0.0001, investigator assessment for disease status (p=0.01 and response to therapy (p=0.038. Incidence of adverse effects is significant with Tramadol (p=0.02. DISCUSSION Aceclofenac was found superior than Tramadol in improving the patient’s clinical condition. Aceclofenac was found to be well tolerated than Tramadol in terms of

  10. Evaluation of efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion uterofix liquid in treatment of various reproductive disorders in Cows: A field study

    OpenAIRE

    Satinder Verma; Adarsh Choudhary; Shivi Maini; K Ravikanth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid in the treatment of various reproductive disorders in cows. Materials and Methods: Based on symptoms of endometritis, anestrous, metritis, and repeat breeders, 28 cows were selected to study the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid (M/S Ayurvet Limited) in uterine infections study. Group T0 (n = 8) cows served as control group, no treatment was given to this group, Group T1 (n = 5) repeat b...

  11. Coach training can improve the self-efficacy of neonatal nurses. A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this pilot study we have investigated the impact of coach training offered to neonatal nurses on their assessment of their ability to meet the needs of the mothers and fathers. METHODS: The effect of a 3-day coaching training offered to neonatal nurses was investigated in an...... significant. CONCLUSION: Coaching can improve nurses' self-efficacy in relation to meet the needs of the mothers and fathers. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Coaching could be a method that can maximize the personal and professional potential of the staff, and prepare them for the mindful being-in-relation approach...

  12. Study Protocol to Investigate the Efficacy of Participation in Qi-Gong by Breast Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Shing Yee Lee; Siew Yim Loh; Liam Murray

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physical activity improves quality of life and reduces the risks of breast cancer up to 30 - 40 percent. Qi-Gong is a form of exercise widely acknowledged by Asian survivors as health promoting, despite a lack of research evidence. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Qi-Gong on the Quality of Life (QOL) of survivors. Methods/ Design: A total of 114 women who had been treated for stage I or II breast cancer at least 12 months previously were randomly assigned to supervi...

  13. The Efficacy of Tamsulosin In The Treatment of Ureter Lower Stones: A Prospective Randomized Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Cavit

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to determine the efficacy of tamsulosin (0.4 mg/day) as oral expulsive medical therapy in patients who were followed for distal üreter calculi at urology clinic in Elazig Public Hospital. Material and Methods: The study was continued with 102 consecutive patients; 21 female and 30 male was included in Group A (51) with a mean age of 37.2±12.6 (16-62y) and 19 female and 32 male was included in Group B (51) with a mean age of 35.5±11.7 (17-63y). Group A consisted control p...

  14. The movement towards birth : a study of childbirth self-efficacy and early labour

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Ing-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of early labour, the latency phase of labour, based on women’s experiences and ability to handle the situation. Furthermore, the aim was to perform a psychometric testing of an instrument measuring childbirth self-efficacy and to explore the relationships to women´s well-being and number of obstetric interventions and birth outcomes. Methods: In study I, a grounded theory method was used to obtain a de...

  15. Efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses: A short-term clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by utilizing natural beneficial bacteria commonly found in healthy mouths to provide a natural defense against those bacteria thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. However, data are still sparse on the probiotic action in the oral cavity. The review article on probiotics in children published by Twetman and Stecksen- Blicks in 2008 showed only one study of dental interest on probiotics in children. Aim and Objectives: The present study evaluated clinically the efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingival accumulation in children. The trial design is a double-blind parallel group, 14 days comparative study between a probiotic mouth rinse and a chlorhexidine mouth rinse, which included 45 healthy children in the age group of 6-8 years. Results: The Probiotic and Chlorhexidine groups had less plaque accumulations compared with the Control group at the end of 14 years (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. But, unlike the plaque score, there was a significant difference in the Gingival Index between the Probiotic and the Chlorhexidine groups (P = 0.009, Probiotic group being better than the Chlorhexidine group (mean = 0.2300 and 0.6805, respectively. Conclusion: The Probiotic mouth rinse was found effective in reducing plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Therefore, probiotic mouth rinse obviously has a potential therapeutic value and further long-term study is recommended to determine its efficacy.

  16. Preparation and evaluation of biocide-loaded particles to control the biofouling zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha

    OpenAIRE

    R. Costa; Aldridge, D. C.; Moggridge, G. D.

    2011-01-01

    The freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha is a powerful biofouling bivalve, which has tremendous impact on industrial facilities whose operation depends on the intensive use of freshwater, such as waterworks and power stations. The control of the pest in industrial environments remains a major challenge due to low selectivity over non-target organisms and the expense of the large quantities of biocides required. A novel delivery technique involving the encapsulation of a toxin within h...

  17. Optimization of the cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and biocides using computational techniques: Pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette;

    This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...... models. Exposure scenarios were constructed based on findings of pesticide residues in food of ordinary consumers, and assessment of dermal exposure of professional workers. PBTK simulations were carried using these scenarios....

  18. Relation between Intensity of Biocide Practice and Residues of Anticoagulant Rodenticides in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    OpenAIRE

    Geduhn, Anke; Jacob, Jens; Schenke, Detlef; Keller, Barbara; Kleinschmidt, Sven; Esther, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are commonly used to control rodent infestations for biocidal and plant protection purposes. This can lead to AR exposure of non-target small mammals and their predators, which is known from several regions of the world. However, drivers of exposure variation are usually not known. To identify environmental drivers of AR exposure in non-targets we analyzed 331 liver samples of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) for residues of eight ARs and used local parameters (perce...

  19. A study to evaluate the field efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate, with preliminary observations on the efficacy of doramectin, as anthelmintics in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Davies

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate and doramectin was evaluated under field conditions at 2 sites in the Free State Province of South Africa. The study involved 25 horses at each site, divided into 5 groups of equal size. Ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate were administered orally at doses of 0.2, 10 and 19 mg/kg respectively. Doramectin was administered by intramuscular injection at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg. Treatment efficacy was based on the mean faecal egg count reduction 14 days post treatment. At site A a faecal egg count reduction of 100 % was found after treatment with ivermectin, fenbendazole and doramectin. A 96.1 % reduction was found after treatment with pyrantel pamoate. At site B ivermectin and doramectin produced a 100 %reduction in faecal egg counts, fenbendazole produced an 80.8 % reduction and pyrantel pamoate a 94.1 %reduction. Doramectin produced a 100 %reduction in faecal egg counts at both sites, despite not being registered for use in horses. In addition, the results indicated reduced efficacy of fenbendazole at site B, which suggested benzimidazole resistance. Larval cultures showed that cyathostomes accounted for between 86 and 96 %of pre-treatment parasite burdens at both sites. Other helminths identified in the faecal samples were Strongylus spp. and Trichostrongylus axei.

  20. Developing a Measurement Tool for Assessing Physiotherapy Students' Self-Efficacy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anne; Sheppard, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine if self-efficacy can be correlated with prior academic achievement and whether self-efficacy can be an outcome measure of education. A self-efficacy instrument was developed and administered to physiotherapy students following completion of their pre-clinical theory experience. The questionnaire results…

  1. THEY ARE TRAINED TO TEACH, BUT HOW CONFIDENT ARE THEY? A STUDY OF STUDENT TEACHERSâ SENSE OF EFFICACY

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Bakar; Mohamed, S.; N. S. Zakaria

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess student teachersâ efficacy in one of the teacher training institutions in Malaysia, with specific reference to the aspects of student engagement, instructional strategies and classroom management. The sample size was 675 final-year teacher education students. The findings suggest that a majority of the respondents had a high level of teaching efficacy (M = 3.98; SD = 0.36). They were also highly efficacious in student engagement (M = 4.01; SD = 0. 41),...

  2. Efficacy and safety of azithromycin for uncomplicated typhoid fever: an open label non-comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Ghosh, Apurba; Gomber, Sunil; Mitra, Monjori; Parikh, A O

    2011-07-01

    An open-labelled, non-comparative study was conducted in 117 children aged 2-12 years to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azithromycin (20mg/ kg/day for 6 days) for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. Of the patients enrolled based on a clinical definition of typhoid fever, 109 (93.1%) completed the study.Mean (SD) of duration of fever at presentation was 9.1(4.5) days. Clinical cure was seen in 102 (93.5%) subjects, while 7 were withdrawn from the study because of clinical deterioration. Mean day of response was 3.45±1.97. BACTEC blood culture was positive for Salmonella typhi in 17/109 (15.5%) and all achieved bacteriological cure. No serious adverse event was observed. Global well being assessed by the investigator and subjects was good in 95% cases which was done at the end of the treatment. Azithromycin was found to be safe and efficacious for the management of uncomplicated typhoid fever. PMID:21555791

  3. Growth Hormone Protects the Intestine Preserving Radiotherapy Efficacy on Tumors: A Short-Term Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Caz

    Full Text Available The efficacy of radiotherapy on tumors is hampered by its devastating adverse effects on healthy tissue, particularly that of the gastrointestinal tract. These effects cause acute symptoms that are so disruptive to patients that they can lead to interruption of the radiotherapy program. These adverse effects could limit the intensity of radiation received by the patient, resulting in a sublethal dose to the tumor, thus increasing the risk of tumor resistance. The lack of an effective treatment to protect the bowel during radiation therapy to allow higher radiation doses that are lethal to the tumor has become a barrier to implementing effective therapy. In this study, we present a comparative analysis of both intestinal and tumor tissue in regard to the efficacy and the preventive impact of a short-term growth hormone (GH treatment in tumor-bearing rats as a protective agent during radiotherapy. Our data show that the exogenous administration of GH improved intestinal recovery after radiation treatment while preserving the therapeutic effect against the tumor. GH significantly increased proliferation in the irradiated intestine but not in the irradiated tumors, as assessed by Positron Emission Tomography and the proliferative markers Ki67, cyclin D3, and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen. This proliferative effect was consistent with a significant increase in irradiated intestinal villi and crypt length. Furthermore, GH significantly decreased caspase-3 activity in the intestine, whereas GH did not produce this effect in the irradiated tumors. In conclusion, short-term GH treatment protects the bowel, inducing proliferation while reducing apoptosis in healthy intestinal tissue and preserving radiotherapy efficacy on tumors.

  4. Career interest, self-efficacy, and perception in undecided and nursing undergraduate students: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillman, Valentina M

    2015-01-01

    Career choice variables of career interest, self-efficacy, and perception were chosen based upon Social Cognitive Career Theory concepts for study between nursing and undecided undergraduate student groups. Components of the Career Search Questionnaire and Perceptions of Professional Nursing instruments were combined and adapted to form the Career Choice Survey for use in this research. This web-based survey totaling 40 questions was sent to 577 undergraduate students with a 12% response rate (N=68). Due to the need to increase nursing recruitment and retention, hypotheses were developed that distinguish if any relationship existed between groups. Findings of this quantitative study resulted in statistically significant results on two of the three variable hypotheses (p=.006 for career interest, p=.002 for self-efficacy, p=.395 for perception), aligning with previous research and provide insight into the change in nursing perception. Overall, scores for each subscale were encouraging to current nurses and expected from undecided students. Implications for practice include increases in accurate nursing portrayal in the media and early career counseling to younger populations. Nurse educators can further research in career choice with focus on continuing education for current nurses and recruitment of young nursing hopefuls. PMID:25218036

  5. Exploring Self-Efficacy in Australian General Practitioners Managing Patient Obesity: A Qualitative Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Freya; Sturgiss, Elizabeth; Haesler, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Australian community, and general practitioners (GPs) are commonly approached by patients for assistance in losing weight. Previous studies have shown that GPs have low self-efficacy and low outcome expectation when it comes to managing overweight and obese patients, which affects their willingness to initiate and continue with weight counselling. This qualitative survey study aimed to explore the factors influencing confidence and behaviour in obesity management in GPs. Method. Twelve GPs recruited to deliver a pilot of an obesity management program participated in semistructured interviews, and interpretive analysis underpinned by social cognitive theory was performed on the transcripts. Results. Analysis identified five main themes: (1) perceived knowledge and skills, (2) structure to management approach, (3) the GP-patient relationship, (4) acknowledged barriers to weight loss and lifestyle change, and (5) prior experience and outcome expectation. Conclusions. GPs are likely to welcome tools which provide a more structured approach to obesity management. Shifting away from weight and BMI as sole yardsticks for success or failure and emphasising positive lifestyle changes for their own sake may improve GP self-efficacy and allow for a more authentic GP-patient interaction.

  6. Field study on the efficacy of an oral 2% ivermectin formulation in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, André Antonio; Santos, Anderson Tintino dos; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2011-01-01

    Twenty horses naturally infected with nematodes were included in a blind, controlled field study on efficacy and safety of an oral 2% ivermectin formulation at a dose of 0.2 mg.kg(-1). Horses were divided into treated and non-treated (control) groups with ten animals each based on preliminary counts of eggs per gram of feces (EPG). Stool samples were collected after treatment for identification of nematode species. Clinical evaluations and EPG counts were performed on days 0, +5, +14 and +19. Nineteen nematode species were identified: Coronocyclus ulambajari, Craterostomum acuticaudatum, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cyathostomum pateratum, Cylicocyclus brevicapsulatus, Cylicocyclus insigne, Cylicocyclus leptostomum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicocyclus ultrajectinus, Cylicocyclus spp., Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cylicostephanus poculatus, Habronema muscae, Habronema spp., Parascaris equorum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Oxyuris equi and Triodontophorus spp. The mean EPG counts of treated and non-treated (control) groups on Days �15, 0, +5, +14 and +19 were 1925, 1340, 0, 12.5, 0, 1470, 790, 875, 1605 and 1240 respectively. The efficacy of treatment on Days +5, +14 and +19 was 100, 99.2 and 100% respectively, with a significant difference compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The product was considered to be safe with no findings of clinical significant changes during the study. PMID:21722495

  7. A comparative study of efficacy of gabapentin in inflammation induced neuropathic animal pain models with conventional analgesic diclofenac

    OpenAIRE

    Arunim Swarup; Ruchika Agarwal; Sunil Malhotra; Abhay Shankar Dube

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some antiepileptic drugs have been shown to be clinically efficacious in treatment of neuropathic pain and are being used by clinicians. This study is proposed to evaluate the efficacy of these drugs as compared to conventional analgesics. Methods: Formalin test has been used as the model of acute and chronic inflammatory pain. Formalin has been characterized by the occurrence of two characteristic phases of increased pain sensitivity in rats. The ...

  8. Sex Partnership and Self-Efficacy Influence Depression in Chinese Transgender Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoshi Yang; Lie Wang; Chun Hao; Yuan Gu; Wei Song; Jian Wang; Margaret M Chang; Qun Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Background Transgender women often suffer from transition-related discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender transition, which may pose considerable psychological challenges and may lead to a high prevalence of depression in this population. Increased self-efficacy may combat the adverse effects of gender transition on depression. However, few available studies have investigated the protective effect of self-efficacy on depression among transgender women, and there is a sca...

  9. Perception of Pain Self-efficacy and Fatigue in Greek Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Study Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Paraskevi Theofilou; Vaitsa Giannouli; Stergios Kolias; Magda Tsolaki

    2015-01-01

    The examination of the perception of pain and fatigue in patients with various health problems has received increased research attention in recent years. The aim of the present study protocol is to examine levels of pain self-efficacy and fatigue in a sample of Greek patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. The association of years and severity of diagnosis with the perception of pain self-efficacy and fatigue will be also investigated. Forty patients from the 3nd Neurological Department, ...

  10. Collectivistic orientation, acculturative stress, cultural self-efficacy, and depression: A longitudinal study among Chinese internal migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal relationship of collectivistic orientation and depression and the mediating effects of acculturative stress and cultural self-efficacy between collectivistic orientation and depression. We expect that collectivistic orientation would decrease acculturative stress and increase cultural self-efficacy, and in turn, improve depression. Using data from 641 Chinese internal migrants during a one-year period, the results supported the hypothesis that colle...

  11. Efficacy of Avanafil 15 Minutes after Dosing in Men with Erectile Dysfunction: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Emre Bakırcıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE 5) inhibitors are currently first-line medical treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). PDE 5 inhibitors are differentiated by safety-tolerability profiles and efficacy considerations, such as time to onset and duration of action. The choice of PDE 5 inhibitors in a man with ED is generally based on quality of life factors such as patient and partner satisfaction as well as efficacy and safety. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study, a total o...

  12. Generalizability of the NAMI Family-to-Family Education Program: Evidence From an Efficacy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Micaela; Fuss, Ashley Ann; Sawano, Nanaho; Gensemer, Alexandra; Brennan, Wendy; McManus, Kinsey; Dixon, Lisa B; Haselden, Morgan; Cleek, Andrew F

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies conducted in Maryland of the Family-to-Family (FTF) education program of the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) found that FTF reduced subjective burden and distress and improved empowerment, mental health knowledge, self-care, and family functioning, establishing it as an evidence-based practice. In the study reported here, the FTF program of NAMI-NYC Metro was evaluated. Participants (N=83) completed assessments at baseline and at completion of FTF. Participants had improved family empowerment, family functioning, engagement in self-care activities, self-perception of mental health knowledge, and emotional acceptance as a form of coping. Scores for emotional support and positive reframing also improved significantly. Displeasure in caring for the family member, a measure of subjective burden, significantly declined. Despite the lack of a control group and the limited sample size, this study further supports the efficacy of FTF with a diverse urban population. PMID:26876665

  13. Study on Efficacy of Hepatitis B Immunization in Vaccinated Beta-Thalassemia Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Mahmoodian Shooshtari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:In thalassemic children, HBV infection is common, thus immunization against HBV will reduce and prevent the rate of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of HBV immunization and the prevalence of HBV infection in beta-thalassemic children in Tehran. Methods:To assess the efficacy of immunization and determine the immune response of children with beta-thalassemia, sera of 99 children who had received three doses (10/20 μg of recombinant HBV vaccine in months 0, 1, 6, were selected and tested for HBsAg, HBsAb and anti-HBc by ELISA method. Also, these sera were tested for HBV DNA using nested-PCR method. Findings:In 99 beta-thalassemic children, 89 (89.9 % were anti-HBs positive (responders and 10 (10.1% anti-HBs negative (non-responders.Three cases (3.03% were anti-HBc positive and 1(1.01% was HBsAg positive. HBV DNA was not detected in any of them.Conclusion:Our results have revealed that hepatitis B vaccine is highly immunogenic for thalassemic children and particularly well tolerated.

  14. Paliperidone ER in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of Efficacy and Tolerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Silvio; Bozzatello, Paola; Rinaldi, Camilla; Bogetto, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Antipsychotics are recommended for the treatment of impulsive dyscontrol and cognitive perceptual symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Three reports supported the efficacy of oral risperidone on BPD psychopathology. Paliperidone ER is the metabolite of risperidone with a similar mechanism of action, and its osmotic release reduces plasmatic fluctuations and antidopaminergic effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in BPD patients. 18 outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of BPD were treated for 12 weeks with paliperidone ER (3–6 mg/day). They were assessed at baseline, week 4, and week 12, using the CGI-Severity item, the BPRS, the HDRS, the HARS, the SOFAS, the BPD Severity Index (BPDSI), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Adverse events were evaluated with the DOTES. Paliperidone ER was shown to be effective and well tolerated in reducing severity of global symptomatology and specific BPD symptoms, such as impulsive dyscontrol, anger, and cognitive-perceptual disturbances. Results need to be replicated in controlled trials. PMID:21826264

  15. Study on Efficacy of Hepatitis B Immunization in Vaccinated beta-thalassemia Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Sharifi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:In thalassemic children, HBV infection is common, thus immunization against HBV will reduce and prevent the rate of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of HBV immunization and the prevalence of HBV infection in beta-thalassemic children in Tehran.Methods:To assess the efficacy of immunization and determine the immune response of children with beta-thalassemia, sera of 99 children who had received three doses (10/20 ?g of recombinant HBV vaccine in months 0, 1, 6, were selected and tested for HBsAg, HBsAb and anti-HBc by ELISA method. Also, these sera were tested for HBV DNA using nested-PCR method.Findings:In 99 beta-thalassemic children, 89 (89.9 % were anti-HBs positive (responders and 10 (10.1% anti-HBs negative (non-responders.Three cases(3.03% were anti-HBc positive and 1(1.01% was HBsAg positive. HBV DNA was not detected in any of them.Conclusion:Our results have revealed that hepatitis B vaccine is highly immunogenic for thalassemic children and particularly well tolerated.

  16. Paliperidone ER in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of Efficacy and Tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Bellino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotics are recommended for the treatment of impulsive dyscontrol and cognitive perceptual symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD. Three reports supported the efficacy of oral risperidone on BPD psychopathology. Paliperidone ER is the metabolite of risperidone with a similar mechanism of action, and its osmotic release reduces plasmatic fluctuations and antidopaminergic effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in BPD patients. 18 outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of BPD were treated for 12 weeks with paliperidone ER (3–6 mg/day. They were assessed at baseline, week 4, and week 12, using the CGI-Severity item, the BPRS, the HDRS, the HARS, the SOFAS, the BPD Severity Index (BPDSI, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11. Adverse events were evaluated with the DOTES. Paliperidone ER was shown to be effective and well tolerated in reducing severity of global symptomatology and specific BPD symptoms, such as impulsive dyscontrol, anger, and cognitive-perceptual disturbances. Results need to be replicated in controlled trials.

  17. A Self-Efficacy Scale for Clinical Nurse Leaders: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Mattia J; Nokes, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Introduced in 2003, the Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) role is the first new nursing role introduced in more than 30 years. The hallmark of CNL practice is the management of client-centered care and clinical excellence at the point of care. As part of multifaceted efforts to implement the CNL role, understanding how an individual's self-efficacy with the identified role competencies changes over time has important implications for individuals, educational programs preparing CNLs, and health care organizations employing CNLs. In this study, preliminary psychometric analyses assessing the construct validity, reliability, and discriminant validity for a new state-specific scale (CNL Self-Efficacy Scale) that assesses nurses' perceptions of their ability to function effectively as a CNL are reported. Because self-confidence is a key predictor of successful role transition, job satisfaction, and job performance, measuring individuals' self-confidence with the core competencies associated with the CNL role over time will be important to gain the full benefit of this innovative, unit-based advanced generalist role. PMID:26259337

  18. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Dutta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Materials and Methods: A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups and saline served as the control. Access cavities were prepared using an aseptic technique and samples collected for both anaerobic culture and Gram stained smears, followed by irrigation and sample collection again. The number of organisms were expressed in colony forming units/ml after 72 h of incubation; the smears were analyzed for their microbial loads and tissue clearance and assessed as per defined criteria. Results: Our results found the maximum reduction in microbial loads, when analyzed by culture method, with a combination of SHC and the experimental neem irrigant. Maximum tissue clearance on the Gram Stained smears was also found with the same combination. Conclusion: Neem irrigant has anti-microbial efficacy and can be considered for endodontic use.

  19. A methodology for evaluating biocide release rate, surface roughness and leach layer formation in a TBT-free, self-polishing antifouling coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dickon; Behrends, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    Due to the forthcoming IMO ban on the use of tributyltin (TBT) antifouling paints, a new generation of TBT-free coatings has been developed that typically contain cuprous oxide and an organic co-biocide. Accurate and reproducible test methods are needed to evaluate the performance and environmental impact of these new coatings. This study investigated a methodology for evaluating TBT-free, AF coatings containing cuprous oxide. A commercially available AF coating underwent rotary immersion testing at 0, 0.51 and 2.05 m s-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis were used to assess leach layer formation, percentage cuprous oxide by weight and particle size distribution (PSD). Biocide release rates and surface roughness were also measured. An increase in rotary speed caused a spike in Cu2+ release rate after which the release rate stabilised to previous levels. An increase in leach layer thickness was also observed after the rotary speed increase. A model is suggested to account for the observations. PMID:17110354

  20. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland: a national study of prevalence and testing efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lynge Pedersen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of GDM among Greenlanders and non-Greenlanders living in Greenland and to estimate the efficacy of testing for GDM. Design: This study was performed as an observational, cross-sectional study including all women with permanent address in Greenland who had given birth to a singleton during 2014. The prevalence of GDM was calculated as the proportion of all pregnant women tested with a 75-g 2-h glucose tolerance test who had a 2-h capillary whole-blood glucose value of 8.5 mmol/l or above. Testing efficacy was calculated as the proportion of women who fulfilled the testing criteria who were actually tested in Greenland in 2014. Results: A total of 794 women (727 Greenlanders and 67 non-Greenlanders were included in the study. The prevalence of GDM among tested women was 3.3% (confidence interval, CI: 0.9–5.6 among Greenlanders and 12.5% (CI: 0–25.7 among non-Greenlanders, corresponding, respectively, to 1.0% (CI: 0.3–1.3 and 4.5% (CI: 0–9.4 of all singleton pregnancies in Greenland in 2014. The overall testing efficacy was 69.0% among all eligible residents of Greenland and 85.1% among eligible residents in the capital city, Nuuk. Conclusion: In conclusion, the prevalence of GDM seems quite low in Greenland. Although diagnostic testing activity has improved within the last 6 years, still around one-third of all pregnant women in all Greenland fulfilling the testing criteria were not tested. Universal testing for GDM may be needed to improve testing of GDM in Greenland.

  1. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF CONTROLLED RELEASE METOPROLOL TARTRATE IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: ERA STUDY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Barbarash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate efficacy, safety and influence on quality of life of controlled release metoprolol tartrate (CRMT in patients with arterial hypertension of 1-3 degree.Material and methods. 603 patients (256 men and 347 women; 60,1 y.o., in average with hypertension of 1-3 degree were examined. 67 hypertensive patients had diabetes mellitus (DM. Study duration was 2 months. All patients started monotherapy by CRMT 50-100 mg OD. After 15 days of CRMT therapy daily dose could be increase to 100-150 mg, if the target blood pressure (BP levels were not reached. After 1 month of treatment if necessary CRMT daily dose could be increased again up to 150-200 mg or another antihypertensive drug could be added. The forth visit after 2 month of therapy was last one. Antihypertensive efficacy, safety and quality of life (by visual analogue scale were assessed at every visit. Besides the main blood biochemical parameters and electrocardiograms were analyzed for the safety control.Results. 591 patients completed the study, 12 patients dropped out the study (because of side effects or low treatment compliance. After 2 months of therapy systolic and diastоlic BP was reduced by 36 and 17 mmHg respectively (р<0,001 for both, and target BP levels was achieved in 72,9% and in 78,2% of patients respectively (р<0,01 for both. Target systolic BP (<130 mmHg and diastolic BP (<80 mmHg levels were achieved in 27,3% and 28,8% of hypertensive patients with DM, respectively (р<0,01 for both.Side effects were observed in 3,2% of patients. 87% of patients considered therapy tolerability as a good one. CRMT therapy resulted in quality of life rise from 55,7 to 75,4 points (р<0,001 by the end of therapy.Conclusion. Study results show high efficacy and safety of CRMT in the therapy of hypertensive patients including hypertensive patients with DM.

  2. From exhaustion to disengagement via self-efficacy change: Findings from two longitudinal studies among human services workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eRogala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal research examined the relationship direction between burnout components (exhaustion and disengagement within the context of personal resources measured by self-efficacy and social support. In line with the conservation of resources theory we hypothesized that exhaustion may trigger a spiral loss of personal resources where self-efficacy declines and subsequently, social support also declines and in turn predict disengagement. Participants in Study 1 were mental healthcare providers (N = 135 working with U.S. military personnel suffering from trauma. Participants in Study 2 were healthcare providers, social workers, and other human services professions (N = 194 providing various types of services for civilian trauma survivors in Poland. Baseline and 6-month follow-up measurements included burnout components, burnout self-efficacy and perceived social support. The path analysis showed consistent results for both longitudinal studies; exhaustion measured at Time 1 led to disengagement at Time 2, after controlling for baseline disengagement levels. Across Study 1 and Study 2 these associations were mediated by self-efficacy change: Higher exhaustion led to greater decline in self-efficacy which in turn explained higher disengagement at the follow-up. Social support, however, did not mediate between self-efficacy and disengagement. These mediating effects were invariant across Studies 1 and 2, although the mean levels of burnout and personal resources differed significantly. The results contribute to a discussion on the internal structure of job burnout and a broader understanding of the associations between exhaustion and disengagement that may be explained by the underlying mechanism of change in self-efficacy.

  3. Chemotherapeutic efficacy of a natural combination in the treatment of mansonic schistosomiasis: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Abdul-Ghani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rashad Abdul-Ghani1, Naguiba Loutfy2, Manal Sheta3, Azza Hassan21Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Yemen; 2Tropical Health Department, High Institute of Public Health, 3Department of Pathology, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptPurpose: Combination chemotherapy of Schistosoma mansoni has been studied previously, with praziquantel being the basis of combination. Artemether and myrrh are compounds of a natural origin that have been investigated experimentally and clinically against schistosomiasis. Artemether is used as an antimalarial drug, and has been used as a chemoprophylactic drug against Schistosoma japonica in China whereas myrrh extract is manufactured and prescribed as an antischistosomal drug in Egypt. The present study investigated the experimental efficacy of combining artemether and myrrh using three different protocols in mice infected with the Egyptian strain of S. mansoni.Methods: Experiments were performed on 40 eight-week-old female Swiss albino mice divided into three experimental groups and one control group. Assessment of efficacy was based on a suite of parasitologic and histopathologic parameters. Parasitologic parameters included reductions in total and female worm burdens, reductions in hepatic and intestinal wall tissue egg loads, and alterations in oogram patterns in the experimental groups compared to the infected untreated control. Histopathologic parameters comprised microscopic examination of liver sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin to study the reductions in the mean counts and diameters of hepatic granulomas as well as their healing ratios compared to the control.Results: Reductions of 43.9%–58.2% in total worm burdens and 42.4%–63.7% in female worm burdens were induced. Meanwhile, significant reductions of 63.1%–77.8% in eggs per gram of small intestinal tissue and of 56.5%–66.3% in eggs

  4. Publication bias in reports of animal stroke studies leads to major overstatement of efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Sena

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of scientific knowledge proceeds through the interpretation and then distillation of data presented in research reports, first in review articles and then in textbooks and undergraduate courses, until truths become accepted as such both amongst "experts" and in the public understanding. Where data are collected but remain unpublished, they cannot contribute to this distillation of knowledge. If these unpublished data differ substantially from published work, conclusions may not reflect adequately the underlying biological effects being described. The existence and any impact of such "publication bias" in the laboratory sciences have not been described. Using the CAMARADES (Collaborative Approach to Meta-analysis and Review of Animal Data in Experimental Studies database we identified 16 systematic reviews of interventions tested in animal studies of acute ischaemic stroke involving 525 unique publications. Only ten publications (2% reported no significant effects on infarct volume and only six (1.2% did not report at least one significant finding. Egger regression and trim-and-fill analysis suggested that publication bias was highly prevalent (present in the literature for 16 and ten interventions, respectively in animal studies modelling stroke. Trim-and-fill analysis suggested that publication bias might account for around one-third of the efficacy reported in systematic reviews, with reported efficacy falling from 31.3% to 23.8% after adjustment for publication bias. We estimate that a further 214 experiments (in addition to the 1,359 identified through rigorous systematic review; non publication rate 14% have been conducted but not reported. It is probable that publication bias has an important impact in other animal disease models, and more broadly in the life sciences.

  5. Optical emission spectroscopy for quantification of ultraviolet radiations and biocide active species in microwave argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with absorption and mainly emission spectrometry of a microwave induced surfatron plasma jet launched in ambient air and using an Argon flow carrier gas. The Ar flow rate varies between 1 and 3 L/min and the microwave power between 40 and 60 W. The analysis of the various spectra has led to the determination of the ozone and atomic oxygen concentrations, ultraviolet (UV) irradiance separating UVA, UVB and UVC, gas temperature, plasma electron density and excitation temperature. Most of these diagnostics are spatially resolved along the plasma jet axis. It is shown more particularly that rotational temperature obtained from OH(A-X) spectra ranges between 800 K to 1000 K while the apparent temperature of the plasma jet remains lower than about 325 K which is compatible with biocide treatment without significant thermal effect. The electron density reaches 1.2 × 1014 cm−3, the excitation temperature is about 4000 K, the UVC radiation represents only 5% of the UV radiations emitted by the device, the ozone concentration is found to reach 88 ± 27 ppm in the downstream part of the plasma jet at a distance of 30 mm away from the quartz tube outlet of the surfatron and the atomic oxygen concentration lies between 10 and 80 ppm up to a distance of 20 mm away from the quartz tube outlet. Ozone is identified as the main germicidal active species produced by the device since its concentration is in accordance with bacteria inactivation durations usually reported using such plasma devices. Human health hazard assessment is carried out all along this study since simple solutions are reminded to respect safety standards for exposures to ozone and microwave leakage. In this study, an air extraction unit is used and a Faraday cage is set around the quartz tube of the surfatron and the plasma jet. These solutions should be adopted by users of microwave induced plasma in open air conditions because according to the literature, this is not often the case

  6. Optical emission spectroscopy for quantification of ultraviolet radiations and biocide active species in microwave argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattieaux, G., E-mail: gaetan.wattieaux@laplace.univ-tlse.fr; Yousfi, M.; Merbahi, N.

    2013-11-01

    This work deals with absorption and mainly emission spectrometry of a microwave induced surfatron plasma jet launched in ambient air and using an Argon flow carrier gas. The Ar flow rate varies between 1 and 3 L/min and the microwave power between 40 and 60 W. The analysis of the various spectra has led to the determination of the ozone and atomic oxygen concentrations, ultraviolet (UV) irradiance separating UVA, UVB and UVC, gas temperature, plasma electron density and excitation temperature. Most of these diagnostics are spatially resolved along the plasma jet axis. It is shown more particularly that rotational temperature obtained from OH(A-X) spectra ranges between 800 K to 1000 K while the apparent temperature of the plasma jet remains lower than about 325 K which is compatible with biocide treatment without significant thermal effect. The electron density reaches 1.2 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}, the excitation temperature is about 4000 K, the UVC radiation represents only 5% of the UV radiations emitted by the device, the ozone concentration is found to reach 88 ± 27 ppm in the downstream part of the plasma jet at a distance of 30 mm away from the quartz tube outlet of the surfatron and the atomic oxygen concentration lies between 10 and 80 ppm up to a distance of 20 mm away from the quartz tube outlet. Ozone is identified as the main germicidal active species produced by the device since its concentration is in accordance with bacteria inactivation durations usually reported using such plasma devices. Human health hazard assessment is carried out all along this study since simple solutions are reminded to respect safety standards for exposures to ozone and microwave leakage. In this study, an air extraction unit is used and a Faraday cage is set around the quartz tube of the surfatron and the plasma jet. These solutions should be adopted by users of microwave induced plasma in open air conditions because according to the literature, this is not often the

  7. The Potential for Poverty to Lower the Self-Efficacy of Adults With Asthma: An Australian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose It is known that strong feelings of self-efficacy are linked with better management of asthma. However, it is not known whether the experience of poverty can detrimentally impact the self-efficacy feelings of asthma patients. This paper aims to determine whether falling into income or multidimensional poverty lowers self-efficacy among people diagnosed with asthma. Methods Longitudinal analysis of Waves 7 to 11 (2007 to 2011) of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey using generalized linear models. The analysis was limited to those who had been diagnosed with asthma. The Freedom Poverty Measure was used to identify those in multidimensional poverty. Results People with asthma who fell into income poverty had significantly lower self-efficacy scores-23% lower (95% CI: -35.1 to -9.1), after falling into income poverty for 3 or 4 years between 2007 and 2011 compared to those who were never in income poverty. Those who fell into multidimensional poverty also had significantly lower self-efficacy scores-25% lower (95% CI: -42.8 to -2.0), after being in multidimensional poverty for 3 or 4 years between 2007 and 2011 compared to those who were never in poverty. Conclusions Asthmatics who fall into poverty are likely to experience a decline in their feelings of self-efficacy. The findings of this study show that experiencing poverty should be a flag to identify those who may need extra assistance in managing their condition. PMID:26739407

  8. The relationship between self-efficacy and reading proficiency of first-year students: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi A.N.Y. Boakye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-efficacy, which is the belief about one’s ability to perform a task successfully, has been widely acknowledged as important in learning. This affective factor, though not explicitly evident, has been said to play an important role in academic performance. However, its role in reading development has not been widely investigated. To determine the relationship between self-efficacy and reading proficiency, a study was conducted with first-year students in a South African tertiary institution. Students’ self-efficacy levels were elicited through a questionnaire and their reading proficiency was obtained through the Test of Academic Literacy levels (TALL, which essentially assesses reading proficiency. An analysis of variance showed a robust relationship between reading self-efficacy and reading proficiency for this cohort of students. Regression analysis conducted with other affective factors showed self-efficacy as the best predictor of students’ reading proficiency. Results are discussed as they relate to previous research and recommendations are made to include the development of self-efficacy in reading instruction.

  9. A comparative study of efficacy and safety of flupirtine versus piroxicamin patients with low back pain

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    Ambrish Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Results: 74 patients were randomized to 2 groups of 37 each. Group I patients received flupirtine maleate 100 mg twice daily and Group II patients received piroxicam 20 mg twice daily for 14 days. 30 patients in each group completed the study and were analysed. On intergroup comparison, there was no statistical difference (p>0.05 in the efficacy parameters of finger-to-floor distance (FFD, lumbar pain, Lasegue's sign, tenderness of vertebral muscles, sensory disturbance in lower limbs, VAS scores and global assessment of response to therapy. 13.3% in flupirtine group and 16.6% in piroxicam group reported adverse events. Conclusions: Both flupiritine and piroxicam were equally effective but flupirtine was better tolerated than piroxicam. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2337-2341

  10. Influence of endodontic instrument-holder on sterilization efficacy. A pilot in-vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggelo Marcelo Carrizo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Infection control is crucial in dentistry and various methods have been designed to assure its efficacy. However, little information exists regarding the influence it could have the instrument-holder of endodontic files. The aim of this research was to determine the influence of three instruments-holders on sterilization efficacy of endodontic files. Methods: A pilot in-vitro study. 60 endodontic files were contaminated by biomechanical preparation of extracted molars with periapical abscess, then processed according to the standard washing method. The endodontic files were divided into 3 groups (n = 20 and assigned to 3 instrument-holders: Metallic box (MB, surgical gauze (SG and synthetic sponge (SS. Then, the files were packaged and sterilized by autoclaving (134°C/45min. Microbiological culture was performed in thioglycolate solution for each endodontic file (37ºC/5days. Results: The overall sterilization efficacy was 91.7%, 80% for MB, 100% for SS, and 95% for SG, with no statistically significant differences (p = 0.06 between the groups. Conclusions: The lack of differences in the efficacy of sterilization may be due to the reduced sample; therefore, a full-size study is necessary to confirm this outcomes. The results of this study discourage the use of the MB as instrument-holder until a full-size study can confirm this data. RESUMEN El control de infecciones es crucial en odontología y variados métodos se han diseñado para asegurar su eficacia. Sin embargo, existe poca información respecto a la influencia que podría tener el porta-instrumento de limas endodónticas. El objetivo de esta investigación es determinar la influencia de 3 porta-instrumentos sobre la eficacia de esterilización de limas endodónticas. Método: Estudio in-vitro piloto. 60 limas endodónticas fueron contaminadas mediante preparación biomecánica de molares extraídos con diagnóstico de absceso periapical, procesadas según el método de lavado

  11. Development of regional chemotherapies: feasibility, safety and efficacy in clinical use and preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shuang; Bagby, Taryn R; Forrest, M Laird

    2011-11-01

    Conventional oral and intravenous chemotherapies permeate throughout the body, exposing healthy tissues to similar cytotoxic drug levels as tumors. This leads to significant dose-limiting toxicities that may prevent patients from receiving sufficient treatment to overcome cancers. Therefore, a number of locoregional drug-delivery strategies have been evaluated and implemented in preclinical studies, clinical trials and in practice, in the past decades to minimize systemic toxicities from chemotherapeutic agents and to improve treatment outcomes. Localized treatment is beneficial because many cancers, such as melanoma, peritoneal cancer and breast cancer, advance locally adjacent to the site of the primary tumors prior to their circulatory invasion. In this article, we will review the feasibility, safety and efficacy of multiple localized chemotherapies in clinical use and preclinical development. PMID:22229080

  12. Antimicrobial efficacy of different toothpastes and mouthrinses: An in vitro study

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    Manupati Prasanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-microbial agents have been used as a chemotherapeutic agent to improve oral health. This in vitro study was carried out to determine antimicrobial efficacy of different toothpastes and mouthrinses against the oral pathogens. Methods : A total of five toothpastes and five mouthrinses were tested for their antimicrobial activity against three oral pathogens namely, Streptococcus mutans (MTCC 890, Escherichia coli (MTCC 579 and Candida albicans (MTCC 854 by well agar diffusion assay. Statistical Analysis was performed using a statistical package, SPSS windows version 15, by applying mean values using analysis of variance (ANOVA with post-hoc least square differences (LSD method(α = 0.05. Results: Toothpaste formulation A showed maximum zones of inhibition against the test organism, Escherichia coli (P<0.001 compared to all other toothpastes formulations. Against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, the zones of inhibition were less in comparison to E.coli but were significantly different at higher dilutions (1:8, 1:16 P<0.05 for toothpaste formulation A. Mouthrinses formulation H showed maximum efficacy against the test organism, Escherichia coli (P<0.001 compared to all other mouthrinse formulations. Against Streptococcus mutans, mouthrinses formulations F, G and J showed significant antimicrobial activity (P<0.05 compared to formulation H and I. Conclusion: In the present study, it has been demonstrated that triclosan containing toothpastes formulations are more effective in control of oral microflora compared to non-triclosan containing synthetic toothpastes. Among mouthrinses formulations, chlorhexidine was found to be more effective than or as effective as triclosan against the organisms tested.

  13. Allopregnanolone preclinical acute pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies to predict tolerability and efficacy for Alzheimer's disease.

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    Ronald W Irwin

    /kg. The predicted MTD in human female is 0.37mg/kg. In male rats the NOAEL and MTD were less than those determined for female. Outcomes of these PK/PD studies predict a safe and efficacious dose range for initial clinical trials of allopregnanolone for Alzheimer's disease. These findings have translational relevance to multiple neurodegenerative conditions.

  14. Goal orientations, perceived self-efficacy and study results amongst beginners and advanced students.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Vrugt; F.J. Oort; C. Zeeberg

    2002-01-01

    Hypothesized that perceived self-efficacy and social comparison would contribute to pursued goals and that these goals would influence course grades. It was further expected that a task orientation would contribute to perceived self-efficacy, and that an ego orientation would contribute to social co

  15. The Quest for Comparability: Studying the Invariance of the Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES) Measure across Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Ronny; Jansen, Malte; Nilsen, Trude; Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers’ self-efficacy is an important motivational construct that is positively related to a variety of outcomes for both the teachers and their students. This study addresses challenges associated with the commonly used ‘Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES)’ measure across countries and provides a synergism between substantive research on teachers’ self-efficacy and the novel methodological approach of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). These challenges include adequately representing the conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy in a measurement model (cross-loadings) and comparing means and factor structures across countries (measurement invariance). On the basis of the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013 data set comprising 32 countries (N = 164,687), we investigate the effects of cross-loadings in the TSES measurement model on the results of measurement invariance testing and the estimation of relations to external constructs (i.e., working experience, job satisfaction). To further test the robustness of our results, we replicate the 32-countries analyses for three selected sub-groups of countries (i.e., Nordic, East and South-East Asian, and Anglo-Saxon country clusters). For each of the TALIS 2013 participating countries, we found that the factor structure of the self-efficacy measure is better represented by ESEM than by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models that do not allow for cross-loadings. For both ESEM and CFA, only metric invariance could be achieved. Nevertheless, invariance levels beyond metric invariance are better achieved with ESEM within selected country clusters. Moreover, the existence of cross-loadings did not affect the relations between the dimensions of teachers’ self-efficacy and external constructs. Overall, this study shows that a conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy exists and can be well-represented by ESEM. We further argue for the cross

  16. The Quest for Comparability: Studying the Invariance of the Teachers' Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES) Measure across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Ronny; Jansen, Malte; Nilsen, Trude; Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Marsh, Herbert W

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' self-efficacy is an important motivational construct that is positively related to a variety of outcomes for both the teachers and their students. This study addresses challenges associated with the commonly used 'Teachers' Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES)' measure across countries and provides a synergism between substantive research on teachers' self-efficacy and the novel methodological approach of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). These challenges include adequately representing the conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy in a measurement model (cross-loadings) and comparing means and factor structures across countries (measurement invariance). On the basis of the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013 data set comprising 32 countries (N = 164,687), we investigate the effects of cross-loadings in the TSES measurement model on the results of measurement invariance testing and the estimation of relations to external constructs (i.e., working experience, job satisfaction). To further test the robustness of our results, we replicate the 32-countries analyses for three selected sub-groups of countries (i.e., Nordic, East and South-East Asian, and Anglo-Saxon country clusters). For each of the TALIS 2013 participating countries, we found that the factor structure of the self-efficacy measure is better represented by ESEM than by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models that do not allow for cross-loadings. For both ESEM and CFA, only metric invariance could be achieved. Nevertheless, invariance levels beyond metric invariance are better achieved with ESEM within selected country clusters. Moreover, the existence of cross-loadings did not affect the relations between the dimensions of teachers' self-efficacy and external constructs. Overall, this study shows that a conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy exists and can be well-represented by ESEM. We further argue for the cross

  17. Learning to fit in: an exploratory study of general perceived self efficacy in selected refugee groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl M R; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-02-01

    As self efficacy beliefs help determine an individual's response to challenging situations, we explored the impact of the refugee experience on efficacy beliefs and their contribution to resettlement. General self efficacy (GSE) was assessed in 186 resettled Afghan and Kurdish refugees against a range of personal and temporal variables. Although no differences in GSE in relation to temporal factors were noted, significant relationships between self efficacy, lower psychological distress and higher subjective well being were evident. The findings suggest that GSE, because of its positive association with mental health and well being, is a variable worthy of further examination in refugees. In addition to ensuring a supportive environment for learning English, proactive employment strategies should be encouraged. Further research examining the use of successful refugee role models to promote self efficacy, enhance motivation for learning and ensure newly arrived refugees view resettlement as a challenge, rather than a threat, is recommended. PMID:22086715

  18. Bioluminescence inhibition assays for toxicity screening of wood extractives and biocides in paper mill process waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, Anna; Latorre, Anna; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià

    2004-02-01

    The risk associated with wood extractives, biocides, and other additives in pulp and paper mill effluents was evaluated by performing a characterization of process waters and effluents in terms of toxicity and chemical analysis. The individual toxicity of 10 resin acids, two unsaturated fatty acids, and three biocides was estimated by measuring the bioluminescence inhibition with a ToxAlert 100 system. Median effective concentration values (EC50) of 4.3 to 17.9, 1.2 to 1.5, and 0.022 to 0.50 mg/L were obtained, respectively. Mixtures of these three families of compounds showed antagonistic effects. Chemical analysis of process waters was performed by liquid chromatography- and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Biocides such as 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzotiazole (TCMTB) (EC50 = 0.022 mg/L) and 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilpropionamide (DBNPA) (EC50 = 0.50 mg/L) were the most toxic compounds tested and were detected at concentrations of 16 and 59 microg/L, respectively, in a closed-circuit recycling paper mill. Process waters from kraft pulp mills, printing paper mills, and packing board paper mills showed the highest concentration of resin acids (up to 400 microg/L) and accounted for inhibition percentages up to 100%. Detergent degradation products such as nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) and the plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) were also detected in the waters at levels of 0.6 to 10.6, 0.3 to 1.4, and 0.7 to 187 microg/L, respectively. However, once these waters were biologically treated, the concentration of detected organic compounds diminished and the toxicity decreased in most cases to values of inhibition lower than 20%. PMID:14982380

  19. An observer study for direct comparison of clinical efficacy of electronic to film portal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To directly compare clinical efficacy of electronic to film portal images. Methods and Materials: An observer study was designed to compare clinical efficacy of electronic to film portal images acquired using a liquid matrix ion-chamber electronic portal imaging device and a conventional metal screen/film system. Both images were acquired simultaneously for each treatment port and the electronic portal images were printed on gray-level thermal paper. Four radiation oncologists served as observers and evaluated a total of 44 sets of images for four different treatment sites: lung, pelvis, brain, and head/neck. Each set of images included a simulation image, a double-exposure portal film, and video paper prints of electronic portal images. Eight to nine anatomical landmarks were selected from each treatment site. Each observer was asked to rate each landmark in terms of its clinical visibility and to rate the ease of making the pertinent verification decision in the corresponding electronic and film portal images with the aid of the simulation image. Results: Ratings for the visibility of landmarks and for the verification decision of treatment ports were similar for electronic and film images for most landmarks. However, vertebral bodies and several landmarks in the pelvis such as the acetabulum and pubic symphysis were more visible in the portal film images than in the electronic portal images. Conclusion: The visibility of landmarks in electronic portal images is comparable to that in film portal images. Verification of treatment ports based only on electronic portal images acquired using an electronic portal imaging device is generally achievable

  20. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF LABETALOL IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MODERATE GESTATION HYPERTENSION - A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asharani A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertensive disorders are the most common medical disorders in pregnancy contributing significantly to maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. The incidence is around 3-10% of all pregnancies. Antihypertensive drugs are often used to lower blood pressure with the aim of preventing its progression to adverse outcomes for the mother, at the same time they should not have adverse effects on the uteroplacental circulation and the fetus. The risk of developing severe hypertension is reduced to half by using antihypertensive medications. The objective of this study is to study efficacy and safety of Labetalol in lowering blood pressure in patients with moderate gestational hypertension. METHOD This is a prospective observational study where fifty six pregnant patients with moderate gestational hypertension on labetalol are included in the study. Reduction in hypertension and frequency of side effects were studied. The statistical level of significance was taken at P <0.05. RESULT The result showed labetalol is effective in control of blood pressure and well tolerated with free of side effects. CONCLUSION Labetalol is a safe, well tolerated and effective in controlling blood pressure in moderate gestational hypertension.

  1. Experimental Study of H120 Vaccination Efficacy on Respiratory Tract in Broiler Chickens

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    Yousef Doustar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis is an acute viral disease with high contagious and mortality among chicks. Apparent symptoms of Infectious bronchitis in chicks are tracheal respiration and nasal discharges. The objective of this study was to assessment H120 vaccination efficacy on respiratory tract in Broiler Chickens. In this study, 60 Ross 308 commercial strain one-day old chicks free of mycoplasma galisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae were divided into two, control and treatment, groups and three sub groups of 10 chicks. The treatment sub groups were vaccinated against bronchitis on the first day. All of chicks were placed in the hatchery and 20 mL of 10% formalin. H120 lyophilized vaccine of massachoset strain prepared in Razi institute was used for vaccination. The results of the present study show that spraying form of vaccination has a high reaction. So it is recommended that this kind of vaccination is used carefully. In the present study the aftermath of H120 vaccine spray was observed and recorded during Histopathological studies.

  2. Investigating the impact of classroom management course on self-efficacy levels: An experimental study on pre-service teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel, İsmail; Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü

    2014-01-01

    The basic purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of the classroom management course on pre-service teachers’ beliefs regarding teacher self-efficacy perceptions. The study conducted in single-group pretest-posttest research model was carried out with 85 pre-service teachers. Data were collected via “Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale” administered at the beginning and end of the semester. The results revealed that the classroom management course had significant influence on the de...

  3. Thematic strategy on sustainable use of plant protection products. Prospects and requirements for transferring proposals for plant protection products to biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Lueskow, Heike [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik GmbH (OEKOPOL), Hamburg (Germany); Gross, Rita [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The sustainable use of pesticides pursues, independent of the authorisation of single products, the aim to minimise existing environmental risks of pesticide use and therefore contribute to the reduction of its impact on the environmental protection goals. The Thematic Strategy (TS) and the Framework Directive 2009/128/EC (FWD) on sustainable use of pesticides have so far only been implemented for plant protection products (PPP). For biocides there exists no harmonised approach. Within the project the possibilities and requirements for transferring measures of the FWD to the biocide area have been analysed, with specific focus on wood preservatives, insecticides, and antifouling products. Several biocidal active substances are found in the outlets of sewage treatment plants and in surface water, but an inventory of the present environmental impact as well as reliable data on biocide consumption and use patterns, which could be used to identify key action areas, are generally missing. These data are urgently needed for the development of suitable indicators and the definition of the objectives. Sustainable use of biocides addresses the three issues; social, environmental and economic impact at which the ecological background assigns the borderline and beam barrier of the economic and social development. A systematic analysis of the instruments for improving sustainable use of pesticides described in TS and FWD indicated that many issues can be transferred to the biocide area. This concerns e.g. education and training, requirements for sales, the establishment of awareness programmes, control of the machinery for biocide application, the development of best practice standards based on integrated pest management principles, and the collection of statistics on biocide consumption. Some biocide specific characteristics need to be considered: E.g. unlike PPP, the intended use of some biocides is to be directly applied in water bodies or indoors. Furthermore for some

  4. Factors Affecting Burnout and School Engagement among High School Students: Study Habits, Self- Efficacy Beliefs, and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Filiz; Tuzgol Dost, Meliha; Cetin, Bayram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines high school students' levels of burnout and school engagement with respect to academic success, study habits, and self-efficacy beliefs. The data were gathered during the 2011-2012 school year from 633 students attending six high schools located in Ankara, Turkey. The analyses were conducted on responses from 605 students.…

  5. Service Learning and Its Influenced to Pre-Service Teachers: Social Responsibility and Self-Efficacy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertsang, Parichart; Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Pumipuntu, Chaloey

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study pre-service teachers on social responsibility and self-efficacy through service learning. The mixed methodology included two major procedures (i) the actual use of a developed service learning instructional model by means of action research principles and qualitative research and (ii) the study into the…

  6. Ondansetron versus palonosetron: a comparative study on efficacy and safety in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Prakash G.

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Our study concludes that the antiemetic efficacy is comparable for both ondansetron and palonosetron in the given doses in preventing PONV and none is superior. Both the study drugs had almost the same adverse effect profile. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1269-1274

  7. Efficacy of internet and group-administered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in adolescents: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. de Bruin; F.J. Oort; S.M. Bögels; A.M. Meijer

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that adolescents are at risk for insomnia, but are reluctant to seek help. Treatment of insomnia has been extensively examined in adults, but studies with adolescents are sparse. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess feasibility and efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy

  8. A comparative study on the efficacy of solifenacin succinate in patients with urinary frequency with or without urgency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Han

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Patients with overactive bladder (OAB often have trouble perceiving urgency because of difficulties in distinguishing between urgency and desire to void. Empirical antimuscarinic treatment of patients with frequency only may be reasonable if conservative management has failed. We compared the efficacy of solifenacin in patients with frequency with or without urgency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter, 12-week, open-label, comparative, non-inferiority clinical trial assessed whether the solifenacin efficacy for frequency without urgency is non-inferior to its efficacy for frequency with urgency. All patients had micturition frequency ≥ 8 voids/day with or without urgency. Primary efficacy variable: daily frequency change at 12 weeks relative to baseline. Secondary efficacy variables: change at 12 weeks relative to baseline in Patients' Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC, OAB Symptom Score (OABSS, and Benefit, Satisfaction, Willingness to continue (BSW questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 286 enrolled patients, 240 (83.9% completed the study (without urgency n = 115; with urgency n = 125. Full dataset analysis revealed that the groups without and with urgency exhibited significant reductions in daily micturition frequency of -2.49 ± 0.35 (mean ± standard error and -2.63 ± 0.37, respectively. The lower limit of the 95% two-sided CI of the comparison of the two group means was -1.14, which is smaller than the -0.8 margin of clinical equivalence. The two groups did not differ in improvement in PPBC, OABSS, or BSW scores. Both tolerated the treatment well. CONCLUSIONS: It was not possible to verify that the solifenacin efficacy for frequency alone was non-inferior to its efficacy for OAB. Nevertheless, solifenacin tended to be effective for frequency regardless of urgency. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00979472.

  9. A study of the impact of environmental education workshops on teachers' attitude and efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Patrick Douglas

    From November 2001 to April 2002, data were collected with the purpose of assessing the effect a PLT, WILD, or combined PLT/WILD workshop on a participants' efficacy and attitude toward teaching EE. A pretest consisting of 49 statements was administered prior to the treatment (workshop). Twenty-six of the pretest statements related to attitude toward teaching environmental concepts, the remaining 23 statements were related to feelings of efficacy toward teaching EE. Approximately 30 days after completing the workshop, participants were mailed the posttest. The posttest is comprised of 26 statements relating to attitude toward. Data collected pertaining to efficacy were analyzed as a two factor ANOVA between workshop type and previous workshop experience for mean outcome efficacy and mean self-efficacy scores. Data collected pertaining to attitude toward teaching environmental concepts were analyzed as a three factor ANOVA between workshop type and previous workshop experience for total pretest and total posttest attitude scores. Findings suggest that attitudes and efficacy toward teaching environmental concepts are directly related to participants' previous workshop experiences. Participants without previous workshop experience scored statistically significant higher (alpha = .05) than those participants with previous workshop experience. Participants with previous workshop experience were also found to have a statistically significant higher (alpha = .05) level of self-efficacy toward teaching EE. Reliability and validity analyses are reported.

  10. Induction of fatty acid composition modifications and tolerance to biocides in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by plant-derived terpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Brissonnet, Florence; Naïtali, Murielle; Mafu, Akier Assanta; Briandet, Romain

    2011-02-01

    To enhance food safety and stability, the food industry tends to use natural antimicrobials such as plant-derived compounds as an attractive alternative to chemical preservatives. Nonetheless, caution must be exercised in light of the potential for bacterial adaptation to these molecules, a phenomenon previously observed with other antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to characterize the adaptation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to sublethal concentrations of four terpenes extracted from aromatic plants: thymol, carvacrol, citral, and eugenol, or combinations thereof. Bacterial adaptation in these conditions was demonstrated by changes in membrane fatty acid composition showing (i) limitation of the cyclization of unsaturated fatty acids to cyclopropane fatty acids when cells entered the stationary phase and (ii) bacterial membrane saturation. Furthermore, we demonstrated an increased cell resistance to the bactericidal activity of two biocides (peracetic acid and didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide). The implications of membrane modifications in terms of hindering the penetration of antimicrobials through the bacterial membrane are discussed. PMID:21131520

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF FERROUS SULPHATE AND CARBONYL IRON IN ANEMIA OF ANTENATAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is the most common and important public health problem all over the world in the risk group of antenatal women. Research is going on to improve the iron status of the pregnant women with different forms of iron available. In this regard, Carbonyl Iron is showing promising results in improving the red cell mass with better compliance. 120 antenatal women were recruited in this study. The study comprised of 6weeks for each patient. They were given Carbonyl Iron 100 mg/day and FeS04 100gm/day . Before and after treatment all the baseline and specific investigations were one. Results were tabulated, comparison and significance were tested by unpaired student ’s’ test and their 'p' value was calculated. Results were shown graphically also. Carbonyl Iron showed improvement in hemoglobin, PCV and better than ferrous Sulphate (P <0.001. Incidence of side effects were less with Carbonyl Iron than Ferrous Sulphate, better compliance was seen with Carbonyl Iron. In conclusion, the present study s howed that Carbonyl Iron had better efficacy and safety in the management of Iron deficiency anemia in antenatal women than ferrous Sulphate

  12. Treating Small Bowel Obstruction with a Manual Physical Therapy: A Prospective Efficacy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amanda D.; Patterson, Kimberley; Reed, Evette D.; Wurn, Belinda F.; Klingenberg, Bernhard; King, C. Richard; Wurn, Lawrence J.

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel obstructions (SBOs) caused by adhesions are a common, often life-threatening postsurgical complication with few treatment options available for patients. This study examines the efficacy of a manual physical therapy treatment regimen on the pain and quality of life of subjects with a history of bowel obstructions due to adhesions in a prospective, controlled survey based study. Changes in six domains of quality of life were measured via ratings reported before and after treatment using the validated Small Bowel Obstruction Questionnaire (SBO-Q). Improvements in the domains for pain (p = 0.0087), overall quality of life (p = 0.0016), and pain severity (p = 0.0006) were significant when average scores before treatment were compared with scores after treatment. The gastrointestinal symptoms (p = 0.0258) domain was marginally significant. There was no statistically significant improvement identified in the diet or medication domains in the SBO-Q for this population. Significant improvements in range of motion in the trunk (p ≤ 0.001), often limited by adhesions, were also observed for all measures. This study demonstrates in a small number of subjects that this manual physical therapy protocol is an effective treatment option for patients with adhesive small bowel obstructions as measured by subject reported symptoms and quality of life. PMID:26989690

  13. Self-efficacy, mathematics' anxiety and perceived importance: an empirical study with Portuguese engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Manuela; Rodrigues, Cristina S.; Rocha, Ana Maria A. C.; Coutinho, Clara

    2016-01-01

    The accomplishment in mathematics has gained attention from educators and arises as an emerging field of study, including in engineering education. However, in Portugal, there is still incipient research in the area; so it is high time to explore factors that might enlighten the gap in the study of the relationship between Portuguese engineering students and the learning of mathematics. The main purpose of this study is to explore three factors identified in the literature as influencing the learning of mathematical concepts - self-efficacy, anxiety towards mathematics and perceived importance of mathematics - and search for differences by gender and by type of engineering course, a dimension not much reported in the literature but which was revealed as important in the team's previous research. Based on a sample of 140 undergraduate students of different engineering courses from University of Minho, results only identify differences in the type of course and not in gender. These results constitute a contribution and open new paths for future research in the engineering education.

  14. Efficacy of fentanyl transdermal patch in pain control after lower third molar surgery: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasovic, Miroslav; Andric, Miroslav; Todorovic, Ljubomir; Kokovic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical removal of impacted lower third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, generally followed by moderate to severe postoperative pain. Transdermal drug delivery as a concept offers interesting possibilities for postoperative pain control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transdermal system with fentanyl in relieving pain following impacted lower third molar surgery. Material and Methods Seventeen patients with bilateral impacted lower third molars were included in this preliminary study. For postoperative pain control, patients randomly received a fentanyl patch plus placebo tablet after the first operation and regular (placebo) patch and an analgesic, after the second operation. Analgesia was evaluated during first 24 hours postoperatively according to patients’ reports about time of first pain appearance and additional analgesic consumption. Pain severity was rated using a 10 cm long visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Intensity of postoperative pain and postoperative analgesic consumption were significantly lower after the Fentanyl Transdermal System (FTS) was applied (p<0.05). Duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly higher with FTS when compared to control treatment (p<0.05). Conclusions Based on the results of this preliminary study, transdermal system with fentanyl significantly reduced postoperative pain after third molar surgery. Key words:Analgesia, fentanyl, transdermal administration, third molar surgery, acute pain, postoperative care. PMID:27475691

  15. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced gastric cancer, a phase I/II feasibility and efficacy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: This study was initiated to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of preoperative radiotherapy with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin in locally advanced gastric cancer. Methods: In a prospective study, patients with locally advanced gastric cancer stage IB-IV(M0) were treated with chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery 4–6 weeks after the last irradiation. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of radiation to a total dose of 45 Gy given in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy, combined with concurrent weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel. Results: Between December 2007 and January 2012, 25 patients with cT3 (64%) or cT4 (36%) gastric cancer were included. One patient discontinued concurrent chemotherapy in the 4th week due to toxicity, but completed radiotherapy. Another patient discontinued chemoradiotherapy after the 3rd week due to progressive disease. Grade III adverse events of chemoradiotherapy were: gastrointestinal 12%, haematological 12% and other 8%. All patients, except one who developed progressive disease, were operated. Surgical complications were: general/infectious 48%, anastomotic leakage 12%, and bowel perforation 8%. Postoperative mortality was 4%. Microscopically radical resection rate was 72%. Pathological complete response rate was 16% and near complete response rate 24%. Conclusions: In this study, preoperative chemoradiotherapy for patients with locally advanced gastric cancer was associated with manageable toxicity and encouraging pathological response rates

  16. Efficacy and safety of oral triclofos as sedative for children undergoing sleep electroencephalogram: An observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Puneet; Sharma, Suvasini; Sharma, Ankita; Goel, Shaiphali; Jose, Anjali; Aneja, Satinder

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Triclofos may be a better sedative in view of better palatability and less gastric irritation as compared to chloral hydrate. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of triclofos (a commonly used sedative in India) as a sedative for sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) study in children. Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care pediatric center. Consecutive children aged 6 months to 5 years referred for sleep EEG evaluation were recruited. Their clinical details were noted in a proforma after an informed consent. After a trial for natural sleep, oral triclofos was administered. Sleep parameters and adverse effects were noted. Results: One-hundred and sixty children were then enrolled. EEG was successfully recorded in 149 (93.1%) children. Median latency of sleep onset was 30 min and median duration of sleep was 90 min. The adverse effects in the following 24 h were mild and included dizziness, irritability, and vomiting. Conclusions: Oral triclofos was found to be an effective sedative for EEG in children with minimal adverse effects.

  17. Therapeutic Efficacy of Misoprostol versus Ethacridine Lactate in Second Trimester Abortion – Randomised Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruti Deliwala

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abortion is a major health and social issue in our country .Techniques for abortions are highly varied in different areas of country. Present study is to compare newer abortificient misoprostol versus traditionally used ethacridine lactate method. Objective: To observe the efficacy and safety of misoprostol as a second trimester abortificient and to compare it with ethacridine lactate. Methods: This is a prospective study of 100 women with 12 – 20 weeks of gestation. Inclusions were according to MTP Act. 400ug misoprostol was inserted vaginally followed by 200ug every 4 hourly in study group (n=50.150-200ml of ethacridine lactate was injected extraamniotically in control group (n=50.Latent phase, active phase and induction abortion interval was noted and compared Results: Average induction abortion interval was 12.24 hours in misoprostol as compared to 27.6 hours in ethacridine lactate (P value <0.01. The women undergoing D & E due to incomplete abortion was higher with ethacridine group 12( 24% as compared to misoprostol group 8 (14% (P <0.05. Conclusion: Misoprostol is faster, convenient, and safer than ethacridine lactate for 2nd trimester abortion. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 16-18

  18. Rabeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: Report of an efficacy study

    OpenAIRE

    Onyekwere, Charles Asabamaka; Odiagah, Joan Nwabuaku; Igetei, Rufina; Duro Emanuel, Amancia Olufunmilayo; Ekere, Francis; Smith, Stella

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of a standard triple therapy (comprising rabeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin) for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication, noting factors that influence the outcome and documenting any adverse events.

  19. Varying efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens: cost effectiveness study using a decision analysis model

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, A E; Tolley, K.; Hawkey, C. J.; Logan, R F A

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine how small differences in the efficacy and cost of two antibiotic regimens to eradicate Helicobacter pylori can affect the overall cost effectiveness of H pylori eradication in duodenal ulcer disease.

  20. The knowledge, efficacy, and practices instrument for oral health providers: a validity study with dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Garvan, Cyndi W; Moore, Thomas E; Catalanotto, Frank A

    2013-08-01

    Valid and reliable instruments to measure and assess cultural competence for oral health care providers are scarce in the literature, and most published scales have been contested due to a lack of item analysis and internal estimates of reliability. The purposes of this study were, first, to develop a standardized instrument to measure dental students' knowledge of diversity, skills in culturally competent patient-centered communication, and use of culture-centered practices in patient care and, second, to provide preliminary validity support for this instrument. The initial instrument used in this study was a thirty-six-item Likert-scale survey entitled the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument for Oral Health Providers (KEPI-OHP). This instrument is an adaption of an initially thirty-three-item version of the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Scale-Counselor Edition (MAKSS-CE), a scale that assesses factors related to social justice, cultural differences among clients, and cross-cultural client management. After the authors conducted cognitive and expert interviews, focus groups, pilot testing, and item analysis, their initial instrument was reduced to twenty-eight items. The KEPI-OHP was then distributed to 916 dental students (response rate=48.6 percent) across the United States to measure its reliability and assess its validity. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the scale's validity. The modification of the survey into a sensible instrument with a relatively clear factor structure using factor analysis resulted in twenty items. A scree test suggested three expressive factors, which were retained for rotation. Bentler's comparative fit and Bentler and Bonnett's non-normed indices were 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. A three-factor solution, including efficacy of assessment, knowledge of diversity, and culture-centered practice subscales, comprised of twenty-items was identified. The KEPI-OHP was found to

  1. Preclinical Studies Evaluating Subacute Toxicity and Therapeutic Efficacy of LQB-118 in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Júnior, Edézio Ferreira; Martins, Thiago Martino; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene Marcuzzo; Marques, Paulo Roberto; Portari, Elyzabeth Avvad; Coelho, Marsen Garcia Pinto; Netto, Chaquip Daher; Costa, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro; Sabino, Katia Costa de Carvalho; Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is the second major cause of death by parasites, after malaria. The arsenal of drugs against leishmaniasis is small, and each has a disadvantage in terms of toxicity, efficacy, price, or treatment regimen. Our group has focused on studying new drug candidates as alternatives to current treatments. The pterocarpanquinone LQB-118 was designed and synthesized based on molecular hybridization, and it exhibited antiprotozoal and anti-leukemic cell line activities. Our previous work demonstrated that LQB-118 was an effective treatment for experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study, we observed that treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight/day LQB-118 orally inhibited the development of hepatosplenomegaly with a 99% reduction in parasite load. An in vivo toxicological analysis showed no change in the clinical, biochemical, or hematological parameters. Histologically, all of the analyzed organs were normal, with the exception of the liver, where focal points of necrosis with leukocytic infiltration were observed at treatment doses 5 times higher than the therapeutic dose; however, these changes were not accompanied by an increase in transaminases. Our findings indicate that LQB-118 is effective at treating different clinical forms of leishmaniasis and presents no relevant signs of toxicity at therapeutic doses; thus, this framework is demonstrated suitable for developing promising drug candidates for the oral treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:27067332

  2. EFFICACY OF LEECH THERAPY AND AYURVEDIC COMPOUND IN VITILIGO: A QUASI EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Hemanta kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This interventional, quasi-experimental study (pre-post test design was conducted at Ayurveda Central Research Institute, New Delhi to study the efficacy of Leech Therapy along with some Ayurvedic medicine in vitiligo. Patients were selected by non-probability purposive sampling method after obtaining an informed consent. Twenty patients suffering from vitiligo (12 male and 08 female, aged more than 15 years and involving less than 25% of body surface area were enrolled. All the patients were kept in a single group. All the patients were called to OPD for Leech application once in a week. The patients were followed up weekly for first month and later on fortnightly for five months to monitor the improvement and adverse effects. The mean re-pigmentation achieved was 60 % (VASI score of 3.69, while the arrest of progression (stationary was noted in 35 % of patients. In 5% of patient it was spreading. We recommend that leech therapy along with internal administration of Ayurvedic medicine is effective in the treatment of Vitiligo.

  3. A follow up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in the treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentili Claudio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We carried out a three months follow-up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in a cohort of alcoholics admitted to the Alcohol misuse Long-term Treatment (ALT Unit – University of Pisa (Italy. We analyzed the clinical data, psychometric tests and blood tests of 160 alcoholics on admission and after 3 months of treatment. We compared 58 pts treated with metadoxine (MET with 102 pts who did not receive (NULL any drug as an adjunct to the psycho-educational interventions provided by the ALT Unit. Results At follow-up, the patients in treatment with metadoxine showed a significant improvement in the rate of complete abstinence (44.8% vs. 21.6%; chi square: 8.45, df = 1, p Conclusion Our findings support the use of metadoxine in the management of alcohol dependence. However, randomized clinical trials are necessary to confirm and replicate them. This study raises the importance of identifying new pharmacological compounds effective on the outcome of alcoholism in order to help patients to best adhere to treatment programs and to prevent the development of mental and physical complications due to chronic and heavy use of alcohol.

  4. A study of self-efficacy in job-related context

    OpenAIRE

    Špela Frlec; Gaj Vidmar

    2005-01-01

    The article stems from an attempt to transfer the Bandura's social cognitive theory into organisational praxis. Beliefs of self-efficacy, which is defined as people's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances, are constructed from 4 principal sources of information: enactive mastery experiences; vicarious experiences that alter efficacy beliefs through transmission of competencies and comparison with t...

  5. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Endodontic Irrigants against Enterococcus Faecalis and Escherichia Coli: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik, Noopur; Rehani, Usha; Agarwal, Abhay; Kaushik, Mayur; Adlakha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the relative antimicrobial efficacy of five different commonly used antimicrobial agents with regard to reduction in the number of Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli as compared to normal saline. An agar disk diffusion in vitro method was used to test the efficacy of the root canal irrigants against these two microorganisms. The root canal irrigants used were: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 10% citric acid, 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 3%...

  6. Surface-attached cells, biofilms and biocide susceptibility: implications for hospital cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, J A; Vickery, K; Walker, J T; deLancey Pulcini, E; Stoodley, P; Goldenberg, S D; Salkeld, J A G; Chewins, J; Yezli, S; Edgeworth, J D

    2015-01-01

    Microbes tend to attach to available surfaces and readily form biofilms, which is problematic in healthcare settings. Biofilms are traditionally associated with wet or damp surfaces such as indwelling medical devices and tubing on medical equipment. However, microbes can survive for extended periods in a desiccated state on dry hospital surfaces, and biofilms have recently been discovered on dry hospital surfaces. Microbes attached to surfaces and in biofilms are less susceptible to biocides, antibiotics and physical stress. Thus, surface attachment and/or biofilm formation may explain how vegetative bacteria can survive on surfaces for weeks to months (or more), interfere with attempts to recover microbes through environmental sampling, and provide a mixed bacterial population for the horizontal transfer of resistance genes. The capacity of existing detergent formulations and disinfectants to disrupt biofilms may have an important and previously unrecognized role in determining their effectiveness in the field, which should be reflected in testing standards. There is a need for further research to elucidate the nature and physiology of microbes on dry hospital surfaces, specifically the prevalence and composition of biofilms. This will inform new approaches to hospital cleaning and disinfection, including novel surfaces that reduce microbial attachment and improve microbial detachment, and methods to augment the activity of biocides against surface-attached microbes such as bacteriophages and antimicrobial peptides. Future strategies to address environmental contamination on hospital surfaces should consider the presence of microbes attached to surfaces, including biofilms. PMID:25447198

  7. Persister cells in a biofilm treated with a biocide

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Lúcia C.; Lemos, Madalena; Pereira, Ana M.; Ana C. Abreu; Saavedra, Maria J.; Simões, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the physiology and behaviour following treatment with ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), of Pseudomonas fluorescens in both the planktonic and sessile states. Steady-state biofilms and planktonic cells were collected from a bioreactor and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were extracted using a method that did not destroy the cells. Cell structure and physiology after EPS extraction were compared in terms of respiratory activity, morphology, cell protein and poly...

  8. Pesticide appliers, biocides, and birth defects in rural Minnesota.

    OpenAIRE

    Garry, V F; Schreinemachers, D; Harkins, M E; Griffith, J

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies by our group suggested the possibility that offspring of pesticide appliers might have increased risks of birth anomalies. To evaluate this hypothesis, 935 births to 34,772 state-licensed, private pesticide appliers in Minnesota occurring between 1989 and 1992 were linked to the Minnesota state birth registry containing 210,723 live births in this timeframe. The birth defect rate for all birth anomalies was significantly increased in children born to private appliers. Specific...

  9. Self-Efficacy and Preparation of Scholarly Writing: Online Doctoral Coursework to Comprehensive Examination--a Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sonya C.

    2013-01-01

    Writing is seldom explicitly taught, most specifically, in academic and scholarly writing. Therefore, this mixed methods correlational phenomenology research study explored the correlation between self-efficacy perception and course room preparation for the comprehensive examination, APA standards in the course room, APA standards evaluation for…

  10. Influence of a Dissection Video Clip on Anxiety, Affect, and Self-Efficacy in Educational Dissection: A Treatment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Randler, Christoph; Demirhan, Eda; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Desch, Inga H.

    2016-01-01

    A predissection video to instruct students about fish dissection was used in a treatment-control study. The dissection film group scored higher in positive affect, negative affect, anxiety, and self-efficacy after the dissection. The dissection film has clear benefits—increasing positive affect and self-efficacy—that come at the cost of higher negative affect and state anxiety.

  11. STIMULATION CHARACTERISTICS, COMPLICATIONS, AND EFFICACY OF SPINAL-CORD STIMULATION SYSTEMS IN PATIENTS WITH REFRACTORY ANGINA - A PROSPECTIVE FEASIBILITY STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEJONGSTE, MJL; NAGELKERKE, D; HOOYSCHUUR, CM; JOURNEE, HL; MEYLER, PWJ; STAAL, MJ; DEJONGE, P; LIE, KI

    1994-01-01

    Objectives: In a prospective study with a 1-year follow-up we evaluated: (1) the feasibility of a method for the adjustment of spinal cord stimulator (SCS) parameters, (2) complications of SCS, and (3) efficacy of SCS. Methods: In patients receiving an SCS for severe angina unresponsive to standard

  12. A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy for Eliciting Speech in Nonverbal Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant…

  13. A Study of the Efficacy of Computerized Skill Building for Adolescents: Reducing Aggression and Increasing Pro-Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robin; Repa, J. Theodore

    This article describes a pilot study that evaluated the efficacy of a computer-based, behavioral skill-building program in reducing aggression and improving academic performance among middle school students. The program is Ripple Effects'"Relate for Teens," a media rich, interactive application based on combining a proprietary learning system with…

  14. Efficacy of polyethylene glycol adhesion barrier after gynecological laparoscopic surgery: Results of a randomized controlled pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R.P. Ten; Kok-Krant, N.; Verhoeve, H.R.; Goor, H. van; Bakkum, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative adhesions are the most frequent complication of peritoneal surgery, causing small bowel obstruction, female infertility and chronic pain. This pilot study assessed the efficacy of a sprayable polyethylene glycol (PEG) barrier in the prevention of de novo adhesions. 16 patients undergoi

  15. A Study of the Effects of the Length of Student-Teaching Experiences on New Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Alan Wayne

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the length of student-teaching experiences and new teacher efficacy. Each year thousands of prospective new teachers endure the interview processes to be hired, complete induction programs, and begin their careers only to determine that the teaching profession is not what they assumed it would be. Local…

  16. Preliminary study showing safety/efficacy of nanoss bioactive versus vitoss as bone graft expanders for lumbar noninstrumented fusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this preliminary study of patients undergoing multilevel lumbar lamienctomies with posterolateral noninstrumented fusions, results were nearly comparable utilizing Vitoss or NanOss as bone graft expanders. Although the number of NanOss patients was substantially lower, the comparable efficacy and absence of postoperative complications for noninstrumented fusions is promising.

  17. A Prospective Study of Return to Work Across Health Conditions : Perceived Work Attitude, Self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Sandra; Reneman, Michiel F.; Bultmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to conduct subgroup-analyses in a prospective cohort of workers on long-term sickness absence to investigate whether associations between perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and time to RTW differ across different health con

  18. The Efficacy of Thermotherapy and Cryotherapy on Pain Relief in Patients with Acute Low Back Pain, A Clinical Trial Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, Morteza; Farahbod, Farinaz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute low back pain is one of the most common health problems especially in industrialized countries where 75 per cent of the population develop it at least once during their life. This study examined the efficacy of thermotherapy and cryotherapy, alongside a routine pharmacologic treatment, on pain relief in patients with acute low back pain referring an orthopedic clinic in Shahrekord, Iran.

  19. The Effect of Ear Playing Instruction on Adult Amateur Wind Instrumentalists' Musical Self-Efficacy: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Barry; Bauer, William

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of ear playing instruction on adult amateur wind instrumentalists' musical self-efficacy. Ten volunteer members of a community band in a small town in Ohio completed the "Ear Playing Profile" both prior to and following an eight-week period of instruction in playing by ear…

  20. A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Group Equine Assisted Counseling with At-Risk Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Kay Sudekum; Chandler, Cynthia K.; Goodwin-Bond, Deborah; Casey, Janie

    2008-01-01

    This study demonstrates the efficacy of Equine Assisted Counseling (EAC) by comparing EAC to classroom-based counseling. Students (n = 164) identified as being at high risk for academic and/or social failure participated in 12 weekly counseling sessions. Within-group paired sample t-test results comparing pre- and post-treatment scores for…

  1. Single Mothers' Self-Efficacy, Parenting in the Home Environment, and Children's Development in a Two-Wave Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Scheines, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 178 single black mothers and their young children who were ages three to five at time 1 and ages five to eight at time 2, this study examined the links between and among low-wage employment, mothers' self-efficacy beliefs, depressive symptoms, and a constellation of parenting behaviors in the preschool years to…

  2. Postmarketing study of efficacy and safety of losartan during the treatment of patients with mild and moderate hypertension: Lothar study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Losartan, the angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB exercises its main antihypertensive effect by vasodilatation of peripheral arteries. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihypertensive effect and safety of losartan in patients with mild and moderate arterial hypertension (AH. Methods. This was an open post-marketing study with losartan as monotherapy in previously treated or untreated patients with AH. Primary efficacy parameter was the percentage of patients that achieved target blood pressure after 8-week treatment with a single daily dose of losartan of 50-100 mg. Safety parameters were assessed according to the percentage of adverse events and metabolic effects of therapy. Results. The study included 550 patients with AH (59% female and 41% male, mean age 56.8±11.4 years, BMI=27±4 kg/m2. Losartan was applied in 31% of untreated and 69% of previously treatment-resistant patients After 8 weeks target blood pressure was achieved in 67.8% (SBP and in 81.1% (DBP of patients, respectively. The mean decrease was 21.8% for SBP and 21.1% for DBP (p<0.001. Out of all, 65% of patients achieved both target SBP and DBP values. Hydrochlorothiazide was added to the therapy in 11.6% of patients. There were no significant differences in drug efficacy between the entire group and subgroups of patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired renal function (p=ns. Adverse events were rare and metabolic effect was favorable. Conclusion. Monotherapy with losartan in a dosage of 50-100 mg applied during 8 weeks resulted in achieving target values of blood pressure in 65% of patient with mild and moderate hypertension, also including the patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired renal function. Losartan is a safe and metabolically neutral medication.

  3. Efficacy of sorafenib on metastatic renal cell carcinoma in Asian patients: Results from a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Yijun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of sorafenib in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC have been confirmed in an international collaborative phase III trial. This study aims to confirm similar efficacy and treatment-induced toxicities of sorafenib in the treatment of metastatic RCC in ethnic Chinese patients. Methods Ninety-eight consecutive and non-selected patients with pathologically confirmed metastatic RCC were treated according to an institutional treatment protocol. All patients were treated with 400 mg of sorafenib orally twice daily on a continuous basis until disease progression or intolerance to treatment occurred. Dose reduction to 400 mg once daily was required if grade 3 or 4 toxicities occurred. All patients except for 7 received nephrectomy in the course of their disease. All patients were assessed for tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS, and treatment-induced toxicities. Results The median follow-up time was 76 weeks (range 2–296 weeks for the entire group of patients. Radiologically confirmed complete response (CR, partial response (PR, stable disease (SD of more than 4 months, and disease progression as best objective responses were observed in 1 (1%, 23 (23.5%, 62 (63.3%, and 12 (12.2% patients, respectively. The tumor control rate (CR+PR+SD of >4 months was 87.8%. The 1-year estimated PFS and OS were 58.4% and 64.6%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS time was 60 weeks (95% CI 41–79; and the median overall survival (OS time was not reached with a follow-up of 76 weeks. Reduction of sorafenib dose was required in 26 patients who developed grade 3 or 4 treatment-cause adverse-effects. An additional 9 patients discontinued sorafenib treatment due to severe adverse-effects. No grade 5 toxicity occurred. Multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictive factors for tumor response to sorafenib treatment included ECOG status, presence of lymph node

  4. Clinical and biometrological efficacy of a hyaluronic acid-based mesotherapy product: a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baspeyras, Martine; Rouvrais, Céline; Liégard, Laetitia; Delalleau, Alexandre; Letellier, Sandrine; Bacle, Irène; Courrech, Laetitia; Murat, Pascale; Mengeaud, Valérie; Schmitt, Anne-Marie

    2013-10-01

    Data demonstrating the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based mesotherapy for skin rejuvenation are scarce. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of non-reticulated HA-based mesotherapy on skin elasticity and complexion radiance. 55 women with cutaneous ageing signs included in the Full Analysis Set (FAS) population blindly received intradermal micro-injections (50 × 0.02 mL) of non-cross-linked HA filler with mannitol (Glytone 1, HA concentration: 14 mg/g) in one cheek and saline physiological solution in the other according to hemifacial randomisation in 3 monthly sessions. Elasticity (E1 and E2 stiffness parameters) and dermis thickness were measured by cutometry and 20 MHz echography, before (D0) treatment and 1 (1M) and 3 months (3M) after the last injection. A trained panel blindly scored skin complexion radiance from standardised and calibrated photographs, using 100 mm analogue scales. In the FAS population, only HA filler significantly decreased E1 at 1M (-10.9 %, p = 0.026) and 3M (-10.5 %, p = 0.035) compared with D0; its effect versus the control tended to be more persistent, with a difference between treatments at 3M close to significance (p = 0.063). E2 also decreased at 1M (-8.2 %, p = 0.027 in the per protocol population, n = 53) and 3M after HA-treatment only. Dermis thickness significantly increased after HA-treatment at 1M (+3.4 %, p = 0.028) and 3M (+4 %, p = 0.008), and after control-treatment at 1M only (+2.5 %, p = 0.015). The HA filler significantly improved complexion radiance at 3M compared with the control (p = 0.012) and for 51 % of subjects, their skin status. Non-reticulated HA-based mesotherapy significantly and sustainably improves skin elasticity and complexion radiance. PMID:23715889

  5. Efficacy of sorafenib on metastatic renal cell carcinoma in Asian patients: Results from a multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of sorafenib in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have been confirmed in an international collaborative phase III trial. This study aims to confirm similar efficacy and treatment-induced toxicities of sorafenib in the treatment of metastatic RCC in ethnic Chinese patients. Ninety-eight consecutive and non-selected patients with pathologically confirmed metastatic RCC were treated according to an institutional treatment protocol. All patients were treated with 400 mg of sorafenib orally twice daily on a continuous basis until disease progression or intolerance to treatment occurred. Dose reduction to 400 mg once daily was required if grade 3 or 4 toxicities occurred. All patients except for 7 received nephrectomy in the course of their disease. All patients were assessed for tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and treatment-induced toxicities. The median follow-up time was 76 weeks (range 2–296 weeks) for the entire group of patients. Radiologically confirmed complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD) of more than 4 months, and disease progression as best objective responses were observed in 1 (1%), 23 (23.5%), 62 (63.3%), and 12 (12.2%) patients, respectively. The tumor control rate (CR+PR+SD of >4 months) was 87.8%. The 1-year estimated PFS and OS were 58.4% and 64.6%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 60 weeks (95% CI 41–79); and the median overall survival (OS) time was not reached with a follow-up of 76 weeks. Reduction of sorafenib dose was required in 26 patients who developed grade 3 or 4 treatment-cause adverse-effects. An additional 9 patients discontinued sorafenib treatment due to severe adverse-effects. No grade 5 toxicity occurred. Multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictive factors for tumor response to sorafenib treatment included ECOG status, presence of lymph node metastasis, and nephrectomy prior to the

  6. Racemic salbutamol and levosalbutamol in mild persistent asthma: A comparative study of efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Maiti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The effect of monotherapy with racemic salbutamol and levosalbutamol on symptoms, quality of life, and pulmonary function has been assessed and compared in mild persistent asthma. Materials and Methods : A randomized, open, parallel clinical study was conducted on 60 patients of mild persistent asthma. After baseline assessments, salbutamol was prescribed to 30 patients and levosalbutamol to another 30 for 4 weeks. The efficacy variables were change in asthma symptom scoring, pulmonary function test, and Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniAQLQ scoring. At follow-up, the patients were re-evaluated and analyzed by statistical tools. Results : Shortness of breath (P<0.001, chest tightness (P=0.033, wheeze (P=0.01, cough (P=0.024, and overall asthma symptom score (P<0.001 were significantly decreased in the levosalbutamol group in comparison to the salbutamol group. Results of MiniAQLQ revealed that improvement in symptoms (P=0.018, activity limitations (P=0.03, environmental stimuli (P=0.013-related scoring and overall MiniAQLQ scoring (P<0.001 was statistically significant in the levosalbutamol group. Percentage reversibility of forced expiratory volume at one second (P=0.034, forced vital capacity (P=0.029, peak expiratory flow rate (P=0.0003 was found to be superior in the levosalbutamol group. Conclusion : Levosalbutamol was found to be superior compared to recemic salbutamol in mild persistent asthma.

  7. Efficacy of Fluidized Bed Bioartificial Liver in Treating Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Pigs: A Metabolomics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Shao, Li; Zhao, Lifu; Lv, Guoliang; Pan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Anye; Li, Jianzhou; Zhou, Ning; Chen, Deying; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Bioartificial livers may act as a promising therapy for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) with better accessibility and less injury compared to orthotopic liver transplantation. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fluidized bed bioartificial liver (FBBAL) and to explore its therapeutic mechanisms based on metabolomics. FHF was induced by D-galactosamine. Eighteen hours later, pigs were treated with an FBBAL containing encapsulated primary porcine hepatocytes (B group), with a sham FBBAL (containing cell-free capsules, S group) or with only intensive care (C group) for 6 h. Serum samples were assayed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The difference in survival time (51.6 ± 7.9 h vs. 49.3 ± 6.6 h) and serum metabolome was negligible between the S and C groups, whereas FBBAL treatment significantly prolonged survival time (70.4 ± 11.5h, P sphingomyelinase, and fatty acids and an increase in conjugated bile acids. The FBBAL exhibits some liver functions and may exert its therapeutic effect by altering the serum metabolome of FHF pigs. Moreover, alginate-chitosan capsules have less influence on serum metabolites. Nevertheless, the alterations were not universally beneficial, revealing that much should be done to improve the FBBAL. PMID:27194381

  8. 'In vitro' study of the efficacy of diode laser and LED irradiation during dental bleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of LED and laser diode irradiation during the dental bleaching procedure, using two bleaching agents (Opalescence X-tra and HP Whiteness). The diode laser and the LED were operated in the continuous mode, with wavelength of 808 nm and 470 nm, respectively. The results of the irradiations were characterized with the CIELAB system calculating the L*a*b* values for the darkened and the bleached teeth (60 bovine incisors). This is to our knowledge the first time that light sources laser and LED are compared with respect to their whitening capability when applied to different agents. Significant differences in the chroma value are obtained for the two whitening agents and for the different light sources, too. Also, in terms of luminance, the combination of laser/ Whiteness HP showed significantly better results than when the same agent was used alone or in combination with LED. Best overall results are obtained with the combination of Whiteness HP and laser. (author)

  9. Efficacy Study of Broken Rice Maltodextrin in In Vitro Wound Healing Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahiah Mohamed Amin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maltodextrins that contain both simple sugars and polymers of saccharides have been widely used as ingredients in food products and pharmaceutical delivery systems. To date, no much work has been reported on the applications of maltodextrin from broken rice (RB sources. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate the in vitro wound healing efficacy of RB maltodextrin at different conditions. Wounds treated with lower dextrose equivalent (DE range (DE 10–14 of maltodextrins at a concentration of 10% obtained from RB were found to be able to heal the wounds significantly faster (p<0.01 than maltodextrin with higher DE ranges (DE 15–19 and DE 20–24 and concentrations of 5% and 20%. The findings from both BrdU and MTT assay further confirmed its wound healing properties as the NIH 3T3 fibroblast wounded cells were able to proliferate without causing cytotoxic effect when wounded cell was treated with maltodextrin. All these findings indicated that the RB maltodextrin could perform better than the commercial maltodextrin at the same DE range. This study showed that RB maltodextrins had better functionality properties than other maltodextrin sources and played a beneficial role in wound healing application.

  10. Multigram Synthesis and in Vivo Efficacy Studies of a Novel Multitarget Anti-Alzheimer’s Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Sola

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the multigram synthesis and in vivo efficacy studies of a donepezil‒huprine hybrid that has been found to display a promising in vitro multitarget profile of interest for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Its synthesis features as the key step a novel multigram preparative chromatographic resolution of intermediate racemic huprine Y by chiral HPLC. Administration of this compound to transgenic CL4176 and CL2006 Caenorhabditis elegans strains expressing human Aβ42, here used as simplified animal models of AD, led to a significant protection from the toxicity induced by Aβ42. However, this protective effect was not accompanied, in CL2006 worms, by a reduction of amyloid deposits. Oral administration for 3 months to transgenic APPSL mice, a well-established animal model of AD, improved short-term memory, but did not alter brain levels of Aβ peptides nor cortical and hippocampal amyloid plaque load. Despite the clear protective and cognitive effects of AVCRI104P4, the lack of Aβ lowering effect in vivo might be related to its lower in vitro potency toward Aβ aggregation and formation as compared with its higher anticholinesterase activities. Further lead optimization in this series should thus focus on improving the anti-amyloid/anticholinesterase activity ratio.

  11. Hypocholesterolemic Efficacy of Quercetin Rich Onion Juice in Healthy Mild Hypercholesterolemic Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsong-Ming; Chiu, Hui-Fang; Shen, You-Cheng; Chung, Chia-Chun; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-12-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely employed as a food ingredient as well as traditional remedy to treat fever, burns, and scurvy. The present study focused on the modulator efficacy of the quercetin rich onion juice on lipid profile and antioxidant status in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Twenty-four healthy subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia (≧ 200 mg/dL) were recruited and divided into two groups, and they consumed 100 mL of onion juice or placebo every day for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at initial, 2nd, 6th, 8th, 10th week for estimating various biochemical assays, as well as anthropometric indices. After 8 weeks of intervention, onion juice greatly decreased (p < 0.05) waist circumference, total cholesterol and LDL-c. In addition, it elevates (p < 0.05) total antioxidation capacity and prolong lag-time of LDL oxidation were also noted. To conclude, drinking onion juice could markedly suppress cholesterol level and elevate total antioxidation capacity. Hence, onion juice was probably recommended for combating various cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26385226

  12. Prospective study of vaginal dilator use adherence and efficacy following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Vaginal stenosis (VS) after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) can impair long-term quality of life. We prospectively assessed adherence and efficacy of vaginal dilator (VD) use in women after pelvic RT. Material and methods: Women with gastrointestinal (n = 63) and gynecologic (n = 46) cancers self-reported use and VD size in monthly diaries for 12 months after radiotherapy. Adherence was measured as actual VD use out of recommended times over 12 months (3×/week × 52 weeks = 156). Results: Among 109 participants, aged 28–81 years (median, 58 years), mean percent adherence over 12 months was 42% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36–48%). Adherence was highest in the first quarter (56%), but fell to 25% by the fourth. Disease type, treatment sequence, and chemotherapy were predictors of adherence (all P < .05). Eighty-two percent maintained pre-RT VD size at 12 months; of 49% with a decrease in VD size at 1 month post-RT, 71% returned to pre-RT VD size at 12 months. Disease type, younger age, and increased adherence at 6 months were associated with maintaining or returning to pre-RT size at 12 months (all P ⩽ .05). Conclusion: VD use is effective in minimizing VS, but adherence at 12 months was poor. Studies evaluating methods of improving adherence and determining the optimal frequency and duration of use are needed

  13. Metacognitive and social cognition training (MSCT) in schizophrenia: a preliminary efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Nuno B F; Queirós, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Psychosocial interventions have proven to be effective in treating social cognition in people with psychotic disorders. The current study aimed to determine the effects of a metacognitive and social cognition training (MSCT) program, designed to both remediate deficits and correct biases in social cognition. Thirty-five clinically stable outpatients were recruited and assigned to the MSCT program (n=19) for 10 weeks (18 sessions) or to the TAU group (n=16), and they all completed pre- and post-treatment assessments of social cognition, cognitive biases, functioning and symptoms. The MSCT group demonstrated a significant improvement in theory of mind, social perception, emotion recognition and social functioning. Additionally, the tendency to jump to conclusions was significantly reduced among the MSCT group after training. There were no differential benefits regarding clinical symptoms except for one trend group effect for general psychopathology. The results support the efficacy of the MSCT format, but further development of the training program is required to increase the benefits related to attributional style. PMID:23962827

  14. Efficacy of Anti-TNFα in Severe and Refractory Neuro-Behcet Disease: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Anne Claire; Addimanda, Olga; Bertrand, Anne; Deroux, Alban; Pérard, Laurent; Depaz, Raphael; Hachulla, Eric; Lambert, Marc; Launay, David; Subran, Benjamin; Ackerman, Felix; Mariette, Xavier; Cohen, Fleur; Marie, Isabelle; Salvarini, Carlo; Cacoub, Patrice; Saadoun, David

    2016-06-01

    To report the safety and efficacy of anti-tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) therapy in severe and refractory neuro-Behçet disease (NBD) patients.Observational, multicenter study including 17 BD patients (70.6% of male, with a median age of 39.3 [24-60] years), with symptomatic parenchymal NBD, refractory to previous immunosuppressant and treated with anti-TNFα (infliximab 5 mg/kg [n = 13] or adalimumab [n = 4]). Complete remission was defined by the disappearance of all neurological symptoms and by the improvement of radiological abnormalities at 12 months.Overall improvement following anti-TNF was evidenced in 16/17 (94.1%) patients including 6 (35.3%) complete response and 10 (58.8%) partial response. The median time to achieve remission was 3 months (1-6). The median Rankin score was 2 (1-4) at the initiation of anti-TNFα versus 1 (0-4) at the time of remission (P = 0.01). Corticosteroids have been stopped in 4 (23.5%) patients, and reduced by more than 50% as compared with the dosage at baseline in 10 (58.8%) patients. Side effects occurred in 23.5% of patients and required treatment discontinuation in 17% of cases.TNF blockade represents an effective therapeutic approach for patients with severe and refractory NBD, a difficult to treat population. PMID:27281066

  15. Micropollutants in closed life-support systems: the case of triclosan, a biocide excreted via urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Pycke, Benny; Boon, Nico; de Wever, Heleen; Hendrickx, Larissa; Mastroleo, Felice; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max; Verstraete, Willy

    OBJECTIVES: The impact of triclosan on the growth and physiology of the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum was studied in the frame of the regenerative life-support system, Micro- Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA). A wide range of compounds, such as steroid hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, might enter the life support system via the excrements that are to be treated and recycled. Triclosan was chosen as the first compound to be tested because MELiSSA is a closed system, which is consequently particularly sensitive to compounds inhibiting the microbial metabolism. Because triclosan is increasingly used as an antimicrobial biocide in hygienic formulations (such as toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants, etc.) and due to its chemical stability, it is considered an emerging pollutant in terrestrial ecosystems. METHODS: In a first phase, the triclosan concentration expected in the life-support system was estimated, the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined via plating, and the effect on growth kinetics was assessed by comparing growth parameters in the Gompertz model. In a second phase, the secondary effects of triclosan on cell physiology and gene expression were studied through flow-cytometry and microarray analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Based on the pharmacokinetic data from literature, the predicted concentration range is estimated to be 6-25µg/L triclosan in the Rhodospirillum rubrum compartment of the MELiSSA. The minimal inhibitory concentration of triclosan was determined to be 71 µg/L after 7 days of exposure on Sistrom medium. Upon exposure to 50-200µg/L triclosan, triclosan-resistant mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum arose spontaneously at high frequency (3.1 ∗ 10 - 4). Analysis of the growth kinetics of the wild-type revealed that triclosan causes an important elongation of the lag-phase and a decrease in growth rate. At concentrations higher than 75mg/L(LD = 500mg/L), triclosan is bactericidal to wild

  16. Biocidal activity of chicken defensin-9 against microbial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Haitham A; El-Hamidy, Salem M; Mahmoud, Maged M; Baeshen, Mohamed Nabih; Almehdar, Hussein A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Redwan, Elrashdy M; Al-Maghrabi, Omar A; Elazzazy, Ahmed M

    2016-04-01

    In this study we identified the expression patterns of β-defensin-9 in chickens from Saudi Arabia, evaluated the antimicrobial activities of synthetic chicken β-defensin-9 (sAvBD-9) against pathogenic bacteria and fungi, and investigated the mode of action of sAvBD-9 on bacterial cells. The AvBD-9 gene of Saudi chickens encodes a polypeptide of 67 amino acids, which is highly similar to the polypeptide in duck, quail, and goose (97%, 86%, and 87%, respectively) and shares a low sequence similarity with the mammalian defensins. AvBD-9 is expressed in various organs and tissues of Saudi chickens and inhibits the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as showing activity against unicellular and multicellular fungi (Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, and Candida albicans). sAvBD-9 completely inhibited the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains as well as Candida albicans. The haemolytic effects of sAvBD-9 were limited. Morphological analysis by TEM revealed that sAvBD-9 induces shortening and swelling of Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella sonni cells, opens holes and deep craters in their envelopes, and leads to the release of their cytoplasmic content. Our data shed light on the potential applications of sAvBD-9 in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26914652

  17. The effect of image translation table on diagnostic efficacy of myocardial perfusion SPECT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine which of the most popular colour scales used in the Xeleris processing system (GE) should preferably be used during a clinical interpretation of myocardial perfusion images, and to find out whether a colour scale saturation level affects the diagnostic efficacy of the study. Material And Methods: From among 100 patients in whom a myocardial perfusion scintigraphy had been performed, a subgroup of people referred for coronary angiography, with neither prior history nor ECG signs of a myocardial infarction has been selected retrospectively. This group consisted of 41 patients (14 females) in the age group 46 to 76 years. All patients underwent two-day myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging using 99mTc-MIBI as a radiopharmaceutical. Reconstructed slices were interpreted in 3 colour scales: white-red-yellow-green-blue-black with computer-assigned thresholds (French 100%), the same French scale but without a white colour (image maximum set manually to a border value between red and white - French w.w.), and a white-yellow-violet-pink-blue-black scale (GEcolor), by consensus of two experienced nuclear medicine specialists. A semiquantitative method for evaluation of perfusion images was applied, based on myocardium segmentation. Perfusion in each segment was scored using a five-point system. Study interpretation (normal/abnormal perfusion) was based on summed stress scores (SSS), being equal/above or below a given threshold value. The choice of optimal SSS threshold value was based on sensitivity and specificity of the study in detection of perfusion defects resulting from critical stenoses of main coronary arteries. Results: SSS values differed among colour scales (p < 0.00001). The lowest values were obtained for a French 100% scale (mean value = 5.0, SD = 8.0), the highest for French w.w. (mean values = 8.1, SD = 8.7), and for GE colour scale - mean value - 5.6, SD - 7.9. A French 100% scale gave high sensitivity (88

  18. Evaluating the efficacy of probiotic on treatment in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) - A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Khalighi, A.R.; Khalighi, M.R.; Behdani, R.; Jamali, J.; Khosravi, A.; Kouhestani, Sh.; H Radmanesh; Esmaeelzadeh, S.; Khalighi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) leads to several gastrointestinal (GI) problems and complications leading to malabsorption. The effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of SIBO syndrome has not been well studied. This pilot study was aimed to assess the efficacy of a probiotic consisting of lactobacilli in the treatment of SIBO. Methods: In this study, 30 cases suffering from chronic abdominal pain or diarrhoea and with a positive hydrogen breath test...

  19. Evaluating the efficacy of probiotic on treatment in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) - A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Khalighi, A.R.; Khalighi, M.R.; Behdani, R.; Jamali, J.; Khosravi, A.; Sh. Kouhestani; H Radmanesh; Esmaeelzadeh, S.; Khalighi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) leads to several gastrointestinal (GI) problems and complications leading to malabsorption. The effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of SIBO syndrome has not been well studied. This pilot study was aimed to assess the efficacy of a probiotic consisting of lactobacilli in the treatment of SIBO. Methods: In this study, 30 cases suffering from chronic abdominal pain or diarrhoea and with a positive hydrogen breath...

  20. Study of the Relationship Between the Creative Writing Skills of Primary School Students and Their Self-Efficacy Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tazegül DEMİR

    2013-01-01

    This study is intended to detect the relationship between creative writing skills of eighth-grade primary school students and their self-efficacy. Relational screening model was used in the study. The population of the study included the eighth-grade students from the schools of central Ankara who received education in the school year of 2010 and 2011. Because the whole of the population could not be reached, 518 eighth-grade students from lower, middle and upper socioeconomic strata (Mamak, ...

  1. To study the pattern, efficacy and tolerability of analgesic self medication among undergraduate medical students: a questionnaire based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Tanwar; Shobhana Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-medication is widely prevalent among medical students. Sufficient data is still lacking in India. The present study was aimed to determine the pattern, efficacy and, tolerability of analgesic self-medication among undergraduate medical students. Methods: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. A structured questionnaire was given to medical students aged 18-24 years. Results were expressed in numbers and percentage. Results: In the present study, 130 stude...

  2. Comparative study of the efficacy of lycopene and aloe vera in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Patil; M G Sghaireen; Sneha Maheshwari; Somnath Reddy Kunsi; Rohit Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high-risk premalignant condition largely seen in the Indian subcontinent. A number of studies have proven the use of antioxidants in the management of OSMF. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two antioxidants, lycopene and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty clinicopathologically diagnosed OSMF patients, were included in the study. They were divided equally...

  3. Studies on the impact, detection, and control of microbiology influenced corrosion related to pitting failures in the Russian oil and gas industry. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, D.

    2006-09-30

    effect of carbon steel. More than three times decrease of corrosion rate on steel surface was observed after lignosulfonate electropolymerization, exceeding protective effect of standard commercially available corrosion inhibitor. Solikamsky lignin could be a promising candidate as a base for the development of the future green corrosion inhibitor. A protective effect of isothiazolones in compositions with other biocides and inhibitors was investigated. Additionally to high biocidal properties, combination of kathon 893 and copper sulfate may also produce a strong anticorrosion effect depending on concentrations of the biocides. Based on its joint biocidal and anticorrosion properties, this combination can be recommended for protection of pipelines against carbon dioxide-induced corrosion. By means of linear polarization resistance test, corrosion properties of biocides of different classes were studied. Isothiazolones can be recommended for treating oil-processing waters in Tatarstan to curb carbon dioxide - induced corrosion. A laboratory research on evaluation of the efficiency of biocides, inhibitors and penetrants by biological and physical-and-chemical methods has been carried out. It was shown that action of corrosion inhibitors and biocides strongly depends on character of their interaction with mineral substances available in waters on oil-exploration sites. It was found that one of approaches to designing environmentally safe ('green') antimicrobial formulations may be the use of synergetic combinations, which allow one to significantly decrease concentrations of biocides. It was shown that the efficacy of biocides and inhibitors depends on physicochemical characteristics of the environment. Anticorrosion and antimicrobial effects of biocides and inhibitors depended in much on the type of medium and aeration regimen. Effects of different biocides, corrosion inhibitors. penetrants and their combinations on the biofilm were investigated. It has been

  4. A study on efficacy of oral zinc therapy for treatment of acrodermatitis enteropathica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE is a disorder of zinc metabolism that occurs in one of two forms: an inborn (congenital form and an acquired form. The inborn form of AE is a rare genetic disorder characterized by intestinal abnormalities that leads to inability to absorb zinc from the intestine. The lack of zinc presents, characteristically, as skin inflammation with pustules occurring around the mouth and/or anus, diarrhea.Aims: To study the efficacy of oral zinc therapy on thirty patients of acrodermatitis enteropathica.Methods: Thirty clinically diagnosed patients of acrodermatitis enteropathica were taken for the study. The criterion of diagnosis of this condition was the clinical picture of symmetrical vesiculo-pustular dermatitis, in upper and lower limbs and periorificial regions.Results and Discussion: In our study maximum (50% patients were below 1 year of age, 33.3% patients were between 13-24 months of age, 6.66% patients were between 25- 36 months and 37- 48 months each and 3.33% patients were between 49- 60 months of age. Nail changes were seen in 60% children. Also, it was seen that perioral area was the commonest (86.6% site involved, followed by anogenital area in 80% patients, palms and soles were involved in 66.6% patients, arms in 46.6% patients and legs were seen in 40% patients. Regarding clinical features, dermatitis was seen in 100%patients, alopecia was seen in 40% patients, diarrhea in 60% patients and mental disturbances were seen in 30 % patients.

  5. Study of efficacy of the combination of carbamazepine with nootropics on cognitive processes in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov A.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the efficacy of combination of carbamazepine with nootropic drugs on cognitive processes in patients with epilepsy in experiment in order to reduce the side effects of anticonvulsant therapy. Analysis of anticonvulsant effect of the combination of drugs was carried out on 36 white nonlinear rats of both sexes weighing 160-180 g by the method of maximum electroshock, and the analysis of antiamnestic effect - using a model of retrograde amnesia on 80 white adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g. For studying the mnemotropic activity of drug, the method of the conditioned reflex of active avoidance was used. The authors discovered that the isolated use of carbamazepine has the most negative influence on cognitive processes in animals, namely the formation of skill, memory engrams and consolidating memory trace as compared with the combined use of carbamazepine with neuroprotective drugs. It was found that the use of combinations of carbamazepine and nootropics in the experiment does not prevent the development of seizures completely, however, these combination can significantly reduce the duration of seizures (p <0.0001. Study of the effectiveness of the combined use of carbamazepine with nootropic drugs, revealed, that the tested drug combinations have a positive effect on cognitive processes and show neuroprotective effect on the brain structures of animals. The revealed effects of combined use of carbamazepine with nootropic drugs by the strength and intensity of the impact is much higher than isolated, while using carbamazepine. It was found, that the most effective combination is a combination of carbamazepine with Gliatilin.

  6. The Efficacy of Neurofeedback in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: An Open Labeled Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Eun-Jin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Choi, Joong-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of neurofeedback on depressive symptoms and electrophysiological disturbances in patients with major depressive disorder. We recruited participants suffering from depression to evaluate efficacy of left prefrontal beta with alpha/theta training. An 8-week, prospective, open-label study was undertaken. Twenty participants were recruited. The treatment protocol was twice or three times a week training of beta at F3 with alpha/theta at Pz for 8 weeks. When every visit, patients were received beta training for 30 min, and then alpha/theta training for 30 min. Baseline, 4 and 8 week scores of; the Hamilton rating scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton rating scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Clinical global impression-severity (CGI-S), and pre- and post-treatment resting state EEGs were compared. Interhemispheric alpha power asymmetry (A score) was computed for homologous sites F3-F4. Pre- and post-training clinical assessments revealed significant improvements in HAM-D, HAM-A, BDI, and CGI-S scores. Cumulative response rates by HAM-D were 35.0 and 75.0 % at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively, corresponding cumulative remission rates by HAM-D were 15.0 and 55.0 %, respectively. No significant differences were found between pre- and post-treatment A score. Neurofeedback treatment could improve depressive symptoms significantly. In addition, anxiety symptoms and clinical illness severity decreased significantly after neurofeedback treatment. Despite its several limitations, such as, small sample size and lack of a control group, this study suggested neurofeedback has significant effects in patients with major depressive disorder. PMID:26392114

  7. Randomised Study to Compare the Efficacy and Tolerability of Duloxetine and Escitalopram in subjects with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Haridas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of depression presents a significant medical challenge. Drugs with improved efficacy and better tolerability are valuable additions to the present therapy of this disorder. Evidence suggests that therapy with a combined serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor may be a more effective therapy of major depressive disorder (MDD than a single neurotransmitter inhibitor. The present study assessed the efficacy and tolerability between duloxetine (dual neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitor 40-60 mg/day and escitalopram (single neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitor 10-20mg/day in 24 patients as an open labeled randomized study over a duration of 12 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was the mean total change in 17 items Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD17 from baseline to end point using the last observation carrying forward. Tolerability was evaluated by assessing discontinuation rates, adverse event rates, vital signs, and laboratory tests. In the present study, the primary analysis detected a statistically significant difference at p=.025 using Fischer’s test between duloxetine and escitalopram in both response and remission rates. There was no significant difference detected in efficacy of onset between the two study groups. Response rate, remission rate and efficacy of onset were highly significant at p<0.05 using Wilcoxon signed rank test within each group. There were a few adverse effects that were mild and self limiting with both molecules. Duloxetine is superior to escitalopram in response and remission of treatment of MDD in similar clinical setting. Both duloxetine and escitalopram are well tolerated molecules at comparable doses.

  8. Well-being and self-efficacy in a sample of undergraduate nurse students: A small survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesack, Anneken; Alcock, John

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports findings from a survey which aimed to explore well-being and self-efficacy and test measures of those constructs with a sample of nurse students in a University setting in the United Kingdom. Evidence indicates that undergraduate nurse programmes combine academic work and clinical placement experience in a mix that can potentially lead to stress and impact on health and well-being. Self-efficacy is known to be a resource that contributes to well-being, resilience and academic achievement and therefore relevant for investigation. A cross-sectional survey approach was used to obtain data using a paper questionnaire including the BBC Well-being Scale and Generalised Self-efficacy Scale. A total of n=108 undergraduate preregistration nurse students participated in this small study from a potential population of 450. The majority of participants (86%) were female, and the majority (75%) were aged 17-35years old. Mean and subscale scores were calculated for both instruments and inferential analyses were carried out using non-parametric techniques. Exploratory factor analyses of the BBC Well-being Scale indicated a three factor structure consistent with validation study findings. Cronbach's alpha was α=.92 for the BBC Well-being Scale and α=.85 for the GSE suggesting that the instruments are valid and reliable measures for nurse education research. Nurse students indicated higher scores on the BBC Well-being Scale and the GSE compared with previously studied populations and a small but significant positive correlation was found between psychological well-being and self-efficacy. Cluster analysis indicated discrete student communities in this sample that varied in their Well-being and GSE scale and subscale scores. Self-efficacy and general well-being in nurse students are worthy of further study and relevant to contemporary nurse education given current interest in interventions to promote student retention and resilience post-registration. PMID

  9. Biocide efficiency against Legionellae and amoebae in cooling towers - the necessity to control the risk of Legionnaires' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guhl, W.; Hater, W.; Stumpe, S. [Henkel KGaA, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Legionella, known to be the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is a wide-spread bacteria occurring naturally in water. Favorable growing conditions in man-made systems can lead to massive growth and thus to a considerable risk for human beings. Evaporative cooling towers provide good living conditions due to their operational conditions. As a consequence, the growth of Legionella in these systems has to be controlled. Amongst other measures biocides are dosed to control the growth of the microbiological population and thus the possible risk of an infection by Legionellae. However, Legionella preferably lives in biofilms and/or amoebae, which strongly shelter this microbe. Furthermore, amoebae by themselves can be harmful to humans as well. Therefore, a biocide treatment should control Legionella (planktonic in water and in biofilms/amoebae) as well as the amoebae. This paper shows that an adapted biocide treatment can increase the efficiency of a biocide against Legionellae and amoebae und therefore minimize the risk of an infection by Legionella. (orig.)

  10. Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of four commonly used biocides on the conjugative transfer of Tn916 in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seier-Petersen, Maria Amalie; Jasni, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2014-01-01

    sodium hypochlorite) on the conjugative transposition of the mobile genetic element Tn916.Methods Conjugation assays were carried out between Bacillus subtilis strains. The donor containing Tn916 was pre-exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of each biocide for a defined length of time, which was...

  11. Effects of marine microbial biofilms on the biocide release rate from antifouling paints – A model-based analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Weinell, Claus E.;

    2006-01-01

    Warmer [W. Gujer, O. Warmer, Modeling mixed population biofilms, in: W.G. Characklis, K.C. Marshall (Eds.), Biofilms, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1990] are used to provide a reaction engineering-based insight to the effects of marine microbial slimes on biocide leaching and, to a minor extent...

  12. A CLINICAL STUDY ON EFFICACY OF NANOCRYSTALLINE SILVER DRESSING IN DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanaiah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is the highest risk factors associated with limb threatening ischemia. Foot ulceration and infection are the major causes of hospi talization in people with diabetes. Signs of infections in these lesions are likely to be masked as people with diabetes may not show typical inflammatory response to infection. Despite this inherent difficulty, diagnosis of infection is essentially clinic al. In addition infection of diabetic foot often involves superficial and deep tissues, including bone. Dressings have a part to play in the management of wounds. They traditionally provide a moist wound environment, handle excessive exudate, aid in debrid ement, and promote disorganised, stalled healing. The control of infection remains a major challenge. Nano - technology makes it possible to expand the surface area of Silver particles markedly to Nano scale. They markedly expand the surface area of silver p articles, increasing their contact with bacteria or fungi, and vastly improving its bactericidal and fungicidal effectiveness. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the efficacy of Nano crystalline silver in the management of diabetic foot ulcer. 2. To compare time required for healing of diabetic foot ulcer with Nano crystalline silver against conventional dressing. 3. Numbe r of Nano crystalline silver dressin g required in comparison with conventional dressing. STUDY DESIGN : Prospective and observational study. SAMPLE SIZE: 100 cases were studied prospectively. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients aged more than 20years with diabetic foot ulcer, Ulcers of size less than 10×10 cm. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Clinical signs of infection, cellulites; X - ray showing Osteomyelitis. Doppler showing atherosclerosis and varicosities. U ncontrolled diabetes, significant medical diseases. Patients on steroids, immunosuppressive agents, radiation, or chemotherapy. STUDY SETTING: S. V. R. R. G. G. Hospital, Tirupati. STUDY PERIOD : From Jan 2013 till November

  13. A clinical study of the safety and efficacy of a novel electric interdental cleaning device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J M; Frascella, J A; Reardon, R C

    1996-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of an electric interdental cleaning device, the Braun Oral-B Interclean (ID2) (Braun AG, Kronberg, Germany), and an American Dental Association-approved manual floss were compared over a four-week period for their effect on interproximal plaque, gingivitis and papillary bleeding with 52 healthy volunteers. Eligible subjects had a complete dental examination before being randomly assigned to one of the two experimental groups. Subjects underwent a dental prophylaxis before receiving instructions in the use of their assigned device. The three parameters of plaque, gingivitis and papillary bleeding were evaluated at Days 1 and 30. The results showed a significant reduction from baseline in all three parameters for both treatment groups (p floss over four weeks compared with those using the ID2, but the difference between groups was not statistically significant. The reduction in gingivitis was comparable between the groups. Similar reductions in papillary bleeding were demonstrated in the two groups. No significant soft tissue pathology was noted in either group. The results demonstrated no statistically significant difference between manual floss and the novel electric interdental cleaning device (ID2). After the 30-day clinical assessment, subjects entered the personal preference phase of the study. Each group crossed over to the other interdental cleaner, was instructed in its use, and directed to use it for an additional 30 days. At the end of this time, all subjects completed a questionnaire. Results from this part of the study revealed that significantly more subjects preferred the ID2 (69.5%) to floss (24.5%). Only 6% expressed no preference. PMID:9238868

  14. Efficacy of monopolar radiofrequency on skin collagen remodeling: a veterinary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Klaus; Bernardy, Jan; Tiplica, George Sonn; Machovcova, Alena

    2015-01-01

    The aesthetic market offers various radiofrequency treatments for the reduction of wrinkles and rhytids. Even though this not an uncommon aesthetic therapy, there is considerable lack of clinical evidence on the various energy delivery systems available (unipolar, bipolar, tripolar, multipolar, etc.). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of a monopolar radiofrequency device (Exilis Elite, BTL Industries Inc., Boston, MA, USA) on the skin collagen in an animal model. The study treatment was done on the abdominal area of the potbellied Vietnamese mini pigs in the Veterinary Research Institute facility. All pigs were treated once per week for 4 weeks. The treatment area was sized 20 × 10 cm. The surface temperature was kept in the therapeutic interval from 39 °C to 43 °C and the therapy lasted for 10 minutes after reaching the therapeutic temperature. Biopsy samples were taken before the therapy and at the 3-month follow-up. The histology samples were stained and magnified (×400) before computer processing. The collagen volume was calculated using the stereological analysis and the data were statistically processed (using the nonparametric two-sample t-test). The collagen content tissue increased from average of 9.0% before the therapy up to 25.9% after the 3-month follow-up period. The statistical comparison of 54 samples taken before and after the treatment acknowledged the significant difference (p = 0.018). The stereological analysis proved large-scale improvement of collagen in the treated area. We have observed that the monopolar radiofrequency therapy significantly increases collagen remodeling. PMID:25640163

  15. CLINICAL STUDY ON THE EFFICACY OF SAMVARDHANA GHRITA ORALLY AND BY MATRABASTI IN MOTOR DISABILITIES OF CEREBRAL PALSY IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Shailaja U; Rao Prasanna N; Arun Raj GR

    2013-01-01

    Objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of Samvardhana ghrita orally and by Matrabasti in motor disabilities of cerebral palsy in children. Study was carried out in the IPD of Dept. of Kaumarabhritya, SDM College of Ayurveda & Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India. 40 children satisfying diagnostic criteria and age 2-10 years were included & randomly distributed into two groups of 20 patients each. Group A (Samvardhana ghrita orally) treated with 5 gms of Samvardhana ghrita with Madhu ...

  16. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand- washing product: a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Torondel, B; Opare, D; Brandberg, B; Cobb, E; Cairncross, S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Moringa oleifera is a plant found in many tropical and subtropical countries. Many different uses and properties have been attributed to this plant, mainly as a nutritional supplement and as a water purifier. Its antibacterial activity against different pathogens has been described in different in vitro settings. However the potential effect of this plant leaf as a hand washing product has never been studied. The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of this product using an in...

  17. Efficacy of chlorhexidine and green tea mouthwashes in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis: A comparative clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Priya, B. Meena; Anitha, V.; Shanmugam, M.; B Ashwath; Sylva, Suganthi D.; Vigneshwari, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The intake of green tea has been increased recently due to its medicinal values. The antibacterial and antioxidant properties of green tea were found to be beneficial in the treatment of gingival and periodontal diseases. The aim of this comparative study was to compare the efficacy of the mouthwash containing green tea and chlorhexidine in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients who participated in the study were divided randomly...

  18. The study of perceived stress, coping strategy and self-efficacy of Chinese undergraduate nursing students in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang-Fang; Lei, Xiao-Ling; He, Wei; Gu, Yan-Hong; Li, Dong-Wen

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the coping strategy and the effects of self-efficacy of Chinese undergraduate nursing students when they face the stress in clinical practice. Convenience sampling was used to recruit undergraduate nursing students in Mainland China who have practiced 3 months in hospitals in their final college year. Self-report questionnaires including demographics, Perceived Stress Scale, coping behaviour inventory and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale were collected. The results showed that during clinical practice, assignments and workload were the most common stress to students; transference was the most frequently used coping strategy by students. Self-efficacy not only had a positive main effect in predicting the frequency of use of staying optimistic and problem solving strategies but also moderated the effects of stress from taking care of patients on transference strategy, as well as stress from assignments and workload on problem solving strategy. It is essential to bolster the students' self-efficacy to reduce stress and adopt positively the coping strategies during clinical practice. PMID:24750234

  19. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Unresectable Standard-chemorefractory Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Survival, Efficacy, and Safety Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the overall survival, efficacy, and safety of radioembolization with yttrium-90 (Y90) for unresectable standard-chemorefractory intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Patients with unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC treated with Y90 were studied. Survival was calculated from the date of first Y90 procedure. Tumor response was assessed with the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria on follow-up computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria (NCI CTCAE), version 3, were used for complications. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan–Meier estimator by the log rank test. Nineteen patients underwent a total of 24 resin-based Y90 treatments. Median survival from the time of diagnosis and first Y90 procedure was 752 ± 193 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 374–1130] and 345 ± 128 (95 % CI 95–595) days, respectively. Median survival with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 1 (n = 15) and ECOG performance status 2 (n = 4) was 450 ± 190 (95 % CI 78–822) and 345 ± 227 (95 % CI 0–790) days, respectively (p = .214). Patients with extrahepatic metastasis (n = 11) had a median survival of 404 ± 309 (95 % CI 0–1010) days versus 345 ± 117 (95 % CI 115–575) days for patients without metastasis (n = 8) (p = .491). No mortality was reported within 30 days from first Y90 radioembolization. One patient developed grade 3 thrombocytopenia as assessed by NCI CTCAE. Fatigue and transient abdominal pain were observed in 4 (21 %) and 6 (32 %) patients, respectively. Y90 radioembolization is effective for unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC.

  20. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Unresectable Standard-chemorefractory Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Survival, Efficacy, and Safety Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafi, Shoaib; Piduru, Sarat M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); El-Rayes, Bassel; Kauh, John S. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology (United States); Kooby, David A.; Sarmiento, Juan M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Surgical Oncology in Surgery (United States); Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: kevin.kim@emory.edu [Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-04-15

    To assess the overall survival, efficacy, and safety of radioembolization with yttrium-90 (Y90) for unresectable standard-chemorefractory intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Patients with unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC treated with Y90 were studied. Survival was calculated from the date of first Y90 procedure. Tumor response was assessed with the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria on follow-up computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria (NCI CTCAE), version 3, were used for complications. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier estimator by the log rank test. Nineteen patients underwent a total of 24 resin-based Y90 treatments. Median survival from the time of diagnosis and first Y90 procedure was 752 {+-} 193 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 374-1130] and 345 {+-} 128 (95 % CI 95-595) days, respectively. Median survival with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 1 (n = 15) and ECOG performance status 2 (n = 4) was 450 {+-} 190 (95 % CI 78-822) and 345 {+-} 227 (95 % CI 0-790) days, respectively (p = .214). Patients with extrahepatic metastasis (n = 11) had a median survival of 404 {+-} 309 (95 % CI 0-1010) days versus 345 {+-} 117 (95 % CI 115-575) days for patients without metastasis (n = 8) (p = .491). No mortality was reported within 30 days from first Y90 radioembolization. One patient developed grade 3 thrombocytopenia as assessed by NCI CTCAE. Fatigue and transient abdominal pain were observed in 4 (21 %) and 6 (32 %) patients, respectively. Y90 radioembolization is effective for unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC.

  1. An experimental Toxoplasma gondii dose response challenge model to study therapeutic or vaccine efficacy in cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B W J Cornelissen

    Full Text Available High numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment are a risk factor to humans. The environmental contamination might be reduced by vaccinating the definitive host, cats. An experimental challenge model is necessary to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a vaccine or drug treatment. Previous studies have indicated that bradyzoites are highly infectious for cats. To infect cats, tissue cysts were isolated from the brains of mice infected with oocysts of T. gondii M4 strain, and bradyzoites were released by pepsin digestion. Free bradyzoites were counted and graded doses (1000, 100, 50, 10, and 250 intact tissue cysts were inoculated orally into three cats each. Oocysts shed by these five groups of cats were collected from faeces by flotation techniques, counted microscopically and estimated by real time PCR. Additionally, the number of T. gondii in heart, tongue and brains were estimated, and serology for anti T. gondii antibodies was performed. A Beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the infectivity of single bradyzoites and linear regression was used to determine the relation between inoculated dose and numbers of oocyst shed. We found that real time PCR was more sensitive than microscopic detection of oocysts, and oocysts were detected by PCR in faeces of cats fed 10 bradyzoites but by microscopic examination. Real time PCR may only detect fragments of T. gondii DNA without the presence of oocysts in low doses. Prevalence of tissue cysts of T. gondii in tongue, heart and brains, and anti T. gondii antibody concentrations were all found to depend on the inoculated bradyzoite dose. The combination of the experimental challenge model and the dose response analysis provides a suitable reference for quantifying the potential reduction in human health risk due to a treatment of domestic cats by vaccination or by therapeutic drug application.

  2. The efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy on chemotherapeutic extravasation ulcers: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Isci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The extravasation of the chemotherapeutic agents is not an unusual phenomenon. Necrosis of the skin and underlying structures has been reported, depending on the cytotoxicity of the extravasating drug. Despite the presence of some antidotes, such wounds tend to enlarge with time and are likely to resist the treatment. Aims: The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT on extravasation ulcers. Settings and Design: Animals were separated into two groups; conventional dressing group and NPWT group. Materials and Methods: Extravasation necrosis was established by intradermal doxorubicin injection. Following the debridement of the necrotic areas, one group of animals was treated with the conventional dressing while NPWT was applied to the other group. The wound areas were measured, and then biopsies were taken on the 3 rd , 7 th and 14 th days after the debridement. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 11.5 for Windows was used. Two-way ANOVA test was used to compare wound areas between groups. Willcoxon sign test with Bonferroni correction was used to compare histological scores between groups. Chi-square test with Bonferroni correction was used to compare histological scores within the group between the days. Results: There is no significant difference in terms of inflammatory cell count, neovascularisation, granulation tissue formation between the groups. Contrary to these results wound areas at the end of the treatment were smaller in the NPWT group compared with the dressing group. Conclusion: There is the superiority of NPWT over conventional dressing in chemotherapeutic extravasation wounds as well as the wound area is concerned, but it is not proven histologically.

  3. Revealing anti-cariogenic efficacy of smokeless tobacco: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Tandon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tobacco plant, Nicotiana tabacum, has been responsible for more deaths than any other herb. However, the literature has also been endowed with its use as "holy herb" since the pre-Columbian era. Used for treating pain, poisonous bites, ulcers, nasal polyps, and basal cell carcinoma; it also acts as an important ingredient of commercially available toothpastes; and even used as tobacco vaccines against Streptococcus species as highlighted in the literature. Aims and Objectives: (1 To elicit the anti-microbial property of tobacco against Streptococcus mutans, if any, in raw smokeless tobacco. (2 To study the relationship of duration and growth inhibition efficacy of smokeless tobacco. Materials and Methods: Extracts were prepared by centrifugation of mixed raw smokeless tobacco with Ringer′s lactate solution and with saliva. The extracts were placed in wells prepared on Mitis salivarius culture plate and incubated at 37΀C for 24 h after 0 h, 1 h, and 2 h of extract preparation. The inhibition zones were measured on the underside of plate using the vernier calipers. Results: Smokeless tobacco has a statistically significant zone of inhibition, which proves its anti-microbial activity against S. mutans. However, the mean zones of inhibition were greater for Ringer′s lactate and tobacco group as compared to test samples (saliva and tobacco with subsequent reduction of inhibition zones with an increase in duration. Conclusion: The anti-microbial property of extensive tobacco resources can be utilized from their extracts in order to balance the deterioration it had caused to mankind.

  4. Efficacy of pamiray as a nonionic intravenous contrast material; experimental study suing normal rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the efficacy of Pamiray as an intravenous nonionic contrast material by comparing it with an established nonionic contrast material (Iopamiro). Forty adult New Zealand white rabbits weighing about 3.0 kg were used in this study. Aortography and urography (scout, 5, 15 and 30 minutes delay after injection) were performed in ten rabbits with Pamiray (370 mgI/mL) and in other ten rabbits with Iopamiro (370 mgI/mL). All twenty rabbits underwent abdominal triple-phase spiral CT before and 5 and 30 seconds after injection of the contrast material. The degree of contrast enhancement seen on aortograms and intravenous urograms was determined using a three-point scale by two radiologists, who reached a consensus. CT attenuation expressed in Hounsfield units (HU) was measured using the regions of interest (ROIs) facility in the liver, bilateral kidneys, aorta, portal vein, and inferior vena cave. The Mann-Whitney U test was used in image evaluation for intergroup comparisons. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the degree of contrast enhancement seen on aortograms. In urography, however, Iopamiro was superior to Pamiray in demonstrating calyces of the right kidney on 15-minute delay images and Pamiray was superior to Iopamiro in demonstrating the right ureter and the renal pelvis on five minute-delay images and the left ureter on 30 minutes delay (p less than 0.05). Peak enhancement of the aorta during the first phase of abdominal CT was higher in the group in which Pamiray was used. When normal rabbits were used for aortography, abdominal CT, and urography, Pamiray provided more effective contrast enhancement than a previously used nonionic contrast material, namely Iopamiro. There were, however, slight differences in the enhancement features of renal calyces and ureters seen on 5- and 15-minute urograms. (author)

  5. Feasibility and efficacy of cognitive telerehabilitation in early Alzheimer’s disease: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelcic, Nela; Agostini, Michela; Meneghello, Francesca; Bussè, Cinzia; Parise, Sara; Galano, Antonietta; Tonin, Paolo; Dam, Mauro; Cagnin, Annachiara

    2014-01-01

    Background This pilot study compared the effects of lexical-semantic stimulation through telecommunication technology (LSS-tele) with in-person LSS (LSS-direct) and unstructured cognitive treatment (UCS) in patients with early Alzheimer’s disease. Methods Twenty-seven patients with Alzheimer’s disease in the very early stage (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] >26/30) were divided into three groups: seven patients received LSS-tele treatment, ten received standard LSS-direct intervention, and ten participants underwent UCS as control condition. Intervention treatments consisted of two weekly sessions of LSS (through teleconference or face to face depending on group assignment) or UCS exercises administered to small groups throughout a 3-month period. The main outcome measures were changes of global cognitive performance, language abilities, and memory function. Secondary outcome measures were changes in attention, working memory, executive functions, and visual-spatial abilities tests. Results The mean MMSE score improved significantly in LSS-tele and LSS-direct treatments; LSS-tele improved language abilities, both phonemic and semantic, and stabilized delayed verbal episodic memory with respect to an improved performance after the LSS-direct intervention and to a memory decline observed in the control group. Improvement was not achieved in any neuropsychological test score after UCS. Conclusion Clinical application of telecommunication technology to cognitive rehabilitation of elderly patients with neurodegenerative cognitive impairment is feasible and may improve global cognitive performance. Technical aspects to ameliorate efficacy of delivery may further improve its impact on domain-specific cognitive abilities. PMID:25284993

  6. CLINICAL STUDY ON EFFICACY OF MANDURABHASMA IN MANAGEMENT OF PANDUROGA WITH AND WITHOUT VIRECHANA KARMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devulapally Anuradha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Panduroga is more prevalent disease so it is given much importance to its treatment. Ayurveda explained array of curative treatments for this disease. Though the Allopathic medical science explained this disease caused by deficiency of iron in the blood and its main etiological factors as malnutrition. But Ayurveda considers this disease more metabolic than nutritional. This is the reason Ayurveda not only advocates various herbs and herbo-mineral compounds as therapeutic agents which many a times contains element of iron but it also advocates certain therapeutic modalities that have got ability to correct the metabolic disfunctions in the body. Among such modalities Virechanakarma is done to eliminate metabolic derangements contributing to the genesis of Panduroga (Anemia. Looking at this unique approach of Ayurveda in treating Panduroga I have selected this comparative study “clinical study on efficacy of mandurabhasma in management of panduroga with and without virechana karma” .Though Ayurveda indicated many single and compound drugs that have got element of iron as therapeutic agents I have selected Mandurabhasma for this present study because according to Ayurveda Mandura is said to be a lohakitta- the residue of iron ore. That means when Iron ore is left in the soil for years together it slowly disintegrates first into its oxide and then disseminate into the soil. Thus the iron disintegrated into its oxide is more light in terms of its processing by the gut, its bioavailability and its utility by the body. The procedure of purification of Mandura loha to be used as medication is relatively simpler than the process of other lohas like Teekshnaloha and Kantaloha. Preparation of Mandurabhasma requires minimal putas and is simpler. Mandura bhasma is softer than any other loha bhasmas interms of intiating biological activities when administered and there by bringing up required beneficial changes in the body.Finally the cost effectiveness

  7. Combined biocidal action of silver nanoparticles and ions against Chlorococcales (Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris) and filamentous algae (Klebsormidium sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouzelka, Radek; Cihakova, Pavlina; Rihova Ambrozova, Jana; Rathousky, Jiri

    2016-05-01

    Despite the extensive research, the mechanism of the antimicrobial and biocidal performance of silver nanoparticles has not been unequivocally elucidated yet. Our study was aimed at the investigation of the ability of silver nanoparticles to suppress the growth of three types of algae colonizing the wetted surfaces or submerged objects and the mechanism of their action. Silver nanoparticles exhibited a substantial toxicity towards Chlorococcales Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris, and filamentous algae Klebsormidium sp., which correlated with their particle size. The particles had very good stability against agglomeration even in the presence of multivalent cations. The concentration of silver ions in equilibrium with nanoparticles markedly depended on the particle size, achieving about 6 % and as low as about 0.1 % or even less for the particles 5 nm in size and for larger ones (40-70 nm), respectively. Even very limited proportion of small particles together with larger ones could substantially increase concentration of Ag ions in solution. The highest toxicity was found for the 5-nm-sized particles, being the smallest ones in this study. Their toxicity was even higher than that of silver ions at the same silver concentration. When compared as a function of the Ag(+) concentration in equilibrium with 5-nm particles, the toxicity of ions was at least 17 times higher than that obtained by dissolving silver nitrite (if not taking into account the effect of nanoparticles themselves). The mechanism of the toxicity of silver nanoparticles was found complex with an important role played by the adsorption of silver nanoparticles and the ions released from the particles on the cell surface. This mechanism could be described as some sort of synergy between nanoparticles and ions. While our study clearly showed the presence of this synergy, its detailed explanation is experimentally highly demanding, requiring a close cooperation between materials scientists

  8. Efficacy and safety of raltegravir for treatment of HIV for 5 years in the BENCHMRK studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eron, Joseph J; Cooper, David A; Steigbigel, Roy T; Clotet, Bonaventura; Gatell, Jose M; Kumar, Princy N; Rockstroh, Jurgen K; Schechter, Mauro; Markowitz, Martin; Yeni, Patrick; Loutfy, Mona R; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lennox, Jeffrey L; Strohmaier, Kim M; Wan, Hong; Barnard, Richard Jo; Nguyen, Bach-Yen T; Teppler, Hedy; Pedersen, Court

    2013-01-01

    Two randomised, placebo-controlled trials-BENCHMRK-1 and BENCHMRK-2-investigated the efficacy and safety of raltegravir, an HIV-1 integrase strand-transfer inhibitor. We report final results of BENCHMRK-1 and BENCHMRK-2 combined at 3 years (the end of the double-blind phase) and 5 years (the end ...

  9. Preservice Teachers' Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy-Forming Experiences: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwatu, Kamau Oginga

    2011-01-01

    The author used an explanatory mixed methods research design. The first phase involved the collection of quantitative data to examine the nature of preservice teachers' (N = 192) culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy beliefs. Follow-up face-to-face interviews were carried out with a subsample selected from Phase 1 participants. These…

  10. Using Self-Efficacy to Measure Primary School Teachers' Perception of ICT: Results from Two Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanni, F.; Rega, I.; Cantoni, L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. First, the final results of two research projects, which investigated the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on primary schools teachers in disadvantaged areas in Brazil (BET k-12) and South Africa (MELISSA), are presented and discussed. Second, the Self-Efficacy construct is proposed as a…

  11. Biocide tolerance, phenotypic and molecular response of lactic acid bacteria isolated from naturally-fermented Aloreña table to different physico-chemical stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado Muñoz, María Del Carmen; Benomar, Nabil; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Knapp, Charles W; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2016-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated throughout the fermentation process of Aloreña table olives were found to be resistant at least to three antibiotics (Casado Muñoz et al., 2014); however, most were sensitive to the biocides tested in this study (with minimum inhibitory concentrations [MIC] below the epidemiological cut-off values). 2-15% of the isolates were found to be biocide resistant: Leuconostoc Pseudomesenteroides, which were resistant to hexachlorophene, and Lactobacillus pentosus to cetrimide and hexadecylpiridinium. We analyzed the effect of different physico-chemical stresses, including antimicrobials, on the phenotypic and genotypic responses of LAB, providing new insights on how they become resistant in a changing environment. Results indicated that similar phenotypic responses were obtained under three stress conditions: antimicrobials, chemicals and UV light. Susceptibility patterns to antibiotics changed: increasing MICs for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, teicoplanin and tetracycline, and decreasing the MICs for clindamycin, erythromycin, streptomycin and trimethoprim in most strains. Statistically, cross resistance between different antibiotics was detected in all stress conditions. However, expression profiles of selected genes involved in stress/resistance response (rpsL, recA, uvrB and srtA) differed depending on the stress parameter, LAB species and strain, and the target gene. We conclude that, despite the uniform phenotypic response to stresses, the repertoire of induced and repressed genes differs. So, a search for a target to improve stress tolerance of LAB, especially those of importance as starter/protective cultures or probiotics, may depend on the individual screening of each strain, even though we could predict the antibiotic phenotypic response to all stresses. PMID:27554140

  12. Research and applications of N-halamine biocidal materials%卤胺抗菌材料的研究和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亢真真; 焦玉超; 张冰; 梁杰

    2012-01-01

    卤胺类化合物是一类新型的抗菌剂,它有效地克服了传统抗菌剂在实际应用中的一些缺点,是一类具有杀菌速度快,杀菌效率高,储存稳定,抗菌功效可再生等优点的绿色环保型抗菌剂.近年来,一些新颖的带有键合基团的卤胺前置体已被成功地接枝到各种基体材料如棉纤维、硅胶、聚苯乙烯树脂、聚乙烯、聚氨酯等的表面来制备各种抗菌材料和产品.特别是大孔交联的高分子卤胺抗菌树脂产品Halopure及其相关技术的成功开发,开创了卤胺抗菌材料在饮用水消毒领域应用的新纪元.介绍了该类抗菌材料的抗菌机理、合成与制备方法以及在日常生活各领域中的广泛应用前景,并对其今后的发展趋势作了展望.%N-halamines, a new class of biocides,overcome some of the disadvantages caused by the traditional biocides in practical applications. They are environmentally friendly germicides due to their fast and efficient sterilization, storage stability, and regeneration. Earlier studies on N-halamines mainly focused on the syntheses and applications of small molecular organic N-halamines such as five-membered and six-membered heterocyclic N-halamine compounds. Compared to traditional inorganic halogen-containing disinfectants such as chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, these heterocyclic N-halamines can maintain disinfection capacity in the water for longer time due to their better stability. Since the late 20th century, non-leaching biocial N-halamine materials have received much attention. Some novel N-halmine precursors with binding groups have been covalently bounded to various materials such as cellulose fiber, silica gel, polystyrene, polyethylene, and polyurethane to produce non-leaching biocidal materials. Specially, the successful development of macroporous cross-linked N-halamine polymer resin materials ( Halopure) and related technologies created a new era for the

  13. A comparative study on the efficacy of four anthelmintics on some important reindeer parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Nordkvist

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available Four anthelmintic preparations were tested against some of the most important parasites of reindeer, i.e. warble fly (Oedemagena tarandi, nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe, brainworm (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Their efficacy against intestinal nematodes was also registered. Test drugs were Fenthion (Bayer, Fenbendazole (Hoechst, Mebendazole (Janssen, and Ivermectin (Merk Sharp & Dohme. Against O. tarandi and C. trompe Ivermectin was 100% effective and Fenthion 86 and 100% respectively. The efficacy of Fen- and Mebendazole against these parasites was not significant. Against E. rangiferi the benzimidazole compounds were highly effective, with Mebendazole a bit ahead. Ivermectin had a moderate effect and Fenthion had no effect on this parasite. Against D. viviparus Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and Ivermectin were of equal, moderate-high effectiveness. No drug had a complete effect on the «arrested» larvae of D. viviparus. Fenthion had no effect at all. Fenbendazole and Ivermectin were both 100% effective against intestinal nematodes. Mebendazole was less effective and Fenthion had no effects. Ivermectin is considered to be the overall most effective anthelmintic in this test.En jamforande studie av effekten av fyra anthelmintika mot några betydelsesfulla parasiter hos ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Fyra antiparasitmedel har prôvats mot några av renens viktigaste parasiter, nàmligen hudkorm (Oedemagena tarandi, svalgkorm (Cephenemyia trompe, hjårnmask (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi och lungmask (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Vidare har medlens effekt på mag- tarmnematoder (Trichostongylider också noterats. De prôvade medicinerna var Fenthion (Bayer, Mebendazole (Leo/Janssen, Fenbendazole (Hoechst och Ivermectin (Merck Sharp & Dohme. Mot hud- och svalgkorm var Ivermectin 100% effektivt medan for Fenthion effekten var 86 resp 100%. Effekten av Fen- och Mebendazole mot de båda parasiterna var inte

  14. Efficacy and safety of flupirtine maleate and tramadol hydrochloride in postoperative pain management--a prospective randomised double blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Syed Mohammed; Sarkar, Niladri; Biswas, Arunava; Kamal, Firdaus; Prakash, Raghu; Rahaman, Q M; Das, Anup Kumar

    2012-03-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of flupirtine maleate 100 mg thrice daily compared to tramadol hydrochloride 50 mg thrice daily as postoperative pain management for 5 days. A total of 113 postoperative patients were recruited for the study. Those who met the inclusion criteria (n = 104) were randomised into two treatment groups. One of the groups received flupirtine maleate and the other tramadol hydrochloride both orally. The pain intensity was assessed by visual analogue scale. Patients were informed to report any adverse effect encountered during the study period. The overall effect of the drug (global assessment of the study medication) on pain and side-effects was assessed by the patients at the end of the trial on a categorical scale. There was significant reduction in pain score (p flupirtine group with almost equal efficacy to that of tramadol group but the incidence of adverse effects were much less (7.4%) and didn't need discontinuation of the study. All drugs were assessed as good. Therefore it can be concluded that oral flupirtine can deliver the same analgesic efficacy as oral tramadol for postoperative pain relief, which might be beneficial for avoiding the adverse effects ofopioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy. PMID:23029946

  15. Unimpeded permeation of water through biocidal graphene oxide sheets anchored on to 3D porous polyolefinic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mural, Prasanna Kumar S.; Jain, Shubham; Kumar, Sachin; Madras, Giridhar; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2016-04-01

    3D porous membranes were developed by etching one of the phases (here PEO, polyethylene oxide) from melt-mixed PE/PEO binary blends. Herein, we have systematically discussed the development of these membranes using X-ray micro-computed tomography. The 3D tomograms of the extruded strands and hot-pressed samples revealed a clear picture as to how the morphology develops and coarsens over a function of time during post-processing operations like compression molding. The coarsening of PE/PEO blends was traced using X-ray micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of annealed blends at different times. It is now understood from X-ray micro-computed tomography that by the addition of a compatibilizer (here lightly maleated PE), a stable morphology can be visualized in 3D. In order to anchor biocidal graphene oxide sheets onto these 3D porous membranes, the PE membranes were chemically modified with acid/ethylene diamine treatment to anchor the GO sheets which were further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface Raman mapping. The transport properties through the membrane clearly reveal unimpeded permeation of water which suggests that anchoring GO on to the membranes does not clog the pores. Antibacterial studies through the direct contact of bacteria with GO anchored PE membranes resulted in 99% of bacterial inactivation. The possible bacterial inactivation through physical disruption of the bacterial cell wall and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) is discussed herein. Thus this study opens new avenues in designing polyolefin based antibacterial 3D porous membranes for water purification.3D porous membranes were developed by etching one of the phases (here PEO, polyethylene oxide) from melt-mixed PE/PEO binary blends. Herein, we have systematically discussed the development of these membranes using X-ray micro-computed tomography. The 3D tomograms of the extruded strands and

  16. A passive apparatus for controlled-flux delivery of biocides: hydrogen peroxide as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stefan Møller; Pedersen, L.T.; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2010-01-01

    A new test method has been developed to estimate the required release rate of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to prevent marine biofouling. The technique exploits a well-defined concentration gradient of biocide across a cellulose acetate membrane. A controlled flux of H2O2, an environmentally friendly......) were applied. However, release rates of 40 mu g cm(-2) day(-1) significantly displaced the distribution of settled larvae towards the area of the chamber farthest away from the membrane. Membrane tests in seawater (Jyllinge Harbour, Denmark) for over 16 weeks showed that release rates of H2O2...... membrane release rates of H2O2 (factor of between 5 and 50) than laboratory membrane exposure assays using barnacle larvae....

  17. Synthesis, characterization and biocidal activities of Schiff base polychelates containing polyurethane links in the main chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Sumaiya; Nishat, Nahid

    The concept of combining metallo-polymers with urethanes offers a versatile approach for the synthesis of new polymeric materials. Polyurethane containing transition metals was synthesized by the reaction of Schiff base metal complex with toluene 2,4 diisocyanate. The proposed structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FT-IR. The geometry is determined by UV-Visible spectra and magnetic moment measurements, which reveals that the Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have octahedral geometry while square planer geometry is reported for Cu(II) and tetrahedral for Zn(II) complex. The antimicrobial activities are determined using the agar well diffusion method with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis (bacteria), Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus (yeast). All the polymeric metal complexes show comparatively good biocidal activity, which is further enhanced after polymerization.

  18. A Comparative Study of Perceived Social Support and Self-Efficacy among Women with Wanted and Unwanted Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahry, Parvin; Kalhori, Sharareh R. Niakan; Esfandiyari, Azar; Zamani-Alavijeh, Feresteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unwanted pregnancy induces adverse attitudes regarding pregnancy which is a natural event by increasing mental and socio-economic difficulties. Insufficient maternal care and low adjustment to parental role are known as consequences of unwanted pregnancy. Perceived social support and self-efficacy in pregnancy influence health related behaviors and may play a crucial role in adaptation to pregnancy; this study was conducted to examine and compare the self-efficacy and social support among two groups of women with wanted and unwanted pregnancy. Methods: This analytical descriptive research was conducted on 315 women referred to 13 health centers in the east and west of Ahvaz in 2011. Data were collected via random stratified sampling method through interview. The instrument of this study was a questionnaire in three distinct parts including demographic, modified Persian version of Vaux General social support (Chronbach`s alpha =0.80) and Persian version of self-efficacy scale (Chronbach`s alpha =0.80). Data were analyzed through independent t-test and ANOVA. A P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 25.8±5.6; unwanted pregnancy occurred in 135 women (42.2%). The mean scores of social support in the two given groups with wanted and unwanted pregnancy were 26.62±4.16 and 22.28±7.57, respectively (P<0.001). Furthermore, the mean scores of self-efficacy for the wanted pregnancy group was 37.77±6.66 and for unwanted pregnancy group it was 31.03±6.31 (P<0.001). Women and their husbands’ age, the number of male offspring in family and marriage years were significantly different in the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that unwanted pregnant women are more likely to be exposed to low level of perceived social support and self-efficacy. Therefore more studies and interventions are recommended to be conducted to analyze the effect of family and friends’ supports on unwanted pregnant women’s perceived

  19. Acanthamoeba encystment: multifactorial effects of buffers, biocides, and demulcents present in contact lens care solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs CJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher J Kovacs, Shawn C Lynch, Marjorie J Rah, Kimberly A Millard, Timothy W Morris Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Rochester, NY, USA Purpose: To determine whether agents which are purportedly capable of inducing encystment of Acanthamoeba can recapitulate the signal when tested in differing formulations. Methods: In accordance with the International Standard ISO 19045, Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 50370 trophozoites were cultured in antibiotic-free axenic medium, treated with test solutions, and encystment rates plus viability were measured via bright field and fluorescent microscopy. Test solutions included phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, borate-buffered saline, biguanide- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-based biocides, propylene glycol (PG and povidone (POV ophthalmic demulcents, and one-step H2O2-based contact lens disinfection systems. Results: Only PBS solutions with 0.25 ppm polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB and increasing concentrations of PG and POV stimulated A. castellanii encystment in a dose-dependent manner, whereas PBS solutions containing 3% H2O2 and increasing concentrations of PG and POV did not stimulate encystment. Borate-buffered saline and PBS/citrate solutions containing PG also did not stimulate encystment. In addition, no encystment was observed after 24 hours, 7 days, or 14 days of exposures of trophozoites to one-step H2O2 contact lens disinfection products or related solutions. Conclusion: The lack of any encystment observed when trophozoites were treated with existing or new one-step H2O2 contact lens care products, as well as when trophozoites were exposed to various related test solutions, confirms that Acanthamoeba encystment is a complex process which depends upon simultaneous contributions of multiple factors including buffers, biocides, and demulcents. Keywords: propylene glycol, contact lens care system, hydrogen peroxide disinfecting solution

  20. Poly(lactic acid)/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites as alternative biocidal and antifungal materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Carmen; Ochoa, Almudena [POLCA, Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Química y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería y Diseño Industrial, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, Madrid (Spain); Ulloa, Maria Teresa; Alvarez, Eduardo [Programa de Microbiología y Micología. ICBM-Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Chile, Dirección, Avenida Independencia 1027, Comuna Independencia, Santiago (Chile); Canales, Daniel [Grupo Polímeros, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Zapata, Paula A., E-mail: paula.zapata@usach.cl [Grupo Polímeros, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-12-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) ~ 10-nm nanoparticles were produced by the melting process and their main properties were evaluated. The nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the matrix with a low degree of agglomeration, as seen by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO{sub 2} was added, showing that the nanoparticles acted as nucleating agents this trend was confirmed by optical images. The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA at 5 wt.% of nanoparticles. Despite these improvements, PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites showed lower shear viscosity than neat PLA, possibly reflecting degradation of the polymer due to the particles. Regarding biocidal properties, after 2 h of contact the PLA/TiO{sub 2} composites with 8 wt.% TiO{sub 2} showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of ~ 82% under no UVA irradiation compared to pure PLA. This biocidal characteristic can be increased under UVA irradiation, with nanocomposites containing 8 wt.% TiO{sub 2} killing 94% of the bacteria. The PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against Aspergillus fumigatus under the UVA irradiation. - Highlights: • PLA composites with titanium oxide (10 nm) were produced by the melting process. • The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO{sub 2} was added. • The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA. • The PLA/TiO{sub 2} composites showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of 94%. • The PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against fungi.

  1. Poly(lactic acid)/TiO2 nanocomposites as alternative biocidal and antifungal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with titanium oxide (TiO2) ~ 10-nm nanoparticles were produced by the melting process and their main properties were evaluated. The nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the matrix with a low degree of agglomeration, as seen by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO2 was added, showing that the nanoparticles acted as nucleating agents this trend was confirmed by optical images. The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA at 5 wt.% of nanoparticles. Despite these improvements, PLA/TiO2 nanocomposites showed lower shear viscosity than neat PLA, possibly reflecting degradation of the polymer due to the particles. Regarding biocidal properties, after 2 h of contact the PLA/TiO2 composites with 8 wt.% TiO2 showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of ~ 82% under no UVA irradiation compared to pure PLA. This biocidal characteristic can be increased under UVA irradiation, with nanocomposites containing 8 wt.% TiO2 killing 94% of the bacteria. The PLA/TiO2 nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against Aspergillus fumigatus under the UVA irradiation. - Highlights: • PLA composites with titanium oxide (10 nm) were produced by the melting process. • The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO2 was added. • The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA. • The PLA/TiO2 composites showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of 94%. • The PLA/TiO2 nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against fungi

  2. Occurrence and persistence of antifouling biocide Irgarol 1051 and its main metabolite in the coastal waters of Southern England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, John L. [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.zhou@sussex.ac.uk

    2008-11-15

    The toxicity and persistence of antifouling booster biocides are of major concern. This study reports the occurrence of Irgarol 1051 and its degradation product M1, in coastal waters of Southern England, during 2004-2005. The highest concentrations of Irgarol 1051 were 89 ng/L in water and 45 ng/g dry weight in sediments, with an overall mean (n = 108) of 13 ng/L and 16 ng/g in water and sediments, respectively. As the degradation product of Irgarol 1051, M1 was less widespread, with the highest concentration of 30 ng/L in water and 14 ng/g in sediments, with an overall mean (n = 108) of 5 ng/L and 4 ng/g in water and sediments, respectively. Overall, the concentration of Irgarol 1051 and M1 decreased significantly during the sampling period and in comparison to earlier studies during 2000 to early 2004, indicating that control measures by restricting the use of Irgarol 1051 are effective in reducing its concentrations in coastal waters. The distribution of Irgarol 1051 between sediments and water was significantly related to sediment organic carbon content. In addition, significantly higher concentrations of Irgarol 1051 were detected in paint particles than in sediment. The rate of release of Irgarol 1051 from paint residues is very slow, with a half life of approximately 1 y. Two important findings are emerging, first the importance of organic rich sediments and paint residues as major sites of storage for Irgarol 1051, and secondly Irgarol 1051 may be classified as a persistent organic pollutant due to its long half life.

  3. Occurrence and persistence of antifouling biocide Irgarol 1051 and its main metabolite in the coastal waters of Southern England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity and persistence of antifouling booster biocides are of major concern. This study reports the occurrence of Irgarol 1051 and its degradation product M1, in coastal waters of Southern England, during 2004-2005. The highest concentrations of Irgarol 1051 were 89 ng/L in water and 45 ng/g dry weight in sediments, with an overall mean (n = 108) of 13 ng/L and 16 ng/g in water and sediments, respectively. As the degradation product of Irgarol 1051, M1 was less widespread, with the highest concentration of 30 ng/L in water and 14 ng/g in sediments, with an overall mean (n = 108) of 5 ng/L and 4 ng/g in water and sediments, respectively. Overall, the concentration of Irgarol 1051 and M1 decreased significantly during the sampling period and in comparison to earlier studies during 2000 to early 2004, indicating that control measures by restricting the use of Irgarol 1051 are effective in reducing its concentrations in coastal waters. The distribution of Irgarol 1051 between sediments and water was significantly related to sediment organic carbon content. In addition, significantly higher concentrations of Irgarol 1051 were detected in paint particles than in sediment. The rate of release of Irgarol 1051 from paint residues is very slow, with a half life of approximately 1 y. Two important findings are emerging, first the importance of organic rich sediments and paint residues as major sites of storage for Irgarol 1051, and secondly Irgarol 1051 may be classified as a persistent organic pollutant due to its long half life

  4. Sex Partnership and Self-Efficacy Influence Depression in Chinese Transgender Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshi Yang

    Full Text Available Transgender women often suffer from transition-related discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender transition, which may pose considerable psychological challenges and may lead to a high prevalence of depression in this population. Increased self-efficacy may combat the adverse effects of gender transition on depression. However, few available studies have investigated the protective effect of self-efficacy on depression among transgender women, and there is a scarcity of research describing the mental health of Chinese transgender women. This study aims to describe the prevalence of depression among Chinese transgender women and to explore the associated factors.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shenyang, Liaoning Province of China by convenience sampling from January 2014 to July 2014. Two hundred and nine Chinese transgender women were interviewed face-to-face with questionnaires that covered topics including the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, demographic characteristics, transition status, sex partnership, perceived transgender-related discrimination, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and the adapted General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the factors associated with SDS scores.The prevalence of depression among transgender women was 45.35%. Transgender women with regular partners or casual partners exhibited higher SDS scores than those without regular partners or casual partners. Regression analyses showed that sex partnership explained most (16.6% of the total variance in depression scores. Self-efficacy was negatively associated with depression.Chinese transgender women experienced high levels of depression. Depression was best predicted by whether transgender women had a regular partner or a casual partner rather than transgender-related discrimination and transition status. Moreover, self-efficacy had positive

  5. G6PD Deficiency and Antimalarial Efficacy for Uncomplicated Malaria in Bangladesh: A Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Benedikt; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Thriemer, Kamala; Hossain, Mohammad Sharif; Kibria, Mohammad Golam; Auburn, Sarah; Poirot, Eugenie; Price, Ric N.; Khan, Wasif Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background The Bangladeshi national treatment guidelines for uncomplicated malaria follow WHO recommendations but without G6PD testing prior to primaquine administration. A prospective observational study was conducted to assess the efficacy of the current antimalarial policy. Methods Patients with uncomplicated malaria, confirmed by microscopy, attending a health care facility in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (days 0–2) plus single dose primaquine (0.75mg/kg on day2) for P. falciparum infections, or with chloroquine (days 0–2) plus 14 days primaquine (3.5mg/kg total over 14 days) for P. vivax infections. Hb was measured on days 0, 2 and 9 in all patients and also on days 16 and 30 in patients with P. vivax infection. Participants were followed for 30 days. The study was registered with the clinical trials website (NCT02389374). Results Between September 2014 and February 2015 a total of 181 patients were enrolled (64% P. falciparum, 30% P. vivax and 6% mixed infections). Median parasite clearance times were 22.0 (Interquartile Range, IQR: 15.2–27.3) hours for P. falciparum, 20.0 (IQR: 9.5–22.7) hours for P. vivax and 16.6 (IQR: 10.0–46.0) hours for mixed infections. All participants were afebrile within 48 hours, two patients with P. falciparum infection remained parasitemic at 48 hours. No patient had recurrent parasitaemia within 30 days. Adjusted male median G6PD activity was 7.82U/gHb. One male participant (1/174) had severe G6PD deficiency (<10% activity), five participants (5/174) had mild G6PD deficiency (10–60% activity). The Hb nadir occurred on day 2 prior to primaquine treatment in P. falciparum and P. vivax infected patients; mean fractional fall in Hb was -8.8% (95%CI -6.7% to -11.0%) and -7.4% (95%CI: -4.5 to -10.4%) respectively. Conclusion The current antimalarial policy remains effective. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency was low. Main contribution to haemolysis in G6PD normal

  6. TO KNOW THE EFFICACY OF GLYCERYL TRINITRATE PATCH AND RITODRINE AS TOCOLYTIC AGENTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usharani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm labour is onset of labour between 20 weeks and 37 completed weeks of gestation. Tocolytics are pharmacological agents that relax the uterine myometrium and inhibit uterine contractions leading to abolition of preterm labour. Many tocolytic drugs have been developed and used and several experimental drugs are being evaluated. Future research is needed for development of drugs with more utero - selectivity and fewer side effects. Ritodrine hydrochloride is now considered one of the most effective tocolytic drug . However, the use of nitroglycerine patch has shown comparable results and there is a need for further critical evaluation by well - planned and well monitored studies. AIM: To compare the efficacy of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate and intravenous ritodrin e as tocolytics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on patients who attended Bapuji Hospital , Chigateri Hospital and women and child hospital, attached to J .J.M . Medical College, Davangere. One hundred patients who were admitted and clinically di agnosed with preterm labour were randomised either to group 1, treated with glyceryl trinitrate patch or group II, treated with ritodrine, with fifty patients in each group. ANALYSIS: Descriptive data that included mean, Standard deviation, percentages wer e determined and presented for each group. Difference between two groups was compared by Mann - Whitney test for continuous data and chi - square test for categorical data. P Valve of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance. RESULTS: mean per centage prolongation of gestation with glyceryl trinitrate was 58±45.9 and with Ritodrine , it was 62±44.6. Mean absolute prolongation of gestation with glyceryl trinitrate was 3.22 weeks and with Ritodrine it was 3.18 weeks. CONCLUSION: Both glyceryl trini trate and ritodrine were comparable in prolongation of gestation in patients in preterm labour, both in duration and in terms of success. The

  7. G6PD Deficiency and Antimalarial Efficacy for Uncomplicated Malaria in Bangladesh: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Ley

    Full Text Available The Bangladeshi national treatment guidelines for uncomplicated malaria follow WHO recommendations but without G6PD testing prior to primaquine administration. A prospective observational study was conducted to assess the efficacy of the current antimalarial policy.Patients with uncomplicated malaria, confirmed by microscopy, attending a health care facility in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (days 0-2 plus single dose primaquine (0.75mg/kg on day2 for P. falciparum infections, or with chloroquine (days 0-2 plus 14 days primaquine (3.5mg/kg total over 14 days for P. vivax infections. Hb was measured on days 0, 2 and 9 in all patients and also on days 16 and 30 in patients with P. vivax infection. Participants were followed for 30 days. The study was registered with the clinical trials website (NCT02389374.Between September 2014 and February 2015 a total of 181 patients were enrolled (64% P. falciparum, 30% P. vivax and 6% mixed infections. Median parasite clearance times were 22.0 (Interquartile Range, IQR: 15.2-27.3 hours for P. falciparum, 20.0 (IQR: 9.5-22.7 hours for P. vivax and 16.6 (IQR: 10.0-46.0 hours for mixed infections. All participants were afebrile within 48 hours, two patients with P. falciparum infection remained parasitemic at 48 hours. No patient had recurrent parasitaemia within 30 days. Adjusted male median G6PD activity was 7.82U/gHb. One male participant (1/174 had severe G6PD deficiency (<10% activity, five participants (5/174 had mild G6PD deficiency (10-60% activity. The Hb nadir occurred on day 2 prior to primaquine treatment in P. falciparum and P. vivax infected patients; mean fractional fall in Hb was -8.8% (95%CI -6.7% to -11.0% and -7.4% (95%CI: -4.5 to -10.4% respectively.The current antimalarial policy remains effective. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency was low. Main contribution to haemolysis in G6PD normal individuals was attributable to acute malaria rather

  8. EVALUATING THE EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT MODALITIES OF TREATMENT FOR PERSISTENT MODERATE-SEVERE ALLERGIC RHINITIS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Koteswar; Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the commonest allergy encountered in clinical practice. There are various treatment modalities available for this disease control, but till now there is no definitive treatment which will cure allergic rhinitis completely. OBJECTIVE The aim of our study is to prospectively evaluate the efficacy of different modalities of treating persistent moderate-severe allergic rhinitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 patients both male and fema...

  9. CLINICAL STUDIES ON AMOEBIASIS AND GIARDIASIS EVALUATING THE EFFICACY OF KUTAJA (HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA) IN ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA CYST PASSERS

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K. P.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical study records the clinical presentations of forty cases with amoebias and / or giardiasis including the efficacy of Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica) in intestinal amoebiasis. E. H. Cyst passers also have symptoms like loose motions, constipation, flatulence, abdominal cramping, diminished appetite and mucus in stools. Patients with giardiasis have more tendency to diarrhoea and flatulence with no mucus in stools. 70 per cent good response was observed in E. H. Cyst passers whe...

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF LAMOTRIGINE AND LEVETIRACETAM IN THE CONTINUOUS MAINTENANCE PHASE OF PATIENTS WITH BIPOLAR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Daryani KK*, Narendra Kumar Bokade and OP Raichandani

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, or manic-depressive illness (MDI), is one of the most common, severe, and persistent mental illnesses. Bipolar disorder is a serious lifelong struggle and challenge The objective of this study is to evaluate the spectrum of efficacy of Lamotrigine versus Levetiracetam as add on therapy comparatively in patient with bipolar depressive disorder who are inadequately responsive to or intolerant of pharmacotherapy with conventional drugs at Jabalpur and adjoining area. In this 60...

  11. The Efficacy and Safety of Clonazepam in Patients with Anxiety Disorder Taking Newer Antidepressants: A Multicenter Naturalistic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Sheng-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Sakong, Jeong Kyu; Suh, Ho-Suk; Oh, Kang Seob; Woo, Jong-Min; Yoo, Sang-Woo; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lim, Se-Won; Cho, Seong Jin; Chee, Ik-Seung; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Hong, Jin Pyo; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of clonazepam with other benzodiazepines in patients with anxiety disorders. Methods Inclusion criteria were as follows: age >20 years, diagnosis of anxiety disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria, taking only one type of antidepressant, and prescribed one of three oral benzodiazepines (alprazolam, clonazepam, or lorazepam). At baseline and week 6...

  12. A preliminary study of the safety, feasibility and cognitive efficacy of soy isoflavone supplements in older men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Carey E Gleason; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Barnet, Jodi H.; Meade, Sarah A.; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Atwood, Craig S.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Ries, Michele L.; Asthana, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Background: a small number of reports exist on the cognitive effects of soy isoflavones, the findings from which are mixed. Isoflavone efficacy is dependent upon conversion of glycosides contained in soy foods and supplements to the biologically active aglycons. Of particular interest is the production of the metabolite, equol, which is dependent upon intestinal microflora and an integrous digestive system, both being altered by age and age-associated conditions. Unfortunately, few studies en...

  13. A phase II study evaluating the efficacy and safety of AMG 102 (rilotumumab) in patients with recurrent glioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Patrick Y.; Schiff, David; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Raizer, Jeffrey J.; Laterra, John; Smitt, Melanie; Wolf, Michael; Kelly S. Oliner; Anderson, Abraham; Zhu, Min; Loh, Elwyn; Reardon, David A.

    2011-01-01

    This phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of AMG 102 (rilotumumab), a fully human monoclonal antibody against hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). Patients with histologically confirmed, measurable recurrent GBM or gliosarcoma (World Health Organization grade 4) and ≤3 relapses or prior systemic therapies received AMG 102 (10 or 20 mg/kg) by infusion every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was best confirmed objective respons...

  14. Efficacy of enamel matrix derivatives (Emdogain) in treatment of replanted teeth – a systematic review based on animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, A.; Attin, T.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the current systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) (Emdogain) on healing of replanted or autotransplanted permanent teeth. A review of the published literature [search term: (Emdogain OR enamel matrix derivative OR enamel matrix protein] AND [avulsion OR replantation OR autotransplantation)] was conducted by two independent investigators according to defined selection criteria. For data extraction of the identified animal studies, the...

  15. Oral curcumin for Alzheimer's disease: tolerability and efficacy in a 24-week randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Ringman, John M.; Frautschy, Sally A.; Teng, Edmond; Begum, Aynun N.; Bardens, Jenny; Beigi, Maryam; Gylys, Karen H.; Badmaev, Vladimir; Heath, Dennis D.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Porter, Verna; Vanek, Zeba; Marshall, Gad A.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Sugar, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound derived from the plant Curcuma Long Lin that has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as effects on reducing beta-amyloid aggregation. It reduces pathology in transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is a promising candidate for treating human AD. The purpose of the current study is to generate tolerability and preliminary clinical and biomarker efficacy data on curcumin in persons with AD. Metho...

  16. Efficacy of psychodynamic short-term psychotherapy for depressed breast cancer patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zwerenz Rüdiger; Beutel Manfred E; Imruck Barbara H; Wiltink Jörg; Haselbacher Antje; Ruckes Christian; Schmidberger Heinz; Hoffmann Gerald; Schmidt Marcus; Köhler Uwe; Langanke Dagmar; Kortmann Rolf-Dieter; Kuhnt Susanne; Weißflog Gregor; Barthel Yvette

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a lack of psychotherapeutic trials of treatments of comorbid depression in cancer patients. Our study determines the efficacy of a manualized short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and predictors of outcome by personality and quality of the therapeutic relationship. Methods/design Eligible breast cancer patients with comorbid depression are assigned to short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (up to 20 + 5 sessions) or to treatment as usual (augmented by recommendat...

  17. Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the prevention of relapse of depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huaning; Xue, Yunyun; Chen, Yunchun; Zhang, Ruiguo; Wang, Huaihai; Zhang, Yahong; Gan, Jingli; Zhang, Liyi; Tan, Qingrong

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a chronic illness that generally requires lifelong therapy. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique with few side effects that has been reported to be useful in the treatment of depression. However, no studies to date have evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the efficacy of rTMS for maintenance treatment of depression. Methods/design In this article, we report the design and protocol of a randomized, single-blind, pl...

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Memantine in Children with Autism: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study and Open-Label Extension.

    OpenAIRE

    Aman, MG; Findling, RL; Hardan, AY; Hendren, RL; Melmed, RD; Kehinde-Nelson, O; Hsu, HA; Trugman, JM; Palmer, RH; Graham, SM; Gage, AT; Perhach, JL; Katz, E.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission is implicated in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine (once-daily extended-release [ER]) were investigated in children with autism in a randomized, placebo-controlled, 12 week trial and a 48 week open-label extension.A total of 121 children 6-12 years of age with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Ment...

  19. High School Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning, and Self-Efficacy for Learning Biology: A Study of Their Structural Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Özlem; Dagyar, Miray

    2015-01-01

    The current work reveals the data of the study which examines the relationships among epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and self-efficacy for biology learning with the help of the Structural Equation Modeling. Three questionnaires, the Epistemological Beliefs, the Conceptions of Learning Biology and the Self-efficacy for Learning…

  20. A Study on Epistemological Beliefs of Community College Students and Their Self-Efficacy Beliefs Regarding Educational Use of the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktürk, Ahmet Oguz

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the self-efficacy beliefs of students at community colleges regarding the educational use of the Internet and their epistemological beliefs. Moreover, it is also examined whether the self-efficacy beliefs of the students regarding the educational use of the Internet and their epistemological…

  1. Do Pre-Service Teachers Feel Ready to Teach in Inclusive Classrooms? A Four Country Study of Teaching Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreman, Tim; Sharma, Umesh; Forlin, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an international study examining pre-service teacher reports of teaching self-efficacy for inclusive education; principally focusing on the explanatory relationship between a scale designed to measure teaching self-efficacy in this area and key demographic variables within Canada, Australia, Hong Kong, and…

  2. A comparative study of efficacy and safety of pitavastatin versus atorvastatin in the patients of dyslipidemia in medicine department of a tertiary care teaching hospital

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    Punita Vasani

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: In this study, pitavastatin is found to be more efficacious than atorvastatin in increasing HDL-C levels, while as efficacious as atorvastatin in decreasing LDL-C in dyslipidemic patients. Atorvastatin is better tolerated than pitavastatin. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 24-29

  3. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Civardi

    Full Text Available Recently introduced micronized copper (MC formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH2 nanoparticles (NPs, were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA. In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles.

  4. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Schubert, Mark; Fey, Angelika; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2015-01-01

    Recently introduced micronized copper (MC) formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu) carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA). In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles. PMID:26554706

  5. Comparison of cleaning Efficacy and Instrumentation Time between Rotary and Manual Instrumentation Techniques in Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katge, Farhin; Poojari, Manohar; Shetty, Shilpa; Rusawat, Bhavesh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the cleaning efficacy and instrumentation time between manual Hedstrom files (H-files) and rotary Mtwo files in primary molar root canals. Materials and methods: A total of 90 primary root canals were selected using standardized radiographs. The canals were injected with India ink with 30 gauge insulin syringe and divided into three groups. Group I―30 root canals instrumented with H-files, group II―30 root canals instrumented with Mtwo files, and group III―control group in which no canal instrumentation was done. The teeth were cleared in various solutions and then observed under a stereomicroscope. Results: No significant difference was seen in cleaning efficacy between H-files and Mtwo files in coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the root canal. The instrumentation time recorded for H-files (3.41 ± 0.38 minutes) was significantly less than that of Mtwo files (4.81 ± 0.52). Conclusion: Although there was no significant difference in cleaning capacity, further studies should be carried out using the single file systems. How to cite this article: Katge F, Chimata VK, Poojari M, Shetty S, Rusawat B. Comparison of cleaning Efficacy and Instrumentation Time between Rotary and Manual Instrumentation Techniques in Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):124-127. PMID:27365932

  6. The Clinical Efficacy of Mometasone Furoate in Multi-Lamellar Emulsion for Eczema: A Double-blinded Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk Han; Lee, Hyun Jong; Park, Chun Wook; Kim, Kyu Han; Lee, Kwang Hoon; Ro, Byung In

    2013-01-01

    Background Topical application of corticosteroids also has an influence on skin barrier impairment. Physiological lipid mixtures, such as multi-lamellar emulsion (MLE) containing a natural lipid component leads to effective recovery of the barrier function. Objective The purpose of this study was to conduct an evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy and skin barrier protection of topical mometasone furoate in MLE. Methods A multi-center randomized, double-blind, controlled study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of mometasone furoate cream in MLE for Korean patients with eczema. The study group included 175 patients with eczema, who applied either mometasone furoate in MLE cream or methylprednisolone aceponate cream for 2 weeks. Treatment efficacy was evaluated using the physician's global assessment of clinical response (PGA), trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), and visual analogue scale (VAS) for pruritus. Patients were evaluated using these indices at days 4, 8, and 15. Results Comparison of PGA score, TEWL, and VAS score at baseline with those at days 4, 8, and 15 of treatment showed a significant improvement in both groups. Patients who applied mometasone furoate in MLE (74.8%) showed better results (p<0.05) than those who applied methylprednisolone aceponate (47.8%). The TEWL improvement ratio was higher in the mometasone furoate in MLE group than that in the methylprednisolone aceponate group, and VAS improvement was also better in the mometasone furoate in MLE group. Conclusion Mometasone furoate in MLE has a better therapeutic efficacy as well as less skin barrier impairment than methylprednisolone aceponate. PMID:23467551

  7. Efficacy of vision restoration therapy after optic neuritis (VISION study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schinzel Johann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optic neuritis is a frequent manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Visual deficits range from a minor impairment of visual functions through to complete loss of vision. Although many patients recover almost completely, roughly 35% of patients remain visually impaired for years, and therapeutic options for those patients hardly exist. Vision restoration therapy is a software-based visual training program that has been shown to improve visual deficits after pre- and postchiasmatic injury. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate whether residual visual deficits after past or recent optic neuritis can be reduced by means of vision restoration therapy. Methods/design A randomized, controlled, patient- and observer-blinded clinical pilot study (VISION study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of vision restoration therapy in optic neuritis patients. Eighty patients with a residual visual deficit after optic neuritis (visual acuity ≤0.7 and/or scotoma will be stratified according to the time of optic neuritis onset (manifestation more than 12 months ago (40 patients, fixed deficit versus manifestation 2 to 6 months ago (40 patients, recent optic neuritis, and randomized into vision restoration therapy arm or saccadic training arm (control intervention. Patients will be instructed to complete a computer-based visual training for approximately 30 minutes each day for a period of 6 months. Patients and evaluators remain blinded to the treatment allocation throughout the study. All endpoints will be analyzed and P-values  Discussion If vision restoration therapy is shown to improve visual function after optic neuritis, this method might be a first therapeutic option for patients with incomplete recovery from optic neuritis. Trial registration NCT01274702

  8. Efficacy of biorhythmic transdermal combined hormone treatment in relieving climacteric symptoms: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Formby

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available B Formby, F SchmidtThe Rasmus Institute for Medical Research, Program in Reproductive Endocrinology, Santa Barbara, CA, USAObjective: To evaluate the efficacy of a combination of bioidentical combined 17β-estradiol and progesterone transdermal delivery system (lipophilic emulsion-type base to relieve climacteric symptoms. The hormonal replacement was given during a period of 6 months at four different cyclic doses to mimic the normal ovary secretory pattern.Design: An open, randomized, comparative, between-patient trial conducted over 6 months in 29 menopausal women with climacteric symptoms assessed with the Kupperman index at baseline and during treatments. Saliva and serum values of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were quantitated before treatment and after 3 and 6 months. Pharmacokinetic data following transdermal administration of 17β-estradiol (0.3 mg, daily and progesterone (100 mg, daily were calculated from saliva levels using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.Results: Improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 93% of women evaluated before and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Values of saliva 17β-estradiol increased after 6 months from 0.6 ± 0.3 pg/mL to 14.1 ± 3.3 pg/mL, and the values of serum 17β-estradiol increased from 3.3 ± 2.8 pg/mL to 80.6 ± 21.9 pg/mL. Of responders, 88% characterized symptom relief as complete. No adverse health-related events were attributed to the bioidentical hormone therapy. Time to maximum saliva concentrations (Tmax, in all experimental cases, was observed after 6 hours. Baseline values were reached within 24 hours, indicating a diurnal rhythm of 17β-estradiol seen in normally cyclic women over the 24-hour period, ie, its daily biological rhythm.Conclusion: Percutaneous absorption of 17β-estradiol, as well as the absorption of progesterone, was associated with relief of climacteric symptoms. The cyclical transdermal delivery of combined bioidentical hormones may be

  9. Prospective study of efficacy and safety of insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey Olegovich Emel'yanov; Tamara Leonidovna Kuraeva; Dmitriy Nikitich Laptev; Valentina Aleksandrovna Peterkova

    2010-01-01

    Adequate glycemic control remains an unresolved problem for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The use of new insulin analogs and intense insulinotherapy does not always permit to achieve the target levels of glycemia and HbA1c. To-day insulin pump therapy is considered to be the most efficacious tool for the improvement of glycemic control. Aim. To estimate results of glycemic control in children and adolescents treated by insulin pump therapy. Materials and ...

  10. Quality of Life Improvement with Sublingual Immunotherapy: A Prospective Study of Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Mary S. Morris; Amanda Lowery; Theodoropoulos, Demetrios S.; R. Daniel Duquette; Morris, David L

    2012-01-01

    Due to its excellent safety profile, ease of administration, and economic considerations, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is becoming a preferred form of allergen specific immunotherapy. The efficacy of SLIT is still debated. The purpose of this act of practice trial is to evaluate quality of life outcomes in patients treated with SLIT. Fifty one patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis demonstrated by skin testing completed the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) at in...

  11. Development of an Aotus nancymaae Model for Shigella Vaccine Immunogenicity and Efficacy Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Michael; Kaminski, Robert W.; Lugo-Roman, Luis A.; Galvez Carrillo, Hugo; Tilley, Drake Hamilton; Baldeviano, Christian; Simons, Mark P.; Reynolds, Nathanael D.; Ranallo, Ryan T.; Suvarnapunya, Akamol E.; Venkatesan, Malabi M.; Oaks, Edwin V.

    2014-01-01

    Several animal models exist to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of candidate Shigella vaccines. The two most widely used nonprimate models for vaccine development include a murine pulmonary challenge model and a guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model. Nonhuman primate models exhibit clinical features and gross and microscopic colonic lesions that mimic those induced in human shigellosis. Challenge models for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Campylobacter spp. have...

  12. An open labeled study to evaluate efficacy and safety of ampucare in patients with bedsore

    OpenAIRE

    Janardhan Singh; Sukhbir Singh Sangwan; Jarnail Singh; Ram Chandar Siwach; Govind Shukla

    2013-01-01

    Background: To evaluate efficacy and safety of ampucare, a polyherbal product, in patients with bedsore. Methods: One hundred patients, either sex, more than 18 years of age, with bedsore were divided in to two groups of 50 each. Group-I- Served as control- povidone iodine solution was applied locally on the bedsore, once daily. Group- II- Treatment group- ampucare lotion was applied locally, once daily. Primary end point was time to wound healing and secondary end point included reduction in...

  13. Virtual reality: treatment efficacy and a tool to study reactivity in antisocial personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, O. C.

    2012-01-01

    Part one is a meta-analytic review comparing the efficacy of virtual reality treatments (VRTs) and standard psychological therapies for achieving mental health symptom reduction. Outcomes from twenty-two randomised-controlled trials were quality assessed and meta-analysed. Results indicated that VRTs were equal to, and in some cases superior to comparative treatments, depending on the type of mental health problem being treated. Methodological and heterogeneity issues complicate interpretatio...

  14. Efficacy of Hypnosis-Based Treatment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    AriannaPalmieri; GianniSorarù

    2012-01-01

    Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its devastating neurodegenerative consequences have an inevitably psychological impact on patients and their caregivers: however, although it would be strongly needed, there is a lack of research on the efficacy of psychological intervention. Our aim was to investigate the effect of hypnosis-based intervention on psychological and perceived physical wellbeing in patients and the indirect effect on caregivers. Methods: We recruited eight ALS ...

  15. Study on the Efficacy of Freezing Against Museum Pest Insect Demestes maculates

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Museum taxidermies have traditionally relied on toxic chemicals for the prevention and treatment of pest infestations. However, concern over the health and safety implications of the use of chemicals in the museum environment, effectiveness, and potential adverse effects on museum specimens and associated materials has promoted investigation into alternative control methods. One such method is the use of freezing. The efficacy of freezing against museum pest insect Demestes maculates was eval...

  16. Dynamics of biocide emissions from buildings in a suburban stormwater catchment - concentrations, mass loads and emission processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Vollertsen, Jes; Carmeliet, Jan; Bester, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Biocides such as isothiazolinones, carbamates, triazines, phenylureas, azoles and others are used to protect the surfaces of buildings, e.g. painted or unpainted render or wood. These biocides can be mobilized from the materials if rainwater gets into contact with these buildings. Hence, these biocides will be found in rainwater runoff (stormwater) from buildings that is traditionally managed as "clean water" in stormwater sewer systems and often directly discharged into surface waters without further treatment. By means of a 9 month event-based high resolution sampling campaign the biocide emissions in a small suburban stormwater catchment were analysed and the emission dynamics throughout the single rain events were investigated. Five out of twelve of the rain events (peak events) proved significantly higher concentrations than the rest (average) for at least one compound. Highest median concentrations of 0.045 and 0.052 μg L(-1) were found for terbutryn and carbendazim, while the concentrations for isoproturon, diuron, N-octylisothiazolinone, benzoisothiazolinone, cybutryn, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and mecoprop were one order of magnitude lower. However, during the peak events the concentrations reached up to 1.8 and 0.3 μg L(-1) for terbutryn and carbendazim, respectively. Emissions of an averaged single family house into the stormwater sewer turned out to be 59 and 50 μg event(-1) house(-1) terbutryn and carbendazim, respectively. Emissions for the other biocides ranged from 0.1 to 11 μg event(-1) house(-1). Mass load analysis revealed that peak events contributed in single events as much to the emissions as 11 average events. However, the mass loads were highly dependent on the amounts of rainwater, i.e. the hydraulic flow in the receiving sewer pipe. The analysis of the emission dynamics showed first flush emissions only for single parameters in three events out of twelve. Generally biocides seemed to be introduced into the stormwater system

  17. Long-term Efficacy of Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson′s Disease: A 5-year Follow-up Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Lu Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: STN DBS is an effective intervention for PD, although associated with a slightly diminished efficacy after 5 years. Compared with other studies, patients in our study required lower voltage and medication for satisfactory symptom control.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Antidepressant Augmentation With Lamotrigine in Patients With Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Milena Antunes; Rocha, Fábio Lopes; Hara, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study reports a clinical trial evaluating lamotrigine safety and efficacy as an antidepressant augmentation agent in treatment-resistant depression, therefore adding more empirical evidence to the limited number of studies on the use of lamotrigine.

  19. The Interrelationship of Science Experiences, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy: A Case Study of a Pre-Service Teacher with Positive Science Attitude and High Science Teaching Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Kazempour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relationship between attitude, beliefs, and self-efficacy before and after the course. Initially, Heather’s attitude and self-efficacy with respect to science and science teaching were closely interrelated and a product of her own intrinsic interest in science and her unique K-12 experiences. Her beliefs appeared to have been shaped by both her actual science experiences and what she had witnessed in the classrooms. Heather’s course experiences shaped her post beliefs about science and science teaching, which consequently altered her attitude and confidence.

  20. A comparative efficacy study of photic driving brainwave entrainment technology with a novel form of more direct entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Richard Thomas

    This exploratory study compared the efficacy of a novel brainwave electromagnetic (EM) entrainment technology against a more conventional technology utilizing the photic-driving technique. Both experimental conditions were also compared with a 7-minute control session that took place immediately before each stimulation session. The Schumann Resonance (SR) frequency was selected as the delivery signal and was chosen because of previous findings suggesting that entrainment to this frequency can often produce transpersonal if not paranormal, experiences in the entrainee, which sometimes resemble remote viewing or out-of-body experiences. A pilot study determined which of two novel entrainment modalities (a copper coil or a 16-solenoid headset) worked most effectively for use with the rest of the study. In the main study, an artificial SR signal at 7.8Hz was delivered during the photic-driving sessions, but a recording of the real-time SR was used to deliver the entrainment signal during sessions devoted to the electromagnetic entrainment modality. Sixteen participants were recruited from the local area, and EEG recordings were acquired via a 32-channel Deymed electroencephalography system. Comparative analyses were performed between the control and experimental portions of each session to assess for efficacy of the novel entrainment modality used, and, in the main study, between the electromagnetic and photic-driving sessions, to assess for differential entrainment efficacy between these groups. A follow-up study was additionally performed primarily to determine whether responders could replicate their entrainment effect from the main study. Results showed that EM entrainment appeared to be possible but is not nearly as robust or reliable as photic driving. Additionally, no profound transpersonal or paranormal experiences were elicited during the course of the study, and, when asked, participants were not able to determine with any degree of success, when the