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Sample records for biochemistry

  1. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  2. CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of the health status of animals through measurement of cellular, biochemical, and macromolecular constituents in blood, secretions, and excretions has been variously referred to as clinical chemistry, clinical biochemistry, or clinical pathology. he genesis of this dis...

  3. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  4. Biochemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This deals with biochemistry engineering with nine chapters. It explains bionics on development and prospect, basics of life science on classification and structure, enzyme and metabolism, fundamentals of chemical engineering on viscosity, shear rate, PFR, CSTR, mixing, dispersion, measurement and response, Enzyme kinetics, competitive inhibition, pH profile, temperature profile, stoichiometry and fermentation kinetics, bio-reactor on Enzyme-reactor and microorganism-reactor, measurement and processing on data acquisition and data processing, separation and purification, waste water treatment and economics of bionics process.

  5. Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

  6. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  7. Thiol biochemistry of prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The present studies have shown that GSH metabolism arose in the purple bacteria and cyanobacteria where it functions to protect against oxygen toxicity. Evidence was obtained indicating that GSH metabolism was incorporated into eucaryotes via the endosymbiosis giving rise to mitochrondria and chloroplasts. Aerobic bacteria lacking GSH utilize other thiols for apparently similar functions, the thiol being coenzyme A in Gram positive bacteria and chi-glutamylcysteine in the halobacteria. The thiol biochemistry of prokaryotes is thus seen to be much more highly diversified than that of eucaryotes and much remains to be learned about this subject.

  8. Biochemistry interview transcript 3

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkin, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    A series of personal interviews were carried out following on from the Project StORe questionnaire. Of the original 46 Biochemistry respondents, 11 indicated that they would be willing to be interviewed. Each potential interviewee was contacted during May 2006 and 10 interviews in total were conducted during June and July 2006. Of these, 5 were telephone interviews and 5 were conducted face-to-face. Each interview was with a single individual apart from the final face-to-face interview, which...

  9. Biochemistry interview transcript 9

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkin, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    A series of personal interviews were carried out following on from the Project StORe questionnaire. Of the original 46 Biochemistry respondents, 11 indicated that they would be willing to be interviewed. Each potential interviewee was contacted during May 2006 and 10 interviews in total were conducted during June and July 2006. Of these, 5 were telephone interviews and 5 were conducted face-to-face. Each interview was with a single individual apart from the final face-to-face interview, which...

  10. Biochemistry interview transcript 4

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkin, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    A series of personal interviews were carried out following on from the Project StORe questionnaire. Of the original 46 Biochemistry respondents, 11 indicated that they would be willing to be interviewed. Each potential interviewee was contacted during May 2006 and 10 interviews in total were conducted during June and July 2006. Of these, 5 were telephone interviews and 5 were conducted face-to-face. Each interview was with a single individual apart from the final face-to-face interview, which...

  11. Biochemistry interview transcript 10

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkin, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    A series of personal interviews were carried out following on from the Project StORe questionnaire. Of the original 46 Biochemistry respondents, 11 indicated that they would be willing to be interviewed. Each potential interviewee was contacted during May 2006 and 10 interviews in total were conducted during June and July 2006. Of these, 5 were telephone interviews and 5 were conducted face-to-face. Each interview was with a single individual apart from the final face-to-face interview, which...

  12. Biochemistry interview transcript 5

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkin, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    A series of personal interviews were carried out following on from the Project StORe questionnaire. Of the original 46 Biochemistry respondents, 11 indicated that they would be willing to be interviewed. Each potential interviewee was contacted during May 2006 and 10 interviews in total were conducted during June and July 2006. Of these, 5 were telephone interviews and 5 were conducted face-to-face. Each interview was with a single individual apart from the final face-to-face interview, which...

  13. Biochemistry interview transcript 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkin, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    A series of personal interviews were carried out following on from the Project StORe questionnaire. Of the original 46 Biochemistry respondents, 11 indicated that they would be willing to be interviewed. Each potential interviewee was contacted during May 2006 and 10 interviews in total were conducted during June and July 2006. Of these, 5 were telephone interviews and 5 were conducted face-to-face. Each interview was with a single individual apart from the final face-to-face interview, which...

  14. Biochemistry interview transcript 8

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkin, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    A series of personal interviews were carried out following on from the Project StORe questionnaire. Of the original 46 Biochemistry respondents, 11 indicated that they would be willing to be interviewed. Each potential interviewee was contacted during May 2006 and 10 interviews in total were conducted during June and July 2006. Of these, 5 were telephone interviews and 5 were conducted face-to-face. Each interview was with a single individual apart from the final face-to-face interview, which...

  15. Biochemistry interview transcript 2

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkin, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    A series of personal interviews were carried out following on from the Project StORe questionnaire. Of the original 46 Biochemistry respondents, 11 indicated that they would be willing to be interviewed. Each potential interviewee was contacted during May 2006 and 10 interviews in total were conducted during June and July 2006. Of these, 5 were telephone interviews and 5 were conducted face-to-face. Each interview was with a single individual apart from the final face-to-face interview, which...

  16. Biochemistry interview transcript 7

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkin, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    A series of personal interviews were carried out following on from the Project StORe questionnaire. Of the original 46 Biochemistry respondents, 11 indicated that they would be willing to be interviewed. Each potential interviewee was contacted during May 2006 and 10 interviews in total were conducted during June and July 2006. Of these, 5 were telephone interviews and 5 were conducted face-to-face. Each interview was with a single individual apart from the final face-to-face interview, which...

  17. Biochemistry interview transcript 6

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkin, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    A series of personal interviews were carried out following on from the Project StORe questionnaire. Of the original 46 Biochemistry respondents, 11 indicated that they would be willing to be interviewed. Each potential interviewee was contacted during May 2006 and 10 interviews in total were conducted during June and July 2006. Of these, 5 were telephone interviews and 5 were conducted face-to-face. Each interview was with a single individual apart from the final face-to-face interview, which...

  18. Towards quantitative biochemistry: research and reports in biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokholyan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nikolay V DokholyanDepartment of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USASince the mid twentieth century the field of biochemistry has evolved significantly (Figure 1. Advances made in the fields of structural, chemical, and systems biology, physics, and computation have shaped the new field of biochemistry such that the emphasis became the cellular-wide view of molecular life at the atomic scale. The principal paradigm in the field shifted from focusing on a single or a few biological molecules to focusing on their cellular- and intracellular-wide networks. This shift has resulted in more interdisciplinary approaches to biochemical research, which nowadays combines techniques and strategies from a broad range of fields. The evolution of the field of biochemistry resulted in closer connections to other fields, such as medicinal chemistry, physiology, and medicine. Biochemistry is also one of the central components of the emerging translational medicine paradigm.

  19. Chapter IV: ultrafast biochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chergui, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Kjelstrup, S. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Meuwly, M. [Universitaet Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Schuler, B. [University of Zuerich (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland); Thor, J. van [Imperial College London (IC), London (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The whole report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the scientific opportunities offered by the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility. In this sixth part, initial events and fluctuations in biochemical processes at the atomic scale are discussed. Sub-nanosecond processes are fundamental to biochemistry and will be accessible to the ultra-short pulses of the SwissFEL. Time and length scales of biochemical reactions are discussed, as is the photo-initiation of biochemical processes. Time-resolved measurement techniques are looked at. Fluorescence resonant energy transfer is discussed. As an example, the photo cycle of bacteriorhodopsin is examined. The dynamics of protein folding and catalytic action are also looked at. Mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics is discussed

  20. [Research activity in clinical biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, H.L.; Larsen, B.; Ingwersen, P.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitative bibliometric measurements of research activity are frequently used, e.g. for evaluating applicants for academic positions. The purpose of this investigation is to assess research activity within the medical speciality of Clinical Biochemistry by comparing it with a matched...... Clinical Biochemistry, 57 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Each of these 57 was matched according to medical title with two randomly chosen specialists from other specialities, totaling 114. Using Medline and the Web of Science, the number of publications and the number of citations were then ascertained....... RESULTS: 25% of the 11,691 specialists held a PhD degree or doctoral degree, DMSci, (Clinical Biochemistry: 61%). The 171 specialists included in the study had 9,823 papers in Medline and 10,140 papers in the Web of Science. The number of Medline papers per specialist was 71 for Clinical Biochemistry...

  1. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  2. Commentary: Biochemistry Re-Natured

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    In his last commentary on "Biochemistry Denatured," this author dealt with his perception that college students today have spent too little of their childhood years playing outside in nature and as a consequence have not learned basic things about the world from personal experience. This "nature-deficit disorder" removes many opportunities for…

  3. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  4. Metabolism and biochemistry in hypogravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    The headward shift of body fluid and increase in stress-related hormones that occur in hypogravity bring about a number of changes in metabolism and biochemistry of the human body. Such alterations may have important effects on health during flight and during a recovery period after return to earth. Body fluid and electrolytes are lost, and blood levels of several hormones that control metabolism are altered during space flight. Increased serum calcium may lead to an increased risk of renal stone formation during flight, and altered drug metabolism could influence the efficacy of therapeutic agents. Orthostatic intolerance and an increased risk of fracturing weakened bones are concerns at landing. It is important to understand biochemistry and metabolism in hypogravity so that clinically important developments can be anticipated and prevented or ameliorated.

  5. Biochemistry: from supermarket to laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    F. R. Freitas-Rego; Pereira, M.G.; S. O. Loureiro; M. T. de Santana; R. G. Garrido; F. de S.R.G Garrido

    2007-01-01

    After new campi as Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde (IMS/UFBA) startedworking, it was necessary to develop practical classes using domestic reagents atBiochemistry to Pharmacy (IMS078). Firstly, students visited a supermarket to readnutritional information at label and select possible products to be used in class. Moreover,chemical processes and fermentation were discussed as different foods and drinks wereanalysed. Some food were token to laboratories so that biomole cules qualitative ana...

  6. Gender Performance Differences in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberger, Matthew M.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the historical performance of students at Michigan State University in a two-part biochemistry series Biochem I (n = 5,900) and Biochem II (n = 5,214) for students enrolled from 1997 to 2009. Multiple linear regressions predicted 54.9-87.5% of the variance in student from Biochem I grade and 53.8-76.1% of the variance in…

  7. Biochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions of the group consist of six reports. The first is concerned with recent developments in the isolation and characterization of subcellular components of mammalian cells: the inhibition by imipramine of digitonin-induced lysis of mitochondrial membranes; age-dependent changes in mitochondrial sedimentability; peroxisomal enzymes; and collaborative studies on near-uv effects on bacterial respiration, radiation effects on mouse heart mitochondria, and toxicity and distribution of liposome-encapsulated drugs. Plant physiology is the theme of the next two reports. The first describes progress in a NASA-supported program on the involvement of organelles, especially dictyosomes, in the georesponse of roots, and the second covers work principally supported by ERDA on the interaction of light and gravity on differential growth of corn roots. Progress in liposome encapsulation of drugs is presented in three contributions. The first deals with studies on the toxicity, distribution, therapeutic action, and mechanism of encapsulated cancer chemotherapeutic agents; the second with morphologic studies, based principally on electron microscopy; and the third with alteration of liposomal surface properties by varying the lipid composition, in order to modify tissue distribution

  8. Insect Biochemistry Goes to School .

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo R. Cunha; Cecília Cudischevitch; Willy Jablonka; Alan de Brito; Mário A. Silva-Neto

    2011-01-01

    Many arthropods feed on vertebrate blood and eventually transmit diseases to the human being. Ordinary citizens are continuously exposed to vectors of major diseases and thus prone to contamination. In the present study we have evaluated a new approach regarding the basic biochemistry mechanism that regulates thebiology of Triatominaes, well known as vectors of Chagas Disease. We have used a comic book "Carlos Chagas: 100 years of the discovery of a hero", produced by researchers at our labor...

  9. Instructional Software for Biochemistry Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marson Guilherme Andrade

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the world has witnessed a revolution in the expansion and access to knowledge, whi-ch has dramatically changed the relationship between labor and production. According to UNESCO(United Nations Educational, Scientical and Cultural Organization and ILO (International LaborOrganization, in the of information it is fundamental that Higher Education Institutes educate pro-fessionals capable to update their knowledge in the course of professional life. The so-called life-longlearning s pointed out as a request for creating and maintaining jobs, and for supporting the develop-ment of nations as well. In such context, Biochemistry is a eld of knowledge which has outstandinglyexpanded its boundaries. Preparing the next generation of biochemists for the age of informationrequires the development of cognitive skills as an essential educational goal concerning graduationcourses, which have been historically limited to the exposition of contents. The achievement of suchobjective depends on many factors, including the development of suitable instructional materials thatcan improve the teaching and learning experience. This conference deals with the development ofinstructional software at the crossroad of Educational research, Informatics and Biochemistry. Theinvestigative approach leading to the development and improvement of instructional software for Bi-ochemical education will be discussed on the basis of the following issues: i motivating questionsto software development - teaching and learning problems; ii development of digital content: speci-c content, interface and interactivity; iii evaluation of the software s instructional eciency; ivexamples of softwares which have been conceived according to the discussed methodology.

  10. Symposium 19: The contributions of the Department of Biochemistry/USP towards Biochemistry teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayardo Baptista Torres

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available K-Education(Portuguese Chair: V. Trindade Bayardo Torres; Clovis Wannmacher; Denise MacedoThe contributions of the Department of Biochemistry/USP towards Biochemistry teaching.O ensino de Bioquímica nos últimos 20 anosBayardo B. TorresDepartamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, USP. São Paulo, Brazil.Among the contributions of the Department of Biochemistry/USP one must recall:1. Winter school for graduate studentsThis course, now at the ninth edition, is intended for students in the final stage of their Masters or PhD in Biochemistry or related areas from any institution of higher education.Modern and important techniques are offered as possible support to help the student’s projects.2. Summer courses for undergraduate studentsThe Department offers every year, since 1999, complementary courses for undergraduate students to extend their knowledge in biochemical subjects not ordinarily treated in introductory courses. Some examples:Plant Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Diseases, Biochemistry of Mind, Biochemistry of Ageing, Cancer Biochemistry, Nutrition and Sports, Biochemistry of Beauty, Biochemistry of the Envenomation Response, etc.3. Summer courses for high school teachers. Some examples:Biochemistry of Nutrition, DNA – Techniques and Applications, Biochemistry in the kitchen.4. Software developmentMany software for biochemistry teaching/learning were developed and are freely available at the Biblioteca Digital de Ciências [http://www.bdc.ib.unicamp.br/bdc/index.php]. Some examples:Oxygen consumption by mitochondria, Muscle contraction, Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, Free radicals, Enzyme kinetics, cAMP signalization, Interactive study of protein structure, Leptin, Insulin and Obesity.5. A Biochemistry textbook. 

  11. Searching for Alien Life Having Unearthly Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The search for alien life in the solar system should include exploring unearth-like environments for life having an unearthly biochemistry. We expect alien life to conform to the same basic chemical and ecological constraints as terrestrial life, since inorganic chemistry and the laws of ecosystems appear to be universal. Astrobiologists usually assume alien life will use familiar terrestrial biochemistry and therefore hope to find alien life by searching near water or by supplying hydrocarbons. The assumption that alien life is likely to be based on carbon and water is traditional and plausible. It justifies high priority for missions to search for alien life on Mars and Europa, but it unduly restricts the search for alien life. Terrestrial carbon-water biochemistry is not possible on most of the bodies of our solar system, but all alien life is not necessarily based on terrestrial biochemistry. If alien life has a separate origin from Earth life, and if can survive in an environment extremely different from Earth's, then alien life may have unearthly biochemistry. There may be other solvents than water that support alien life and other elements than carbon that form complex life enabling chain molecules. Rather than making the exploration-restricting assumption that all life requires carbon, water, and terrestrial biochemistry, we should make the exploration-friendly assumption that indigenous, environmentally adapted, alien life forms might flourish using unearthly biochemistry in many places in the solar system. Alien life might be found wherever there is free energy and a physical/chemical system capable of using that energy to build living structures. Alien life may be discovered by the detection of some general non-equilibrium chemistry rather than of terrestrial biochemistry. We should explore all the potential abodes of life in the solar system, including those where life based on terrestrial biochemistry can not exist.

  12. Insect Biochemistry Goes to School .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo R. Cunha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many arthropods feed on vertebrate blood and eventually transmit diseases to the human being. Ordinary citizens are continuously exposed to vectors of major diseases and thus prone to contamination. In the present study we have evaluated a new approach regarding the basic biochemistry mechanism that regulates thebiology of Triatominaes, well known as vectors of Chagas Disease. We have used a comic book "Carlos Chagas: 100 years of the discovery of a hero", produced by researchers at our laboratory. The main concepts presented include: neurochemistry of insect olfaction, hemostasis, blood digestion, redox balance to mention some. The material was applied between 60 pupils of theseventh year of elementary school. The work is divided into two phases: an assessment of the concepts that thestudents bring their experiences into the classroom by producing conceptual maps followed by the intervention with the comic and production ofnew conceptual maps under the influence of activity with the material. Analysis of 18conceptual maps obtained from 06 different groups at three different points revealedthat the average score 07 at the beginning of theevaluation went to an average of 45 at the end of the study. This result suggests that a change in the approach of content can give encouragement to students to better develop the theme of contributing to a proper process of conceptual change.

  13. Useful Demonstrations for a Medial Biochemistry Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragatz, Barth H.; Modrak, Gina

    1986-01-01

    Describes six demonstrations used in a medical biochemistry course. These demonstrations focus on: (1) platelet aggregometry; (2) ion-transporting antibiotics; (3) glycosylated hemoglobin; (4) molecular models; (5) serum preparation; and (6) bioluminescence. (JN)

  14. THE BACHELOR OF BIOCHEMISTRY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Cordeiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The economic and social development of Brazil in the last decade has contributed to the installation of new graduate and undergraduate programs, as are the case with bachelor degrees in Biochemistry at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. These graduates are prepared to work in industry, research institutes and universities in areas of knowledge involving Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This is happening in developed countries since the first half of the last century, surprising and late is the implementation of bachelor of Biochemistry in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the Bachelor in Biochemistry in Brazil from the perspective of the main difficulties of implementing and courses maintenance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach. Interviews were conducted with undergraduate students, graduates, professors, staff and managers from bachelor degrees in Biochemistry at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. The sampling procedure was non probabilistic for judgment (choice of the subjects involved and interested in the course of biochemistry to undergraduate students, graduates, professors and staff and non probabilistic for convenience to managers. The qualitative assessment to depict the representative keywords was performed using words cloud by WordleTM. RESULTS: The study included 5 managers, 24 professors, 12 staff, 25 undergraduate students, 5 graduates. For the students the main reason for the course selection should be scientific vocation and affinity with chemistry and biology; most cited positive parameters were faculty and great structure, practical classes and broad playing field; most cited negatives were high mandatory disciplines, little student free time and lack of sophisticated equipment. Despite the conception of the programs have happened in different contexts and regions we noted similarities deficiencies and distresses. CONCLUSION: Difficulties must be

  15. The Biochemistry Tetrahedron and the Development of the Taxonomy of Biochemistry External Representations (TOBER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Marcy H.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Becker, Nicole; Harle, Marissa; Sutcliffe, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Visual literacy, the ability to interpret and create external representations (ERs), is essential to success in biochemistry. Studies have been conducted that describe students' abilities to use and interpret specific types of ERs. However, a framework for describing ERs derived through a naturalistic inquiry of biochemistry classrooms has not…

  16. INTERNET ASSISTED LEARNING OF BIOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Lima

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The revolution  in information  technology  has included the INTERNET to the available  resources for biochemical  education.  There  is a great  deal of biochemical  information, and  the  amount is increas- ing rapidly,  indeed  exponentially.  The  aim of this work is to analyze  the  biochemical  issues cellular respiration, photosynthesis and membrane  transport available  in web pages, taking  into account con- tents  quality,  trustworthiness and effectiveness. Firstly  1st secondary level students were inquired by a questionnaire on their use of INTERNET resources.  More then 80 percent of them were regular users. The  results  confirm the  already  known  potential of INTERNET in education.  Fourteen sites  were analyzed  regarding  to contents, presence  of bibliographical, references,  authorship, titles  responsible and adequacy  to the target public.  In relation  to contents, presence of conceptual  errors, illustrations and other  stimulatory elements  were analyzed.  The great  majority  did not mention  bibliographic  ref- erences and target public.  Less than  half divulged responsible  names and/or their  graduation status. Some sites contained critical  conceptual  errors,  as the mention  of, as examples:  during  the cell active transport process, of energy (ATP waste (desperdício by the cell; the yeast is a pluricellular  fungal; and  the  oxygen is essential  for anaerobic  respiration.  However,  one of the  sites,  where  such  errors were found, was the only one to mention  enzymes and regulation  steps of cellular respiration. Half of the sites present identical  texts  and figures. None of the analyzed  sites thus  was considered excellent. Our data  strenghthen the need for rigorous evaluation concerning of scholarly research  of biochemical theme  on the web.INTERNET ASSISTED LEARNING OF  BIOCHEMISTRY

  17. BOREAS TE-9 NSA Canopy Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Margolis, Hank; Charest, Martin; Sy, Mikailou

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-9 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves. This data set contains canopy biochemistry data collected in 1994 in the NSA at the YJP, OJR, OBS, UBS, and OA sites, including biochemistry lignin, nitrogen, cellulose, starch, and fiber concentrations. These data were collected to study the spatial and temporal changes in the canopy biochemistry of boreal forest cover types and how a high-resolution radiative transfer model in the mid-infrared could be applied in an effort to obtain better estimates of canopy biochemical properties using remote sensing. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  18. Effects of intensive mariculture on sediment biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pusceddu, Antonio; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Mirto, Simone;

    2007-01-01

    The exponential growth of off-shore mariculture that has occurred worldwide over the last 10 years has raised concern about the impact of the waste produced by this industry on the ecological integrity of the sea bottom. Investigations into this potential source of impact on the biochemistry of the...... sea floor have provided contrasting results, and no compelling explanations for these discrepancies have been provided to date. To quantify the impact of fish-farm activities on the biochemistry of sediments, we have investigated the quantity and biochemical composition of sediment organic matter in...... regions, with the exception of seagrass sediments in Spain, the biochemistry of the sediments showed significant differences between the control and fish-farm locations. However, the variables explaining the differences observed varied among the regions and between habitats, suggesting idiosyncratic...

  19. Commentary: PhDs in Biochemistry Education--5 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerdahl, Erika G.; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Osgood, Marcy

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the discussion of PhDs in biochemistry education research is expanded to explore a number of diverse pathways leading to a competitive research program in biochemistry education research.

  20. Rhetorical Structure of Biochemistry Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoksilapatham, Budsaba

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a move analysis [Swales, J. (1990). "Genre analysis." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] of 60 biochemistry research articles. First, a corpus was systematically compiled to ensure that it represents core journals in the focused discipline. Then, coding reliability analysis was conducted to demonstrate…

  1. Identification of Threshold Concepts for Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, Jennifer; Green, David; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Lin, Sara; Minderhout, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts (TCs) are concepts that, when mastered, represent a transformed understanding of a discipline without which the learner cannot progress. We have undertaken a process involving more than 75 faculty members and 50 undergraduate students to identify a working list of TCs for biochemistry. The process of identifying TCs for…

  2. Jmol-Enhanced Biochemistry Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderholm, Matthew; Reynolds, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    We developed a protein research project for a one-semester biochemistry lecture class to enhance learning and more effectively train students to understand protein structure and function. During this semester-long process, students select a protein with known structure and then research its structure, sequence, and function. This project…

  3. Biochemistry in the idea of graduation students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Escoto et al

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Biochemistry is an interdisciplinary area that allows us to study chemical phenomena in live organisms. That way, its study is of extreme importance, in all levels, to enlarge the comprehension of natural phenomena. However, it is barely explored in the basic education and often fragmented in the higher education, or in graduation degrees that contemplate this area. Especially in the teacher training, where the fragmentation of knowledge can contribute to form wrong concepts. Based on that, this work aims to identify the concept of Biochemistry according to the future teachers of Natural Science. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The work was developed with 3º, 5º and 9º semesters students of the natural science degree on Universidade Federal do Pampa. 50 students, from 18 to 56 years old, were interviewed. The data was obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire. The methodology of categorization and analysis of content with emergent categories of speech was chosen for the analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Initially, 11 categories were chosen by content similarity. In descending order: chemical reactions in organisms, chemistry area, chemistry of life, cell metabolism, the study of living beings, origin of life, biology area, organic balance, chemical-biological study. The reports made possible to identify that most students do understand with clarity the goal of studying biochemistry. Although, we can see that there are some students that fragment the area, what means, they try to discriminate chemistry from biology. This way, they demonstrate a difficulty to comprehend biochemistry as interdisciplinary, what makes it hard to contextualize the built knowledge. It is important to develop strategies to overcome the fragmentation of knowledge, so that biochemistry can be comprehended in its fullness and help on the teaching processes that will be developed by the future teachers.

  4. A Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Course for Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Novell, J. M.; Cid, E.; Gomis, R.; Barbera, A.; Guinovart, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a course for reinforcing the knowledge of biochemistry in secondary school science teachers. The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Barcelona designed a course to bring these teachers up to date with this discipline. In addition to updating their knowledge of biochemistry and molecular…

  5. Television Medical Dramas as Case Studies in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Julie T.

    2009-01-01

    Several case studies from popular television medical dramas are described for use in an undergraduate biochemistry course. These cases, which illustrate fundamental principles of biochemistry, are used as the basis for problems that can be discussed further in small groups. Medical cases provide an interesting context for biochemistry with video…

  6. Pracital examination in biochemistry: topics and procedures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vocke, Nils-Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the new revision of the German licensing regulations for physicians ("Approbationsordnung" the rules for the first national examinations (i.e. "Physikum", equivalent to medical school entrance exams have been changed. In addition to the written exam a novel "oral-practical" part is required. Here we describe the implications of this oral-practical exam on the examination procedures in the field of biochemistry/molecular biology. A strategy for its realization is proposed.

  7. THE PRESENCE OF BIOCHEMISTRY EXPERIMENTS IN TEXTBOOKS

    OpenAIRE

    C. E.S. Rocha; M. D. Büttenbender; R. Roehrs

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Being present in high school in chemistry and biology disciplines, biochemistry is to explain the chemical and biological reactions in cells. His concepts are seen as abstract and difficult to understand and can be contextualized through experimentation. Experimentation is used in the classroom to allow students to view the applicability of the contents through observation, creating hypotheses, discussion and conclusions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pre...

  8. Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Surapaneni, Krishna M.; Tekian, Ara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Methods: Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly d...

  9. A Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Paul A.

    1999-08-01

    A project-oriented laboratory course has been designed to introduce students to the study of biochemistry as it is practiced. The course is designed to be a capstone experience for students enrolled in a variety of majors at the Rochester Institute of Technology, including those who enter our new B.S. Biochemistry program. The experiments in this course enable the students to explore the protein chemistry, enzymology, and molecular biology of a single enzyme, threonine dehydrogenase, in a series of integrated experiments. The laboratory incorporates both traditional methods (centrifugation, UV-vis spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and chromatography) and more recent developments in the field (polymerase chain reaction). Students use a small computer network to prepare for experiments (using simulation software developed at RIT), to evaluate data, to access sequence homology databases over the Internet, and to visualize and model proteins and nucleic acids. The change in the biochemistry teaching lab from a sequence of unrelated experiments to an integrated series of experiments is a model that can be readily adapted by other educators, who can change their courses to focus on a single enzyme with which they are most familiar.

  10. Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna M. Surapaneni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Methods: Participants were first year medical students (n=150 from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India; they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20. The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Results: Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13–8.28 vs. 12.33–13.93, p<0.001. The students gave high positive ratings for the innovative course (93–100% agreement. Conclusion: The new concept-mapping program resulted in higher academic performance compared to the traditional course and was perceived favorably by the students. They especially valued the use of concept mapping as learning tools to foster the relevance of biochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry.

  11. BIOCHEMISTRY TEACHING WITH VIRTUAL DYNAMIC METABOLIC DIAGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Lazzarotto

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a game like educational software (courseware to study metabolic pathways, calledDiagrama Metabolico Din^amico Virtual (DMDV of Krebs Cycle. The experience acquired teachingwith the logical sequence tray games in the FFFCMPAs Biochemistry Course provides the beddingswith the use of this model as education method. With DMDV, students can assembly the sequenceof reactions that describe the desired metabolic pathway, create situational models which can guidehis/her choices, reduce the subject complexity of the scheme in knowledge construction presentingin a graphical way the current interrelations. Biochemistry teachers can use the present software inclassroom as well as distance classes. This product integrates multimedia resources extensively andis distributed in CD-ROM format. The virtual environment will make possible interaction of thestudent with the environment and with colleagues and teachers, through tools as chats and forum.Experience with the use of this method was carried through with two distinct groups of students.The rst group was composed by 11 students, who were more familiar with the content and answereda specic questionnaire to previously evaluate the software. The second group was formed by 24students regularly registered in the FFFCMPAs Biochemistry Course, who used the software as astudy method. The rst group considered DMDV of easy and pleasant navigation. The knowledgeevaluation of the second group students was made by a written test and the analysis of three conceptualmaps constructed by each one of them: one map before initiating the study with the DMDV, thesecond just after the study and the third one two months later. Every conceptual maps producedafter DMDV method showed an expansion of valid concepts if compared with the rst maps. Simplevisual comparison of maps shows that new elements where added. All students who passed throughthe experiment reached a greater than ve grade in the subjects written

  12. THE PRESENCE OF BIOCHEMISTRY EXPERIMENTS IN TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E.S. Rocha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Being present in high school in chemistry and biology disciplines, biochemistry is to explain the chemical and biological reactions in cells. His concepts are seen as abstract and difficult to understand and can be contextualized through experimentation. Experimentation is used in the classroom to allow students to view the applicability of the contents through observation, creating hypotheses, discussion and conclusions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of experimentation in biochemistry content  in high school books. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this way, it was analyzed the presence of experimental activities in the textbooks approved by the National Textbook Plan 2015 "Biology 1", authored by César da Silva Junior, Sezar Sasson and Nelson Caldini Junior, and in the book " Chemistry - Volume 3 "by Martha Reis. RESULTS: At the end of the unit where the biochemical concepts are covered in the book "Biology 1" is presented an interdisciplinary project called "Enzymes - chemical tools of life" that proposes four experiments on catalase, pH and contact surface enzyme-substrate. They are easy activities to be implemented with affordable materials. Already at the Chemistry book, when addressing the biochemistry there is only one proposal for experimental activity called "Glycolic Extract of milk proteins". In this case, we need materials like food processor and enameled pots, which can hinder your performance in virtual classes, however, the experiment is easy to perform. Both books contain questions after the experimental proposals enhancing the questioning of the activities and understanding the contents addressed. CONCLUSIONS: The present experimental activities in the textbooks are mostly easy to apply and is not required sophisticated equipment of Sciences laboratories. It also allows the contextualization of theory and practice enhancing the process of teaching and learning with the proposals made.

  13. Guidelines for the Design of Biochemistry Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Lima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The internet is a means of communication that cannot be disregarded by contemporaryeducational systems. Public and private incentive policies aimed at the application ofdigital devices in the exchange of knowledge in and outside schools have beenimplemented in the last decades. However, risks posed by academic research on line arewidely acknowledged with regard to the quality of information (Lourenço, 2010. One of themain aspects of this issue is the selection of reliable and potentially educational pagesdeveloped for specific target audiences. This study has the objective of providingguidelines for those who intend to develop sites, wiki pages, and educational PBwikisfocused on Biochemistry, or even adapt existing ones. Considering the fact that there is nospecific legislation for the use of the Internet in Brazil, it is necessary to stimulate selfregulationof the sector in order to establish minimum quality standards, safety, andreliability of sites containing information in the educational area. Thus, it is necessary toestablish some parameters to help guiding research for educational purposes on theinternet. To be a potentially didactic Biochemistry page, one must follow this set oforientation: clearly establish the target audience and, then, define the contents the properway. Once the materials have been organized, establish, whenever possible and pertinent,links with references to professional and/ or research home pages, to ProfessionalAssociations in the Biochemistry field, among others. Link the page to an institutionalresearch program, such as International Virtual Education Network, a program developedby the Brazilian Distance Education Department. Finally, it is necessary to provideinteractive possibilities and dynamic images of the biochemical processes studied in classthat will justify and differentiate the page from the many existing ones. Such proceduresare essential to guarantee that online searches made for educational

  14. Penta-coordinate phosphorous compounds and biochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林长学; 韩波; 赵玉芬; 万荣; 李艳梅; 冯亚兵; 成昌梅

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between penta-coordinate phosphorus compounds and biochemistry is briefly reviewed. Some interesting phenomena such as peptide formation, ester formation, ester exchange on phosphorus and N to O migration occur at room temperature when the amino group of amino acid is associated with phosphoryl group. Serine or threonine in conjugate of nucleo-side-amino acid could recognize different nucleobases. N-phosphoryl Histine and Ser-His dipep-tide could cleavage nucleic acid, protein and ester in neutral medium. It is found that the above phenomena all undergo penta-coordinate intermediate of phosphorus atom, which is proposed as the key factor to determine their activities.

  15. Radioactive isotopes in biochemistry (historical essay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large volume of facts, including little-known biobibliographic data on the the first reserchers who applied the method, are used in the study. The main attention is paid to the use of the method of labelled atoms, when considering intermediate exchange of substances and creating metabolic ways maps (the end of 30-ies - beginning of 50-ies). Using as an example the history of creation of the labelled atom method and its introduction into biochemistry, the problem of the research methods transfer from one branch of science to another is considered

  16. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SOME PERSPECTIVE TABLE GRAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Burlakov M. M.; Rodionova L. Y.; Troshin L. P.; Chausov V. M.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains results of the study of biochemistry of some perspective table grape varieties: Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina and Jubilee Novocherkasska, yield in 2013 from the Central zone of Krasnodar region. At the time of redy yield the combination of sweetness and acidity of fruits were favorable. The ratio of fructose to glucose was 1.69; 1.36; 2.00; 1.13, respectively, in grapes Aniuta, Vodograi, Nisina, Jubilee Novocherkasska. According to the percentage of fructose in fruit juice var...

  17. Writing throughout the Biochemistry Curriculum: Synergistic Inquiry-Based Writing Projects for Biochemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Pamela; Streu, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a synergistic two-semester writing sequence for biochemistry courses. In the first semester, students select a putative protein and are tasked with researching their protein largely through bioinformatics resources. In the second semester, students develop original ideas and present them in the form of a research grant…

  18. A Changing Research and Publication Landscape for Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Mocz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This introductory editorial hopes to convey three points to its audience. First, it provides an overview of the new, peer-reviewed, open access journal Biochemistry Insights published by Libertas Academica. Second, it summarizes the benefits of open access publishing concepts to the biochemistry community. And third, it takes a brief look at the near future of biochemistry as a fundamental molecular science whose continued advances and latest developments will be the focus of the new journal. Biochemistry Insights looks forward to receiving research articles, review papers, commentaries and letters from all disciplines and specialties of the field.

  19. A National Comparison of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Capstone Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the "American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end,…

  20. A Streamlined Molecular Biology Module for Undergraduate Biochemistry Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Gregory W.; Chihade, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis and other molecular biology techniques, including plasmid manipulation and restriction analysis, are commonly used tools in the biochemistry research laboratory. In redesigning our biochemistry lab curricula, we sought to integrate these techniques into a term-long, project-based course. In the module presented here,…

  1. Immobilized alpha-Galactosidase in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulimani, V. H.; Dhananjay, K.

    2007-01-01

    This laboratory experiment was designed to demonstrate the application of immobilized galactosidase in food industry to hydrolyze raffinose family oligosaccharides in soymilk. This laboratory experiment was conducted for postgraduate students of biochemistry and developed for graduate and undergraduate students of biochemistry, biotechnology,…

  2. News from Online: WWW Sites for Biochemistry Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Barry W.

    2002-05-01

    With so many biochemistry sites to choose from, searching the Web for biochemistry topics is like being a "kid in a candy shop." However, to reap the benefits, you must put in a bit of time and have a bit of patience. Good hunting.

  3. Using Pamphlets to Teach Biochemistry: A Service-Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Melinda A.; Dunbar, David; Lopatto, David

    2013-01-01

    A service-learning project appropriate for a biochemistry or advanced biochemistry course was designed and implemented. The project involved students partnering with a homeless shelter to design informational pamphlets to be displayed at the shelter for the clients' use. The pamphlet topics were based on diseases studied within the course.…

  4. Commentary: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Educators Launch National Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Cheryl; Bell, Ellis; Johnson, Margaret; Mattos, Carla; Sears, Duane; White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    The American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) has launched an National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded 5 year project to support biochemistry and molecular biology educators learning what and how students learn. As a part of this initiative, hundreds of life scientists will plan and develop a rich central resource for…

  5. Blended Learning in Biochemistry Education: Analysis of Medical Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenski, Rosilaine de Fatima; de Espindola, Marina Bazzo; Struchiner, Miriam; Giannella, Tais Rabetti

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze first-year UFRJ medical students' perceptions about the implementation of a blended learning (BL) experience in their Biochemistry I course. During the first semester of 2009, three Biochemistry professors used the Constructore course management system to develop virtual learning environments (VLEs) for…

  6. Enhanced Podcasts for Teaching Biochemistry to Veterinary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of biochemistry within medical disciplines presents certain challenges; firstly to relay a large body of complex facts and abstract concepts, and secondly to motivate students that this relatively difficult topic is worth their time to study. Here, nutrient biochemistry was taught within a multidisciplinary module as part of an…

  7. Bone Biochemistry on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone biochemical measures provide valuable insight into the nature and time course of microgravity effects on bone during space flight, where imaging technology cannot be employed. Increased bone resorption is a hallmark of space flight, while markers of bone formation are typically unchanged or decreased. Recent studies (after the deployment to ISS of the advanced resistive exercise device, ARED), have documented that astronauts with good nutritional intake (e.g., maintenance of body mass), good vitamin D status, and exercise maintained bone mineral density. These data are encouraging, but crewmembers exercising on the ARED do have alterations in bone biochemistry, specifically, bone resorption is still increased above preflight levels, but bone formation is also significantly increased. While this bone remodeling raises questions about the strength of the resulting bone, however documents beneficial effects of nutrition and exercise in counteracting bone loss of space flight.

  8. Biochemistry Teaching Through Food Label Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    N.L. Barbosa; Y.M. Correia; Nascimento, M. M.; H.D. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Traditional classes of Basic Biochemistry often rely on memorization of facts and concepts.  For  this  reason,  many  educators  have  evaluated  new  strategies  and tools  to  enrich  learning  and  motivate  undergraduate  students.  As  a  result  of different  methodologies  used  for  this  purpose,  several  commited  professors  are convinced  that  students  learn  more  effectively  if  the  knowledge  they  acquire  are inserted and contextualized in relevant real-life. This work ...

  9. Immobilized Lactase in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Matthew J.; Bering, C. Larry

    1998-10-01

    Immobilized enzymes have many practical applications. They may be used in clinical, industrial, and biotechnological laboratories and in many clinical diagnostic kits. For educational purposes, use of immobilized enzymes can easily be taught at the undergraduate or even secondary level. We have developed an immobilized enzyme experiment that combines many practical techniques used in the biochemistry laboratory and fits within a three-hour time frame. In this experiment, lactase from over-the-counter tablets for patients with lactose intolerance is immobilized in polyacrylamide, which is then milled into small beads and placed into a chromatography column. A lactose solution is added to the column and the eluant is assayed using the glucose oxidase assay, available as a kit. We have determined the optimal conditions to give the greatest turnover of lactose while allowing the immobilized enzymes to be active for long periods at room temperature.

  10. Evaluation of Educational Media Covering Biochemistry Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima C.A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the increase of Information and Communications Technologies, ithas developed many tools which can be used in the biochemistry teaching, such aswebsites, films, educational software, that enable the visualization of microscopic andsubmicroscopic processes which has a difficult understanding. The use of software can bean integrating part of the teaching learning process, in order to assist or to contribute for abetter construction of knowledge. OBJECTIVES: Identify the educational media availablefor teaching biochemistry and to evaluate, qualitatively, these tools. MATERIAL ANDMETHODS: The educational media were selected through searchers on the web and theywere evaluated by four evaluators, using a specific questionnaire. The form was madeusing quality parameters in the following areas: media technical quality; educationalaspects; content and use; and the use in virtual environments. A scale from 1 to 5, NA (notapplicable were used and yes or no for the binary questions. After, was made theaverages and standard deviations by category and media. RESULTS ANDDISCUSSIONS: Were selected and evaluated 40 educational medias, highlighting thefollowing results in the media technical quality: ease of access, ease of installation andreliability, however, need to improve the interactivity of these media, as well asaccessibility. On the educational aspects issue the highlights are for updated informationand the way they enable the construction of knowledge. When referring to the contentassessed, the item that stood out was the exemption of textual errors. The lowest valuesof the evaluation, overall, gave up the use in virtual environments, indicating the demandfor better integration with these environments. CONCLUSION: Applications reviewsexpressed concern in its construction, with respect to general aspects of quality, however,still demand a greater concern about the interaction with the student, and betteraccessibility and incorporation

  11. Dyslipidemias as generating issue in Biochemistry classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional didactic model is based on the transmission of the teacher's encyclopedic knowledge. In this model, the teaching of Science aims at the transmission of dominant values, regarded as absolute truths. The teacher is seen is an expert on scientific contents who transmits them to students without motivating them, and without taking into consideration their previous ideas and life experience. This model contributes to the formation of professionals who accept those values uncritically. An effective approach to break up this traditional teaching model in Biochemistry is the use of a generating issue. A Generating Issue is the starting point to the knowledge construction process which, in turn, replaces traditional models. Thus, this study aimed at developing a lesson for a 12th grade class at IF Fluminense on the following content: alcohol, carboxylic acid, ester, and esterification reaction, using dyslipidemias as the Generating Issue. To verify the value of such methodology in Biochemistry classroom, data was collected by applying a questionnaire and images with texts produced by students. In addition, they had a class based on the methodology known as Three Pedagogical Moments, proposed by Delizoicov et al. (2007. Several didactic resources designed by the authors were used, such as slide presentation, tridimensional molecular models, and a roulette game named “Bioquimicados”, based on the Facebook game “Perguntados” ("Trivia Crack". After this, students developed more grounded scientific concepts, making use of terms common in scientific language. This suggests that the use of the Generating Issue in a lesson based on problematization, and supported by a ludic activity, provided a meaningful contribution to improve the students' understanding of the scientific content. This type of non-traditional class promotes greater student motivation, resulting in meaningful learning.

  12. The semiosis of students’ conceptual understanding of biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Mathiesen, Søren Læssøe; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    2013-01-01

    university teaching including biochemistry teaching (Loertscher, 2011). The study seeks an answer to the problem of emergence in science students acquisition of concepts, not only how students form new sign hierarchies over time, but how say easy concepts suddenly change into a hard concepts(or vice versa...... analogue scales) of biochemical concepts were collected every week during a university semester. Archival data (e.g. biochemistry textbooks), diaries and a qualitative interview were collected with a biochemistry teacher. Methodological challenges are identified in studying conceptual change and the...

  13. Online Communication Tools in Biochemistry Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ferreira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The  online  communication  tools  enable  new  ways  of  learning, especially  the  forums  in the context of online courses, and the understanding of interactions and collaborations in the  forums  can  improve  them.  The  study  aimed  to  analyze  the  online relationships,  as well  as  obtaining  evidence  of  the  use of  other  learning  tools in  a  biochemistry  subject, focusing on how students use the tool forum and its contribution to learning. The study was  carried  out  from  data  pre  and  post  course  questionnaires  as  well  as  log  of environment  access  and  discussion  forum.  The  forums  have  been  restructured  and systematized  for  analysis  and  creating  discursive  flows  between  statements.  The questionnaires showed the central role of forum and wiki for learning,  the importance of interactions, which was highlighted by the forum analysis. The results indicate that one of the ways to improve online biochemistry teaching is to stimulate interactive activities, participatory  moderation  and  pedagogical  support  by  tutors  and  mentors,  also encouraging  and  creating  strategies  to  collaboration  of  students  to  solve problems  and to collaborative knowledge construction.

  14. Molecular structure of actinides in biochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of internal contamination, drugs used for decorporation are scarce and do not act very specifically. For instance the sole de-corporating drug recommended for plutonium decontamination is a water-soluble ligand named DTPA (Diethylene-Triamino-Pentaacetate). The transport of DTPA to its organ-target and its bio-availability on the spot are not satisfactorily understood. The conventional method to develop new ligands is based on molecular approaches but it is not sufficient. A new method that combines methods from structural biochemistry with methods of bio-inorganic chemistry and with methods from physico-chemistry (particularly X-ray absorption spectroscopy) is so far the best way to understand molecular speciation and to detail the local arrangement of atoms around a cation for instance, which are valuable information to understand the behaviour of a ligand. EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine structure Spectroscopy) measurements suggest that during the formation of a complex involving an actinide (An) and a ligand, the inter-atomic distance An-O decreases when the atomic number of the cation increases while it is the reverse in the case of An-N

  15. Hobby with Biochemistry: Use of active learning methodology in Biochemistry at the Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R.T. Prado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: The learning of Biochemistry is generally considered difficult by the graduates, because studies the molecular level the metabolism of living and it demands a great capacity for abstraction by students. Thus, researchers have tried alternative methods to provid an alternative study method. Materials and methods: 178 students of the School of Medicine, PUC-PR, that course the disciplines of Medical Biochemistry I and II, were divided into 50 groups, each with 3-4 students, and were have to draw up a hobby activity with a specific theme of the Biochemistry. The selected topics were, amino acids and proteins, enzymes, cellular respiration, glycogen metabolism, gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, metabolic integration, dyslipidemia and atherogenesis, pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, mechanisms of diabetes mellitus complications. The hobby activities chosen were direct, duplex, self-defined, cryptogram, bugs game. Both issues such as the type of hobby was drawn between groups. The groups had to: elaborate hobby; presents it to class orally, applying the questions prepared; printing and expose the hobby at the wall in the University; answer an evaluation regarding the preparation of work; and all groups should get together and organize one titled magazine "Hobby with Biochemistry" and deliver it printed. Results and conclusions: According the groups, the greatest difficulty was the adequacy of the questions posed in the required format, once they had only one issue and restricted space for the responses. Furthermore, the formatting was also identified as a point very difficult in activity elaboration. On the topic of learning through the development of work, and/or a new skill groups assigned grades ranging between 7.0 and 10.0 and about 90% of the groups attributed note 10 on satisfaction of seeing the work done and its ability to produce it. According to the results, the activity proved to be

  16. International Environmental Law and Biochemistry: An Innovative Teaching Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candlish, John

    1998-01-01

    Explores the ties between international environmental law and biochemistry with respect to genetically modified organisms, biodiversity, marine pollution, cancer biology, and pesticide contamination of food. Contains 30 references. (DDR)

  17. Teaching human genetics in biochemistry by computer literature searching.

    OpenAIRE

    Proud, V. K.; Schmidt, F J; Johnson, E D; Mitchell, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a new user-intense-learning experience that incorporates the teaching of clinical and research applications of human genetics in biochemistry while training first-year medical students to develop skills in computer access to the literature. Human genetics was incorporated into the biochemistry curriculum by providing each student with experience in on-line literature searching in MEDLINE, using Grateful Med, in order to write an abstract about a specific inherited biochemical diso...

  18. A biochemistry discipline designed for the nutrition course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.G. Bianco

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry is widely considered an essential background in a Nutrition Course framework. At theFaculdade de Saude Publica, USP, it is a direct requirement to eight disciplines of the syllabus and anindirect requirement to another nine disciplines. Nevertheless, a previous interview study involvingNutrition students and Nutritionists revealed a contradictory image of Biochemistry. Although stu-dents and Nutritionists admitted the important role played by Biochemistry, most of the respondentsdeclared that they could not foresee any application of Biochemical contents in their professional life.Aiming to change this situation, a deep intervention in the Biochemistry discipline was carried on.The discipline was planned in such a way that all the contents to be taught was directly derived fromsubjects or situations matching the interests of nutrition students. Instead of a classical lecture basedcourse, collaborative learning was the methodological choice, taking advantage of practical activitiesinvolving educational software and laboratory work as well. The course was carried on in 180 hoursand a variety of strategies were employed, especially small group discussion and problem solving. Thestudents were given a booklet containing all the exercises and problems, which acted as course guide.At the end of the course, an evaluation survey was carried out. It is noticeable that, according tostudents answers: 100% agreed that Biochemistry was intimately linked to Nutrition; 83% appreciatedthe didactical methodologies employed; 89% would like to continue studying Biochemistry in a furtherdiscipline; 96% declared that the discipline has raised their interest in Biochemistry. In respect tothe assessment of the students, these results are in accordance with the opinion of teachers and TAsengaged in restructuring Biochemistry courses.

  19. Geobiochemistry: Placing Biochemistry in Its Geochemical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, E.; Boyer, G. M.; Canovas, P. A., III; Prasad, A.; Dick, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Goals of geobiochemistry include simultaneously evaluating the relative stabilities of microbial cells and minerals, and predicting how the composition of biomolecules can change in response to the progress of geochemical reactions. Recent developments in theoretical geochemistry make it possible to predict standard thermodynamic properties of proteins, nucleotides, lipids, and many metabolites including the constituents of the citric acid cycle, at all temperatures and pressures where life is known to occur, and beyond. Combining these predictions with constraints from geochemical data makes it possible to assess the relative stabilities of biomolecules. Resulting independent predictions of the environmental occurrence of homologous proteins and lipid side-chains can be compared with observations from metagenomic and metalipidomic data to quantify geochemical driving forces that shape the composition of biomolecules. In addition, the energetic costs of generating biomolecules from within a diverse range of habitable environments can be evaluated in terms of prevailing geochemical variables. Comparisons of geochemical bioenergetic calculations across habitats leads to the generalization that the availability of H2 determines the cost of autotrophic biosynthesis relative to the aquatic environment external to microbial cells, and that pH, temperature, pressure, and availability of C, N, P, and S are typically secondary. Increasingly reduced conditions, which are determined by reactions of water with mineral surfaces and mineral assemblages, allow many biosynthetic reactions to shift from costing energy to releasing energy. Protein and lipid synthesis, as well as the reverse citric acid cycle, become energy-releasing processes under these conditions. The resulting energy balances that determine habitability contrast dramatically with assumptions derived from oxic surface conditions, such as those where human biochemistry operates.

  20. Recent advances in the biochemistry of spinosyns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke-xue; Xia, Liqiu; Zhang, Youming; Ding, Xuezhi; Zahn, James A

    2009-02-01

    Spinosyn and its analogs, produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa, are the active ingredients in a family of insect control agents. They are macrolides with a 21-carbon, 12-membered tetracyclic lactones that are attached to two deoxysugars, tri-O-methylrhamnose and forosamine. Labeling studies, analysis of the biosynthetically blocked mutants, and the genetic identification of the spinosyn gene cluster have provided detailed information concerning the mechanism of spinosyn biosynthesis and have enabled combinatorial biosynthesis of a large group of new spinosyns. The following developments have recently impacted the field of spinosyn biology: (1) A second-generation spinosyn called spinetoram (XDE-175) was launched in late 2007; it is a semisynthesized spinosyn derivative produced through the modification of 3'-O-methyl group of rhamnose and the double bond between C5 and C6 of spinosyn J and L. This molecule was shown to have improved insecticidal activity, enhanced duration of control, and an expanded pest spectrum. (2) A new class of spinosyns, the butenyl-spinosyns, was discovered from Saccharopolyspora pogona. The butenyl-spinosyns are similar to spinosyns, but differ in the length of the side chain at C-21. In addition to structural similarities with the spinosyns, the butenyl-spinosyns exhibit a high level of similarity in insecticidal activity to spinetoram. (3) Spinosyn analogs, 21-cyclobutyl-spinosyn A and 21-cyclobutyl-spinosyn D were generated by metabolic engineering of the spinosyn biosynthetic gene cluster. They showed better insecticidal activities against cotton aphid and tobacco budworm than that of spinosyn A and D. Future progress toward the development of more potent spinosad analogs, as well as enhancements in production yields will likely result from these recent advances in the genetics and biochemistry of spinosyns. PMID:19082588

  1. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SOME PERSPECTIVE TABLE GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlakov M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains results of the study of biochemistry of some perspective table grape varieties: Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina and Jubilee Novocherkasska, yield in 2013 from the Central zone of Krasnodar region. At the time of redy yield the combination of sweetness and acidity of fruits were favorable. The ratio of fructose to glucose was 1.69; 1.36; 2.00; 1.13, respectively, in grapes Aniuta, Vodograi, Nisina, Jubilee Novocherkasska. According to the percentage of fructose in fruit juice varieties Aniuta, Vodograi and Jubilee Novocherkasska close to each other (50.93; 56.14; 51.23%. According to the percentage of glucose similar varieties Aniuta and Nizina (33 - 34.27%, Vodograi and Jubilee Novocherkasska (41.16 - 45.22%. Sort Jubilee Novocherkasska, had content in berries close fructose and glucose. Most of fructose (66.02% in berries variety Nizina. In berries studied cultivars organic acid content was: wine 3128 - 3861, malic 982 - 3753, citric 109 - 317, amber 3 - 115 mg / dm3. The highest concentrations of potassium and sodium cations are presented in berries varieties Aniuta: potassium - 1219 sodium - 35.13 mg / dm3 and cations magnesium and calcium in berries Jubilee Novocherkasska 46.75 and 73.64 mg / dm3. The lowest concentration of potassium and sodium cations observed in grape Vodograi, magnesium - from grape Aniuta, calcium - at grape Nizina. We studied grape bunches are large, not dense, beautiful, berries are large, harmonious taste. Tasting score fresh grapes varieties Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina, Jubilee Novocherkasska 7.6; 7.4; 7.8; 7.8 points respectively

  2. Using 3DClass To Flip Biochemistry Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The flipped classroom inverts traditional teaching methods, in order to have studentsprepared for topics and techniques covered in the following meeting. This approach wasadopted in a biochemistry course taught to biology freshmen students at the University ofCampinas, using a Virtual Learning Environment called 3DClass. Before each classroomsession, a quiz was delivered covering the following topic and students were allowed totake quizzes as many times as they wanted. This approach was utilized in order to betterprepare students in classes and to perform lab experiments. Every student attempt wasrecorded in a database. Before each classroom session, the instructors were provided witha summary of the class answers, highlighting questions where students had more difficultyand the ones that scored higher. This kind of information was helpful to design activities tocover the topics where students had more difficulties. Based on the 3DClass records thestudents behaviors were mapped, such as students taking the quizzes seriously, studentsguessing, students answering a quiz until scoring 100%, students that continue answeringafter scoring 100% in order to increase their grades, students that never score 100%.However, the most relevant information 3DClass brought us was the possibility to identifystudent’s confidence in their answers, which could be observed by the analysis of theirattempts for each question. If they had made different choices each try, it would haveindicated a low confidence level, while always providing the same answer indicated ahigher confidence level, even whilst picking incorrect answers. This experiment haverevealed that students coming to the classroom better prepared reflected positively on thedeveloped activities, but the number of students taking the quizzes seriously were not asgreat as we had expected, indicating that more actions should be taken to improvestudents engagement with these activities.

  3. The Biochemistry Over 20 Years In The High School Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E.S. Rocha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available   The Biochemistry Over 20 Years In The High School Textbooks   Rocha, C. E. S.1; Büttenbender, M. D.1; Denardin, E.L.G.2, Roehrs, R.1,2 1Grupo Interdisciplinar de Pesquisa em Práticas de Ensino, UNIPAMPA, RS. 2Laboratório de Estudos Físico Químicos e Produtos Naturais, UNIPAMPA, RS.   INTRODUCTION: Many teachers make use of textbook to lead content in the classroom. The chemistry books introduce concepts that should relate biochemistry to students in schools. It is important that this first contact turns out into an encouraging experience for the students, because once it worked as expected it arouses interest and makes the students see themselves curious to delve into the subject. The research aims to evaluate the presence of related concepts in biochemistry textbooks in chemistry in high school, over 20 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to perform this study, we analyzed the following content related to biochemistry: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids in the books "Chemistry - Structure of Matter and Organic Chemistry" of the year 1993 and the book "Chemistry in approach to daily life" of the year 2012 with the purpose of verifying the changes in the content of biochemistry in the last 20 years. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In the 90s, as used in the book, concepts and explanations are introduced in a very objective approach, making a total of 22 pages. The current largest is 23 pages with experiments and curiosities. Through analysis we found that current textbooks present the same issues related to biochemistry, however, a greater amount of data, bringing students to more examples and applications in everyday life. Today we see that the contents and processes are most exploited and that there is a concern on the importance of the study of issues that relate to biochemistry. CONCLUSIONS: The study of the biochemistry textbooks has been more attractive in recent years, contextualizing content with the daily life of

  4. The Biochemistry Show: a new and fun tool for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H Ono

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods to teach biochemistry in most universities are based on the memorization of chemical structures,  biochemical  pathways  and  reagent  names,  which  is  many  times  dismotivating  for  the  students.  We presently describe an innovative, interactive and alternative method for teaching biochemistry to medical and nutrition undergraduate students, called the Biochemistry Show (BioBio Show.The Biobio show is based on active participation of the students. They are divided in groups and the groups face each other. One group faces another one group at a time, in a game based on true or false questions that involve subjects of applied biochemistry (exercise, obesity, diabetes, cholesterol, free radicals, among others. The questions of the Show are previously elaborated by senior students. The Biobio Show has four phases, the first one is a selection exam, and from the second to the fourth phase, eliminatory confrontations happen. On a confrontation, the first group must select a certain quantity of questions for the opponent to answer.  The group who choses the questions must know how to answer and justify the selected questions. This procedure is repeated on all phases of the show. On the last phase, the questions used are taken from an exam previously performed by the students: either the 9-hour biochemistry exam (Sé et al. A 9-hour biochemistry exam. An iron man competition or a good way of evaluating undergraduate students? SBBq 2005, abstract K-6 or the True-or-False exam (TFE (Sé et al. Are tutor-students capable of writing good biochemistry exams? SBBq 2004, abstract K-18. The winner group receives an extra 0,5 point on the final grade. Over 70% of the students informed on a questionnaire that the Biobio Show is a valuable tool for learning biochemistry.    That is a new way to enrich the discussion of biochemistry in the classroom without the students getting bored. Moreover, learning

  5. FACEBOOK AS A MEDIATION TOOL IN BIOCHEMISTRY DISCIPLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. X. Gomes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current students generation are daily connected to the Internet, wich encourages the use of mobile tools in education. Many of the students of Biochemistry feel apprehensive about the discipline and the use of facebook may contribute, among other factors, motivating them. Objectives: It was analyzed the use of facebook as a mediator and motivator in the discipline of Biochemistry, basing on socioconstrutivist interventions. Material and methods: This work was developed in the action-research perspective, using the quali-quantitative method. An investigative questionnaire was used, using Likert scale and open questions, to investigate the facebook use, as well as the preferences of students, focusing on Biochemistry group in the Biomedicine course.  The posts were analyzed identifying: frequency of the interaction`s types (post, comment, likes;  interaction's categories (question, answer, motivational; and the content itself of the post. Results: It was highlighted students' interest to search materials, answering questions, and especially seeking information about the discipline. It was emphasized that the group was motivating for learning Biochemistry, encouragement the group to study, with quick and easy access to the professor by chat. Conclusions: The results indicate a preference for students at facebook, with a great motivational potential, is at easy access to colleagues, professor and monitor, or even the ease of obtaining the materials and ask questions in real time, indicating that this tool as a possible way, still little explored, to enhance the teaching of Biochemistry.

  6. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  7. Game Development as Didactic Strategy for Biochemistry Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    G.G. Hornink

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that students and teachers have difficulties in learning and teaching Biochemistry due to its abstract and interconnected contents. This work proposes a didactic strategy in order to facilitate teaching and learning process in Biochemistry. The strategy was implemented with biological science undergraduate students. At first, the students were divided into groups with a specific topic to develop a game. During the semester, problem based learning cases, online activities like...

  8. Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Research Report 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific interests of the Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences have evolved from classical biochemistry, biophysics and physiological chemistry to up-to-date molecular biology. Research interests are focussed on replication, mutagenesis and repair of DNA; regulation of gene expression at various levels; biosynthesis and post-translational modifications of proteins; gene sequencing and functional analysis of open reading frames; structure, function and regulation of enzymes; conformation of proteins and peptides; modelling of structures and prediction of functions of proteins; mechanisms of electron transfer in polypeptides

  9. Teaching of biochemistry: analyze of works presented in Congress the Society Brazilian Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - SBBq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Escoto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades the strategies to improve science education has grown exponentially. Thus, the scientific production in the area is also growing, with the purpose of identifying parameters and methodologies that contribute to their qualification. The teaching of biochemistry is intimately linked to that context. However, it is still little explored in basic education and with character technicist in higher education. The aim of this study was identify areas that received most attention in the scientific literature about teaching and education in biochemistry that were presented at the Congress of the Brazilian Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from 2004 to 2012. Material and Methods: To conduct the survey were analyzed summaries available on the website of the Brazilian Journal of Education for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology published in the proceedings of the event, where they were encontrados176 summaries. For expression of results was used categorization from the content analysis. Results and Discussion: The results observed to establish nine categories based on the analysis of the titles and content of the work, which, in descending order, were: information and communication technologies, alternative methods teaching and learning, biochemistry in Elementary Education and / or Medium, experiential activities, teacher training, dissemination of science, proposition and evaluation of content and / or science curricular and History and Philosophy. It is noticed that the three most important categories were consolidated along editions. In education, however, there was a significant decrease in the number of abstracts submitted abstracts for the past five years. Conclusions: We conclude that all categories listed seeking alternatives to improve teaching practices and promote education of biochemistry in different contexts.

  10. The Use of Multiple Tools for Teaching Medical Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Se, Alexandre B.; Passos, Renato M.; Ono, Andre H.; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we describe the use of several strategies employing the philosophies of active learning and problem-based learning (PBL) that may be used to improve the teaching of metabolic biochemistry to medical and nutritional undergraduate students. The main activities are as follows: 1) a seminar/poster system in a mini-congress format (using…

  11. An Integrated Strategy for Teaching Biochemistry to Biotechnology Specialty Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liming; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2007-01-01

    The faculty of biochemistry established an integrated teaching strategy for biotechnology specialty students, by intermeshing the case-study method, web-assistant teaching, and improved lecture format with a brief content and multimedia courseware. Teaching practice showed that the integrated teaching strategy could retain the best features of…

  12. An "in Silico" DNA Cloning Experiment for the Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M.

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces students to concepts in recombinant DNA technology while accommodating a major semester project in protein purification, structure, and function in a biochemistry laboratory for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students. It is also suitable for forensic science courses focused in DNA biology and advanced…

  13. Osmotic Stressing, Membrane Leakage, and Fluorescence: An Introductory Biochemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seu, Kalani J.

    2015-01-01

    A fluorescence demonstration is described that incorporates several fundamental aspects of an introductory biochemistry course. A variation of a known leakage assay is utilized to prepare vesicles containing a quenched fluorophore. The vesicles are exposed to several osmotic environments ranging from isotonic to hypotonic. The degree of vesicle…

  14. Ribose 5-Phosphate Isomerase Investigations for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Kathy; Sandwick, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (RpiA) has many features that make it attractive as a focal point of a semester-long, advanced biochemistry laboratory for undergraduate students. The protein can easily and inexpensively be isolated from spinach using traditional purification techniques. Characterization of RpiA enzyme activity can be…

  15. Assessment of Learning Gains in a Flipped Biochemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of…

  16. Biochemistry Instructors' Perceptions of Analogies and Their Classroom Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, MaryKay; Bussey, Thomas J.; Bodner, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemistry education relies heavily on students' abilities to conceptualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. From a constructivist standpoint, students build their understandings of these abstract processes by connecting, expanding, or revising their prior conceptions and experiences. As such, biochemistry…

  17. Raising Environmental Awareness through Applied Biochemistry Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Ashraf, S.

    2013-01-01

    Our environment is under constant pressure and threat from various sources of pollution. Science students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed biochemistry laboratory experiment…

  18. Uncovering Students' Incorrect Ideas about Foundational Concepts for Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafane, Sachel M.; Loertscher, Jennifer; Minderhout, Vicky; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary data on how an assessment instrument with a unique structure can be used to identify common incorrect ideas from prior coursework at the beginning of a biochemistry course, and to determine whether these ideas have changed by the end of the course. The twenty-one multiple-choice items address seven different…

  19. Estimating foliar biochemistry from hyperspectral data in mixed forest canopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber Gharib, Silvia; Kneubühler, Mathias; Psomas, Achilleas;

    2008-01-01

    data to estimate the foliar concentration of nitrogen, carbon and water in three mixed forest canopies in Switzerland. With multiple linear regression models, continuum-removed and normalized HyMap spectra were related to foliar biochemistry on an individual tree level. The six spectral wavebands used...

  20. Differentiating Biochemistry Course Laboratories Based on Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2011-01-01

    Content and emphases in undergraduate biochemistry courses can be readily tailored to accommodate the standards of the department in which they are housed, as well as the backgrounds of the students in the courses. A more challenging issue is how to construct laboratory experiences for a class with both chemistry majors, who usually have little or…

  1. Using Assessment to Improve Learning in the Biochemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, major drivers of undergraduate science education reform including the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) have called on college and university instructors to take a more scientific approach to their teaching. Although many biochemistry instructors are gaining confidence in using…

  2. DMPD: Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17502368 Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. de Wee...(.html) (.csml) Show Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. PubmedID 17502368 T...itle Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. Authors

  3. Biochemistry Students' Ideas about Shape and Charge in Enzyme-Substrate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2014-01-01

    Biochemistry is a visual discipline that requires students to develop an understanding of numerous representations. However, there is very little known about what students actually understand about the representations that are used to communicate ideas in biochemistry. This study investigated biochemistry students' understanding of multiple…

  4. Biochemistry on the Media: daily science in audio and video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Melo et al

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry on the Media: daily science in audio and video Melo,B. P1; Henriques, L. R1; Júnior, H. G2; Galvão, G. R2; Costa, M. M2; Silva, A. S3; Costa, M. P3; Barreto, L. P3; Almeida, A. A3; Fontes, P. P3; Meireles, L. M3; Costa, P. A3; Costa, C. B3; Monteiro, L. M. O3 Konig, I. M3; Dias, B. K. M1; Santos, R. C. V1; Bagno, F. F1; Fernandes, L1; Alves, P. R1; Sales, F. M1; Martins, T. C. N1; Moreira, V. J. V1; Marchiori, J. M1; Medeiros, L.4; Leite, J. P. V5; Moraes, G. H. K6.   1 Members of ETP-Biochemistry UFV; 2 Students of program Jovens Talentos para a Ciência UFV; 3 Graduating Students of ETP; 4 Coordinator in Espaço Ciência UFV; 5 Pharmaceutical, professor at Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Department (BBD UFV, ETP’s tutor; 6 Agronomist, professor at BDD, work’s advisor.   INTRODUCTION: The Educational Tutorial Program in Biochemistry (ETP from UFV have worked in qualification of basic science teachers, offering courses about Biochemistry. In courses, was detected the necessity of a personal material to inspire them. To do it, ETP compiled some media spots in a box and have used it in qualification courses. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this work was construct a part of a permanent material to be used in courses to qualifications high school's teachers and evaluate it. METODOLOGY: Applying questionnaires to high school students, ETP's members had detected that these students don't have a solid idea about how is Biochemistry. Thus, themes about common Biochemistry daily things were elected to be transformed in spots to radio and television. Texts about shampoo composition, vegetable’s darkening, bread’s fermentation, etc, were written and a script done by Journalism’s students of Espaço Ciência(*. Finally, the spots were recorded and vehiculated on universitary channel. In 2013, the spots were compiled in a media box. It has been included in a permanent material used in qualification courses. According to ALBAGLI

  5. Biochemistry and evolutionary biology: Two disciplines that need each other

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Athel Cornish-Bowden; Juli Peretó; María Luz Cárdenas

    2014-03-01

    Biochemical information has been crucial for the development of evolutionary biology. On the one hand, the sequence information now appearing is producing a huge increase in the amount of data available for phylogenetic analysis; on the other hand, and perhaps more fundamentally, it allows understanding of the mechanisms that make evolution possible. Less well recognized, but just as important, understanding evolutionary biology is essential for understanding many details of biochemistry that would otherwise be mysterious, such as why the structures of NAD and other coenzymes are far more complicated than their functions would seem to require. Courses of biochemistry should thus pay attention to the essential role of evolution in selecting the molecules of life.

  6. Current research in Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay has been engaged in research in the frontier areas of (i) radiation biology related to tumour therapy and injury caused by free radicals; (ii) molecular basis of diseases of physiological origin; (iii) molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and (iv) structure of genome and genome related functions. The gist of research and development activities carried out in the Division during the last two years are documented

  7. A biochemistry laboratory course designed to enhance students autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laboratory sessions are responsible for promoting instrumentation skills desirable in biochemistry and biochemistry related careers. They are traditionally based on experimental protocols that lead to the expected results, and students usually have not autonomy to plan and execute their experiments. GOALS: This work aimed to enhance a traditional biochemistry lab course, applying pre-lab quizzes on protein biochemistry and lab techniques in order to have students better prepared to plan, execute and interpret experiments. This approach also aims to bring the laboratory sessions into an inquiry-based environment capable to improve students’ independent capabilities in 2 autonomy domains: learning and communication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Online quizzes are delivered one week before each laboratory session, containing questions regarding the experimental techniques and theoretical basis related to them. Laboratory activities are presented in an inquiry-based approach where the first class of each activity is dedicated to plan experiments in order to answer the research questions presented by instructors. Activities are also organized in order to enhance students’ autonomy. The first activity is the simplest and more instructor-controlled and the last one is the most complex and less driven, transferring gradually to students the responsibility for their decisions in laboratory, supporting students’ autonomy. RESULTS: Online quizzes allowed instructors to identify students’ difficulties and to timely intervene. Scientific reports presented by students at the end of each activity showed that they performed better on less driven activities in which autonomy support were more complex than in the instructor controlled activities. CONCLUSIONS: Scientific reports analysis reveals students capabilities related to different scopes of autonomy, such as: discuss different strategies; find multiple solutions to solve problems; make their

  8. Postprandial biochemistry changes in penguins (Spheniscus demersus) including hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Stremme, Donald W; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2010-06-01

    In a clinical setting, it is important to differentiate abnormal values that may be a normal change resulting from feeding and those that may be disease related. Such postprandial changes have been identified in mammalian and avian species. In the current study, pre- and postvalues for several routine biochemical analytes from penguins (Spheniscus demersus) were examined. Significant increases were found in uric acid, triglycerides, and bile acids (P abnormal biochemistry values in penguins. PMID:20597226

  9. THE USE OF MULTIPLE TOOLS FOR TEACHING MEDICAL BIOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Sé

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The pros and cons of Problem Based Learning (PBL have been extensivelydiscussed in the literature. We describe PBL-like strategies used at UnB (some ofthem since 1999 that may be useful elsewhere to improve undergraduatebiochemistry teaching with clinical applications. The main activities are: (i aseminar/poster system, (ii a true-or-false applied biochemistry exam (prepared bypeer tutors, (iii a 9-hour-exam on metabolism (based in actual papers, (iv anAdvanced Biochemistry course (directed to peer tutors, (v pizza-and-pasta (formetabolism teaching and free radicals (real science for students experiments,(vi the BioBio blog (http://www.biobio-unb.blogspot.com, (vii student lectures onhealth issues directed to the community, and (viii the BioBio Show. The mainobjective of these activities is providing students with a more practical andentertaining approach to biochemistry using philosophic PBL principles such asthe application of basic knowledge to real situations (diseases, experiments andscientific discoveries. We also emphasize (a the importance of peer-tutor activityfor optimized learning of students and peer tutors, (b the relevance of a closerinteraction between students and professors, and (c the necessity to initiatestudents precociously in actual basic/medical science and contact with the public.Most activities have been evaluated by the students through written questionnairesand informal conversations, for several semesters, indicating good acceptanceand approval of these methods.

  10. Game Development as Didactic Strategy for Biochemistry Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Hornink

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that students and teachers have difficulties in learning and teaching Biochemistry due to its abstract and interconnected contents. This work proposes a didactic strategy in order to facilitate teaching and learning process in Biochemistry. The strategy was implemented with biological science undergraduate students. At first, the students were divided into groups with a specific topic to develop a game. During the semester, problem based learning cases, online activities like crossword puzzle, essay questions and educational softwares were used to present the content of each topic. The groups were oriented in classroom and online, to choose and organize contents and create ways to approach them in games. At the end of the course the groups played each other games, which were evaluated by teacher and students following some criteria like: creativity, content organization, interdisciplinarity, proposal coherence, instructions clarity, specific content. The game elaboration contributed to the development of social and cognitive functions, such as teamwork and troubleshooting, providing an interesting perspective to the student about knowledge construction process. The strategy showed up students' creativity and ability to reorganize their knowledge to a different education level. In an overview, the results indicate that the proposed didactic strategy is an effective way to enhance learning and to motivate students into Biochemistry topics.

  11. Are tutor-students capable of writing good biochemistry exams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sé Alexandre B.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In a previous article we described the relevance of student seminars for the learning process of appliedbiochemistry for medical and nutrition students (Hermes-Lima et al., Biochem. Mol.Biol.Educ. 30:30-34,2002. First semester students of a basic biochemistry course (BioBio are divided in 10 groupsof 5 members, and each group is assigned to a specic topic (diabetes, cholesterol, etc under thesupervision of a tutor-student. The tutors have already coursed BioBio and are currently undertakingan advanced biochemistry course. In order to evaluate the learning of applied biochemistry for BioBiostudents a true or false exam (TFE is performed. This exam is made of 50 questions (5 on eachtopic elaborated by the tutors under the supervision of the teacher. The TFE corresponds to 10percent of the grade of BioBio and focus on clinical and/or applied biochemistry situations. At theend of the exam, BioBio students were asked to share their opinions about TFEs (n = 401, from2001/1 to 2003/2. When asked to give a 0-to-4 score regarding (a the diculty level of the test,(b the technical quality and (c if the exam makes an appropriate evaluation of applied biochemistryknowledge, the scores were 2.9, 3.4 and 2.9, respectively. BioBio students were also asked if they ndvalid to be evaluated by a tutor-made exam and if they would like to participate in the making ofTFEs; 96 and 58 percent answered yes, respectively.In another survey, we interviewed former BioBio students from the 2nd to the 7th semesters (n=95about TFEs (since 1999-1 regarding technical aspects, which included (1 clarity of questions, (2 levelof diculty, (3 clinical application and (4 thinking (as opposed to memorizing abilities demanded;the 0-to-4 scores were 3.1, 2.9, 2.6, and 2.5, respectively. Other four questions were on the validityof tutors writing TFEs and their capacity to perform such a task; the average score was 3.2. Oursurveys show the students good acceptance of the seminar system

  12. Comparative analysis of the biochemistry undergraduate courses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Granjeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The economic and social development of Brazil during the recent decades has contributed to the installation of several new undergraduate and graduate study programs, as is the case of the undergraduate biochemistry programs at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. The new biochemical professionals are being prepared to work mainly in Industries, research Institutes, government agencies and Universities in all fields that involve Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the courses in Biochemistry in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparative analysis of the course units of the UFV, UFSJ and UEM programs, centered on the curricula contents and organization and on the profiles of the students in terms of parameters such as the number of admissions and the graduation completion rates. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The UFV and UEM programs present a very similar distribution of workload over the biological, exact sciences, humanities, biochemical specialties and technological applications. The UFSJ program presents higher workloads in the areas of biological sciences and technological applications. No significant differences in the distribution of the workloads of mandatory and optional disciplines, complementary activities and supervised activities were detected. Over the past five years there was a decrease in the number of students that abandoned the programs, despite the increased retention time in the three courses. Most graduated students at both UFV and UFSJ continue their academic career toward the Master or Doctor degrees. CONCLUSION: Little difference between the study programs analyzed. This is somewhat surprising if one considers the fact that individual conception of each program was based on different local conditions and needs, which indeed justify small differences. The similarity of the programs, on the other hand, reflects the universality of the biochemical sciences and their broad

  13. Re-Attitude of Biochemistry Laboratory Course Contents in Medical, Dentistry and Para-Medical Faculties

    OpenAIRE

    Durdi Qujeq; Iman Jahanian; Mohsen Tatar; Naghmeh Abbassi; Korosh Rasolpour

    2014-01-01

    Regarding to development of basic science and new methods in biochemistry in recent years, practical biochemistry contents should be optimized (1). Therefore, re-attitude biochemistry course contents in medical schools has paralleled worldwide trends a moved from current status is needed (2, 3). As reported by investi-gators many medical schools around the world have reformed their medical curriculum in recent years (2). Many authors are convinced that students learn more effectively if the k...

  14. International Symposium on Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ We are building on the success of the Sixth Chinese Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Symposium, Beijing, held in 2005. The 2005 symposium saw many Chinese and international authorities share their expertise in a broad range of insect science, including analyses of insect genomes and proteomes, functional gene expression and regulation during development, insect immunity, insect neurobiology, insect-host interactions and insect chemical communication. The coming symposium, which will be held in Shandong University,Jinan, Shandong province, September 19-22, 2007, will offer material along similar lines.

  15. Application of 15N in biochemistry, agriculture and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compendium on application of 15N in the biosciences comprises 7 chapters. The 1st chapter comprehends introductory remarks on isotopes in general and on nitrogen isotopes in particular. In the 2nd chapter fundamentals of 15N tracer techniques are discussed. The 3rd chapter deals with experiment programs and the evaluation of experiments. The methodology of sample preparation as well as of isotope analysis is treated in chapter 4. The chapters 5 to 7 deal with the application of 15N as tracer in biochemistry, agricultural research and medicine, resp. Relevant literature is added to each chapter

  16. Virtual Biochemistry – pH effect on enzyme activity

    OpenAIRE

    D.N. Heidrich; R.V. Antônio; M.S.R.B. Figueiredo; J.K. Sugai; J.A.P. Angotti

    2011-01-01

    Protocols of laboratory experiments, followed by teacher's explanation, not always clearly translate to the student the dynamics to beadopted for the implementation of the proposed practice. One of these cases is related to the study of the effect of pH on enzyme activity. For better help the understanding of the technical procedure, a hypermedia was built based on a protocol adopted at the Department of Biochemistry, UFSC. The hypermedia shows how theeffect of variations in pH can be observe...

  17. Construction of concept maps as tool for Biochemistry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lopes de Menezes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of concept maps on the teaching of sciences has been object of worldwide research with different purposes: to detect the previous knowledge of the students on certain topics or to evaluate learning, among others. Based on Ausubel´s cognitive psychology, concept maps assume that the learning is accomplished by assimilation of new concepts and propositions to the students´ cognitive structure, contributing to establish links between the previous and new knowledge. It is especially interesting on the approach of interdisciplinary issues, as many studied in Biochemistry.The relevance of the use of concept maps on biochemistry learning was evaluated on a thirty-hour undergraduation optional course, with interdisciplinary topics, which are not usually included on introductory Biochemistry courses. The course Biochemistry of Animal Venoms was structured in seven module where the biochemical action mechanisms of the venoms of Crotalus sp (south american rattlesnake, Bothrops sp (jararaca, Loxosceles sp (brown spider, Tityus sp (yellow scorpion, Phoneutria sp (armed spider, Apis mellifera (honey bee and Latrodectus sp (black widowwere discussed. The students worked in small groups and, at each module, there were (1 an oriented study, guided by questions, texts and schemes, supervised by the teachers, (2 the construction of individual concept maps, where the local and systemic effects of the venoms should be predicted by their biochemical composition and (3 the construction of a new map by the group, incorporating the information of the individual maps. The difficulty level of these tasks was gradually increased throughout the course, with lesser time to carry out the tasks, lesser assistance during the oriented study and even lesser information on the venom effects.The course assessment was given by the number, quality and correction of the concepts relationship present in the concept maps, through a questionnaire and by the

  18. A guide on instrument of biochemistry and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is about instrument on biochemistry and molecular biology, which consists of six chapters. It deals with introduction of advanced bio-instrument, common utilization and maintain, explanation of each instrument like capillary electrophoresis, interactive laser cytometer, personal computer and software, an electron microscope and DNA/RNS synthesis instrument, large equipment and special system like information system and network, analysis system for genome and large spectro graph, outside donation, examples for common utilization and appendix on data like application form for use.

  19. Construction of Hypertexts in a Biochemistry Pos- Graduation Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    W. B. Maia; B.S. dos Santos; J. M. Martins; B.C. Araujo; A.A. Pimenta Filho; Araújo, T. G.; Martins, M.C.; C.R.F.C. Mota; A.L. Castro- Neto; V.L.M. Lima,

    2009-01-01

    Virtual reality is an innovating manner of comprehending and acting on how the world is and, also, considered a new way of intellectual exercise.  This work took place in a  biochemistry masters discipline (Advanced Formation in ScientificEducation) and had as its observation context the forum (on-line tool) viability, intending the construction of hypertexts (active  collaborative writing ) by the 15 registered students in the  discipline in 2008. The discipline was available on the web, in ...

  20. Oxidative Damage and Suppression: an Experimental Approach to Teaching Biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Isa G. J. de Avellar; Luana T. Dalvi; Lorena M. R. Mascarenhas; Alexandre B. Sé; Marcelo Hermes-Lima

    2005-01-01

    Experimental Biochemistry is a challenging and worthy didactical  task:  a vast field with many different techniques.   Radical mediated biooxidative processes, implied in aging and accompanying various pathologies,  have an enormous  appeal  to public in general and particularly to students in the science field.   The  Fenton  reaction,   first  reported by  the 22-year  old Cambridge  chemistry  undergraduate Henry J. H. Fenton  (Chemical  news vol. 33 page 190, 1876), is a useful in vitro ...

  1. Abstracts of the 27. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was about biochemistry and molecular biology. It was discussed topics related to bio energetic, channels, transports, biotechnology, metabolism, cellular biology, immunology, toxicology, photobiology and pharmacology

  2. Abstracts of the 26. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was about biochemistry and molecular biology. It was discussed topics related to bio energetic, channels, transports, biotechnology, metabolism, cellular biology, immunology, toxicology, photobiology and pharmacology

  3. Poster Display as an Alternative Evaluation Method to Biochemistry Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas P. Rodrigues

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry is present in dierent professional under gradation courses in which it seeks to attendseveral objectives. The discipline oered to the students of Biology Science Course at UFES is tra-ditionally organized in a series of lectures to the basic information, a laboratory class related to eachtopic and a three written tests. Our students, as many from other courses, study biochemistry justbecause they have to. The teacher can alter the student behavior by changing the way in which theyexamine them. This work describes and analyses the experience of using poster display as an assess-ment and includes feedback from the students and teachers. At the beginning of the term the activityis explained to the class and groups are formed. They are oriented to search a full research paper, with\\metabolism as a key word. During the students presentation, teachers and graduation studentsevaluate the production of a self-explanatory poster, assurance in the chosen work and involvementof all components of the group. A multiple-choice questionnaire was applied to 15-30 students fromthe ve classes that had already done the activity. The teachers and the graduation students also hadtheir opinions heard. 62.3 % of the students agreed that the activity accomplishes its objective tostimulate the integration of general knowledge and comprehension of a specic scientic work, while itpromotes the practice of presentation at seminars. 62.2 % believed that it allows the learner to showits knowledge in a better way and 51 % of the students were very much motivated within the activity.For 91.2 % of the students, they should choose the article, as it allows a better correlation betweenbiochemistry and personal anities (42.7 %. Also, 98 % believed that the activity should be carriedout in groups, because it allows a deeper discussion (53.6 %, stimulate group activities (20 % orpermits the materials costs division (22 %. Only 1.8 % of the learners thought that the

  4. 78 FR 4170 - License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO AGENCY... issuance of a license amendment to Materials License No. 24-13365-01 issued to Analytical Bio-Chemistry... Electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html . From this site, you can access the...

  5. What Are the Appropriate Curriculum Contents for Biochemistry Courses in Veterinary Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, A. A. D.; Correia, J. H. R. D.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of the important items that the author's suggest should be included in a biochemistry course given to students in veterinary medicine. Presents a broad range of specific topics in biochemistry and strategies for covering as many topics as possible in one course. (LZ)

  6. A Curriculum Skills Matrix for Development and Assessment of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Benjamin; Rohlman, Christopher; Benore-Parsons, Marilee

    2004-01-01

    We have designed a skills matrix to be used for developing and assessing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula. We prepared the skills matrix for the Project Kaleidoscope Summer Institute workshop in Snowbird, Utah (July 2001) to help current and developing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology program…

  7. Case Study of How Turkish University Students Improve Their Biochemistry Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry courses have an important place as a common subject in faculties of medicine, food engineering, biology and chemistry. MSLQ, Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and Learning Approach Questionnaire were used. The study also involves repeated observations of the same instructor in a biochemistry class over eight weeks to describe…

  8. Teaching Arrangements of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Biochemistry Curriculum in Peking University Health Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Ni, Ju-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry occupies a unique place in the medical school curricula, but the teaching of biochemistry presents certain challenges. One of these challenges is facilitating students' interest in and mastery of metabolism. The many pathways and modes of regulation can be overwhelming for students to learn and difficult for professors to teach…

  9. Combining Content and Elements of Communication into an Upper-Level Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Carli P.; Pellock, Samuel J.; Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Cox, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established…

  10. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Analogy Use in College-Level Biochemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, MaryKay; Bodner, George M.

    2006-01-01

    Science instructors and textbook authors often use analogies to help their students use information they already understand to develop an understanding of new concepts. This study reports the results of an analysis of the use of analogies in eight biochemistry textbooks, which included textbooks written for one-semester survey biochemistry courses…

  11. Biochemistry Instructors' Views toward Developing and Assessing Visual Literacy in Their Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemistry instructors are inundated with various representations from which to choose to depict biochemical phenomena. Because of the immense amount of visual know-how needed to be an expert biochemist in the 21st century, there have been calls for instructors to develop biochemistry students' visual literacy. However, visual literacy has…

  12. Experiences from introduction of peer-to-peer teaching methods in Advanced Biochemistry E2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Ditlev; Etzerodt, Michael; Rasmussen, Jan Trige

    2012-01-01

    During the autumn semester 2010, we experimented with a range of active teaching methods on the course, Advanced Biochemistry, at the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics.......During the autumn semester 2010, we experimented with a range of active teaching methods on the course, Advanced Biochemistry, at the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics....

  13. Biochemistry Students' Ideas about How an Enzyme Interacts with a Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-substrate interactions are a fundamental concept of biochemistry that is built upon throughout multiple biochemistry courses. Central to understanding enzyme-substrate interactions is specific knowledge of exactly how an enzyme and substrate interact. Within this narrower topic, students must understand the various binding sites on an…

  14. Whither life? Conjectures on the future evolution of biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Jodi L; Finn, Thomas J; Ramirez, Miguel A; Patrick, Wayne M

    2016-08-01

    Life has existed on the Earth for approximately four billion years. The sheer depth of evolutionary time, and the diversity of extant species, makes it tempting to assume that all the key biochemical innovations underpinning life have already happened. But we are only a little over halfway through the trajectory of life on our planet. In this Opinion piece, we argue: (i) that sufficient time remains for the evolution of new processes at the heart of metabolic biochemistry and (ii) that synthetic biology is providing predictive insights into the nature of these innovations. By way of example, we focus on engineered solutions to existing inefficiencies in energy generation, and on the complex, synthetic regulatory circuits that are currently being implemented. PMID:27555646

  15. $^{31}$Mg $\\beta$-NMR applied in chemistry and biochemistry

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnesium ions, Mg$^{2+}$, are essential in biological systems, taking part in practically all phosphate chemistry, in photosynthesis as an integral component of chlorophyll, and they are regulated via transport through selective membrane proteins. Nonetheless, the function of magnesium ions in biochemistry is difficult to characterize, as it is practically invisible to current experimental techniques. With this proposal we aim to advance the use of $^{31}$Mg $\\beta$-NMR to liquid samples, building on the experience from the successful LOI88 “$\\beta$-NMR as a novel technique for biological applications”. Initially a series of experiments will be conducted aiming to characterize the coordination chemistry of Mg$^{2+}$ in ionic liquids (ILs), demonstrating that it is possible within the lifetime of the radioisotope to achieve binding of Mg$^{2+}$ to a molecule dissolved in the IL. ILs are chosen as they display a very low vapor pressure, and are thus straightforwardly compatible with the vacuum requirements...

  16. [Foundation and development of biochemistry at the Imperial Kharkov University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Chernyshenko, A A

    2000-01-01

    The article summarizes the biochemical researches carried out at Kharkiv Imperial University from the middle of XIX century up to the cessation of its existence in 1920 as a result of transformation into the Kharkiv Institute of National Education. Scientific activity at the Chair of Medical Chemistry at Medical Department is described in details. Information on professors who led the chair and their researches are represented. Among them a great attention is spared to the Kharkiv works of such famous scientists as A. Danilevsky and V. Gulevich, who made a great contribution to the development of Russian and world biochemistry. There are also some resordes about researches of biological and physiological chemistry carried out at other chairs of Medical Department and Department of Physics and Mathematics of the Kharkiv University. In particular, the article presents the works of well-known plant physiologists and biochemists prof. V. Palladin and V. Zalessky, and the endocrinological researches led by prof. A. Reprev. PMID:10979572

  17. Breast imaging technology: Imaging biochemistry - applications to breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to investigate breast tumour biochemistry in vivo is reviewed. To this end, results obtained both from patients in vivo and from tumour extracts and model systems are discussed. An association has been observed between transformation and an increase in phosphomonoesters (PMEs) detected in the 31P MRS spectrum, as well as an increase in choline-containing metabolites detected in the 1H spectrum. A decrease in PME content after treatment is associated with response to treatment as assessed by tumour volume. Experiments in model systems aimed at understanding the underlying biochemical processes are presented, as well as data indicating the usefulness of MRS in monitoring the uptake and metabolism of some chemotherapeutic agents

  18. Mechanisms and biochemistry of methano genesis in biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative energy sources should be developed to replace fast depleting fossil fuels. The global energy crisis has generated interest in the use of animal waste as a substitute for fossil fuel. The production of biogas which is a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and traces of other gases, is a biogical process through which wastes are converted to fuels. Through this process, an energy resource that can be stored and used efficiently is produced and an excellent residue that retains the fertiliser value of the original waste is created. This article discusses the biochemistry involved in the production of biogas by anaerobic fermentation of organic waste materials and also the mechanisms of methano genesis involved

  19. Development of a virtual classroom to teach biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Rodrigues

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowing  the  difficulties to  teach  some biochemistry concepts  because  of their  dynamic  and  spatial characteristics, computers  have been adopted  to help in these  visualizations.  Pictures, three  dimen- sional structures and animations were built and used to display in classes and distributed to students. Behind  these  specific illustrations, an  informatics  environment has  been  developed  to  support bio- chemistry  teaching.    Based  in  free software,  it fits  in  a single CD  that works  independent of any software installed  on the computer, even the operating  system, and is compatible  with most hardware configurations.This technique is called live-CD. It is based on Linux architecture, which is not only free software but also more flexible to be configured.  After some tests with Linux distributions, Slackware has been chosen because of its easy manipulation and  because it makes the  best use of the hardware  allowing to be installed  in old or limited  equipments. It has been configured to make the best optimization of the computer  and have all software needed for most biochemistry classrooms.It  was installed:   an  Internet browser  compatible  with  a 3D molecule visualization plug-in,  text editor,  presentation editor,  picture  editor  and  some didactic  material  specific for biochemistry.  The interface was configured for people with no experience in the Linux environment.The  system  can  also work in an  intranet, where  a computer  would  be operated  by the  teacher and it would have some special control configurations  as: web site access control, power control of the others  machines  and  even an option  that would bring  the  desktop  of other  machine  to the  teacher´s what  allows him to make a straight orientation for a student from his screen.This new system,  which is a common platform  for other

  20. [V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University as the foundation of biochemistry in Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the data on foundation and development of physiological chemistry (biochemistry) as independent science and education subject in the V. N. Karazin Kharkov National University before and after the organization of the Department of Physiological Chemistry. Studying the chemistry of natural compounds, their qualitative and quantitative content and transformations in living organisms both by foreign and home researchers made the basis for the appearance of physiological chemistry as static biochemistry. The improvement of the investigation methods and further discoveries caused the appearing of new branches--dynamic and functional biochemistry. The attention is paid to the fact that biochemistry arised at the Kharkov University as the education subject (A. I. Khodnev) and then developed as independent science due to efforts of A. Ya. Danilevskiy as well as biochemical school created by him. The Kazan' and Kharkov periods of scientific activity of A.Ya. Danilevskiy are described. The leading role of A. Ya. Danilevskiy in development of the home school of biochemistry is considered. Important role of A. V. Palladin in the foundation of Kharkov biochemists' school and organization of the Scientific-research Institute of Biochemistry in Kharkov is considered as well. It is stated that the Institute of Biochemistry after its arrival to Kiev and joining the Academy of Sciences became the center of Ukrainian biochemistry. The role of A. V. Nagorny and I. N. Bulankin in further development of biochemistry and foundation of a new scientific branch--age-related physiology and biochemistry--at the Kharkov University after its re-organization is discussed. PMID:18030743

  1. Students’ Blogs as a Tool for Learning Clinical Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cubas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available n the past decade, there has been an exponential growth of blogs on biomedical subjects with reliable contents. The potential use of this media as a learning tool has been recently tried in a medical residence at Harvard University, where students had to produce blogs as part of their duties. At Brasília University, a similar experience was tested with freshmen medical and nutrition students taking Basic Biochemistry (BB with the goal of producing blogs on clinical biochemistry (CB topics. In the last 4 teaching-semesters, students' acceptance (n=267 students regarding BB-blogs was evaluated through 6-point Likert questionnaires. 84% of them agreed that the preparation of their blogs was enjoyable and positive for their academic formation (they marked 4 to 6 in the questionnaire. 57% of students (those marking 5-6 believed that the elaboration of blogs boosted their interest for BB/CB. For 56% of students (those marking 5-6, the blogs motivated them to look for extra-class articles on CB. Only 13% of students (those marking 1-3 did not agree that these blogs are relevant learning tools. 38 out of 58 students’ BB-blogs scored 9.0 or above, only 3 scored below 7.9 (out of 10. These results suggest that student blogs have potential to be effective in stimulating CB learning.

  2. Chance and Necessity in Biochemistry: Implications for the Search for Extraterrestrial Biomarkers in Earth-like Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Davila, Alfonso F.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine a restricted subset of the question of possible alien biochemistries. That is, we look into how different life might be if it emerged in environments similar to that required for life on Earth. We advocate a principle of chance and necessity in biochemistry. According to this principle, biochemistry is in some fundamental way the sum of two processes: there is an aspect of biochemistry that is an endowment from prebiotic processes, which represents the necessity, plu...

  3. The use of software in Biochemistry teaching classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Büttenbender

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The rising of new technologies meant  to improve education could be considered a high advance to pedagogic methodologies. Software is defined as computer programs and may be considered educative when they present a methodology which assists and contextualizes the teaching-learning process. Specifically regarding Biochemistry, a knowledge area which explains physiological and pathological phenomena that occur in human beings, applying the use of software would turn out an easy way to observe suchphenomena. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to carry out this work, two free software designed to be used in Biochemistry area and developed at Universidade Estadual de Campinas (“Síntese Proteica” (Protein Synthesisand “A cinética da reação enzimática” (Kinetics of enzymatic reaction, were compared. Interface, how to work contents, advantages and disadvantages in the use of such kind of technology inside classroom were some of the evaluated parameters. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: Both programs present a fine graphic design, allowing easy command comprehension. At the beginning the objectives of the programs and the contents they hold are presented, showing also a brief introduction to the topic. The programs also  present instruction manuals that explain how the experiments work. They are small basic and simple programs that run easily where they are placed, not needing internet access after their download. “Kinetics of enzymatic reaction” presented more interactive options than the other, and its operation could be considered more intuitive. CONCLUSION: We considered “Kinetics of enzymatic reaction” a better software,cause it allows the student to observe the experiment and perform the calculationsproposed, improving the learning process in a significantly way. The use ofnew technologies inside classrooms should be encouraged as a way to attractthe attention and interest of students, since they are

  4. THE CYBERSPACE IN THE CONTINUED CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Martins

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The cybernetic spaces simulate the real world with interactive multimedia. This work  has been applied since January, 2007 on the curricular student’s apprenticeship at high school and graduation, in the site “bioq.educacao.biz/ULAB-HC-UFPE”. It has been developed to provide continuity to the technical-scientific learning of students and professionals, and also to improve their human social relations on the  labour  environment.  It’s comprises a virtual space, destined to communication and collective building of knowledge on the clinical biochemistry.   It’s about an interactive environment which allows the users registered as coordinator professor (professional  or the scientist student (trainee,  unlimited access to  posting contents (classes, texts, presentations, animations, consultations, non-synchronic discussions (on orkut, forums, e-mail and synchronic discussions (on chats, videoconferences. After a few live tutorials  about new  input in this environment, and the use of the new learning tool,  the collective building of knowledge on cyberspace begins. As a trainee’s program task, the scientist student would have to build a space of his own, under guidance and supervision of the coordinator teachers.  The cyberspace efficiency was evaluated from reports collected in February, 2008: the adherence to this  work was satisfactory, regarding this period, with 68 registered users, 870 accesses and 52 contents available on the several sections of the virtual laboratory. Our work is still being applied, and new adhesions are  happening everyday. We intend to amplify this cyber environment in order to make it a  permanent  continued education site on the health area.  From interest contracts and common knowledge,  the technological interfaces constitute an interaction, in which everyone is a potential author.  Keywords: Cyberspace, online biochemistry education, continued education.

  5. Oxidative Damage and Suppression: an Experimental Approach to Teaching Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa G. J. de Avellar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Biochemistry is a challenging and worthy didactical  task:  a vast field with many different techniques.   Radical mediated biooxidative processes, implied in aging and accompanying various pathologies,  have an enormous  appeal  to public in general and particularly to students in the science field.   The  Fenton  reaction,   first  reported by  the 22-year  old Cambridge  chemistry  undergraduate Henry J. H. Fenton  (Chemical  news vol. 33 page 190, 1876, is a useful in vitro system for generating hydroxyl radicals generally implied in biooxidation.  When coupled with the 2-deoxyribose (DR- thiobarbituric acid (TBA  method,  provides  a most  resourceful  tool for studying  oxidative  processes that may  provide  insights  to  in  vivo  processes.    In  this  communication  a  classical  experiment of quantification of thiobarbituric reactive  substances  (TBARS resulting  from breakage  of DR (5 mM in aqueous buffered media (5mM, pH 7.2 by 0,100 mM H2O2 and ferrous ion (up to 0,150 mM is the base for the demonstration of oxidative damage suppressive ability of known hydroxyl radical quenchers as ethanol,  dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO  and  thiourea (1mM  each.   The  results  of the  experiments, developed  to  be worked  in experimental classes for senior  undergraduate biochemistry students of biomedical  sciences, show a very mild but  consistent  suppressive  capacity  for ethanol  (reduction in2 percent  of TBARS  measured  at  0,150 mM ferrous ion concentration.  Thiourea  and  DMSO show very similar  suppressive  abilities:  reduction  in 19 and  18 percent  in measured  TBARS,  respectively (at  0,150 mM ferrous ion.

  6. CONSTRUCTIVISM APPLIED TO THE DISCIPLINE: A¨ DVANCED EDUCATION ON BIOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Maia

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Constructivism employs  models  that include  epistemological knowledge  and  strategies to  stimulate and motivate students so that they need to construct their own understanding of any subjetc  concept. Under  this  process,  the  primary  role of teaching  is not  to lecture,  explain,  or otherwise  attempt to´transferk´nowledge, but to create.  This principle was used in the Biochemistry Master Science Program of the  Universidade  Federal  de Pernambuco.  The  model applied  was divided  into  four phases:  (1 acquaintance of the student previous knowledge (using a pre-test; (2 presentation of the knowledge using a Science Teaching  CD-Rom;  (3 submission  of the  learned  content by the  student to teacher critical  analyis  and  (4  application of Interactionism (teacher/student/contents.   Each  phase  was individually  evaluated.  In the  first phase,  the  average  of correct  answers  of the  group  (13 students was 64%, whereas  the  second and  third  phases  presented  61% and  53%, respectively.   These  results reveal  a great  congnitive  unbalance  into  the  group.   They  also showed that the  previous  ideas and hypothesis  of the  students were in conflict  with  the  scientific  concepts.   After  teacher intervention (phase  four  the  group  presented  an increase  in the knowledge (86% of correct  answers.   Based  on these  results  one can conclude  that this  four-phase  model applied  and  based  on Constructivism  for acquiring  knowledge can be useful in Biochemistry  teaching.

  7. Visual Literacy and Biochemistry Learning: The role of external representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J.S.V. Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual Literacy can bedefined as people’s ability to understand, use, think, learn and express themselves through external representations (ER in a given subject. This research aims to investigate the development of abilities of ERs reading and interpretation by students from a Biochemistry graduate course of theFederal University of São João Del-Rei. In this way, Visual Literacy level was  assessed using a questionnaire validatedin a previous educational research. This diagnosis questionnaire was elaborated according to six visual abilitiesidentified as essential for the study of the metabolic pathways. The initial statistical analysis of data collectedin this study was carried out using ANOVA method. Results obtained showed that the questionnaire used is adequate for the research and indicated that the level of Visual Literacy related to the metabolic processes increased significantly with the progress of the students in the graduation course. There was also an indication of a possible interference in the student’s performancedetermined by the cutoff punctuation in the university selection process.

  8. Contributions of nuclear magnetic resonance to renal biochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    31P NMR as a descriptive technique is of interest to nephrologists. Particular contributions of 31P NMR to our understanding of renal function may be enumerated.: Free metabolite levels are different from those classically accepted; in particular, ADP and Pi are low with implications for the control of renal metabolism and Pi transport, and, via the phosphorylation potential, for Na+ transport. Renal pH is heterogeneous; between cortex, outer medulla, and papilla, and between cell and lumen, a large pH gradient exists. Also, quantitation between cytosol and mitochondrion of the pH gradient is now feasible. In acute renal failure of either ischemic or nonischemic origin, both ATP depletion and acidification of the renal cell result in damage, with increasing evidence for the importance of the latter. Measurements of renal metabolic rate in vivo suggest the existence of a prodromal phase of acute renal failure, which could lead to its detection at an earlier and possibly reversible stage. Human renal cancers show a unique 31P NMR spectrum and a very acidic environment. Cancer chemotherapy may alter this and detection of such changes with NMR offers a method of therapeutic monitoring with significance beyond nephrology. Renal cortex and medulla have a different T1 relaxation time, possibly due to differences in lipid composition. It seems that NMR spectroscopy has much to offer to the future understanding of the relationship between renal biochemistry and function. 56 references

  9. Effects of spaceflight on rat humerus geometry, biomechanics, and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailas, A. C.; Zernicke, R. F.; Grindeland, R. E.; Kaplansky, A.; Durnova, G. N.; Li, K. C.; Martinez, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a 12.5-day spaceflight (Cosmos 1887 biosatellite) on the geometric, biomechanical, and biochemical characteristics of humeri of male specific pathogen-free rats were examined. Humeri of age-matched basal control, synchronous control, and vivarium control rats were contrasted with the flight bones to examine the influence of growth and space environment on bone development. Lack of humerus longitudinal growth occurred during the 12.5 days in spaceflight. In addition, the normal mid-diaphysial periosteal appositional growth was affected; compared with their controls, the spaceflight humeri had less cortical cross-sectional area, smaller periosteal circumferences, smaller anterior-posterior periosteal diameters, and smaller second moments of area with respect to the bending and nonbending axes. The flexural rigidity of the flight humeri was comparable to that of the younger basal control rats and significantly less than that of the synchronous and vivarium controls; the elastic moduli of all four groups, nonetheless, were not significantly different. Generally, the matrix biochemistry of the mid-diaphysial cross sections showed no differences among groups. Thus, the spaceflight differences in humeral mechanical strength and flexural rigidity were probably a result of the differences in humeral geometry rather than material properties.

  10. Virtual Biochemistry – pH effect on enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Heidrich

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Protocols of laboratory experiments, followed by teacher's explanation, not always clearly translate to the student the dynamics to beadopted for the implementation of the proposed practice. One of these cases is related to the study of the effect of pH on enzyme activity. For better help the understanding of the technical procedure, a hypermedia was built based on a protocol adopted at the Department of Biochemistry, UFSC. The hypermedia shows how theeffect of variations in pH can be observed  in vitro. Taking as example salivary amylase and the consumption of starch (substrate by means of iodine staining, a set of pH buffers was tested to identify the best pH for this enzyme  activity. This hypermedia as introductory tool for such practice was tested on aNutrition course classroom. Students agree that the hypermedia provided a better understanding of the proposed activities. Teachers also notice a smallerreagents consumption and reduction of the time spent by the students in the achievement of the experiment.

  11. Some applications of radiation chemistry to biochemistry and radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter illustrate the use of radiation chemistry as a tool in investigating biologically important radical reactions, and also outline some studies of models for radiobiological damage. Because aqueous solutions usually offer the most important matrix, an appreciation of the main features of water radiolysis will be essential. Most of the illustrations involve pulse radiolysis, and some familiarity with chemical kinetics is assumed. In addition to these and other chapters in this book, readers find the proceedings of a recent NATO Advanced Study Institute most useful. The authors shall not try to review here all the applications of radiation chemistry to biochemistry and biology, but they will illustrate, using selected examples, the main principles and practical advantages and problems. Another recent volume covers the main contributions of flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis to the chemistry of biology and medicine, complementing earlier reviews. Papers from symposia on radical processes in radiobiology and carcinogenesis, and on super-oxide dismutases, and proceedings of recent international congresses of radiation research, together with the other publications referred to above will enable the reader to gain a comprehensive overview of the role of radicals in biological processes and the contributions of radiation chemistry

  12. Tryptophan Biochemistry: Structural, Nutritional, Metabolic, and Medical Aspects in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palego, Lionella; Betti, Laura; Rossi, Alessandra; Giannaccini, Gino

    2016-01-01

    L-Tryptophan is the unique protein amino acid (AA) bearing an indole ring: its biotransformation in living organisms contributes either to keeping this chemical group in cells and tissues or to breaking it, by generating in both cases a variety of bioactive molecules. Investigations on the biology of Trp highlight the pleiotropic effects of its small derivatives on homeostasis processes. In addition to protein turn-over, in humans the pathways of Trp indole derivatives cover the synthesis of the neurotransmitter/hormone serotonin (5-HT), the pineal gland melatonin (MLT), and the trace amine tryptamine. The breakdown of the Trp indole ring defines instead the "kynurenine shunt" which produces cell-response adapters as L-kynurenine, kynurenic and quinolinic acids, or the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). This review aims therefore at tracing a "map" of the main molecular effectors in human tryptophan (Trp) research, starting from the chemistry of this AA, dealing then with its biosphere distribution and nutritional value for humans, also focusing on some proteins responsible for its tissue-dependent uptake and biotransformation. We will thus underscore the role of Trp biochemistry in the pathogenesis of human complex diseases/syndromes primarily involving the gut, neuroimmunoendocrine/stress responses, and the CNS, supporting the use of -Omics approaches in this field. PMID:26881063

  13. The physical basis of biochemistry the foundations of molecular biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Bergethon, Peter R

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this book is to provide a unifying approach to the study of biophysical chemistry for the advanced undergraduate who has had a year of physics, organic chem­ istry, calculus, and biology. This book began as a revised edition of Biophysical Chemistry: Molecules to Membranes, which Elizabeth Simons and I coauthored. That short volume was written in an attempt to provide a concise text for a one-semester course in biophysical chemistry at the graduate level. The experience of teaching biophysical chemistry to bi­ ologically oriented students over the last decade has made it clear that the subject requires a more fundamental text that unifies the many threads of modem science: physics, chem­ istry, biology, mathematics, and statistics. This book represents that effort. This volume is not a treatment of modem biophysical chemistry with its rich history and many contro­ versies, although a book on that topic is also needed. The Physical Basis of Biochemistry is an introduction to the philosophy...

  14. Biochemistry - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Open...e Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Biochemistry - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  15. Polish Academy of Sciences Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics research report 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific interests of Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics Polish Academy of Sciences are focused on DNA replication and repair, gene expression, gene sequencing and molecular biophysics. The work reviews research projects of the Institute in 1994-1995

  16. Learning Biochemistry through Manga--Helping Students Learn and Remember, and Making Lectures More Exciting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Ryoichi

    1999-01-01

    Uses panels taken from manga, Japanese comics and cartoons, to supplement explanations of biochemical terms and topics in biochemistry classes. Results indicate that the use of manga helped students remember what they had learned. (Author/CCM)

  17. Polish Academy of Sciences Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics research report 1994-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Scientific interests of Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics Polish Academy of Sciences are focused on DNA replication and repair, gene expression, gene sequencing and molecular biophysics. The work reviews research projects of the Institute in 1994-1995.

  18. The pharmaceutical biochemistry group: where pharmaceutical chemistry meets biology and drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Kalia, Yogeshvar; Perozzo, Remo; Scapozza, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Successful drug discovery and development of new therapeutics is a long, expensive multidisciplinary process needing innovation and the integration of smart cutting edge science and technology to overcome the challenges in taking a drug from the bench to the bedside. The research activities of the Pharmaceutical Biochemistry group span the drug discovery and development process, providing an interface that brings together pharmaceutical chemistry, biochemistry, structural biology, computation...

  19. Minimal Impact of Organic Chemistry Prerequisite on Student Performance in Introductory Biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Robin; Cotner, Sehoya; Winkel, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Curriculum design assumes that successful completion of prerequisite courses will have a positive impact on student performance in courses that require the prerequisite. We recently had the opportunity to test this assumption concerning the relationship between completion of the organic chemistry prerequisite and performance in introductory biochemistry. We found no statistically significant differences between average biochemistry grades or grade distribution among students with or without t...

  20. Instrumentation of Microscale Techniques for Biochemistry Teaching at FES Zaragoza, UNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Araceli García-del Valle; María Teresa Corona-Ortega; Margarita Cruz-Millán; Antonia Guillermina Rojas-Fernández; Miguel Aguilar-Santelises; Leonor Aguila-Santelises

    2015-01-01

    Biochemistry teaching requires many laboratory sessions where theoretical knowledge may be put on test. At the same time, there is always some risk due to exposure to toxic materials, dangerous chemicals storage and waste disposal. Compliance with new regulations to prevent environmental contamination may also constitute a real hindrance for biochemistry teaching as experimental science. Therefore, we have designed microscale techniques, in order to reduce costs as well as the negative impact...

  1. Re-Attitude of Biochemistry Laboratory Course Contents in Medical, Dentistry and Para-Medical Faculties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdi Qujeq

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regarding to development of basic science and new methods in biochemistry in recent years, practical biochemistry contents should be optimized (1. Therefore, re-attitude biochemistry course contents in medical schools has paralleled worldwide trends a moved from current status is needed (2, 3. As reported by investi-gators many medical schools around the world have reformed their medical curriculum in recent years (2. Many authors are convinced that students learn more effectively if the knowledge and skills they acquire are inserted and contextualized in relevant real-life, problem based situations (3. Previous studies demonstrated that biochemistry course content is now incorporated into the clinical beneficial, therefore the evolution of students in many countries has occurred (4. In this respect, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate biochemistry laboratory course contents in medical, dentistry and Para-medicine faculties from view points of the students. This descriptive study was per-formed in years 2010-2013. Questionnaire contained items about appropriateness of biochemistry laboratory contents for students. The first section of questionnaire determines the effectiveness of bioche¬mistry laboratory contents and the factors influence on it. The second section indicates the application of biochemistry laboratory contents, and the third parts of questi¬onnaire demonstrate the laboratory time spent of biochemistry laboratory course contents. For this purpose three faculties were selected. First, Faculty of Medicine (50 medical students, second Faculty of Dentistry (50 dentistry students and third Faculty of Para-medicine (50 laboratory science students were selected. At least 50 students were selected from each faculty and they received a questionnaire. All students were randomly selected to receive a standard questionnaire designed to evaluate their opinions about biochemistry laboratory course contents. The students were asked

  2. The External Representations in the Teaching and Learning of Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J.S.V. Santos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual Literacy can be defined as the ability to understand, use, think, learn and express themselves  through  images.  Considering  that  the  use  of  images  is  essential  for Biochemistry teaching and learning, this research aims to investigate the development of abilities  of  reading  and  interpretation  of  images  by  students  from  a  Biochemistry undergraduate course of the Federal University of São João Del-Rei. The Visual Literacy level was assessed using a questionnaire validated in a previous educational research. This diagnosis questionnaire was elaborated according to six visual abilities identified as essential for the study of the metabolic pathways. Results showed that the most of the students  evaluated  presented  difficulties  in  the  Ability  1  (identification  of  chemical reactions. These students were unable to identify the reversibility of chemical reaction. Similarly,  for  the  ability  5  (comprehension  of  dynamic  and  integrated  processes  in metabolic  pathways  was  observed  a  deficiency  in  understanding  of  schematic representations of metabolic cycles (less than 30% of correct answers. However, it was verified  that  to  the  ability  2  (identification  of  substrates  and  products  of  chemical reactions  the  students  demonstrated  satisfactory  performance  (over  50%  of  correct answers.  In  the  other  abilities  evaluated  the  number  of  correct  answers  varied according  to  the  progress  of  students  in  the  course  (30  to  80%  of  correct  answers. These  results  showed  that  the  questionnaire  used  is  an  interesting  tool  for  the investigation, indicating that Visual Literacy level necessary to understand the metabolic processes can be enhanced with the progress of the students along the undergraduate course.

  3. Construction of Hypertexts in a Biochemistry Pos- Graduation Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Maia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality is an innovating manner of comprehending and acting on how the world is and, also, considered a new way of intellectual exercise.  This work took place in a  biochemistry masters discipline (Advanced Formation in ScientificEducation and had as its observation context the forum (on-line tool viability, intending the construction of hypertexts (active  collaborative writing by the 15 registered students in the  discipline in 2008. The discipline was available on the web, in  bioq.educacao.biz , where the students, teachers and monitors couldsubscribe. The virtual space was set with several environments (agenda,classroom, dictionary, email and forum; all of which were used during thediscipline. The forum, called orkuteducation, was destined to the hypertextelaboration, which was focused in three themes: 1º How to work with technology at school;   2º Teaching/learning methods and new information and communication technology; 3º Constructivism. The virtual learning environment had 2,275accesses to its content; being the forum the most visited one, with 1,026.   The built hypertext presented clear ideas about the approached themes, and realized the important role which a qualified teacher plays in the educational process. The new ways of create, organize and interact with information changes the relationship between the subject and the information itself. The hype rtext constitutes "high level computer tools", through which is possible to explore knowledge in a non -linear and interactive way. Hypertext remains a revolutionary concept oforganization and access to information and its generalization impact in society  is not known yet.

  4. THE POTENTIAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY EDUCATION APPS IN THE FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: Apps can be designed to provide usage data, and most of them do. These data are usually used to map users interests and to deliver more effective ads that are more likely to result in clicks, and sales. We have applied some of these metrics to understand how can it be used to map students’ behavior and to promote a formative assessment using educational software. The purpose of a formative assessment is to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors and students to improve the teaching and learning process. Thus, this modality aims to help both students and instructors to identify strengths and weaknesses that need to be developed. This study aimed to describe the potential of educational apps in the formative assessment process. Material and Methods: We have implemented assessment tools embedded in three apps (ARMET, The Cell and 3D Class used to teach: 1 Metabolic Pathways; 2 Scale of the cellular structures, and 3 Concepts from techniques used in a Biochemistry Lab course. The implemented tools allow to verify on what issues there were recurring mistakes, the total number of mistakes presented, which questions they most achieved, how long they took to perform the activity and other relevant information. Results and conclusion: Educational apps can provide transparent and coherent evaluation metrics to enable instructors to systematize more consistent criteria and indicators, reducing the subjectivity of the formative assessment process and the time spent for preparation, tabulation and analysis of assessment data. This approach allows instructors to understand better where students struggle, giving to them a more effective feedback. It also helps instructor to plan interventions to help students to perform better and to achieve the learning objectives.

  5. A Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment and Evaluation System for Biotechnology Specialty Students: An Effective Evaluation System to Improve the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suxia; Wu, Haizhen; Zhao, Jian; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to achieve high success in knowledge and technique acquisition as a whole, a biochemistry and molecular biology experiment was established for high-grade biotechnology specialty students after they had studied essential theory and received proper technique training. The experiment was based on cloning and expression of alkaline…

  6. Teaching Biochemistry at Lisbon University--Facing the Challenge of the Bologna Declaration in the 25th Anniversary of the Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, Carlos M.; Freire, Ana Ponces

    2007-01-01

    The biochemistry degree has been taught at Lisbon University for 25 years. Since its creation, the curriculum is characterized for being widely eclectic and multidisciplinary. The adoption of the concepts proposed in Europe by the Declaration of Bologna and incorporation of these ideas at Lisbon University is discussed here for the biochemistry…

  7. Medical biochemistry in Macedonia: a profession for physicians and natural scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traikovska, S; Dzhekova-Stojkova, S

    2001-06-01

    Medical biochemistry or clinical chemistry in its roots is an interdisciplinary science between natural sciences and medicine. The largest part of medical biochemistry is natural science (chemistry, biochemistry, biology, physics, mathematics), which is very well integrated in deduction of medical problems. Medical biochemistry throughout the world, including Macedonia, should be a professional field open to both physicians and natural scientists, according to its historical development, theoretical characteristics and applied practice. Physicians and natural scientists follow the same route in clinical chemistry during the postgraduate training of specialization in medical biochemistry/clinical chemistry. However, in Macedonia the specialization in medical biochemistry/clinical chemistry is today regulated by law only for physicians and pharmacists. The study of clinical chemistry in Europe has shown its interdisciplinary character. In most European countries different professions, such as physicians, chemists/biochemists, pharmacists, biologists and others could specialize in clinical chemistry. The question for the next generation of specialists in Macedonia is whether to accept the present conditions or to attempt to change the law to include chemists/biochemists and biologists as well. The latter used to be a practice in Macedonia 20 years ago, and still is in many European countries. Such change in law would also result in changes in the postgraduate educational program in medical biochemistry in Macedonia. The new postgraduate program has to follow the European Syllabus, recommended by EC4. To obtain sufficient knowledge in clinical chemistry, the duration of vocational training (undergraduate and postgraduate) for all trainees (physicians, pharmaceutics, chemists/biochemists and biologists) should be 8 years. PMID:11506455

  8. Impact of e-resources on learning in biochemistry: first-year medical students’ perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Joe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background E-learning resources (e-resources have been widely used to facilitate self-directed learning among medical students. The Department of Biochemistry at Christian Medical College (CMC, Vellore, India, has made available e-resources to first-year medical students to supplement conventional lecture-based teaching in the subject. This study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of the impact of these e-resources on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. Methods Sixty first-year medical students were the subjects of this study. At the end of the one-year course in biochemistry, the students were administered a questionnaire that asked them to assess the impact of the e-resources on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. Results Ninety-eight percent of students had used the e-resources provided to varying extents. Most of them found the e-resources provided useful and of a high quality. The majority of them used these resources to prepare for periodic formative and final summative assessments in the course. The use of these resources increased steadily as the academic year progressed. Students said that the extent to which they understood the subject (83% and their ability to answer questions in assessments (86% had improved as a result of using these resources. They also said that they found biochemistry interesting (73% and felt motivated to study the subject (59%. Conclusions We found that first-year medical students extensively used the e-resources in biochemistry that were provided. They perceived that these resources had made a positive impact on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. We conclude that e-resources are a useful supplement to conventional lecture-based teaching in the medical curriculum.

  9. SEMINARS ON BIOCHEMISTRY: IS AN EFFECTIVE METHODOLOGY IN THE PROCESS LEARNING/TEACHING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Vasconcelos

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction in Biochemistry is a discipline held by the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at UFC. It is offered to the students of the Sciences Centers. The majority of the classes employs as pedagogical tools,theoretical lectures and problem solving activities. To avoid that the learning process is restricted to memorizing, it was elaborated a learning project aiming a better comprehension of the explored content. The methodology included seminars given by the students on subjects analyzed on previous classes.These students were divided in two groups of ten members and each group was assigned to topics of carbohydrates metabolism with the approach on applied Biochemistry. After presentations, a survey was applied revealing that students approved this methodology. The reason given was a better perception of fundamental Biochemistry and its application to their professional field. The evaluation of this methodology was also done based on the grades and it was as follows: in the first evaluation before the seminars, the average score was 4.7 and after, in the second evaluation involving the seminars, the average increased to 7.18. The third and last evaluation without seminars, it was observed a reduction of the average score to 5.63. These results suggest that seminars on Biochemistry were an effective pedagogical methodology in the process of learning/teaching.

  10. Instrumentation of Microscale Techniques for Biochemistry Teaching at FES Zaragoza, UNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli García-del Valle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry teaching requires many laboratory sessions where theoretical knowledge may be put on test. At the same time, there is always some risk due to exposure to toxic materials, dangerous chemicals storage and waste disposal. Compliance with new regulations to prevent environmental contamination may also constitute a real hindrance for biochemistry teaching as experimental science. Therefore, we have designed microscale techniques, in order to reduce costs as well as the negative impact of laboratory practical sessions due to risk and environmental contamination. To develop microscale techniques does not only mean to reduce equipment size and amount of the reagents that are required for the usual experiments. Microscale techniques serve particularly well as a motivating approach to experimental biochemistry teaching that produces highly motivated students at the same time that requires minor costs, decreases working time, laboratory space, reagents volume and diminishes the generation of dangerous waste. We have demonstrated all these positive effects in biochemistry teaching and prompted the formal implementation of microscale techniques into the formal activities from the Cell and Tissue Biochemistry Laboratory I (BCT-I from the Chemistry, Pharmacy and Biology (QFB curricula at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM. First, we reviewed the BCT-I manual, choosing all the laboratory practices that might be microscaled. Then, we elaborated and validated all necessary protocols to analyse linearity, accuracy and reproducibility of the determinations, demonstrating that microscale techniques allow truthful results, comparable to full scale techniques.

  11. The biochemistry of blister fluid from pediatric burn injuries: proteomics and metabolomics aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Tuo; Broszczak, Daniel A; Broadbent, James A; Cuttle, Leila; Lu, Haitao; Parker, Tony J

    2016-01-01

    Burn injury is a prevalent and traumatic event for pediatric patients. At present, the diagnosis of burn injury severity is subjective and lacks a clinically relevant quantitative measure. This is due in part to a lack of knowledge surrounding the biochemistry of burn injuries and that of blister fluid. A more complete understanding of the blister fluid biochemistry may open new avenues for diagnostic and prognostic development. Burn insult induces a highly complex network of signaling processes and numerous changes within various biochemical systems, which can ultimately be examined using proteome and metabolome measurements. This review reports on the current understanding of burn wound biochemistry and outlines a technical approach for 'omics' profiling of blister fluid from burn wounds of differing severity. PMID:26581649

  12. Guidelines for Educational Research in Biochemistry on Internet Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Lima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has been used to support research in different areas, such as practical and educational  research  in  medical  and  biomedical  research.  There  are  several recommended  sites  for  carrying  biomedical  and  medical  research  (BERGER,  2003. Nevertheless,  few  studies  report  on  the  use  of  the  Internet  in  the  teaching  of Biochemistry. Considering the fact that there is no specific legislation for the use of the Internet  in  Brazil,  it  is  necessary  to  stimulate  self-regulation  of  the  sector  in  order  to establish  minimum  quality  standards,  safety,  and  reliability  of  sites  containing information  in  the  educational  area.  This  study  establishes  some  parameters  to  help guiding research for educational purposes on the internet. The following aspects should be  checked:  if  the  site  has  an  editorial  board  responsible  for  content  selection,  and whether  it  is  made  up  of  experts  in  the  area  of  expertise;  if  the  site  releases  updated scientific materials, and provides pedagogical content that fosters teaching and learning such  as  images  that  contribute  to  the  understanding  of  the  content,  educational software,  and  animation;  if  the  site  is  recommended  by  universities,  public  and  private qualified  institutions.  In  addition,  educational  sites  should  present  other  aspects, including transparency (regarding their educational purpose, quality (scientifically based information,  privacy  (related  to  the  user’s  personal  data,  responsibility  and  reliable sources.  Such  procedures  are  necessary  to  guarantee  that  searching  for  educational objectives will provide access to theoretical and pedagogical information quality.

  13. GLYCOLYSIS ’TRAIL: BIOCHEMISTRY KNOWLEDGE CON STRUCTION THROUGH AN EDUCATIVE GAME

    OpenAIRE

    C. N. Almada; Vasconcelos, M. S.; C. Nunes de Almada; F.W.P. Maia; D. Fernandes de Melo

    2009-01-01

    The study of biochemistry is complex andunatt ractive to the most of the students. Teaching strategies have to be established to stimulate the action of the student and involve  them  in the proposed subjects. For this to happen, the processes and strategies have to be analyzed and developed through cog nition tools. The objective of this work was to create, evaluate and apply an educative game called Glycolysis’ Trail, as a strategy of teaching -learning in the classes of biochemistry. The g...

  14. EDUCACIONAL GAME OF LEARNING AS DIDATIC SUPPORT IN INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY DISCIPLINE

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Vasconcelos; C. N. Almada; F. Y. M. Sousa; M.R.A. Miranda; D. Fernandes de Melo

    2012-01-01

    The cellular respiration process is a crucial subject in biochemistry learning. The use of ludic tools appears to be a good strategy in education intensifying the teach and learning process. The aim of this work was to create and introduce a game as educational tool helping the students to construct the knowledge.  This work was accomplished in UFC involving three groups of 5 students of Introduction to Biochemistry discipline from Food Engineering course.  It was developed a board game  enti...

  15. Enigma: A Board Game As A Potential Tool For Biochemistry And Microbiology Learning And Integration

    OpenAIRE

    V. S. S. Alpim; J.B. Santos; J. S. J. Silva; T. D. C. Menezes; Amorim, R.; B. T. C. Ladeia; Marques, H; L.B. Queiroz; M. Gandra

    2009-01-01

    Biochemistry and microbiology is a basic discipline for many gradua tion courses of the biomedical a rea, such as Medicine, Odontology and Biomedicine.  The abstract concepts of these sciences turn out to be a major difficulty for the learning/teaching relation in the classes.  Nevertheless, alternative strategies used inside or outside the classrooms could also make learning results better. In 2008, Odontology students from FTC prepared games based on biochemistry and microbiology and presen...

  16. Novel type of red-shifted chlorophyll a antenna complex from Chromera velia: II. Biochemistry and spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bína, David; Gardian, Zdenko; Herbstová, Miroslava; Kotabová, Eva; Koník, P.; Litvín, Radek; Prášil, Ondřej; Tichý, Josef; Vácha, František

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1837, č. 6 (2014), s. 802-810. ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chromera velia * red-shifted chlorophyll * Chlorophyll fluorescence Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CE - Biochemistry (MBU-M) Impact factor: 5.353, year: 2014

  17. Students' Ability to Organize Biochemical and Biochemistry-Related Terms Correlates with Their Performance in a Biochemical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Ryoichi

    2007-01-01

    Organization is believed to be related to understanding and memory. Whether this belief was applicable in biochemical education was examined about two years after students had experienced biochemistry classes in their first year. The ability of organizing information in biochemistry was judged from the number of correct links of 886 biochemical…

  18. Design of a Comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment: Phase Variation Caused by Recombinational Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Shungao; Lu, Renyun; Isaac, Dadzie; Zhang, Xueyi; Zhang, Haifang; Wang, Huifang; Qiao, Zheng; Huang, Xinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific experiments are indispensable parts of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In this study, a comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology experiment about "Salmonella enterica" serovar Typhi Flagellar phase variation has been designed. It consisted of three parts, namely, inducement of bacterial Flagellar phase variation,…

  19. Reactivity I: A Foundation-Level Course for Both Majors and Nonmajors in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    A foundation level course is presented that integrates aspects of organic, inorganic and biochemistry in the context of reactivity. The course was designed to serve majors in chemistry and other sciences (biochemistry, biology, nutrition), as well as nursing and pre-health professions students. Themes of the course were designed to highlight a…

  20. Diverse Assessment and Active Student Engagement Sustain Deep Learning: A Comparative Study of Outcomes in Two Parallel Introductory Biochemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Samantha J.; Chan, Cecilia W. L.; Tanner, Julian A.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is increasing evidence for a relationship between courses that emphasize student engagement and achievement of student deep learning, there is a paucity of quantitative comparative studies in a biochemistry and molecular biology context. Here, we present a pedagogical study in two contrasting parallel biochemistry introductory…

  1. Abstracts of the 30. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects concerning biochemistry and molecular biology of either animals, plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds (radioassay, radioreceptor assay) and nuclear magnetic resonance are the most applied techniques

  2. Abstracts of the 29. annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects concerning biochemistry and molecular biology of either animals (including man), plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds (radioassay, radioenzymatic assay, radioreceptor assay and nuclear magnetic resonance are the most applied techniques

  3. Book Review: "The Rhizosphere: Biochemistry and Organic Substances at the Soil-Plant Interface, Second Edition"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complexity of the biological, chemical, and physical interactions occurring in the volume of soil surrounding the root of a growing plant dictates that a multidisciplinary approach must be taken to improve our understanding of this rhizosphere. Hence, "The Rhizosphere: Biochemistry and Organic S...

  4. Reversible Ligand Binding Reactions: Why Do Biochemistry Students Have Trouble Connecting the Dots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Duane W.; Thompson, Scott E.; Saxon, S. Robin

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive chemical behavior is essential for an organism's function and survival, and it is no surprise that biological systems are capable of responding both rapidly and selectively to chemical changes in the environment. To elucidate an organism's biochemistry, its chemical reactions need to be characterized in ways that reflect the normal…

  5. Sustaining Change in Upper Level Courses: Peer-Led Workshops in Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Terry; Roth, Vicki; Kampmeier, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Our peer-led collaborative learning groups, called Workshops, have now had extended success in two upper-level courses in chemistry and biochemistry. These Workshops are in turn supported by a third upper-level course for training peer-leaders. Our data confirm that the initial positive results from the introduction of Workshops in organic…

  6. Filtrates & Residues: Hemoglobinometry--A Biochemistry Experiment that Utilizes the Principles of Transition Metal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul

    1987-01-01

    Describes a chemistry experiment dealing with hemoglobinometry that can apply to transition metal chemistry, colorimetry, and biochemistry. Provides a detailed description of the experimental procedure, including discussions of the preparation of the cyanide reagent, colorimetric measurements, and waste disposal and treatment. (TW)

  7. What Skills Should Students of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Programs Have upon Graduation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B.; Benore, Marilee A.; Sumter, Takita F.; Caldwell, Benjamin D.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology (BMB) students should demonstrate proficiency in the foundational concepts of the discipline and possess the skills needed to practice as professionals. To ascertain the skills that should be required, groups of BMB educators met in several focused workshops to discuss the expectations with the ultimate goal of…

  8. Forensic Analysis of Canine DNA Samples in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Tobin M.; Bradley, Sharonda Q.; Fekete, Brenda L.; Millard, Julie T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in canine genomics have allowed the development of highly distinguishing methods of analysis for both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify hypervariable regions of DNA from dog hair and saliva…

  9. A Proposal for Teaching Undergraduate Chemistry Students Carbohydrate Biochemistry by Problem-Based Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Angela C. M.; Rocha, Joao B. T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a problem-based learning (PBL) approach to teaching elementary biochemistry to undergraduate students. The activity was based on "the foods we eat." It was used to engage students' curiosity and to initiate learning about a subject that could be used by the future teachers in the high school. The experimental…

  10. Bioorganic chemistry research in the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry - medical aspects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holý, Antonín

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 10, Supplement (2004), s. 107. ISSN 1075-2617. [ International /3./ and European Peptide Symposium /28./. 05.09.2004-10.09.2004, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : bioorganic chemistry research * medical aspects Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  11. Tagging and Purifying Proteins to Teach Molecular Biology and Advanced Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Lopilato, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Two distinct courses, "Molecular Biology" taught by the Biology Department and "Advanced Biochemistry" taught by the Chemistry Department, complement each other and, when taught in a coordinated and integrated way, can enhance student learning and understanding of complex material. "Molecular Biology" is a comprehensive lecture-based course with a…

  12. Use of Solid Phase Extraction in the Biochemistry Laboratory to Separate Different Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flurkey, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used to demonstrate how various lipids and lipid classes could be separated in a biochemistry laboratory setting. Three different SPE methods were chosen on their ability to separate a lipid mixture, consisting of a combination of a either a fatty acid, a triacylglycerol, a mono- or diacylglycerol, phospholipid,…

  13. Integrating Bio-Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry into an Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J.; Brewer, Sharon E.; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by…

  14. A Semester-Long Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Based on "Helicobacter pylori" Urease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, Kate R.; Dube, Danielle H.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the development of a 13 week project-oriented biochemistry laboratory designed to introduce students to foundational biochemical techniques and then enable students to perform original research projects once they have mastered these techniques. In particular, we describe a semester-long laboratory that focuses on a biomedically…

  15. A Learner-Centered Molecular Modeling Exercise for Allied Health Majors in a Biochemistry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Terace M.; Ershler, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Learner-centered molecular modeling exercises in college science courses can be especially challenging for nonchemistry majors as students typically have a higher degree of anxiety and may not appreciate the relevance of the work. This article describes a learner-centered project given to allied health majors in a Biochemistry course. The project…

  16. Using Adobe Flash Animations of Electron Transport Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…

  17. Foundational Concepts and Underlying Theories for Majors in "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, John T.; Baird, Teaster, Jr.; Cox, Michael M.; Fox, Kristin M.; Knight, Jennifer; Sears, Duane; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members and science educators from around the country that focused on identifying: 1) core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology, 2) essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and 3)…

  18. A Statistical Analysis of College Biochemistry Textbooks in China: The Statuses on the Publishing and Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Wang, Qinwen; Yang, Jie; Li, Jingqiu; Guo, Junming; Gong, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the statuses on the publishing and usage of college biochemistry textbooks in China. A textbook database was constructed and the statistical analysis was adopted to evaluate the textbooks. The results showed that there were 945 (~57%) books for theory teaching, 379 (~23%) books for experiment teaching and 331 (~20%)…

  19. Known Structure, Unknown Function: An Inquiry-Based Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Cynthia; Price, Carol W.; Lee, Christopher T.; Dewald, Alison H.; Cline, Matthew A.; McAnany, Charles E.; Columbus, Linda; Mura, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate biochemistry laboratory courses often do not provide students with an authentic research experience, particularly when the express purpose of the laboratory is purely instructional. However, an instructional laboratory course that is inquiry- and research-based could simultaneously impart scientific knowledge and foster a student's…

  20. Need Assessment of Enhancing the Weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the Undergraduate Curriculum at MGIMS, Sevagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Jena, Lingaraja; Vagha, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    In order to review the need assessment of enhancing the weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the undergraduate curriculum at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sevagram, a validated questionnaire was sent to 453 participants which include 387 undergraduate students, 11 interns, 23 postgraduate students, and 32 faculty members. A…

  1. A Two-Week Guided Inquiry Protein Separation and Detection Experiment for Undergraduate Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, James P.; Nolta, Kathleen V.

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for teaching protein separation and detection in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course is described. This experiment, performed in two, 4 h laboratory periods, incorporates guided inquiry principles to introduce students to the concepts behind and difficulties of protein purification. After using size-exclusion…

  2. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  3. Comprehensive Experiment--Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a…

  4. A Guide to Using Case-Based Learning in Biochemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, Verena; Newton, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate that the majority of students in undergraduate biochemistry take a surface approach to learning, associated with rote memorization of material, rather than a deep approach, which implies higher cognitive processing. This behavior relates to poorer outcomes, including impaired course performance and reduced knowledge retention. The…

  5. Biochemistry, proteomics, and phosphoproteomics of plant mitochondria from non-photosynthetic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper; Thelen, Jay J.; Møller, Ian Max

    2013-01-01

    functions depending on the tissue and cell type, as well as environmental conditions. We will here review the biochemistry and proteomics of mitochondria from non-green cells and organs, which differ from those of photosynthetic organs in a number of respects. We will briefly cover purification of...

  6. Motivating Active Learning of Biochemistry through Artistic Representation of Scientific Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Carola

    2013-01-01

    First-year students often feel discouraged, especially with courses that require complex thinking and involve establishing relations between different subjects such as biochemistry. It has been proposed that student-centred pedagogy can achieve motivation and improve learning. In this context, this case study reports the use of art as a strategy…

  7. The Views of Undergraduates about Problem-Based Learning Applications in a Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhan, Leman; Ayyildiz, Yildizay

    2015-01-01

    The effect of problem-based learning (PBL) applications in an undergraduate biochemistry course on students' interest in this course was investigated through four modules during one semester. Students' views about active learning and improvement in social skills were also collected and evaluated. We conducted the study with 36 senior students from…

  8. The Concept Lens Diagram: A New Mechanism for Presenting Biochemistry Content in Terms of "Big Ideas"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Susan L.; Smith, Christopher A.; Gillam, Elizabeth M. A.; Wright, Tony

    2011-01-01

    A strong, recent movement in tertiary education is the development of conceptual, or "big idea" teaching. The emphasis in course design is now on promoting key understandings, core competencies, and an understanding of connections between different fields. In biochemistry teaching, this radical shift from the content-based tradition is being…

  9. Teaching of Biochemistry in Medical School: A Well-Trodden Pathway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Michael B.; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology occupy a unique place in the medical school curriculum. They are frequently studied prior to medical school and are fundamental to the teaching of biomedical sciences in undergraduate medical education. These two circumstances, and the trend toward increased integration among the disciplines, have led to…

  10. An SDS-PAGE Examination of Protein Quaternary Structure and Disulfide Bonding for a Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jennifer L.; Andrews, Carla S.; St. Antoine, Caroline C.; Jain, Swapan S.; Bevilacqua, Vicky L. H.

    2005-01-01

    Electrophoresis is a valuable tool for biochemists, yet this technique is often not included in biochemistry laboratory curricula owing to time constraints or lack of equipment. Protein structure is also a topic of interest in many disciplines, yet most undergraduate lab experiments focus only on primary structure. In this experiment, students use…

  11. Evaluation of Student-made Blogs in Basicand Advanced Biochemistry Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cubas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of the experience of student-made clinical biochemistry blogs were reported at SBBq-2010 (abstract K-5. Herein, five teaching-semesters and the opinion of former students were evaluated. Since the teaching-semester of 2008-1, Basic Biochemistry (BioBio students should prepare blog-assignments on clinical issues. Students' acceptance was evaluated through 6-point Likert-type questionnaires. Positive responses were those marking 4 to 6. A total of 348 BioBio students from five teaching-semesters answered the questionnaire; 77% of them agreed that preparing blogs was enjoyable, having a positive effect on their formation. Moreover, 81% of students agreed that BioBio blogs are relevant learning tools and 78% believedthat BioBio blogs boosted interest for biochemistry. Moreover, students' acceptance 1 year after taking BioBio was evaluated. Students (n=50 were dividedin (i those who had attended BioBio only, and (ii those who had also taken Advanced Biochemistry, together with blog tutoring. In the first group, 72% agreed that the information acquired during blog elaboration was useful atthe time of interview; 76% judged that blog elaboration boosted interest for the discipline. For thosein the second group evaluations were 100% and 82%, respectively. Results show maintenance of acceptance over 1 year and effective interest for blog-assignment for thosein basic and advanced biochemistry classes.

  12. METABOLIC WAR: A VARIATION FOR METABOLIC BIOCHEMISTRY LEARNING OF A WORLDLY KNOWN BOARD GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Anjos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical careers are highly wished by young students in Brazil. Although future jobs,  academic knowledge and higher earnings  are tempting reasons for this life choice, few of them are aware  of  the difficult path through the  basic classes. Advanced and specific disciplines  are easier to associate with the professional career itself, but few students can identify the importance  of the basic knowledge for their future work. Biochemistry is one of the most difficult  disciplines  for Brazilian students, probably due to the level of abstraction needed to fully learn and understand the topics. Some recent experimental tools, such as bioinformatics, are now helping students with the learning process, providing visual data for understanding biomolecule structure.  In addition to this, biochemical reactions  could be even tougher because of the many variables involved.  To facilitate the learning process for metabolic biochemistry, we created a game based on the board game WAR®,  using Photoshop software. Named Metabolic War, it keeps the same basic rules of WAR®, but with some minor changes. The continents are metabolic pathways (citric acid cycle, glycolysis, beta-oxidation, etc and the countries are metabolic intermediates. Similarly to the original game, players must conquer an objective (one or more metabolic pathways by dominating intermediates. But the desired intermediate must be a possible product from an intermediate the player already owns. This  and other  games were produced by Biomedicine  undergraduate  students  in Metabolic Biochemistry classes. It was presented to other students, who tested and acknowledged it as a great help in understanding metabolic biochemistry,  giving a great understanding of integrative metabolism. Keywords: game; Biochemistry; Metabolic Biochemistry learning; science learning; playful learning.

  13. Technical and didactic problems of virtual lab exercises in biochemistry and biotechnology education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Skriver, Karen; Dandanell, Gert

    methods. With web technologies we can now design exercises for remote or virtual labs, but we should not expect to improve student learning simply by recreating old didactic problems in new media. Unfortunately studies of the efficiency of different lab types (hands-on, virtual, and remote labs) suffer...... from a lack of conceptual analysis of what actually constitutes virtual labs. A clarification of these conceptual issues is suggested as part of a Danish research and development project on virtual lab exercises in biochemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology education. The main outcome...... of this clarification is that specific didactic problems of biochemistry education can now be addressed through the design of exercises in the virtual lab environment....

  14. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia.

  15. Known Structure, Unknown Function: An Inquiry-based Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Cynthia; Lee, Christopher T; Dewald, Alison H; Cline, Matthew A; McAnany, Charles E; Columbus, Linda; Mura, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate biochemistry laboratory courses often do not provide students with an authentic research experience, particularly when the express purpose of the laboratory is purely instructional. However, an instructional laboratory course that is inquiry- and research-based could simultaneously impart scientific knowledge and foster a student's research expertise and confidence. We have developed a year-long undergraduate biochemistry laboratory curriculum wherein students determine, via experiment and computation, the function of a protein of known three-dimensional structure. The first half of the course is inquiry-based and modular in design; students learn general biochemical techniques while gaining preparation for research experiments in the second semester. Having learned standard biochemical methods in the first semester, students independently pursue their own (original) research projects in the second semester. This new curriculum has yielded an improvement in student performance and confidence as ...

  16. A SOFTWARE TO PROMOTE INTERACTIVE TEACHING OF WATER PROPERTIES IN BIOCHEMISTRY CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    O.M.M. Lapouble; C.E.R. Veloso; G.R. Neves; Castro, M. S.; W. Fontes

    2005-01-01

    The improvement and  development of new tools in design and  informatics  helped the  creation  of biochemistry teaching  material. Many molecules, metabolic  pathways, reactions,  and interactions are best  explained  and  understood when  shown  in three  dimensions  and  allowing interactivity.  Water is, usually,  the first topic to be presented  during  basic biochemistry courses.  Importance, properties, ionization,  pH, buffering and  titration curves,  are frequently  presented  subje...

  17. Design and develop second life virtual lab for biochemistry blended teaching and learning based on constructivism

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Liang; 叶亮

    2013-01-01

    Department of Biochemistry in HKU has been planning to implement virtual lab blended learning solution into their experiment related courses. Based on selected case, the study investigated whether the virtual lab would arouse more learning interests and improve the learning gains for students. Also, the study concluded some useful suggestions for virtual lab blended learning and generalized a few guidelines for instructional design on virtual lab. The study adopted mixed research methods ...

  18. Evaluation of effectiveness of computer assisted learning in biochemistry for first year medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Wilma Delphine Silvia, C. R.; H. Ravish; Suresh, D. R.; Roopa Kulkarni; Manjunath, S; Anitha D’Souza; H. Ramya Udupa; S. Jayashree; Smitha, P.; Sandeep Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Significance of computer assisted learning (CAL) programme is to complement existing undergraduate teaching methods is yet to be explored. Aim: This experimental pilot study was undertaken to assess the utility of CAL programme for first year medical students in learning medical biochemistry. Materials & Method: This prospective study included first year medical students divided into 3 groups comprised of 50 students each. CAL programme was conducted on 3 days in a month for 5 con...

  19. The effect of dietary phytase on broiler performance and digestive, bone, and blood biochemistry characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    JPL de Sousa; LFT Albino; RGMV Vaz; KF Rodrigues; GF Da Silva; LN Renno; VRSM Barros; IN Kaneko

    2015-01-01

    The dietary inclusion of phytase increases nutrient and energy bioavailability for broilers. The effect of phytase increases nutrients and energy bioavailability for either the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of nutrient and energy reduction in diets supplemented with phytase on the performance, gastrointestinal pH, organ and bone composition, and blood biochemistry of broilers between eight and 21 days of age. In the study, 1.120 male Cobb 500(r) broilers, with 161...

  20. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    OpenAIRE

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolec...

  1. A Linguistic Comparison of Letters of Recommendation for Male and Female Chemistry and Biochemistry Job Applicants

    OpenAIRE

    Schmader, Toni; Whitehead, Jessica; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2007-01-01

    Letters of recommendation are central to the hiring process. However, gender stereotypes could bias how recommenders describe female compared to male applicants. In the current study, text analysis software was used to examine 886 letters of recommendation written on behalf of 235 male and 42 female applicants for either a chemistry or biochemistry faculty position at a large U.S. research university. Results revealed more similarities than differences in letters written for male and female c...

  2. LLUSTRATION OF AMINO ACIDS REACTIONS AND PROTEINS CHARACTERIZATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL BIOCHEMISTRY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Parreira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available New teaching methodologies have been developed to facilitate the learning of biochemistry concepts. A new  approach to Biochemistry  teaching  has become more frequent,  one that does not  require reagents but use photos, videos, softwares etc. Experimental Biochemistry classes, i.e. covering characterization of amino acids and proteins,  might be more productive with the use of complementary didactic material.  Furthermore,  if experiments cannot be implemented, classes may  be well illustrated with complementary didactic material covering from the simplest to the most  complex experiments.  In order to  aid Biochemistry classes without practical experiments, some tests and reactions were documented in our laboratory through digital photos, for  instance: (1 the biuret reaction wherein the blue reagent turns violet in the presence of proteins and changes to pink when combined with short-chain polypeptides; (2 the ninhydrin test used in amino acid analysis of proteins: most of the amino acids are hydrolyzed and react with ninhydrin; when reacting with these free amines, a deep blue or purple color appears; (3 methods for detecting proteins wherein spectrophotometry is used, that deals with the relationship between absorbance, concentration and path length, which constitute the Beer-Lambert Law. A didactic material constituted by texts, schemes and illustrated by photos has been created for each class topic. This material can be used either as a teacher script or in a presentation form to illustrate classes without experimental activities. Financial Support: Pro-Reitoria Graduação-USP, CNPq.

  3. BIOCHEMISTRYGUIDE: A GUIDE TO STUDY BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE PALM OF YOUR HAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.C. Zago

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The new generation has grown driven by the digital technologies. Nowadays, the access to information has extended to the mobile technologies, like cell phones and tablets, increasing the technological resources for use in education. Educational institutions are opening more and more space to technologies, which have a new teaching, and learning methodology. The internet is an inexhaustible source of knowledge. With so much available material, the student finds difficulties in choosing the best source to study. Develop a cell phone app that works as a biochemistry study guide, providing materials from safe source and easy access. The app was developed at the website "Factory of apps", for free, and available for all the operational systems (Android, IOS, windows, enabling the download in any device. Were inserted in it materials like: summaries of the main subjects dealt in the discipline with clear and objective language, scientific articles to complementary reading, video-classes and exercises. Offering fast and practical access to the material, facilitating the process of studying and learning. The student does not have to let his mobile phone in preference of studying and does not find difficulties to filter available information in the internet. After the app's use, was applied a questionnaire to the participating students for this tool's assessment, such as layout, quality of the available material, access facilities. All the participants have approved the listed aspects and have said that the use of the tool can help at the biochemistry study, by the reliable material and by being available in a mobile device providing quick and immediate access, at any time in the palm of the hand. The use of this tool can be applied in the classroom to help the professor in getting materials and to help the students by its practicality.Acknowledgements: CnpQ, Unipampa. Keywords: App, BiochemistryGuide, Biochemistry

  4. Cooperative learning combined with short periods of lecturing: A good alternative in teaching biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Santander, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The informal activities of cooperative learning and short periods of lecturing has been combined and used in the university teaching of biochemistry as part of the first year course of Optics and Optometry in the academic years 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. The lessons were previously elaborated by the teacher and included all that is necessary to understand the topic (text, figures, graphics, diagrams, pictures, etc.). Additionally, a questionnaire was prepared for every chapter. All lessons cont...

  5. What Skills Should Students of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Programs Have Upon Graduation?

    OpenAIRE

    White, Harold B; Benore, Marilee A.; Sumter, Takita F.; Caldwell, Benjamin D.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology (BMB) students should demonstrate proficiency in the foundational concepts of the discipline and possess the skills needed to practice as professionals. To ascertain the skills that should be required, groups of BMB educators met in several focused workshops to discuss the expectations with the ultimate goal of clearly articulating the skills required. The results of these discussions highlight the critical importance of experimental, mathematical, and inter...

  6. Most fortificated nutraceutical vitamins: standpoint from biochemistry, functionality, utilization strategies and medical genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Tokusoglu, Ozlem; Muezzinoglu, Talha

    2015-01-01

    Nutraceutical vitamins are micronutrients of foods and beverages that play an essential role in food science and technology. Most fortificated vitamin A, E, D and folic acid as antioxidative defence system components and that of with gene regulation functions have been considered. Up-to-date scientific overview of the biochemistry, functionality, utilization strategies and human genomics of above-mentioned most fortificated nutraceutical vitamins were emphasized

  7. Polish Academy of Sciences. Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Research Report 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presented research activities of the Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, in 1998-1999. Research interests focus on: replication, mutagenesis and repair of DNA, regulation of gene expression, biosynthesis and post-translational modifications of proteins, gene sequencing and functional gene analysis, structure and function of enzymes, conformation of proteins and peptides, modeling of structures and prediction of function of proteins

  8. BIOCHEMISTRY APPROACH IN BOOKS APPROVED BY THE NATIONAL BOOK TEACHING PROGRAM 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E.S. Rocha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Collections of textbooks are distributed every three years to basic education schools and represent a source of knowledge to students and a reference to the pedagogical work of teachers. Biochemistry is an area that studies the chemical processes occurring in living organisms, with their concepts present in both chemistry textbooks as in biology. It is necessary that the present approach in these books are interesting to students, to recognize the importance of understanding these processes. OBJECTIVES: To analyze as it has been crafted in biochemistry textbooks high school approved by PNLD 2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated how the biochemical area-related content are described in the book "Bio - Volume 1", authored by Sonia Lopes and Sergio Rosso, and in the book "Chemistry - Volume 3" by Martha Reis with regard to clarity of concepts, context, illustrations and interdisciplinarity. RESULTS: Both books have chapters devoted especially to describe on this area, with plenty of catchy titles, but one in the first year and the other in the final year of high school. In biology textbook chapter called "The chemistry of life" brings in its approach clear and succinct concepts, contextualizes the issues on current information of figures and tables, features lots of illustrations that range from photographs to represent chemical structures and is mainly interdisciplinary in test questions. In chemistry textbook chapter "Introduction to Biochemistry" shows clear and detailed concepts, contextualizes with curiosities and everyday issues of students, has auxiliary illustrations in understanding and is interdisciplinary. CONCLUSIONS: We realize that there is a gap between the disciplines to work biochemistry during high school, but the form of presentation used for books is clear and present use of languages in the daily lives of students, making learning interesting and attractive.

  9. Comparison Between Different Teaching Methods to Increase Performance of Students in Biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mrinal Pal; Subinay Datta; Amit Kumar Pradhan; Kanika Mandi Chowdhuri; Joydeep Ghosh; Rajarshi Rahut

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Medical students during their first year of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) course, find Biochemistry difficult and volatile. In this regard, we studied the feedback from students as well as from teachers about the effectiveness of prevailing teaching aids and methods, so that best teaching aid and method can be adopted to improve their academic performance. METHODS: This study comprises of total 100 students of 1st MBBS course, who have completed the 1st semes...

  10. Attitudes toward plagiarism among pharmacy and medical biochemistry students – cross-sectional survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Pupovac, Vanja; Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Mavrinac, Martina; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Plagiarism is one of the most frequent and serious forms of misconduct in academic environment. The cross-sectional survey study was done with aim to explore the attitudes toward plagiarism. Materials and methods: First year students of Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Croatia (N = 146) were anonymously tested using Attitude toward Plagiarism (ATP) questionnaire. The questionnaire is composed of 29 statements on a 5 point Likert scale, (1 - ...

  11. A proposal of collaborative education for biochemistry and cell biology teaching

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Souza-Júnior; Silva, A.P.; Silva, T. A.; G. P.V. Andrade

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Currently students grow up in a world of digital tools that allow you to connect instantly with the world. At the same time, teachers face several challenges to increase student interest and learning efficiency. One such challenge is the pedagogical commitment of the density of biochemistry and cell biology contents, producing a conflict scenario, between meeting content and maintain the class quality. OBJECTIVES: From this perspective, this study aimed to evaluate the learning ...

  12. REGULATION OF L-VALINE BIOSYNTHESIS IN CORYNEBACTERIUM GLUTAMICUM - ASPECTS OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ilze Deniņa

    2010-01-01

    ANNOTATION This study investigates the optimum cellular physiology and intracellular biochemistry to achieve L-valine overproduction by Corynebacterium glutamicum recombinant strains. A transition in the bacterial growth rate to below maximum was found to be an optimum parameter of cellular physiology to increase L-valine synthesis rate by C. glutamicum during batch and fed-batch cultivations. The increase in acetohydroxyacid synthase activity was the determinant for the ...

  13. Summary report of a workshop on research opportunities in plant biochemistry, December 11--13, 1992, Kona, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    A DOE-sponsored workshop was held December 11--13, 1992 in Kona, Hawaii to discuss those aspects of fundamental research in plant biochemistry deemed essential to provide the basic information base necessary for exploiting plant biotechnology to meet future societal needs. Twenty nine scientists, with interests representing many of the various areas of plant biochemistry, participated. The workshop was intended to define in both broad and specific terms the current state of knowledge in the general area of metabolic biochemistry, and to identify those areas that afford unusual opportunity or that are relatively underdeveloped in comparison with other areas of plant biology. Participants provided critiques of the state of knowledge of the major areas of metabolic biochemistry in relation to a series of questions that are presented herein.

  14. Studies on the life span, reproduction, tissue biochemistry and diesel oil toxicity in the estuarine cladocera Diaphanosoma celebensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhuKonkar, S.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    , neonate production, tissue biochemistry and toxicity of diesel oil have been described in the paper. Variations were observed in the life span and rate of neonate production between individuals of the 1 st and 2 nd generations. Both were found...

  15. Trends in the use of stable isotopes in biochemistry and pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent trends in the use of the stable isotopes 13C, 15N and 18O in biochemistry and pharmacology are reviewed with emphasis on the studies that have employed nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as analytical techniques. Pharmacological studies with drugs and other compounds labelled with stable isotopes have developed in parallel with the rapid progress in the enhancement of sensitivity and selectivity of gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analyses, and have been directed largely to an evaluation of pharmako-kinetics and drug metabolic pathways. In these studies, illustrated with selected samples, isotopically labelled compounds have been used to advantage as internal standards for the mass spectrometric analyses and as in vivo tracers for metabolites. In the broader discipline of biochemistry, stable isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been used increasingly in conjuction with both nmr spectroscopy and mass spectrometry in tracer and structural studies. The more recent trends in the use of stable isotopes in these biochemical studies are discussed in the context of the improvements in analytical techniques. Specific examples will be drawn from investigations of the biosynthesis of natural products by micro-organisms; the protein, fat and carbohydrate fluxes in humans; and the structure and function of enzymes, membranes and other macro-molecular assemblages. The potential for the future development of stable isotopes in biochemistry and pharmacology are considered briefly, together with some of the problems that must be solved if their considerable potential is to be realized. (author)

  16. The Proteomics Stock Market Project. A Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration in Biochemistry and Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heath; Cox, James R.

    2004-04-01

    Students taking courses in different disciplines can work together to add unique elements to their educational experience. A model for this type of pedagogical approach has been established in the Proteomics Stock Market Project, a collaborative effort between instructors and students in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Management, Marketing, and Business Administration at Murray State University. Stage I involved biochemistry students investigating the topic of proteomics and choosing companies for potential investment based only on scientific investigation. Marketing and management students completed Stage II and provided an investment analysis on the companies selected in Stage I. In Stage III, the biochemistry students focused on a particular company and investigated a protein-based therapeutic product. Blackboard software was utilized in each stage of the project to facilitate the exchange of information and electronic documents. This project was designed to give biochemistry students an appreciation for the emerging field of proteomics and the marketing and management students a flavor for real-world applications of business principles. During the project, students were exposed to ideas and concepts not typically covered in their courses. With this involvement, the students had the opportunity to gain a broader perspective of course content compared to a more traditional curriculum.

  17. The Teaching of Biochemistry: An Innovative Course Sequence Based on the Logic of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Henry V.; Owen, Whyte G.

    1998-06-01

    An innovative course sequence for the teaching of biochemistry is offered, which more truly reflects the common philosophy found in biochemistry texts: that the foundation of biological phenomena can best be understood through the logic of chemistry. Topic order is chosen to develop an emerging understanding that is based on chemical principles. Preeminent biological questions serve as a framework for the course. Lipid and lipid-aggregate structures are introduced first, since it is more logical to discuss the intermolecular association of simple amphiphiles to form micelle and bilayer formations than to discuss the complexities of protein structure/folding. Protein, nucleic acid, and carbohydrate structures are studied next. Binding, a noncovalent process and the simplest expression of macromolecular function, follows. The physical (noncovalent) transport of solute molecules across a biological membrane is studied next, followed by the chemical transformation of substrates by enzymes. These are logical extensions of the expression of molecular function, first involving a simpler (physical transport) and second, a more complex (covalent transformation) process. The final sequence involves energy and signal transduction. This unique course sequence emerges naturally when chemical logic is used as an organizing paradigm for structuring a biochemistry course. Traditional order, which seems to reflect historic trends in research, or even an order derived from the central dogma of biology can not provide this logical framework.

  18. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus)

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Nola J.; Schaefer, Adam M.; Stephen D. van der Spuy; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-01-01

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematoc...

  19. AN ALTERNATIVE STRATEGY TO ANALYZE THE CONTENTS OF BIOCHEMISTRY INTRODUCTORY COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Miskalo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A common problem  educators  from  different areas face  is  to  fit the increasing  amount  of information  with the maintenance  and/or,  not seldom,  a decrease in the class load of their courses. This actual situation  necessarily forces the educator  to severely select the topics to be worked out. In the cur rent scenario of most teaching institutions, this decision  is  taken by the teacher.  In order to do this, a  list of the topics considered to be essential  for an appropriate biochemistry course is necessary. Taking for granted that questions from biochemistry courses tests reflect  the topics  considered most relevant by teachers,  questions from different courses offered by Biochemistry Department of USP were analyzed. The objective of this analysis  was  to  answer two main questions, namely (1  Which is the exte nt and  depth  of the common topics  in  biochemistry  introductory courses? and (2  Are there (and ,  if  there are,  which are they?  specific topics  for  different careers?  The  method we adopted was to verify  the demanded topics  in  written tests and  to  classify  their  cognitive level according to Bloom’s Taxonomy.  The most recurring topics found are Protein Structure and Metabolism Regulation. The results indicate a strong predominance of  low-level categories  (Knowledge e Comprehension,  with little  occurrence  of high-level categories (from Application on.  It is expected, from further development of this study,  to outline  the topics considered  relevant  to  set the basis for  the discussion  on the establishment of a minimum curriculum for biochemistry courses. Key words: Bloom’s Taxonomy, minimum curriculum, written tests analysis.

  20. Clinical biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. C.; Leach, C. S.; Fischer, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives of the biochemical studies conducted for the Apollo program were (1) to provide routine laboratory data for assessment of preflight crew physical status and for postflight comparisons; (2) to detect clinical or pathological abnormalities which might have required remedial action preflight; (3) to discover as early as possible any infectious disease process during the postflight quarantine periods following certain missions; and (4) to obtain fundamental medical knowledge relative to man's adjustment to and return from the space flight environment. The accumulated data presented suggest that these requirements were met by the program described. All changes ascribed to the space flight environment were subtle, whereas clinically significant changes were consistent with infrequent illnesses unrelated to the space flight exposure.

  1. EDUCACIONAL GAME OF LEARNING AS DIDATIC SUPPORT IN INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY DISCIPLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Vasconcelos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The cellular respiration process is a crucial subject in biochemistry learning. The use of ludic tools appears to be a good strategy in education intensifying the teach and learning process. The aim of this work was to create and introduce a game as educational tool helping the students to construct the knowledge.  This work was accomplished in UFC involving three groups of 5 students of Introduction to Biochemistry discipline from Food Engineering course.  It was developed a board game  entitled:  The dynamics OXI-REDOXI in Respiratory Chain. The game consisted in a board with the scheme of the respiratory chain, chips to complete the gaps and 12 question cards. The students had previous classes about the subject and a survey right before  playing the game. The monitor explained the rules and the wrong answers of the students to question cards. During the game it was observed mistakes in the answers of the students to  question cards  and either  regarding placing the chips representing the reactions of the respiratory chain. The monitor stimulated the discussion among them and elucidated the doubts. The students demonstrated motivation and interest during the game.  The majority of the students found it easy to play and confirmed that it facilitate the learning process.  The application of the same survey after the game showed that they understood the  respiratory chain and the grades were at least 50% higher after the game.  This game reveals itself a dynamic and constructive tool for the learning  process in biochemistry.

  2. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals of healthy adult barn owls (Tyto alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Klein, Akos; Jakab, Csaba

    2014-06-01

    Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters of barn owls (Tyto alba) were studied in collaboration by the Exotic Division of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Szent Istvan University and the Eötvös Loránd University, both in Budapest, Hungary. Blood samples were taken from a total of 42 adult barn owls kept in zoos and bird repatriation stations. The following quantitative and qualitative hematologic values were determined: packed cell volume, 46.2 +/- 4%; hemoglobin concentration, 107 +/- 15 g/L; red blood cell count, 3.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(12)/L; white blood cell count, 13.7 +/- 2.7 x 10(9)/L; heterophils, 56.5 +/- 11.5% (7.8 +/- 2 x 10(9)/L); lymphocytes, 40.3 +/- 10.9% (5.5 +/- 1.9 x 10(9)/L); monocytes, 1.8 +/- 2.1% (0.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/ L); eosinophils, 1 +/- 1% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L); and basophils, 0.6 +/- 0.5% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L). The following plasma biochemistry values also were determined: aspartate aminotransferase, 272 +/- 43 U/L; L-gamma-glutamyltransferase, 9.5 +/- 4.7 U/L; lipase, 31.7 +/- 11.1 U/L; creatine kinase, 2228 +/- 578 U/L; lactate dehydrogenase, 1702 +/- 475 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 358 +/- 197 U/L; amylase, 563 +/- 114 U/L; glutamate dehydrogenase, 7.5 +/- 2.5 U/L; total protein, 30.6 +/- 5.3 g/L; uric acid, 428 +/- 102 micromol/L; and bile acids, 43 +/- 18 micromol/L. These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic and plasma biochemistry results for the species. PMID:25055626

  3. The Use of Information and CommunicationTechnologies in Biochemistry Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Munford

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The gap between traditional tools for teaching and the modern multimedia languages leads us to search for new methodologies of teaching. Using the Moodlesoftware as a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE, we give the students the opportunity to exchange experiences and research results, participate on debates and see animations. This work  was meant to createa VLE and investigate its impact  on the Biochemistry teaching-learning process. Besides observing students’ perception and attitude towards the VLE with questionnaires and Moodle’s statistical data, quantitative and qualitative studies were developed to understand the contribution of animations available in the VLE for the understanding of Biochemistry topics. The results showed that undergraduate students improved their academic results. Students mentioned that the biggest contribution of the VLE and animations was to make the study content more interesting and dynamic, motivating them tostudy harder. Moreover, students using only animations to study can achieve levels of knowledge similar to the ones obtained in traditional classes. Interestingly, our analysis also showed that watching animations and then attending to a traditional class makes students reach a level of knowledge that is impossible to reach only in classroom. This work demonstrates that the use of Information andCommunication Technologies (ICTs can be positive in the pedagogical processesinvolved in Biochemistry teaching, and they should be better spread amongst teaching institutions.

  4. A proposal of collaborative education for biochemistry and cell biology teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Souza-Júnior

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Currently students grow up in a world of digital tools that allow you to connect instantly with the world. At the same time, teachers face several challenges to increase student interest and learning efficiency. One such challenge is the pedagogical commitment of the density of biochemistry and cell biology contents, producing a conflict scenario, between meeting content and maintain the class quality. OBJECTIVES: From this perspective, this study aimed to evaluate the learning biochemistry and cell biology contents in high school classes of IFRN, using collaborative and digital tools in the Moodle. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The contents were offered using various tools such as video lectures, forums, questionnaires, portfolios, glossaries and electronic books. Then these tools were evaluated using an electronic form.  In addition to the tools, we evaluated the platform interaction, the performance of activities and the content gamification. RESULTS: The quantitative results revealed directly proportional relationship of the interaction of Moodle with the performance of activities. The content gamification was also assessed positively, with 61% of students considered good, very good or excellent. The best evaluated tools were video lectures, with 31% preference, and questionnaires, with 24%; followed by electronic book, with 10%, and portfolio, with 5.5%. The other tools totaled 30% of the preference. Qualitative results revealed an educational gain of content, because the student lived the experience of teaching and learning collaboratively. In addition, these tools decreased conflicts between content and schedule. CONCLUSION: Thus, the use of information and communication technology (ICT in a collaborative learning provides relevant results, bringing the reality of the world connected to the classroom. In addition, it assists in defining the content and creative development of a strategy for the construction of the concepts applied

  5. Krebs Roulette: Educative Game as Strategy of learning-teaching process in Biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    C. N. Almada; Vasconcelos, M. S.; C. Nunes de Almada; F.W.P. Maia,; E.F. Mota; D. Fernandes de Melo

    2010-01-01

    The Biochemistry study is complex and many times is restricted to memorization of theorical contents. The educational game could be an catalytic element, capable to contribute in the process of regaining the student's interest. The aim of this work was to create, apply and evaluate an educative game called “Krebs Roulette”. The game contents were 1 roulette, 3 board cards, 48 question cards and complementary game chips. In an experimental tryout, five students joined the test-play in the pres...

  6. The biochemistry and nutrition group: 30 years of research in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy Benshimol, A

    1996-12-01

    The most relevant results of 30 years of research from the Group of Biochemistry and Nutrition are presented. Research was focused mainly around the identification and detection of the heatlabile toxic factors present in legume seeds of human consumption, namely protease inhibitors and lectins with special emphasis on their isolation, molecular characterization, mechanistic and nutritional relevance of both protein groups. The antinutritional effect of the polyphenols, thermolabile compounds present in colored seeds, has also been studied as well as the impact of seed complex carbohydrates on the digestive process. PMID:9137631

  7. Teaching contemporary chemistry, biochemistry and biology: free available databases, web tutorials and on-line tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecu CIORSAC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within this study we underline the usefulness of studying bioinformatics both at secondary school and university levels. Also, we emphasise the need of training programs in bioinformatics allowing the secondary school teachers and udergraduate students to be able to utilise the actual resources such as to reflect current practices and state of the art in chemistry, biology and biochemistry. Furthermore, we describe some free available databases and basic bioinformatics tools and illustrate their use for the secondary school and university levels. We also mention the general and specific competences, attitudes and values that are formed to the pupils and students by the use of the bioinformatics resources.

  8. Learning-oriented assessment increases performance and written skills in a second year metabolic biochemistry course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Alexander, Heather G

    2016-07-01

    Assessment plays a critical role in learning and teaching and its power to enhance engagement and student outcomes is still underestimated in tertiary education. The current project considers the impact of a staged redesign of an assessment strategy that emphasized relevance of learning, formative assessment, student engagement, and feedback on student performance, failure rates and overall engagement in the course. Significant improvements in final grades (p importance of an integrated approach to assessment that includes well developed formative tasks and a continuous summative assessment strategy. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):412-420, 2016. PMID:27006292

  9. Physical models enhance molecular three-dimensional literacy in an introductory biochemistry course*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jacqueline R; Hagedorn, Eric; Dillenburg, Paul; Patrick, Michael; Herman, Timothy

    2005-03-01

    This article reports the results of a recent study to evaluate the usefulness of physical models of molecular structures as a new tool with which to teach concepts of molecular structure and function. Of seven different learning tools used by students in this introductory biochemistry class, the use of the physical models in a laboratory was rated as most useful. These results suggest that physical models can play an important role in capturing the interest of students in the subject of molecular structure and function. These physical models often stimulate more sophisticated questions in the minds of students, which can then be more appropriately explored using computer visualization tools. PMID:21638554

  10. Training in radioprotection in the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotopes techniques have notably contributed to the advancement of knowledge in medicine and biomedicine during the last 60 years. The School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, offers different Courses on methodology of radioisotopes in which the specialized knowledge on radioprotection is adapted to the following different groups: 1) A course for biochemistry students; 2) A course for physicians; 3) A course for graduates in biochemistry, biology, chemistry or other disciplines related to the health; 4) An up-dating course for licensed professionals; 5) A course for nuclear medicine technicians; and finally: 6) A course for Pharmacy students. The main objective of radiological protection teaching is specific and fitted to each level: the course (1) has been given (optional or mandatory) since 1960 for more than 7500 students. Part of the learning process in radioprotection is only informative, because in this case the students are not allowed to ask the Argentinean Nuclear Regulatory Authority authorization for radioactive material handling. Course (2) has been taken by more than 800 physicians since 1962. Here, the students receive a very intensive training in radioprotection which includes: justification, optimization and dose limits; dosimetric magnitudes and units; internal and external dosimetry of 99mTc, 201Tl, 60Co and other isotopes used in medicine; safety in occupational exposure; national and international legislation. Since 1962, more than 1000 graduates have attended course (3). In this case the training in radioprotection is as intensive as in course (2) with special focusing in 125I, 3H, 14C, 32P and other isotopes used in biomedicine. Course (4) has been given from 1992 and the objective is to up-date knowledge and the intensity of training depends on the requirements of each professional. Course (5) has been given since 1997 and it is mainly directed to the operational aspects of radioprotection for

  11. Advanced Biochemistry Course teach students how to make and criticize science

    OpenAIRE

    A.B. Sé; R. M. Passos; M. Hermes-Lima

    2006-01-01

    In this work we are reporting a course of University of Brasilia called “Topics in Biochemistry”. It is offered to second semester medicine and nutrition students (around 12) who have just finished the Basic Biochemistry Course (BioBio), plus one or two third semester students, who are taking the course for the second time, as “coordinators”. This course is composed of two parallel activities: weekly meetings for scientific discussions and the peer-tutor activity.In  each  meeting,  one  stud...

  12. Biochemistry Teaching in the Undergraduate Medical Course at Universidade Federalde Viçosa

    OpenAIRE

    L. Moreira Lima; R. Siqueira-Batista; L.A. Santana; Gomes, A. P.; A. M. Pilon; Oliveira, M.G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background:The current competencies and abilities required for the training of medical professionals, recommended by the National Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Medicine (DCN) have initiated discussions about the teaching of biochemistry in medical schools. Objective: This study aimed to describe the rationale of education in the Clinical Laboratory Applieddisciplines – (LAC) I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII and VIII – which will be taught from first to eighth period of medical school at U...

  13. An Integrated Biochemistry and Genetics Outreach Program Designed for Elementary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Eric D.; Lee, Sarah K.; Catherine A. Radebaugh; Stargell, Laurie A.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to genetic and biochemical experiments typically occurs late in one’s academic career. By the time students have the opportunity to select specialized courses in these areas, many have already developed negative attitudes toward the sciences. Given little or no direct experience with the fields of genetics and biochemistry, it is likely that many young people rule these out as potential areas of study or career path. To address this problem, we developed a 7-week (∼1 hr/week) hands-o...

  14. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY THE CASTOR BEAN FUNCTION OF DOSES AND FERTILIZER IN SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Xavier Costa

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at with this work to investigate the physiology and biochemistry of the castor bean, after use of compost and organic castor bean. The trial began on October 3, 2005 ending on March 20, 2006, in green-house, controlled environment of the National Center of Cotton Research (CNPA / EMBRAPA), in Campina Grande , State of Paraiba. Was used to cultivate castor BRS Paraguaçu. We used a randomized block design with four replications, totaling 11 treatments, since they are derived from doses of...

  15. Training in radioprotection in the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotopes techniques have notably contributed to the advancement of knowledge in medicine and biomedicine during the last 60 years. The School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, offers different Courses on methodology of radioisotopes in which the specialized knowledge on Radioprotection is adapted to the following different groups: 1) A course for Biochemistry students; 2) A course for Physicians; 3) A course for Graduates in Biochemistry, Biology, Chemistry or other disciplines related to the health. 4) An up-dating course for licensed professionals; 5) A course for Nuclear Medicine Technicians; and finally, 6) A course for Pharmacy students. The main objective of Radiological Protection teaching is specific and fitted to each level: the course (1) has been given (optional or mandatory) since 1960 for more than 7500 students. Part of the learning process in radioprotection is only informative, because in this case the students are not allowed to ask the Argentinean Nuclear Regulatory Authority authorization for radioactive material handling. Course (2) has been taken by more than 800 Physicians since 1962. Here, the students receive a very intensive training in radioprotection which includes: justification, optimization and dose limits; dosimetric magnitudes and units; internal and external dosimetry of 99mTc, 201Tl, 60Co and other isotopes used in medicine; safety in occupational exposure; national and international legislation. Since 1962, more than 1000 graduates have attended course (3). In this case the training in radioprotection is as intensive as in course (2) with special focusing in 125I, 3H, 14C, 32P and other isotopes used in biomedicine. Course (4) has been given from 1992 and the objective is to up-date knowledge and the intensity of training depends on the requirements of each professional. Course (5) has been given since 1997 and it is mainly directed to the operational aspects of radioprotection for

  16. Review of platinum complex biochemistry suggests a rationale for combined platinum-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the biochemistry of platinum coordination complexes represented by the parent complex cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum II, (cis-DDP), indicates that this family of chemotherapeutic agents binds to DNA affording the potential for interactions with other therapeutic modalities. Results of relatively recent studies in bacteria, mammalian cell cultures and in animal tumor systems suggest that these platinum complexes interact with irradiation, thereby producing cell kill that may be greater than additive. A rationale is provided for the combination of cis-DDP and other platinum complexes with radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer

  17. The Application of Surveying Biochemistry Light Instrument in the Reaction System of Starch with Mn3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Zhengbiao; Wu Jiagen

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of the application of Surveying Biochemistry Light Instrument (SBLI) in the reaction system of starch with Mn3+was studied. The results showed: neither starch nor initiator(Mn3+) could produce light because no factor that could produce light existed in them. But starch could produce light when it was acted by Mn3 + and the intensity of light depended on the kind and concentration of starch, the amount of Mn3 +, the temperature and pH of the reaction system. In addition, the intensity of light decreased with the reaction time because of the gradual disappearance of starch free radicals.

  18. Symposium 20 - PABMB: Teaching biochemistry in a connected world: Hands-on inquiry-based biochemistry courses for improving scientific literacy of school teachers and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea T. da Poian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wednesday – August 26th, 2015 - 3:30 to 5:30 pm – Room: Iguaçu II – 5th floorSymposium 20 - PABMB: Teaching biochemistry in a connected world Chair: Miguel Castanho, Universidade de Lisboa, PortugalAbstract:In the last decades, Brazil has reached a prominent position in the world rank of scientific production. Despite this progress, the establishment of a scientific culture in Brazilian society is still challenging. Our group has been offering hands-on inquiry-based courses to primary and secondary students, which aim to introduce them to the scientific method and improve their interest in science. More recently, we started new initiatives focused on the improvement of the scientific literacy of school science teachers. Here we describe two intensive short-term courses designed in different formats. One consists in a discipline offered to a Master Program to school science teachers, in which the main objective was to work with core disciplinary concepts through an active teachers engagement in “doing science”. The discipline, named “Energy transformation in the living organisms”, intends to deal with the main Biochemistry subjects that take part of the high-school science curriculum, namely, fermentation, photosynthesis and cellular respiration processes. The other initiative was developed in Urucureá, a small community with about 600 residents, located on the banks of the River Arapiuns, in Amazonia region. We trained the local school teachers to act as tutors in the course offered to 40 students of the community, ages 10 to 17. The theme we chose to address was the properties and effects of snakes´ poisons, since poisoning events are a problem with which the local community frequently deal with. Another important point was that we adapted a number of experiments to make them feasible with very limited laboratory resources. Our results show that the activities that we have developed offer real opportunity of scientific training

  19. Krebs Roulette: Educative Game as Strategy of learning-teaching process in Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Almada

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Biochemistry study is complex and many times is restricted to memorization of theorical contents. The educational game could be an catalytic element, capable to contribute in the process of regaining the student's interest. The aim of this work was to create, apply and evaluate an educative game called “Krebs Roulette”. The game contents were 1 roulette, 3 board cards, 48 question cards and complementary game chips. In an experimental tryout, five students joined the test-play in the presence of a mediator. The game duration was one hour. The students were submitted to an evaluation under Krebs Cycle before and after the game. About the game strategy, the students noticed as positive points: easy to play, didactic, making the learn easier. The evaluation of the quizzes, even with a so small experimental group, indicated a significant increase in the teach-learning process. The achieved results suggest that the game could be used as complementary tool for comprehension of the Krebs Cycle as strategy of learning-teaching in Biochemistry.

  20. The Oxygen Dissociation Curve of Hemoglobin: Bridging the Gap between Biochemistry and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cambronero, Julian

    2001-06-01

    Cooperativity is a very difficult concept for biochemistry students in the health sciences. An analogy between breaking salt bonds and tearing apart a block of four stamps has been proposed for hemoglobin (Hb). However, since tearing is equated to binding of molecules, two intrinsically contradictory terms, students still have difficulty. I apply the pictorial analogy to the releasing of oxygen instead of the binding, thus bridging biochemistry (cooperativity) with physiology (oxygen dissociation). I embark on an imaginary journey from the lungs (saturation at 100 mmHg) to the oxygen-starved tissues. The stamps represent fully loaded Hb. By making two cuts the first "oxygen" is released. For the second, only one cut is needed. With one final cut, the last two stamps are separated. This means that less energy is needed to unload oxygen: just small drops in partial pressure do the trick in the right place (tissues) but not in the wrong one (lungs). In doing this, I use the three main models of learning: association, discovery and mentoring. Additionally, by guiding students to discover the truth by themselves, I can use hemoglobin as a wonderful excuse to apply the "Socratic method" in the classroom.

  1. Predictors of Nursing Students' Performance in a One-Semester Organic and Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lanen, Robert J.; Lockie, Nancy M.; McGannon, Thomas

    2000-06-01

    In an effort to empower nursing students to successfully persist in chemistry, predictors of success for undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a one-semester organic and biochemistry course were identified. The sample consisted of 308 undergraduate nursing students enrolled in Chemistry 108 (Principles of Organic and Biochemistry) during a period of seven semesters. In this study, Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a nonremedial academic support program offered for Chemistry 108 students. Placement tests in Mathematics, Reading, and English are required of all entering students. The English Placement Test assesses proficiency in analytical reading and writing; the Nelson Denny Reading Test (Form E) assesses the student's understanding of written vocabulary and the mastery of reading comprehension, and the Mathematics Placement Test measures the student's mastery of arithmetic and algebraic calculations. Both demographic and academic variables were examined. For the entire sample, five predictor variables were identified: Mathematics Placement Test score, Chemistry 107 grade (a prerequisite), total number of SI sessions attended, Nelson Denny Reading Test (Form E) score, and age. Predictors for various subpopulations of the sample were also identified. Predictors for students of traditional age were Mathematics Placement Test score, total number of SI sessions attended, and Chemistry 107 grade. The best predictors for continuing education students were Chemistry 107 grade and Nelson Denny Test score.

  2. FT-IR Characterization of Pollen Biochemistry, Viability, and Germination Capacity in Saintpaulia H. Wendl. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsebet Buta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available FT-IR characterization of pollen biochemistry was analyzed to detect possible connection with the viability (by staining with potassium iodide, 25% and the germination capacity (on solid nutrient medium, in 15 Saintpaulia genotypes. Vibrational spectroscopy indicates that the pollen of S. ionantha genotype “Red Velvet” is rich in proteins, lipids, triglycerides, and esters and has a viability of 88.4% and a low germination capacity (27.16%. For S. ionantha “Jolly Red” and “Lucky Ladybug” genotypes, pollen showed high viability (88.81–91.49% and low germination capacity (23.02–9.17%, even though the pollen is rich in carbohydrates. S. ionantha “Aloha Orchid” genotype has the highest percentage of viability (94.32% and germination capacity (45.73% and a rich content of carbohydrates and polygalacturonic acids. In S. rupicola and S. ionantha genotypes, the rich content of polygalacturonic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates favourably influenced the germination capacity. Spectroscopic result indicates, through different absorbance band intensity, a possible link between biochemical composition, viability, and germination capacity of Saintpaulia pollen. To determine exactly the relation between biochemistry and biological processes, it is necessary to initiate quantitative researches.

  3. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nola J. Parsons

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments.

  4. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Nola J; Schaefer, Adam M; van der Spuy, Stephen D; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-01-01

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments. PMID:26016391

  5. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  6. [Biochemistry for the benefit of humanity (practical achievements of my scientific work)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huliĭ, M F

    2005-01-01

    Science unites theory and practice, but theory is always in advance. Even our works (mentioned above) which are also important for practice and were awarded the State prizes could not be made without preliminary theoretical investigations. It should be said that our works with elaborated methods of therapy and drugs to treat chronic alcoholism, drug addiction, leucosis are rather of theoretical than of practical importance. Some our works which proved that carbon dioxide is the basis of life are also of especially great theoretical value. The paper deals with the investigations devoted to the problems of biochemistry in cattle breeding (the raising of fat content in milk; elaboration of the efficient method of fodder ensilage; raising of milk yield using the drug "Karboxilin"; development of the methods of isolation of crystalline glucose-oxidase and catalase used for clarifying blood) as well as to the problems of biochemistry in medicine (creation of the drug "Microcid", antileucosis drug "Corectin", drugs "Medichronal" and "Medicit" for treating alcoholism and drug addiction, drug "Namacit" for hindering the organism aging). Great attention is given to the problem of relations between the theoretical conception concerning the importance of CO2 in vital activity of human and animal organism and production of new drugs. PMID:16335264

  7. Hematology, plasma biochemistry, and tissue enzyme activities of invasive red lionfish captured off North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E T; Stoskopf, M K; Morris, J A; Clarke, E O; Harms, C A

    2010-12-01

    The red lionfish Pterois volitans is important not only in the aquarium trade but also as an invasive species in the western Atlantic. Introduced to waters off the southeastern coast of the United States, red lionfish have rapidly spread along much of the East Coast and throughout Bermuda, the Bahamas, and much of the Caribbean. Hematology and plasma biochemistry were evaluated in red lionfish captured from the offshore waters of North Carolina to establish baseline parameters for individual and population health assessment. Blood smears were evaluated for total and differential white blood cell counts, and routine clinical biochemical profiles were performed on plasma samples. To improve the interpretive value of routine plasma biochemistry profiles, tissue enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT], lactate dehydrogenase [LD], and creatine kinase [CK]) were analyzed from liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract, and heart tissues from five fish. The hematological and plasma biochemical values were similar to those of other marine teleosts except that the estimated white blood cell counts were much lower than those routinely found in many species. The tissue enzyme activity findings suggest that plasma LD, CK, and AST offer clinical relevance in the assessment of red lionfish. PMID:21413511

  8. The Influence of the Tutorial activity in the academic, didactic and social development of the tutors of biochemistry at UFV.

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Baracat-Pereira; A. M.X. Carvalho; F. Q. MENDES; M. A. SARTORI; T. R. Costa; H.J.V. Pereira; T.A. Pinho; P.E.A. Marinho; Silva, J.C.; F.R. Teixeira; P.C. Braathen

    2005-01-01

    The Tutorial Program  in Biochemistry, implemented at UFV in 2000, is characterized by the actuation of the  students as tutors, seeking to level the  prior  knowledge among students of biochemistry.  The tutors, official or volunteer,  are under graduated students (tutor I) and post-graduated students (tutor II). The  aim of this  study  was to show the  profile of a tutor of biochemistry and  its influence in his academic,  didactic  and  social development.  A questionnaire of 31 questions...

  9. Biochemistry in the High School Textbook: A Distance Between Content And Students Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simões-Pires

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several  contents  have  been  taught  in  a  decontextualized  way  within  the  area  of biology,  one  of  these  contents  is  Biochemistry.  Biochemistry  is  one  of  the  most present subjects in the student’s daily lives, because it can explain a huge number of  processes  that  happens  in  their  routine.  The  textbook  is  the  main  tool  in  the Brazilian  public  high  schools  classrooms,  so  a  huge  number  of  programs  to improve the textbooks were created by the government, like the National Program of the Textbook or PNLD( translated from the Portuguese ‘’Programa Nacional do Livro Didático’’. But despite the efforts to improve the textbook, their quality is still questionable, for such reasons like the distance between contents showed in the textbook and student’s reality. The main objective of this work is to evaluate how the  high  school  textbooks  show  the  content  related  to  biochemistry  and  how  this content is contextualized in the student’s reality.  To achieve this goal we analyzed four  textbooks  that  are  most  frequently  used  in  the  schools  today  and  evaluated parameters  related  with  contextualization  between  the  biochemistry  content  and students  daily  lives  situations.  The  analysis  was  done  on  a  qualitative  way.  We observed  a  lack  of  daily  examples  in  the  biochemical  contents,  an  excess  of scientific terms without clear explanations and also a huge presence of conceptual errors  in  all  four  textbooks.  The  data  showed  here  leads  us  to  conclude  that  the science’s textbooks analyzed in this study are inappropriate to teach biochemistry in an interesting way for the students.

  10. A SOFTWARE TO PROMOTE INTERACTIVE TEACHING OF WATER PROPERTIES IN BIOCHEMISTRY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M.M. Lapouble

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The improvement and  development of new tools in design and  informatics  helped the  creation  of biochemistry teaching  material. Many molecules, metabolic  pathways, reactions,  and interactions are best  explained  and  understood when  shown  in three  dimensions  and  allowing interactivity.  Water is, usually,  the first topic to be presented  during  basic biochemistry courses.  Importance, properties, ionization,  pH, buffering and  titration curves,  are frequently  presented  subjects,  but  static graphics don´t show to  students the  interactions between water molecules,  interactions with  the  solutes  and buffer titration in a clear way.  In this  work, Flash  software  from Macromedia,  was used to produce the llustrations, animations, and ActionScript programming was used to simulate  the titration of some buffers and correlate  the molecular  concept  to the graphic  charts.With  this  work,  we are trying  to improve  the  quality  of biochemistry teaching  material, and  to show, in a clear way, subjects  that are difficult to explain by static  graphics limitation. This material could be used in regular classes, to be projected  or showed in computers  and could be used by students in self-guided study because it allows optional  visualization of texts.  An assisted navigation tool could suggest to students, a sequence of topics but still allowing the freedom of choice of any available topic.

  11. A Linguistic Comparison of Letters of Recommendation for Male and Female Chemistry and Biochemistry Job Applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmader, Toni; Whitehead, Jessica; Wysocki, Vicki H

    2007-01-01

    Letters of recommendation are central to the hiring process. However, gender stereotypes could bias how recommenders describe female compared to male applicants. In the current study, text analysis software was used to examine 886 letters of recommendation written on behalf of 235 male and 42 female applicants for either a chemistry or biochemistry faculty position at a large U.S. research university. Results revealed more similarities than differences in letters written for male and female candidates. However, recommenders used significantly more standout adjectives to describe male as compared to female candidates. Letters containing more standout words also included more ability words and fewer grindstone words. Research is needed to explore how differences in language use affect perceivers' evaluations of female candidates. PMID:18953419

  12. Progress report for 1975-1977 of the Biochemistry and Food Technology Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development work carried out during the period 1975-77 in the Biochemistry and Food Technology Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, is reported. In addition to the studies on macromolecular aspects of structure and function of chemical components e.g. proteins and enzymes of living systems and food microbiology, major studies relate to: (1) safe storage of wheat irradiated for disinfestation, (2) compositional changes in wheat exposed to high dose of radiation, (3) sprout inhibition of irradiated potatoes during storage under tropical conditions, (4) induction of phenylalanine ammonium lyase in irradiated potatoes, (5) preservation of mangoes and bananas by heat-radiation combination, (6) extension of shelf-life of fish by radurization, (7) wholesomeness of irradiated fish and (8) genetic toxicological evaluation of irradiated foods. (M.G.B.)

  13. The Biochemistry and Physiology of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid β-Oxidation and Its Genetic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houten, Sander M; Violante, Sara; Ventura, Fatima V; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) is the major pathway for the degradation of fatty acids and is essential for maintaining energy homeostasis in the human body. Fatty acids are a crucial energy source in the postabsorptive and fasted states when glucose supply is limiting. But even when glucose is abundantly available, FAO is a main energy source for the heart, skeletal muscle, and kidney. A series of enzymes, transporters, and other facilitating proteins are involved in FAO. Recessively inherited defects are known for most of the genes encoding these proteins. The clinical presentation of these disorders may include hypoketotic hypoglycemia, (cardio)myopathy, arrhythmia, and rhabdomyolysis and illustrates the importance of FAO during fasting and in hepatic and (cardio)muscular function. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on the biochemistry and physiological functions of FAO and discuss the pathophysiological processes associated with FAO disorders. PMID:26474213

  14. protVirt: protein dosage simulation by spectrometry assisting Biochemistry practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gerber Hornink

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The practical classes in the teaching of biochemistry could provide great contributions to the process of teaching and learning, and the understanding of these by students depend on, generally,  previous concepts about the experiment and procedures performed. It is presented in this paper the educational software protVirt, which could be used as a pedagogical innovation in the method of practical classes involving dosage of proteins, focusing on the development of skills for understanding the activities. The software was developed in Adobe Flash, with the possibility of online or offline use. Despite the possibilities of using protVirt in various modalities of education, highlights the use in online courses, in which students develop, commonly, the practical class without the teacher centers, accompanied by monitors and tutors.

  15. Blood biochemistry reflects seasonal nutritional and reproductive constraints in the eurasian badger (Meles meles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Roura, X; Newman, C; Calafell, F; Macdonald, D W

    2001-01-01

    Physiological responses to nutritional and reproductive constraints were explored in a wild population of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) inhabiting Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. We compared seasonal blood levels of lipid and protein compounds to variables describing the sex, age, body condition, wounds, testes position, and flea abundance of the badgers. We found seasonal variations in albumin/globulins and urea/creatinine ratios matched by differences in body condition. High creatinine, urea, and triglycerides levels were obtained in animals in poor nutritional condition and with low levels of body fat. The maintenance of urea/creatinine ratios indicates that the badger does not demonstrate a stage of protein conservation in periods of food scarcity during the summer or periods of cold weather. Hypercholesterolaemia, especially in fat animals, was confirmed. We also offer baseline levels of metabolites commonly used in clinical biochemistry for their further use in the analysis of the status and the management of wild badger populations. PMID:11331518

  16. BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE SPECIALTY IN VISUAL FUNCTION, AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS IN THE CICS UMA-IPN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Elisa Pérez-Magaña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The higher education and postgraduate in Mexico." delivered at the National Polytechnic Institute is located in a period of constant modification and sustained that has led to the creation of new pedagogical proposals aimed at the promotion of learning emphasizing virtual education. The development of ICT (Information Technologies and Communication in the last few years has favored the emergence and consolidation of degrees, diplomas, Specialties, Master's Degrees among other, using the distance learning based on a web environment. This work analyzes the importance that had the Biochemistry course taught in the specialty of Visual Function in the CICS and UMA that allowed both to the students as the teachers try to virtually eliminate the disadvantages theoretical to traditional teaching. The results obtained in addition to the skills and competences acquired the students were highly successful, and it is hoped to be able to continue implementing such environments in other specialties and master's degrees.

  17. Biochemical Pathways: An Atlas of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (edited by Gerhard Michal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voige, Reviewed By William H.

    2000-02-01

    For decades, a wall chart detailing living organisms' metabolic pathways has been a fixture in many classrooms and laboratories where biochemistry is taught. One of the most popular of those charts first appeared 30 years ago. Now its editor, Gerhard Michal, has produced a book that summarizes metabolism (broadly defined) in graphical and textual formats. The book retains the elegance of the chart. Names of molecules are printed in a crisp, easy-to-read font, and structural formulas are shown with exemplary clarity. Color coding serves multiple purposes: to differentiate enzymes, substrates, cofactors, and effector molecules; to indicate in which group or groups of organisms a reaction has been observed; and to distinguish enzymatic reactions from regulatory effects. The primary advantage of presenting this information in book format is immediately apparent. A typical metabolic chart covers about 2 m2; the book has a total surface area nearly 10 times greater. The extra space is used to add explanatory text to the figures and to include many topics not covered by the traditional definition of metabolism. Examples include replication, transcription, translation, reaction mechanisms for proteolytic enzymes, and the role of chaperones in protein folding. Illustrating these topics is not as straightforward as delineating a metabolic pathway, but the author has done an admirable job of designing figures that clarify these and other aspects of biochemistry and complement the accompanying text. A potential deficiency of book format is the inability to clearly show links between different realms of metabolism: carbohydrate and amino acid pathways, for example. The book overcomes this problem in two ways. A diagrammatic overview of metabolism (with references to applicable sections of the book) is printed inside its front cover, and key compounds (pyruvate, for example) have a distinctive green background to provide a visual link between pathways. (The author compares this

  18. Senior Seminar Focusing on Societal Issues Related to Chemistry and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B., III; Johnston, Murray V.; Panar, Manuel

    2000-12-01

    The lack of a clearly defined content or structure provided the opportunity to transform a one-credit, pass-fail senior seminar course into a meaningful capstone experience for chemistry and biochemistry majors. In addition to individual and class exercises associated with employment, graduate school, communication skills, and professional ethics, small groups of students worked together to create informative Web sites that took positions on important societal issues related to chemistry. Each group presented a seminar and responded to questions from their peers and two or more unannounced visitors, "wild cards" who often had expertise in the seminar topic. Throughout the course, the instructors placed particular emphasis on developing students' ability to work cooperatively, locate and evaluate information, make informed judgments based on available information, and logically develop and defend their positions. Input from a retired industrial chemist helped define these skill elements.

  19. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY THE CASTOR BEAN FUNCTION OF DOSES AND FERTILIZER IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Xavier Costa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at with this work to investigate the physiology and biochemistry of the castor bean, after use of compost and organic castor bean. The trial began on October 3, 2005 ending on March 20, 2006, in green-house, controlled environment of the National Center of Cotton Research (CNPA / EMBRAPA, in Campina Grande , State of Paraiba. Was used to cultivate castor BRS Paraguaçu. We used a randomized block design with four replications, totaling 11 treatments, since they are derived from doses of castor-oil and organic compost (four doses of each and three witnesses, with further study of orthogonal contrasts . The castor bean showed effective results in the variables chlorophyll content (ppm in leaves and number of days to flowering of the first cluster (DIAFI. Compost organic waste not produced any significant result for both variables.

  20. Trends and physiology of common serum biochemistries in children aged 0-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tze Ping; Metz, Michael Patrick

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to visually present and discuss in detail the physiological trends of 22 serum biochemistries in children aged 0-18.A data-mining, LMS (lambda, mu, and sigma) approach was employed to derive the smoothed continuous serum biochemistry centile charts, after application of stringent outlier exclusion criteria.Serum sodium and calculated osmolality are low in early life and rise with age due to maturing kidney and body water redistribution. Urea, creatinine and uric acid is high at birth, declines to reach a trough by 1 month of age and gradually rises again thereafter. Serum bicarbonate falls initially during the neonatal and toddler period, then rises with declining respiratory rate, further increasing sodium and suppressing chloride. Potassium, calcium and phosphate are required for somatic growth and are actively accrued during periods of rapid growth. Albumin increases until puberty while globulin rises to age 10 as a result of increased hepatic synthetic capacity and maturing immunity. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity peaks during bone growth spurts in infancy and adolescence due to osteoblast leakage, while creatinine increases with muscle mass. Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities are high at birth and decline with age. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity is low at birth and is induced by increased gluconeogenesis. Serum bilirubin increases continuously with age, mirroring haemoglobin concentration. Serum total cholesterol declines more markedly in boys than girls during puberty due to the combined effects of free testosterone (lowering high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in boys) and oestradiol (lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in boys and girls).It is important to understand trends and biological variation when interpreting results since partitioned reference intervals may mask this information. PMID:26126034

  1. Hematological and Biochemistry Profile and Risk Factors Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajini Kurup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the hematological and biochemistry profile of patients with or without HIV-TB at the Georgetown Chest Clinic, Guyana. Methods. An observational, laboratory based study was designed to assess the relationship of PTB and HIV with patients routine biochemical and hematological values. The study was conducted during the period January 2013 to December 2014; a total sample size of 316 patients was enrolled following exclusion and inclusion criteria. Results. Mean age of study population was 40.1 ± 13.8 (95% CI 38.6–41.7 and most were between 40 and 49 age group (27.8%, 95% CI 23.2–33.0. More males were in the study 74.4% (95% CI 69.3–78.8 than females 81% (95% CI 21.1–30.7. 30% (95% CI 25.3–35.3 had a sputum smear grade of 3+ and 62.5% (95% CI 47.0–75.7 showed a CD4 count <200. The study demonstrated significantly low hemoglobin (Hb 91.7% (95% CI 78.2–97.1, low WBC 27.8% (95% CI 15.8–44.0, high indirect bilirubin 7.4% (95% CI 2.1–23.3, ALT 41.8% (95% CI 28.4–56.7, and AST 72.2% (95% CI 57.3–83.3 among TB-HIV patients. Homelessness RR (relative risk 2.2 (95% CI 0.48–12.3, smoking RR 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.19, and gender (male RR 1.2 (95% CI 0.61–2.26 were main associated risk factors. Conclusions. There is slight variation among PTB and PTB-HIV coinfected patients in some hematological and biochemistry parameters.

  2. THE EVOLUTION OF THE KREBS CYCLE: A PROMISING THEME FOR MEANINGFUL BIOCHEMISTRY LEARNING IN BIOLOGY

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    C. Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Evolution has been recognized as a key concept for biologists. In order to motivate biology undergraduates for contents of central energetic metabolism, we addressed the Krebs cycle structure and functions to an evolutionary view. To this end, we created a study guide which contextualizes the emergence of the cyclic pathway, in light of the prokaryotic influence since early Earth anaerobic condition to oxygen rise in atmosphere. OBJECTIVES: The main goal is to highlight the educational potential of the material whose subject is scarcely covered in biochemistry textbooks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study guide is composed by three interrelated sections, the problem (Section 1, designed to arouse curiosity, inform and motivate students; an introductory text (Section 2 about life evolution, including early micro-organisms and Krebs cycle emergence, and questions (Section 3 for debate. The activity consisted on a peer discussion session, with instructors tutoring. The questions were designed to foster exchange of ideas in an ever-increasing level of complexity, and cover subjects from early atmospheric conditions to organization of the metabolism along the subsequent geological ages. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We noticed that students were engaged and motivated by the task, especially during group discussion. Based on students’ feedbacks and class observations, we learned that the material raised curiosity and stimulated discussion among peers. It brought a historical and purposeful way of dealing with difficult biochemical concepts. CONCLUSIONS: The whole experience suggests that the study guide was a stimulus for broadening comprehension of the Krebs cycle, reinforcing the evolutionary stance as an important theme for biology and biochemistry understanding. On the other hand, we do not underestimate the fact that approaching Krebs cycle from an evolutionary standpoint is a quite complex discussion for the majority of students

  3. GLYCOLYSIS ’TRAIL: BIOCHEMISTRY KNOWLEDGE CON STRUCTION THROUGH AN EDUCATIVE GAME

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    C. N. Almada

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of biochemistry is complex andunatt ractive to the most of the students. Teaching strategies have to be established to stimulate the action of the student and involve  them  in the proposed subjects. For this to happen, the processes and strategies have to be analyzed and developed through cog nition tools. The objective of this work was to create, evaluate and apply an educative game called Glycolysis’ Trail, as a strategy of teaching -learning in the classes of biochemistry. The game focus  was the promotion of   group knowledge about the glycolytic  metabolic pathway. Thegame  contents are: 1 board, 1 dice, 5 pins, 12 curiosities cards, 54 question cards and 63 complementary game chips. In an experimental tryout, four students joined the test -play in the presence of a mediatort hatexplain ed the game, corrected execution errors  andstimulate dthe debate between the students. The students were submitted to an evaluation about the glycoly ticpathway before and after the game.  They observed the necessity of a previous knowledge of the game’s subject, andthe presence of the  mediator. About the use of the game as a tool for learning, the students understoodthat their mistakesand hits were important to knowledgeconsolidation  andgroup debate also. The evaluation of the quizzes applied before and after  the game, even with a so s mall experimental group,indicated a significant improvement of the learning -teaching process. The  game  results suggest that it can be used as innovative complementary tool in the building of the knowledge and the comprehension of the glycoly tic pathway .

  4. Biochemistry Oxidation Process for Treatment the Simulation of Organic Liquid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry activities generate the organic liquid wastes such as detergent waste from laundry, solvent waste of 30% TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) in kerosene from purification or recovery of uranium from rejection of nuclear fuel element fabrication, and solvent waste containing D2EHPA (di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid) and TOPO (trioctyl phospine oxide) in kerosene from phosphoric acid purification. The wastes are included in category of the hazard and poison materials which also radioactive, so that the wastes have to be treated to detoxification of the hazard and poison materials and decontamination of the radionuclides. The research of biochemistry oxidation process for treatment the simulation of organic liquid radioactive waste from laundry using mixture of aerobe bacteria of bacillus sp, pseudomonas sp, arthrobacter sp, and aeromonas sp have been carried out. The waste containing detergent 1,496 g/Litre, activity 10-1 Ci/m3 , with COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 128, BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 68 and TSS (Total Suspended Solid) 1000 ppm, it is treated by biochemistry oxidation with addition of bacteria which be fed nutrition of nitrogen and phosphor, and aeration. The result show that the bacteria can decompose the detergent to become carbon dioxyde and water so that can fulfill the quality standard of water group-B with content of BOD and COD are 6 and 10 ppm respectively, the time of decomposition is needed 106 hours to be fulfill the quality standard of water. The longer of process time will give bigger the total solid content in sludge, because the biomass generated from the colony of bacteria which life and dead to so much. (author)

  5. Students misconceptions on chemical equilibrium and their consequences to biochemistry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Montagna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that misconceptions onchemical equilibrium (CE are widespread among students in  higher education. Nevertheless CE concept is critical for biochemistry topics development such as buffer solutions, enzymekinetics, allosteric enzymes, metabolic networks, among others. In the present work weperformed tests in order to diagnose howstudents use the concepts of CE acquired inother courses. We tested high school andundergraduate students from two courses intwo institutions, in four moments of their course: a. freshmen; b. after basic general chemistry courses; c. along the biochemistrycourse and d. after physical chemistry courses. The tests dealt with: 1. tasks containing current terms, keywords and concepts about CE; 2. tests that exclusively use symbolic representations of CE and 3. application of elementary concepts of CE in biochemistry. The resultsshow that among thestudents: 1. more than 95% correctly answer questions of group1; 2. more than 50% fail in questions of group 2, and; 3. morethan 50% fail in questions of the group 3. We conclude that students solve tests  on CE without really understand the concepts involved; consequently studentsare unable to work CE concepts without mathematical tools or conventional formulas.Finally, the results show that students are restricted to use CE concept only in the context in which it was learned and this certainly impairs the significant learning of the forthcoming biochemical contents.

  6. Initial colonization, community assembly and ecosystem function: fungal colonist traits and litter biochemistry mediate decay rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Lauren C; Zak, Donald R

    2015-10-01

    Priority effects are an important ecological force shaping biotic communities and ecosystem processes, in which the establishment of early colonists alters the colonization success of later-arriving organisms via competitive exclusion and habitat modification. However, we do not understand which biotic and abiotic conditions lead to strong priority effects and lasting historical contingencies. Using saprotrophic fungi in a model leaf decomposition system, we investigated whether compositional and functional consequences of initial colonization were dependent on initial colonizer traits, resource availability or a combination thereof. To test these ideas, we factorially manipulated leaf litter biochemistry and initial fungal colonist identity, quantifying subsequent community composition, using neutral genetic markers, and community functional characteristics, including enzyme potential and leaf decay rates. During the first 3 months, initial colonist respiration rate and physiological capacity to degrade plant detritus were significant determinants of fungal community composition and leaf decay, indicating that rapid growth and lignolytic potential of early colonists contributed to altered trajectories of community assembly. Further, initial colonization on oak leaves generated increasingly divergent trajectories of fungal community composition and enzyme potential, indicating stronger initial colonizer effects on energy-poor substrates. Together, these observations provide evidence that initial colonization effects, and subsequent consequences on litter decay, are dependent upon substrate biochemistry and physiological traits within a regional species pool. Because microbial decay of plant detritus is important to global C storage, our results demonstrate that understanding the mechanisms by which initial conditions alter priority effects during community assembly may be key to understanding the drivers of ecosystem-level processes. PMID:26331892

  7. Serum biochemistry and electrophoretic patterns in the Eurasian Buzzard (Buteo buteo): reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, D; Ferrari, V; Franceschini, F; Lai, O; Laricchiuta, P; Zanella, A; Bernardini, D; Romagnoli, S

    2009-07-01

    In avian medicine, hematologic and biochemical laboratory investigations are still in their infancy, because of the difficulty involved in collecting data. This has led to a lack of reference values and a nonstandardized approach to specimens obtained in critical conditions. The Eurasian Buzzard (Buteo buteo) is one of the most common raptors in Italy, yet little is known about the physiologic blood parameters of this species. Serum biochemistry and electrophoretic investigations were performed in 40 healthy Eurasian Buzzards in different Italian wildlife rescue centers waiting to be released after recovering from trauma injuries. Mean values for biochemistry parameters were pancreatic amylase 626.9 IU/l, uric acid 7.5 mg/dl, aspartate aminotransferase 330.9 IU/l, glucose 375.1 mg/dl, lipase 26.3 IU/ l, total protein 38.4 g/l, total bilirubin 0.04 mg/ dl, lactate dehydrogenase 2,008.4 IU/l, creatinine kinase 1,604.1 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase 40.4 IU/l, alkaline phosphatase 89.8 IU/l, magnesium 2.3 mg/dl, calcium 10.2 mg/dl, phosphorus 2.02 mg/dl, cholesterol 192.2 mg/ dl, triglyceride 116.4 mg/dl, albumin 14.5 g/l, creatinine 0.1 mg/dl. Mean electrophoretic values were prealbumin 1.4 g/l, albumin 14.2 g/l, alpha 1 globulin 5.9 g/l, alpha 2 globulin 4.7 g/l, beta globulin 7.5 g/l, gamma globulin 3.6 g/l, albumin/globulins ratio 0.8 g/l. PMID:19617496

  8. Time- and polarization-resolved cellular autofluorescence towards quantitative biochemistry on living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfveby, John; TImerman, Randi; Soto Velasquez, Monica P.; Wickramasinghe, Dhanushka W. P. M.; Bartusek, Jillian; Heikal, Ahmed A.

    2014-09-01

    Native coenzymes such as the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide play pivotal roles in energy metabolism and a myriad of biochemical reactions in living cells/tissues. These coenzymes are naturally fluorescent and, therefore, have the potential to serve as intrinsic biomarkers for mitochondrial activities, programmed cell death (apoptosis), oxidative stress, aging, and neurodegenerative disease. In this contribution, we employ two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and time-resolved anisotropy imaging of intracellular NADH for quantitative, non-invasive biochemistry on living cells in response to hydrogenperoxide- induced oxidative stress. In contrast with steady-state one-photon, UV-excited autofluorescence, two-photon FLIM is sensitive to both molecular conformation and stimuli-induced changes in the local environment in living cells with minimum photodamage and inherently enhanced spatial resolution. On the other hand, time-resolved, two-photon anisotropy imaging of cellular autofluorescence allows for quantitative assessment of binding state and environmental restrictions on the tumbling mobility of intrinsic NADH. Our measurements reveal that free and enzyme-bound NADH exist at equilibrium, with a dominant autofluorescence contribution of the bound fraction in living cells. Parallel studies on NADH-enzyme binding in controlled environments serve as a point of reference in analyzing autofluorescence in living cells. These autofluorescence-based approaches complement the conventional analytical biochemistry methods that require the destruction of cells/tissues, while serving as an important step towards establishing intracellular NADH as a natural biomarker for monitoring changes in energy metabolism and redox state of living cells in response to environmental hazards.

  9. Medical and biochemical training in radioprotection at the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Buenos Aires University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires offers four different coursers on Radioisotope Methodology in which Radiological Protection concepts are given to: 1) biochemistry undergraduates; 2) physicians, biochemists, biologists and chemists; 3) professionals who need to put their theoretical and practical knowledge up-to-date; 4) technicians working at nuclear medicine centers or at biomedicine laboratories. Each course has a different purpose: the first one, which has been given at different levels of the curricula since 1960, is mainly informative; the second one, given during five months from 1962, is formative. 1513 professionals have passed the examinations of this course and asked for the authorization to handle radioactive materials from Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority. Training is theoretical and practical. It includes: dosimetric magnitudes and units, internal and external dosimetry of 125I, 131I, 201TI, 99mTc, 60Co and other isotopes with the intensity required by each professional according to his/her specialty; qualification of areas, working conditions, contamination barriers, shielding; justification, optimization and dose limits; radioactive wastes; legal aspects, national and international regulations. The third course, which has been given since 1992, has the aim to being the knowledge of radioprotection up-to-date. The fourth course, which started in 1997, includes mainly operational aspects: columns elution, injection of radioactive drugs to patients, decontamination of areas. Our results are quite satisfactory: 95% of the enrolled students passed the examinations of the respective levels; the requirement is the acquisition of criteria according to their professional/technical responsibility. (author)

  10. Using "The Poisoner's Handbook" in Conjunction with Teaching a First-Term General/Organic/Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Daniel R.; Herndon, Lindsey B.

    2016-01-01

    Deborah Blum's New York Times bestselling nonfiction book "The Poisoner's Handbook" was used as supplementary reading in our first-term General/Organic/Biochemistry course. This course serves as both the first course for our Allied Health chemistry sequence and a core science course. Our goal was that, through reading this book, students…

  11. Causes of Low and High Citation Potentials in Science: Citation Analysis of Biochemistry and Plant Physiology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Janos

    1983-01-01

    Citation data of 16 biochemistry and plant physiology journals show that reasons for lower citation potentials of plant physiology articles are: (1) readership is narrower for plant physiology journals; (2) plant physiologists can cite fewer thematically relevant new articles; and (3) plant physiology research fields are more isolated. References…

  12. The Relevance of Student Seminars on Clinically Related Subjects in a Biochemistry Course for Medical and Nutrition Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Muniz, Karinne C.; Coutinho, Iracema S.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the value of a system of seminars on clinically related biochemistry topics for undergraduate students in medicine and nutrition at the University of Brasilia, Brazil. During the second semester of 1998 (1998-2), the teaching staff decided to establish new and stricter rules for the seminar method and to…

  13. Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure Determination Module for Introductory Biochemistry: Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Lyso-Glycerophospholipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Teresa A.; Rose, Rebecca L.; Bell, Sidney M.

    2013-01-01

    In this laboratory module, introductory biochemistry students are exposed to two-dimensional [superscript 1]H-nuclear magnetic resonance of glycerophospholipids (GPLs). Working in groups of three, students enzymatically synthesized and purified a variety of 2-acyl lyso GPLs. The structure of the 2-acyl lyso GPL was verified using [superscript…

  14. Development of a Semester-Long, Inquiry-Based Laboratory Course in Upper-Level Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pushpalatha P. N.; Thompson, Martin; Hungwe, Kedmon

    2014-01-01

    A semester-long laboratory course was designed and implemented to familiarize students with modern biochemistry and molecular biology techniques. The designed format involved active student participation, evaluation of data, and critical thinking, and guided students to become independent researchers. The first part of the course focused on…

  15. HPLC of the Polypeptides in a Hydrolyzate of Egg-White Lysozyme. An Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, W. S., III; Burns, L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple high-performance liquid chromatography experiment for undergraduate biochemistry laboratories. The experiment illustrates the separation of polypeptides by a step gradient elution using a single pump instrument with no gradient attachments. Discusses instrumentation, analysis, a sample preparation, and results. (CW)

  16. Around the ß-Turn: An Activity to Improve the Communication and Listening Skills of Biochemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Isaac; Cox, James R.

    2013-01-01

    An active-learning activity has been designed to improve communication and listening skills of students in an upper-level biochemistry course. The activity was modeled after "Around the Horn", a popular television show that features a moderator asking questions to various sports reporters and assessing their answers in scored sessions.…

  17. Effects of Guided Inquiry versus Lecture Instruction on Final Grade Distribution in a One-Semester Organic and Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Colleen J.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive guided-inquiry approach was used in a combined organic and biochemistry course for prenursing and predietetics students rather than lecture. To assess its effectiveness, exam grades and final course grades of students in three instructional techniques were compared. The three groups were the following: (i) lecture only, (ii)…

  18. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information…

  19. BIOCHEMISTRY OF DINOFLAGELLATE LIPIDS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jeffrey D., Terence J. Evens and Peter J. Chapman. 2003. Biochemistry of Dinoflagellate Lipids, with Particular Reference to the Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of a Karenia brevis Bloom. Phycologia. 42(4):324-331. (ERL,GB 1160). The harmful marine dinoflagella...

  20. Bridging the Educational Research-Teaching Practice Gap: Foundations for Assessing and Developing Biochemistry Students' Visual Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonborn, Konrad J.; Anderson, Trevor R.

    2010-01-01

    External representations (ERs), such as diagrams, animations, and dynamic models are vital tools for communicating and constructing knowledge in biochemistry. To build a meaningful understanding of structure, function, and process, it is essential that students become visually literate by mastering key cognitive skills that are essential for…

  1. Utility of Self-Made Crossword Puzzles as an Active Learning Method to Study Biochemistry in Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coticone, Sulekha Rao

    2013-01-01

    To incorporate an active learning component in a one-semester biochemistry course, students were asked to create crossword puzzles using key concepts. Student observations on the use of self-made crossword puzzles as an active-learning instructional tool were collected using a 5-point Likert survey at the end of the semester. A majority of the…

  2. CLSI-derived hematology and biochemistry reference intervals for healthy adults in eastern and southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Karita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical laboratory reference intervals have not been established in many African countries, and non-local intervals are commonly used in clinical trials to screen and monitor adverse events (AEs among African participants. Using laboratory reference intervals derived from other populations excludes potential trial volunteers in Africa and makes AE assessment challenging. The objective of this study was to establish clinical laboratory reference intervals for 25 hematology, immunology and biochemistry values among healthy African adults typical of those who might join a clinical trial. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Equal proportions of men and women were invited to participate in a cross sectional study at seven clinical centers (Kigali, Rwanda; Masaka and Entebbe, Uganda; two in Nairobi and one in Kilifi, Kenya; and Lusaka, Zambia. All laboratories used hematology, immunology and biochemistry analyzers validated by an independent clinical laboratory. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines were followed to create study consensus intervals. For comparison, AE grading criteria published by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of AIDS (DAIDS and other U.S. reference intervals were used. 2,990 potential volunteers were screened, and 2,105 (1,083 men and 1,022 women were included in the analysis. While some significant gender and regional differences were observed, creating consensus African study intervals from the complete data was possible for 18 of the 25 analytes. Compared to reference intervals from the U.S., we found lower hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, particularly among women, lower white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and lower amylase. Both genders had elevated eosinophil counts, immunoglobulin G, total and direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase, the latter being more pronounced among women. When graded against U.S. -derived DAIDS AE grading criteria

  3. The composite interception technology of biochemistry for uranium pollution control at the uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to improve the technology for removing the uranium in groundwater, the solubility transformation principle of uranium from hexavalent to tetravalent was analyzed, and the key influenced factors on uranium fixed or separated were studied in this thesis. The composite interception technology of biochemistry (CITB) for uranium pollution control at the uranium tailings was developed. The main research productions were listed as follows. In the course of zero-valent iron reducing uranium from hexavalent to tetravalent, the acidic condition was benefit for uranium removal. The reaction was first-order, and the ferric oxide could adsorb Uranium (VI). The reaction of Uranium (VI) adsorption by hematite was suit for Ho second-order and Langmuir equation. The artificial acclimation sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB1) could reduce the soluble hexavalent uranium to the insoluble tetravalent uranium, and the removal efficiency could be up to 98∼99%. Uranium(VI), copper(II), cadmium(III), zinc(II), and lead(II) ions could restrain the effect of SRB-1, and copper(II) ion had the biggest effect. When the concentration of NO3 - was more than 500mg/L or the concentration of SO42- was more than 5 000 mg/L, the reduction process was completely restrained. As a result, the mixed sulfate reducing bacteria and de-nitration bacteria were suggested to be used in vitriol and nitric acid mining waste water. The Citrobacter sp- and Bacillus subtilis had the characteristics of great adsorption amount, strong endurance, high adsorption velocity and good desorption capacity, and the adsorption efficiency was over 90%, so they could be used for recovering uranium from low concentration wastewater. The Citrobacter sp- pretreated by NaOH could improve the adsorption ability. -COOH and -NH2 had important effect on adsorption, and the dead bacteria cells could adsorb more uranium than the living cells. When Bacillus subtilis was fixed by 4%PVA+1% sodium algal, the effect was better

  4. Nitrogen Fertilization of Corn: Plant Biochemistry Effects and Carbon Cycle Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Masiello, C. A.; McSwiney, C. P.; Robertson, G. P.; Baldock, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are rising due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Alley et al. 2007; Prentice et al. 2001). About half of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted during the 1990s was absorbed by the terrestrial biosphere and ocean (Prentice et al. 2001). It is possible to estimate the size of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks individually using atmospheric CO2 and O2 measurements (Keeling et al. 1996). To best estimate the sizes of these carbon sinks, we need to accurately know the oxidative ratio (OR) of the terrestrial biosphere (Randerson et al. 2006). OR is the ratio of the moles of O2 released per moles of CO2 consumed in gas fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere. Though it is likely that the net OR of the biosphere varies with ecosystem type and nutrient status, OR is assumed constant in carbon sink apportionment calculations (e.g. Prentice et al. 2001). Small shifts in OR can lead to large variations in the calculated sizes of the terrestrial biosphere and ocean carbon sinks (Randerson et al. 2006). OR likely shifts with changes in climate, nutrient status, and land use. These shifts are due, in part, to shifts in plant biochemistry. We are measuring ecosystem OR in corn agricultural ecosystems under a range of nitrogen fertilization treatments at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. We measure OR indirectly, through its relationship with organic carbon oxidation state (Cox) (Masiello et al. in press 2008). Cox can be measured through elemental analysis and, with basic knowledge of plant nitrogen use patterns, Cox values can be converted to OR values. Cox can also be measured through 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), which can be combined with a molecular mixing model to determine Cox, OR, and plant biochemical composition (i.e. percentage carbohydrates, lignin, lipids, and proteins) (Baldock et al. 2004). Here we present data showing the effects of

  5. Haematology and biochemistry values of captive sand cats (Felis margarita) in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Chege; Arshad Toosy; Judith Howlett; Ahmed Saker; John Kagira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the haematology and biochemistry values of apparently healthy captive sand cats kept in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates, with a view to establishing baseline values.Methods:Blood was collected from the femoral vein using aseptic techniques, kept in a cool box and sent to laboratory for analysis. The blood was analysed for haematological and biochemical values using veterinary hematology and chemistry analysers (ABX ABC Vet, Horiba ABX SAS Montpellier, France). Results: Haematological values were within the normal ranges recorded in domestic cats and there was no statistical difference between values found in males and females. Aspartate aminotransferase values were higher (P0.05) between males and females values.Conclusions:Our results present reference ranges for haematology and biochemistry parameters in captive sand cats. These values will be important for diagnosis of various diseases and monitoring of treatments.

  6. Haematology and biochemistry values of captive sand cats (Felis margarita in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chege

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the haematology and biochemistry values of apparently healthy captive sand cats kept in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates, with a view to establishing baseline values. Methods: Blood was collected from the femoral vein using aseptic techniques, kept in a cool box and sent to laboratory for analysis. The blood was analysed for haematological and biochemical values using veterinary hematology and chemistry analysers (ABX ABC Vet, Horiba ABX SAS ® Montpellier, France. Results: Haematological values were within the normal ranges recorded in domestic cats and there was no statistical difference between values found in males and females. Aspartate aminotransferase values were higher (P0.05 between males and females values. Conclusions: Our results present reference ranges for haematology and biochemistry parameters in captive sand cats. These values will be important for diagnosis of various diseases and monitoring of treatments.

  7. Symposium 20 - PABMB: Teaching biochemistry in a connected world: How Apps-Embedded Assessment can contribute to learning outcomes mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Galembeck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Symposium 20 - PABMB: Teaching biochemistry in a connected world Chair: Miguel Castanho, Universidade de Lisboa, PortugalAbstract:Apps can be designed to provide usage data, and most of them do. These usage data are usually used to map users interests and to deliver more effective ads that are more likely to result in clicks, and sales. We have applied some of these metrics to understand how it can be used to map students’ behavior using educational software. We tested both Google Analytics, and a system we have developed to map learning outcomes and students engagement. Embedded assessment were implemented in app used to teach: 1 Metabolic Pathways; 2 Protein Synthesis, 3 Cell Structure, and 4 Concepts from techniques used in a Biochemistry Lab course. Our preliminary results show that this approach provides valuable information about class outcomes that can be used for both summative and formative assessments.

  8. The effect of dietary phytase on broiler performance and digestive, bone, and blood biochemistry characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JPL de Sousa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dietary inclusion of phytase increases nutrient and energy bioavailability for broilers. The effect of phytase increases nutrients and energy bioavailability for either the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of nutrient and energy reduction in diets supplemented with phytase on the performance, gastrointestinal pH, organ and bone composition, and blood biochemistry of broilers between eight and 21 days of age. In the study, 1.120 male Cobb 500(r broilers, with 161±1g average weight, were used. At eight days of age, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments in a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement with eight replicates of 20 broiler each. Treatments corresponded to reduction of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, amino acids and energy, or reduction of Ca, P, amino acids and energy; supplementation or not of phytase; and a positive control treatment. Broiler fed the diet with reduced Ca and P levels and phytase supplementation presented the best performance of all groups. The diet with reduced amino acid and energy levels and phytase addition reduced gizzard and proventriculus pH. Dietary Ca and P reduction increased relative liver and heart weights, as well as albumin blood levels. The bones of broilers fed phytase-supplemented diets presented higher ash content.

  9. Biochemistry and physiology within the framework of the extended synthesis of evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, Angelo; Passamonti, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Functional biologists, like Claude Bernard, ask "How?", meaning that they investigate the mechanisms underlying the emergence of biological functions (proximal causes), while evolutionary biologists, like Charles Darwin, asks "Why?", meaning that they search the causes of adaptation, survival and evolution (remote causes). Are these divergent views on what is life? The epistemological role of functional biology (molecular biology, but also biochemistry, physiology, cell biology and so forth) appears essential, for its capacity to identify several mechanisms of natural selection of new characters, individuals and populations. Nevertheless, several issues remain unsolved, such as orphan metabolic activities, i.e., adaptive functions still missing the identification of the underlying genes and proteins, and orphan genes, i.e., genes that bear no signature of evolutionary history, yet provide an organism with improved adaptation to environmental changes. In the framework of the Extended Synthesis, we suggest that the adaptive roles of any known function/structure are reappraised in terms of their capacity to warrant constancy of the internal environment (homeostasis), a concept that encompasses both proximal and remote causes. PMID:26861860

  10. Minocycline ameliorates prenatal valproic acid induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Treatment with minocycline significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, minocycline has also attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline should be explored further for its therapeutic benefits in autism. PMID:26551768

  11. Evaluation of World Wide Web-based Lessons for a First Year Dental Biochemistry Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alan E. Levine

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available First year dental students at The University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston (Dental Branch are required to take a basic biochemistry course. To facilitate learning and allow student self-assessment of their progress, WWW-based lessons covering intermediary metabolism were developed as a supplement to traditional lectures. Lesson design combined text, graphics, and animations and included learner control, links to other learning resources, and practice exercises and exams with immediate feedback. Results from an on-line questionnaire completed by students in two different classes showed that they completed 50% of the lessons and spent an average of 4 hrs. on-line. A majority of the students either agreed or strongly agreed that practice exercises were helpful, that the ability to control the pace of the lessons was important, that the lesson structure and presentation was easy to follow, that the illustrations, animations, and hyperlinks were helpful, and that the lessons were effective as a review. The very positive response to the WWW-based lessons indicates the usefulness of this approach as a study aid for dental students.

  12. Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Cellular Physiology of Cysteine Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, Rüdiger; Wirtz, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine is one of the most versatile molecules in biology, taking over such different functions as catalysis, structure, regulation and electron transport during evolution. Research on Arabidopsis has contributed decisively to the understanding of cysteine synthesis and its role in the assimilatory pathways of S, N and C in plants. The multimeric cysteine synthase complex is present in the cytosol, plastids and mitochondria and forms the centre of a unique metabolic sensing and signaling system. Its association is reversible, rendering the first enzyme of cysteine synthesis active and the second one inactive, and vice-versa. Complex formation is triggered by the reaction intermediates of cysteine synthesis in response to supply and demand and gives rise to regulation of genes of sulfur metabolism to adjust cellular sulfur homeostasis. Combinations of biochemistry, forward and reverse genetics, structural- and cell-biology approaches using Arabidopsis have revealed new enzyme functions and the unique pattern of spatial distribution of cysteine metabolism in plant cells. These findings place the synthesis of cysteine in the centre of the network of primary metabolism. PMID:22303278

  13. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT OF LEARNING AS DIDACTIC SUPPORT IN DISCIPLINES OF BIOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B Maia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This work was accomplished in UFRPE involving three groups (A, B and C ofdisciplines of Biochemistry. It presents an analysis on the teaching onli ne and adiscussion theoretical-empirical about virtual environments. The disciplineswere posted in www.ensinarnet.com. The content was displayed in web. It wasused agenda, chat, forum, mural and classroom. At the end of disciplines threereports were analyzed: 1-From access to contents: A(2.603, B(229, C(463; 2-Access to discipline: A(477, B(157, C(263; 3-Stand online/h: A(173, B(16,C(41. There was a great variation in the frequency of users: major to Aand less to B and C, some factors were observed: 1-Online agenda thatremained at disposition of the students seems to guide and facilitate the accessto A. 2-the fast answer from the teachers to the doubts of students seems tohave increased the interest on A; 3-The dynamic of the group in the chat canhave contributed with a better relationship on A. On B and C, the students werenot able with the environment and this could be influenced in the results. Theuse of virtual environment in education is much more hard-working to theteachers than it is in presence and its applicability asks for new competencyfrom users.

  14. ANALYSIS OF SITES USED AS A SOURCE OF RESEARCH IN HIGHER SCHOOL OF BIOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Chagas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The technological breakthrough noticed in the past few years, promoted an increase of the knowledge production within the use of the internet leading the population to the easy access to the information. Therefore, the control of quality of the information given in the internet is not able to check the all the information in it, which demands the users an extra expertise. This research has the aim to test the contents of the Biochemistry shown in the WEB sites simulating the way students search the internet about Bio subjects. About the sites studied (20, none of them was considered excellent, taking into consideration, confiability, adaptation from Carneiro and Henrique (2009, like: quality of information, objectivity, present time references and media resources. In the concern of accuracy of the information, many mistakes were detected, like: phospholipids, glycolipids found in the cell walls of human beings, fatty acids are straight chain of hydrocarbon ending in a carboxyl group and in a metil group in another extremety, the glycerolis a carbohydrates of three carbons, concerning those mistakes, teachers and students must be aware of advantages and disadvantages that internet can bring to the teaching learning process and together they can stabblish necessary aims so that favorable proposals don’t become anti productive to the process.

  15. The evolution of the Krebs cycle: A promising subject for meaningful learning of biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Caetano; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Evolution has been recognized as a key concept for biologists. To enhance comprehension and motivate biology undergraduates for the contents of central energetic metabolism, we addressed the Krebs cycle structure and functions in an evolutionary view. To this end, we created a study guide that contextualizes the emergence of the cyclic pathway, in light of the prokaryotic influence since the early anaerobic condition of the Earth to increase oxygen in the atmosphere. The study guide is composed of three interrelated sections: (1) a problem, designed to arouse curiosity, inform and motivate students, (2) a text about life evolution, including early microorganisms and the emergence of the Krebs cycle, and (3) questions for debate. The activity consisted on individual reading and peer discussion based on this written material, under the guidance of the instructors. The questions were designed to foster debate in an ever-increasing level of complexity and to strengthen the main contextual aspects leading to emergence, evolving, and permanency of a complex metabolic pathway. Based on classroom observation, analysis of student's written responses, and individual interviews, we noticed they were engaged and motivated by the task, especially during group discussion. The whole experience suggests that the study guide was a stimulus to broaden the comprehension of the Krebs cycle, reinforcing the evolutionary approach as an important subject for learning purposes. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:288-296, 2016. PMID:26952386

  16. Biochemistry, proteomics and phosphoproteomics of plant mitochondria from non-photosynthetic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Foged Havelund

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria fulfill some basic roles in all plant cells. They supply the cell with energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents (NAD(PH and they provide the cell with intermediates for a range of biosynthetic pathways. In addition to this, mitochondria contribute to a number of specialized functions depending on the tissue and cell type, as well as environmental conditions. We will here review the biochemistry and proteomics of mitochondria from non-green cells and organs, which differ from those of photosynthetic organs in a number of respects. We will briefly cover purification of mitochondria and general biochemical properties such as oxidative phosphorylation. We will then mention a few adaptive properties in response to water stress, seed maturation and germination and the ability to function under hypoxic conditions. The discussion will mainly focus on Arabidopsis cell cultures, etiolated germinating rice seedlings and potato tubers as model plants. It will cover the general proteome as well as the posttranslational modification protein phosphorylation. To date 64 phosphorylated mitochondrial proteins with a total of 103 phosphorylation sites have been identified.

  17. HEMATOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY IN CAPTIVE WHITE-NAPED CRANES (GRUS VIPIO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayhel, Laura; Aitken-Palmer, Copper; Joyner, Priscilla; Cray, Carolyn; Lizárraga, César Andrés; Ackerman, Betty; Crowe, Chris

    2015-12-01

    In this retrospective study, 36 hematologic and biochemistry samples from white-naped crane (Grus vipio) were analyzed. All birds were housed at a single institution, and samples were obtained between 1990 and 2013. All cranes were healthy at the time of sample collection, and ages ranged from 1 mo to 33 yr old. Cranes below 18 mo old were considered juveniles. Comparisons were made between means for juveniles and adults and for males and females. Significant increases in adults (P alkaline phosphatase (451 U/L), lactate dehydrogenase (149 U/L), and glucose (25 mg/dl). Results from adult male and female cranes were also compared; calcium levels were higher in females (4.68 mg/dl, P Plasma electrophoresis and radioimmunoassay for bile acids were performed on 25 banked serum or plasma samples; results from juvenile and adult samples were also compared. Significant increases in adult birds were found in total protein (1.2 g/dl, P < 0.05) and in all absolute values for all protein types; however, no difference was found when protein fractions were compared. Bile acids were found to decrease in adults (19.9 μM/L, P < 0.05). PMID:26667530

  18. A Review of the Biochemistry, Metabolism and Clinical Benefits of Thiamin(e and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Lonsdale

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thiamin(e, also known as vitamin B1, is now known to play a fundamental role in energy metabolism. Its discovery followed from the original early research on the ‘anti-beriberi factor’ found in rice polishings. After its synthesis in 1936, it led to many years of research to find its action in treating beriberi, a lethal scourge known for thousands of years, particularly in cultures dependent on rice as a staple. This paper refers to the previously described symptomatology of beriberi, emphasizing that it differs from that in pure, experimentally induced thiamine deficiency in human subjects. Emphasis is placed on some of the more unusual manifestations of thiamine deficiency and its potential role in modern nutrition. Its biochemistry and pathophysiology are discussed and some of the less common conditions associated with thiamine deficiency are reviewed. An understanding of the role of thiamine in modern nutrition is crucial in the rapidly advancing knowledge applicable to Complementary Alternative Medicine. References are given that provide insight into the use of this vitamin in clinical conditions that are not usually associated with nutritional deficiency. The role of allithiamine and its synthetic derivatives is discussed. Thiamine plays a vital role in metabolism of glucose. Thus, emphasis is placed on the fact that ingestion of excessive simple carbohydrates automatically increases the need for this vitamin. This is referred to as high calorie malnutrition.

  19. The biochemistry and epigenetics of epilepsy: focus on adenosine and glycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlev eBoison

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy, one of the most prevalent neurological conditions, presents as a complex disorder of network homeostasis characterized by spontaneous non-provoked seizures and associated comorbidities. Currently used antiepileptic drugs have been designed to suppress neuronal hyperexcitability and thereby to suppress epileptic seizures. However, the current armamentarium of antiepileptic drugs is not effective in over 30% of patients, does not affect the comorbidities of epilepsy, and does not prevent the development and progression of epilepsy (epileptogenesis. Prevention of epilepsy and its progression remains the Holy Grail for epilepsy research and therapy development, requiring novel conceptual advances to find a solution to this urgent medical need. The methylation hypothesis of epileptogenesis suggests that changes in DNA methylation are implicated in the progression of the disease. In particular, global DNA hypermethylation appears to be associated with chronic epilepsy. Clinical as well as experimental evidence demonstrates that epilepsy and its progression can be prevented by biochemical manipulations and those that target previously unrecognized epigenetic functions contributing to epilepsy development and maintenance of the epileptic state. This mini-review will discuss epigenetic mechanisms implicated in epileptogenesis and biochemical interactions between adenosine and glycine as a conceptual advance to understand the contribution of maladaptive changes in biochemistry as a major contributing factor to the development of epilepsy. New findings based on biochemical manipulation of the DNA methylome suggest that (i epigenetic mechanisms play a functional role in epileptogenesis, and (ii therapeutic reconstruction of the epigenome is an effective antiepileptogenic therapy.

  20. Immunocytochemistry of matrix proteins in calcified tissues: functional biochemistry on section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nanci

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The organic matrix of calcified tissues comprises collagenous and/or noncollagenous matrix proteins (NCPs. Identification and precise mapping of these matrix components is essential for determining their function, formulating coherent hypotheses on their mechanism(s of action, and developing novel therapeutic approaches based on biologics. Fibrillar collagen can be readily identified by its conspicuous structure, however, NCPs, in general, do not individually exhibit characteristic structural features that permit to identify them and morphologically determine their localization. To address this limitation, we have used immunocytochemistry, a form of “biochemistry on section”, to correlate composition with structure. For cytochemical characterizations, including immunolabeling, our laboratory has opted for colloidal gold labelings and pioneered their application to calcified tissues because they yield high spatial resolution and are quantitative. Over the years, this approach has been applied to identify and map various NCPs in bone and teeth and, in this review of our work, we will emphasize some selected studies that highlight it application to also achieve functional information.

  1. SUPPORTTING REGULAR AND ON-LINE BIOCHEMISTRY CLASSES USING INTERACTIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Dórea

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Interactive learning on the Web may be a way to partially supplement the classroom learning ex-perience by providing an interactive environment similar to the classroom but with more attentionto individual student needs. New computational resources are available every day, and these newtechnologies that help the understanding process can be popularized by free full access web sites, asBiochemical View. This site, available at http://www.unb.br/cbsp/bioq, was developed at Universityof Braslia (UnB to support Biochemistry classes of this and any other Universities, since its alsoavailable in an English version. The contents - that include the usual metabolic pathways referentto the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids and nucleic acids - are presented in bi andthree-dimensional formats, easily accessible and assimilable, complemented with objective texts anddescription of regulation points. Protocols for experimental classes, reference materials, and specicinformation about each molecule of all pathways are also available, including metabolic participationschemes of them. An evaluation form of the site is available on-line, developed using PHP. Besidesthe positives results, the suggestions collected in these evaluations since 2001 have been guiding theactualizations. So, the site is the result of students opinions and needs.

  2. Serum biochemistry and native protein electrophoresis in diarrheic calves with arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekcan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, serum biochemistry and native protein electrophoresis in newborn calves with diarrhea and arthritis, were performed in order to evaluate the changes along with clinical findings for their possible application in the diagnosis and prognosis of disease. Based on clinical examination, animals were allotied into two groups comprising either diseased or healthy animals. Urea, creatinine, ALT, AST, LDH, albumin, total protein, glucose, total cholesterol, uric acid and iron levels were determined in the sera. Serum protein native polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (nPAGE was performed followed by protein band ratio estimation supported with densitometry at 596 nm. Differences between the average mean of healthy and diseased animals were compared statistically (Kruskal-Walley test. In this study a decrease in serum glucose and cholesterol values (p<0.001, increase in urea, LDH levels and α1-and α2-globulin levels (p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively were found to be associated with the disease. As a result, the observed significant changes in biochemical parameters and clinical investigation in calves, suggesting acute inflammation causing the decrease in glucose and increase in α-globulins, may be of prognostic value.

  3. NMR Spectroscopy of Human Eye Tissues: A New Insight into Ocular Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kryczka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The human eye is a complex organ whose anatomy and functions has been described very well to date. Unfortunately, the knowledge of the biochemistry and metabolic properties of eye tissues varies. Our objective was to reveal the biochemical differences between main tissue components of human eyes. Methods. Corneas, irises, ciliary bodies, lenses, and retinas were obtained from cadaver globes 0-1/2 hours postmortem of 6 male donors (age: 44–61 years. The metabolic profile of tissues was investigated with HR MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. A total of 29 metabolites were assigned in the NMR spectra of the eye tissues. Significant differences between tissues were revealed in contents of the most distant eye-tissues, while irises and ciliary bodies showed minimal biochemical differences. ATP, acetate, choline, glutamate, lactate, myoinositol, and taurine were identified as the primary biochemical compounds responsible for differentiation of the eye tissues. Conclusions. In this study we showed for the first time the results of the analysis of the main human eye tissues with NMR spectroscopy. The biochemical contents of the selected tissues seemed to correspond to their primary anatomical and functional attributes, the way of the delivery of the nutrients, and the location of the tissues in the eye.

  4. Characterizing canopy biochemistry from imaging spectroscopy and its application to ecosystem studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, R.F.; Asner, G.P.; Ollinger, S.V.; Martin, M.E.; Wessman, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    For two decades, remotely sensed data from imaging spectrometers have been used to estimate non-pigment biochemical constituents of vegetation, including water, nitrogen, cellulose, and lignin. This interest has been motivated by the important role that these substances play in physiological processes such as photosynthesis, their relationships with ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition and nutrient cycling, and their use in identifying key plant species and functional groups. This paper reviews three areas of research to improve the application of imaging spectrometers to quantify non-pigment biochemical constituents of plants. First, we examine recent empirical and modeling studies that have advanced our understanding of leaf and canopy reflectance spectra in relation to plant biochemistry. Next, we present recent examples of how spectroscopic remote sensing methods are applied to characterize vegetation canopies, communities and ecosystems. Third, we highlight the latest developments in using imaging spectrometer data to quantify net primary production (NPP) over large geographic areas. Finally, we discuss the major challenges in quantifying non-pigment biochemical constituents of plant canopies from remotely sensed spectra.

  5. Value of standardised exercise tests and blood biochemistry in the selection and training of breeding stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Wensing, T; Barneveld, A; Breukink, H J

    1991-10-19

    Stallions selected by the Royal Dutch Warmblood Society were submitted to a standardised lungeing test at the beginning and at the end of a 100-day test of performance and ability. The heart rate, haematology and biochemistry values obtained in the first lungeing test showed no significant differences between the 15 stallions which were rejected by the Royal Dutch Warmblood Society during the first month of the 100-day test, the 15 stallions rejected during the last month and the 11 stallions which were approved for registration in the studbook. The 26 stallions submitted to the second lungeing test had significantly lower heart rates and blood lactate concentrations than in the first test. The standardised lungeing test had no value in predicting the rejection or approval of the stallions, and the fitness of a stallion at the beginning of the 100-day test did not influence its chance of being approved as a breeding stallion. The differences between the results of the first and the second tests suggest that the fitness of the stallions improved during the 100-day test. PMID:1759338

  6. Biological stoichiometry: a theoretical framework connecting ecosystem ecology, evolution, and biochemistry for application in astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, James J.

    2003-07-01

    Astrobiology is an extremely wide-ranging field and thus is in special need of conceptual and theoretical frameworks that can integrate its various arenas of study. In this paper I review recent work associated with a conceptual framework known as "ecological stoichiometry" and even more recent extensions in the development of "biological stoichiometry". Ecological stoichiometry is the study of the balance of energy and multiple chemical elements in ecological interactions and has developed rapidly in the study of nutrient cycling and energy flow in aquatic food webs. It identifies the elemental composition of interacting biota as central in understanding the nature of their interactions and dynamics, including key feedbacks via nutrient recycling. Biological stoichiometry extends this mode of thinking to all types of biological systems. It especially seeks to better understand, at the biochemical and genetic levels, the factors influencing the elemental composition of living things and the evolutionary forces that drive and constrain that elemental composition. By connecting key concepts of ecosystem ecology, evolutionary biology and biochemistry, stoichiometric theory integrates biological information into a more coherent whole that holds considerable promise for application in astrobiology. Several examples of potential astrobiological applications of stoichiometric analysis are offered, including ones related to pre-biotic evolution, the Cambrian explosion, biosignatures and biological feedbacks on planetary carbon cycling.

  7. Effect of pyrogallol on the physiology and biochemistry of litchi fruit during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guoxing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. fruit are highly perishable and have a very short shelf life, easily turning brown and decaying. This study investigated the efficiency of pyrogallol, a catechin on the physiology and biochemistry in relation to storage life of litchi fruit. Results Fruit were treated with pyrogallol at 1 mM and then stored at ambient temperature (25°C or low temperature (4°C. Compared with control, pyrogallol significantly reduced pericarp browning and delayed the rotting of fruit day 4 at 25°C, and on day 30 at 4°C. The chemical treatment reduced respiration rate and the activities of peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, and delayed the loss of membrane permeability. Pyrogallol increased the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, delayed the loss of anthocyanin and phenolics, and maintained high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrlhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. High performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC analysis clearly indicated that treated fruit contained higher concentration of the four phenolic compounds procyanidin B1, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin and (−-epicatechin-3-gallate. Conclusions The application of pyrogallol partially reducing pericarp browning and changed quality-related physiological activities and, thus, pyrogallol could have beneficial effects on pericarp browning and fruit decay control, and could be helpful for litchi fruit postharvest storage.

  8. The effect of artificial feed on blood biochemistry profile and liver histology of wild saddled bream, Oblada melanura (Sparidae)

    OpenAIRE

    FERRI, Josipa; Popović, Natalija Topić; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelinda; Beer-Ljubić, Blanka; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Škeljo, Frane; Jadan, Margita; Petrić, Mirela; Barišić, Josip; Šimpraga, Miljenko; Stanić, Rino

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Floating fish farms attract a great number of wild fish species, changing their behaviour and physiology. The saddled bream, Oblada melanura, sampled from populations aggregated around the Adriatic fish farm and from natural/control populations, were analysed for differences in eleven blood biochemistry parameters and liver histomorphology. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and urea (URE) in cage-associated saddled bream (428.00 ? SD 32...

  9. BIOCHEMISTRY ACADEMIC MONITORING: IT’S INFLUENCE ON TEACHING BACKGROUND AS A TEACHING-LEARNING PRACTICE COMPLEMENT TOOL

    OpenAIRE

    S. H.D. Ribeiro; A. G. Brito-Madurro

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring process is based on a strategy which propitiates interdisciplinary and gathering theory and practice, apart from teaching assistance, easing and increasing students learning, awakening the academic discipline’s interest and importance. The developed task held over the course of two academic consecutive semesters in 2014 on Biology Science Major at Federal University of Uberlândia had as a goal the use of diverse methodological alternatives in Biochemistry such as: basic bibliog...

  10. Development of a competency based training programme to support multidisciplinary working in a combined biochemistry/haematology laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, R.; Longmire, W; Galloway, M.; Smellie, W

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a competency based training programme to support multidisciplinary working in a combined biochemistry and haematology laboratory. The training programme was developed to document that staff were trained in the full range of laboratory tests that they were expected to perform. This programme subsequently formed the basis for the annual performance review of all staff. All staff successfully completed the first phase of the programme. This allowed laboratory...

  11. INTERACTIVE SEMINARS IN BIOCHEMISTRY DISCIPLINE FOR UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE IN BIOMEDICINE: BENEFITS AND PROBLEMS OF CARBOHYDRATES ASSOCIATED WITH MODERN LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    R. G.G. Pessoa et al

    2015-01-01

    The present project is part of the course in biochemistry for biomedical undergraduate students of the Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE, which comprises theoretical and practical classes and interactive seminars prepared by students on studied topics to supplement learning. The aim of this research was to encourage students to innovate their search for knowledge, presenting an interactive strategy to demonstrate the importance of carbohydrates, as well as other energy fuels, for underg...

  12. Practical class for Biochemistry discipline addressing the influence of thermal processes in the activity of lectins from leguminous plants

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Matte; Patrícia Idalina de Lemos Rodrigues; Daniela Pereira Stocher; Renata Wadenphul de Moraes; Ludymila Schulz Barroso; Priscila Silva Corrêa; Cristiane Matte

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are proteins highly expressed in leguminous plants, which are capable of specifically recognize and bind carbohydrates, including those found in the erythrocyte membrane. The process of cooking food rich in lectins, such as beans, peas and lentils; promote protein denaturation, losing the native structure, and consequently, the ability of carbohydrate binding. This study presents the development of a protocol for practice classes of Biochemistry, permitting an easy way to verify meani...

  13. Human Development V: Biochemistry Unable to Explain the Emergence of Biological Form (Morphogenesis) and Therefore a New Principle as Source of Biological Information is Needed

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Ventegodt; Tyge Dahl Hermansen; Trine Flensborg-Madsen; Maj Lyck Nielsen; Birgitte Clausen; Joav Merrick

    2006-01-01

    Today's biomedicine builds on the conviction that biochemistry can explain the creation of the body, its anatomy and physiology. Unfortunately there are still deep mysteries strangely “fighting back” when we try to define and understand the organism and its creation in the ontogenesis as emerging from biochemistry. In analysing this from a theoretical perspective using a mathematical model focusing on the noise in complex chemical systems we argue that evolving biological structure cannot in ...

  14. Physiology, Biochemistry, and Applications of F420- and Fo-Dependent Redox Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Chris; Ahmed, F Hafna; Mohamed, A Elaaf; Lee, Brendon M; Pandey, Gunjan; Warden, Andrew C; Scott, Colin; Oakeshott, John G; Taylor, Matthew C; Jackson, Colin J

    2016-06-01

    5-Deazaflavin cofactors enhance the metabolic flexibility of microorganisms by catalyzing a wide range of challenging enzymatic redox reactions. While structurally similar to riboflavin, 5-deazaflavins have distinctive and biologically useful electrochemical and photochemical properties as a result of the substitution of N-5 of the isoalloxazine ring for a carbon. 8-Hydroxy-5-deazaflavin (Fo) appears to be used for a single function: as a light-harvesting chromophore for DNA photolyases across the three domains of life. In contrast, its oligoglutamyl derivative F420 is a taxonomically restricted but functionally versatile cofactor that facilitates many low-potential two-electron redox reactions. It serves as an essential catabolic cofactor in methanogenic, sulfate-reducing, and likely methanotrophic archaea. It also transforms a wide range of exogenous substrates and endogenous metabolites in aerobic actinobacteria, for example mycobacteria and streptomycetes. In this review, we discuss the physiological roles of F420 in microorganisms and the biochemistry of the various oxidoreductases that mediate these roles. Particular focus is placed on the central roles of F420 in methanogenic archaea in processes such as substrate oxidation, C1 pathways, respiration, and oxygen detoxification. We also describe how two F420-dependent oxidoreductase superfamilies mediate many environmentally and medically important reactions in bacteria, including biosynthesis of tetracycline and pyrrolobenzodiazepine antibiotics by streptomycetes, activation of the prodrugs pretomanid and delamanid by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and degradation of environmental contaminants such as picrate, aflatoxin, and malachite green. The biosynthesis pathways of Fo and F420 are also detailed. We conclude by considering opportunities to exploit deazaflavin-dependent processes in tuberculosis treatment, methane mitigation, bioremediation, and industrial biocatalysis. PMID:27122598

  15. The Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Physiology of Human Steroidogenesis and Its Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchus, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Steroidogenesis entails processes by which cholesterol is converted to biologically active steroid hormones. Whereas most endocrine texts discuss adrenal, ovarian, testicular, placental, and other steroidogenic processes in a gland-specific fashion, steroidogenesis is better understood as a single process that is repeated in each gland with cell-type-specific variations on a single theme. Thus, understanding steroidogenesis is rooted in an understanding of the biochemistry of the various steroidogenic enzymes and cofactors and the genes that encode them. The first and rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis is the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone by a single enzyme, P450scc (CYP11A1), but this enzymatically complex step is subject to multiple regulatory mechanisms, yielding finely tuned quantitative regulation. Qualitative regulation determining the type of steroid to be produced is mediated by many enzymes and cofactors. Steroidogenic enzymes fall into two groups: cytochrome P450 enzymes and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. A cytochrome P450 may be either type 1 (in mitochondria) or type 2 (in endoplasmic reticulum), and a hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may belong to either the aldo-keto reductase or short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase families. The activities of these enzymes are modulated by posttranslational modifications and by cofactors, especially electron-donating redox partners. The elucidation of the precise roles of these various enzymes and cofactors has been greatly facilitated by identifying the genetic bases of rare disorders of steroidogenesis. Some enzymes not principally involved in steroidogenesis may also catalyze extraglandular steroidogenesis, modulating the phenotype expected to result from some mutations. Understanding steroidogenesis is of fundamental importance to understanding disorders of sexual differentiation, reproduction, fertility, hypertension, obesity, and physiological homeostasis. PMID:21051590

  16. Learning of Biochemistry and Cell Biology: Case Study of the School of Physiotherapy from ONCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.T.L.P. Gonçalves,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Teaching biomedical disciplines for students with disabilities in highereducation is considered a major challenge, especially when it comes to the curriculum, themethods and the resources. In Brazil there are few reports on how the processes ofteaching and learning biomedical disciplines in higher education are conducted. In Spain,since the 70’s the School of Physiotherapy from the National Organization of Spanish blindpeople (ONCE offers exclusively for students with disabilities undergraduate degree inPhysiotherapy, as well as many post graduation courses in biomedicine. Thus, the aim ofthis study was to verify in situ what were the resources and methods used by theprofessors of biochemistry and cell biology to teach their students with visual impairments.Material and Methods: Technical visits were conducted using the following instruments tocollect the data: Unstructured interviews with teachers, students and staff (audio-recordedand later transcribed and classroom observation using photographs and reports. Thedata generated by the interviews were analyzed by the discourse analysis.Discussion and results: Reports indicated that the main methodological resources are:embossed boards made with Swell paper and with the help of an oven called Ricohfuser®; commercially sold models of cells and body structures; the technique of descriptivediscourse where the professor describes an image to be studied, individual touchtechniques where the professor shows an image using the touch of the student. It wasobserved that certain sectors inside the school are especially distinguished. Overall, theschool does not present any other routine different from a regular school, and according tothe professors, it happens intentionally, so that the future professionals are able to work inenvironments not adapted for their needs.Conclusion: The observed adjustments in the school of physiotherapy at ONCE could beseen as an example for Brazilian

  17. Blood cell characteristic, hematological and serum biochemistry values of Painted Stork (Mycteria leucocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapol Aengwanich

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood cell characteristics, hematological and serum biochemistry values were examined in 10 mature healthy Painted Storks (Mycteria leucocephala (5 males and 5 females from Khow Khoew Open Zoo, Chonburi province, Thailand. The morphology of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes were similar to those of other avian species, but oval shaped granules of heterophils were less stained by Giemsa-Wright solution. Erythrocytes, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cells, percentage of leukocytes (lymphocyte, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, thrombocytes, serum glucose, serum creatinine, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase values of Painted Storks were 3.24 + 0.82 106cells / μl, 0.82 106cells /μl, 17.67 + 1.56 g/dl, 42.40 + 3.57 %, 139.47 + 38.70 fl, 58.56 + 18.24 g/dl, 41.76 + 2.90 pg, 3.88 + 2.60 104cells /μl, 76.10 + 10.28 %, 10.60 + 9.49 %, 0.00 + 0.00 %, 12.00 + 8.54 %, 1.00 + 1.33 %, and 1.29 + 0.42104cells /μl, 270.50 + 42.85 mg/dl, 6.19 + 1.70 mg/dl, 249.47 + 42.19 IU/L and 124.29 + 8.81 IU/L, respectively. Total erythrocytes and mean corpuscular volume (MCV differed significantly between male and female Painted Stork (P < 0.05.

  18. On the Radiative Transfer Based Remote Sensing of Forest Structure and Leaf Biochemistry (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazikhin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    invariant approach and illustrate its application for retrieving canopy structural information and leaf albedo from remote sensing. The latter is the only optical variable that conveys information about leaf properties such as pigment concentrations, other chemical constituents and internal structures and therefore is directly related to leaf biochemistry.

  19. A 9-hour biochemistry exam. An iron man competition or a good way of evaluating undergraduate students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre B. Sé

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work we discus sed the capability of peer-tutors to write good true-or-fals e biochemistryexams (Sé et al. Are tutor-students capable of writing good biochemistry exams? SBBq 2004, abstractK-18. We are currently reporting the experience of 12 semesters in which a pair of peer-tutors ,coordinated by a professor, write a discursive exam. It has themes like obesity, cholesterol, diabetesand alimentation as de scribed in Passos et al, A lunch of pizza and pasta used for the learning ofmetabolic biochemistry, SBBq 2003, abstract K-10. The themes are chosen basedon 2 articles fromimportant international journals , such as the American Journal of Physiology. These articles have beenpreviously discussed in an Advanced Biochemistry class with all peer-tutors and the professor. Thequestions are base di practical situations, ac cording to what was exposed previously in a text, whichis written by the peer-tutors and base don the articles. The focus of the exam is the discussion of thesituation exposed and the development of a line of thoughts instead of just memorizing biochemic alconcepts . In order to facilitate this process, the students are divided in pairs to answer the questions(the y must have a di? erence in the previous exam grade lower than 1.3. They are allowed to bringbooks and class notes to the test to help the discussion. To avoid the rush and let the students discussand think freely, the y have 9 hours to do the exam . During this period, we evaluated the qualityof the 9-h-examby a survey at the end of it. When asked to give a 0-to- 4 score re garding (a thedi? culty level of the exam (4 m ean ve ry hard, (b if the exams makes an appropriate evaluation ofbiochemical knowledge (4 m ean it do e s (c if the exams make you re ason ab out applied biochemistry(4 me an it do es , the scores were 3.14, 3.61 and 3.82 respective ly (n=469. Our survey show thestudents good acceptance of the 9- h-e xam. The grades along 12 semesters have

  20. The effect of stress and exercise on post-mortem biochemistry of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, P.M.; Pankhurst, N.W.; Bremner, Allan

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss responded similarly to increase in water flow (exercise), reduction in holding tank water level (stress), or 30 min chasing with water level reduction (stress and exercise). Stress generally resulted in elevated plasma c...... stress and exercise, results in mostly transient changes in post-mortem muscle biochemistry. These changes lead to an earlier onset and resolution of rigor, and lower post-mortem muscle pH in comparison to the control. (C) 1999 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  1. Effects of natural blend of essential oil on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, F; Ronchi, A; Castelli, P; Sparks, N

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of a novel commercial preparation of natural blend of essential oils from basil, caraway, laurel, lemon, oregano, sage, tea, and thyme (Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL) on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broilers. Six nutritionally adequate wheat and soybean-based diets were generated by the addition of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 g/t of feed. The diets were fed as crumbs in the starter phase (d 0-10) and as pellets during the grower (d 10-24) and finisher (d 24-42) phases. Nine hundred sixty 1-d-old chicks were allocated to the 6 dietary treatments each having 8 replicate pens with 20 birds per pen. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA with a P feed to gain ratio compared with the control group during grower phase and overall performance. The blood biochemistry results showed no differences (P > 0.05) between treatments. The carcass weight, breast weight, and relative percentage of breast meat increased (P feed was optimum for enhancing breast meat yield and nutrient utilization as indicated by increased (P < 0.05) cecal villus surface area. PMID:24570432

  2. "生物化学"微考核模式初探%Micro Assessment Model of "Biochemistry"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏银萍; 周小萍

    2015-01-01

    "Biochemistry"is a biological, medical, food and other related professional required courses, and curriculum con-tent system complex, covering a broad area, is"teaching"and"learning"the dilemma of course major colleges and universi-ties, traditional assessment methods for acceptance Vocational College students relatively weak in terms of malpractice more paper,"biochemistry"micro-assessment model to explore, from the theoretical content of memory assessment, process as-sessment techniques to practice, to learn the attitude of the real-time assessment, sub-module step by step gradually, the more significant results in terms of the traditional appraisal.%"生物化学"是生物、医学、食品等相关专业的必修课程,而课程内容体系复杂、涵盖面广,是各大高校的"教"与"学"的两难课程,传统的考核方式对于接受能力相对较弱的高职院校学生而言弊端较多,本文对"生物化学的"微考核模式进行探索,从理论内容记忆考核、到实践技术过程考核、到学习态度实时考核,分模块分步骤逐步进行,较传统考核而言成效显著.

  3. A QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE DIDACTIC ACTING OF THE TUTORS INVOLVED IN THE PROGRAM OF TUTORIA IN BIOCHEMISTRY AT UFV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Damasceno

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tutorial Program in Biochemistry is part of a Program of Didactic Support atUFV that intends to give academic-pedagogic support to students that arrived tothe UFV with deficiency of previous knowledge in basic areas of the sciences. Thetutors are under-graduated students chosen by public selection. The present workseeks to evaluate the tutors of the biochemistry area as for the aspects publicspeaking, didacticism and satisfaction of the tutor and of the students assisted bythe program. Two questionnaires were applied, one to the tutors and one to theunder-graduated assisted-students. The totality of the tutors answered that theparticipation in this program contributes professionally by increasing the capacityof relationship in group, dynamism, decisions and organization, helped them to bemore extroverted and they felt satisfied to help other people, which characteristicsthat are more and more appraised in the job market. The evaluation showed alsothat the ability to express in public developed positively and improved the diction,presenting safety when speaking in public. The tutors also opened your vision onthe teaching form in the University, a positive result, considering their positions ofstudent in one public university.

  4. Changes of blood biochemistry in the rabbit animal model in atherosclerosis research; a time- or stress-effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsantila Nektaria

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabbits are widely used in biomedical research and especially as animal models in atherosclerosis studies. Blood biochemistry is used to monitor progression of disease, before final evaluation including pathology of arteries and organs. The aim of the present study was to assess the consistency of the biochemical profile of New Zealand White rabbits on standard diet from 3 to 6 months of age, during which they are often used experimentally. Methods and results Eight conventional male 3-month-old New Zealand White rabbits were used. Blood samples were taken at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 months later. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol concentrations, and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase activities and malondialdehyde were measured. Statistically significant time-related changes were observed in glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol, which were not correlated with aortic lesions at 6 months of age. Similarly, hepatic enzyme activity had significant time-related changes, without a corresponding liver pathology. Conclusions Age progression and stress due to single housing may be the underlying reasons for these biochemistry changes. These early changes, indicative of metabolic alterations, should be taken into account even in short-term lipid/atherosclerosis studies, where age and standard diet are not expected to have an effect on the control group of a study.

  5. Biochemistry-directed hollow porous microspheres: bottom-up self-assembled polyanion-based cathodes for sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bo; Li, Qiufeng; Liu, Baodong; Zhang, Sen; Deng, Chao

    2016-04-01

    Biochemistry-directed synthesis of functional nanomaterials has attracted great interest in energy storage, catalysis and other applications. The unique ability of biological systems to guide molecule self-assembling facilitates the construction of distinctive architectures with desirable physicochemical characteristics. Herein, we report a biochemistry-directed ``bottom-up'' approach to construct hollow porous microspheres of polyanion materials for sodium ion batteries. Two kinds of polyanions, i.e. Na3V2(PO4)3 and Na3.12Fe2.44(P2O7)2, are employed as cases in this study. The microalgae cell realizes the formation of a spherical ``bottom'' bio-precursor. Its tiny core is subjected to destruction and its tough shell tends to carbonize upon calcination, resulting in the hollow porous microspheres for the ``top'' product. The nanoscale crystals of the polyanion materials are tightly enwrapped by the highly-conductive framework in the hollow microsphere, resulting in the hierarchical nano-microstructure. The whole formation process is disclosed as a ``bottom-up'' mechanism. Moreover, the biochemistry-directed self-assembly process is confirmed to play a crucial role in the construction of the final architecture. Taking advantage of the well-defined hollow-microsphere architecture, the abundant interior voids and the highly-conductive framework, polyanion materials show favourable sodium-intercalation kinetics. Both materials are capable of high-rate long-term cycling. After five hundred cycles at 20 C and 10 C, Na3V2(PO4)3 and Na3.12Fe2.44(P2O7)2 retain 96.2% and 93.1% of the initial capacity, respectively. Therefore, the biochemistry-directed technique provides a low-cost, highly-efficient and widely applicable strategy to produce high-performance polyanion-based cathodes for sodium ion batteries.Biochemistry-directed synthesis of functional nanomaterials has attracted great interest in energy storage, catalysis and other applications. The unique ability of

  6. Structural Studies of Phycobiliproteins from Spirulina: Combining Spectroscopy, Thermodynamics, and Molecular Modeling in an Undergraduate Biochemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann T. S.; Feller, Scott E.

    2002-12-01

    Molecular modeling provides a powerful mechanism for students to connect molecular-level structural changes with macroscopically observable properties. We describe an experiment that integrates spectroscopy, thermodynamics, and molecular modeling into a single activity examining structural changes in phycobiliproteins upon denaturation with urea. Phycobiliproteins contain a covalently attached chromophore, phycocyanobilin, which is constrained in a planar conformation by the folded protein. Upon denaturation of the protein, the chromophore undergoes a conformational change, leading to a significant alteration of the absorption spectrum. By measuring the absorbance at 625 nm as a function of urea concentration, the free energy of unfolding can be determined. Students determine the dihedral angles in the chromophore and map the contacts between protein and chromophore using Protein Explorer, a structure visualization program freely available on the Internet. The change in absorption wavelength can be related to the difference between the LUMO and HOMO energies, obtained using PC Spartan Pro, for the chromophore in the folded and unfolded phycobiliprotein. This experiment could be used in a physical chemistry class in a curriculum that integrates biochemistry throughout the course work as well as in a traditional biochemistry course. Featured on the Cover

  7. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  8. Chronic effect of waterborne colloidal silver nanoparticles on plasma biochemistry and hematology of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Ali Johari; Mohammad Reza Kalbassi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on some blood and plasma indices of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Methods: Hence, fish were exposed for 21 days to sub-lethal concentrations of colloidal AgNPs and blood parameters including erythrocyte size and hematocrit, plasma parameters including cholinesterase, cortisol, sodium, chloride, and potassium, and also silver concentration in plasma were measured following the 11th and 21st days of exposure. Results:According to the results of present study, higher concentrations of AgNPs had more significant effects on plasma biochemistry and hematology of trout. The greatest impacts were decline of chloride ions and increase of cortisol and cholinesterase. Also fish exposed to AgNPs significantly increased silver concentration in the plasma. Conclusions:Further studies are needed to identify appropriate blood biomarkers following fish exposed to nanomaterials, especially AgNPs.

  9. Chronic effect of waterborne colloidal silver nanoparticles on plasma biochemistry and hematology of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Johari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the possible effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on some blood and plasma indices of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Methods: Hence, fish were exposed for 21 days to sub-lethal concentrations of colloidal AgNPs and blood parameters including erythrocyte size and hematocrit, plasma parameters including cholinesterase, cortisol, sodium, chloride, and potassium, and also silver concentration in plasma were measured following the 11th and 21st days of exposure. Results: According to the results of present study, higher concentrations of AgNPs had more significant effects on plasma biochemistry and hematology of trout. The greatest impacts were decline of chloride ions and increase of cortisol and cholinesterase. Also fish exposed to AgNPs significantly increased silver concentration in the plasma. Conclusions: Further studies are needed to identify appropriate blood biomarkers following fish exposed to nanomaterials, especially AgNPs.

  10. The effect of stress and exercise on post-mortem biochemistry of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, P.M.; Pankhurst, N.W.; Bremner, Allan

    1999-01-01

    cortisol, above the control. Fish responded to stress and exercise combined, with elevated lactate and [H+] which was sometimes associated with elevated plasma cortisol. These changes were combined with a depletion of the muscle adenylate pool. Post-mortem, this resulted in an increase in the rate of onset...... of rigor, and a higher and sometimes sustained muscle proton load. Both species produced predominantly inosine as opposed to hypoxanthine, for up to 72 h of ice storage. This study shows that the physiological disruption in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout caused by simulated harvest conditions of...... stress and exercise, results in mostly transient changes in post-mortem muscle biochemistry. These changes lead to an earlier onset and resolution of rigor, and lower post-mortem muscle pH in comparison to the control. (C) 1999 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  11. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry values for endangered red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) at wintering and migratory sites in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Verónica L; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Baker, Allan J; González, Patricia M

    2010-04-01

    We obtained hematologic and plasma biochemistry values for adult, long-distance migrant Red Knots at their southernmost wintering site in Río Grande (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) and at the first stopover site in San Antonio Oeste (Río Negro, Argentina). Lymphocytes (L) followed by heterophils (H) were the most abundant leukocytes. H/L ratio and glucose levels were significantly higher at Río Grande, possibly because of the stress of migration and molting. Packed cell volume results ranged widely, probably in response to increased oxygen demand for migration. Protein profiles and lipids were higher at the stopover site and attributable to birds storing reserves for subsequent flights. PMID:20688666

  12. Practical class for Biochemistry discipline addressing the influence of thermal processes in the activity of lectins from leguminous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Matte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are proteins highly expressed in leguminous plants, which are capable of specifically recognize and bind carbohydrates, including those found in the erythrocyte membrane. The process of cooking food rich in lectins, such as beans, peas and lentils; promote protein denaturation, losing the native structure, and consequently, the ability of carbohydrate binding. This study presents the development of a protocol for practice classes of Biochemistry, permitting an easy way to verify meaningful results, allowing the demonstration of haemagglutinating properties presented by lectins in their native structure, and lost after food thermic treatment. Different ways of cooking were used in order to demonstrate to Nutrition undergraduate students what methodologies are suitable for consumption.

  13. Crawling and turning in a minimal reaction-diffusion cell motility model: coupling cell shape and biochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Camley, Brian A; Li, Bo; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2016-01-01

    We study a minimal model of a crawling eukaryotic cell with a chemical polarity controlled by a reaction-diffusion mechanism describing Rho GTPase dynamics. The size, shape, and speed of the cell emerge from the combination of the chemical polarity, which controls the locations where actin polymerization occurs, and the physical properties of the cell, including its membrane tension. We find in our model both highly persistent trajectories, in which the cell crawls in a straight line, and turning trajectories, where the cell transitions from crawling in a line to crawling in a circle. We discuss the controlling variables for this turning instability, and argue that turning arises from a coupling between the reaction-diffusion mechanism and the shape of the cell. This emphasizes the surprising features that can arise from simple links between cell mechanics and biochemistry. Our results suggest that similar instabilities may be present in a broad class of biochemical descriptions of cell polarity.

  14. BIOCHEMISTRY ACADEMIC MONITORING: IT’S INFLUENCE ON TEACHING BACKGROUND AS A TEACHING-LEARNING PRACTICE COMPLEMENT TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H.D. Ribeiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring process is based on a strategy which propitiates interdisciplinary and gathering theory and practice, apart from teaching assistance, easing and increasing students learning, awakening the academic discipline’s interest and importance. The developed task held over the course of two academic consecutive semesters in 2014 on Biology Science Major at Federal University of Uberlândia had as a goal the use of diverse methodological alternatives in Biochemistry such as: basic bibliography’s comprehension support, approaching and integration mechanism from the content to learner’s reality, meetings to feedback pre-assessment valuation, constructive debates, conceptual issues and questioning in order to clarify any doubts from the content discussed, besides the supervisor’s assistance in practical classes. The resources used to this approach were the student’s analysis to monitoring, their performances on the subject and the approval, retention and evasion levels at the end of the semesters. The obtained results have shown a high level of approval on both semesters, combined to decreasing level of evasion and retention. It was possible to clarify that on the discipline´s development the increasing search for monitoring as much as the complexity´s raise from some contents as the interest and curiosity in knowing certain methods used in monitoring. Improving on student´s performance and arguing on written evaluation also were noticed. The obtained results also proved that diverse methodological alternatives in Biochemistry are potential strategies in maximizing the approval levels in that discipline and bring the student close to the content in a dynamic way, supporting to a better knowledge development in the subject. Monitoring can also be a mean to stimulate the interest in teaching.

  15. Design and Development of Microcontroller-Based Clinical Chemistry Analyser for Measurement of Various Blood Biochemistry Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase, amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase, and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments.

  16. INTERACTIVE SEMINARS IN BIOCHEMISTRY DISCIPLINE FOR UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE IN BIOMEDICINE: BENEFITS AND PROBLEMS OF CARBOHYDRATES ASSOCIATED WITH MODERN LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G.G. Pessoa et al

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present project is part of the course in biochemistry for biomedical undergraduate students of the Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE, which comprises theoretical and practical classes and interactive seminars prepared by students on studied topics to supplement learning. The aim of this research was to encourage students to innovate their search for knowledge, presenting an interactive strategy to demonstrate the importance of carbohydrates, as well as other energy fuels, for undergraduates students attending classes of biochemistry at the first semester at the university, in order to clarify the importance of maintaining a healthy way of life. The methodology used was a field research, documented in videos in which the opinions of a few people were registered in different places, such as in a fast-food restaurant, on the importance of carbohydrates. Records acquired were associated with a slide presentation on the subject, based on scientific books and articles, which were presented to the students of the discipline. It was also developed a dynamic to illustrate the consumption of carbohydrates in daily life and in different situations. After the project exhibition, a review of the research was conducted to the audience to express innovations or additions to their pre-existing concepts, on consumption of carbohydrates. The results of our work were very promising and the main goal of the project was achieved, since 88.2% of the respondents said there was an improvement in their knowledge, both theoretical and practical, on the subject, while only 11.8% reported no improvement at all. In conclusion, there was a greater involvement of students during the presentation of the subject and a higher participation during the group dynamic on the consumption of carbohydrates.

  17. Acceptance of Clickers in a Large Multimodal Biochemistry Class as Determined by Student Evaluations of Teaching: Are They Just an Annoying Distraction for Distance Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Nathan. G.; Soares da Costa, Tatiana P.

    2016-01-01

    A student response system (clickers) was introduced into a second year introductory biochemistry class to improve student engagement and performance. The class was delivered in both internal and distance education (DE) modes, with the DE students receiving recordings of the lectures (including clicker activities). However, there was concern over…

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, and Secondary Structure Determination of a Silk-Inspired, Self-Assembling Peptide: A Laboratory Exercise for Organic and Biochemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Tyler J.; Fry, Melany M.; Murphy, Amanda R.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory experiment gives upper-division organic or biochemistry undergraduate students a comprehensive look at the synthesis, chemical characterization, self-assembly, and secondary structure determination of small, N-acylated peptides inspired by the protein structure of silkworm silk. All experiments can be completed in one 4 h lab…

  19. The effect of hybridization on fish physiology, immunity and blood biochemistry: A case study in hybridizing Cyprinus carpio and Carassius gibelio (Cyprinidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, A.; Vojtek, L.; Halačka, Karel; Hyršl, P.; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 435, č. 1 (2015), s. 381-389. ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hybridization * Cyprinids * Blood biochemistry * Hematology * Immunity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.878, year: 2014

  20. The Concentration Dependence of the (Delta)s Term in the Gibbs Free Energy Function: Application to Reversible Reactions in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Ronald K.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy function is described in relation to its application to reversible reactions in biochemistry. An intuitive and non-mathematical argument for the concentration dependence of the (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy equation is derived and the applicability of the equation to…

  1. Variation in Student Reflections on Their Conceptions of and Approaches to Learning Biochemistry in a First-Year Health Sciences' Service Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasian-Batmanian, Laura C.; Lingard, Jennifer; Prosser, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Many factors affect students' learning approaches, including topic conceptions and prior study. This research, undertaken after a first-semester compulsory subject, explores students' conceptions of biochemistry and how they approached their studies. Students (n=151) completed an open-ended survey analysed phenomenographically. Those with cohesive…

  2. Preparation, Purification, and Secondary Structure Determination of Bacillus Circulans Xylanase. A Molecular Laboratory Incorporating Aspects of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Biophysical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Sal; Gentile, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    A project module designed for biochemistry or cellular and molecular biology student which involves determining the secondary structure of Bacillus circulans xylanase (BCX) by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under conditions that compromise its stabilizing intramolecular forces is described. The lab model enhanced students knowledge of the…

  3. Cancer Biochemistry and Host-Tumor Interactions: A Decimal Classification, (Categories 51.6, 51.7, and 51.8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, John H.

    This is a hierarchical decimal classification of information related to cancer biochemistry, to host-tumor interactions (including cancer immunology), and to occurrence of cancer in special types of animals and plants. It is a working draft of categories taken from an extensive classification of many fields of biomedical information. Because the…

  4. Results of a National Survey of Biochemistry Instructors to Determine the Prevalence and Types of Representations Used during Instruction and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Chemists and chemistry educators have long sought meaningful ways to visualize fundamentally abstract components, such as atoms and molecules, of their trade. As technology has improved, computer-based visualization methods have infused both research and education in chemistry. Biochemistry, in particular, has become highly dependent on ways that…

  5. Using Optimal Combination of Teaching-Learning Methods (Open Book Assignment and Group Tutorials) as Revision Exercises to Improve Learning Outcome in Low Achievers in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H.; Suryapriya, R.; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B.; Revathy, G.; Priyadarssini, M.

    2016-01-01

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving…

  6. Using the Computer Game "FoldIt" to Entice Students to Explore External Representations of Protein Structure in a Biochemistry Course for Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach to teaching novice Biochemistry students visual literacy skills and understanding of some aspects of protein structure using the internet resource FoldIt and a worksheet based on selected Introductory Puzzles from this computer game. In responding to a questionnaire, students indicated that they (94%)…

  7. Research and Teaching: Exploring the Use of an Online Quiz Game to Provide Formative Feedback in a Large-Enrollment, Introductory Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Rachel; Parrish, Jonathan; Wright, Adrienne; Gnarpe, Judy; Keenan, Louanne

    2015-01-01

    In a large-enrollment, introductory biochemistry course for nonmajors, the authors provide students with formative feedback through practice questions in PDF format. Recently, they investigated possible benefits of providing the practice questions via an online game (Brainspan). Participants were randomly assigned to either the online game group…

  8. Assessment of HIV-1 patient recruitability in the Republic of Guinea-Bissau using African versus North American hematology and biochemistry reference intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Román, Victor Raúl; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Leo-Hansen, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Hematology and biochemistry reference intervals have been derived from healthy, HIV-negative populations to guide clinical trials worldwide. However, it is less clear how such values may be applied to clinical trials involving HIV-infected individuals. We show that contradictory interpretations...

  9. What Do Biochemistry Students Pay Attention to in External Representations of Protein Translation? Tthe Case of the Shine-Dalgarno Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Thomas J.; Orgill, MaryKay

    2015-01-01

    Biochemistry instructors often use external representations--ranging from static diagrams to dynamic animations and from simplistic, stylized illustrations to more complex, realistic presentations--to help their students visualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. However, relatively little is known about how…

  10. The Development of Biochemistry Textbooks in Chinese Universities%国内高校生物化学教材发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 闫旭宇; 张敏

    2014-01-01

    通过对国内生物化学教材发展历程的研究,结合当前国内外生物化学的发展趋势和高校本科生教学特点,对生物化学教材的编写和改革提出几点建议,为培养具有生物化学基本知识和创新实践能力的高素质综合性人才提供参考。%Through the investigation upon the developmental course of biochemistry textbooks in China , combined with the trends of the domestic and foreign outstanding biochemistry and the characteristic of un-dergraduates teaching, we hope that we can provide several suggestions for the compilation and reform in bio-chemistry textbook, and bring valuable reference to the cultivation of high-quality comprehensive talented personnel with basic biochemistry knowledge and innovative practical ability.

  11. Symposium 20 - PABMB: Teaching biochemistry in a connected world: KEEPING 3D RESOURCES IN THE WEB TO LEARN ON PROTEIN STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Herrera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Symposium 20 - PABMB: Teaching biochemistry in a connected world Chair: Miguel Castanho, Universidade de Lisboa, PortugalAbstract:The new paradigm of higher education requires new teaching strategies to meet the learning objectives of biochemistry courses. Teaching biochemistry in the current state of science and society requires a special motivation for learning, especially for students of degrees other than Biochemistry. The traditional way of teaching, based on the teacher-student relationship, mostly unidirectional, does not fulfil the needs imposed in this era. Considering the current situation universities students require new abilities in their training and the use of computers can constitute a place for discovery and research, enabling the experience of new and diverse situations. The design of teaching material for undergraduate students who take biochemistry courses as complementary subject on their careers should be seen as an opportunity to complement theoretical aspects on the current courses. Three different approaches could be used: (I a description of the basic concepts, like in a book but using dynamics figures. (II Modelling proteins highlighting key motifs at the three-dimensional structure and residues where inhibitors can be attached. And (III elaborating active quizzes where students can be driven on their learning. Building knowledge based on practical experience can improve student competences on basic science and the learning process can be complemented in the use of dynamics models. On the other hand, exploring protein structures from the web could give students a better comprehension of residues interaction and non-covalent forces involved in protein-protein or protein-ligand interaction. The use of dynamic models improves the comprehension of protein structure and their special link to amino acids residues or ligands. This work was supported by Anillo ACT1110 project. Key Words: protein structure, 3D source, learning

  12. Training in radioprotection at undergraduate and postgraduate level at the school of pharmacy and biochemistry, Buenos Aires University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advancement of knowledge in physics studies, medicine, pharmacology, cell biology and other disciplines that take place during the last 60 years is principally due to radioisotopes techniques. For this reason, the importance to teach radioisotopes methodologies at undergraduate and postgraduate levels kept growing. At the same time it was necessary to harmonize the use of these methodologies with environmental preservation. The School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires offers four different Courses on Methodology of Radioisotopes in which the Radiological Protection is focalized under different aspects: 1) A Course for students in the Biochemistry Cycle; 2) A Course for post-Graduate in Medicine, Biochemistry, Biology, Chemists or other disciplines related to the health. 3) Another one for professionals wishing to up-date their knowledge; and finally, 4) one for Technicians in Nuclear Medicine and/or Biomedicine. The aims for teaching Radiological Protection are different for the four levels; in 1), the subject was done from 1960, (optional or mandatory) and with a arrived number of students. In some aspects the teaching of radioprotection is formative and in others informative, because the approval of the a signature does not habitable to ask from the Nuclear Regulatory Authority the authorization to work with radioactive material; in 2), the Course begun in 1962 and 1520 professionals have approved it. In this case the training in radioprotection aspects is theoretical and practical and very intensive, encompassing: dosimetric magnitudes and units, internal and external dosimetry of 125I, 131I, 201Tl, 99MTc, 60Co and other isotopes, qualification of area, working conditions, contamination barriers, shielding; justification, optimization and dose limits; radioactive wastes; legal aspects; national and international legislation. The intensity of the training is in accord with that required by each professional and their speciality

  13. The Influence of the Tutorial activity in the academic, didactic and social development of the tutors of biochemistry at UFV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Baracat-Pereira

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The Tutorial Program  in Biochemistry, implemented at UFV in 2000, is characterized by the actuation of the  students as tutors, seeking to level the  prior  knowledge among students of biochemistry.  The tutors, official or volunteer,  are under graduated students (tutor I and post-graduated students (tutor II. The  aim of this  study  was to show the  profile of a tutor of biochemistry and  its influence in his academic,  didactic  and  social development.  A questionnaire of 31 questions  was answered  by tutors that acted  between  2000 and  2004, and  the  main  comments  were detached.   From  29 tutors  who frequented  the program  during the period (5 tutors II and 24 tutors I, 19 answered the questionnaire. The  average  time  of permanence  of the tutors in  this  program  was  9 months,  varying  from  4 to28 months.   Fourteen from the  19 students that worked  as tutors chose to  act  in the  program  for the  possibility  of teaching  and  also helped  them  to  be more  extroverted and  they  felt satisfied  to help other  people which contributes effectively for the  training of the  ones who want to  follow the academic career.  It also contributes professionally by increasing the capacity of relationship in group, dynamism,  decisions and  organization, characteristics that are more and more appraised  in the  job market.    It  was verified that the  studies  of the  tutors were modified  by  the  necessity  of preparing the  classes because  to teach,  you need to understand the subject  and  you need to present  it to the student in the best way, you have to consider the life and the previous knowledge of the student. To all of them,  the  program  helped them  to improve  the oratory  and  your organization and  develops a sense of professional  responsibility, assiduity  and  punctuality.  In general,  the

  14. USING SCIENTIFIC PAPERS TO STIMULATE THE STUDY OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND THE UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION: THE RESEARCH ON ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Gagianone

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is characterized by mutations in very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA peroxisome transporter, leading to VLCFA accumulation in myelin sheath. In the 70’s and 80’s it was hypothesized that X-ALD is caused by enzymatic deficits in FA-coenzyme A connection, VLCFA degradation or FA elongation. The latter enabled Lorenzo’s oil (LO treatment, which became famous by the homonym movie. The apparent initial therapy effectiveness lead to LO administration in many patients, although with biochemical knowledge progress its relevance has been questioned.Objectives Our aim was to discuss X-ALD researches in “Lipids Metabolism” classes during 2014 Biochemistry courses to Biology and Biomedicine undergraduate students at Fluminense Federal University to illustrate how scientific knowledge is constructed.Materials and MethodsIn order to contrast the recent scientific advances with the information spread to society through “Lorenzo’s Oil”, the movie in edited version was presented to students followed by a questionnaire with Likert scale to evaluate the perception of scientific knowledge exposed by the movie. Afterwards, a Guided Study containing a brief history and discursive questions based upon a paper (Wiesingner et.al, J. Biol. Chem. 288:19269, 2013 was applied in class.Results and DiscussionFrom 58 students who filled in the questionnaire,72,4% considered the movie shows that X-ALD biochemical knowledge has been achieved. This notion was confirmed since 84,5% agreed LO is an effective alternative treatment if X-ALD is early detected. The same percentage agreed that based on the movie the biochemical deficiency relies on an enzyme involved in VLCFA degradation. Although the movie transmits the idea that the cure has been found, 67,2% believed X-ALD biochemical mechanisms are not fully comprehended. ConclusionsThe Guided Study/movie application was very effective because allowed the

  15. Judging media -articles on health- related issues: a new kind of biochemistry exam for biomedical undergrad students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Oliveira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Health-relatedpopular articlesissues  and medical tips (or “Dr Google” have taken over the  i nternet.  Misconception sare very common ly found among these sources, butrecognizing them may require  good biomedical knowledge.   The ability to judge knowledge is, according to Bloom’s scale,a very advanced step in the learning process. In this sense, we decided to use  fragments of articles from the  i nternet as part of a formal exam to evaluate students' overall learning of Clinical and Applied Biochemistry (CAB . This tes t, known as the True -or-False (T -or-F exam, is made up of statements found online that are judged by  freshman  medical and nutrition  students taking Basic Biochemistry (BioBio. In the last  4 semesters, students' acceptance and responses to  BioBio´s T -or -F  exam were evaluated through questionnaires(using a 5-point Likert scale . Results from 258 students indicate dthat 69% of them felt the exa m was difficult,  87% thought the exam was of good quality, and 69% believed that using media-questions is relevant  for learning CAB. However, only 64% thought the exam evaluated satisfactorily what  they  learned in class. Also, the average grade obtained was 5. 85(out of 10 . This is probably because students are not familiarized with this examination,  which  requires more than only memorization of biochemical  pathways and reactions   –  it evaluates the  application of knowledge.  Thus, BioBio´s  T-or-F  exam is an innovative way of evaluating knowledge and of enabling students to be critic about information receive d. The major ity of students acknowledged the  exam´s relevance  f or learning purposes and, so, it could be well-applied to other fields of science.

  16. ESTABLISHMENT OF REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR HEMATOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY ANALYTES IN A CAPTIVE COLONY OF STRAW-COLORED FRUIT BATS (EIDOLON HELVUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Michael; Lewandowski, Albert; Kent, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    Straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are an ecologically important species of megachiropteran bat that are common both in captivity and in the wild. This study attempts to determine reference intervals from a group of 45 captive individuals for a variety of hematologic and biochemistry parameters. Most of the values are similar to values previously seen in other pteropodid bat species. Differences included a lower than expected reference interval for the total white blood cell count, a wider reference interval for glucose, and a higher reference interval for 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Establishing reference intervals for hematologic and biochemistry analytes for bats that were maintained on the same diet and under the same husbandry parameters for several years will help in the future assessment of other bats maintained in a similar manner. PMID:27010270

  17. Improved analysis of C4 and C3 photosynthesis via refined in vitro assays of their carbon fixation biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert E.; Sonawane, Balasaheb V.; Ghannoum, Oula; Whitney, Spencer M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants operating C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways exhibit differences in leaf anatomy and photosynthetic carbon fixation biochemistry. Fully understanding this underpinning biochemical variation is requisite to identifying solutions for improving photosynthetic efficiency and growth. Here we refine assay methods for accurately measuring the carboxylase and decarboxylase activities in C3 and C4 plant soluble protein. We show that differences in plant extract preparation and assay conditions are required to measure NADP-malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pH 8, Mg2+, 22 °C) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pH 7, >2mM Mn2+, no Mg2+) maximal activities accurately. We validate how the omission of MgCl2 during leaf protein extraction, lengthy (>1min) centrifugation times, and the use of non-pure ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) significantly underestimate Rubisco activation status. We show how Rubisco activation status varies with leaf ontogeny and is generally lower in mature C4 monocot leaves (45–60% activation) relative to C3 monocots (55–90% activation). Consistent with their >3-fold lower Rubisco contents, full Rubisco activation in soluble protein from C4 leaves (<5min) was faster than in C3 plant samples (<10min), with addition of Rubisco activase not required for full activation. We conclude that Rubisco inactivation in illuminated leaves primarily stems from RuBP binding to non-carbamylated enzyme, a state readily reversible by dilution during cellular protein extraction. PMID:27122573

  18. Improved analysis of C4 and C3 photosynthesis via refined in vitro assays of their carbon fixation biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert E; Sonawane, Balasaheb V; Ghannoum, Oula; Whitney, Spencer M

    2016-05-01

    Plants operating C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways exhibit differences in leaf anatomy and photosynthetic carbon fixation biochemistry. Fully understanding this underpinning biochemical variation is requisite to identifying solutions for improving photosynthetic efficiency and growth. Here we refine assay methods for accurately measuring the carboxylase and decarboxylase activities in C3 and C4 plant soluble protein. We show that differences in plant extract preparation and assay conditions are required to measure NADP-malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pH 8, Mg(2+), 22 °C) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pH 7, >2mM Mn(2+), no Mg(2+)) maximal activities accurately. We validate how the omission of MgCl2 during leaf protein extraction, lengthy (>1min) centrifugation times, and the use of non-pure ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) significantly underestimate Rubisco activation status. We show how Rubisco activation status varies with leaf ontogeny and is generally lower in mature C4 monocot leaves (45-60% activation) relative to C3 monocots (55-90% activation). Consistent with their >3-fold lower Rubisco contents, full Rubisco activation in soluble protein from C4 leaves (plant samples (extraction. PMID:27122573

  19. Application of seminal germ cell morphology and semen biochemistry in the diagnosis and management of azoospermic subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somnath Roy; A. Banerjee; H.C. Pandey; G. Singh; G.L. Kumari

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate whether the study of seminal germ cell morphology (SGCM) and semen biochemistry could be fruitfully utilized for the diagnosis and management of azoospermic subjects. Methods: In the semen, mature and immature germ cells are contributed by the testes, 70% of glycerylphosphoryl choline (GPC) by the epididymis, fructose mostly or solely by the seminal vesicles and acid phosphate (ACP) by the prostate. In 16 normal volunteers, 12vasectomized subjects and 186 azoospermic subjects, these parameters have been studied and the data have been analyzed. Results: Both mature and immature germ cells are absent in the semen of vasectomized subjects as well as in obstructive azoospermia; GPC level is also significantly decreased in both these groups. In cases with non-obstructive azoospermia immature germ cells are present and seminal GPC, ACP and fructose levels are normal. The diagnosis of obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia based on these parameters correlated well with "correct" testicular biopsy findings. In some cases of azoospermia due to hypospermatogenesis or spermatogenic developmental arrest, the SGCM studies were very helpful in objectively monitoring the response of the germinal tissue to specific treatments. Conclusion: SGCM and semen biochemical parameters are very valuable non-invasive markers for differentiating obstructive from non-obstructive azoospermia. The SGCM findings serve as a dependable non-invasive testicular marker with high predictive value.

  20. Analysis of the Experience of a Virtual Learning Environment Integration Into a Biochemistry Course Offered to Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Espíndola

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As Information and Communication Technology (ICT becomes available in educational contexts, it is important that educators experiment different ways to deal with ICT tools in the teaching -learning process at the University basic sciences level. The challenge is to integrate ICT throughout the learning subjects in order to improve the quality of the learning process to students. This paper presents the results of an experience using a Virtual Learning Management System (VLMS, named Constructore, applied in the Biochemistry discipline at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ for undergraduate medical students. Using Constructore, we developed a learning environment intended for integrating online activities and traditional course content. The course was focused on the integration of energy-yielding metabolism, exploring  metabolic adaptations in different physiological or pathological states such as starvation, diabetes and exercise. The course environment was structured with three modules, each of them presenting problem-based exercises to be answered after retrieving rele vant information in original scientific articles. Based on the analysis of  a semi-open questionnaire, the results provided evidence that the virtual environment stimulated students to critically read relevant scientific articles and to acquire skills to build and to integrate their knowledge through content association.

  1. EXPLORATORY PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR URAL OWLS (STRIX URALENSIS, PALLAS 1771) FROM THE AUSTRIAN REINTRODUCTION PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; Vobornik, Angela; Zink, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The Ural owl (Strix uralensis) is the biggest forest-living owl in Austria; however, it became extinct in Austria through poaching and habitat loss more than half a century ago. The birds examined in the present study were breeding pairs from the reintroduction project with the aim of determining exploratory plasma biochemistry reference intervals in Ural owls and evaluating the amount of biological variation between seasons, sexes, and ages. A total of 45 birds were sampled, including 13 adult males, 14 adult females, and 18 juvenile birds. Remarkably, almost all of the analytes showed significant differences between the subgroups, primarily between seasons, followed by age and sex. Only creatinkinase, glucose, lactatdehydrogenase, and triglycerides did not show any significant variations. Despite partitioning of reference values into subgroups according to biological variation diminishing the number of reference individuals in the respective groups, the resulting smaller reference intervals will improve medical assessment. The results of the present study once again demonstrate that significant seasonal fluctuations must be expected and considered in the interpretation. It can be assumed that these differences are probably even greater in free-range birds with considerable changes in food quantity and quality during and between years. PMID:27468020

  2. Evaluation von multimedialen e-Lernkursen zur Vorbereitung auf ein biochemisches Praktikum [Evaluation of multimedia e-Learning preparatory courses for a practial course in Biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Rost, Birgit; Koolman, Jan

    2009-01-01

    [english] The present study examined whether the application of multimedia learning courses is also suitable for preparing students for practical laboratory courses, both in terms of theory and practice. For this purpose, multimedia e-learning courses were provided and evaluated within the k-MED project. These courses were particularly tailored to the practical training in biochemistry, a mandatory course for third-semester students of medicine and dentistry in Marburg. Two weeks prior to t...

  3. The effects of usage of sequential teaching method on the academic achievement and retention level of students in area of biological sciences or biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Stavreva Veselinovska, Snezana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show the application of teaching methods used in the teaching process in teaching the content area of biological sciences or biochemistry, as well as their empirical confirmation by measuring the achievements of the student. Intentional causes for this paper to be written can be found in the fact that in our teaching practice empirical studies that aim to entrust successful application of contemporary models of learning and teaching are extremely rare, which is espe...

  4. “ASSESSMENT OF DIFFERENT TEACHING AIDS AND TEACHING METHODS FOR THE BETTER PERCEPTION OF BIOCHEMISTRY B Y 1 ST MBBS STUDENTS”

    OpenAIRE

    Priyadarshini; Shetty; Reena

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Medical students during their first year of MBBS c ourse, find Biochemistry difficult and volatile. In this regard , we studied the feedback from students about the effectiveness of prevailing teaching aids and me thods, so that best teaching aid and method can be adopted to improve their academic performance. METHODS: This study comprises of total 117 students of 1st MBBS course, who have com pleted the 2nd semester of academic year 2...

  5. Spectroscopic determination of leaf biochemistry using band-depth analysis of absorption features and stepwise multiple linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, R.F.; Clark, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using spectroscopy. Normalized band depths calculated from the continuum-removed reflectance spectra of dried and ground leaves were used to estimate their concentrations of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to select wavelengths in the broad absorption features centered at 1.73 ??m, 2.10 ??m, and 2.30 ??m that were highly correlated with the chemistry of samples from eastern U.S. forests. Band depths of absorption features at these wavelengths were found to also be highly correlated with the chemistry of four other sites. A subset of data from the eastern U.S. forest sites was used to derive linear equations that were applied to the remaining data to successfully estimate their nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations. Correlations were highest for nitrogen (R2 from 0.75 to 0.94). The consistent results indicate the possibility of establishing a single equation capable of estimating the chemical concentrations in a wide variety of species from the reflectance spectra of dried leaves. The extension of this method to remote sensing was investigated. The effects of leaf water content, sensor signal-to-noise and bandpass, atmospheric effects, and background soil exposure were examined. Leaf water was found to be the greatest challenge to extending this empirical method to the analysis of fresh whole leaves and complete vegetation canopies. The influence of leaf water on reflectance spectra must be removed to within 10%. Other effects were reduced by continuum removal and normalization of band depths. If the effects of leaf water can be compensated for, it might be possible to extend this method to remote sensing data acquired by imaging spectrometers to give estimates of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations over large areas for use in ecosystem studies.We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using

  6. Assessing recall, conceptualization, and transfer capabilities of novice biochemistry students' across learning style preferences as revealed by self-explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenbeck-Fajardo, Jacqueline L.

    2009-08-01

    The research described herein is a multi-dimensional attempt to measure student's abilities to recall, conceptualize, and transfer fundamental and dynamic protein structure concepts as revealed by their own diagrammatic (pictorial) representations and written self-explanations. A total of 120 participants enrolled in a 'Fundamentals of Biochemistry' course contributed to this mixed-methodological study. The population of interest consisted primarily of pre-nursing and sport and exercise science majors. This course is typically associated with a high (students within this population have reported very little chemistry background. In the following study, student-generated diagrammatic representations and written explanations were coded thematically using a highly objective rubric that was designed specifically for this study. Responses provided by the students were characterized on the macroscopic, microscopic, molecular-level, and integrated scales. Recall knowledge gain (i.e., knowledge that was gained through multiple-choice questioning techniques) was quantitatively correlated to learning style preferences (i.e., high-object, low-object, and non-object). Quantitative measures revealed that participants tended toward an object (i.e., snapshot) -based visualization preference, a potentially limiting factor in their desire to consider dynamic properties of fundamental biochemical contexts such as heat-induced protein denaturation. When knowledge transfer was carefully assessed within the predefined context, numerous misconceptions pertaining to the fundamental and dynamic nature of protein structure were revealed. Misconceptions tended to increase as the transfer model shifted away from the context presented in the original learning material. Ultimately, a fundamentally new, novel, and unique measure of knowledge transfer was developed as a main result of this study. It is envisioned by the researcher that this new measure of learning is applicable specifically to

  7. Assessing the sensitivity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to dietary endosulfan exposure using tissue biochemistry and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of plant-based ingredients, and the possible carry-over of pesticides such as endosulfan, in fish feeds may present new toxicological challenges to aquacultural species. Biological responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to a 35-day dietary endosulfan exposure at levels ranging from 4 to 710 μg kg-1 were assessed using tissue histology and biochemistry. Liver 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deacetylase (EROD) activity was significantly elevated in the highest exposure group (710 μg kg-1) by day 35. Other hepatic indicators of stress impacts and responses (glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activities and hepatic α-tocopherol content) remained unchanged. Branchial Na+, K+-ATPase activity was significantly reduced at day 14 in the highest exposure group, but returned to control levels by day 35. Conversely, intestinal Na+, K+-ATPase activity was significantly inhibited at day 35, but again only at the highest exposure level. In contrast to the biochemical results, hepatic and intestinal histology revealed effects of exposure even at the lowest dose tested (4 μg kg-1). In the posterior intestine, pathology was characterised by vacuolation and fusion of villi, and in the most severe cases, loss of epithelial integrity in villi tips. In the liver the primary effects were glycogen depletion and lipidosis. These changes were typical of a generalised stress response. While histology endpoints may prove to be the most sensitive indicators of dietary endosulfan exposure, the organismal relevance of these structural changes must be considered in the absence of effects in other biomarkers at dietary levels less than 710 μg kg-1

  8. The morphology and biochemistry of nanostructures provide evidence for synthesis and signaling functions in human cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavez Jesus N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF contacts many brain regions and may mediate humoral signaling distinct from synaptic neurotransmission. However, synthesis and transport mechanisms for such signaling are not defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether human CSF contains discrete structures that may enable the regulation of humoral transmission. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected prospectively from 17 participants: with no neurological or psychiatric disease, with Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, or migraine; and ventricular CSF from two cognitively healthy participants with long-standing shunts for congenital hydrocephalus. Cell-free CSF was subjected to ultracentrifugation to yield supernatants and pellets that were examined by transmission electron microscopy, shotgun protein sequencing, electrophoresis, western blotting, lipid analysis, enzymatic activity assay, and immuno-electron microscopy. Results Over 3,600 CSF proteins were identified from repeated shotgun sequencing of cell-free CSF from two individuals with Alzheimer's disease: 25% of these proteins are normally present in membranes. Abundant nanometer-scaled structures were observed in ultracentrifuged pellets of CSF from all 16 participants examined. The most common structures included synaptic vesicle and exosome components in 30-200 nm spheres and irregular blobs. Much less abundant nanostructures were present that derived from cellular debris. Nanostructure fractions had a unique composition compared to CSF supernatant, richer in omega-3 and phosphoinositide lipids, active prostanoid enzymes, and fibronectin. Conclusion Unique morphology and biochemistry features of abundant and discrete membrane-bound CSF nanostructures are described. Prostaglandin H synthase activity, essential for prostanoid production and previously unknown in CSF, is localized to nanospheres. Considering CSF bulk flow and its circulatory dynamics, we propose that these

  9. Comparative efficacy of different schedules of administration of medicinal plants infusion on hematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid ur Rehman,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different schedules of administration of medicinal plants infusion of aloe vera gel, barbery, garlic and ginger on hematology and serum biochemistry of broilers chicks. For this purpose 240, day old broilers chick (A purchased were from a local dealer, divided in to four groups A, B, C and D and reared in separate pens for 35 days in an open sided house. These groups were divided into two vaccinated and non-vaccinated sub-groups for the different treatments. Each sub group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate. Group A was kept as control, while B, C and D were given infusion @ 10 ml/lit of water. The schedule was designated as the group B received infusion at alternate day, group C received infusion on alternate three days in a week and group D received infusion at alternate week. Relevant data was recorded throughout the experiment till the termination of experiment. Significant increase in hemoglobin concentration, PCV and total leukocyte count (TLC was observed in group C. Significant reduction was recorded in ALT and ALP in group B, while AST and serum glucose in group C and increased in serum protein was found in group B. Decreased (p<0.05 total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, and increased HDL (p<0.05 were experienced in group B. Comparing the values of risk ratio of, VLDL to HDL, Total cholesterol to HDL and LDL to HDL were found significantly lower in group B, while total cholesterol to VLDL was found significantly lower in group C. It is concluded that schedule on the basis receiving infusion three days in a week is more potent than other schedule of research study.

  10. Alterations in body weight and biochemistry in patient treated with different psychotropic drugs in a clinic in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeltekin Demirel,

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim Was to compare adult female patients receiving psychiatricdrugs with obese adult females who didn’t receive any drug treatmentwith respect to the alterations in body weight and biochemistry,and find out the contrubution of a team approach for the managementof these alterations.Methods A total of 102 female patients aged mean 40.9±12.4years who had been followed up and treated in the Psychiatry OutpatientClinics in Istanbul University for their psychiatric disordersand were complaining about increased body weight in thetreatment period were included. The controls were composed of261 females aged mean 39.8±13.0 years who had been referred byvarious departments to dietitians due to exogenous obesity but hadno endocrine-metabolic or psychiatric disorders or history of druguse. Initially, antropometric measurements and biochemical testswere performed for all patients.Results In the group receiving psychiatric treatment, the meanbody weight, BMI, waist and hip circumferences, body fat percentage(p<0.001; blood insulin, triglyceride, TSH, fibrinogenand homocysteine levels, and HOMA-IR were found to be higherthan those of the controls (p<0.05, whereas the total protein, albumin,zinc and folate levels were significantly lower (p<0.001.Conclusion The results of this study showed that patients whoneed psychopharmacotherapies were also more susceptible to severalmetabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, it wouldbe useful if psychiatric patients are treated with a multidisciplinaryteam approach consisting of an endocrinologist, psychiatrist and adietitian specialized in this area to prevent or delay the metabolicdisorders caused by psychiatric disorders and treatments.

  11. Biochemistry of Nitric Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, Safia; Ali, Asif

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) a free radical having both cytoprotective as well as tumor promoting agent is formed from l-arginine by converting it to l-citrulline via nitric oxide synthase enzymes. The reaction product of nitric oxide with superoxide generates potent oxidizing agent, peroxynitrite which is the main mediator of tissue and cellular injury. Peroxynitrite is reactive towards many biomolecules which includes amino acids, nucleic acid bases; metal containing compounds, etc. NO metabolites may...

  12. Biochemistry: Acetohydroxyacid Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Ngoc Chien

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6; formerly known as acetolactate synthase, ALS is a thiamin-and FAD-dependent enzyme which catalyses the first common step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA isoleucine, leucine and valine. The enzyme is inhibited by several commercial herbicides and has been studied over the last 20 to 30 years. A short introductory note about acetohydroxyacid synthase has been provided.

  13. Biochemistry of Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Koc

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are energy source of cells. They have external and internal membranes, cristas and matrix. External membranes consist of specialized transport proteins. They have monoamine oxidase and citokrome-c reductase which both play role in KREBS cycle as catalyst and many enzymes which are necessary for phospholipid and phosphoric acid synthesis. Enzymes of electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation are located in the internal membranes. Also, here, there are transport systems for specific substances, such as ATP, ADP, P1, pyruvate, succinate, malate, citrate, and -ketoglutarate . Matrix; having gel-like consistency, contains a large number of enzymes. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(0.100: 1-13

  14. Postmortem biochemistry: Current applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsey, S L; Flanagan, R J

    2016-07-01

    The results of biochemical analyses in specimens obtained postmortem may aid death investigation when diabetic and alcoholic ketoacidosis is suspected, when death may have been the result of drowning, anaphylaxis, or involved a prolonged stress response such as hypothermia, and in the diagnosis of disease processes such as inflammation, early myocardial infarction, or sepsis. There is often cross-over with different disciplines, in particular with clinical and forensic toxicology, since some endogenous substances such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and insulin can be used as poisons. The interpretation of results is often complicated because of the likelihood of postmortem change in analyte concentration or activity, and proper interpretation must take into account all the available evidence. The unpredictability of postmortem changes means that use of biochemical measurements in time of death estimation has little value. The use of vitreous humour is beneficial for many analytes as the eye is in a physically protected environment, this medium may be less affected by autolysis or microbial metabolism than blood, and the assays can be performed with due precaution using standard clinical chemistry analysers. However, interpretation of results may not be straightforward because (i) defined reference ranges in life are often lacking, (ii) there is a dearth of knowledge regarding, for example, the speed of equilibration of many analytes between blood, vitreous humour, and other fluids that may be sampled, and (iii) the effects of post-mortem change are difficult to quantify because of the lack of control data. A major limitation is that postmortem vitreous glucose measurements are of no help in diagnosing antemortem hypoglycaemia. PMID:27131037

  15. Phospholipase A2 Biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, John E.; Dennis, Edward A.

    2008-01-01

    The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily consists of many different groups of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the sn-2 ester bond in a variety of different phospholipids. The products of this reaction, a free fatty acid, and lysophospholipid have many different important physiological roles. There are five main types of PLA2: the secreted sPLA2’s, the cytosolic cPLA2’s, the Ca2+ independent iPLA2’s, the PAF acetylhydrolases, and the lysosomal PLA2’s. This review focuses on the superfam...

  16. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  17. Using optimal combination of teaching-learning methods (open book assignment and group tutorials) as revision exercises to improve learning outcome in low achievers in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Suryapriya, R; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B; Revathy, G; Priyadarssini, M

    2016-07-01

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving the learning outcome. About 143 graduate medical students were classified into low (75%: group 3, n = 46) achievers, based on their internal assessment marks. After the regular teaching module on the topics "Vitamins and Enzymology", all the students attempted an open book assignment without peer consultation. Then all the students participated in group tutorials. The effects on the groups were evaluated by pre and posttests at the end of each phase, with the same set of MCQs. Gain from group tutorials and overall gain was significantly higher in the low achievers, compared to other groups. High and medium achievers obtained more gain from open book assignment, than group tutorials. The overall gain was significantly higher than the gain obtained from open book assignment or group tutorials, in all three groups. All the three groups retained the gain even after 1 week of the exercise. Hence, optimal use of novel T-L methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) as revision exercises help in strengthening concepts in Biochemistry in this oft neglected group of low achievers in graduate medical education. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):321-325, 2016. PMID:26891594

  18. Effect of dietary Ximenia caffra kernel meal on blood and liver metabolic substrate content and the general clinical biochemistry of Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivandi, E; Moyo, D; Dangarembizi, R; Erlwanger, K

    2016-06-01

    We investigated (at the University of the Witwatersrand: GPS coordinates 26°10' 52.96″S; 28°2' 33.61″E) the effects of substituting soya bean meal (SBM) with Ximenia caffra kernel meal (XCKM) as a dietary protein source on blood and liver metabolic substrates content, serum markers of liver and kidney function and the general clinical biochemistry of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Five diets with similar energy and protein content were formulated (D1-D5) where XCKM replaced SBM on a crude protein basis at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Forty weanling male SD rats were randomly assigned to diets D1-D5, fed for 37 days and weighed twice weekly. The rats were then fasted overnight, and fasting blood glucose and triglyceride concentrations were determined from tail-vein-drawn blood. Immediately thereafter, the rats were euthanised and blood was collected via cardiac puncture. Serum was used to assay for markers of the general health profile. Livers were removed and weighed, and samples were used to determine lipid and glycogen content. Rats fed D4 (75% substitution level) had significantly lower (p  0.05) fasting blood glucose and cholesterol concentrations, liver glycogen and lipid content. Additionally, it had no effect (p > 0.05) on serum activity/concentration of surrogate markers of liver (alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity and urea, total bilirubin, globulin and albumin concentrations) and kidney (phosphorus, calcium and creatinine concentrations) function and the general clinical biochemistry of the rats. Defatted XCKM could substitute SBM in rat diets without compromising blood glucose and cholesterol homeostasis, liver and kidney function and the general clinical biochemistry of growing male Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:26344703

  19. “ MOOC”时代下生物化学课堂的改革%Teaching Reform for Biochemistry in the MOOC Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海鸥; 郭连生; 周丽亚; 马丽; 殷昊

    2016-01-01

    “MOOC”(Massive Open Online Course,大规模在线开放课程)在全球的兴起给传统的课堂教学带来了前所未有的竞争与挑战。本文分析了 MOOC 对生物化学传统课堂教学的影响,如 MOOC 考验传统教学的吸引力和教学模式;探析了 MOOC 时代下生物化学课堂教学改革的具体方法,如修订生物化学教学大纲,改进生物化学教学课件,充分利用网络资源促进师生沟通;并提出了目前存在的阶段性问题,供生物化学教学改革参考。%With the development and popularity of MOOC(Massive Open Online Course) in the world, traditional teaching faces great challenges.The impact of MOOC on traditional biochemistry classroom teaching were analyzed, for example, MOOC challenged the attractiveness and teaching model of traditional teaching, explored the specific methods of biochemistry teaching reform, revision on the teaching syllabus, modification of multimedia-assisted teaching courseware, made full use of network resources to promote the communication between teachers and students and at the same time raised the existing periodic problem at present time.The above contents were hope to be inspiring and instructive for the Biochemistry teaching reform.

  20. 多种教学方法在生物化学教学中的运用%The Use of Variety of Teaching Methods in Biochemistry Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤

    2015-01-01

    The biological chemistry, life sciences, is an important basic subject and frontier disciplines. As one of clinical medical, nursing, inspection and other professional courses, the curriculum system plays an essential role. But as a result of biochemistry research chemical changes of the human body, it has to do with subjects such as physiology, pharmacology, ge-netics, pathology contact each other, mutual penetration. So students learning, has the certain difficulty. From interest teaching, heuristic teaching, case analysis, this paper interaction discussion-based teaching three aspects to discuss how to improve hig-her vocational teaching biochemistry method, so that students can learn better biochemistry, lay the foundation for subsequent courses.%生物化学作为生命科学领域的前沿与基础学科,在其领域占有很重要的地位.是护理、临床与检验等各个专业的基础学科课程,在以上专业学科中起着承上启下的重要作用.但由于生物化学主要研究人体的化学变化,它与生理学、药理学、遗传学、病理学等学科彼此联系,相互渗透.所以学生学习起来,有一定的难度.本文笔者通过:一、根据学情,采用趣味引导式教学;二、根据课程特点,采用病例为实例的教学法;三、结合学情和学科特点,采用互动讨论式教学法为主的三种教学方法对生物化学学科教学进行展开讨论.

  1. A review of the multi-level adaptations for maximizing aerobic dive duration in marine mammals: from biochemistry to behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammals exhibit multi-level adaptations, from cellular biochemistry to behavior, that maximize aerobic dive duration. A dive response during aerobic dives enables the efficient use of blood and muscle oxygen stores, but it is exercise modulated to maximize the aerobic dive limit at different levels of exertion. Blood volume and concentrations of blood hemoglobin and muscle myoglobin are elevated and serve as a significant oxygen store that increases aerobic dive duration. However, myoglobin is not homogeneously distributed in the locomotory muscles and is highest in areas that produce greater force and consume more oxygen during aerobic swimming. Muscle fibers are primarily fast and slow twitch oxidative with elevated mitochondrial volume densities and enhanced oxidative enzyme activities that are highest in areas that produce more force generation. Most of the muscle mitochondria are interfibriller and homogeneously distributed. This reduces the diffusion distance between mitochondria and helps maintain aerobic metabolism under hypoxic conditions. Mitochondrial volume densities and oxidative enzyme activities are also elevated in certain organs such as liver, kidneys, and stomach. Hepatic and renal function along with digestion and assimilation continue during aerobic dives to maintain physiological homeostasis. Most ATP production comes from aerobic fat metabolism in carnivorous marine mammals. Glucose is derived mostly from gluconeogenesis and is conserved for tissues such as red blood cells and the central nervous system. Marine mammals minimize the energetic cost of swimming and diving through body streamlining, efficient, lift-based propulsive appendages, and cost-efficient modes of locomotion that reduce drag and take advantage of changes in buoyancy with depth. Most dives are within the animal's aerobic dive limit, which maximizes time underwater and minimizes recovery time at the surface. The result of these adaptations is increased breath

  2. The development of MWPC-based systems for imaging X-rays, gamma rays and charged particles in applications in medicine, materials science and biochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development is described of several complete MWPC based imaging systems for applications in medicine (a positron camera), industry (a second positron camera), materials science (two 2-d X-ray diffraction systems) and biochemistry (an autoradiography system for 2-d immunoelectrophoresis using a tritium label). A moderately detailed description of two of the systems is given and some special developments in the areas of fast modular electronics for the delay line readout technique and fast imaging data taking are described in more detail. The state of rapid expansion of this area of application of MWPC technology and its relationship to the microprocessor revolution are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Influence of dietary supplementation of Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) on liver histopathology and serum biochemistry in rats fed high cholesterol diet

    OpenAIRE

    Thnaian Althnaian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of current study was to evaluate the effects of Lepidium sativum (LS) on liver histopathology and serum biochemistry in rats fed with high cholesterol diet. A total of 32 rats were divided into four equal groups. The rats of first group (control group) were fed with basal diet, whereas the rats of second group were fed with basal diet mixed with cholesterol (1%). The rats of third and fourth groups were fed with high cholesterol (1%) diet mixed with Lepidium sativum powder at 3 ...

  4. Growth, serum biochemistry, complement activity, and liver gene expression responses of Pekin ducklings to graded levels of cultured aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Horn, N; Cotter, P F; Applegate, T J

    2014-08-01

    A 14-d study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cultured aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on performance, serum biochemistry, serum natural antibody and complement activity, and hepatic gene expression parameters in Pekin ducklings. A total of 144 male Pekin ducklings were weighed, tagged, and randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments containing 4 concentrations of AFB1 (0, 0.11, 0.14, and 0.21 mg/kg) from 0 to 14 d of age (6 cages per diet; 6 ducklings per cage). Compared with the control group, there was a 10.9, 31.7, and 47.4% (P Pekin ducklings. PMID:24902705

  5. 思维导图在生物化学教学中的应用%The appication of mind mapping in biochemistry teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹丽; 于海英; 蔡智慧

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry is an important foundation courses in life science with abstract content.Mind mapping teaching methods is introduced in biochemistry teaching under the guidance of the concept of modern education for the students.And the object is to improve students' divergent thinking,induction and memory capacity,and to increase their self-learning ability,to improve teachers' teaching effect and students' learning effect,provide a theoretical basis for the application of mind mapping in other courses.%生物化学是一门重要的生命科学基础课程,内容抽象.在现代教育理念的指引下,针对我校学生特点,在生物化学教学中引入思维导图教学方法,提高学生的发散思维,归纳和记忆能力,并以此提高学生的自主有效学习能力,提高教师的教学和学生的学习效果.并为思维导图在其他课程中的运用提供理论基础.

  6. Human Development V: Biochemistry Unable to Explain the Emergence of Biological Form (Morphogenesis and Therefore a New Principle as Source of Biological Information is Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's biomedicine builds on the conviction that biochemistry can explain the creation of the body, its anatomy and physiology. Unfortunately there are still deep mysteries strangely “fighting back” when we try to define and understand the organism and its creation in the ontogenesis as emerging from biochemistry. In analysing this from a theoretical perspective using a mathematical model focusing on the noise in complex chemical systems we argue that evolving biological structure cannot in principle be a product of chemistry. In this paper we go through the chemical gradient model and argue that this is not able to explain the ontogenesis. We discuss the used gradients as information carriers in chemical self-organizing systems and argue that by use of the “Turing structures” we are only able to modelling the mostly simple biological systems. The bio-chemical model is only able to model simple organization but not to explain the complexity of biological phenomena. We conclude that we seemingly have presented a formal proof (a NO-GO theorem that the self-organizing chemical systems that are using chemical gradients are not able to explain complex biological matters as the ontogenesis. We need a fundamentally new, information-carrying principle to understand biological information and biological order.

  7. The Tutorial Program in Biochemistry at UFV: Improvement of the Activities and Performance of the Enrolled Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Costa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The Tutorial Program in Biochemistry  at UFV is reaching  the objectives  since the creation,  in 2001. Based  on the  accomplishment  of weekly sessions (2h,  which  tutor and  programs  students reunite to effects the  apprenticeship marked  by the  inter-activity,  the  Program  aims to give support to stu- dents  with  deficiency of basic knowledge.  For  this  reason,  reproved  students or students with  poor performance  in pre-requisites  subjects  are  automatically inscribed.   The  attending students receive satisfactory grade (S, frequency greater  than  75%, or not satisfactory grade (N. The work method- ology has been modified to obtain  better results.   This  study  aimed  evaluate  the  performance  of the Programs students through  modifications,  as the  elimination  of the theoretical session of 1h-weekly and the implantation of didactic  little-books containing  script classes and exercise lists.  Satisfactory results  indicated  that in 7 analyzed  semesters  (from I-2001 to I-2004, the attending students (S got similar  average  final-grade  (70.48  if compared  with  students not  enrolled  in the  Program  (71.64; not attending students (N, 56.81 got significantly  lower final-grade.  The failure rate  for S grade stu- dents  (8.69% was similar to the rate  of not-enrolled  students (8.97%, both  very lower than  N grade students (30.71%.  Based on the  necessity  of additional didactic material, two didactics  little-books were prepared  to  be used  in sessions.   The  little-books  Tutoria em Bioqu´ımica:  Biomol´eculas  and Tutoria em Bioqu´ımica:  Metabolismo  Celular  guide discussions  in classes, emphasizing  exercises.  It constitutes a considerable  advance,  according  to Programs students:  it  guides  and  encourages  the studies.  A questionnaire revealed  the  high acceptance  degree (97

  8. Applications of nucleoside-based molecular probes for the in vivo assessment of tumour biochemistry using positron emission tomography (PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard I. Wiebe

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is a non-invasive nuclear imaging technique. In PET, radiolabelled molecules decay by positron emission. The gamma rays resulting from positron annihilation are detected in coincidence and mapped to produce three dimensional images of radiotracer distribution in the body. Molecular imaging with PET refers to the use of positron-emitting biomolecules that are highly specific substrates for target enzymes, transport proteins or receptor proteins. Molecular imaging with PET produces spatial and temporal maps of the target-related processes. Molecular imaging is an important analytical tool in diagnostic medical imaging, therapy monitoring and the development of new drugs. Molecular imaging has its roots in molecular biology. Originally, molecular biology meant the biology of gene expression, but now molecular biology broadly encompasses the macromolecular biology and biochemistry of proteins, complex carbohydrates and nucleic acids. To date, molecular imaging has focused primarily on proteins, with emphasis on monoclonal antibodies and their derivative forms, small-molecule enzyme substrates and components of cell membranes, including transporters and transmembrane signalling elements. This overview provides an introduction to nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids in the context of molecular imaging.A tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (TEP é uma técnica de imagem não invasiva da medicina nuclear. A TEP utiliza moléculas marcadas com emissores de radiação beta positiva (pósitrons. As radiações gama medidas que resultam do aniquilamento dos pósitrons são detectadas por um sistema de coincidência e mapeadas para produzir uma imagem tridimensional da distribuição do radiotraçador no corpo. A imagem molecular com TEP refere-se ao uso de biomoléculas marcadas com emissor de pósitron que são substratos altamente específicos para alvos como enzimas, proteínas transportadoras ou receptores prot

  9. Application of Case Teaching Method in Nursing Profession Biochemistry Teaching%谈案例教学法在护理专业生化教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春燕

    2012-01-01

    本文主要通过护理专业生化教学现状的分析,阐述了案例教学法在护理专业生化教学中的必要性,探讨了案例教学法在护理教育生化教学中的应用。%This paper mainly through biochemical analysis of the teaching situation of the nursing profession, on the ne- cessity of the case teaching method in the nursing profession in the biochemistry teaching, explore the application of the case teaching method in nursing education in biochemistry teaching.

  10. 生化分析系统的可比性研究%Comparability of different automated biochemistry analytical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    暴旭广; 吕亚梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the comparability and clinical acceptability of the results detected by different biochemistry analytical systems .Methods Detection reagents ,cfas calibration solution and 7600 automatic biochemi-cal analyzer of Roche company were taken as standard detection system (Roche 7600 system) .One experiment system (Abbott A system) included detection reagents and calibration solution of Biaojia company ,and AEROSET automatic biochemical analyzer of Abbott company .The other experiment system(Abbott M system) included detection rea-gents and calibration solution of Desai company ,and another AEROSET automatic chemical analyzer .Levels of total protein(TP) and creatinine(Cr) in 40 fresh serum samples were detected by the three systems ,and the results were analyzed by linear regression analysis ,according to EP9-A document of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) .Results Coefficient of variability of the results detected by the three systems was less than 2 .5% ,with fine precision and stability .Correlation coefficients (R2 ) of TP and Cr were both more than 0 .95 ,indicating that there were fine linearity and correlation between the three systems .System error(SE% ) of TP detected by Abbott A sys-tem at various medical decision levels (MDL) and SE% of Cr detected at mid-value of MDL ,and SE% of Cr detected by Abbott M system at high-value of MDL were all less than the half value of allowed error (Ea% ) ruled in Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988(CLIA′88) ,indicating that the bias were acceptable .Other SE% val-ues were more than the half value of Ea% ruled in CLIA′88 .Conclusion Internal comparative tests in laboratory might be helpful for the quality monitoring of the performance of detection .%目的:探讨不同生化分析仪检测结果的可比性和临床可接受性。方法以罗氏试剂、罗氏cfas校准液、罗氏7600全自动生化分析仪为标准检测系统,标佳试剂

  11. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry laboratory medicine practice guidelines for use of tumor markers in testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturgeon, Catharine M; Duffy, Michael J; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for the use of tumor markers in the clinic have been developed. METHODS: Published reports relevant to use of tumor markers for 5 cancer sites--testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast...... prostatic disease when total PSA is advanced disease. Fecal occult blood testing may be used for screening asymptomatic adults 50...... may be used for determining prognosis in lymph node-negative patients. CA15-3/BR27-29 or carcinoembryonic antigen may be used for therapy monitoring in advanced disease. CA125 is recommended (with transvaginal ultrasound) for early detection of ovarian cancer in women at high risk for this disease. CA...

  12. A highly conserved N-terminal sequence for teleost vitellogenin with potential value to the biochemistry, molecular biology and pathology of vitellogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmar, L.D.; Denslow, N.D.; Wallace, R.A.; LaFleur, G.; Gross, T.S.; Bonomelli, S.; Sullivan, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    N-terminal amino acid sequences for vitellogenin (Vtg) from six species of teleost fish (striped bass, mummichog, pinfish, brown bullhead, medaka, yellow perch and the sturgeon) are compared with published N-terminal Vtg sequences for the lamprey, clawed frog and domestic chicken. Striped bass and mummichog had 100% identical amino acids between positions 7 and 21, while pinfish, brown bullhead, sturgeon, lamprey, Xenopus and chicken had 87%, 93%, 60%, 47%, 47-60%) for four transcripts and had 40% identical, respectively, with striped bass for the same positions. Partial sequences obtained for medaka and yellow perch were 100% identical between positions 5 to 10. The potential utility of this conserved sequence for studies on the biochemistry, molecular biology and pathology of vitellogenesis is discussed.

  13. Radiochemistry at the University of Missouri-Columbia. A joint venture with chemistry, nuclear engineering, molecular biology, biochemistry, and the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missouri University, a recipient of a U.S. Department of Energy Radiochemistry Education Award Program (REAP) grant in 1999, has significantly expanded its education and research mission in radiochemistry. While MU had a viable radiochemistry program through existing faculty expertise and the utilization of the Missouri University Research Reactor, the REAP award allowed MU to leverage its resources in significantly expanding capabilities in radiochemistry. Specifically, the grant enabled the: (1) hiring of a new faculty member in actinide radiochemistry (Dr. Paul Duval); (2) support of six graduate students in radiochemistry; (3) purchase of new radiochemistry laboratory equipment; (4) more extensive collaboration with DOE scientists through interactions with faculty and graduate students, and (5) revised radiochemical curriculum (joint courses across disciplines and new courses in actinide chemistry). The most significant impact of this award has been in encouraging interdisciplinary education and research. The proposal was initiated by a joint effort between Nuclear Engineering and Chemistry, but also included faculty in biochemistry, radiology, and molecular biology. Specific outcomes of the REAP grant thus far are: (1) increased educational and research capabilities in actinide chemistry (faculty hire and equipment acquisition); (2) increased integration of biochemistry and radiochemistry (e.g., radiochemical analysis of uranium speciation in biological systems); (3) stronger interdisciplinary integration of molecular biology and radiochemical sciences (alpha-emitters for treating cancer); (4) new and more extensive interactions with national laboratory facilities (e.g., student internships at LANL and LLBL, faculty and lab scientist exchange visits, analytical measurements and collaboration with the Advanced Photon Source), and (7) new research funding opportunities based on REAP partnership. (author)

  14. Beyond body size: muscle biochemistry and body shape explain ontogenetic variation of anti-predatory behaviour in the lizard Salvator merianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Fábio Cury; de Carvalho, José Eduardo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2016-06-01

    Anti-predatory behaviour evolves under the strong action of natural selection because the success of individuals avoiding predation essentially defines their fitness. Choice of anti-predatory strategies is defined by prey characteristics as well as environmental temperature. An additional dimension often relegated in this multilevel equation is the ontogenetic component. In the tegu Salvator merianae, adults run away from predators at high temperatures but prefer fighting when it is cold, whereas juveniles exhibit the same flight strategy within a wide thermal range. Here, we integrate physiology and morphology to understand ontogenetic variation in the temperature-dependent shift of anti-predatory behaviour in these lizards. We compiled data for body shape and size, and quantified enzyme activity in hindlimb and head muscles, testing the hypothesis that morphophysiological models explain ontogenetic variation in behavioural associations. Our prediction is that juveniles exhibit body shape and muscle biochemistry that enhance flight strategies. We identified biochemical differences between muscles mainly in the LDH:CS ratio, whereby hindlimb muscles were more glycolytic than the jaw musculature. Juveniles, which often use evasive strategies to avoid predation, have more glycolytic hindlimb muscles and are much smaller when compared with adults 1-2 years old. Ontogenetic differences in body shape were identified but marginally contributed to behavioural variation between juvenile and adult tegus, and variation in anti-predatory behaviour in these lizards resides mainly in associations between body size and muscle biochemistry. Our results are discussed in the ecological context of predator avoidance by individuals differing in body size living at temperature-variable environments, where restrictions imposed by the cold could be compensated by specific phenotypes. PMID:26994181

  15. Discussion on the biochemistry experiment teaching reform under the background of the “new normal”%浅谈“新常态”下的生物化学实验教学改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成希飞

    2015-01-01

    As the required basic professional course in biology , biochem-istry experiment has a very important position and role in the whole subject . Under the time background of the “new normal”, the biochemistry experiment teaching can be reformed by improving students ’ innovation ability , enhancing students’ awareness of environmental protection , regulating the practical skills of students , optimizing the outline of biochemistry experiment , clearing experi-ment score rules and so on .In order to that biochemistry experiment can keep pace with the times and can be environmentally friendly .%生物化学实验作为生物学科的必修基础专业课程,在整个学科中有着非常重要的地位和作用。在“新常态”的时代背景下,从提高大学生的创新能力,加强大学生环境保护意识,规范大学生实验操作方法,优化生物化学实验大纲,明确实验评分细则等方面对生物化学实验教学进行改革,以期生物化学实验教学能够做到与时俱进及环境友好。

  16. Proficiency in radiation protection, nuclear medicine and biomedicine in the Faculty of Biochemistry and Pharmaceutics, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina; Capacitacion en proteccion radiologica en medicina y biomedicina en la Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergoc, Rosa M.; Caro, Ricardo A.; Rivera, Elena S. [Universidad Buenos Aires (Argentina). Faculdade de Farmacia y Bioquimica. Lab. de Radioisotopos; Menossi, Carlos A. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    The School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry (Buenos Aires University) offers four annual courses on Methodology of Radioisotopes (which focus on different aspect of the Radiological Protection according to whom they are aimed: 1) Course for students in the Biochemistry Cycle; 2) Course for post-Graduate in Medicine, Biochemistry, Biology, Chemists; 3) Course to up-date the knowledge; 4) Course for Technicians in Nuclear Medicine. From 1960, 5000 biochemistry students have approved Methodology of Radioisotopes. The syllabus includes aspect related to the students' future professional activities. Since 1962, 1513 (?) graduates have approved it. Training (222 h) include: dosimetric magnitudes, units, internal and external dosimetry; working conditions, contamination barriers, radioprotection philosophy and principles; limits; radioactive wastes; legal aspects, national and international legislation. Uses of commonest isotopes in Nuclear Medicine and Biomedicine are under deep analysis. Since 1992 the graduates who wish to up-date their knowledge can follow this course organized in modules to suit their needs. Since 1997 this course emphasizes the operational aspects such as: columns elution, injection of radioactive drugs to patients, decontamination of areas. The increasing in the application of radioisotopes makes necessary to encourage their use in harmony with the environmental. (author)

  17. Design and practice of inquiry-based teaching in biochemistry%生物化学探究式教学的设计和实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志伟; 张玮玮; 陈志玲; 廖蓟; 刘晓晴; 万平

    2013-01-01

    From 2010 to 2012, the inquiry-based teaching has been carried out in biochemistry for the group of students who are top-ranked in College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University. And the classic literatures have been used as the main study materials. Through independent learning, group discussion and communication, the inquiry-based teaching has increased the ability of students in self-study, reading, speech, communication and cooperation. This teaching process aims to widen the students' field of vision, motivates their learning interest, and gives them a good training on scientific thinking.%在2010~2012年间,以生命科学学院基地班学生为学习主体,进行了生物化学探究式教学活动.该活动以生物化学经典文献为主要研习资料,通过学生自主学习、小组研讨和全班交流等方式,培养学生的自学能力、文献阅读能力、演讲与交流能力以及团队合作精神,对于拓宽学生眼界、激发学习兴趣、培养科学思维和情操起到很好的促进作用.

  18. 量子点在生化分析中的应用进展%On Application of Quantum Dots in Biochemistry Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚文

    2014-01-01

    Quantum Dots(QDs)is a kind of nanometer sized fluorescent material which has been used extensively in many research areas,such as chemistry,biological detection and medicine owing to its unique and excellent fluores-cence. In this article,we summarized basic characteristics and the methods of synthesis and modification of QDs. Es-pecially,the new progress of QDs and their research prospects in biochemistry analysis are also reviewed.%量子点( QDs)是一类粒径位于纳米尺度的荧光材料,因其优良的光学性质,已在化学、生物学及医学等研究领域取得了很大进展,也成为近年来发展、研究的热点。本文简述了量子点的基本特征,对不同的修饰方法做了比较,重点综述了量子点在生化分析研究领域的进展,提出了今后量子点研究的潜在方向。

  19. Quality in Online Courses: Technical Production Regarding Clinical Biochemistry Online Course Performed by Students in Advanced Learning in Scientific Education Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Maia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is important to consider quality and efficacy concerning online courses. This study was accomplished with Master’s students in order to promote technical production regardingClinical Biochemistry online course. In web, www.bioq.educacao.biz, it was accessible strategic and organizational management training in distance learning course. Enrolled students(7, monitors (3 and the manager (1 have made use of thevirtual environment asa channel of communication as well as to construct the extension course (80 hours. Some strategies were discussed and planned for the purpose of a significant apprenticeship. In all, there were 173 standard contents available, which were 4 audiovisual presentations, 13 debating forums, 1 chat, 10 classes,77 scientific articles, 30 tests, 3 glossaries, 1 mini-library, 18 links, 3 texts and 13 folders. Although the managerwas not responsible for the construction ofthe contents, system reports have shown that the manager’s attendance and permanence online were three times superior to other users. It once more revealed that new Information and Communication Technologies(ICTs requires from the manager to plan an efficient pedagogical orientation.

  20. Effects of a Chayotte (Sechium edule Extract (Macerated on the Biochemistry of Blood of Wistar Rats and on the Action Against the Stannous Chloride Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Dire

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural products as medicines has been growing in the entire world. There are concerns that these products may contain potentially toxic ingredients and contaminants such as heavy metals. The labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m has been influenced by the presence of natural extracts. We evaluated the influence of a chayotte (Sechium edule extract (100%v/v macerated on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. The animals were treated with the extract during 15 days. Samples of blood were carried out with specific blood biochemistry kits. The present study analyzed the influence of chayotte in the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species induced by stannous chloride. There was a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of chayotte. The results indicated a decrease in the level of glucose and globulin The effect of the extract could be explained by its metabolic transformation inducing the generation of oxidant metabolites. The culture of bacteria when was treated with stannous chloride and chayotte simultaneously, the extract could be reacting with stannous chloride ions, protecting them against the oxidation avoiding the generation of reactive oxygen species.

  1. Potential effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) on immune cells and blood biochemistry measures: a cross-sectional assessment of the NHANES 2003-2004 data

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar, Berrin; William G LeBlanc; Norris, Jill M.; Dickinson, L. Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely distributed in the environment and may have adverse effects on the immune system. Methods Lipid adjusted serum levels of 19 Dioxin Like (DL), 17 Non Dioxin Like (NDL) PCBs, 5 OCPs, and measures of complete blood count and routine biochemistry profile were obtained from the NHANES 2003-2004 cycle. For each of the PCB/OCP variables, individuals were put into four exposure groups and blood markers were co...

  2. Factors affecting plasma biochemistry parameters and physical condition of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nestlings | Einflussfaktoren auf biochemische Blutplasma-Parameter und körperliche Kondition nestjunger Fischadler (Pandion haliaetus)

    OpenAIRE

    Muriel, Roberto; Schmidt, Daniel; Cecilia P. Calabuig; Patiño-Martínez, Juan; Ferrer, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the normal values for 15 blood plasma biochemistry parameters and three indices of body condition (IBCs) in free-living Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nestlings in Brandenburg (Germany). Values were compared with those of other raptors, and possible sexual and age-related differences were examined. In addition, we looked for possible relationships of habitat quality (measured in terms of foraging conditions and human disturbances) to nestling nutritional condition and productivity. Fe...

  3. ABBOTTARCHITECTC16000全自动生化分析仪性能评价%Evaluation on performance of ABBOTT ARCHITECT C16000 automatic biochemistry analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 蒋小燕; 李顺君; 黄文芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the main performance of ABBOTT ARCHITECT C160000 biochemistry analyzer,and to judge whether the performance meets the laboratory requirement.Methods According to the clinical laboratory management meth-od and the requirement of accreditation of national laboratory,the precision,accuracy and linearity of the 17 test items(Urea,Cre, UA,Glu,etc.)were analyzed by the CLSI EP5-A2 document,CLSI EP9-A2 document and CLSI EP6-P document;the quotative ref-erence ranges of the 17 test items were verified.Results The coefficient of variation(CV)in within-batch precision of Urea,Cre, UA,Glu,etc.was ≤1/4 CLIA′88 standard and CV in the between-batch precision ≤1/3CLIA′88 standard;in the accuracy test,the relative bias of the 17 test items≤1/2CLIA′88 standard;the linearity of the 17 items was good(r2 >0.95);the cited reference range of various detection items was suitable.Conclusion The performance of the ABBOTT ARCHITECT C160000 automatic biochem-istry analyzer meets the laboratory demand.%目的:对 ABBOTT ARCHITECT C16000生化分析仪主要性能进行评价,判断其是否能够满足本科实验室需求。方法依照实验室管理办法及国家实验室认可的要求,分别采用美国临床和实验室标准化协会(CLSI)的 EP5-A2、EP9-A2和EP6-A 文件评价方法分析尿素(Urea)、肌酐(Cre)、尿酸(UA)和葡萄糖(Glu)等17项检测项目的精密度、准确度和线性;并对各检测项目引用的参考区间进行验证。结果 ABBOTT ARCHITECT C16000生化分析仪 Urea、Cre、UA、Glu 等17项检测项目批内精密度变异系数(CV)均小于或等1/4CLIA′88标准,批间精密度 CV 均小于或等于1/3CLIA′88标准;在准确度试验中,该17项检测项目的相对偏倚均小于或等于1/2CLIA′88标准;线性良好(r2>0.95);各检测项目引用的参考区间合适。结论 ABBOTT ARCHITECT C16000生化分析仪性能满足本实验室需求。

  4. Migratory preparation associated alterations in pectoralis muscle biochemistry and proteome in Palearctic-Indian emberizid migratory finch, red-headed bunting, Emberiza bruniceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Somanshu; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2016-03-01

    Avian migration is an exceptionally high-energy-demanding process, which is met by the accumulation and utilization of fuel stores as well as the alterations in muscle physiology prior to their flight. Pre-migratory fattening coupled with changes in flight muscle metabolic enzymes and proteome is required to provide the necessary fuel and muscle performance required for migration. We studied how the serum metabolites (urea, uric acid, and creatinine), pectoralis muscle metabolites (glycogen, glucose, and cholesterol), muscle metabolic enzymes (CPT, HOAD, CS, MDH, CCO, CK, LDH, PFK, MLPL, and PK), liver lipogenic enzyme (FAS), and pectoralis muscle proteins get altered in pre-migratory and non-migratory buntings. Significantly increased pectoralis muscle fatty acid oxidation (CPT and HOAD activity), aerobic/anaerobic capacity (CS, CCO, and MDH activity), glycolytic capacity (PFK and PK activity), lipolysis (muscle LPL), and burst power (CK activity) were observed prior to the spring migration in pre-migratory buntings, whereas significantly increased pectoralis muscle anaerobic capacity (LDH activity) was observed in non-migratory buntings. Significant increase in the liver FAS showed profound lipogenesis prior to the spring migration. In this study, we have also investigated whether muscle has differential protein content during the pre-migratory and non-migratory phases of the annual migratory cycle. Twenty-nine proteins are identified and well characterized varying in expression significantly during the pre-migratory and non-migratory phases. These findings indicate that significant pre-migratory fattening and alterations in flight (pectoralis) muscle biochemistry and proteome in between the non- and pre-migratory phases may play a significant role in pre-migratory flight muscle preparation in these long-route migrants. PMID:26656601

  5. Usefulness of postmortem biochemistry in identification of ketosis: Diagnosis of ketoacidosis at the onset of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in an autopsy case with cold exposure and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Naoto; Michiue, Tomomi; Chen, Jian-Hua; Oritani, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Takaki

    2016-09-01

    A severely malnourished, Japanese female in her twenties was found dead in her apartment. On autopsy, most of the findings from the internal examination were suggestive of hypothermia. Postmortem biochemistry, however, showed severely increased levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood and urine glucose levels. Levels of acetone, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetate in various body fluids were also highly increased, indicating ketosis. The serum insulin and c-peptide levels were severely low, and subsequent testing was positive for anti-GAD antibodies. Immunohistochemical examination of the pancreatic islet cells revealed few insulin-positive cells but many glucagon-positive cells on staining. Furthermore, slight invasion of CD8-positive lymphocytes in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans was observed. Results of immunostaining of the pancreatic and bronchial epithelial tissues were partly positive for the Influenza A virus. We concluded that severe ketoacidosis associated with rapid-onset hyperglycemia due to autoimmune type 1 diabetes (AT1D) had occurred shortly before death. However, the ketosis was accompanied by hypothermia and malnutrition as well as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Therefore, we retrospectively collected biochemical data on cases of hypothermia and malnutrition and compared them with the present case. Serum glucose, acetone, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid can be used for screening and diagnosis to distinguish DKA from ketosis due to hypothermia and malnutrition. Therefore, in the present case, we diagnosed that the natural cause of death was due to AT1D. In conclusion, screening investigations for relevant biochemical markers can provide essential information for the diagnosis of metabolic disturbances, which fail to demonstrate characteristic autopsy findings. PMID:27591535

  6. An inquiry-based biochemistry laboratory structure emphasizing competency in the scientific process: a guided approach with an electronic notebook format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Hall, Mona; Vardar-Ulu, Didem

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory setting is an exciting and gratifying place to teach because you can actively engage the students in the learning process through hands-on activities; it is a dynamic environment amenable to collaborative work, critical thinking, problem-solving and discovery. The guided inquiry-based approach described here guides the students through their laboratory work at a steady pace that encourages them to focus on quality observations, careful data collection and thought processes surrounding the chemistry involved. It motivates students to work in a collaborative manner with frequent opportunities for feedback, reflection, and modification of their ideas. Each laboratory activity has four stages to keep the students' efforts on track: pre-lab work, an in-lab discussion, in-lab work, and a post-lab assignment. Students are guided at each stage by an instructor created template that directs their learning while giving them the opportunity and flexibility to explore new information, ideas, and questions. These templates are easily transferred into an electronic journal (termed the E-notebook) and form the basic structural framework of the final lab reports the students submit electronically, via a learning management system. The guided-inquiry based approach presented here uses a single laboratory activity for undergraduate Introductory Biochemistry as an example. After implementation of this guided learning approach student surveys reported a higher level of course satisfaction and there was a statistically significant improvement in the quality of the student work. Therefore we firmly believe the described format to be highly effective in promoting student learning and engagement. PMID:24376181

  7. Nutritional Biochemistry and Behavioral Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana; Meduski, Jerzy

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses the effects of excesses and/or deficiencies in certain dietary components on the functioning of the central nervous system and the behavior of children with learning disabilities and antisocial behaviors. Nutritional modes of managing and treating such behaviors are suggested. (Author/DB)

  8. Plant betalains: Chemistry and biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Imtiyaj; Giridhar, P

    2015-09-01

    Betalains are vacuolar pigments composed of a nitrogenous core structure, betalamic acid [4-(2-oxoethylidene)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid]. Betalamic acid condenses with imino compounds (cyclo-l-3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine/its glucosyl derivatives), or amino acids/derivatives to form variety of betacyanins (violet) and betaxanthins (yellow), respectively. About 75 betalains have been structurally unambiguously identified from plants of about 17 families (known till date) out of 34 families under the order Caryophyllales, wherein they serve as chemosystematic markers. In this review, all the identified betalain structures are presented with relevant discussion. Also, an estimated annual production potential of betalains has been computed for the first time. In addition, mutual exclusiveness of anthocyanins and betalains has been discussed in the wake of new evidences. An inclusive list of betalain-accumulating plants reported so far has been presented here to highlight pigment occurrence and accumulation pattern. Betalain synthesis starts with hydroxylation of tyrosine to DOPA, and subsequent cleavage of aromatic ring of DOPA resulting to betalamic acid formation. This pathway consists of two key enzymes namely, bifunctional tyrosinase (hydroxylation and oxidation) and DOPA dioxygenase (O2-dependent aromatic ring cleavage). Various spontaneous cyclisation, condensation and glucosylation steps complement the extended pathway, which has been presented here comprehensively. The biosynthesis is affected by various ecophysiological factors including biotic and abiotic elicitors that can be manipulated to increase pigment production for commercial scale extraction. Betalains are completely safe to consume, and contribute to health. PMID:26101148

  9. The analytical biochemistry of chromium.

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, S A

    1991-01-01

    The essentiality and carcinogenicity of chromium depend on its chemical form. Oxidation state and solubility are particularly important in determining the biological effects of chromium compounds. For this reason, total chromium measurements are of little value in assessing its nutritional benefits or its toxicological hazards. Aqueous sodium carbonate-sodium hydroxide solutions have been successfully used for extracting hexavalent chromium from a variety of environmental and biological matri...

  10. Redox Biochemistry of Hydrogen Sulfide*

    OpenAIRE

    Kabil, Omer; Banerjee, Ruma

    2010-01-01

    H2S, the most recently discovered gasotransmitter, might in fact be the evolutionary matriarch of this family, being both ancient and highly reduced. Disruption of γ-cystathionase in mice leads to cardiovascular dysfunction and marked hypertension, suggesting a key role for this enzyme in H2S production in the vasculature. However, patients with inherited deficiency in γ-cystathionase apparently do not present vascular pathology. A mitochondrial pathway disposes sulfide and couples it to oxid...

  11. Comportamento de componentes bioquímicos do sangue em equinos submetidos à ozonioterapia Profile of blood biochemistry components in horses treated with ozone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Haddad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de constituintes bioquímicos sanguíneos (glicose, fibrinogênio, creatina fosfoquinase e gama-glutamiltransferase foi monitorado, in vivo, em 12 equinos mestiços (seis machos e seis fêmeas, com idade entre 4 e 20 anos, submetidos à ozonioterapia. O tratamento foi realizado mediante administração de 500 ou 1000mL da mistura de oxigênio-ozônio (O2-O3 por via intravenosa, a cada três dias, durante 24 dias. Os equinos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: MT500 constituído por três machos tratados com 500mL; MT1000 por três machos tratados com 1000mL; FT500, por três fêmeas tratadas com 500mL e FT1000, por três fêmeas tratadas com 1000mL. A ozonioterapia por via intravenosa não ocasionou alterações clínicas nos equinos. Os valores médios mínimos e máximos de glicose, fibrinogênio, creatina fosfoquinase e gama-glutamiltransferase mantiveram-se dentro dos limites de referência para a espécie equina. Houve diminuição nas concentrações da glicose e gama-glutamiltransferase ao longo dos períodos de aplicação e aumento nos valores do fibrinogênio. A creatina fosfoquinase não sofreu efeito do tratamento.The profile of blood biochemistry variables (glucose, fibrinogen, creatine phosphokinase, and gamma glutamyltransferase was in vivo monitored in 12 crossbred horses (six males and six females, aging from four to 20-years-old treated with ozone therapy. Treatments were carried out by applying 500 or 1000mL of the mixture oxygen-ozone (O2-O3 via intravenous route, every three days, during 24 days. Horses were assigned to four groups: MT500 (three males given 500mL, MT1000 (three males given 1000mL, FT500 (three females given 500mL and FT1000 (three females given 1000mL. Ozone therapy by intravenous route caused no clinical changes in the horses. Minimum and maximum mean values of glucose, fibrinogen, creatine phosphokinase, and gamma glutamyltransferase were within the range considered as normal reference

  12. A comparative study of lichen biochemistry and air pollution status of urban, semi urban and industrial area of Hooghly and Burdwan district, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K.

    2011-12-01

    vulnerable condition than industrial and urban area of Hooghly and Burdwan district. Moreover the micrograph study of representative lichen samples directly proved that lichen structure affected by air pollutants, but the extent of deformation exclusively depends on the level of pollutants present in the air. Results also suggest that different level of air pollutants (SO2, NOx and SPM affect the biochemical parameters of lichen, but more extensive study is needed to confirm the relationship between air pollution status and lichen biochemistry.

  13. Application of Problem Teaching Model in Biochemistry under Educational Informationization%教育信息化条件下问题性教学模式在生物化学课程教学的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛蔚; 唐超; 孙阳

    2013-01-01

    This paper focused on the problem teaching instruction in biochemistry adjusted to educational informationization through five aspects. The information computerization should be built to guide the teacher, the already available information should be used for establishing situation, the network information resource should be arranged to guide students, the interactive platform should be established for testing hypothesis, the examination model should be reformed for inspection education effect. The problem teaching instruction in biochemistry adopt to educational informationization will develop the students' ability better.%探讨了将生物化学课程教学中构建的问题性教学模式适应教育信息化的5个方面内容,即构建电子化信息,为教师提供指导;利用既有信息资源,创立问题情境;整理网络信息资源,为学生进行导航;应用互动平台,对自主假设进行验证;变革考试模式,检验学习效果.适应教育信息化发展的生物化学问题性教育模式将会更好地培养学生能力.

  14. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment Teaching Model of Medical Laboratory Technology%医学检验技术专业生物化学与分子生物学实验教学改革探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宁; 隋文; 李坤

    2014-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology experiment is an importment course in medical laboratory technology profession which in cultivating students' practical and innovative ability has an important role. But current drawbacks of traditional medical education has seriously affected the course of biochemistry and molecular biology experiment. Through the experimental curriculum, assessment methods, opening up laboratory and other aspects of the reform ,building a student-centered interactive multi-level open experimental teaching model, and comprehensively improve the students' innovative ability.%生物化学与分子生物学是医学检验技术专业中的一门重要课程,对培养学生的实践能力和创新能力具有重要作用。当前传统医学教育存在的弊端严重影响了该课程的实验教学。本教研室通过对实验课程、考核方式、开放实验室等方面的改革,构建了以学生为中心的多层次开放互动式实验教学模式,全面提高了学生的创新实践能力。

  15. Valores bioquímicos sanguíneos en hembras brahman bajo condiciones de pastoreo Clinical biochemistry values in serum from grazing brahman cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Alonso Villa

    1999-12-01

    g/L; globulines 40±10 g/L; urea 3.31±1.43 mmol/L; AST 158±34 U/L; Ca 2.50±0.21 mmol/L, and Mg 1.40±0.44 mmol/L. The increasing of beta-hydroxybutyrates and globulines, and a high activity of AST were the most frequent alterations. The serum biochemistry values for grazing B. indicus cattle are similar to the described values for B. taurus.

  16. Evaluation von multimedialen e-Lernkursen zur Vorbereitung auf ein biochemisches Praktikum [Evaluation of multimedia e-Learning preparatory courses for a practial course in Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rost, Birgit

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] The present study examined whether the application of multimedia learning courses is also suitable for preparing students for practical laboratory courses, both in terms of theory and practice. For this purpose, multimedia e-learning courses were provided and evaluated within the k-MED project. These courses were particularly tailored to the practical training in biochemistry, a mandatory course for third-semester students of medicine and dentistry in Marburg. Two weeks prior to the beginning of the practical course, one-half of the participants received the theoretical e-courses “lipid basics” and “lipid metabolism”, the other half was provided with the e-course “lipid methods”, which contained relevant laboratory techniques and digital guidance to the experiments. All participants were surveyed on user-friendliness and acceptance, and “hard” facts were collected with respect to success in learning for and attendance to the practical course. Assessment grades, test results, user-tracking data for the learning platform, and questionnaires were evaluated. Use of the e-courses led to a significant improvement in the level of achievement in terms of the assessment grades. Certain influencing factors, such as diligence or prior biochemical knowledge, were excluded by covariance analysis. The e-course led to improved levels of achievement in the practical training: groups to whom the methods course was provided made fewer experimental errors and needed less assistance from supervisors. Conclusion: e-learning courses cannot replace practical experience in laboratory courses; they can, however, as this extensive study shows, improve the level of achievement in classes by allowing more efficient preparation. Not only does this save time, but it also saves on expensive materials, relieves the burden on staff, and leads to a general improvement in teaching quality. [german] In der vorliegende Studie wurde untersucht, ob der

  17. 全自动生化分析仪检测血糖的校准验证%Calibration verification for blood glucose test in automatic biochemistry analyzers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琦; 谢伟; 徐建平; 李少男; 李小鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To perform calibration verification for the blood glucose test in Hitachi and Olympus automatic biochemistry analyzers and present a method of calibration verification and evaluate the results.Methods The glucose test results were divided into two groups:Hitachi and Olympus groups according to the different analytical instruments.The calibration verification was performed following the current College of American Pathologists strategies.The slope and intercept of the calibration line were tested by one-sample t test and the percentage differences were calculated.The percentage differences were compared with allowable errors.If the slope and intercept had no statistically significant difference from 1 and 0 respectively and the percentage differences were within the limits of allowable errors,the calibration line was evaluated as verified 1 ; if the slope and intercept had no statistically significant difference from 1 and 0 respectively and at least one of the percentage differences exceeded the limits of allowable errors,the calibration line was evaluated as different 1 ; if the slope or intercept had statistically significant difference from 1 and 0 respectively and the percentage differences were within the limits of allowable errors,the calibration line was evaluated as verified 2; if the slope or intercept had statistically significant difference from 1 and 0 respectively and at least one of the percentage differences exceeded the limits of allowable errors,the calibration line was evaluated as different 2.Results In Hitachi group,verified 1,different 1,verified 2 and different 2 were 5.4% ( 4/74 ),0.0% ( 0/74 ),68.9% ( 51/74 ) and 25.7% ( 19/74 ),respectively.In Olympus group,verified 1,different 1,verified 2 and different 2 were 16.4% (12/73),0.0% (0/73),58.9% (43/73) and 24.7% ( 18/73 ),respectively.Conclusions The current College of American Pathologist strategies could be performed as a reasonable and feasible method for

  18. Research on Autonomous Study Teaching Mode of Animal Biochemistry in Agricultural University%农业院校《动物生物化学》课程自主学习教学模式初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恩平; 刘林丽

    2012-01-01

    Animal Biochemistry is a very important fundamental course in disciplines of animal science and animal medicine. With the rapid development of bio-science and bio-technology, frontier subjects are constantly emerging from the crossing and blending of different subjects, which results in a great increase and expansion of teaching content of biochemistry course. The contradiction between excessive content and limited time of teaching has become a big problem in the course of biochemistry teaching in agricultural college and university. In the light of constructivism theory and with the combination of the teaching characteristics and teaching experience in the past few years, a new teaching approach, an autonomous study teaching mode, was introduced in this paper. The main parts of the mode are as follow; Targets and Tasks-Interests and Motives-Resources and Environment-Process Control-Feedback-Meaning Construction. This mode emphasizes the equal subject statuses of teacher and student for the purpose of promoting students' autonomy and initiative in the course of teaching. The contradiction of excessive content and limited teaching time has been solved and great progress has been made in teaching biochemistry by using this mode. This mode will play a positive role in cultivating college students' autonomous learning and good study habits, and in constructing a life-long learning society.%动物生物化学是农业院校动物科学与动物医学专业重要的专业基础课程.随着生物科学技术的迅猛发展,学科间交叉渗透不断产生新的生物边缘学科,使得动物生物化学课程涉及内容不断扩展,大量复杂教学内容和有限学时之间的矛盾已成为困扰大学动物生物化学教学工作的严峻问题.本文以建构主义教育理论为指导,结合动物生物化学课程的特点,总结近年教学改革成果,初步建立了动物生物化学课程大学生自主学习教学模式,其基本结构层次为:目标任

  19. 探究医学生学习心态改革生物化学教学模式%Exploring on medical students' learning attitudes to reform the teaching model of biochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红林; 程牛亮; 王晓霞

    2010-01-01

    为了进一步提高生物化学教学质量,山西医科大学生化化学与分子生物学教研室对医学各专业本科学生进行了有关生物化学课程学习基本状况的调查分析.结果 显示,课程内容的实用性、与自身专业的相关性、以及与各类应试和岗位实际需求之间的关系等诸多因素,严重影响了学生的学习心态,进而影响了教学效果.因此,生物化学教学改革应当强化专业特色,提高学生实践能力,兼顾应试和就业,并关注社会动态.%In order to improve the teaching quality of biochemistry, a survey on medical students' learning attitudes toward biochemistry was carried out. The results indicated that the students' learning psychological status was affected severely by a series of factors, such as the practicability, the connection with special field, the association with various kinds of examination, employment, actual need and so on about the content they learned. Therefore, it is very important for teaching reform to strengthen characteristic of the program, enhance students' ability of practice, give consideration to associated examination, and pay close attention to social development.

  20. Discussion on bilingual teaching of Biochemistry in six-year-clinical medicine and English majors%六年制临床医学与英语专业生物化学双语教学探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟静; 孙凌云; 张媛英; 伊淑莹

    2012-01-01

    In order to deepen the medical education reform, improve teaching quality of Biochemistry, we started bilingual teaching in 2003 in 6-year clinical medicine and English speciality, from syllabus design, material selection and preparation, teaching method reform and other aspects of attempt. Through nearly 10 years of trials and efforts, we have made bilingual teaching mode according to the characteristics of students' specialty and professional basis. Sampling survey reveals that the level of students' satisfaction towards bilingual teaching of Biochemistry is 29%, that of general satisfaction is 56%, and of dissatisfaction is 15%. In the evaluation organized by the university for teaching effect, our performance has been increasing year by year.%为了深化医学教育改革,进一步提高生物化学教学质量,我们教学团队从2003年开始在6年制临床医学与英语专业试行双语教学,从教学大纲制定、教材选择与编写、教学方法改革等多方面进行了尝试.通过近10年的尝试和努力,我们根据学生专业特点和专业基础形成了该专业学生的双语教学模式.抽样问卷调查显示学生对生物化学双语教学满意者达29%,基本满意达56%,不满意者为15%.而且在学校组织的教学效果评价中,成绩逐年提高.

  1. Bringing the Excitement and Motivation of Research to Students; Using Inquiry and Research-Based Learning in a Year-Long Biochemistry Laboratory: Part I--Guided Inquiry--Purification and Characterization of a Fusion Protein--Histidine Tag, Malate Dehydrogenase, and Green Fluorescent Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kristopher; Smith, Jennifer; Wallert, Mark A.; Provost, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    A successful laboratory experience provides the foundation for student success, creating active participation in the learning process. Here, we describe a new approach that emphasizes research, inquiry and problem solving in a year-long biochemistry experience. The first semester centers on the purification, characterization, and analysis of a…

  2. 两种微生物学等级老龄Wistar大鼠血清生化值比较%Comparison of serum biochemistry between specific pathogen-free and coventional aged Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖育华; 詹纯列; 李建军; 武婕; 李新春; 郑文岭

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨普通级、SPF级老龄Wistar大鼠血清生化值的差异.方法用Coulter-JT全自动生化检测仪检测血清生化值.结果在老年SPF级Wistar大鼠的雌性与雄性之间,谷丙酶、总蛋白、碱性磷酸酶、总胆固醇、甘油三酯、尿素氮、肌酐、铁、磷、血糖、尿酸、低密度脂蛋白差异非常显著(P<0.01),白蛋白、乳酸脱氢酶、载脂蛋白B差异显著(P<0.05).老年SPF级雄性Wistar大鼠与老年普通级雄性Wistar大鼠间的总蛋白、白蛋白、白球比、总胆固醇、甘油三酯、血糖、载脂蛋白A1、载脂蛋白B、尿酸、高密度脂蛋白、低密度脂蛋白、谷草酶差异非常显著(P<0.01),谷丙酶、铁、镁差异显著(P<0.05).老年SPF级雌性Wistar大鼠与普通级雌性Wistar大鼠间的谷丙酶、总蛋白、白蛋白、白球比、碱性磷酸酶、甘油三酯、尿素氮、肌酐、铁、载脂蛋白A1、载脂蛋白B、高密度脂蛋白、低密度脂蛋白、胆汁酸差异非常显著(P<0.01),镁含量差异显著(P<0.05).结论微生物学等级因素对Wistar大鼠的血清生化值有影响.%Objective To investigate the differences in serum biochemistry between specific pathogen-free (SPF) and conventional aged Wistar rats. Methods Coulter-JT Analyzer was used to measure the values of serum biochemistry in the two grades of rats. Results The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein (TP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, Fe, P, glucose, uric acid (UA), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were very significantly different between male and female Wistar rats of either conventional or SPF grade (P<0.01), which also had significant difference in albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) (P<0.05).Between male aged Wistar rats of the two grades, the differences of TP, albumin, albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio, TC, TG, blood

  3. Frontalunterricht oder interaktive Gruppenarbeit? Ein Vergleich des Lernerfolgs und der studentischen Evaluation für das Fach Biochemie [Didactic lecture or interactive group discussion? A comparison of the learning success and the student evaluation in biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadmon, Martina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Interactive, student-centered teaching methods have replaced traditional teacher-centered didactic formats in many modern medical curricula in the past few years. However, in the natural sciences such as biochemistry, interactive teaching methods are not well proven. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of the teaching format on the performance of undergraduate students in biochemistry and their evaluation of the respective format. Methods: A total of 421 second-year students were randomized into two groups: The control group was taught in a traditional lecture-like format, whereas the study group dealt with the same topic in an interactive group discussion. At the end of each lesson, students performed a multiple-choice test and completed a questionnaire. The same MCQ test was repeated 4–6 weeks after the last lesson. Results: Students who were taught in a lecture-like format performed significantly better in the first MCQ test immediately after the lesson than students taught in the interactive format. However, in the second MCQ test, there was no difference between the two groups. In the questionnaire, students rated the lecture-based course significantly better than the interactive group discussion. Conclusion: One reason why students prefer a didactic lecture to an interactive group discussion might be due to the subject biochemistry, which is strongly knowledge-based. Students perceived that the transfer of knowledge by a professional lecturer was more effective than the knowledge obtained in a student-centered discussion group. Other reasons might be the method of assessment and the overall design of the curriculum. [german] Zielsetzung: Interaktive, Lerner-orientierte Unterrichtsmethoden werden vielfach mit moderner und guter Lehre in Verbindung gebracht und ersetzen zunehmend konventionellen, Lehrer-zentrierten Frontalunterricht. In naturwissenschaftlichen Fächern, wie Biochemie, sind interaktive

  4. “三维立体”教学模式在生物化学教学中的构建和应用%The Construction and Application of“Three-dimension”Teaching Mode in Biochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许衡; 刘志伟; 韩春艳; 肖迪; 姚琼凤

    2014-01-01

    “三维立体”教学模式是基于PBL教学法,以教学逻辑模块的划分,生化动静态教学内容的归类和依据不同教学内容相应教学方法的具体应用为“三维立体”三个方向变量,开展生物化学教学的新型教学模式。实践证明,这种新型教学模式不仅能够提高课程的教学质量,还能促进学生实践能力的培养。%The “three -dimensional” teaching mode is a new effective teaching pattern based on PBL teaching method and consists of three direction variables: the logic sequence of teaching modules , the specific classification of dynamic and static teaching content , and specific teaching methodology for specific teaching content.The results indicated that this new teaching mode not only improved the teaching quality in biochemistry , but also promoted the culture of students'practical skills.

  5. Effect of vitamin D supplementation, directly or via breast milk for term infants, on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D and related biochemistry, and propensity to infection: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, David D; Kare, Jahnavi; Singh, Shakal N; Agarwal, Anjoo; Das, Vinita; Singh, Urmila; Ramesh, V; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-07-01

    We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation on related biochemistry, infection and dentition of the infant. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in Lucknow, India (latitude 26°N), 230 mother -newborn pairs were randomised to receive, for 9 months, 3000µg/month oral vitamin D3 by the mother (group A) or 10µg/d by the infant (group B) or double placebo (group C). All babies received 15 min of sun exposure (unclothed) during massage. Infants' median 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was lower in group C (median 45·3; interquartile range (IQR) 22-59·5 nmol/l) than in groups A (median 60·8; IQR 41·3-80·5 nmol/l (P7.5µkat/l) was significantly more frequent in group C babies (16 %) than in group A (4 %) or group B (0 %) babies. The number of days with respiratory or diarrhoeal infection by 9 months of age was higher in group C (median 46·5; IQR 14·8-73·3 d) than in group A (median 18·5; IQR 8·8-31·0 d (POH)D at 3·5 months, and provide protection from elevated alkaline phosphatase and infectious morbidity. PMID:27184759

  6. Positive moderation of the hematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, by an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria liberica Gerome and Labroy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ikewuchi Jude Chigozie; Ikewuchi Catherine Chidinma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ability of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria liberica (S. liberica) to alter the hematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Method: Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of alloxan (80 mg/kg body weight), via the tail vein. The extract was administered orally at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (both to normal and diabetic rats), and metformin at 50 mg/kg body weight.Results:Compared to test control, the treatment dose dependently, significantly lowered (P<0.05) ocular malondialdehyde content, atherogenic indices, red cell, total white cell and lymphocyte counts, mean cell hemoglobin concentration; and plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride, total-, very low density lipoprotein-, low density lipoprotein- and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterols, total, conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin, sodium, urea, blood urea nitrogen, as well as plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases. However, the treatment significantly increased (P<0.05) hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell volume, neutrophil and monocyte counts, and plasma levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, potassium, chloride, calcium, bicarbonate and total protein, ocular ascorbic acid content and ocular activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. This study showed the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, immune-modulating, ocular-, hepato-renal and cardio-protective potentials of the extract. Conclusions: All these, support the use of the leaves of S. liberica in African traditional health care practices for the management of diabetes mellitus.

  7. 肥胖儿童脂联素水平与肥胖相关生化指标的研究%Study on the adiponectin level and the relationship between adiponectin and the related biochemistry variables in obese schoolchildren

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖黎; 陈新峰; 袁飞; 倪雨中; 俞晓红

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study aims to investigate the level of adiponectin and correlations among serum adiponectin concentration and related biochemistry variables in obese children. Methods Serum adiponectin was analyzed with ELISA. 78 pairs of obese children and normal control children were recruited to study the correlation of adiponectin and serum levels of biochemistry variables. All the children were matched by age, gender and height and were all from junior and middle schools. Results The serum adiponectin of teenagers were not normally distributed. Serum adiponectin concentration was significantly lower in obese children than in control children (7.60μg/ml ± 4.58μg/ml vs 10.08 μg/ml ± 5.36μg/ml, P < 0.05; Median P506.12μg/ml vs 8.71μg/ml). The abnormality rates of ALT and TG are higher in obese children than that in normal children. Serum adiponectin concentration was positively correlated with APO-A1 (r=0.32, P=0.012) but negatively correlated with GLU (r= -0.33, P=0.004) in normal children. Serum adiponectin concentration was positively correlated with GLU ( r = 0.23, P = 0.041 ) but negatively correlated with GGT (r= -0.25,P=0.049), insulin (r= -0.31,P=0.006) and ISI (r= -0.36,P=0.001) in obese children. Conclusions The serum adiponectin level is significantly lower in obese children than that in normal children. There are certain correlations among adiponectin, liver cell injury, and derangement of glucose and lipid metabolism.%目的 探讨肥胖儿体内脂联素水平的变化情况及脂联素与肥胖相关生化指标的关系.方法 采用配对设计,测定78对肥胖和对照儿童的血清脂联素,胰岛素,糖、脂代谢指标等.结果 儿童脂联素测定值为非正态分布.肥胖儿童脂联素水平低于正常对照儿童(7.60 μg/ml±4.58 μg/ml vs 10.08 μg/ml±5.36 μg/ml,P<0.05;中位数P50 6.12 μg/ml vs 8.71μg/ml).肥胖组谷丙转氨酶、甘油三酯的异常率都明显高于对照组.正常体重儿童的脂

  8. A possible pathophysiological role of tyrosine hydroxylase in Parkinson's disease suggested by postmortem brain biochemistry: a contribution for the special 70th birthday symposium in honor of Prof. Peter Riederer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Akira; Ota, Akira; Kaneko, Yoko S; Mori, Keiji; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Nagatsu, Toshiharu

    2013-01-01

    Postmortem brain biochemistry has revealed that the main symptom of movement disorder in Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by a deficiency in dopamine (DA) at the nerve terminals of degenerating nigro-striatal DA neurons in the striatum. Since tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of DA, TH may play an important role in the disease process of PD. DA regulated by TH activity is thought to interact with α-synuclein protein, which results in intracellular aggregates called Lewy bodies and causes apoptotic cell death during the aging process. Human TH has several isoforms produced by alternative mRNA splicing, which may affect activation by phosphorylation of serine residues in the N-terminus of TH. The activity and protein level of TH are decreased to cause DA deficiency in the striatum in PD. However, the homo-specific activity (activity/enzyme protein) of TH is increased. This increase in TH homo-specific activity suggests activation by increased phosphorylation at the N-terminus of the TH protein for a compensatory increase in DA synthesis. We recently found that phosphorylation of the N-terminal portion of TH triggers proteasomal degradation of the enzyme to increase TH turnover. We propose a hypothesis that this compensatory activation of TH by phosphorylation in the remaining DA neurons may contribute to a further decrease in TH protein and activity in DA neurons in PD, causing a vicious circle of decreasing TH activity, protein level and DA contents. Furthermore, increased TH homo-specific activity leading to an increase in DA may cause toxic reactive oxygen species in the neurons to promote neurodegeneration. PMID:22644539

  9. The utilization of mind map in plant biochemistry and molecular biology teaching%思维导图在《植物生化与分子生物学》教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马三梅; 王永飞; 李宏业

    2012-01-01

    Because mind map can increase the understanding of the whole knowledge frame, then we used it in teaching plant biochemistry and molecular biology. Using the mind maps of cell wall as examples, the definition of mind map, the reasons of making mind map and how to make mind map are introduced. Mind map can help students to grasp its knowledge frame, and understand the logic relationship between the knowledge. At last, we let students make mind map using Freehand software, and then use it to prepare lessons before class and review the class after class. Mind map can make student master the professional knowledge systematically, also can enhance their abilities of reading and learning by themselves. At the same time, students can learn to use freehand. So, mind map is a useful tool in learning and teaching.%本文介绍了思维导图的概念、为什么要制作和如何制作思维导图等问题,并展示了如何利用思维导图来使学生了解章节内容的整体框架,明白各知识点之间的逻辑关系,还让学生利用制图软件制作思维导图在预习和复习中使用.思维导图使学生系统地掌握专业知识,并提高阅读和自学能力,又学会制图软件的使用方法,一举多得.

  10. Effects of Different Store Temperature on Biochemistry Indexes of Yellow Skin Onion%不同贮藏温度对黄皮洋葱鳞茎生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单成海

    2013-01-01

    Yellow skin onions were stored at room temperature, 5℃and 15℃respectively and some biochemistry indexes of onion were determined and analyzed. Results showed that soluble protein content (SPC) , soluble sugar content (SSC) , activities of peroxidase (POD) , Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) were all changed, which could be used as indexes to determine quality of store onion. The differences between the rotten number of onion stored at 5℃and that of onion stored at 15℃and at room temperature were significant (P<0.01, P<0.05). Activities of the above enzymes were stable, and 5℃ is better for store of yellow skin onion.%黄皮洋葱鳞茎在室温、5、15℃条件下进行贮藏,在7、30、60、90d时比较不同温度条件对洋葱鳞茎生化指标的影响.结果表明,黄皮洋葱鳞茎的可溶性蛋白含量(SPC)、可溶性糖含量(SSC)、过氧化物酶(POD)活性、超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)活性、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性发生了改变,可作为洋葱鳞茎贮藏性检测的指标;鳞茎腐烂数在5、15℃和室温的贮藏条件达到0.01和0.05水平差异显著,酶活性稳定,5℃的贮藏温度最有利于黄皮洋葱鳞茎的贮藏.

  11. Zooplankton: its biochemistry and significance in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kibria, G; Nugegoda, D.; Fairclough, R.; Lam, P.; Bradly, A.

    1997-01-01

    Zooplankton are an important food source for many species of fish. They can provide an inexpensive alternative to other commercial feeds. Zooplankton have several advantages, among them a faster growth and greater feed efficiency for some species. The flavor and texture of fish are also improved with zooplankton as feed. Further research is needed on the chemical composition of zooplankton, the development of zooplankton-based dry diets and the effects of the replacement of fish meal with zoo...

  12. Biochemistry and pharmacology of cyclooxygenase inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, J M

    1989-01-01

    Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are local hormones synthesized from essential fatty acids by the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase systems. Many anti-inflammatory drugs function by inhibiting prostaglandin production. Acetylsalicylic acid irreversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase by acetylating a serine residue in the active site. Aspirin selectively stimulates the proliferative responses of T-lymphocytes in part by enhancing IL-2 production. Cells recover from aspirin by synthesizing new cyclooxyge...

  13. Biochemistry and molecular biology of chromoplast development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, B; Hugueney, P; Bouvier, F; Kuntz, M; Monéger, R

    1995-01-01

    Plant cells contain a unique class of organelles, designated the plastids, which distinguish them from animal cells. According to the largely accepted endosymbiotic theory of evolution, plastids are descendants of prokaryotes. This process requires several adaptative changes which involve the maintenance and the expression of part of the plastid genome, as well as the integration of the plastid activity to the cellular metabolism. This is illustrated by the diversity of plastids encountered in plant cells. For instance, in tissues undergoing color changes, i.e., flowers and fruits, the chromoplasts produce and accumulate excess carotenoids. In this paper we attempt to review the basic aspects of chromoplast development. PMID:8522420

  14. Relating soil biochemistry to sustainable crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids, amino sugars, carbohydrates, phenols, and fatty acids together comprise appreciable proportions of soil organic matter (SOM). Their cycling contribute to soil processes, including nitrogen availability, carbon sequestration and aggregation. For example, soil accumulation of phenols has ...

  15. Recent Developments in Nematode Steroid Biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Chitwood, David J.; Lozano, Ruben; Lusby, William R.

    1986-01-01

    Current knowledge of steroid nutrition, metabolism, and function in free-living, plant-parasitic and animal-parasitic nematodes is reviewed, with emphasis upon recent investigation of Caenorhabditis elegans. A number of 4-desmethylsterols with a trans-A/B ring configuration can satisfy the steroid nutritional requirement in C. elegans, but sterols with a cis-A/B ring configuration or trans-A/B sterols with a 4-methyl group cannot. C. elegans removes methyl or ethyl substituents at C-24 of the...

  16. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Marisa; Oliveira, Teresa; Fernandes, Rúben

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of n...

  17. GENETICS AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF MYCOTOXIN SYNTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are low molecular weight secondary metabolites produced by fungi. These compounds are toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic to animals and humans. Over 300 mycotoxins have been identified, but only those implicated in mycotoxicoses involving humans have been studied in detail ...

  18. A Comprehensive Enzyme Kinetic Exercise for Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Janice S.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a comprehensive treatment of experimental enzyme kinetics strongly coupled to electronic data acquisition and use of spreadsheets to organize data and perform linear and nonlinear least-squares analyses, all in a manner that promotes development of important reasoning skills. Kinetic parameters are obtained for the stable…

  19. Coffee: biochemistry and potential impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Clifford, Michael N; Lean, Michael E J; Ashihara, Hiroshi; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    This review provides details on the phytochemicals in green coffee beans and the changes that occur during roasting. Key compounds in the coffee beverage, produced from the ground, roasted beans, are volatile constituents responsible for the unique aroma, the alkaloids caffeine and trigonelline, chlorogenic acids, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, and melanoidins, which are Maillard reaction products. The fate of these compounds in the body following consumption of coffee is discussed along with evidence of the mechanisms by which they may impact on health. Finally, epidemiological findings linking coffee consumption to potential health benefits including prevention of several chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease, are evaluated. PMID:24671262

  20. Biochemistry of Ammonia Monoxygenase from Nitrosomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Hooper

    2009-07-15

    Major results. 1. CytochromecM552, a protein in the electron transfer chain to ammonia monooxygenase. Purification, modeling of protein structure based on primary structure, characterization of 4 hemes by magnetic spectroscopy, potentiometry, ligand binding and turnover. Kim, H. J., ,Zatsman, et al. 2008). 2. Characterization of proteins which thought to be involved in the AMO reaction or to protect AMO from toxic nitrogenous intermediates such as NO. Nitrosocyanin is a protein present only in bacteria which catalyze the ammonia monoxygenase reaction (1). Cytochrome c P460 beta and cytochrome c’ beta.

  1. Biochemistry and Function of the RNA Exosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubas, Michal Szymon; Chlebowski, Aleksander; Dziembowski, Andrzej;

    2012-01-01

    Discovery of the evolutionary conserved RNA exosome was a milestone in RNA biology. First identified as an activity essential for the processing of ribosomal RNA, the exosome has since proved to be central for RNA processing and degradation in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells....... This multisubunit protein complex consists of a catalytically inert 9-subunit core endowed with associated ribonucleolytic activities and further assisted by compartment-specific cofactors required for its activation and substrate targeting. Although many features of exosome biology are known, fundamental aspects...... are still under investigation. In this chapter, we review current biochemical and functional knowledge of eukaryotic exosomes. After introducing some of their nuclear and cytoplasmic functions, we discuss the structural organization and evolutionary aspects of exosome complexes. Finally, we describe...

  2. Recent advances in bacterial heme protein biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mayfield, Jeffery A.; Dehner, Carolyn A.; Dubois, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in genetics, fed by the burst in genome sequence data, has led to the identification of a host of novel bacterial heme proteins that are now being characterized in structural and mechanistic terms. The following short review highlights very recent work with bacterial heme proteins involved in the uptake, biosynthesis, degradation, and use of heme in respiration and sensing.

  3. Biochemistry of Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Sanath Kumar; Varela, Manuel F.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens that are multi-drug resistant compromise the effectiveness of treatment when they are the causative agents of infectious disease. These multi-drug resistance mechanisms allow bacteria to survive in the presence of clinically useful antimicrobial agents, thus reducing the efficacy of chemotherapy towards infectious disease. Importantly, active multi-drug efflux is a major mechanism for bacterial pathogen drug resistance. Therefore, because of their overwhelming presence in ...

  4. Biochemistry of Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanath Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens that are multi-drug resistant compromise the effectiveness of treatment when they are the causative agents of infectious disease. These multi-drug resistance mechanisms allow bacteria to survive in the presence of clinically useful antimicrobial agents, thus reducing the efficacy of chemotherapy towards infectious disease. Importantly, active multi-drug efflux is a major mechanism for bacterial pathogen drug resistance. Therefore, because of their overwhelming presence in bacterial pathogens, these active multi-drug efflux mechanisms remain a major area of intense study, so that ultimately measures may be discovered to inhibit these active multi-drug efflux pumps.

  5. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2008-04-25

    Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

  6. Biology beyond biochemistry: The mechanics of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Paul A.

    In the last half century, biologists have made great strides towards understanding the intricate structure of the cell and the relation between this structure and cellular function. Single-molecule techniques and advances in microscopy have also significantly changed the way in which biologists ask and answer questions. As biological measurements and techniques have become increasingly quantitative, they have allowed biologists to ask ever more quantitative questions: How do the molecular machines, which comprise the cell function microscopically? Can we understand the design principles that govern the structure and function of biological systems on a microscopic scale? One outcome of this new generation of quantitative biological questions is the need to greet quantitative experiments with models at a higher level of abstraction than the traditional cartoons of molecular biology. In this thesis, I present two such quantitative models. In the first half of this thesis, I present a physical model for mechanotransduction. Mechanosensitive channels are the central agents employed by cells to transduce mechanical stimuli. Our senses of hearing and touch are both examples of this functional motif. The Mechanosensitive Channel of Large conductance (MscL) is arguably the simplest and best studied mechanosensitive channel. I present analytic estimates for the forces and free energy generated by bilayer deformation which reveal a compelling and intuitive model for the function of the MscL channel, analogous to the nucleation of a second phase. The competition between hydrophobic mismatch of the protein with the surrounding membrane and tension results in a surprisingly rich story, which can provide both a quantitative comparison to measurements of the opening tension for MscL when reconstituted in bilayers of different thickness and qualitative insights into the function of the MscL channel and other transmembrane proteins. In the second half of this thesis, I examine models for the mechanics of DNA. DNA bending, on length scales shorter than a persistence length, plays a central role in the translation of genetic information from DNA to cellular function. Quantitative experimental studies of these biological systems have led to a renewed interest in the short-contour-length polymer statistics relevant for describing the conformational free energy of DNA bending induced by protein-DNA complexes. The recent DNA cyclization studies of Cloutier and Widom have questioned the applicability of the canonical semiflexible polymer theory, the wormlike chain model, to DNA bending on biological length scales. We describe a new class of polymer models that can resolve the proposed discrepancy between short and long-contour-length bending. These models explain the spectacular success of the wormlike chain model in describing many traditional DNA mechanics experiments, as well as its failure to describe the short-contour-length mechanics of DNA. In particular, I present two toy models for DNA bending which capture the short-contour-length behavior observed by Cloutier and Widom. These toy models make quantitative predictions for chain statistics of DNA, observable in DNA mechanics experiments and of central importance to the qualitative description of cellular function, from chromosomal DNA packaging to transcription and gene regulation to viral packaging.

  7. Pentose utilization in yeasts: Physiology and biochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppson, H.

    1996-04-01

    The fermentive performance of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi was investigated in a pentose (xylose)-rich lignocellulosic hydrolyzate. The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum and the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis were found to be very sensitive to the inhibiting hydrolyzate. Recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed very poor ethanol formation from xylose; xylitol being the major product formed. The highest ethanol yields were obtained with recombinant Escherichia coli KO11, however, for maximal ethanol yield detoxification of the hydrolyzate was required. The influence of oxygen on the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in the xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis CBS 6054 was investigated. A low and well-controlled level of oxygenation has been found to be required for efficient ethanol formation from xylose by the xylose-fermenting yeasts. The requirement of oxygen is frequently ascribed to the apparent redox imbalance which develops under anaerobic conditions due to the difference in co-factor utilization of the two first enzymes in the xylose metabolism, further reflected in xylitol excretion. However, a low and well controlled level of oxygenation for maximal ethanol production from glucose was also demonstrated, suggesting that the oxygen requirement is not only due to the dual co-factor utilization, but also serves other purposes. Cyanide-insensitive and salicyl hydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration (CIR) was found in P. stipitis. CIR is suggested to act as a redox sink preventing xylitol formation in P. stipitis under oxygen-limited xylose fermentations. Xylitol metabolism by P. stipitis CBS 6054 was strictly respiratory and ethanol was not formed under any conditions. The absence of ethanol formation was not due to a lack of fermentative enzymes, since the addition of glucose to xylitol-pregrown cells resulted in ethanol formation. 277 refs, 5 figs, 7 tabs

  8. Ultrashort Phenomena in Biochemistry and Biological Signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In biological phenomena there are indications that within the long pulse-length of the action potential on millisecond scale, there is additional ultrashort perturbation encoding that provides the brain with detailed information about the origin (location) and physiological characteristics. The objective is to identify the mechanism-of-action providing the potential for encoding in biological signal propagation. The actual molecular processes involved in the initiation of the action potential have been identified to be in the femtosecond and pico-second scale. The depolarization process of the cellular membrane itself, leading to the onset of the actionpotential that is transmitted to the brain, however is in the millisecond timeframe. One example of the femtosecond chemical interaction is the photoresponse of bacteriorhodopsin. No clear indication for the spatial encoding has so far been verified. Further research will be required on a cellular signal analysis level to confirm or deny the spatial and physiological encoding in the signal wave-trains of intercellular communications and sensory stimuli. The pathological encoding process for cardiac depolarization is however very pronounced and validated, however this electro-chemical process is in the millisecond amplitude and frequency modulation spectrum

  9. Applications of NMR spectroscopy to systems biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Teresa W-M; Lane, Andrew N

    2016-02-01

    The past decades of advancements in NMR have made it a very powerful tool for metabolic research. Despite its limitations in sensitivity relative to mass spectrometric techniques, NMR has a number of unparalleled advantages for metabolic studies, most notably the rigor and versatility in structure elucidation, isotope-filtered selection of molecules, and analysis of positional isotopomer distributions in complex mixtures afforded by multinuclear and multidimensional experiments. In addition, NMR has the capacity for spatially selective in vivo imaging and dynamical analysis of metabolism in tissues of living organisms. In conjunction with the use of stable isotope tracers, NMR is a method of choice for exploring the dynamics and compartmentation of metabolic pathways and networks, for which our current understanding is grossly insufficient. In this review, we describe how various direct and isotope-edited 1D and 2D NMR methods can be employed to profile metabolites and their isotopomer distributions by stable isotope-resolved metabolomic (SIRM) analysis. We also highlight the importance of sample preparation methods including rapid cryoquenching, efficient extraction, and chemoselective derivatization to facilitate robust and reproducible NMR-based metabolomic analysis. We further illustrate how NMR has been applied in vitro, ex vivo, or in vivo in various stable isotope tracer-based metabolic studies, to gain systematic and novel metabolic insights in different biological systems, including human subjects. The pathway and network knowledge generated from NMR- and MS-based tracing of isotopically enriched substrates will be invaluable for directing functional analysis of other 'omics data to achieve understanding of regulation of biochemical systems, as demonstrated in a case study. Future developments in NMR technologies and reagents to enhance both detection sensitivity and resolution should further empower NMR in systems biochemical research. PMID:26952191

  10. Biochemistry of the extracellular matrix of Volvox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumper, M; Hallmann, A

    1998-01-01

    The volvocine algae range in complexity from unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular organisms in the genus Volvox. The transition from unicellularity to multicellularity in the Volvocales is a recent event in evolution. Thus, these organisms provide a unique opportunity for exploring the development of a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) from the cell wall of a unicellular ancestor. The ECM of Volvox is divided into four main zones: The flagellar, boundary, cellular, and deep zones. Each zone is defined by ultrastructure and by characteristic ECM glycoproteins. Volvox ECM is modified under developmental control or in response to external stimuli, like the sex-inducing pheromone or stress factors. The structures of more than 10 ECM glycoproteins from a single species of Volvox are now known in molecular detail and are compared to other algal and plant cell wall/ECM glycoproteins. Although usually classified as hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, the striking feature of all algal ECM glycoproteins is a modular composition. Rod-shaped hydroxyproline-rich modules are combined with hydroxyproline-free domains that meet the multiple functional requirements of a complex ECM. The algal ECM provides another example of the combinatorial advantage of shuffling modules that is so evident in the evolution of the metazoan ECMs. PMID:9496634

  11. The biochemistry and technology of tea manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokuchava, M A; Skobeleva, N I

    1980-01-01

    This review surveys tea-production technology, chemistry of raw and manufactured tea as well as tea tasting appraisal and chemical analysis of manufactured tea. The paper describes the healthful properties of tea, gives general information on the tea plant and manufactured tea, and presents classification of teas as related to the processing of black green, yellow, and red tea, green pressed tea as well as instant tea and tea dyes. The paper discusses the chemical composition of raw and manufactured tea as well as approaches to the evaluation of tea quality--tea tasting appraisal and chemical analysis. The paper is supplied with the conclusions and references. The section on the healthful properties of tea discusses various aspects of catechin effects--vitamin P, antimicrobial, antioxidative and radioprotective effects. Also described are favorable effects of tea alkaloids--caffeine, theobromine, theophylline that dilatate cerebral vessels and alleviate headaches. The section on the production of different teas (black, green, yellow, red, instant teas, and tea dyes) considers technological methods and biochemical bases of various types of tea manufacture. The role of tea leaf enzymes in the oxidative processes determining the tea quality is discussed in detail. This section also describes the contribution of thermochemical processes into the formation of tea flavor. The compounds dictating tea taste and aroma are discussed, particularly tannins and catechins, volatile oils, nitrogen compounds, and some other substances. PMID:6996921

  12. Biochemistry and structure of phosphoinositide phosphatases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Yil Bahk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositides are the phosphorylated derivatives ofphosphatidylinositol, and play a very significant role in adiverse range of signaling processes in eukaryotic cells. Anumber of phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzymes, includingphosphoinositide-kinases and phosphatases are involved in thesynthesis and degradation of these phospholipids. Recently,the function of various phosphatases in the phosphatidylinositolsignaling pathway has been of great interest. In thepresent review we summarize the structural insights andbiochemistry of various phosphatases in regulating phosphoinositidemetabolism. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1: 1-8

  13. Ultrashort Phenomena in Biochemistry and Biological Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, Robert

    2014-11-01

    In biological phenomena there are indications that within the long pulse-length of the action potential on millisecond scale, there is additional ultrashort perturbation encoding that provides the brain with detailed information about the origin (location) and physiological characteristics. The objective is to identify the mechanism-of-action providing the potential for encoding in biological signal propagation. The actual molecular processes involved in the initiation of the action potential have been identified to be in the femtosecond and pico-second scale. The depolarization process of the cellular membrane itself, leading to the onset of the actionpotential that is transmitted to the brain, however is in the millisecond timeframe. One example of the femtosecond chemical interaction is the photoresponse of bacteriorhodopsin. No clear indication for the spatial encoding has so far been verified. Further research will be required on a cellular signal analysis level to confirm or deny the spatial and physiological encoding in the signal wave-trains of intercellular communications and sensory stimuli. The pathological encoding process for cardiac depolarization is however very pronounced and validated, however this electro-chemical process is in the millisecond amplitude and frequency modulation spectrum.

  14. Biochemistry of Selenium in Pariette Wetlands, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Colleen P.

    2014-01-01

    The Pariette Wetlands was constructed to provide wildlife habitat in an arid environment. Elevated levels of selenium (Se) have been detected in water, soil, and biota. Selenium concentrations have ranged from below detection limit to four times the water quality criterium limit. Here we report on three interrelated research topics: 1) selenium mass balance and flux in water, 2) selenium accumulation, concentration and volatilization of water and plant tissues; and 3) selenium sorption by upl...

  15. Biochemistry of homocysteine in health and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, S; Sulochana, K N; Lakshmi, S; Selvi, R; Angayarkanni, N

    2006-10-01

    The amino acid homocysteine (Hcy), formed from methionine has profound importance in health and diseases. In normal circumstances, it is converted to cysteine and partly remethylated to methionine with the help of vit B12 and folate. However, when normal metabolism is disturbed, due to deficiency of cystathionine-beta-synthase, which requires vit B6 for activation, Hcy is accumulated in the blood with an increase of methionine, resulting into mental retardation (homocystinuria type I). A decrease of cysteine may cause eye diseases, due to decrease in the synthesis of glutathione (antioxidant). In homocystinurias type II, III and IV, there is accumulation of Hcy, but a decrease of methionine, thus, there is no mental retardation. Homocysteinemia is found in Marfan syndrome, some cases of type I diabetes and is also linked to smoking and has genetic basis too. In hyperhomocysteinemias (HHcys), clinical manifestations are mental retardation and seizures (type I only), ectopia lentis, secondary glaucoma, optic atrophy, retinal detachment, skeletal abnormalities, osteoporosis, vascular changes, neurological dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Thrombotic and cardiovascular diseases may also be encountered. The harmful effects of homocysteinemias are due to (i) production of oxidants (reactive oxygen species) generated during oxidation of Hcy to homocystine and disulphides in the blood. These could oxidize membrane lipids and proteins. (ii) Hcy can react with proteins with their thiols and form disulphides (thiolation), (iii) it can also be converted to highly reactive thiolactone which could react with the proteins forming -NH-CO- adducts, thus affecting the body proteins and enzymes. Homocystinuria type I is very rare (1 in 12 lakhs only) and is treated with supplementation of vit B6 and cystine. Others are more common and are treated with folate, vit B12 and in selected cases as in methionine synthase deficiency, methionine, avoiding excess. In this review, the role of elevated Hcy levels in cardiovascular, ocular, neurologial and other diseases and the possible therapeutic measures, in addition to the molecular mechanisms involved in deleterious manifestations of homocysteinemia, have been discussed. PMID:17133733

  16. Bioenergetics molecular biology, biochemistry, and pathology

    CERN Document Server

    Ozawa, Takayuki

    1990-01-01

    The emergence of the Biochemical Sciences is underlined by the FAOB symposium in Seoul and highlighted by this Satellite meeting on the "New Bioenergetics. " Classical mitochondrial electron transfer and energy coupling is now complemented by the emerging molecular biology of the respiratory chain which is studied hand in hand with the recognition of mitochondrial disease as a major and emerging study in the basic and clinical medical sciences. Thus, this symposium has achieved an important balance of the fundamental and applied aspects of bioenergetics in the modern setting of molecular biology and mitochondrial disease. At the same time, the symposium takes note not only of the emerging excellence of Biochemical Studies in the Orient and indeed in Korea itself, but also retrospectively enjoys the history of electron transport and energy conservation as represented by the triumvirate ofYagi, King and Slater. Many thanks are due Drs. Kim and Ozawa for their elegant organization of this meeting and its juxtapo...

  17. Virtual Laboratories in Chemistry, Biochemistry, & Molecular Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Report (state-of-the-art review) from a research and development project on virtual laboratories supported by Markedmodningsfonden (tidl. "Fornyelsesfonden")(2012-2014). http://markedsmodningsfonden.dk/projekt/0/34/495....

  18. Error tracking in a clinical biochemistry laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Ødum, Lars

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We report our results for the systematic recording of all errors in a standard clinical laboratory over a 1-year period. METHODS: Recording was performed using a commercial database program. All individuals in the laboratory were allowed to report errors. The testing processes were cl...

  19. Guidelines for the Design of Biochemistry Websites

    OpenAIRE

    R.M. Lima; K.V.S. Fernander

    2014-01-01

    The internet is a means of communication that cannot be disregarded by contemporaryeducational systems. Public and private incentive policies aimed at the application ofdigital devices in the exchange of knowledge in and outside schools have beenimplemented in the last decades. However, risks posed by academic research on line arewidely acknowledged with regard to the quality of information (Lourenço, 2010). One of themain aspects of this issue is the selection of reliable and potentially edu...

  20. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  1. Biochemistry and immunological studies on vitamin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the major nutritional problems in the Sudan. The dose supplied for treatment should be carefully measured, as long as long-term excess, similar to vitamin deficiency, may cause impairment of the immune response. The present work was designed to study the effect of different vitamin A levels on the immune response (both humoral and cell-mediated)and some other biochemical and hematological values. A survey was also conducted to investigate vitamin A level of blood and milk of cows and goats, both intensive and open systems. In the first experiments, the animals were grouped into four groups receiving four different levels of dietary vitamin A as follows: very high dose, high dose, recommended daily requirement (as control) and a diet devoid of vitamin A. This program was continued for 45 days. Antibodies production was measured after immunization with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in freund's incomplete adjuvant. The phagocytic activity against Staphylococcus bacteria was measured. Serum total proteins, albumin and the total globulins together with the total leukocytes count and the differential count were examined weekly. The survey program included blood and milk samples collected from twenty cows and twenty goats and their vitamin A level was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The result revealed that both anti-BSA antibodies production and the phagocytic activity were greatly improved in animals which received high dose of vitamin of A. This was also true for serum total proteins, albumin, total WBCs count and lymphocytes percentage, since all these parameters were improved in high dose animals. On the other hand, all these parameters were greatly reduced in both groups of animals which received very high dose and decent diet in vitamin A. The survey results showed that vitamin A level of goats milk was higher than that of cows. Within the cows, it was higher in those from an intensive system compared to those from open systems. The reverse was true in case of the goats

  2. Situational Teaching Design and Application of Medical Biochemistry---Taking Guangxi University of Science and Technology as an Example%医学生物化学的情境式教学设计与应用--以广西科技大学为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚裕群; 甘建华; 赵时梅

    2015-01-01

    为加强医学生物化学的学习效果,基于建构主义学习理论开展情境式教学。情境式教学分为三个步骤:首先,教师基于教学目标设计教学情境和问题;然后,学生依据问题和情境进行问题引导式学习;最后,学生解答问题并完成既定教学目标。多年的教学实践证明,该教学设计极大的提高了学生的学习兴趣及学习成绩。因此,情境式教学是有效提高医学生物化学教学质量的教学方法。%Situational teaching was conducted to enhance the teaching effectiveness of medical biochemistry under the guidance of constructivist learning theory. Situational teaching involves three steps:First of all, teaching situation was created according to the teaching objectives and appropriate questions were proposed; next, problem-based learning was performed through group cooperation; finally, questions were answered by a team to complete the teaching objectives. After many years of practical application, situational teaching not only greatly stimulated the students' interest in learning, but also effectively improved the academic performance of medical biochemistry. Therefore, situational teaching is an effective teaching method to improve teaching quality of medical biochemistry.

  3. Influence of Crude Magnaporthe grisea Toxin on Physiology and Biochemistry of Rice Seedlings%稻瘟菌粗毒素对水稻幼苗生理生化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭连安; 张玲; 胡运高; 唐力琼; 席向阳

    2011-01-01

    为了检验不同稻瘟菌株粗毒素对杂交水稻生理影响的差异,以稻瘟菌XP、MY菌株不同浓度的粗毒素浸根处理水稻冈优725和B优827的幼苗,并对其防御酶POD和可溶性蛋白进行分析比较.结果表明:稻瘟菌2个菌株的不同毒素浓度均对水稻幼苗的POD活性和可溶性蛋白含量有明显影响,POD均表现出先升高后降低的变化规律;高浓度的毒素处理后,2个水稻品种的可溶性蛋白含量随时间的推移明显降低,但是B优827的可溶性蛋白含量明显高于冈优725,其POD变化与冈优725相比较平缓;B优827对稻瘟菌粗毒素的耐受力强于冈优725.%The POD activity and soluble protein content of Gangyou 725 and B You 827 rice seedlings treated with crude M. Grisea toxin with different concentration of XP and MY strains were analyzed and compared to study the effects of different crude M. Grisea toxin on physiology and biochemistry of hybrid rice seedlings. The results showed that two M. Grisea strains and different M. Grisea toxin concentration had the obvious effects on POD activity and soluble protein content of rice seedlings. The POD activity showed the first rise and then reduction trend but the POD change of B You 827 was gentle compared with Gangyou 725. The soluble protein content of the two tested rice varieties treated with high crude M. Grisea toxin concentration reduced with time extension obviously but the soluble protein content of B You 827 was significantly higher than Gangyou 725. The tolerance to crude M. Grisea toxin of B You 827 was higher than Gangyou 725.

  4. Hemograma, proteinograma, ionograma e dosagens bioquímicas e enzimáticas de ovinos acometidos por conidiobolomicose no nordeste do Brasil Hematology and blood biochemistry in sheep with conidiobolomycosis in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo de S. Batista

    2009-01-01

    , hypoproteinemia (hypoglobulinemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia and increased values of phosphorus. Serum activities of AST and GGT were increased and serum activity of FA decreased. Serum values of urea and creatinine were within normal values. Hypoglycemia and hyperbilirrubinemia were also observed. These results can be used for experimental studies with the disease, for treatments trials, and to detect early cases of the disease without clinical signs. Otherwise the hematologic and blood biochemistry values of healthy sheep can be used as reference values for hair sheep in the semi-arid region of Brazil.

  5. Changes of physiology and biochemistry of fresh-cut sweet potato at different storage temperatures%不同贮藏温度下鲜切甘薯的生理生化变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘程惠; 胡文忠; 王艳颖; 齐海萍; 金金

    2012-01-01

    研究了鲜切甘薯在18、10、4℃下贮藏期间生理生化的变化。测定了呼吸强度、总酚含量、MDA、相对电导率、颜色饱和度及亮度。以及PPO、POD、PAL、CAT、SOD的活性。结果表明:切割伤害导致鲜切甘薯呼吸强度增大,引发膜脂过氧化程度加深。MDA含量和相对电导率增加。随着贮藏时间的延长,PAL活性呈现上升趋势,其催化底物总酚也随之增加。与果蔬组织褐变相关的PPO、POD等酶活性也相应增大。抗氧化体系的两种主要酶SOD、CAT变化趋势相近。低温贮藏能够有效地保持鲜切甘薯的感官品质,并能在一定程度上控制生理生化的变化。%A field experiment was conducted to study the changes of different storage temperatures( 18, 10,4℃)on physiology and biochemistry of fresh-cut sweet potato during storage.Several effects including the respiration intensity and total phenol content, MDA, as well as relative electrical conductivity, color saturation and luminance, and the activity of PPO,POD,PAL,SOD and CAT had been managed for testing.The results.cutting injuries led to the increase of respiration intensity,meanwhile caused the lipid peroxidation extent of membrane levels deepened, MDA increased and relative electrical conductivity enhanced.With the extension of storage time, PAL activity was on the rise,which caused the content of total phenols as natural enzyme substrate and the activity of PPO and POD associated to browning of fruit and vegetables tissue increased as welI.Antioxidant system of two major enzymes SOD and CAT had the similar trends. Low-temperature storage can effectively maintain the sensory quality of freshcut sweet potato, and physiological and biochemical changes can be controlled to a certain extent.

  6. Hematologia e bioquímica sérica de equinos de concurso completo de equitação em treinamento Hematology and serum biochemistry of event horses in training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a hematologia e a bioquímica sérica em equinos de concurso completo de equitação (CCE em treinamento durante testes de esforço incremental em esteira ergométrica de alta velocidade. Foram utilizados 16 equinos em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, utilizando-se como fontes de variação nos tratamentos a idade e o histórico de treinamento em CCE. As parcelas foram constituídas pelos testes incrementais realizados nas fases inicial e final do treinamento. As subparcelas foram representadas pelos tempos de avaliação e coletas. Os equinos do grupo experimental novos iniciantes apresentaram valor médio do hematócrito de 43,24%, sendo inferior ao hematócrito do grupo adultos iniciantes, 45,63%, novos experientes, 46,39%, e competidores, 47,74%. Houve diferença (PWas evaluated the hematology and serum biochemistry in event horses (CCE in training during incremental treadmill tests. Sixteen horses were used in a completely randomized design with four treatments and four repetitions in subdivided parcels, using age and previous history of training in events as sources of treatment variation. The parcels constituted of incremental treadmill tests performed at the beginning and end of training. The subparcels were represented by the time of evaluation and collection of samples. The equines of new beginners group had mean hematocrit value of 43.24%, being lower than the hematocrit of adult beginners group, 45.63%, new experienced group, 46.39%, and competitors group, 47.74%. There were differences (P<0.05 between the tests performed at the beginning and end of training, with reduction in glucose plasma concentration, from 112 to 98,88mg/dL, in seric concentration of creatinine, 1.41 to 1.29mg/dL, and total protein, 6.52 to 6.38 g/dL, in monocyte count, 0.54 to 0.48 10³/mm³, and an increase of lactate plasma concentration, from 3.31 to

  7. Mercury and drought along the Lower Carson River, Nevada: III. effects on blood and organ biochemistry and histopathology of snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons on Lahontan Reservoir, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Henny, Charles J.; Hill, Elwood F.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2009-01-01

    A 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction and health of aquatic birds in the Carson River Basin of northwestern Nevada (on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Natural Priorities List) due to high mercury (Hg) concentrations from past mining activities. This part of the study evaluated physiological associations with blood Hg in young snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and organ biochemistry and histopathological effects in snowy egrets on Lahontan Reservoir (LR) from the period 2002-2006. LR snowy egret geometric mean total Hg concentrations (μg/g ww) ranged from 1.5 to 4.8 for blood, 2.4 to 3.1 liver, 1.8 to 2.5 kidneys, 1.7 to 2.4 brain, and 20.5 to 36.4 feathers over these years. For night-herons, mean Hg for blood ranged from 1.6 to 7.4. Significant positive correlations were found between total Hg in blood and five plasma enzyme activities of snowy egrets suggesting hepatic stress. Histopathological findings revealed vacuolar changes in hepatocytes in LR snowy egrets as well as correlation of increased liver inflammation with increasing blood and tissue Hg. Hepatic oxidative effects were manifested by decreased hepatic total thiol concentration and glutathione reductase activity and elevated hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. However, other hepatic changes indicated compensatory mechanisms in response to oxidative stress, including decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration and decreased ratio of GSSG to reduced glutathione. In young black-crowned night-herons, fewer correlations were apparent. In both species, positive correlations between blood total Hg and plasma uric acid and inorganic phosphorus were suggestive of renal stress, which was supported by histopathological findings. Both oxidative effects and adaptive responses to oxidative stress were apparent in kidneys and brain. Vacuolar change and inflammation in

  8. CET6和生物化学成绩对毒理学全英语试题成绩的影响%Influence of scores of CET6 and biochemistry exams on scores of toxicology exam with all-English questions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云岗; 赖演媚; 卫秦芝

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore whether and how the medical students' performance in English and biochemistry studies on their exam scores in toxicology basics (in short:toxicology) with allEnglish questions.Methods The correlations between scores of toxicology exam with all-English questions and scores in college English test band 6 (CET6) and biochemistry test of 187 students in the eight-year medical program were analyzed.Results Score of toxicology exam was positively correlated with scores of CET6 and biochemistry tests to some degree ( the correlation coefficients were 0.359 and 0.413 respectively,P < 0.01 ) ; the students who passed CET6 had higher score in toxicology exam than those who did not pass CET6 (P < 0.01,by t-test).Conclusion Passing CET6 and having a good command of related subjects may be essential for adapting to all-English exam questions.%目的 探讨医学生的英语和生物化学成绩是否以及如何影响其毒理学基础(毒理)全英文笔试成绩.方法 对医学八年制187名学生毒理全英考试成绩与生物化学和大学英语六级考试(CET6)成绩进行相关性分析.结果 毒理成绩与学生的CET6和生物化学成绩均有一定程度正相关(相关系数分别为0.359和0.413,P值均小于0.01);通过CET6者毒理成绩比未通过者高(P<0.01,t检验).结论 合格的CET6成绩和相关课程的良好基础是学生适应全英医学课程考试的重要条件.

  9. Glycoprotein Biochemistry (Biosynthesis)--A Vehicle for Teaching Many Aspects of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Clair R.; Smith, Christopher A.

    1990-01-01

    Information about the biosynthesis of the carbohydrate portions or glycans of glycoproteins is presented. The teaching of glycosylation can be used to develop and emphasize many general aspects of biosynthesis, in addition to explaining specific biochemical and molecular biological features associated with producing the oligosaccharide portions of…

  10. Characteristics of Dietary Intake and Its Relationship with Biochemistry Parameters in Wushu Athletes%武术运动员膳食摄入特征及其与血液营养生化指标的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪金福; 黄彩华

    2014-01-01

    Objective :To investigate dietary intake features of Wushu athletes ,and to explore po-tential associations between the dietary features and some selected biochemical ? parameters . Methods :Sixty-eight professional athletes ,including 20 Wushu athletes and 48 Non-Wushu athletes ,aged 12 to 26 year old were studied .The composition of food consumed was assessed through a 3-day weighed dietary record survey .Diet analysis software was used to determine total energy ,macronutrient distribution ,nutrient intakes(vitamins ,minerals)and amino acids of this study .Fasting blood were also collected and biochemical parameters were analyzed .Then , correlation of the dietary intake with the biochemical parameters were calculated .Results :Wushu athletes were found to have inadequate daily energy intake ,especially presenting a low-er consumption on carbohydrate which caused a relatively lower proportion of fat in energy supply .Moreover ,Wushu athletes also at great risk for poor consumption of vegetables ,fruits , milk and dairy .Compared with Non-Wushu athletes ,Wushu athletes were observed to have a significantly lower level in vitamin A ,B1 ,B2 and C ,as well as calcium ,zinc ,potassium ,magne-sium and copper intake .Correlation between the food type and biochemistry parameters showed that animal protein might influence sports performance ,such as the ability of hemoglobin oxy-gen transport ,which indicating an influence of the daily dietary intake to sports performance . Based on the data presented ,we offer recommendations for further research in the relationship between dietary intake habit and sports performance .%目的:调查武术运动员的膳食摄入特征,分析膳食摄入与其生化指标之间的关系。方法:选取68名专业运动员(武术运动员20名,其他运动员48名,12~26岁),准确称量3天的膳食摄入,通过饮食分析软件计算能量摄入、维生素、矿物质以及氨基酸摄入情况,分析武术运动

  11. Comparative analysis of blood glucose between point-of-care testing bedside glucometer and biochemistry analyzer%即时检验床旁血糖仪与生物化学静脉血糖仪对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌海兰; 毕小云

    2016-01-01

    for 50 specimens. The bias of test specimens were compared with that of NHFPC, which were blood glucose<4.2 mmol/L, at least 95%of results error within ± 0.83 mmol/L, and blood glucose≥4.2 mmol/L,at least 95%of results error within ± 20%. Results Compared the results of 151 POCT bedside glucometers and biochemistry analyzers in 36 clinical departments in CQMU, 2 analyzers were non-compliance with indicators higher than the maximum limit and should be replaced. The compliance rate of POCT bedside glucometers was 98.67%. Conclu-sion It is demonstrated that glucometer monitors are exist losses in use, so it should be checked regularly and reach require-ments of NHFPC. Calibration and replacement should be made for the non-compliance devices, which used for self-monitoring of clinical patients after passing.

  12. Histological study of the liver and biochemistry of the blood of Wistar rats following ligature of right hepatic duct Estudo histológico do fígado e bioquímico do sangue de ratos após ligadura do ducto hepático direito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Botelho Quaresma

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To observe the histological alterations in the liver and biochemistry in the blood that can happen in Wistar rat, after the ligature of right hepatic duct. METHODS: In this study were used rats (n=46 of Wistar pedigree. The animal groups (n=46 were distributed in 6 experimented sub-groups (n=6. It was held a ligature surgery of the right hepatic duct and euthanasia in 7, 14, 21, 28, 60 and 90 days and the biochemistry control group (n=10, that animals had 2ml of their blood taken by cardiac puncture for biochemistry study with value analyses of bilirubins, transaminasis, lactic desidrogenasis, alkaline phophatase and gamma-glutamil-transferase. Given the expected time of each group, the animals were submitted to anesthesia procedure and cavity re-opening, being held intra-cardiac puncture and with 2ml blood collected for biochemistry analyses. It was proceeded the liver resection, being the liver putted in formol solution to 10% for a period of 24 hours and taken to the histology. RESULTS: It was not possible to identify results that express significant differences as the existence of alterations histological and biochemistrily between the different groups. CONCLUSION: At the end of the study, it was not possible to identify histological and biochemistrily alterations that express significant differences between livers of the animals from the right linked hepatic duct and the animals of the control group.INTRODUÇÃO: a colestase é uma situação grave e geralmente letal. Habitualmente a obstrução do fluxo da secreção biliar ocorre por lesão iatrogênica. Cerca de 80% das lesões das vias OBJETIVO: Observar as alterações histológicas que possam ocorrer no fígado e bioquímicas no sangue de ratos Wistar, após ligadura do ducto hepático direito. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo foram utilizados ratos (n=46 da linhagem Wistar. O grupo de animais (n=46 foi dividido em 2 grupos: A experimento (n=36 e B controle bioquímico (n=10, sendo o

  13. 复合益生菌对中华鳖生长及血液生化指标的影响%Effects of Compound Probiotics on the Growth and Blood Biochemistry of Trionyx sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂琳; 王晓清; 康银; 曾丹; 蒋迪; 廖学敏

    2015-01-01

    dietary supplement that are non-toxic,don′t lead to resistance and leave no residue could,to some extent,replace antibiotics.The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of compound probiotic dose on the growth rate and blood biochemistry of Trionys sinensis so as to use com-pound probiotics more effectively and provide a theoretical basis for the healthy culturing of Trionys sinensis.The probiotics used were compounded in our laboratory and we have applied for a patent (number 201410039520.3). The probiotic components include bacillus subtilis,bacillus natto,Lactobacillus casei and Candida utilis.Test ani-mals of mean initial weight (227.47 ±14.42)g were selected for the 140 d experiment and fed a soft-shelled turtle diet three times a day supplemented with different levels of compound probiotics (Group I:0 mg/kg;Group II:500 mg/kg;Group III:1 000 mg/kg;Group IV:2 000 mg/kg).Each group consisted of 1200 individuals and each group was tested in triplicate.The water temperature,food consumption and mortality were recorded each day.After the trial was complete,15 individuals from each group were selected randomly to evaluate digestive en-zyme activity in the intestine and 10 individuals for each group were selected and fasted 24 h to measure blood bio-chemical indices including total protein (TP),total cholesterol (CHO),triglyceride (TG),glucose (GLU), blood urea nitrogen (BUN),globulin (GLB),albumin (ALB),lysozyme (LZM),methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA),superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX),glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (AST)and alanine transaminase (ALT).Results indicate that weight gain rate (WGR),specific growth rate (SGR)and survival rate increased significantly and the bait coefficient decreased significantly compared to the con-trol group (P 0.05).The activities of LZM,GSH-PX and SOD in serum significantly increased (P 0.05).Based on these findings,we conclude that properly compounded probiotic supplementation to the basal

  14. Incorporação de farinhas de resíduos de Jundiá na dieta: bioquímica plasmática, parâmetros hepáticos e digestivos Addition of Jundiá waste meal in diet: plasmatic biochemistry, hepatic and digestive parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzete Rossato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a influência da adição de farinha de resíduos de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen na dieta de exemplares desta espécie sobre a bioquímica plasmática, parâmetros hepáticos e digestivos. No experimento I (EXP I, compararam-se dietas com 30% de farinha de carne e ossos suína (FCO, farinha de carcaça de jundiás com vísceras (FCJCV, farinha de carcaça de jundiá sem vísceras (FCJSV e farinha de jundiás inteiros (FJI. No experimento II (EXP II, níveis de inclusão de FCJCV foram testados (0; 3,75; 7,5; 15 e 30%. No plasma, foram quantificadas proteínas totais circulantes, colesterol total, triglicerídeos, glicose, albumina e aminoácidos. No fígado, analisou-se glicose, amônia, proteínas totais, glicogênio, aminoácidos e transaminases. No estômago, foi determinada a atividade de protease ácida e, no intestino, tripsina e quimotripsina. No EXP I, foram observados menores níveis de glicose no plasma e alanina aminotransferase (ALT no fígado, para o tratamento FCJSV, e maiores índices destes para FCO. A atividade da protease ácida e da quimotripsina foram menores para a FCO e maior para a FCJCV. No EXP II, os índices de aminoácidos livres e colesterol total no plasma aumentaram com a elevação dos níveis de inclusão da FCJCV na dieta. A incorporação de farinhas de resíduos de jundiá à dieta altera a bioquímica plasmática, os parâmetros hepáticos e digestivos dos juvenis de jundiá, porém essas alterações não influenciaram na saúde dos peixes, demonstrando sua qualidade nutricional e eficiência no uso em dietas para peixes.The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the addition of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen waste meal in the diet of this species, on plasmatic biochemistry, liver and digestive parameters. Experiment I (EXP I compared diets with 30% of meat and swine bones (FCO, Jundiá carcass meal with viscera (FCJCV, Jundiá carcass meal without viscera (FCJSV and

  15. Incorporação de farinhas de resíduos de Jundiá na dieta: bioquímica plasmática, parâmetros hepáticos e digestivos Addition of Jundiá waste meal in diet: plasmatic biochemistry, hepatic and digestive parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzete Rossato

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a influência da adição de farinha de resíduos de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen na dieta de exemplares desta espécie sobre a bioquímica plasmática, parâmetros hepáticos e digestivos. No experimento I (EXP I, compararam-se dietas com 30% de farinha de carne e ossos suína (FCO, farinha de carcaça de jundiás com vísceras (FCJCV, farinha de carcaça de jundiá sem vísceras (FCJSV e farinha de jundiás inteiros (FJI. No experimento II (EXP II, níveis de inclusão de FCJCV foram testados (0; 3,75; 7,5; 15 e 30%. No plasma, foram quantificadas proteínas totais circulantes, colesterol total, triglicerídeos, glicose, albumina e aminoácidos. No fígado, analisou-se glicose, amônia, proteínas totais, glicogênio, aminoácidos e transaminases. No estômago, foi determinada a atividade de protease ácida e, no intestino, tripsina e quimotripsina. No EXP I, foram observados menores níveis de glicose no plasma e alanina aminotransferase (ALT no fígado, para o tratamento FCJSV, e maiores índices destes para FCO. A atividade da protease ácida e da quimotripsina foram menores para a FCO e maior para a FCJCV. No EXP II, os índices de aminoácidos livres e colesterol total no plasma aumentaram com a elevação dos níveis de inclusão da FCJCV na dieta. A incorporação de farinhas de resíduos de jundiá à dieta altera a bioquímica plasmática, os parâmetros hepáticos e digestivos dos juvenis de jundiá, porém essas alterações não influenciaram na saúde dos peixes, demonstrando sua qualidade nutricional e eficiência no uso em dietas para peixes.The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the addition of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen waste meal in the diet of this species, on plasmatic biochemistry, liver and digestive parameters. Experiment I (EXP I compared diets with 30% of meat and swine bones (FCO, Jundiá carcass meal with viscera (FCJCV, Jundiá carcass meal without viscera (FCJSV and

  16. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Feed Additive on Biochemistry, Antioxidantion and Immunity in Guangxi Partridge Chickens%中草药饲料添加剂对广西麻鸡血液生化指标、抗氧化能力及免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛洪伟; 唐燕飞; 韦宗海; 黄何元; 蒋华连

    2012-01-01

    为研究中草药饲料添加剂对广西麻鸡血液生化指标、抗氧化能力和免疫功能的影响,选择1日龄广西麻鸡3000只为试验动物,进行120d的饲养试验。试验鸡群随机分为2组,每组2个重复。对照组饲喂基础饲粮。试验组饲喂基础饲粮+中草药饲料添加剂,并在不同日龄和发病情况下在饲粮中添加不同剂量的中草药饲料添加剂。结果表明,中草药饲料添加剂能显著提高血清中钙、磷的含量,降低血清中胆固醇的含量(P〈0.05);能够提高血清中谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶、超氧化物歧化酶的活性和降低血清中丙二醛的含量(P〈0.05);显著提高血清IgA、IgG、IgM、补体C3和C4的含量(P〈0.05)。说明中草药饲料添加剂能够显著改善广西麻鸡的血液生化指标、提高抗氧化能力和免疫功能。%To investigate the effects of Chinese herbal medicine feed additive on the mechanism of action from antioxidation, immunity and biochemistry of Guangxi partridge chicken without using antibiotics. Three thousand Guangxi partridge chickens were randomly assigned to 2 groups, each group had 2 repeats. Control group was fed with basic diet, while test group was fed with basic diets added Chinese herbal medicine feed additive for 120 days. Test group used Chinese herbal medicine feed additive for prevention and treatment of diseases. The results showed that the methods of test group increased Ca and P in serum significantly(P〈0.05) and decreased Cholesterol(P〈 0.05), significantly increased serum GSH-Px and SOD(P〈0.05), and decreased MDA content(P〈0.05), significantly increased IgA, IgG, IgM, complement C3 and complement C4 contents in serum(P〈0.05). Chinese herbal medicine feed additive can effectively improve immune function enhancing the antioxidant capacity and improving serum biochemistry indices.

  17. An experimental research of a dry-reagent microassay for determination of glucose based on a miniature biochemistry analyzer%基于微型生化光谱分析仪测定血糖的干试剂研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华忠; 蒲晓允; 吴杰红; 李强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore an effective way of preparation for dry glucose reagent and establish a dry-reagent microassay for determination of glucose based on a miniature biochemistry analyzer. Methods Add 200 μL working solution of glucose reagent to each well of a microplate,and then dry the reagent by a lyophilizer. Serum samples or standards were diluted to redissolve the dry reagent and act in an incubation of 37 ℃ for 10 minutes. The absorptance was determined on a microplate reader. Screen proper lyopretector and its concentration to produce quality dry reagent. TBHBA was used as a new chromogen to replace the phenol reagent to improve the linear range and sensitivity. 30 clinical samples were analyzed with optimized method,and the results were compared with those of automatic biochemical analyzer to evaluate the correlation of two methods. Results Quality dry reagent of glucose was produced by adding 10 g/L albumin to working solution before lyophilization. The phenol reagent was replaced by TBHBA as chromogen and the sample/reagent ratio was adjusted to 1 ∶ 200. This optimized method have the advantages of higher reaction velocity,higher sensitivity, wider linear range,and lower detection limit. There was a good correlation between the results and those of biochemical analyzer(P<O. 01). Conclusion The improved method can meet the requirements for effective measurement of glucose with dry regent,which paves the way for manufacture and application of a miniature biochemistry analyzer with a dry-reagent microassay.%目的 探索一种制备葡萄糖干试剂的方法,建立干试剂湿化学测定方法,为干试剂微型生化光谱分析仪的应用奠定基础.方法 将测定试剂工作液添加到微孔板的小孔内,每孔200 μL,用冷冻干燥的方法将试剂干燥,然后用水稀释测定样品,温浴10 min,用酶标仪进行比色测定.对冻干添加剂的种类及浓度进行了筛选,应用TBHBA替换酚试剂,增强显色灵敏度,将优

  18. Kinetics of Papain: An Introductory Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornely, Kathleen; Crespo, Eric; Earley, Michael; Kloter, Rachel; Levesque, Aime; Pickering, Mary

    1999-05-01

    Enzyme kinetics experiments are popular in the undergraduate laboratory. These experiments have pedagogic value because they reinforce the concepts of Michaelis-Menten kinetics covered in the lecture portion of the course and give students the experience of calculating kinetic constants from data they themselves have generated. In this experiment, we investigate the kinetics of the thiol protease papain. The source of the papain is commercially available papaya latex. A specific substrate, Na-benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA), is used, which takes advantage of the fact that papain interacts with a phenylalanine residue two amino acids away from the peptide bond cleaved. Upon hydrolysis by papain, a bright yellow product is released, p-nitroaniline. This allows the reaction to be monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of formation of the p-nitroaniline product as a function of the increase in absorbance of the solution at the lmax of p-nitroaniline (400 nm) over time at various substrate concentrations. These data are used to plot a Lineweaver-Burk plot from which the vmax and KM are obtained. If time permits, students carry out additional investigations in which e of p-nitroaniline is measured, the enzyme solution protein concentration is measured, the enzyme purity is evaluated by SDS-PAGE, and a pH-rate profile is constructed from experimental data.

  19. An Investigation of the Biochemistry of Biological Phosphorus Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal, Zeynep Kisoglu

    2002-01-01

    Although enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) and complete biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems can be operated successfully by experienced operators, the accuracy of design and strength of the scientific background need to be reinforced to enable accurate modeling and economically optimal design. One way to accomplish this would be through a better understanding of the biochemical mechanisms and microbial population dynamics that determine the reliability and efficiency of EBPR...

  20. The development of A. N. Belozersky's ideas in polyphosphate biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaev, I S; Vagabov, V M; Kulakovskaya, T V; Lichko, L P; Andreeva, N A; Trilisenko, L V

    2000-03-01

    This review covers some trends and approaches to the study of inorganic polyphosphates that originated from the fruitful ideas and pioneering works of A. N. Belozersky. This is, first of all, the elucidation of a close relationship between these biopolymers and nucleic acids in organisms at different evolutionary stages; second, the study of "fossil" reactions in polyphosphate metabolism that permit an understanding of their role in the evolution of phosphorus turnover and cell bioenergetics; third, the possible use of the conservative enzymes of polyphosphate metabolism, e.g., exopolyphosphatases, as molecular chronometers for obtaining additional data concerning the theory of the endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes. PMID:10739469