WorldWideScience

Sample records for biochemistry molecular biology

  1. Podcasts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Matte

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Biochemistry and Molecular Biology represents a big challenge in the undergraduate courses. The topics are complex and integrate knowledge that will be essential for the development of several professional activities. In the classroom, we have a very heterogeneous audience, which may respond better to visual or auditory stimuli. In addition, we need to consider the universal access to information, considering the possibility of having visually impaired students. In this context, we developed a new teaching methodology through the creation and use of podcasts that deal with the content of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. We selected the most complex subjects in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, according to the students' performance in the tests to do the podcasts: synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, nucleic acid metabolism and protein synthesis. We believe the development of podcasts can contribute effectively to the learning of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. A National Comparison of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Capstone Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the "American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end,…

  3. Commentary: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Educators Launch National Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Cheryl; Bell, Ellis; Johnson, Margaret; Mattos, Carla; Sears, Duane; White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    The American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) has launched an National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded 5 year project to support biochemistry and molecular biology educators learning what and how students learn. As a part of this initiative, hundreds of life scientists will plan and develop a rich central resource for…

  4. Bioenergetics molecular biology, biochemistry, and pathology

    CERN Document Server

    Ozawa, Takayuki

    1990-01-01

    The emergence of the Biochemical Sciences is underlined by the FAOB symposium in Seoul and highlighted by this Satellite meeting on the "New Bioenergetics. " Classical mitochondrial electron transfer and energy coupling is now complemented by the emerging molecular biology of the respiratory chain which is studied hand in hand with the recognition of mitochondrial disease as a major and emerging study in the basic and clinical medical sciences. Thus, this symposium has achieved an important balance of the fundamental and applied aspects of bioenergetics in the modern setting of molecular biology and mitochondrial disease. At the same time, the symposium takes note not only of the emerging excellence of Biochemical Studies in the Orient and indeed in Korea itself, but also retrospectively enjoys the history of electron transport and energy conservation as represented by the triumvirate ofYagi, King and Slater. Many thanks are due Drs. Kim and Ozawa for their elegant organization of this meeting and its juxtapo...

  5. A national comparison of biochemistry and molecular biology capstone experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end, ASBMB conducted a series of regional workshops to build a BMB Concept Inventory containing validated assessment tools, based on foundational and discipline-specific knowledge and essential skills, for the community to use. A culminating activity, which integrates the educational experience, is often part of undergraduate molecular life science programs. These "capstone" experiences are commonly defined as an attempt to measure student ability to synthesize and integrate acquired knowledge. However, the format, implementation, and approach to outcome assessment of these experiences are quite varied across the nation. Here we report the results of a nation-wide survey on BMB capstone experiences and discuss this in the context of published reports about capstones and the findings of the workshops driving the development of the BMB Concept Inventory. Both the survey results and the published reports reveal that, although capstone practices do vary, certain formats for the experience are used more frequently and similarities in learning objectives were identified. The use of rubrics to measure student learning is also regularly reported, but details about these assessment instruments are sparse in the literature and were not a focus of our survey. Finally, we outline commonalities in the current practice of capstones and suggest the next steps needed to elucidate best practices. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Abstracts of the 27. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This meeting was about biochemistry and molecular biology. It was discussed topics related to bio energetic, channels, transports, biotechnology, metabolism, cellular biology, immunology, toxicology, photobiology and pharmacology

  7. Abstracts of the 26. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This meeting was about biochemistry and molecular biology. It was discussed topics related to bio energetic, channels, transports, biotechnology, metabolism, cellular biology, immunology, toxicology, photobiology and pharmacology

  8. A guide on instrument of biochemistry and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This book is about instrument on biochemistry and molecular biology, which consists of six chapters. It deals with introduction of advanced bio-instrument, common utilization and maintain, explanation of each instrument like capillary electrophoresis, interactive laser cytometer, personal computer and software, an electron microscope and DNA/RNS synthesis instrument, large equipment and special system like information system and network, analysis system for genome and large spectro graph, outside donation, examples for common utilization and appendix on data like application form for use.

  9. A Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment and Evaluation System for Biotechnology Specialty Students: An Effective Evaluation System to Improve the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suxia; Wu, Haizhen; Zhao, Jian; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to achieve high success in knowledge and technique acquisition as a whole, a biochemistry and molecular biology experiment was established for high-grade biotechnology specialty students after they had studied essential theory and received proper technique training. The experiment was based on cloning and expression of alkaline…

  10. Essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics for "biochemistry and molecular biology" majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that all Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors must understand to complete their major coursework. The allied fields working group created a survey to validate foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics identified from participant feedback at various workshops. One-hundred twenty participants responded to the survey and 68% of the respondents answered yes to the question: "We have identified the following as the core concepts and underlying theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that Biochemistry majors or Molecular Biology majors need to understand after they complete their major courses: 1) mechanical concepts from Physics, 2) energy and thermodynamic concepts from Physics, 3) critical concepts of structure from chemistry, 4) critical concepts of reactions from Chemistry, and 5) essential Mathematics. In your opinion, is the above list complete?" Respondents also delineated subcategories they felt should be included in these broad categories. From the results of the survey and this analysis the allied fields working group constructed a consensus list of allied fields concepts, which will help inform Biochemistry and Molecular Biology educators when considering the ASBMB recommended curriculum for Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors and in the development of appropriate assessment tools to gauge student understanding of how these concepts relate to biochemistry and molecular biology. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Abstracts of the 29. annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Several aspects concerning biochemistry and molecular biology of either animals (including man), plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds (radioassay, radioenzymatic assay, radioreceptor assay and nuclear magnetic resonance are the most applied techniques

  12. Abstracts of the 30. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Several aspects concerning biochemistry and molecular biology of either animals, plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds (radioassay, radioreceptor assay) and nuclear magnetic resonance are the most applied techniques

  13. Abstracts of the 28. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Biochemistry, genetic and molecular biology aspects of either animals (including man), plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds (radioassay, radioenzymatic assay, radioreceptor assay) and nuclear magnetic resonance are the most applied techniques

  14. Teaching of biochemistry: analyze of works presented in Congress the Society Brazilian Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - SBBq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Escoto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades the strategies to improve science education has grown exponentially. Thus, the scientific production in the area is also growing, with the purpose of identifying parameters and methodologies that contribute to their qualification. The teaching of biochemistry is intimately linked to that context. However, it is still little explored in basic education and with character technicist in higher education. The aim of this study was identify areas that received most attention in the scientific literature about teaching and education in biochemistry that were presented at the Congress of the Brazilian Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from 2004 to 2012. Material and Methods: To conduct the survey were analyzed summaries available on the website of the Brazilian Journal of Education for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology published in the proceedings of the event, where they were encontrados176 summaries. For expression of results was used categorization from the content analysis. Results and Discussion: The results observed to establish nine categories based on the analysis of the titles and content of the work, which, in descending order, were: information and communication technologies, alternative methods teaching and learning, biochemistry in Elementary Education and / or Medium, experiential activities, teacher training, dissemination of science, proposition and evaluation of content and / or science curricular and History and Philosophy. It is noticed that the three most important categories were consolidated along editions. In education, however, there was a significant decrease in the number of abstracts submitted abstracts for the past five years. Conclusions: We conclude that all categories listed seeking alternatives to improve teaching practices and promote education of biochemistry in different contexts.

  15. Foundational concepts and underlying theories for majors in "biochemistry and molecular biology".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, John T; Baird, Teaster; Cox, Michael M; Fox, Kristin M; Knight, Jennifer; Sears, Duane; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members and science educators from around the country that focused on identifying: 1) core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology, 2) essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and 3) foundational skills that undergraduate majors in biochemistry and molecular biology must understand to complete their major coursework. Using information gained from these workshops, as well as from the ASBMB accreditation working group and the NSF Vision and Change report, the Core Concepts working group has developed a consensus list of learning outcomes and objectives based on five foundational concepts (evolution, matter and energy transformation, homeostasis, information flow, and macromolecular structure and function) that represent the expected conceptual knowledge base for undergraduate degrees in biochemistry and molecular biology. This consensus will aid biochemistry and molecular biology educators in the development of assessment tools for the new ASBMB recommended curriculum. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Panel 4: Recent advances in otitis media in molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Brown, Steve D; Cheeseman, Michael T; Juhn, Steven K; Jung, Timothy T K; Lim, David J; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J Christopher

    2013-04-01

    Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications.

  17. Design of a comprehensive biochemistry and molecular biology experiment: phase variation caused by recombinational regulation of bacterial gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Shungao; Lu, Renyun; Isaac, Dadzie; Zhang, Xueyi; Zhang, Haifang; Wang, Huifang; Qiao, Zheng; Huang, Xinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific experiments are indispensable parts of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In this study, a comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology experiment about Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Flagellar phase variation has been designed. It consisted of three parts, namely, inducement of bacterial Flagellar phase variation, antibody agglutination test, and PCR analysis. Phase variation was observed by baterial motility assay and identified by antibody agglutination test and PCR analysis. This comprehensive experiment can be performed to help students improve their ability to use the knowledge acquired in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Copyright © 2014 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. The biochemistry and molecular biology of chlorophyll breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Benke; Chen, Junyi; Hörtensteiner, Stefan

    2018-02-12

    Chlorophyll breakdown is one of the most obvious signs of leaf senescence and fruit ripening. The resulting yellowing of leaves can be observed every autumn, and the color change of fruits indicates their ripening state. During these processes, chlorophyll is broken down in a multistep pathway, now termed the 'PAO/phyllobilin' pathway, acknowledging the core enzymatic breakdown step catalysed by pheophorbide a oxygenase, which determines the basic linear tetrapyrrole structure of the products of breakdown that are now called 'phyllobilins'. This review provides an update on the PAO/phyllobilin pathway, and focuses on recent biochemical and molecular progress in understanding phyllobilin-modifying reactions as the basis for phyllobilin diversity, on the evolutionary diversity of the pathway, and on the transcriptional regulation of the pathway genes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  20. Foundational Concepts and Underlying Theories for Majors in "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, John T.; Baird, Teaster, Jr.; Cox, Michael M.; Fox, Kristin M.; Knight, Jennifer; Sears, Duane; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members and science educators from around the country that focused on identifying: 1) core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology, 2) essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and 3)…

  1. What Skills Should Students of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Programs Have upon Graduation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B.; Benore, Marilee A.; Sumter, Takita F.; Caldwell, Benjamin D.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology (BMB) students should demonstrate proficiency in the foundational concepts of the discipline and possess the skills needed to practice as professionals. To ascertain the skills that should be required, groups of BMB educators met in several focused workshops to discuss the expectations with the ultimate goal of…

  2. Design of a Comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment: Phase Variation Caused by Recombinational Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Shungao; Lu, Renyun; Isaac, Dadzie; Zhang, Xueyi; Zhang, Haifang; Wang, Huifang; Qiao, Zheng; Huang, Xinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific experiments are indispensable parts of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In this study, a comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology experiment about "Salmonella enterica" serovar Typhi Flagellar phase variation has been designed. It consisted of three parts, namely, inducement of bacterial Flagellar phase variation,…

  3. Panel 4: Recent Advances in Otitis Media in Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, and Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Brown, Steve D.; Cheeseman, Michael T.; Juhn, Steven K.; Jung, Timothy T. K.; Lim, David J.; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Objective To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. Data Sources and Review Methods A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Results Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications. PMID:23536532

  4. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 31, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular evaluation of Glypican 3 gene expression in Egyptian patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. SA El-Kafrawy, M El-Daly, T Salem, M Abdel-Hamid, MA Hola, IH El-Sayed, 159-172 ...

  5. Program and abstracts of the 25. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The meeting was about biochemistry and molecular biology.In this meeting it was also discussed the following subjects: biotechnology, metabolism, enzymes, proteins, immunology, drugs and others related topics

  6. What Skills Should Students of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Programs Have Upon Graduation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B.; Benore, Marilee A.; Sumter, Takita F.; Caldwell, Benjamin D.; Bell, Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology (BMB) students should demonstrate proficiency in the foundational concepts of the discipline and possess the skills needed to practice as professionals. To ascertain the skills that should be required, groups of BMB educators met in several focused workshops to discuss the expectations with the ultimate goal of clearly articulating the skills required. The results of these discussions highlight the critical importance of experimental, mathematical, and interpersonal skills including collaboration, teamwork, safety, and ethics. The groups also found experimental design, data interpretation and analysiand the ability to communicate findings to diverse audience to be essential skills. To aid in the development of appropriate assessments these skills are grouped into three categories, 1) Process of Science, 2) Communication and Comprehension of Science, and 3) Community of Practice Aspects of Science. Finally, the groups worked to align these competencies with the best practices in both teaching and in skills assessment. PMID:24019246

  7. Development of a Semester-Long, Inquiry-Based Laboratory Course in Upper-Level Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pushpalatha P. N.; Thompson, Martin; Hungwe, Kedmon

    2014-01-01

    A semester-long laboratory course was designed and implemented to familiarize students with modern biochemistry and molecular biology techniques. The designed format involved active student participation, evaluation of data, and critical thinking, and guided students to become independent researchers. The first part of the course focused on…

  8. The experimental teaching reform in biochemistry and molecular biology for undergraduate students in Peking University Health Science Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohan; Sun, Luyang; Zhao, Ying; Yi, Xia; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Pu; Lin, Hong; Ni, Juhua

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, second-year undergraduate students of an eight-year training program leading to a Doctor of Medicine degree or Doctor of Philosophy degree in Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC) have been required to enter the "Innovative talent training project." During that time, the students joined a research lab and participated in some original research work. There is a critical educational need to prepare these students for the increasing accessibility of research experience. The redesigned experimental curriculum of biochemistry and molecular biology was developed to fulfill such a requirement, which keeps two original biochemistry experiments (Gel filtration and Enzyme kinetics) and adds a new two-experiment component called "Analysis of anti-tumor drug induced apoptosis." The additional component, also known as the "project-oriented experiment" or the "comprehensive experiment," consists of Western blotting and a DNA laddering assay to assess the effects of etoposide (VP16) on the apoptosis signaling pathways. This reformed laboratory teaching system aims to enhance the participating students overall understanding of important biological research techniques and the instrumentation involved, and to foster a better understanding of the research process all within a classroom setting. Student feedback indicated that the updated curriculum helped them improve their operational and self-learning capability, and helped to increase their understanding of theoretical knowledge and actual research processes, which laid the groundwork for their future research work. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Prepare, Do, Review: A skills-based approach for laboratory practical classes in biochemistry and molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Peter; Ludwig, Martha; Castelli, Joane; Kirkwood, Paul; Attwood, Paul

    2016-05-06

    A new laboratory practical system is described which is comprised of a number of laboratory practical modules, each based around a particular technique or set of techniques, related to the theory part of the course but not designed to be dependent on it. Each module comprises an online recorded pre-lab lecture, the laboratory practical itself and a post-lab session in which students make oral presentations on different aspects of the practical. Each part of the module is assessed with the aim of providing rapid feedback to staff and students. Each laboratory practical is the responsibility of a single staff member and through this "ownership," continual review and updating is promoted. Examples of changes made by staff to modules as a result of student feedback are detailed. A survey of students who had experienced both the old-style laboratory course and the new one provided evidence of increased satisfaction with the new program. The assessment of acquired shills in the new program showed that it was much more effective than the old course. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:276-287, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Lighten the Load: Scaffolding Visual Literacy in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerdahl, Erika G.; Arneson, Jessie B.; Byrne, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The development of scientific visual literacy has been identified as critical to the training of tomorrow’s scientists and citizens alike. Within the context of the molecular life sciences in particular, visual representations frequently incorporate various components, such as discipline-specific graphical and diagrammatic features, varied levels of abstraction, and spatial arrangements of visual elements to convey information. Visual literacy is achieved when an individual understands the various ways in which a discipline uses these components to represent a particular way of knowing. Owing to the complex nature of visual representations, the activities through which visual literacy is developed have high cognitive load. Cognitive load can be reduced by first helping students to become fluent with the discrete components of visual representations before asking them to simultaneously integrate these components to extract the intended meaning of a representation. We present a taxonomy for characterizing one component of visual representations—the level of abstraction—as a first step in understanding the opportunities afforded students to develop fluency. Further, we demonstrate how our taxonomy can be used to analyze course assessments and spur discussions regarding the extent to which the development of visual literacy skills is supported by instruction within an undergraduate biochemistry curriculum. PMID:28130273

  11. Protein Science by DNA Sequencing: How Advances in Molecular Biology Are Accelerating Biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Sean A; Savage, David F

    2018-01-09

    A fundamental goal of protein biochemistry is to determine the sequence-function relationship, but the vastness of sequence space makes comprehensive evaluation of this landscape difficult. However, advances in DNA synthesis and sequencing now allow researchers to assess the functional impact of every single mutation in many proteins, but challenges remain in library construction and the development of general assays applicable to a diverse range of protein functions. This Perspective briefly outlines the technical innovations in DNA manipulation that allow massively parallel protein biochemistry and then summarizes the methods currently available for library construction and the functional assays of protein variants. Areas in need of future innovation are highlighted with a particular focus on assay development and the use of computational analysis with machine learning to effectively traverse the sequence-function landscape. Finally, applications in the fundamentals of protein biochemistry, disease prediction, and protein engineering are presented.

  12. Assessment of Molecular Construction in Undergraduate Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Deborah; Bateman, Robert C., Jr.; Sirochman, Rudy; Richardson, David C.; Richardson, Jane S.; Weiner, Steven W.; Farwell, Mary; Putnam-Evans, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    White and group used a two question, open-ended tests to separately evaluate students' learning of specific biochemical concepts in the general biology lecture and laboratory, in the first performance assessment of molecular visualization in teaching biochemistry. Two studies were devoted to protein structure using globins followed by one…

  13. From gene to structure: Lactobacillus bulgaricus D-lactate dehydrogenase from yogurt as an integrated curriculum model for undergraduate molecular biology and biochemistry laboratory courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jeffrey A; Prescott, Noelle A; Lawton, Ping X

    2018-03-07

    We have developed an integrated, project-oriented curriculum for undergraduate molecular biology and biochemistry laboratory courses spanning two semesters that is organized around the ldhA gene from the yogurt-fermenting bacterium Lactobacillus bulgaricus, which encodes the enzyme d-lactate dehydrogenase. The molecular biology module, which consists of nine experiments carried out over eleven sessions, begins with the isolation of genomic DNA from L. bulgaricus in yogurt and guides students through the process of cloning the ldhA gene into a prokaryotic expression vector, followed by mRNA isolation and characterization of recombinant gene expression levels using RT-PCR. The biochemistry module, which consists of nine experiments carried out over eight sessions, begins with overexpression of the cloned ldhA gene and guides students through the process of affinity purification, biochemical characterization of the purified LdhA protein, and analysis of enzyme kinetics using various substrates and an inhibitor, concluding with a guided inquiry investigation of structure-function relationships in the three-dimensional structure of LdhA using molecular visualization software. Students conclude by writing a paper describing their work on the project, formatted as a manuscript to be submitted for publication in a scientific journal. Overall, this curriculum, with its emphasis on experiential learning, provides hands-on training with a variety of common laboratory techniques in molecular biology and biochemistry and builds experience with the process of scientific reasoning, along with reinforcement of essential transferrable skills such as critical thinking, information literacy, and written communication, all within the framework of an extended project having the look and feel of a research experience. © 2018 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2018. © 2018 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. RBioplot: an easy-to-use R pipeline for automated statistical analysis and data visualization in molecular biology and biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Statistical analysis and data visualization are two crucial aspects in molecular biology and biology. For analyses that compare one dependent variable between standard (e.g., control and one or multiple independent variables, a comprehensive yet highly streamlined solution is valuable. The computer programming language R is a popular platform for researchers to develop tools that are tailored specifically for their research needs. Here we present an R package RBioplot that takes raw input data for automated statistical analysis and plotting, highly compatible with various molecular biology and biochemistry lab techniques, such as, but not limited to, western blotting, PCR, and enzyme activity assays. Method The package is built based on workflows operating on a simple raw data layout, with minimum user input or data manipulation required. The package is distributed through GitHub, which can be easily installed through one single-line R command. A detailed installation guide is available at http://kenstoreylab.com/?page_id=2448. Users can also download demo datasets from the same website. Results and Discussion By integrating selected functions from existing statistical and data visualization packages with extensive customization, RBioplot features both statistical analysis and data visualization functionalities. Key properties of RBioplot include: -Fully automated and comprehensive statistical analysis, including normality test, equal variance test, Student’s t-test and ANOVA (with post-hoc tests; -Fully automated histogram, heatmap and joint-point curve plotting modules; -Detailed output files for statistical analysis, data manipulation and high quality graphs; -Axis range finding and user customizable tick settings; -High user-customizability.

  15. RBioplot: an easy-to-use R pipeline for automated statistical analysis and data visualization in molecular biology and biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-01-01

    Statistical analysis and data visualization are two crucial aspects in molecular biology and biology. For analyses that compare one dependent variable between standard (e.g., control) and one or multiple independent variables, a comprehensive yet highly streamlined solution is valuable. The computer programming language R is a popular platform for researchers to develop tools that are tailored specifically for their research needs. Here we present an R package RBioplot that takes raw input data for automated statistical analysis and plotting, highly compatible with various molecular biology and biochemistry lab techniques, such as, but not limited to, western blotting, PCR, and enzyme activity assays. The package is built based on workflows operating on a simple raw data layout, with minimum user input or data manipulation required. The package is distributed through GitHub, which can be easily installed through one single-line R command. A detailed installation guide is available at http://kenstoreylab.com/?page_id=2448. Users can also download demo datasets from the same website. By integrating selected functions from existing statistical and data visualization packages with extensive customization, RBioplot features both statistical analysis and data visualization functionalities. Key properties of RBioplot include: -Fully automated and comprehensive statistical analysis, including normality test, equal variance test, Student's t-test and ANOVA (with post-hoc tests);-Fully automated histogram, heatmap and joint-point curve plotting modules;-Detailed output files for statistical analysis, data manipulation and high quality graphs;-Axis range finding and user customizable tick settings;-High user-customizability.

  16. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  17. Environmental regulation of plant gene expression: an RT-qPCR laboratory project for an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry or molecular biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickelberg, Garrett J; Fisher, Alison J

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel laboratory project employing "real-time" RT-qPCR to measure the effect of environment on the expression of the FLOWERING LOCUS C gene, a key regulator of floral timing in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. The project requires four 3-hr laboratory sessions and is aimed at upper-level undergraduate students in biochemistry or molecular biology courses. The project provides students with hands-on experience with RT-qPCR, the current "gold standard" for gene expression analysis, including detailed data analysis using the common 2-ΔΔCT method. Moreover, it provides a convenient starting point for many inquiry-driven projects addressing diverse questions concerning ecological biochemistry, naturally occurring genetic variation, developmental biology, and the regulation of gene expression in nature. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Contributions in biochemistry and molecular biology from China and other top-ranking countries: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaohua; Li, Zhongwu; Wang, Mei

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, research in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology has developed rapidly worldwide. The present study was designed to study the characteristics of publications in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology journals between 1999 and 2008 from the six top-ranking countries - the United States (USA), Japan, Germany, United Kingdom (UK), China and France. We also examined the research output from three different regions - Mainland China (ML), Hong Kong (HK) and Taiwan (TW). The USA contributed 34.1% of the world's total output and ranked first, but its percentage of research articles in this field went down. In total, 26,867 articles were published in journals with an impact factor (IF) <10.000, and 46.5% of these were from the USA. China contributed 4.2% of the total in 268 journals, 0.5% of which were journals with the top 10 IF. Our analysis describes the output from each country and region, and reveals the positive trend in China during the period of 1999-2008. In contrast to other countries, our results suggest that China is behind in conducting high-quality research.

  19. Current research in Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarachand, U.; Singh, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay has been engaged in research in the frontier areas of (i) radiation biology related to tumour therapy and injury caused by free radicals; (ii) molecular basis of diseases of physiological origin; (iii) molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and (iv) structure of genome and genome related functions. The gist of research and development activities carried out in the Division during the last two years are documented

  20. Radiochemistry at the University of Missouri-Columbia. A joint venture with chemistry, nuclear engineering, molecular biology, biochemistry, and the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.; Duval, P.; Jurisson, S.S.; Robertson, J.D.; Wall, J.D.; Quinn, T.P.; Volkert, W.A.; Neumeyer, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Missouri University, a recipient of a U.S. Department of Energy Radiochemistry Education Award Program (REAP) grant in 1999, has significantly expanded its education and research mission in radiochemistry. While MU had a viable radiochemistry program through existing faculty expertise and the utilization of the Missouri University Research Reactor, the REAP award allowed MU to leverage its resources in significantly expanding capabilities in radiochemistry. Specifically, the grant enabled the: (1) hiring of a new faculty member in actinide radiochemistry (Dr. Paul Duval); (2) support of six graduate students in radiochemistry; (3) purchase of new radiochemistry laboratory equipment; (4) more extensive collaboration with DOE scientists through interactions with faculty and graduate students, and (5) revised radiochemical curriculum (joint courses across disciplines and new courses in actinide chemistry). The most significant impact of this award has been in encouraging interdisciplinary education and research. The proposal was initiated by a joint effort between Nuclear Engineering and Chemistry, but also included faculty in biochemistry, radiology, and molecular biology. Specific outcomes of the REAP grant thus far are: (1) increased educational and research capabilities in actinide chemistry (faculty hire and equipment acquisition); (2) increased integration of biochemistry and radiochemistry (e.g., radiochemical analysis of uranium speciation in biological systems); (3) stronger interdisciplinary integration of molecular biology and radiochemical sciences (alpha-emitters for treating cancer); (4) new and more extensive interactions with national laboratory facilities (e.g., student internships at LANL and LLBL, faculty and lab scientist exchange visits, analytical measurements and collaboration with the Advanced Photon Source), and (7) new research funding opportunities based on REAP partnership. (author)

  1. Biosilica: Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Function in Demosponges as well as its Applied Aspects for Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Wiens, Matthias; Schloßmacher, Ute; Müller, Werner E G

    2012-01-01

    Biomineralization, biosilicification in particular (i.e. the formation of biogenic silica, SiO(2)), has become an exciting source of inspiration for the development of novel bionic approaches following 'nature as model'. Siliceous sponges are unique among silica-forming organisms in their ability to catalyze silica formation using a specific enzyme termed silicatein. In this study, we review the present state of knowledge on silicatein-mediated 'biosilica' formation in marine demosponges, the involvement of further molecules in silica metabolism and their potential applications in nano-biotechnology and bio-medicine. While most forms of multicellular life have developed a calcium-based skeleton, a few specialized organisms complement their body plan with silica. Only sponges (phylum Porifera) are able to polymerize silica enzymatically mediated in order to generate massive siliceous skeletal elements (spicules) during a unique reaction, at ambient temperature and pressure. During this biomineralization process (i.e. biosilicification), hydrated, amorphous silica is deposited within highly specialized sponge cells, ultimately resulting in structures that range in size from micrometres to metres. This peculiar phenomenon has been comprehensively studied in recent years, and in several approaches, the molecular background was explored to create tools that might be employed for novel bioinspired biotechnological and biomedical applications. Thus, it was discovered that spiculogenesis is mediated by the enzyme silicatein and starts intracellularly. The resulting silica nanoparticles fuse and subsequently form concentric lamellar layers around a central protein filament, consisting of silicatein and the scaffold protein silintaphin-1. Once the growing spicule is extruded into the extracellular space, it obtains final size and shape. Again, this process is mediated by silicatein and silintaphin-1/silintaphin-1, in combination with other molecules such as galectin and

  2. Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology investigates the organization, compartmentalization, and biochemistry of eukaryotic cells and the pathology associated...

  3. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    order to evaluate the importance of these interactions, students have proposed conservative or radical mutations at these sites. Once they have changed the amino acid residue and allowed the model to reach a new minimum energy, they can measure interatomic distances to determine whether or not a substrate can fit into the active site and/or form hydrogen bonds. A subtle variation on mutation of Trp 108 was a proposal to mutate an adjacent alanine residue, such as to displace the Trp further toward the helix and open up the active site. Other mutations, outside of the active site, have been proposed to change the overall stability of the protein (e.g., Gly to Ala within an a-helix, or loss of a disulfide bond). This exercise illustrates the possibilities of modeling proteins. Because it requires that the students set certain parameters and defaults for structural prediction, it helps them to understand the limitations of modeling. The final paper takes the form of a grant proposal. It presents the purification results, rationale for the desired mutation, relevance to previous studies, an overview of techniques applicable to the study of the mutant, predictions as to the characteristics of the engineered protein, and a plan for its purification. These proposals pass through at least one stage of peer review, and each student gives an oral presentation. This project serves to tie together many concepts learned during both the lecture and laboratory portions of the course. As noted above, we have been able to acquire workstations and software for modeling through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, the research proposal exercise can be modified, depending on facilities available and the goals of a particular course. A literature survey alone yields a wealth of information on this enzyme, and students can design experiments in biochemistry or molecular biology to follow up on the papers they have read. Some recent textbooks are accompanied by diskettes that allow

  4. Ultrashort Phenomena in Biochemistry and Biological Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, Robert

    2014-11-01

    In biological phenomena there are indications that within the long pulse-length of the action potential on millisecond scale, there is additional ultrashort perturbation encoding that provides the brain with detailed information about the origin (location) and physiological characteristics. The objective is to identify the mechanism-of-action providing the potential for encoding in biological signal propagation. The actual molecular processes involved in the initiation of the action potential have been identified to be in the femtosecond and pico-second scale. The depolarization process of the cellular membrane itself, leading to the onset of the actionpotential that is transmitted to the brain, however is in the millisecond timeframe. One example of the femtosecond chemical interaction is the photoresponse of bacteriorhodopsin. No clear indication for the spatial encoding has so far been verified. Further research will be required on a cellular signal analysis level to confirm or deny the spatial and physiological encoding in the signal wave-trains of intercellular communications and sensory stimuli. The pathological encoding process for cardiac depolarization is however very pronounced and validated, however this electro-chemical process is in the millisecond amplitude and frequency modulation spectrum.

  5. Editorial: Molecular Organization of Membranes: Where Biology Meets Biophysics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cebecauer, Marek; Holowka, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 113 (2017), s. 1-3 ISSN 2296-634X Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : nanodomains * membrane properties * cell membrane Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  6. DMPD: Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17502368 Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. de Wee...(.html) (.csml) Show Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. PubmedID 17502368 T...itle Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. Authors

  7. Laboratory testing in the emergency department: an Italian Society of Clinical Biochemistry and Clinical Molecular Biology (SIBioC and Academy of Emergency Medicine and Care (AcEMC consensus report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay of patient-oriented laboratory testing in emergency settings entails selecting number and type of tests according to valid criteria of appropriateness. Since the pattern of urgent tests requesting is variable across different institutions, we designed a joined survey between the Academy of Emergency Medicine and Care (AcEMC and the Italian Society of Clinical Biochemistry and Clinical Molecular Biology (SIBioC for reaching tentative consensus about the most informative diagnostic tests in emergency settings. A survey, containing the most commonly performed urgent laboratory tests and the relative clinical indications, was disseminated to eight relevant members of AcEMC and eight relevant members of SIBioC. All contributors were asked to provide numerical scores for the different laboratory parameters, where 1 indicated strongly recommended, 2 recommended in specific circumstances, and 3 strongly discouraged. The mean results of the survey were presented as the mean of responders’ values, and the parameters were finally classified as strongly recommended (mean value, 1.0-1.5, somehow recommended (mean value, 1.5-2.0, discouraged (mean value, 2.0-2.5 and strongly discouraged (mean value, 2.5-3.0. The results of the survey allowed defining a hierarchy of priority, wherein 24 tests were strongly recommended. The use of 5 common tests was instead strongly discouraged. For 16 additional parameters in the list, the consensus ranged between somehow recommended and discouraged. We hope that results presented in this joint AcEMC-SIBioC consensus document may help harmonizing panel of tests and requesting patters in emergency setting, at least at a national level.

  8. Virtual Laboratories in Chemistry, Biochemistry, & Molecular Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Report (state-of-the-art review) from a research and development project on virtual laboratories supported by Markedmodningsfonden (tidl. "Fornyelsesfonden")(2012-2014). http://markedsmodningsfonden.dk/projekt/0/34/495.......Report (state-of-the-art review) from a research and development project on virtual laboratories supported by Markedmodningsfonden (tidl. "Fornyelsesfonden")(2012-2014). http://markedsmodningsfonden.dk/projekt/0/34/495....

  9. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extracellular matrix metalloproteinase protein inducer and CA 15-3 as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of primary breast cancer · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. Virtual Laboratories in Chemistry, Biochemistry, & Molecular Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Report (state-of-the-art review) from a research and development project on virtual laboratories supported by Markedmodningsfonden (tidl. "Fornyelsesfonden")(2012-2014). http://markedsmodningsfonden.dk/projekt/0/34/495....

  11. Why should biochemistry students be introduced to molecular dynamics simulations--and how can we introduce them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Donald E

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations play an increasingly important role in many aspects of biochemical research but are often not part of the biochemistry curricula at the undergraduate level. This article discusses the pedagogical value of exposing students to MD simulations and provides information to help instructors consider what software and hardware resources are necessary to successfully introduce these simulations into their courses. In addition, a brief review of the MD-based activities in this issue and other sources are provided. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. The physical basis of biochemistry the foundations of molecular biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Bergethon, Peter R

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this book is to provide a unifying approach to the study of biophysical chemistry for the advanced undergraduate who has had a year of physics, organic chem­ istry, calculus, and biology. This book began as a revised edition of Biophysical Chemistry: Molecules to Membranes, which Elizabeth Simons and I coauthored. That short volume was written in an attempt to provide a concise text for a one-semester course in biophysical chemistry at the graduate level. The experience of teaching biophysical chemistry to bi­ ologically oriented students over the last decade has made it clear that the subject requires a more fundamental text that unifies the many threads of modem science: physics, chem­ istry, biology, mathematics, and statistics. This book represents that effort. This volume is not a treatment of modem biophysical chemistry with its rich history and many contro­ versies, although a book on that topic is also needed. The Physical Basis of Biochemistry is an introduction to the philosophy...

  13. Measurement Frontiers in Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderman, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Developments of molecular measurements and manipulations have long enabled forefront research in evolution, genetics, biological development and its dysfunction, and the impact of external factors on the behavior of cells. Measurement remains at the heart of exciting and challenging basic and applied problems in molecular and cell biology. Methods to precisely determine the identity and abundance of particular molecules amongst a complex mixture of similar and dissimilar types require the successful design and integration of multiple steps involving biochemical manipulations, separations, physical probing, and data processing. Accordingly, today's most powerful methods for characterizing life at the molecular level depend on coordinated advances in applied physics, biochemistry, chemistry, computer science, and engineering. This is well illustrated by recent approaches to the measurement of DNA, RNA, proteins, and intact cells. Such successes underlie well founded visions of how molecular biology can further assist in answering compelling scientific questions and in enabling the development of remarkable advances in human health. These visions, in turn, are motivating the interdisciplinary creation of even more comprehensive measurements. As a further and closely related consequence, they are motivating innovations in the conceptual and practical approaches to organizing and visualizing large, complex sets of interrelated experimental results and distilling from those data compelling, informative conclusions.

  14. Phosphinic acid compounds in biochemistry, biology and medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Collinsová, Michaela; Jiráček, Jiří

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2000), s. 629-647 ISSN 0929-8673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/97/0039; GA AV ČR KSK2055603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.909, year: 2000

  15. Molecular biology: Self-sustaining chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrede Paul

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular biology is an established interdisciplinary field within biology that deals fundamentally with the function of any nucleic acid in the cellular context. The molecular biology section in Chemistry Central Journal focusses on the genetically determined chemistry and biochemistry occuring in the cell. How can thousands of chemical reactions interact smoothly to maintain the life of cells, even in a variable environment? How is this self-sustaining system achieved? These are questions that should be answered in the light of molecular biology and evolution, but with the application of biophysical, physico-chemical, analytical and preparative technologies. As the Section Editor for the molecular biology section in Chemistry Central Journal, I hope to receive manuscripts that present new approaches aimed at better answering and shedding light upon these fascinating questions related to the chemistry of livings cells.

  16. Biochemistry and physiology within the framework of the extended synthesis of evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, Angelo; Passamonti, Sabina

    2016-02-09

    Functional biologists, like Claude Bernard, ask "How?", meaning that they investigate the mechanisms underlying the emergence of biological functions (proximal causes), while evolutionary biologists, like Charles Darwin, asks "Why?", meaning that they search the causes of adaptation, survival and evolution (remote causes). Are these divergent views on what is life? The epistemological role of functional biology (molecular biology, but also biochemistry, physiology, cell biology and so forth) appears essential, for its capacity to identify several mechanisms of natural selection of new characters, individuals and populations. Nevertheless, several issues remain unsolved, such as orphan metabolic activities, i.e., adaptive functions still missing the identification of the underlying genes and proteins, and orphan genes, i.e., genes that bear no signature of evolutionary history, yet provide an organism with improved adaptation to environmental changes. In the framework of the Extended Synthesis, we suggest that the adaptive roles of any known function/structure are reappraised in terms of their capacity to warrant constancy of the internal environment (homeostasis), a concept that encompasses both proximal and remote causes.

  17. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular Biology Database List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, C

    1999-01-01

    Molecular Biology Database List (MBDL) includes brief descriptions and pointers to Web sites for the various databases described in this issue as well as other Web sites presenting data sets relevant to molecular biology. This information is compiled into a list (http://www.oup.co.uk/nar/Volume_27/Issue_01/summary/ gkc105_gml.html) which includes links both to source Web sites and to on-line versions of articles describing the databases. PMID:9847130

  19. Biochemistry and pharmacology of the myometrium and labor: regulation at the cellular and molecular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, G; Roberts, J M

    1982-01-15

    This review presents the essentials of cell biology, biochemistry, and pharmacology of the myometrium and labor, especially as they relate to premature labor. The aim is to explore the neuroendocrine and pharmacologic regulation of myometrial muscle cells in the context of cell membrane function and contractile processes. In the first section, smooth muscle protein structure and interactions are described, the central roles of myosin light-chain kinase, calcium, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are reviewed. Subsequently, events relating to hormone/drug receptor function and implications for pharmacologic applications are discussed. Finally, the processes of information transfer via hormones and drugs are incorporated into a model which explains how the hormones and drugs used in clinical practice may mediate myometrial contractility. The reader is introduced to current concepts of the cellular, molecular, and pharmacologic aspects of labor in order to facilitate the understanding of medical augmentation of labor and tocolytic therapy.

  20. [Ultrastructure and molecular biochemistry on pathogenic fungal cells: the architecture of septal cell walls of dermatophytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Y

    2001-01-01

    This review provides abstracts of our research for which the year 2000 prize of The Japanese Society for Medical Mycology was awarded. The study consists of 4 fields: 1)Ultrastructure and biochemistry of the cell walls of dermatophytes. 2) Freeze-fracture electron microscopic study on the membrane systems of pathogenic fungi. 3) Action mechanisms of antifungal agents in terms of membrane structure and functions. 4) Dimorphism and virulence of pathogenic fungi in terms of molecular biology of membrane lipids. Since the detailed contents of these studies were reported in my previous review article (Jpn J Med Mycol 41: 211-217, 2000), I would like to mention these studies only briefly here, together with a detailed review of the septal cell wall architecture of dermatophytes, which I did not cover in my earlier articles.

  1. Novel Study Guides for Biochemistry Meaningful Learning in Biology: a Design-Based Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, C ; Galembeck, E. Costa, C ; Galembeck, E.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the difficulties for biochemistry learning is the persistence of traditional teaching methods, based on transmission and memorization of abstract and detailed information, usually in a decontextualized way. Such scenario results in surface learning and content reproduction. In order to address these problems, three interventions in a discipline (Metabolism for Biology majors were applied, in the form of innovative teaching tools (study guides. OBJECTIVES: The main goal is to evaluate the impact of these interventions on interest, motivation, and learning of the metabolic pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe the development, application, and evaluation of two study guides – one created from a problem used as a contextual connection for glycogen metabolism study and another embedding an integrative view based on glutamate metabolism. Both materials were guided by broad themes like evolution, metabolic adaptation, and comparative biochemistry. The development of the study guides combined submicroscopic (molecular and macroscopic (body, environment levels, aiming to motivate reading and discussion. A design-based research with cycles of application and assessment was carried out, by means of classroom observation, grade analysis in written exams, and students’ interviews. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In general, based on in-class student feedback to professors and to the researcher in the interviews, the study guides arouse curiosity and fostered peer discussion. Final average grades indicate a good global performance in all proposed activities. Whole data from study guides’ application in classroom evidenced their impact on interest, motivation, and learning. The strategy of developing problem or integrative situation linking molecular (micro and contextual (macro levels were helpful to foster critical thinking and to value topics of scientific literacy. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis and interpretation of the results point to benefits for

  2. Applications of thermal neutron scattering in biology, biochemistry and biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worcester, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Biological applications of thermal neutron scattering have increased rapidly in recent years. The following categories of biological research with thermal neutron scattering are presently identified: crystallography of biological molecules; neutron small-angle scattering of biological molecules in solution (these studies have already included numerous measurements of proteins, lippoproteins, viruses, ribosomal subunits and chromatin subunit particles); neutron small-angle diffraction and scattering from biological membranes and membrane components; and neutron quasielastic and inelastic scattering studies of the dynamic properties of biological molecules and materials. (author)

  3. Systems Biology of Metabolism: Annual Review of Biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Metabolism is highly complex and involves thousands of different connected reactions; it is therefore necessary to use mathematical models for holistic studies. The use of mathematical models in biology is referred to as systems biology. In this review, the principles of systems biology......, the application of systems biology for analyzing global regulatory structures, engineering the metabolism of cell factories, and analyzing human diseases is discussed....

  4. Graphs in molecular biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcon Seth

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Graph theoretical concepts are useful for the description and analysis of interactions and relationships in biological systems. We give a brief introduction into some of the concepts and their areas of application in molecular biology. We discuss software that is available through the Bioconductor project and present a simple example application to the integration of a protein-protein interaction and a co-expression network.

  5. Biochemistry and evolutionary biology: Two disciplines that need ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biochemical information has been crucial for the development of evolutionary biology. On the one hand, the sequence information now appearing is producing a huge increase in the amount of data available for phylogenetic analysis; on the other hand, and perhaps more fundamentally, it allows understanding of the ...

  6. The Multilayered Challenges of Contemporary Graduate Training in Biochemistry and Experimental Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ramalho Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Graduate training in Science at the Masters and Ph.D. levels has changed in recent years, especially involving increasing focus on soft skills and career diversification in a global world. Taking advantage of a fifteen-year experience in the distinct philosophies of the Masters is Biochemistry (MBq, Masters in Biology (MB, Masters in Molecular Cell Biology (MBCM, Ph.D. in Biosciences (PDBsc and Ph.D. in Experimental Biology and Biomedicine (PDBEB at the University of Coimbra, several of these aspects will be brought into focus via examples throughout the talk. Of course, a strong basis in key scientific skills, and the ability to adequately and creatively address all the modern technological and conceptual innovations in each field is still paramount, and should never be neglected as the most important aspect of graduate training. Exposing students to distinct sub-fields and speakers with distinct styles and experiences is also crucial to ensure breadth of training, but avoid formatting. In parallel, students should get solid exposure to complementary skills including aspects related to intellectual property, industry connections and entrepreneurship, bioethics, science policy/lobbying, or scientific writing, among many others. Notably, the importance of societal issues and science engagement activities with different kinds of audiences has increased, with attention being paid to proper science dissemination and communication strategies. It is crucial that students be made aware of ever changing options in terms of career development, for example via positive reinforcement using examples of program alumni with diverse experiences, and that, besides outstanding science, have gone on to other relevant activities. In parallel, the main pitfalls in proper career development should also be highlighted, so that students can make informed decisions. Perhaps the main issue is the recognition that one size does not fit all, and that there are several

  7. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych

    2007-01-01

    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  8. Fluorescence quantum yield measurements of fluorescent proteins: a laboratory experiment for a biochemistry or molecular biophysics laboratory course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kathryn P; Dillon, Rebecca; Knowles, Michelle K

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are commonly used in cell biology to assess where proteins are within a cell as a function of time and provide insight into intracellular protein function. However, the usefulness of a fluorescent protein depends directly on the quantum yield. The quantum yield relates the efficiency at which a fluorescent molecule converts absorbed photons into emitted photons and it is necessary to know for assessing what fluorescent protein is the most appropriate for a particular application. In this work, we have designed an upper-level, biochemistry laboratory experiment where students measure the fluorescence quantum yields of fluorescent proteins relative to a standard organic dye. Four fluorescent protein variants, enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), mCitrine, and mCherry, were used, however the methods described are useful for the characterization of any fluorescent protein or could be expanded to fluorescent quantum yield measurements of organic dye molecules. The laboratory is designed as a guided inquiry project and takes two, 4 hr laboratory periods. During the first day students design the experiment by selecting the excitation wavelength, choosing the standard, and determining the concentration needed for the quantum yield experiment that takes place in the second laboratory period. Overall, this laboratory provides students with a guided inquiry learning experience and introduces concepts of fluorescence biophysics into a biochemistry laboratory curriculum. © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Cooperative Learning in Introductory Cell and Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Herbert B.; Markstein, James A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a pilot study conducted to determine whether cooperative learning had a beneficial effect on the academic performance of minority students and subsequent enrollments in the elective courses in biochemistry and molecular biology. Minority students average GPA increased from 2.13 (n=39) to 2.96 (n=17). Enrollment in aforementioned courses…

  10. [Biology molecular of glioblastomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Hernández, C; Martínez-Glez, V; Rey, J A

    2007-10-01

    Glioblastomas, the most frequent and malignant human brain tumors, may develop de novo (primary glioblastoma) or by progression from low-grade or anapalsic astrocytoma (secondary glioblastoma). The molecular alteration most frequent in these tumor-like types is the loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 10, in which several genes have been identified as tumors suppressor. The TP53/MDM2/P14arf and CDK4/RB1/ P16ink4 genetic pathways involved in cycle control are deregulated in the majority of gliomas as well as genes that promote the cellular division, EGFR. Finally the increase of growth and angiogenics factors is also involved in the development of glioblastomas. One of the objectives of molecular biology in tumors of glial ancestry is to try to find the genetic alterations that allow to approach better the classification of glioblastomas, its evolution prediction and treatment. The new pathmolecular classification of gliomas should improve the old one, especially being concerned about the oncogenesis and heterogeneity of these tumors. It is desirable that this classification had clinical applicability and integrates new molecular findings with some known histological features with pronostic value. In this paper we review the most frequent molecular mechanisms involved in the patogenesis of glioblastomas.

  11. Chemoradiotherapy and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Niibe, Hideo

    2000-01-01

    The current status of chemoradiotherapy was reviewed from the standpoint of molecular biology. Chemoradiotherapy was conducted to achieve systemic tumor control, to intensify the response to irradiation, and to reduce adverse reactions. The mechanisms of the efficacy of chemoradiotherapy were: modification of dose-response relationships, inhibition of tumor cell recovery from sublethal damage or potential lethal damage, effects on cell dynamics and the cell cycle, improvement of blood flow or reoxygenation, recruitment, improvement of drug uptake, increased cell damage. Cell death (necrosis and apoptosis) and cancer-related genes were described, as the essential points, because they are involved in the response to chemoradiotherapy. Cisplatin (platinum compound), 5-fluorouracil, etoposide, and taxoid (paclitaxel, docetaxel) were the principal anticancer agents used for chemoradiotherapy, and they enhanced the effects of irradiation. However, even when good responses or synergism between anticancer drug and radiotherapy was observed in in vitro studies, there was little therapeutic advantage clinically. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies should be collected and systemized, and ''molecular biology in chemotherapy'' that can be applied clinically may become established. (K.H.)

  12. Assessment of knowledge of participants on basic molecular biology techniques after 5-day intensive molecular biology training workshops in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisau, J I; Adagbada, A O; Bamidele, T; Fowora, M; Brai, B I C; Adebesin, O; Bamidele, M; Fesobi, T; Nwaokorie, F O; Ajayi, A; Smith, S I

    2017-07-08

    The deployment of molecular biology techniques for diagnosis and research in Nigeria is faced with a number of challenges, including the cost of equipment and reagents coupled with the dearth of personnel skilled in the procedures and handling of equipment. Short molecular biology training workshops were conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), to improve the knowledge and skills of laboratory personnel and academics in health, research, and educational facilities. Five-day molecular biology workshops were conducted annually between 2011 and 2014, with participants drawn from health, research facilities, and the academia. The courses consisted of theoretical and practical sessions. The impact of the workshops on knowledge and skill acquisition was evaluated by pre- and post-tests which consisted of 25 multiple choice and other questions. Sixty-five participants took part in the workshops. The mean knowledge of molecular biology as evaluated by the pre- and post-test assessments were 8.4 (95% CI 7.6-9.1) and 13.0 (95 CI 11.9-14.1), respectively. The mean post-test score was significantly greater than the mean pre-test score (p biology workshop significantly increased the knowledge and skills of participants in molecular biology techniques. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):313-317, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Lysosomal multienzyme complex: biochemistry, genetics, and molecular pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshezhetsky, A V; Ashmarina, M

    2001-01-01

    Lysosomal enzymes sialidase (alpha-neuraminidase), beta-galactosidase, and N-acetylaminogalacto-6-sulfate sulfatase are involved in the catabolism of glycolipids, glycoproteins, and oligosaccharides. Their functional activity in the cell depends on their association in a multienzyme complex with lysosomal carboxypeptidase, cathepsin A. We review the data suggesting that the integrity of the complex plays a crucial role at different stages of biogenesis of lysosomal enzymes, including intracellular sorting and proteolytic processing of their precursors. The complex plays a protective role for all components, extending their half-life in the lysosome from several hours to several days; and for sialidase, the association with cathepsin A is also necessary for the expression of enzymatic activity. The disintegration of the complex due to genetic mutations in its components results in their functional deficiency and causes severe metabolic disorders: sialidosis (mutations in sialidase), GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio disease type B (mutations in beta-galactosidase), galactosialidosis (mutations in cathepsin A), and Morquio disease type A (mutations in N-acetylaminogalacto-6-sulfate sulfatase). The genetic, biochemical, and direct structural studies described here clarify the molecular pathogenic mechanisms of these disorders and suggest new diagnostic tools.

  14. Protein targeting protocols [Methods in molecular biology, v. 88

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clegg, Roger A

    1998-01-01

    ... of intracellular environment. Because the concept of protein targeting is intuitive rather than explicitly defined, it has been variously used by different groups of researchers in cell biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. For those working in the field of intracellular signaling, an influential introduction to the topic was the seminal article by Hubbard & Cohen (TIBS [1993] 18, 172- 177), which was based on the work of Cohen's laboratory on protein phosphatases. Subsequently, the ideas that t...

  15. Molecular biology of potyviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revers, Frédéric; García, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Potyvirus is the largest genus of plant viruses causing significant losses in a wide range of crops. Potyviruses are aphid transmitted in a nonpersistent manner and some of them are also seed transmitted. As important pathogens, potyviruses are much more studied than other plant viruses belonging to other genera and their study covers many aspects of plant virology, such as functional characterization of viral proteins, molecular interaction with hosts and vectors, structure, taxonomy, evolution, epidemiology, and diagnosis. Biotechnological applications of potyviruses are also being explored. During this last decade, substantial advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular biology of these viruses and the functions of their various proteins. After a general presentation on the family Potyviridae and the potyviral proteins, we present an update of the knowledge on potyvirus multiplication, movement, and transmission and on potyvirus/plant compatible interactions including pathogenicity and symptom determinants. We end the review providing information on biotechnological applications of potyviruses. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular biology and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, P G

    1999-03-01

    Modern molecular biology has provided unique insights into the fundamental understanding of reproductive disorders and the detection of microorganisms. The remarkable advances in DNA diagnostics have been expedited by the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the ability to isolate DNA and RNA from many different sources such as blood, saliva, hair roots, microscopic slides, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, clinical swabs, and even cancellous bone. These technical advances have been bolstered by the development of an increasing number of effective screening techniques to scan genomic DNA for unknown point mutations. The continued development of technology will ultimately result in automated DNA (desoxyribonucleic acid) diagnosis for the practicing clinician. The continuing expansion of information concerning the human genome will place an increasing emphasis on bioinformatics and the use of computer software for analyzing DNA sequences. With the automation of DNA diagnosis and the use of small samples (500 nanograms), the direct examination of the DNA of a patient, fetus, or microorganism will emerge as a definitive means of establishing the presence of the specific genetic change that causes disease. A knowledge of the precise pathology at the molecular level has and will provide important insights into the biochemical basis for many human diseases. A firm knowledge of the DNA alterations in disease and expression patterns of specific genes will provide for more directed therapeutic strategies. The refinement of vector technology and nuclear transplantion techniques will provide the opportunity for directed gene therapy to the early human embryo. This presentation is designed to acquaint the reader with current techniques of testing at the DNA level, prototype mutations in the reproductive sciences, new concepts in the molecular mechanisms of disease that affect reproduction, and therapeutic opportunities for the future. It is hoped that future

  17. Commentary: PhDs in biochemistry education-5 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerdahl, Erika G; Momsen, Jennifer L; Osgood, Marcy

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the discussion of PhDs in biochemistry education research is expanded to explore a number of diverse pathways leading to a competitive research program in biochemistry education research. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. A proposal of collaborative education for biochemistry and cell biology teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Souza-Júnior

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Currently students grow up in a world of digital tools that allow you to connect instantly with the world. At the same time, teachers face several challenges to increase student interest and learning efficiency. One such challenge is the pedagogical commitment of the density of biochemistry and cell biology contents, producing a conflict scenario, between meeting content and maintain the class quality. OBJECTIVES: From this perspective, this study aimed to evaluate the learning biochemistry and cell biology contents in high school classes of IFRN, using collaborative and digital tools in the Moodle. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The contents were offered using various tools such as video lectures, forums, questionnaires, portfolios, glossaries and electronic books. Then these tools were evaluated using an electronic form.  In addition to the tools, we evaluated the platform interaction, the performance of activities and the content gamification. RESULTS: The quantitative results revealed directly proportional relationship of the interaction of Moodle with the performance of activities. The content gamification was also assessed positively, with 61% of students considered good, very good or excellent. The best evaluated tools were video lectures, with 31% preference, and questionnaires, with 24%; followed by electronic book, with 10%, and portfolio, with 5.5%. The other tools totaled 30% of the preference. Qualitative results revealed an educational gain of content, because the student lived the experience of teaching and learning collaboratively. In addition, these tools decreased conflicts between content and schedule. CONCLUSION: Thus, the use of information and communication technology (ICT in a collaborative learning provides relevant results, bringing the reality of the world connected to the classroom. In addition, it assists in defining the content and creative development of a strategy for the construction of the concepts applied

  19. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 24, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sulfur-containing amino acids, C-reactive protein, Vitamin B12, folate and mortality in haemodialysis patients · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. E M Abd El-Azeem, E M Kandeel, D M Seoudi, U A Abd-Ellatif, M M Khedr, 111-129.

  20. Presynaptic Neurotoxins: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Immunology and Other Exploratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    analysis (Bieber). Primary sequences have also been determined for two myotoxins from the venom of Bothrops asper . One, a potent PLA2 with 67% sequence...fieldi, myotoxin II from Bothrops asper , PLA 2 from C. atrox) as opposed to monomeric PLA 2s. Once our MacQuadra 800 computer becomes available, we...on the isolation of Bothrops asper phospholipase A2s, we observed that these venoms also have metal-ion dependent proteases and high concentrations of

  1. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 28, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory effect of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with bronchial asthma; relation to nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inflammatory cytokines il-12 and il-13 · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M SalLam, F Motaleb, M Ahmed, A Mahmoud.

  2. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 31, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cloning, expression and partial characterization of the C. elegans EEED8.8 gene product, a specific adp-ribose diphosphatase, member of nudix hydrolase family · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. SR Abdelraheim, HM Abdelelghany, AG Mclennan, 49-64 ...

  3. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 27, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic Polymorphism Of Glutathione-S-Transferase And Susceptibility To And Severity Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. NS El Din Hemimi, MM Al Attar, MA Abd Elwahab. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejbmb.v27i1.43192 ...

  4. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. To ENSURE more uniformity, greater clarity and higher quality of manuscripts published, a greatly expanded “Instructions for Contributors” section appears in this issue of the Journal. These Instructions will appear in the first issue of each volume and should be carefully consulted by all authors intending ...

  5. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 35, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum IL17 and IL4R RS1805010 genotypes: relationship with rheumatoid arthritis disease activity in Egyptian patients · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Transplantation of insulin-secreting clusters generated from mesenchymal stem cells to control induced diabetes in rats · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  6. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 23, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of anthracyclin-related hyperlipidemia taurine or PDE4 inhibitor during endotoxemia · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Hoda E Mohamed, I Ali Sousou, Mervat E Asker, Tamer M Abd-Elfattah, 1-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejbmb.v23i1.35912 ...

  7. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 28, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulation glutathione synthesizing and regenerating enzymes by xenobiotics in the brain of mice with targeted deletion of the NRF2 transcription factor gene · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MY Gwarzo. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejbmb.v28i1.54366 ...

  8. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 22, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some genetic factors influencing the phenotypic severity of β thalassemia Egyptian patients · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ibtessam R Hussein, Amina M Medhat, Samir F Zohny, Alice K Abd El-Aleem, Ghada Y El-Kammah, Bardees M Foda, 107- ...

  9. The Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Major and Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberal Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The defining task for undergraduate departments is the design of a major, including the number and content of courses as well as other requirements. Department members must weigh the desire to produce graduates superbly prepared for further study against the charge that the major requires too large a share of an undergraduate's course options.…

  10. [beta]-Lactamases in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Paula; Prudencio, Cristina; Vieira, Monica; Ferraz, Ricardo; Fonte, Rosalia; Silva, Nuno; Coelho, Pedro; Fernandes, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    [beta]-lactamases are hydrolytic enzymes that inactivate the [beta]-lactam ring of antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. The major diversity of studies carried out until now have mainly focused on the characterization of [beta]-lactamases recovered among clinical isolates of Gram-positive staphylococci and Gram-negative…

  11. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: Advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  12. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 24, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective role of green tea polyphenols against paraquat induced oxidative stress in rat liver · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... Role of reduced glutathione, nitric oxide and some trace elements in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  13. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 25, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Protective Effect Of Turmeric On Iron Overload In Albino Rats · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The relationship between urinary Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Insulin like Growth Factor levels on diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  14. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 29, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of eplerenone versus omeprazole on water immersion restraint stress induced gastric injury in rats · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. OA El-Kharash, ES Nabih, 327-342. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejbmb.v29i2.72442 ...

  15. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 26, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potent Protective Effect Of α -Tocopherol And Fish Oil On In Vivo Paraquat Induced Oxidative Damage In Rats · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AM Attia, SG El-Bann, SG Ismaiel, AA Koriem, 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejbmb.v26i2.35962 ...

  16. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 33, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compartive study between the effects of human CD34 and rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on amelioration of CCL4 induced liver fibrosis · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Amany O Mohamed, Naglaa K Idriss, Dina Sabry, Mona Magdy, Hayam G Sayyed, ...

  17. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 32, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effects of Estrogen Receptor Gene-Alpha Polymorphism on Bone Mineral Density and Serum Osteoprotegerin Levels in Postmenopausal Egyptian Women · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MS Fawzy, HA Awad, HS Ahmad, SM Sadek, DS Fahmy, GS Nageeb, ...

  18. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 26, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes In Insulin Resistance Risk Markers Among Oral Contraceptive Users In Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I Onyesom, C O Esume, E B Anyanwu, G E Umukoro, T Enaholo, 23-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejbmb.v26i1.35955 ...

  19. THE EVOLUTION OF THE KREBS CYCLE: A PROMISING THEME FOR MEANINGFUL BIOCHEMISTRY LEARNING IN BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Evolution has been recognized as a key concept for biologists. In order to motivate biology undergraduates for contents of central energetic metabolism, we addressed the Krebs cycle structure and functions to an evolutionary view. To this end, we created a study guide which contextualizes the emergence of the cyclic pathway, in light of the prokaryotic influence since early Earth anaerobic condition to oxygen rise in atmosphere. OBJECTIVES: The main goal is to highlight the educational potential of the material whose subject is scarcely covered in biochemistry textbooks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study guide is composed by three interrelated sections, the problem (Section 1, designed to arouse curiosity, inform and motivate students; an introductory text (Section 2 about life evolution, including early micro-organisms and Krebs cycle emergence, and questions (Section 3 for debate. The activity consisted on a peer discussion session, with instructors tutoring. The questions were designed to foster exchange of ideas in an ever-increasing level of complexity, and cover subjects from early atmospheric conditions to organization of the metabolism along the subsequent geological ages. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We noticed that students were engaged and motivated by the task, especially during group discussion. Based on students’ feedbacks and class observations, we learned that the material raised curiosity and stimulated discussion among peers. It brought a historical and purposeful way of dealing with difficult biochemical concepts. CONCLUSIONS: The whole experience suggests that the study guide was a stimulus for broadening comprehension of the Krebs cycle, reinforcing the evolutionary stance as an important theme for biology and biochemistry understanding. On the other hand, we do not underestimate the fact that approaching Krebs cycle from an evolutionary standpoint is a quite complex discussion for the majority of students

  20. Applications of nucleoside-based molecular probes for the in vivo assessment of tumour biochemistry using positron emission tomography (PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard I. Wiebe

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is a non-invasive nuclear imaging technique. In PET, radiolabelled molecules decay by positron emission. The gamma rays resulting from positron annihilation are detected in coincidence and mapped to produce three dimensional images of radiotracer distribution in the body. Molecular imaging with PET refers to the use of positron-emitting biomolecules that are highly specific substrates for target enzymes, transport proteins or receptor proteins. Molecular imaging with PET produces spatial and temporal maps of the target-related processes. Molecular imaging is an important analytical tool in diagnostic medical imaging, therapy monitoring and the development of new drugs. Molecular imaging has its roots in molecular biology. Originally, molecular biology meant the biology of gene expression, but now molecular biology broadly encompasses the macromolecular biology and biochemistry of proteins, complex carbohydrates and nucleic acids. To date, molecular imaging has focused primarily on proteins, with emphasis on monoclonal antibodies and their derivative forms, small-molecule enzyme substrates and components of cell membranes, including transporters and transmembrane signalling elements. This overview provides an introduction to nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids in the context of molecular imaging.A tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (TEP é uma técnica de imagem não invasiva da medicina nuclear. A TEP utiliza moléculas marcadas com emissores de radiação beta positiva (pósitrons. As radiações gama medidas que resultam do aniquilamento dos pósitrons são detectadas por um sistema de coincidência e mapeadas para produzir uma imagem tridimensional da distribuição do radiotraçador no corpo. A imagem molecular com TEP refere-se ao uso de biomoléculas marcadas com emissor de pósitron que são substratos altamente específicos para alvos como enzimas, proteínas transportadoras ou receptores prot

  1. Teaching Molecular Biology with Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Rebecca; Jameson, David

    1984-01-01

    Describes a series of computer programs that use simulation and gaming techniques to present the basic principles of the central dogma of molecular genetics, mutation, and the genetic code. A history of discoveries in molecular biology is presented and the evolution of these computer assisted instructional programs is described. (MBR)

  2. Structural biology of Molecular machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    a structural biology perspective. TANWEER HUSSAIN. Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics (MRDG). Indian Institute of Science (IISc). Bangalore. Symposium on “Molecular Machines: a multidiscipline enterprise” 1st July 2017. 28th mid-year meeting of Indian Academy of Sciences at IISc, Bangalore ...

  3. Molecular Biology of Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Current methods of diagnosis and treatment of medulloblastoma, and the influence of new biological advances in the development of more effective and less toxic therapies are reviewed by researchers at Children’s National Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, DC.

  4. Molecular biomimetics: nanotechnology through biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tamerler, Candan; Jen, Alex K.-Y.; Schulten, Klaus; Baneyx, François

    2003-09-01

    Proteins, through their unique and specific interactions with other macromolecules and inorganics, control structures and functions of all biological hard and soft tissues in organisms. Molecular biomimetics is an emerging field in which hybrid technologies are developed by using the tools of molecular biology and nanotechnology. Taking lessons from biology, polypeptides can now be genetically engineered to specifically bind to selected inorganic compounds for applications in nano- and biotechnology. This review discusses combinatorial biological protocols, that is, bacterial cell surface and phage-display technologies, in the selection of short sequences that have affinity to (noble) metals, semiconducting oxides and other technological compounds. These genetically engineered proteins for inorganics (GEPIs) can be used in the assembly of functional nanostructures. Based on the three fundamental principles of molecular recognition, self-assembly and DNA manipulation, we highlight successful uses of GEPI in nanotechnology.

  5. The Molecular Biology of Pestiviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautz, Norbert; Tews, Birke Andrea; Meyers, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Pestiviruses are among the economically most important pathogens of livestock. The biology of these viruses is characterized by unique and interesting features that are both crucial for their success as pathogens and challenging from a scientific point of view. Elucidation of these features at the molecular level has made striking progress during recent years. The analyses revealed that major aspects of pestivirus biology show significant similarity to the biology of human hepatitis C virus (HCV). The detailed molecular analyses conducted for pestiviruses and HCV supported and complemented each other during the last three decades resulting in elucidation of the functions of viral proteins and RNA elements in replication and virus-host interaction. For pestiviruses, the analyses also helped to shed light on the molecular basis of persistent infection, a special strategy these viruses have evolved to be maintained within their host population. The results of these investigations are summarized in this chapter. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. History of biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parduman; Batra, H S; Naithani, Manisha

    2004-01-01

    Biochemistry in broad terms is the study of the chemical composition of the living matter and the biochemical processes that underlie life activities during growth and maintenance. This article is an attempt to explore the metamorphosis of biochemistry from a pupa entwined in its own cocoon to a vibrantly colored phenomenon. Studies pertaining to this discipline of science began with Biochemistry interfaces with biology and chemistry even before nineteenth century with studies concerned with the chemical processes that take place within living cells. Modern biochemistry developed out of and largely came to replace what in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was called physiological chemistry, which dealt more with extra cellular chemistry, such as the chemistry of digestion and of body fluids. The name Biochemistry was coined in 1903 by a German chemist named Carl Neuber. However, work in this very living, aspect of chemistry had started much earlier. Claude Bernard is accredited with the Sirehood of Biochemistry. During the later part of the nineteenth century eminent scientists contributed a great deal to the elucidation of the chemistry of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. At this period some very fundamental aspects of enzymology were under close scrutiny. Study of nucleic acid is central to the knowledge of life but its fusion with biochemistry started with works of Fredrick Sanger and Har Gobind Khurana. Their experiments involved a subtle bland of enzymology and chemistry that few would have thought possible to combine. The scientists were busy removing the mist that was mitigating the light of knowledge but they still lacked an insight into the cell. In 1990's research turned to finding the structural details of cell. The field of molecular biochemistry was also progressing at an almost unstoppable speed having expanded its horizons beyond human imagination with the introduction of PCR, creating waves of appreciation from every field of medicine

  7. Synthetic biology: engineering molecular computers

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Complicated systems cannot survive the rigors of a chaotic environment, without balancing mechanisms that sense, decide upon and counteract the exerted disturbances. Especially so with living organisms, forced by competition to incredible complexities, escalating also their self-controlling plight. Therefore, they compute. Can we harness biological mechanisms to create artificial computing systems? Biology offers several levels of design abstraction: molecular machines, cells, organisms... ranging from the more easily-defined to the more inherently complex. At the bottom of this stack we find the nucleic acids, RNA and DNA, with their digital structure and relatively precise interactions. They are central enablers of designing artificial biological systems, in the confluence of engineering and biology, that we call Synthetic biology. In the first part, let us follow their trail towards an overview of building computing machines with molecules -- and in the second part, take the case study of iGEM Greece 201...

  8. La Investigación Básica. La Investigación en Ciencias Fisiológicas: Bioquímica, Biología Molecular y Fisiología. Cuestiones Previas Basic Research. Research in Physiological Sciences: Biochemistry, Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Physiology. Some prior considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constancio González Martínez

    2004-03-01

    conjugate some general ideas on scientific research with known facts on the socioeconomic reality of Latin American countries. In the initial part of the talk I put forward a definition of research, emphasizing the great value of considering the teleology of biological phenomena for the advance of biological sciences. A succinct consideration of the importance of Good Laboratory Practices, especially if there is not a tradition of research, drove my talk to the presentation of some basic data on the socioeconomic situation of the Latin American countries. In the second half of the conference my efforts were directed to incite our Latin American colleagues to demand from their politicians, and to justify in front of their fellow citizens, the necessity of implementing a program on scientific research as a national priority. Such demand should be justified on the basis of the recognition that research represents a way to correctly use the intellectual capital of the citizens of every country and a mean to profit from free international resources, that research is a source of culture, contributing to the national identity of any given country, and finally, on the fact that research is an activity that generates wealth. I concluded my talk pointing out that basic research, and therefore research in physiological sciences, is assembled so tight with basic research that they conform a unique reality.

  9. Molecular biology in cardiovascular anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Nina C.; Schlack, Wolfgang; Preckel, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review The last few years have seen rapid technical developments of methods in molecular biology which are increasingly used as powerful tools in experimental and clinical research. A basic knowledge of these techniques becomes increasingly important for the clinically working

  10. Molecular biology of Plasmodiophora brassicae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemens, Johannes; Bulman, Simon; Rehn, Frank

    2009-01-01

    of several genes have been revealed, and the expression of those genes has been linked to development of clubroot to some extent. In addition, the sequence data have reinforced the inclusion of the plasmodiophorids within the Cercozoa. The recent successes in molecular biology have produced new approaches...

  11. Molecular biology of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Bruce; Lewis, Julian

    2000-01-01

    Molecular Biology of the Cell is the classic in-dept text reference in cell biology. By extracting the fundamental concepts from this enormous and ever-growing field, the authors tell the story of cell biology, and create a coherent framework through which non-expert readers may approach the subject. Written in clear and concise language, and beautifully illustrated, the book is enjoyable to read, and it provides a clear sense of the excitement of modern biology. Molecular Biology of the Cell sets forth the current understanding of cell biology (completely updated as of Autumn 2001), and it explores the intriguing implications and possibilities of the great deal that remains unknown. The hallmark features of previous editions continue in the Fourth Edition. The book is designed with a clean and open, single-column layout. The art program maintains a completely consistent format and style, and includes over 1,600 photographs, electron micrographs, and original drawings by the authors. Clear and concise concept...

  12. Investigating Viruses during the Transformation of Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Bernard

    2017-03-10

    This Reflections article describes my early work on viral enzymes and the discovery of mRNA capping, how my training in medicine and biochemistry merged as I evolved into a virologist, the development of viruses as vaccine vectors, and how scientific and technological developments during the 1970s and beyond set the stage for the interrogation of nearly every step in the reproductive cycle of vaccinia virus (VACV), a large DNA virus with about 200 genes. The reader may view this article as a work in progress, because I remain actively engaged in research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) notwithstanding 50 memorable years there. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Panel 8: Report on Recent Advances in Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Diego; Granath, Anna; Lin, Jizhen; Val, Stéphanie; Kurabi, Arwa; Johnston, Nikki; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Valdez, Tulio; Depireux, Didier; Hermansson, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To update the medical literature on recent cellular and molecular advances in otitis media disease models with a principal focus on developments in the past 5 years. We also aim to explain recent translational advances in cellular and molecular biology that have influenced our understanding and management of otitis media. Data Sources PubMed-indexed peer-reviewed articles. Review Methods A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted with the term otitis media and the following search terms: molecular biology, cell biology, innate immunity, oxidative stress, mucins, molecular diagnostics. Included articles were published in the English language from January 1, 2010, to July 31, 2015. Implications for Practice The molecular understanding of otitis media disease progression has rapidly advanced over the last 5 years. The roles of inflammation, mucins, and cell signaling mechanisms have been elucidated and defined. Advances in the field provide a plethora of opportunities for innovative molecular targeting in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for otitis media.

  14. Experiences from introduction of peer-to-peer teaching methods in Advanced Biochemistry E2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Ditlev; Etzerodt, Michael; Rasmussen, Jan Trige

    2012-01-01

    During the autumn semester 2010, we experimented with a range of active teaching methods on the course, Advanced Biochemistry, at the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics.......During the autumn semester 2010, we experimented with a range of active teaching methods on the course, Advanced Biochemistry, at the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics....

  15. Learning of Biochemistry and Cell Biology: Case Study of the School of Physiotherapy from ONCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.T.L.P. Gonçalves,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Teaching biomedical disciplines for students with disabilities in highereducation is considered a major challenge, especially when it comes to the curriculum, themethods and the resources. In Brazil there are few reports on how the processes ofteaching and learning biomedical disciplines in higher education are conducted. In Spain,since the 70’s the School of Physiotherapy from the National Organization of Spanish blindpeople (ONCE offers exclusively for students with disabilities undergraduate degree inPhysiotherapy, as well as many post graduation courses in biomedicine. Thus, the aim ofthis study was to verify in situ what were the resources and methods used by theprofessors of biochemistry and cell biology to teach their students with visual impairments.Material and Methods: Technical visits were conducted using the following instruments tocollect the data: Unstructured interviews with teachers, students and staff (audio-recordedand later transcribed and classroom observation using photographs and reports. Thedata generated by the interviews were analyzed by the discourse analysis.Discussion and results: Reports indicated that the main methodological resources are:embossed boards made with Swell paper and with the help of an oven called Ricohfuser®; commercially sold models of cells and body structures; the technique of descriptivediscourse where the professor describes an image to be studied, individual touchtechniques where the professor shows an image using the touch of the student. It wasobserved that certain sectors inside the school are especially distinguished. Overall, theschool does not present any other routine different from a regular school, and according tothe professors, it happens intentionally, so that the future professionals are able to work inenvironments not adapted for their needs.Conclusion: The observed adjustments in the school of physiotherapy at ONCE could beseen as an example for Brazilian

  16. Symposium 19: The contributions of the Department of Biochemistry/USP towards Biochemistry teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayardo Baptista Torres

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available K-Education(Portuguese Chair: V. Trindade Bayardo Torres; Clovis Wannmacher; Denise MacedoThe contributions of the Department of Biochemistry/USP towards Biochemistry teaching.O ensino de Bioquímica nos últimos 20 anosBayardo B. TorresDepartamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, USP. São Paulo, Brazil.Among the contributions of the Department of Biochemistry/USP one must recall:1. Winter school for graduate studentsThis course, now at the ninth edition, is intended for students in the final stage of their Masters or PhD in Biochemistry or related areas from any institution of higher education.Modern and important techniques are offered as possible support to help the student’s projects.2. Summer courses for undergraduate studentsThe Department offers every year, since 1999, complementary courses for undergraduate students to extend their knowledge in biochemical subjects not ordinarily treated in introductory courses. Some examples:Plant Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Diseases, Biochemistry of Mind, Biochemistry of Ageing, Cancer Biochemistry, Nutrition and Sports, Biochemistry of Beauty, Biochemistry of the Envenomation Response, etc.3. Summer courses for high school teachers. Some examples:Biochemistry of Nutrition, DNA – Techniques and Applications, Biochemistry in the kitchen.4. Software developmentMany software for biochemistry teaching/learning were developed and are freely available at the Biblioteca Digital de Ciências [http://www.bdc.ib.unicamp.br/bdc/index.php]. Some examples:Oxygen consumption by mitochondria, Muscle contraction, Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, Free radicals, Enzyme kinetics, cAMP signalization, Interactive study of protein structure, Leptin, Insulin and Obesity.5. A Biochemistry textbook. 

  17. Using Biocatalysis to Integrate Organic Chemistry into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Mande; Archer, Crystal; Feske, Brent D.; Mateer, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Current cutting-edge biomedical investigation requires that the researcher have an operational understanding of several diverse disciplines. Biocatalysis is a field of science that operates at the crossroads of organic chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, and molecular biology, and provides an excellent model for interdisciplinary research. We…

  18. [Molecular biology of brain meningiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvalsev, V A; Stepanov, I A; Belykh, E G; Yarullina, A I

    2017-01-01

    Meningiomas are by far the most common tumors arising from the minges. A myriad of aberrant signaling pathways involved with meningioma tumorigenesis, have been discovered. Understanding these disrupted pathways will aid in deciphering the relationship between various genetic changes and their downstream effects on meningioma pathogenesis. An understanding of the genetic and molecular profile of meningioma would provide a valuable first step towards developing more effective treatment for this intracranial tumor. Chromosomes 1, 10, 14, 22, their associated genes, have been linked to meningioma proliferation and progression. It is presumed that through an understanding of these genetic factors, more educated meningioma treatment techniques can be implemented. Future therapies will include combinations of targeted molecular agents including gene therapy, si-RNA mediation, proton therapy, and other approaches as a result of continued progress in the understanding of genetic and biological changes associated with meningiomas.

  19. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  20. Molecular biology at the cutting edge: A review on CRISPR/CAS9 gene editing for undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurtle-Schmidt, Deborah M; Lo, Te-Wen

    2018-03-01

    Disrupting a gene to determine its effect on an organism's phenotype is an indispensable tool in molecular biology. Such techniques are critical for understanding how a gene product contributes to the development and cellular identity of organisms. The explosion of genomic sequencing technologies combined with recent advances in genome-editing techniques has elevated the possibilities of genetic manipulations in numerous organisms in which these experiments were previously not readily accessible or possible. Introducing the next generation of molecular biologists to these emerging techniques is key in the modern biology classroom. This comprehensive review introduces undergraduates to CRISPR/Cas9 editing and its uses in genetic studies. The goals of this review are to explain how CRISPR functions as a prokaryotic immune system, describe how researchers generate mutations with CRISPR/Cas9, highlight how Cas9 has been adapted for new functions, and discuss ethical considerations of genome editing. Additionally, anticipatory guides and questions for discussion are posed throughout the review to encourage active exploration of these topics in the classroom. Finally, the supplement includes a study guide and practical suggestions to incorporate CRISPR/Cas9 experiments into lab courses at the undergraduate level. © 2018 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(2):195-205, 2018. © 2018 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Remembering the forest while viewing the trees: evolutionary thinking in the teaching of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, Sitaraman; Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Given the centrality of evolutionary theory to the study of biology, we present a strategy for reinforcing its importance by appropriately recontextualizing classic and well-known experiments that are not explicitly linked with evolution in conventional texts. This exercise gives students an appreciation of the applicability of the theory of evolution in diverse contexts, including those where it is not explicitly mentioned. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. CUREs in biochemistry-where we are and where we should go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jessica K; Eckdahl, Todd T; Hecht, David A; Killion, Patrick J; Latzer, Joachim; Mans, Tamara L; Provost, Joseph J; Rakus, John F; Siebrasse, Erica A; Ellis Bell, J

    2017-01-02

    Integration of research experience into classroom is an important and vital experience for all undergraduates. These course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) have grown from independent instructor lead projects to large consortium driven experiences. The impact and importance of CUREs on students at all levels in biochemistry was the focus of a National Science Foundation funded think tank. The state of biochemistry CUREs and suggestions for moving biochemistry forward as well as a practical guide (supplementary material) are reported here. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):7-12, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Magnetic field-dependent molecular and chemical processes in biochemistry, genetics and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchachenko, A L

    2014-01-01

    The molecular concept (paradigm) in magnetobiology seems to be most substantiated and significant for explaining the biomedical effects of electromagnetic fields, for the new medical technology of transcranial magnetic stimulation of cognitive activity, for the nuclear magnetic control of biochemical processes and for the search of new magnetic effects in biology and medicine. The key structural element of the concept is a radical ion pair as the receiver of magnetic fields and the source of magnetic effects. The existence of such pairs was recently detected in the two life-supporting processes of paramount importance — in enzymatic ATP and DNA syntheses. The bibliography includes 80 references

  4. Human Development V: Biochemistry Unable to Explain the Emergence of Biological Form (Morphogenesis and Therefore a New Principle as Source of Biological Information is Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's biomedicine builds on the conviction that biochemistry can explain the creation of the body, its anatomy and physiology. Unfortunately there are still deep mysteries strangely “fighting back” when we try to define and understand the organism and its creation in the ontogenesis as emerging from biochemistry. In analysing this from a theoretical perspective using a mathematical model focusing on the noise in complex chemical systems we argue that evolving biological structure cannot in principle be a product of chemistry. In this paper we go through the chemical gradient model and argue that this is not able to explain the ontogenesis. We discuss the used gradients as information carriers in chemical self-organizing systems and argue that by use of the “Turing structures” we are only able to modelling the mostly simple biological systems. The bio-chemical model is only able to model simple organization but not to explain the complexity of biological phenomena. We conclude that we seemingly have presented a formal proof (a NO-GO theorem that the self-organizing chemical systems that are using chemical gradients are not able to explain complex biological matters as the ontogenesis. We need a fundamentally new, information-carrying principle to understand biological information and biological order.

  5. History of the molecular biology of cytomegaloviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinski, Mark F

    2014-01-01

    The history of the molecular biology of cytomegaloviruses from the purification of the virus and the viral DNA to the cloning and expression of the viral genes is reviewed. A key genetic element of cytomegalovirus (the CMV promoter) contributed to our understanding of eukaryotic cell molecular biology and to the development of lifesaving therapeutic proteins. The study of the molecular biology of cytomegaloviruses also contributed to the development of antivirals to control the viral infection.

  6. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George

    2003-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive therapy. Methods: 1...

  7. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George L

    2004-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive therapy. Methods: 1...

  8. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George L

    2006-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy. 1...

  9. Molecular Biology of Exfoliation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula

    2018-02-06

    Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a common age-related matrix process resulting from excessive production and disordered assembly of elastic microfibrillar components into highly cross-linked fibrillary aggregates throughout the anterior eye segment and various organ systems. The underlying molecular pathophysiology involves a complex interplay of pro-fibrotic protagonists including growth factors, proteolytic enzymes and inhibitors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, chaperones, and dysregulated stress response pathways including insufficient autophagy. Interaction between individual genetic predisposition and stress factors is a plausible theory explaining the development of XFS in the aging individual. Genome-wide association studies have identified robust genetic associations with LOXL1, CACNA1A, and five additional genes including POMP and TMEM136, which provide new biological insights into the pathology of XFS and highlight a role for abnormal matrix cross-linking processes, Ca channel deficiency, blood-aqueous barrier dysfunction, and abnormal ubiquitin-proteasome signaling in XFS pathophysiology. However, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms, the functional role of genetic risk variants and gene-environmental interactions still remain to be characterized.

  10. Structural Studies of Phycobiliproteins from Spirulina: Combining Spectroscopy, Thermodynamics, and Molecular Modeling in an Undergraduate Biochemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann T. S.; Feller, Scott E.

    2002-12-01

    Molecular modeling provides a powerful mechanism for students to connect molecular-level structural changes with macroscopically observable properties. We describe an experiment that integrates spectroscopy, thermodynamics, and molecular modeling into a single activity examining structural changes in phycobiliproteins upon denaturation with urea. Phycobiliproteins contain a covalently attached chromophore, phycocyanobilin, which is constrained in a planar conformation by the folded protein. Upon denaturation of the protein, the chromophore undergoes a conformational change, leading to a significant alteration of the absorption spectrum. By measuring the absorbance at 625 nm as a function of urea concentration, the free energy of unfolding can be determined. Students determine the dihedral angles in the chromophore and map the contacts between protein and chromophore using Protein Explorer, a structure visualization program freely available on the Internet. The change in absorption wavelength can be related to the difference between the LUMO and HOMO energies, obtained using PC Spartan Pro, for the chromophore in the folded and unfolded phycobiliprotein. This experiment could be used in a physical chemistry class in a curriculum that integrates biochemistry throughout the course work as well as in a traditional biochemistry course. Featured on the Cover

  11. Molecular ferroelectrics: where electronics meet biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangyu; Liu, Yuanming; Zhang, Yanhang; Cai, Hong-Ling; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2013-12-28

    In the last several years, we have witnessed significant advances in molecular ferroelectrics, with the ferroelectric properties of molecular crystals approaching those of barium titanate. In addition, ferroelectricity has been observed in biological systems, filling an important missing link in bioelectric phenomena. In this perspective, we will present short historical notes on ferroelectrics, followed by an overview of the fundamentals of ferroelectricity. The latest developments in molecular ferroelectrics and biological ferroelectricity will then be highlighted, and their implications and potential applications will be discussed. We close by noting molecular ferroelectric as an exciting frontier between electronics and biology, and a number of challenges ahead are also described.

  12. Monod and the spirit of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel

    2015-06-01

    The founders of molecular biology shared views on the place of biology within science, as well as on the relations of molecular biology to Darwinism. Jacques Monod was no exception, but the study of his writings is particularly interesting because he expressed his point of view very clearly and pushed the implications of some of his choices further than most of his contemporaries. The spirit of molecular biology is no longer the same as in the 1960s but, interestingly, Monod anticipated some recent evolutions of this discipline. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Introduction to basic molecular biologic techniques for molecular imaging researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a rapidly growing field due to the advances in molecular biology and imaging technologies. With the introduction of imaging reporter genes into the cell, diverse cellular processes can be monitored, quantified and imaged non-invasively in vivo. These processes include the gene expression, protein-protein interactions, signal transduction pathways, and monitoring of cells such as cancer cells, immune cells, and stem cells. In the near future, molecular imaging analysis will allow us to observe the incipience and progression of the disease. These will make us easier to give a diagnosis in the early stage of intractable diseases such as cancer, neuro-degenerative disease, and immunological disorders. Additionally, molecular imaging method will be a valuable tool for the real-time evaluation of cells in molecular biology and the basic biological studies. As newer and more powerful molecular imaging tools become available, it will be necessary to corporate clinicians, molecular biologists and biochemists for the planning, interpretation, and application of these techniques to their fullest potential. In order for such a multidisciplinary team to be effective, it is essential that a common understanding of basic biochemical and molecular biologic techniques is achieved. Basic molecular techniques for molecular imaging methods are presented in this paper

  14. Molecular biology of the cell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberts, Bruce; Walter, Peter; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Lewis, Julian; Johnson, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    .... By extracting fundamental concepts and meaning from this enormous and ever-growing field, the authors tell the story of cell biology, and create a coherent framework through which non-expert readers...

  15. Yeast genetics and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers subjects and the following titles: cell biology; RNA processing and translation; organelle biogenesis; cell division cycle; mating physiology; recombination and repair; retro-transposition; and metabolic regulating mechanisms

  16. The Biochemistry of Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Samuel; Pines, Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will discuss the biochemistry of mitosis in eukaryotic cells. We will focus on conserved principles that, importantly, are adapted to the biology of the organism. It is vital to bear in mind that the structural requirements for division in a rapidly dividing syncytial Drosophila embryo, for example, are markedly different from those in a unicellular yeast cell. Nevertheless, division in both systems is driven by conserved modules of antagonistic protein kinases and phosphatases, underpinned by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, which create molecular switches to drive each stage of division forward. These conserved control modules combine with the self-organizing properties of the subcellular architecture to meet the specific needs of the cell. Our discussion will draw on discoveries in several model systems that have been important in the long history of research on mitosis, and we will try to point out those principles that appear to apply to all cells, compared with those in which the biochemistry has been specifically adapted in a particular organism. PMID:25663668

  17. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  18. European Conference on Molecular Biology EMBO

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    European Conference on Molecular Biology, which eventually led to the setting up of EMBO, was held at CERN in April. Olivier Reverdin is adressing the delegates. Bernard Gregory is on the left and Willy Spuhler in the centre.

  19. The Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment: A Concept Assessment for Upper-Division Molecular Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Brian A.; Wood, William B.; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring students' conceptual understandings has become increasingly important to biology faculty members involved in evaluating and improving departmental programs. We developed the Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment (MBCA) to gauge comprehension of fundamental concepts in molecular and cell biology and the ability to apply these concepts in…

  20. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  1. Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

  2. Physics and the origins of molecular biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the new European Molecular Biology Organisation (EMBO). Symonds later joined Bill Hayes's MRC Unit of ... from matter, based on a course of twenty lectures, in an ar- ticle 'A physicist looks at biology', or in a related ... and also at Caltech, were instrumental in training many sci- entists who then entered the field of phage ...

  3. Network-Based Models in Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andreas

    Biological systems are characterized by a large number of diverse interactions. Interaction maps have been used to abstract those interactions at all biological scales ranging from food webs at the ecosystem level down to protein interaction networks at the molecular scale.

  4. Assessment of learning gains in a flipped biochemistry classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of learning gains did differ and indicates a higher level of satisfaction with the flipped lecture format. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Methods for plant molecular biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weissbach, Arthur; Weissbach, Herbert

    1988-01-01

    .... Current techniques to carry out plant cell culture and protoplast formation are described as are methods for gene and organelle transfer. The detection of DNA and RNA viruses by molecular probes or ELISA assays and the cloning and transcription of viral RNA complete the volume.

  6. [Inventive activity of the Department of Molecular Immunology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, V M; Vynogradova, R P; Torkhova, S G

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the inventive activity of the Department of Molecular Immunology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine in the context of the history of its inception, development and in the context of scholarly and organizational activities of Sergii Vasyl’ovych Komisarenko. This autumn marks 50th anniversary since young Sergii Komisarenko (now – Academician of NAS and NAMS of Ukraine, Dr. Biol. Sci., Professor) has joined the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, has completed all stages of the academic carrier from PhD student to Head of the Institute. He is the first in Ukraine who started the new branch of research – molecular immunology, created a strong scientific school, which earned worldwide acclaim and made significant contribution to finding solutions to current problems in human health sciences. S.V. Komisarenko was among those, who were first in the USSR to use immunoenzyme and flow cytofluometric assays, hybridoma technology for producing monoclonal antibodies and immunochemical assay of proteins, which became the basis for development of highly sensitive and highly specific immunodiagnostic systems, which are of high necessity in medicine, veterinary, development of immunotechnologies, environment monitoring, etc. Under his leadership the Department has made a series of important discoveries and developments including relating to antitumour immunotoxins, effects of low dose radiation on the immune system of Chernobyl liquidators, immunochemical structure of neurotoxin apamine, cytochrom c, fibrinogen and fibrin molecules at different stages of polymerization, diphtheria toxin and its receptor, tuberculosis causing micobacterium, roles of protease-activated receptors (PARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of lymphocytes, nature of polyreactive immunoglobulins (PRIGs), among other important scientific contributions. S.V. Komisarenko and his colleagues also hold numerous (more than 80) author’s certificates

  7. Implementation of a Collaborative Series of Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences Spanning Chemical Biology, Biochemistry, and Neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Jennifer R.; Hoops, Geoffrey C.; Johnson, R. Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Classroom undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide students access to the measurable benefits of undergraduate research experiences (UREs). Herein, we describe the implementation and assessment of a novel model for cohesive CUREs focused on central research themes involving faculty research collaboration across departments. Specifically, we implemented three collaborative CUREs spanning chemical biology, biochemistry, and neurobiology that incorporated faculty members’ research interests and revolved around the central theme of visualizing biological processes like Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme activity and neural signaling using fluorescent molecules. Each CURE laboratory involved multiple experimental phases and culminated in novel, open-ended, and reiterative student-driven research projects. Course assessments showed CURE participation increased students’ experimental design skills, attitudes and confidence about research, perceived understanding of the scientific process, and interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. More than 75% of CURE students also engaged in independent scientific research projects, and faculty CURE contributors saw substantial increases in research productivity, including increased undergraduate student involvement and academic outputs. Our collaborative CUREs demonstrate the advantages of multicourse CUREs for achieving increased faculty research productivity and traditional CURE-associated student learning and attitude gains. Our collaborative CURE design represents a novel CURE model for ongoing laboratory reform that benefits both faculty and students. PMID:27810870

  8. Using augmented reality to teach and learn biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Garzón, Juan Carlos; Magrini, Marcio Luiz; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    Understanding metabolism and metabolic pathways constitutes one of the central aims for students of biological sciences. Learning metabolic pathways should be focused on the understanding of general concepts and core principles. New technologies such Augmented Reality (AR) have shown potential to improve assimilation of biochemistry abstract concepts because students can manipulate 3D molecules in real time. Here we describe an application named Augmented Reality Metabolic Pathways (ARMET), which allowed students to visualize the 3D molecular structure of substrates and products, thus perceiving changes in each molecule. The structural modification of molecules shows students the flow and exchange of compounds and energy through metabolism. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(5):417-420, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Tracing molecular dephasing in biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokim, M.; Carruba, C.; Ganikhanov, F.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate the quantitative spectroscopic characterization and imaging of biological tissue using coherent time-domain microscopy with a femtosecond resolution. We identify tissue constituents and perform dephasing time (T2) measurements of characteristic Raman active vibrations. This was shown in subcutaneous mouse fat embedded within collagen rich areas of the dermis and the muscle connective tissue. The demonstrated equivalent spectral resolution (methods for characterization of biological media. This provides with the important dimensions and parameters in biological media characterization and can become an effective tool in detecting minute changes in the bio-molecular composition and environment that is critical for molecular level diagnosis.

  10. [Physical methods and molecular biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiuk, I N

    2009-01-01

    The review is devoted to the description of the current state of physical and chemical methods used for studying the structural and functional bases of living processes. Special attention is focused on the physical methods that have opened a new page in the research of the structure of biological macromolecules. They include primarily the methods of detecting and manipulating single molecules using optical and magnetic traps. New physical methods, such as two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and magnetic resonance microscopy are also analyzed briefly in the review. The path that physics and biology have passed for the latest 55 years shows that there is no single method providing all necessary information on macromolecules and their interactions. Each method provides its space-time view of the system. All physical methods are complementary. It is just complementarity that is the fundamental idea justifying the existence in practice of all physical methods, whose description is the aim of the review.

  11. Implementation of a Collaborative Series of Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences Spanning Chemical Biology, Biochemistry, and Neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Jennifer R; Hoops, Geoffrey C; Johnson, R Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Classroom undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide students access to the measurable benefits of undergraduate research experiences (UREs). Herein, we describe the implementation and assessment of a novel model for cohesive CUREs focused on central research themes involving faculty research collaboration across departments. Specifically, we implemented three collaborative CUREs spanning chemical biology, biochemistry, and neurobiology that incorporated faculty members' research interests and revolved around the central theme of visualizing biological processes like Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme activity and neural signaling using fluorescent molecules. Each CURE laboratory involved multiple experimental phases and culminated in novel, open-ended, and reiterative student-driven research projects. Course assessments showed CURE participation increased students' experimental design skills, attitudes and confidence about research, perceived understanding of the scientific process, and interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. More than 75% of CURE students also engaged in independent scientific research projects, and faculty CURE contributors saw substantial increases in research productivity, including increased undergraduate student involvement and academic outputs. Our collaborative CUREs demonstrate the advantages of multicourse CUREs for achieving increased faculty research productivity and traditional CURE-associated student learning and attitude gains. Our collaborative CURE design represents a novel CURE model for ongoing laboratory reform that benefits both faculty and students. © 2016 J. R. Kowalski et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. [Molecular biology methods in immunohematology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournamille, C

    2013-05-01

    The molecular basis of almost all antigens of the 33 blood group systems are known. These knowledge and the advent of the PCR technology have allowed the DNA-based genotyping in order to predict the presence or absence of a blood group antigen on the cell membrane of red blood cells. DNA genotyping is required in cases where red blood cells patient cannot be used for serological typing either after a recent transfusion or because of the presence of autoantibodies on the red blood cells. Numerous DNA assays are available to detect any nucleotide polymorphism on the genes encoding blood group antigens. The technologies have improved to answer quickly to any case of transfusion emergency and to limit the risk of DNA contamination in a molecular diagnostic laboratory. Some technologies are ready for high-throughput blood group genotyping. They will be used in the future to obtain a fully typed blood group card of each donor but also to detect blood donors with rare phenotypes to register them to the Banque Nationale de Sang de Phénotype Rare (BNSPR). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. THE BACHELOR OF BIOCHEMISTRY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Cordeiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The economic and social development of Brazil in the last decade has contributed to the installation of new graduate and undergraduate programs, as are the case with bachelor degrees in Biochemistry at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. These graduates are prepared to work in industry, research institutes and universities in areas of knowledge involving Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This is happening in developed countries since the first half of the last century, surprising and late is the implementation of bachelor of Biochemistry in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the Bachelor in Biochemistry in Brazil from the perspective of the main difficulties of implementing and courses maintenance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach. Interviews were conducted with undergraduate students, graduates, professors, staff and managers from bachelor degrees in Biochemistry at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. The sampling procedure was non probabilistic for judgment (choice of the subjects involved and interested in the course of biochemistry to undergraduate students, graduates, professors and staff and non probabilistic for convenience to managers. The qualitative assessment to depict the representative keywords was performed using words cloud by WordleTM. RESULTS: The study included 5 managers, 24 professors, 12 staff, 25 undergraduate students, 5 graduates. For the students the main reason for the course selection should be scientific vocation and affinity with chemistry and biology; most cited positive parameters were faculty and great structure, practical classes and broad playing field; most cited negatives were high mandatory disciplines, little student free time and lack of sophisticated equipment. Despite the conception of the programs have happened in different contexts and regions we noted similarities deficiencies and distresses. CONCLUSION: Difficulties must be

  14. Molecular biology of tick acetylcholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temeyer, Kevin Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Ticks vector many pathogens with major health and economic impacts and have developed resistance to most acaricides used for tick control. Organophosphate (OP) acaricides target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) critical to tick central nervous system function. Mutations producing tick AChEs resistant to OPs were characterized; but tick OP-resistance is not fully elucidated, due to remarkable complexity of tick cholinergic systems. Three paralogous tick AChEs exhibiting differences in primary structure and biochemical kinetics are encoded by amplified genes with developmentally regulated expression. Gene silencing data suggest tick AChEs are functional complements in vivo, and transcriptomic and genomic data suggest existence of additional tick AChEs. Cholinergic systems are crucial in neural transmission and are also regulators of vertebrate immune function. Ticks exhibit prolonged intimate host contact, suggesting adaptive functions for tick cholinergic system complexity. AChE was recently reported in tick saliva and a role in manipulation of host immune responses was hypothesized. Physiological roles and genetic control of multiple tick AChEs requires further elucidation and may provide unique opportunities to understand and manipulate cholinergic involvement in biological systems.

  15. Molecular biology of microbial hydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignais, P M; Colbeau, A

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogenases (H2ases) are metalloproteins. The great majority of them contain iron-sulfur clusters and two metal atoms at their active center, either a Ni and an Fe atom, the [NiFe]-H2ases, or two Fe atoms, the [FeFe]-H2ases. Enzymes of these two classes catalyze the reversible oxidation of hydrogen gas (H2 2 H+ + 2 e-) and play a central role in microbial energy metabolism; in addition to their role in fermentation and H2 respiration, H2ases may interact with membrane-bound electron transport systems in order to maintain redox poise, particularly in some photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria. Recent work has revealed that some H2ases, by acting as H2-sensors, participate in the regulation of gene expression and that H2-evolving H2ases, thought to be involved in purely fermentative processes, play a role in membrane-linked energy conservation through the generation of a protonmotive force. The Hmd hydrogenases of some methanogenic archaea constitute a third class of H2ases, characterized by the absence of Fe-S cluster and the presence of an iron-containing cofactor with catalytic properties different from those of [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-H2ases. In this review, we emphasise recent advances that have greatly increased our knowledge of microbial H2ases, their diversity, the structure of their active site, how the metallocenters are synthesized and assembled, how they function, how the synthesis of these enzymes is controlled by external signals, and their potential use in biological H2 production.

  16. Frontiers of NMR in Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-25

    NMR spectroscopy is expanding the horizons of structural biology by determining the structures and describing the dynamics of blobular proteins in aqueous solution, as well as other classes of proteins including membrane proteins and the polypeptides that form the aggregates diagnostic of prion and amyloid diseases. Significant results are also emerging on DNA and RNA oligomers and their complexes with proteins. This meeting focused attention on key structural questions emanating from molecular biology and how NMR spectroscopy can be used to answer them.

  17. Can biochemistry drive drug discovery beyond simple potency measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chène, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Among the fields of expertise required to develop drugs successfully, biochemistry holds a key position in drug discovery at the interface between chemistry, structural biology and cell biology. However, taking the example of protein kinases, it appears that biochemical assays are mostly used in the pharmaceutical industry to measure compound potency and/or selectivity. This limited use of biochemistry is surprising, given that detailed biochemical analyses are commonly used in academia to unravel molecular recognition processes. In this article, I show that biochemistry can provide invaluable information on the dynamics and energetics of compound-target interactions that cannot be obtained on the basis of potency measurements and structural data. Therefore, an extensive use of biochemistry in drug discovery could facilitate the identification and/or development of new drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Writing throughout the biochemistry curriculum: Synergistic inquiry-based writing projects for biochemistry students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Pamela; Streu, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a synergistic two-semester writing sequence for biochemistry courses. In the first semester, students select a putative protein and are tasked with researching their protein largely through bioinformatics resources. In the second semester, students develop original ideas and present them in the form of a research grant proposal. Both projects involve multiple drafts and peer review. The complementarity of the projects increases student exposure to bioinformatics and literature resources, fosters higher-order thinking skills, and develops teamwork and communication skills. Student feedback and responses on perception surveys demonstrated that the students viewed both projects as favorable learning experiences. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. Systematic Representation of Molecular Biology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kathleen M.

    A small set of relationships has been identified which appears to be sufficient for describing all molecular and cellular reactions and structures discussed in an introductory biology course. A precise definition has been developed for each relationship. These 20 relationships are of four types: (1) analytical; (2) spatial; (3) temporal; and (4)…

  20. Molecular and biological interactions in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heer, Pieter de

    2007-01-01

    The current thesis discusses the use of molecular and biological tumor markers to predict clinical outcome. By studying several key processes in the develepment of cancer as regulation of cell motility (non-receptor protein tyrosin adesion kinases, FAK, Src and paxillin, Apoptosis (caspase-3

  1. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology - A Retrospective after Fifty Years. Michel Morange. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 236-247. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Book review: Baculovirus Molecular Biology, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of cell culture and molecular biology methodologies to the study of baculoviruses has resulted in an explosion of information on this group of insect pathogens. The quantity of the corresponding literature on baculoviruses has reached a level difficult for any one researcher to mast...

  3. Molecular biology of the Chlamydia pneumoniae surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend

    1997-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniaeis a fastidious microorganism with a characteristic biphasic lifecycle causing a variety of human respiratory tract infections. There is limited knowledge about the molecular biology of C. pneumoniae, and only a few genes have been sequenced. The structure of the chlamydial...

  4. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Bacteriophage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Kazukiyo

    The development of the molecular biology of bacteriophage such as T4, lambda and filamentous phages was described and the process that the fundamental knowledge obtained in this field has subsequently led us to the technology of phage display was introduced.

  5. Molecular biology applications to infectious diseases diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This project goes directed to the applications of the techniques of molecular biology in hepatitis virus.A great advance of these techniques it allows its application to the diagnose molecular and it becomes indispensable to have these fundamental tools in the field of the Health Public for the detection precocious, pursuit of the treatment, the one predicts and the evolution of the patient hepatitis bearing virus technical.Use of molecular biology to increase the handling and the control of the patients with hepatitis B and C and to detect an adult numbers of positive cases by means of the training and integration of all the countries participating.Implement the technique of PCR to identify the virus of the hepatitis B and C,implement quantification methods and genotipification for these virus

  6. New journal: Algorithms for Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial announces Algorithms for Molecular Biology, a new online open access journal published by BioMed Central. By launching the first open access journal on algorithmic bioinformatics, we provide a forum for fast publication of high-quality research articles in this rapidly evolving field. Our journal will publish thoroughly peer-reviewed papers without length limitations covering all aspects of algorithmic data analysis in computatioal biology. Publications in Algorithms for Molecular Biology are easy to find, highly visible and tracked by organisations such as PubMed. An established online submission system makes a fast reviewing procedure possible and enables us to publish accepted papers without delay. All articles published in our journal are permanently archived by PubMed Central and other scientific archives. We are looking forward to receiving your contributions.

  7. Molecular profiles to biology and pathways: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laere, Steven; Dirix, Luc; Vermeulen, Peter

    2016-06-16

    Interpreting molecular profiles in a biological context requires specialized analysis strategies. Initially, lists of relevant genes were screened to identify enriched concepts associated with pathways or specific molecular processes. However, the shortcoming of interpreting gene lists by using predefined sets of genes has resulted in the development of novel methods that heavily rely on network-based concepts. These algorithms have the advantage that they allow a more holistic view of the signaling properties of the condition under study as well as that they are suitable for integrating different data types like gene expression, gene mutation, and even histological parameters.

  8. The molecular biology of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Anthony P; Wallace, Heather M; Probert, Chris S J

    2011-08-01

    IBDs (inflammatory bowel diseases) are a group of diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The diseases are multifactorial and cover genetic aspects: susceptibility genes, innate and adaptive responses to inflammation, and structure and efficacy of the mucosal protective barrier. Animal models of IBD have been developed to gain further knowledge of the disease mechanisms. These topics form an overlapping background to enable an improved understanding of the molecular features of these diseases. A series of articles is presented based on the topics covered at the Biochemical Society Focused Meeting The Molecular Biology of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

  9. Diverse Assessment and Active Student Engagement Sustain Deep Learning: A Comparative Study of Outcomes in Two Parallel Introductory Biochemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Samantha J.; Chan, Cecilia W. L.; Tanner, Julian A.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is increasing evidence for a relationship between courses that emphasize student engagement and achievement of student deep learning, there is a paucity of quantitative comparative studies in a biochemistry and molecular biology context. Here, we present a pedagogical study in two contrasting parallel biochemistry introductory…

  10. Protein Biochemistry and Expression Regulation of Cadmium/Zinc Pumping ATPases in the Hyperaccumulator Plants Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, S.; Mishra, Archana; Küpper, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 22 (2017), č. článku 835. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000336 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cellular compartmentation * zinc homeostasis * cadmium * metal hyperaccumulator plants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  11. Retraction 1 | Soliman | Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 34, No 1-2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Zika virus genome biology and molecular pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Anyou; Thurmond, Stephanie; Islas, Leonel; Hui, Kingyung; Hai, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging RNA virus in the widespread Flavivirus genus. Recently, ZIKV has rapidly spread around the world and has been implicated in human disease, including neurological disorders, triggering public and scientific attention. Understanding how ZIKV causes disease is the highest priority, yet little is known about this virus. Here we examine the currently published data from ZIKV studies to provide the latest understanding of ZIKV genome biology and molecular pathogenes...

  13. Molecular biological aspects of acquired bullous diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Bullous diseases of the oral mucosa and skin were originally classified on the basis of clinical and histological criteria. The discovery of autoantibodies in some of these patients and the introduction of molecular biology have resulted in a new understanding of the pathological mechanisms of many...... to be the target for mutations seen in patients with the inherited type of epidermolysis bullosa in which bullous lesions are a prominent clinical feature....

  14. Imaging cellular and molecular biological functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorte, S.L. [Institut Pasteur, 75 - Paris (France). Plateforme d' Imagerie Dynamique PFID-Imagopole; Frischknecht, F. (eds.) [Heidelberg Univ. Medical School (Germany). Dept. of Parasitology

    2007-07-01

    'Imaging cellular and molecular biological function' provides a unique selection of essays by leading experts, aiming at scientist and student alike who are interested in all aspects of modern imaging, from its application and up-scaling to its development. Indeed the philosophy of this volume is to provide student, researcher, PI, professional or provost the means to enter this applications field with confidence, and to construct the means to answer their own specific questions. (orig.)

  15. Molecular infection biology : interactions between microorganisms and cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hacker, Jörg (Jörg Hinrich); Heesemann, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    ... and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Investigators, specialists, clinicians, and graduate students in biology, pharmacy, and medicine will find Molecular Infection Biology an invaluable addition to their professional libraries...

  16. Can molecular cell biology explain chromosome motions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitotic chromosome motions have recently been correlated with electrostatic forces, but a lingering "molecular cell biology" paradigm persists, proposing binding and release proteins or molecular geometries for force generation. Results Pole-facing kinetochore plates manifest positive charges and interact with negatively charged microtubule ends providing the motive force for poleward chromosome motions by classical electrostatics. This conceptual scheme explains dynamic tracking/coupling of kinetochores to microtubules and the simultaneous depolymerization of kinetochore microtubules as poleward force is generated. Conclusion We question here why cells would prefer complex molecular mechanisms to move chromosomes when direct electrostatic interactions between known bound charge distributions can accomplish the same task much more simply.

  17. A unique large-scale undergraduate research experience in molecular systems biology for non-mathematics majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, Ulrike; Rowland, Susan L; Pedwell, Rhianna K

    2017-05-01

    Systems biology is frequently taught with an emphasis on mathematical modeling approaches. This focus effectively excludes most biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology students, who are not mathematics majors. The mathematical focus can also present a misleading picture of systems biology, which is a multi-disciplinary pursuit requiring collaboration between biochemists, bioinformaticians, and mathematicians. This article describes an authentic large-scale undergraduate research experience (ALURE) in systems biology that incorporates proteomics, bacterial genomics, and bioinformatics in the one exercise. This project is designed to engage students who have a basic grounding in protein chemistry and metabolism and no mathematical modeling skills. The pedagogy around the research experience is designed to help students attack complex datasets and use their emergent metabolic knowledge to make meaning from large amounts of raw data. On completing the ALURE, participants reported a significant increase in their confidence around analyzing large datasets, while the majority of the cohort reported good or great gains in a variety of skills including "analysing data for patterns" and "conducting database or internet searches." An environmental scan shows that this ALURE is the only undergraduate-level system-biology research project offered on a large-scale in Australia; this speaks to the perceived difficulty of implementing such an opportunity for students. We argue however, that based on the student feedback, allowing undergraduate students to complete a systems-biology project is both feasible and desirable, even if the students are not maths and computing majors. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(3):235-248, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  19. Nutritional education from Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ramona Betancourt Betancourt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional education is current topic, constituting a necessity in the contemporary world, given mainly by the contribution that it makes in maintaining the human health under good conditions. Starting from this problem, it is presented this article whose objective is: to show the potential ities that the discipline Cellular and Molecular Biology offers, for the treatment of these contents, since this discipline is worked in the second semester of first year and first semester of in the formation of professors of the Biology - Geography and Bio logy - C hemistry careers which can contribute to the development of knowledge, habits and abilities that allows them to appropriate of responsible behaviours for the achievement of correct nutritional habits.

  20. 2011 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism, & Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keneth Stedman

    2011-08-05

    Archaea, one of three major evolutionary lineages of life, are a fascinating and diverse group of microbes with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of the 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology' GRC conference expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting new paradigms in archaeal metabolism, genome function and systems biology; information processing; evolution and the tree of life; the ecology and diversity of archaea and their viruses. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple a field with a rich history in high quality research with new scientific findings in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  1. 2009 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism & Molecular Biology GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlow, Julie Maupin- [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2009-07-26

    Archaea, one of three major evolutionary lineages of life, are a fascinating and diverse group of microbes with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of the 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology' GRC conference expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting new paradigms in archaeal metabolism, genome function and systems biology; information processing; evolution and the tree of life; the ecology and diversity of archaea and their viruses; and industrial applications. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple a field with a rich history in high quality research with new scientific findings in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  2. Filoviruses: Ecology, Molecular Biology, and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Jackson; Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    The Filoviridae are a family of negative-strand RNA viruses that include several important human pathogens. Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus are well-known filoviruses which cause life-threatening viral hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to severe pathogenesis, filoviruses also exhibit a propensity for human-to-human transmission by close contact, posing challenges to containment and crisis management. Past outbreaks, in particular the recent West African EBOV epidemic, have been responsible for thousands of deaths and vaulted the filoviruses into public consciousness. Both national and international health agencies continue to regard potential filovirus outbreaks as critical threats to global public health. To develop effective countermeasures, a basic understanding of filovirus biology is needed. This review encompasses the epidemiology, ecology, molecular biology, and evolution of the filoviruses. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Archaea: Evolution, Physiology, and Molecular Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Introduced by Crafoord Prize winner Carl Woese, this volume combines reviews of the major developments in archaeal research over the past 10-15 years with more specialized articles dealing with important recent breakthroughs. Drawing on major themes presented at the June 2005 meeting held in Muni...... and technological context, and include accounts of cutting-edge research developments. The book spans archaeal evolution, physiology, and molecular and cellular biology and will be an essential reference for both graduate students and researchers....... to honor the archaea pioneers Wolfram Zillig and Karl O. Stetter, the book provides a thorough survey of the field from its controversial beginnings to its ongoing expansion to include aspects of eukaryotic biology. The editors have assembled articles from the premier researchers in this rapidly burgeoning...

  4. 2007 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imke Schroeder

    2008-09-18

    The Archaea are a fascinating and diverse group of prokaryotic organisms with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of this GRC conference, 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology', expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting the evolution and composition of microbial communities and novel archaeal species, their impact on the environment, archaeal metabolism, and research that stems from sequence analysis of archaeal genomes. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple reputable areas with new scientific topics in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  5. Genetics and molecular biology of hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Major strides in the molecular biology of essential hypertension are currently underway. This has tended to obscure the fact that a number of inherited disorders associated with low blood pressure exist and that these diseases may have milder and underrecognized phenotypes that contribute importantly to blood pressure variation in the general population. This review highlights some of the gene products that, if abnormal, could cause hypotension in some individuals. Diseases due to abnormalities in the catecholamine enzymes are discussed in detail. It is likely that genetic abnormalities with hypotensive phenotypes will be as interesting and diverse as those that give rise to hypertensive disorders.

  6. Molecular biology - Part II: Beneficial liaisons: Radiobiology meets cellular and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Mary Ann; Coleman, C. Norman

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this course is to familiarize radiation oncologists with the concepts and terminology of molecular and cellular biology that are especially relevant to radiation oncology. The ability of radiation oncologists to remain current with the new discoveries of modern biology is essential to the development of improved therapeutic strategies and, importantly, to the proper balance between investment in technology and biology. Objective: This year, this Refresher Course is part of a three-part ''series'' including Drs. McKenna and Dritschilo. The objective is to provide continuing education for the academic and practicing radiation oncologist, physicist and biologist in the modern biologic concepts of cancer and its treatment. An effort will be made to relate these general concepts to the clinic by providing a broad view as to potential new biological treatments which might enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy. The specific focus of this Course will vary from year to year. Some of the classic radiation biology models which form the basis of clinical practice and laboratory research will be examined and 'newer' models will be presented which take into account the emerging knowledge of cellular and molecular biology. A few techniques in molecular and cellular biology will be described to the extent necessary to understand their basic concepts and their applicability. Aspects of radiation biology which will be covered include cell cycle, radiation-induced changes in the cellular phenotype, and considerations of the effect of the tumor microenvironment. It is not the expectation that the attendees will become experts in the particular subjects presented. Rather, it is the intent to increase their curiosity as to the new knowledge that is emerging and to demonstrate that these seemingly complicated areas can be understood and appreciated with a modicum of the effort

  7. Molecular biology - Part II: Beneficial liaisons: Radiobiology meets cellular and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Mary Ann; Coleman, C. Norman

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this course is to familiarize radiation oncologists with the concepts and terminology of molecular and cellular biology that are especially relevant to radiation oncology. The ability of radiation oncologists to remain current with the new discoveries of modern biology is essential to the development of improved therapeutic strategies and, importantly, to the proper balance between investment in technology and biology. Objective: This year, this Refresher Course is part of a three-part 'series' including Drs. Martin Brown and Amato Giaccia. The objective is to provide continuing education for the academic and practicing radiation oncologist, physicist and biologist in the modern biologic concepts of cancer and its treatment. An effort will be made to relate these general concepts to the clinic by providing a broad view as to potential new biological treatments which might enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy. The specific focus of this Course will vary from year to year. Some of the classic radiation biology models which form the basis of clinical practice and laboratory research will be examined and 'newer' models will be presented which take into account the emerging knowledge of cellular and molecular biology. A few techniques in molecular and cellular biology will be described to the extent necessary to understand their basic concepts and their applicability. Aspects of radiation biology which will be covered include cell cycle, radiation-induced changes in the cellular phenotype, and considerations of the effect of the tumor microenvironment. It is not the expectation that the attendees will become experts in the particular subjects presented. Rather, it is the intent to increase their curiosity as to the new knowledge that is emerging and to demonstrate that these seemingly complicated areas can be understood and appreciated with a modicum of the effort

  8. Rhabdomyosarcoma: Advances in Molecular and Cellular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Guo, Wei; Shen, Jacson K; Mankin, Henry J; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue malignancy in childhood and adolescence. The two major histological subtypes of RMS are alveolar RMS, driven by the fusion protein PAX3-FKHR or PAX7-FKHR, and embryonic RMS, which is usually genetically heterogeneous. The prognosis of RMS has improved in the past several decades due to multidisciplinary care. However, in recent years, the treatment of patients with metastatic or refractory RMS has reached a plateau. Thus, to improve the survival rate of RMS patients and their overall well-being, further understanding of the molecular and cellular biology of RMS and identification of novel therapeutic targets are imperative. In this review, we describe the most recent discoveries in the molecular and cellular biology of RMS, including alterations in oncogenic pathways, miRNA (miR), in vivo models, stem cells, and important signal transduction cascades implicated in the development and progression of RMS. Furthermore, we discuss novel potential targeted therapies that may improve the current treatment of RMS.

  9. Molecular biology approaches in bioadhesion research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of molecular biology tools in the field of bioadhesion is still in its infancy. For new research groups who are considering taking a molecular approach, the techniques presented here are essential to unravelling the sequence of a gene, its expression and its biological function. Here we provide an outline for addressing adhesion-related genes in diverse organisms. We show how to gradually narrow down the number of candidate transcripts that are involved in adhesion by (1 generating a transcriptome and a differentially expressed cDNA list enriched for adhesion-related transcripts, (2 setting up a BLAST search facility, (3 perform an in situ hybridization screen, and (4 functional analyses of selected genes by using RNA interference knock-down. Furthermore, latest developments in genome-editing are presented as new tools to study gene function. By using this iterative multi-technologies approach, the identification, isolation, expression and function of adhesion-related genes can be studied in most organisms. These tools will improve our understanding of the diversity of molecules used for adhesion in different organisms and these findings will help to develop innovative bio-inspired adhesives.

  10. Blog construction as an effective tool in biochemistry active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas Rolim, Estêvão; Martins de Oliveira, Julia; Dalvi, Luana T; Moreira, Daniel C; Garcia Caldas, Natasha; Fernandes Lobo, Felipe; André Polli, Démerson; Campos, Élida G; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2017-05-01

    To boost active learning in undergraduate students, they were given the task of preparing blogs on topics of clinical biochemistry. This "experiment" lasted for 12 teaching-semesters (from 2008 to 2013), and included a survey on the blogs' usefulness at the end of each semester. The survey (applied in the 2008-2010 period) used a Likert-like questionnaire with eight questions and a 1-to-6 scale, from "totally disagree" to "fully agree." Answers of 428 students were analyzed and indicated overall approval of the blog activity: 86% and 35% of the responses scored 4-to-6 and 6, respectively. Considering the survey results, the high grades obtained by students on their blogs (averaging 8.3 in 2008-2010), and the significant increase in average grades of the clinical biochemistry exam after the beginning of the blog system (from 5.5 in 2007 to 6.4 in 2008-2010), we concluded that blogging activity on biochemistry is a promising tool for boosting active learning. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(3):205-215, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Biochemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ho Nam

    1993-01-01

    This deals with biochemistry engineering with nine chapters. It explains bionics on development and prospect, basics of life science on classification and structure, enzyme and metabolism, fundamentals of chemical engineering on viscosity, shear rate, PFR, CSTR, mixing, dispersion, measurement and response, Enzyme kinetics, competitive inhibition, pH profile, temperature profile, stoichiometry and fermentation kinetics, bio-reactor on Enzyme-reactor and microorganism-reactor, measurement and processing on data acquisition and data processing, separation and purification, waste water treatment and economics of bionics process.

  12. [Von Willebrand disease. Molecular biology and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Edgar; Zavala-Hernández, Cesar; Quintana-González, Sandra; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba

    2015-01-01

    Von Willebrand disease is the most common inherited disorder of the coagulation proteins in humans. There are three types: 1, 2A, 2B, 2N, 2M and 3. It is associated with mutations on chromosome 12 in the region p13.2, encoding the von Willebrand factor (VWF), which is synthesized in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes. The VWF gene has been characterised using molecular biology techniques, which have acquired an important role in diagnosis von Willebrand disease, as well as in the investigation of alterations in other genes, which may be involved in regulating the synthesis, processing, and secretion of VWF. However, there are still no strategies to integrate the molecular biology diagnostic tests available. Analysis of VWF multimers is a methodology that meets the characteristics for diagnosis, but it is not easy to standardise. Considering that even in tertiary centres in our country, von Willebrand patients do not have a definitive diagnosis, it is necessary to implement these methodologies to study and improve diagnosis. Von Willebrand disease is highly heterogeneous due to the molecular mechanisms that produce the various clinical and laboratory phenotypes. In Mexico there are few studies related to this disease; therefore it is essential to conduct a comprehensive study including clinical, basic, and special testing laboratory tests, in order to establish a correct diagnosis, develop new therapeutic approaches, and offer the appropriate medical care and genetic counselling. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Imaging in Synthetic Biology, and Synthetic Biology in Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Assaf A; Shapiro, Mikhail G

    2017-06-01

    Biomedical synthetic biology is an emerging field in which cells are engineered at the genetic level to carry out novel functions with relevance to biomedical and industrial applications. This approach promises new treatments, imaging tools, and diagnostics for diseases ranging from gastrointestinal inflammatory syndromes to cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. As these cellular technologies undergo pre-clinical and clinical development, it is becoming essential to monitor their location and function in vivo, necessitating appropriate molecular imaging strategies, and therefore, we have created an interest group within the World Molecular Imaging Society focusing on synthetic biology and reporter gene technologies. Here, we highlight recent advances in biomedical synthetic biology, including bacterial therapy, immunotherapy, and regenerative medicine. We then discuss emerging molecular imaging approaches to facilitate in vivo applications, focusing on reporter genes for noninvasive modalities such as magnetic resonance, ultrasound, photoacoustic imaging, bioluminescence, and radionuclear imaging. Because reporter genes can be incorporated directly into engineered genetic circuits, they are particularly well suited to imaging synthetic biological constructs, and developing them provides opportunities for creative molecular and genetic engineering.

  14. “ Metabolic Ride” - One Concept Evaluation Tool For Metabolic Biochemistry Teaching For Graduate Students In Biological Sciences And Related Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Gaeta et al.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry subject in general has a high degree of difficulty and complexity. Therefore, application of playful and creative games as teaching methodology has spread in various disciplines of life sciences. "METABOLIC RIDE" board game is a conceptual and perceptual evaluation tool for metabolic biochemistry teaching, aiming to review concepts transmitted in classroom, promoting a competitive challenge to students without denying tools that are at their disposal, stimulating their skills. OBJECTIVES. Correlate metabolic routes importance and their interconnections to establish that metabolic pathways are interconnected, such as a railway map. MATERIAL AND METHODS. This game was developed based on a board game Ticket to Ride. Players purchase enzyme cards, which must be used to claim metabolic routes. The goal is to complete the route previously drawn to earn points and the player who builds the longest continuous route will also earn bonus points. In each turn, players can: buy more card, claim a route or pick up additional destination tickets. The game should be played in groups of 5 to 6 students in 6 to 8 groups. Previously there will be theoretical classes. The activity was designed to last 4 hours. Use of didatic books and internet by players are encouraged. RESULTS. This game proved to be an excellent tool for student’s complementary evaluation, which stimulated teamwork and competitiveness within classroom, which allowed to analyze student’s perception regarding metabolic subjects. On the other hand, for teacher and students participating in compulsory traineeship program this game demonstrated to students new ways to approach complex subjects in biochemistry using creativity. CONCLUSION: Overall, students had a good impression of “Metabolic Ride” game since it helped to secure and administer metabolism subject in a competitive and team work way.

  15. Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and the Changing Tertiary Education Landscape in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author provides information about the Australian education landscape and discusses three articles that focus on innovative laboratory teaching programs. Each of the articles presents a novel laboratory teaching mechanism that has evolved to successfully address a perceived weakness or problem in the laboratory program. It…

  16. The Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Physiology of Human Steroidogenesis and Its Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Walter L.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Steroidogenesis, the processes by which cholesterol is converted to steroid hormones, involves transport proteins, enzymes, redox partners and cofactors. Most steroidogenic enzymes are either forms of cytochrome P450 or are hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. The P450s may be either Type 1, in mitochondria, or Type 2, in the endoplasmic reticulum; these two types differ in their electron-transfer redox partners as well as in their cellular locations. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases may be either sho...

  17. Current Status on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Microbial Degradation of Nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Raman; Natarajan, Sakthivel

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation is one of the most promising methods to clean up polluted environments using highly efficient potent microbes. Microbes with specific enzymes and biochemical pathways are capable of degrading the tobacco alkaloids including highly toxic heterocyclic compound, nicotine. After the metabolic conversion, these nicotinophilic microbes use nicotine as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source for their growth. Various nicotine degradation pathways such as demethylation pathway in fungi, pyridine pathway in Gram-positive bacteria, pyrrolidine pathway, and variant of pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways in Gram-negative bacteria have been reported. In this review, we discussed the nicotine-degrading pathways of microbes and their enzymes and biotechnological applications of nicotine intermediate metabolites. PMID:24470788

  18. Self-Regulation: An Unexplored Learning Model in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel Joao; Sandars, John

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate goal of "student-centered" education is to empower students to learn beyond educational programs. This means nurturing students' autonomy and fostering the development of their own motivation and mechanisms to become self-directed learners. This idea has been embodied in the "lifelong learning" mantra that pervades contemporary views…

  19. BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY OF GALACTOSIDE TRANSPORT AND METABOLISM IN LACTIC-ACID BACTERIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POOLMAN, B

    1993-01-01

    Until a few years ago the description of the pathways of transport and metabolism of galactosides in lactic acid bacteria was mainly phenomenological. Different transport and enzymatic activities had been detected but the individual components (proteins, enzymes) were largely unknown and the genes

  20. Integrating Responsible Conduct of Research Education into Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Tamara L.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a requirement for directed responsible conduct in research (RCR) education has become a priority in the United States and elsewhere. In the US, both the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation require RCR education for all students who are financially supported by federal awards. The guidelines produced by these…

  1. Approaches to enhance the teaching quality of experimental biochemistry for MBBS students in TSMU, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lijuan; Yi, Shuying; Zhai, Jing; Wang, Zhaojin

    2017-07-08

    With the internationalization of medical education in China, the importance of international students' education in medical schools is also increasing. Except foreign students majoring in Chinese language, English Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBSS) students are the largest group of international students. Based on problems in the teaching process for experimental biochemistry, we designed teaching models adapted to the background of international students and strengthened teachers' teaching ability at Taishan Medical University. Several approaches were used in combination to promote teaching effects and increase the benefit of teaching to teachers. The primary data showed an increased passion for basic medical biochemistry and an improved theoretical background for MBSS students, which will be helpful for their later clinical medicine studies. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):360-364, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. The molecular biology of plastid division in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Cassie; Maple, Jodi; Møller, Simon G

    2005-04-01

    Plastids are essential plant organelles vital for life on earth, responsible not only for photosynthesis but for many fundamental intermediary metabolic reactions. Plastids are not formed de novo but arise by binary fission from pre-existing plastids, and plastid division therefore represents an important process for the maintenance of appropriate plastid populations in plant cells. Plastid division comprises an elaborate pathway of co-ordinated events which include division machinery assembly at the division site, the constriction of envelope membranes, membrane fusion and, ultimately, the separation of the two new organelles. Because of their prokaryotic origin bacterial cell division has been successfully used as a paradigm for plastid division. This has resulted in the identification of the key plastid division components FtsZ, MinD, and MinE, as well as novel proteins with similarities to prokaryotic cell division proteins. Through a combination of approaches involving molecular genetics, cell biology, and biochemistry, it is now becoming clear that these proteins act in concert during plastid division, exhibiting both similarities and differences compared with their bacterial counterparts. Recent efforts in the cloning of the disrupted loci in several of the accumulation and replication of chloroplasts mutants has further revealed that the division of plastids is controlled by a combination of prokaryote-derived and host eukaryote-derived proteins residing not only in the plastid stroma but also in the cytoplasm. Based on the available data to date, a working model is presented showing the protein components involved in plastid division, their subcellular localization, and their protein interaction properties.

  3. Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Research Report 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Scientific interests of the Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences have evolved from classical biochemistry, biophysics and physiological chemistry to up-to-date molecular biology. Research interests are focussed on replication, mutagenesis and repair of DNA; regulation of gene expression at various levels; biosynthesis and post-translational modifications of proteins; gene sequencing and functional analysis of open reading frames; structure, function and regulation of enzymes; conformation of proteins and peptides; modelling of structures and prediction of functions of proteins; mechanisms of electron transfer in polypeptides

  4. The molecular biology capstone assessment: a concept assessment for upper-division molecular biology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Brian A; Wood, William B; Knight, Jennifer K

    2015-03-02

    Measuring students' conceptual understandings has become increasingly important to biology faculty members involved in evaluating and improving departmental programs. We developed the Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment (MBCA) to gauge comprehension of fundamental concepts in molecular and cell biology and the ability to apply these concepts in novel scenarios. Targeted at graduating students, the MBCA consists of 18 multiple-true/false (T/F) questions. Each question consists of a narrative stem followed by four T/F statements, which allows a more detailed assessment of student understanding than the traditional multiple-choice format. Questions were iteratively developed with extensive faculty and student feedback, including validation through faculty reviews and response validation through student interviews. The final assessment was taken online by 504 students in upper-division courses at seven institutions. Data from this administration indicate that the MBCA has acceptable levels of internal reliability (α=0.80) and test-retest stability (r=0.93). Students achieved a wide range of scores with a 67% overall average. Performance results suggest that students have an incomplete understanding of many molecular biology concepts and continue to hold incorrect conceptions previously documented among introductory-level students. By pinpointing areas of conceptual difficulty, the MBCA can provide faculty members with guidance for improving undergraduate biology programs. © 2015 B. A. Couch et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. The progress of molecular biology in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Kang

    1989-01-01

    The recent progress in application of molecular biology techniques in the study of radiation biology is reviewed. The three sections are as follows: (1) the study of DNA damage on molecular level, (2) the molecular mechanism of radiation cell genetics, including chromosome abberation and cell mutation, (3) the study on DNA repair gene with DNA mediated gene transfer techniques

  6. Viral Oncology: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Uyen Ngoc; Haley, Christopher T; Tyring, Stephen K

    2017-11-29

    Oncoviruses are implicated in approximately 12% of all human cancers. A large number of the world's population harbors at least one of these oncoviruses, but only a small proportion of these individuals go on to develop cancer. The interplay between host and viral factors is a complex process that works together to create a microenvironment conducive to oncogenesis. In this review, the molecular biology and oncogenic pathways of established human oncoviruses will be discussed. Currently, there are seven recognized human oncoviruses, which include Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1), Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), and Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV). Available and emerging therapies for these oncoviruses will be mentioned.

  7. Ins and outs of systems biology vis-à-vis molecular biology: continuation or clear cut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Philippe; De Waele, Danny; Van Speybroeck, Linda

    2010-03-01

    The comprehension of living organisms in all their complexity poses a major challenge to the biological sciences. Recently, systems biology has been proposed as a new candidate in the development of such a comprehension. The main objective of this paper is to address what systems biology is and how it is practised. To this end, the basic tools of a systems biological approach are explored and illustrated. In addition, it is questioned whether systems biology 'revolutionizes' molecular biology and 'transcends' its assumed reductionism. The strength of this claim appears to depend on how molecular and systems biology are characterised and on how reductionism is interpreted. Doing credit to molecular biology and to methodological reductionism, it is argued that the distinction between molecular and systems biology is gradual rather than sharp. As such, the classical challenge in biology to manage, interpret and integrate biological data into functional wholes is further intensified by systems biology's use of modelling and bioinformatics, and by its scale enlargement.

  8. Technical and didactic problems of virtual lab exercises in biochemistry and biotechnology education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Skriver, Karen; Dandanell, Gert

    from a lack of conceptual analysis of what actually constitutes virtual labs. A clarification of these conceptual issues is suggested as part of a Danish research and development project on virtual lab exercises in biochemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology education. The main outcome...... of this clarification is that specific didactic problems of biochemistry education can now be addressed through the design of exercises in the virtual lab environment....

  9. Practical development of laboratory of biologics technology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine for the period 1991-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Lugovska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of inventive activity of the Laboratory of Biologics Technology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NAS of Ukraine, under the leadership of Z.M.Datsenko, Cand.Sc. (Biol., during 1991-2010. The laboratory researchers have developed new technologies for production of medicines of lipid-protein nature, which are based on endogenous complexes of biologically active substances included in the composition of biomembranes of different origin. The researchers have created new technologies for drug PANTOCRINE (for injections and oral administration from antlers of deers and horns of farm animals that have significantly higher biological activity compared with the commercial drug. They have also created new biologically active drugs from antlers with a specific action: HIPPOCAMP, reducing blood pressure in various forms of hypertension, and PANTERON – biological regulator of synthesis of steroid hormones. Further the researchers have developed technologies for obtaining biologically active complexes of various specific action from marine organisms (calamari, clams mussels, shellfish: CALMOFIL and MOLUFIL, therapeutic agents for replacement therapy of surfactant system of the lungs; FILOMEK, the agent for prophylaxis and treatment of a human reproductive system disorders; MOLUSTERON, the glicolipopeptide complex, three individual physiologically active compositions being differentially obtained from the latter: lipopeptide composition – for treatment of hypertension, nucleopeptide one – for treatment of hormonal disorders, and phospholipid – for treatment of lung diseases under the surfactant shortage.

  10. Plant Genetics and Molecular Biology: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Pandey, Manish K; Chitikineni, Annapurna

    2018-02-16

    The rapidly evolving technologies can serve as a potential growth engine in agriculture as many of these technologies have revolutionized several industries in the recent past. The tremendous advancements in biotechnology methods, cost-effective sequencing technology, refinement of genomic tools, and standardization of modern genomics-assisted breeding methods hold great promise in taking the global agriculture to the next level through development of improved climate-smart seeds. These technologies can dramatically increase our capacity to understand the molecular basis of traits and utilize the available resources for accelerated development of stable high-yielding, nutritious, input-use efficient, and climate-smart crop varieties. This book aimed to document the monumental advances witnessed during the last decade in multiple fields of plant biotechnology such as genetics, structural and functional genomics, trait and gene discovery, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, epigenomics, nanotechnology, and analytical tools. This book will serve to update the scientific community, academicians, and other stakeholders in global agriculture on the rapid progress in various areas of agricultural biotechnology. This chapter provides a summary of the book, "Plant Genetics and Molecular Biology." Graphical Abstract.

  11. Software agents in molecular computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keele, John W; Wray, James E

    2005-12-01

    Progress made in applying agent systems to molecular computational biology is reviewed and strategies by which to exploit agent technology to greater advantage are investigated. Communities of software agents could play an important role in helping genome scientists design reagents for future research. The advent of genome sequencing in cattle and swine increases the complexity of data analysis required to conduct research in livestock genomics. Databases are always expanding and semantic differences among data are common. Agent platforms have been developed to deal with generic issues such as agent communication, life cycle management and advertisement of services (white and yellow pages). This frees computational biologists from the drudgery of having to re-invent the wheel on these common chores, giving them more time to focus on biology and bioinformatics. Agent platforms that comply with the Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA) standards are able to interoperate. In other words, agents developed on different platforms can communicate and cooperate with one another if domain-specific higher-level communication protocol details are agreed upon between different agent developers. Many software agent platforms are peer-to-peer, which means that even if some of the agents and data repositories are temporarily unavailable, a subset of the goals of the system can still be met. Past use of software agents in bioinformatics indicates that an agent approach should prove fruitful. Examination of current problems in bioinformatics indicates that existing agent platforms should be adaptable to novel situations.

  12. 2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Sussman

    2010-07-23

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

  13. Third international congress of plant molecular biology: Molecular biology of plant growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallick, R.B. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    The Congress was held October 6-11, 1991 in Tucson with approximately 3000 scientists attending and over 300 oral presentations and 1800 posters. Plant molecular biology is one of the most rapidly developing areas of the biological sciences. Recent advances in the ability to isolate genes, to study their expression, and to create transgenic plants have had a major impact on our understanding of the many fundamental plant processes. In addition, new approaches have been created to improve plants for agricultural purposes. This is a book of presentation and posters from the conference.

  14. Culture collections and biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Manuel; Iborra, José L

    2003-06-01

    This review describes the relationships and links between culture collections, which act as sources of genomes, transcriptomes, proteome, and metabolomes, and fields of research biochemistry that demand their support and help. In addition, the invaluable but not always rewarded efforts of these organizations as a source and conservator of organism diversity is discussed. Biological waste-water treatment, ethanol as a non-finite source of energy, Rhodococcus fascians as the source of a citrus-juice debittering agent, the sporulation of filamentous fungi in liquid medium, and biotransformation with growing and resting cells are processes developed by the authors that demonstrate some of the applications of organisms from culture collections in the general field of biotechnology and related areas, including industrial biochemistry and biocatalytic synthesis.

  15. An introduction to Molecular Biology (Omics) in Food Microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Batt, C.A.; Tortorello, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biological tools are developing in biology at a dazzling pace. These omics tools cover full genome sequencing (originally coined genomics), genomewide transcript analysis (transcriptomics), full protein analysis (proteomics), as well as the analysis of cellular or organism metabolism

  16. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer. Addendum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George L

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy. Methods: 1...

  17. Learning-oriented assessment increases performance and written skills in a second year metabolic biochemistry course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Alexander, Heather G

    2016-07-08

    Assessment plays a critical role in learning and teaching and its power to enhance engagement and student outcomes is still underestimated in tertiary education. The current project considers the impact of a staged redesign of an assessment strategy that emphasized relevance of learning, formative assessment, student engagement, and feedback on student performance, failure rates and overall engagement in the course. Significant improvements in final grades (p Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):412-420, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. 2003 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard F. Shand

    2004-09-21

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2003 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology was held at Proctor Academy, Andover, NH from August 3-8, 2003. The Conference was well-attended with 150 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, ''free time'' was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field. I want to personally thank you for your support of this Conference. As you know, in the interest of promoting the presentation of unpublished and frontier-breaking research, Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings. If you wish any further details, please feel free to contact me. Thank you, Dr. Richard F. Shand, 2003 Conference Chair.

  19. Zika virus genome biology and molecular pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anyou; Thurmond, Stephanie; Islas, Leonel; Hui, Kingyung; Hai, Rong

    2017-03-22

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging RNA virus in the widespread Flavivirus genus. Recently, ZIKV has rapidly spread around the world and has been implicated in human disease, including neurological disorders, triggering public and scientific attention. Understanding how ZIKV causes disease is the highest priority, yet little is known about this virus. Here we examine the currently published data from ZIKV studies to provide the latest understanding of ZIKV genome biology and molecular pathogenesis. The ZIKV genome evolved rapidly from the Flavivirus genus and diverged from the members of this genus, even within the dengue virus cluster to which ZIKV belongs. Genome variations and divergences also exist among ZIKV strains/isolates. These genome divergences might account for the uniqueness of Zika disease. ZIKV infection activates not only the antiviral immune response but also the pro-inflammatory responses associated with disease symptoms. Strikingly, ZIKV activates protein complexes that are functionally associated with disease process, such as glial cell activation and proliferation (for example, Toll-like receptors), apoptosis and cell death, and inflammation. The activation of these complexes may critically contribute to Zika disease. The novel insights into ZIKV genome divergence and disease mechanisms summarized in this review will help accelerate the development of anti-ZIKV strategies.

  20. Applications of synchrotron radiation in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khole, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the important role of synchrotron radiation in dealing with problems in various branches of biology and medicine, viz. molecular biology, molecular biophysics, biochemistry, cell biology, X-ray microscopy, molecular surgery, medical diagnostics (angiography, X-ray radiography, forensic medicine, element analysis), environmental biology, pollution control and photobiology. (author). 15 refs., 9 figs

  1. The biochemistry and physiology of Tetrahymena

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Donald L

    1972-01-01

    ...). DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE CELL CYCLE, 1971 Gary L. Whitson. CONCEPTS Donald L. HYMEN In Hill. THE A, 1972 preparation IN RADIATION Kwang W. Jeon. THE BIOCHEMISTRY BIOLOGY OF AND CELL BIOLOG...

  2. Biochemistry students' ideas about shape and charge in enzyme-substrate interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberger, Kimberly J; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2014-01-01

    Biochemistry is a visual discipline that requires students to develop an understanding of numerous representations. However, there is very little known about what students actually understand about the representations that are used to communicate ideas in biochemistry. This study investigated biochemistry students' understanding of multiple representations of enzyme-substrate interactions through both student interviews (N = 25) and responses by a national sample (N = 707) to the Enzyme-Substrate Interactions Concept Inventory. This manuscript reports the findings regarding one category of misconceptions measured by the concept inventory, namely, students' understandings of shape and charge in the context of enzyme-substrate interactions. Students interpret molecular representations depicting such interactions by determining the complementarity between enzyme and substrate by focusing upon charge and hydrogen bonding, but with a disregard for stereochemistry. Copyright © 2014 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Digital Learning Material for Model Building in Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Janssen, Fred; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton

    2005-01-01

    Building models to describe processes forms an essential part of molecular biology research. However, in molecular biology curricula little attention is generally being paid to the development of this skill. In order to provide students the opportunity to improve their model building skills, we decided to develop a number of digital cases about…

  4. The ultimate complex system: networks in molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Andreas W.

    2010-07-01

    This contribution provides a brief survey of networks as they occur in molecular biology. It is intended as an introduction for a physics audience with no prior knowledge of molecular biology. References to key papers and reviews are included for the reader who wishes to explore this fascinating area further.

  5. A Diagnostic Assessment for Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia; Wood, William B.; Martin, Jennifer M.; Guild, Nancy A.; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed…

  6. The molecular biology in wound healing & non-healing wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Chun

    2017-08-01

    The development of molecular biology and other new biotechnologies helps us to recognize the wound healing and non-healing wound of skin in the past 30 years. This review mainly focuses on the molecular biology of many cytokines (including growth factors) and other molecular factors such as extracellular matrix (ECM) on wound healing. The molecular biology in cell movement such as epidermal cells in wound healing was also discussed. Moreover many common chronic wounds such as pressure ulcers, leg ulcers, diabetic foot wounds, venous stasis ulcers, etc. usually deteriorate into non-healing wounds. Therefore the molecular biology such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and other molecular factors in diabetes non-healing wounds were also reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Interactive analysis of systems biology molecular expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar Sunil; Salt David E; Kane Michael D; Stephenson Alan; Ouyang Qi; Zhang Mingwu; Burgner John; Buck Charles; Zhang Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Systems biology aims to understand biological systems on a comprehensive scale, such that the components that make up the whole are connected to one another and work through dependent interactions. Molecular correlations and comparative studies of molecular expression are crucial to establishing interdependent connections in systems biology. The existing software packages provide limited data mining capability. The user must first generate visualization data with a preferr...

  8. Assessment of Knowledge of Participants on Basic Molecular Biology Techniques after 5-Day Intensive Molecular Biology Training Workshops in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisau, J. I.; Adagbada, A. O.; Bamidele, T.; Fowora, M.; Brai, B. I. C.; Adebesin, O.; Bamidele, M.; Fesobi, T.; Nwaokorie, F. O.; Ajayi, A.; Smith, S. I.

    2017-01-01

    The deployment of molecular biology techniques for diagnosis and research in Nigeria is faced with a number of challenges, including the cost of equipment and reagents coupled with the dearth of personnel skilled in the procedures and handling of equipment. Short molecular biology training workshops were conducted at the Nigerian Institute of…

  9. Marine molecular biology: An emerging field of biological sciences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Jain, R.; Natalio, F.; Hamer, B.; Thakur, A.N.; Muller, W.E.G.

    products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages...

  10. CSMB | Center For Structural Molecular Biology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Structural Molecular Biologyat ORNL is dedicated to developing instrumentation and methods for determining the 3-dimensional structures of proteins,...

  11. A possible molecular metric for biological evolvability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Aditya Mittal1 B Jayaram1 2. Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016, India; Department of Chemistry and Supercomputing Facility for Bioinformatics & Computational Biology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016, India ...

  12. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  13. Structural Biology and Molecular Applications Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI's Division of Cancer Biology's research portfolio, research and development in this area focuses on enabling technologies, models, and methodologies to support basic and applied cancer research.

  14. Physical mechanisms of biological molecular motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, John H. Jr.; Vajrala, Vijayanand; Infante, Hans L.; Claycomb, James R.; Palanisami, Akilan; Fang Jie; Mercier, George T.

    2009-01-01

    Biological motors generally fall into two categories: (1) those that convert chemical into mechanical energy via hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate, usually adenosine triphosphate, regarded as life's chemical currency of energy and (2) membrane bound motors driven directly by an ion gradient and/or membrane potential. Here we argue that electrostatic interactions play a vital role for both types of motors and, therefore, the tools of physics can greatly contribute to understanding biological motors

  15. Molecular biology techniques and applications for ocean sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Zehr

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Molecular techniques can form the basis of remote instrumentation sensing technologies for marine microbial diversity and ecological function. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological techniques. These techniques include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse-transcriptase PCR, quantitative PCR, whole assemblage "fingerprinting" approaches (based on nucleic acid sequence or length heterogeneity, oligonucleotide microarrays, and high-throughput shotgun sequencing of whole genomes and gene transcripts, which can be used to answer biological, ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical questions in the ocean sciences. Moreover, molecular biological approaches may be deployed on ocean sensor platforms and hold promise for tracking of organisms or processes of interest in near-real time.

  16. Applications of neutron scattering in molecular biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierhaus, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The study of the molecular structure of biological materials by neutron scattering is described. As example the results of the study of the components of a ribosome of Escherichia coli are presented. (HSI) [de

  17. Molecular biology techniques and applications for ocean sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, J. P.; Hewson, I.; Moisander, P.

    2009-05-01

    The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Molecular techniques can form the basis of remote instrumentation sensing technologies for marine microbial diversity and ecological function. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological techniques. These techniques include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcriptase PCR, quantitative PCR, whole assemblage "fingerprinting" approaches (based on nucleic acid sequence or length heterogeneity), oligonucleotide microarrays, and high-throughput shotgun sequencing of whole genomes and gene transcripts, which can be used to answer biological, ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical questions in the ocean sciences. Moreover, molecular biological approaches may be deployed on ocean sensor platforms and hold promise for tracking of organisms or processes of interest in near-real time.

  18. Sample size and power calculation for molecular biology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Sample size calculation is a critical procedure when designing a new biological study. In this chapter, we consider molecular biology studies generating huge dimensional data. Microarray studies are typical examples, so that we state this chapter in terms of gene microarray data, but the discussed methods can be used for design and analysis of any molecular biology studies involving high-dimensional data. In this chapter, we discuss sample size calculation methods for molecular biology studies when the discovery of prognostic molecular markers is performed by accurately controlling false discovery rate (FDR) or family-wise error rate (FWER) in the final data analysis. We limit our discussion to the two-sample case.

  19. Promoting active learning of graduate student by deep reading in biochemistry and microbiology pharmacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ren

    2017-07-08

    To promote graduate students' active learning, deep reading of high quality papers was done by graduate students enrolled in biochemistry and microbiology pharmacy curriculum offered by college of life science, Jiangxi Normal University from 2013 to 2015. The number of graduate students, who participated in the course in 2013, 2014, and 2015 were eleven, thirteen and fifteen, respectively. Through deep reading of papers, presentation, and group discussion in the lecture, these graduate students have improved their academic performances effectively, such as literature search, PPT document production, presentation management, specialty document reading, academic inquiry, and analytical and comprehensive ability. The graduate students also have increased their understanding level of frontier research, scientific research methods, and experimental methods. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):305-312, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. The molecular biology of Bluetongue virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Avnish; Roy, Polly

    2014-03-01

    The members of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family are arthropod-borne viruses which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. Bluetongue virus (BTV) which causes disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle) has been in the forefront of molecular studies for the last three decades and now represents the best understood orbivirus at a molecular and structural level. The complex nature of the virion structure has been well characterised at high resolution along with the definition of the virus encoded enzymes required for RNA replication; the ordered assembly of the capsid shell as well as the protein and genome sequestration required for it; and the role of host proteins in virus entry and virus release. More recent developments of Reverse Genetics and Cell-Free Assembly systems have allowed integration of the accumulated structural and molecular knowledge to be tested at meticulous level, yielding higher insight into basic molecular virology, from which the rational design of safe efficacious vaccines has been possible. This article is centred on the molecular dissection of BTV with a view to understanding the role of each protein in the virus replication cycle. These areas are important in themselves for BTV replication but they also indicate the pathways that related viruses, which includes viruses that are pathogenic to man and animals, might also use providing an informed starting point for intervention or prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The molecular theory of radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K.H.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    In this book we have tried to gather, in a logical sequence, the thoughts and reasoning which have led us from the raw and primitive beginning to the broader, more generally applicable, model. In doing this, it has been necessary to cover a wide range of topics in both cellular biology and radiation physics, and we apologize now to the reader who finds that we have gone into too much detail in one area and made too rough an approximation in the other. We have written what we feel is essential for the physicist to follow the influence exerted on the model by the biology, and for the biologist to follow the mathematical definition of the biological effect. (orig./VJ)

  2. Micropropagation, genetic engineering, and molecular biology of Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. B. Klopfenstein; Y. W. Chun; M. -S. Kim; M. A. Ahuja; M. C. Dillon; R. C. Carman; L. G. Eskew

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-four Populus biotechnology chapters, written by 85 authors, are comprised in 5 sections: 1) in vitro culture (micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, protoplasts, somaclonal variation, and germplasm preservation); 2) transformation and foreign gene expression; 3) molecular biology (molecular/genetic characterization); 4) biotic and abiotic resistance (disease,...

  3. Generative Mechanistic Explanation Building in Undergraduate Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Katelyn M.; Espindola, Melissa R.; Zaepfel, Samantha D.; Bolger, Molly S.

    2017-01-01

    When conducting scientific research, experts in molecular and cellular biology (MCB) use specific reasoning strategies to construct mechanistic explanations for the underlying causal features of molecular phenomena. We explored how undergraduate students applied this scientific practice in MCB. Drawing from studies of explanation building among…

  4. Fundamental Approaches in Molecular Biology for Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rebecca S.; Jette, Marie E.; King, Suzanne N.; Schaser, Allison; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This contemporary tutorial will introduce general principles of molecular biology, common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein assays and their relevance in the field of communication sciences and disorders. Method: Over the past 2 decades, knowledge of the molecular pathophysiology of human disease has…

  5. Proceedings of the symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    The symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection was organized in sessions with the following titles: Radiation protection and the human genome; Molecular changes in DNA induced by radiation; Incidence of genetic changes - pre-existing, spontaneous and radiation-induced; Research directions and ethical implications. The ten papers in the symposium have been abstracted individually

  6. How phenotypic plasticity made its way into molecular biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-08-03

    Aug 3, 2009 ... Although opposed by the reductionist and deterministic approach of molecular biology, phenotypic plasticity has nevertheless recently made its way into this discipline, in particular through the limits of the molecular description. Its resurrection has been triggered by a small group of theoreticians, the rise of ...

  7. Using a Computer Animation to Teach High School Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    We present an active way to use a computer animation in secondary molecular genetics class. For this purpose we developed an activity booklet that helps students to work interactively with a computer animation which deals with abstract concepts and processes in molecular biology. The achievements of the experimental group were compared with those…

  8. The importance of having a flexible scope ISO 15189 accreditation and quality specifications based on biological variation--the case of validation of the biochemistry analyzer Dimension Vista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Calle, Pilar; Pelaz, Sandra; Oliver, Paloma; Alcaide, Maria Jose; Gomez-Rioja, Ruben; Buno, Antonio; Iturzaeta, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Technological innovation requires the laboratories to ensure that modifications or incorporations of new techniques do not alter the quality of their results. In an ISO 15189 accredited laboratory, flexible scope accreditation facilitates the inclusion of these changes prior to accreditation body evaluation. A strategy to perform the validation of a biochemistry analyzer in an accredited laboratory having a flexible scope is shown. A validation procedure including the evaluation of imprecision and bias of two Dimension Vista analysers 1500 was conducted. Comparability of patient results between one of them and the lately replaced Dimension RxL Max was evaluated. All studies followed the respective Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocols. 30 chemistry assays were studied. Coefficients of variation, percent bias and total error were calculated for all tests and biological variation was considered as acceptance criteria. Quality control material and patient samples were used as test materials. Interchangeability of the results was established by processing forty patients' samples in both devices. 27 of the 30 studied parameters met allowable performance criteria. Sodium, chloride and magnesium did not fulfil acceptance criteria. Evidence of interchangeability of patient results was obtained for all parameters except magnesium, NT-proBNP, cTroponin I and C-reactive protein. A laboratory having a well structured and documented validation procedure can opt to get a flexible scope of accreditation. In addition, performing these activities prior to use on patient samples may evidence technical issues which must be corrected to minimize their impact on patient results.

  9. Bacteriophages: The viruses for all seasons of molecular biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam Jim D

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacteriophage research continues to break new ground in our understanding of the basic molecular mechanisms of gene action and biological structure. The abundance of bacteriophages in nature and the diversity of their genomes are two reasons why phage research brims with excitement. The pages of Virology Journal will reflect the excitement of the "New Phage Biology."

  10. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Methods in Molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Methods in Molecular Biology. GMAP: A program for mapping potential restriction sites. RE sites in ambiguous and non-ambiguous DNA sequence; Minimum number of silent mutations required for introducing a RE sites; Set ...

  11. Molecular and biological characterization of Trichogramma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, different molecular markers were employed to characterize this species, including direct amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA and by restriction fragment length polymorphism followed by sequencing. The results show that ITS2 region is 491 bp and indicated that this is a new ...

  12. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbane, J.J. II; Bielaga, B.A.

    1991-12-01

    The overall objective of this project was to use molecular genetics to develop strains of bacteria with enhanced ability to remove sulfur from coal, and to obtain data that will allow the performance and economics of a coal biodesulfurization process to be predicted. (VC)

  13. A possible molecular metric for biological evolvability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-25

    Jun 25, 2012 ... Proteins manifest themselves as phenotypic traits, retained or lost in living systems via evolutionary pressures. Simply ... the first such metric by utilizing the recently discovered stoichiometric margin of life for all known naturally occurring ... tures), at the molecular level, are still debated under the context.

  14. Physics and the origins of molecular biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    They thought that future studies of the gene might reveal new principles or paradoxes, ... of molecules, or as a living organism; you could make obser- vations that tell you where the molecules are, or you could ... nal influence on future biology (Timofeeff-Ressovsky et al. 1935). Genetics had demonstrated that genes are ...

  15. The cellular and molecular biology of medulloblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peringa, A; Fung, KM; Muragaki, Y; Trojanowski, JQ

    1995-01-01

    Medulloblastomas are prototypical of primitive neuroectodermal tumors which are some of the most frequent malignant brain tumors of childhood. The cell biology of medulloblastomas is still poorly understood, but recent studies of the expression of trophic factors and their receptors in

  16. Methods in molecular biology: plant cytogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytogenetic studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of genetics, biology, reproduction, and evolution. From early studies in basic chromosome behavior the field has expanded enabling whole genome analysis to the manipulation of chromosomes and their organization. This book covers a ran...

  17. Fluorescence Quantum Yield Measurements of Fluorescent Proteins: A Laboratory Experiment for a Biochemistry or Molecular Biophysics Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kathryn P.; Dillon, Rebecca; Knowles, Michelle K.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are commonly used in cell biology to assess where proteins are within a cell as a function of time and provide insight into intracellular protein function. However, the usefulness of a fluorescent protein depends directly on the quantum yield. The quantum yield relates the efficiency at which a fluorescent molecule converts…

  18. Historic production evaluation in Biochemistry Education area during the SBBq annual meetings between 1993 and 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V.; N. N.; G. G. Pereira; Gonçalves; Hornink

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The annual meetings of the Brazilian Society Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (SBBq, with the inclusion of the area of education in Biochemistry in 1993, present themselves as important spaces for the presentation and discussion of the work in the area of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology teaching. OBJECTIVES: Systematize and evaluate the historical development of abstracts in the Education in Biochemistry area, in the SBBq annual meeting, indicating quantitative and qualitative data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 408 abstracts were evaluated, from the panels presented in the area of Education in Biochemistry, from 1993 to 2016. The quantitative evaluation was done by surveying the thematic content, institutions, regions, methods and qualitative analysis based on content analysis (Bardin of the works of the two most frequently approached themes. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The works of the southeast region (65,4% of papers presented were highlighted, with 32% of the works with qualitative methodology, 10% quantitative and 33% quali-quantitative. The most studied topics were Biochemistry teaching (107 papers and metabolism (94 papers. In the contents analysis of the two most frequently addressed themes, the constructivist and socio-interacionist foundations as the most used teaching-learning processes, as well as the use of software as the most used didactic strategy in both themes. The most used didactic resources were texts / informative in the subject of Teaching of Biochemistry (33% and games (21% in the subject of Metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: The results evidenced the major focus of the work addressing undergraduate courses, with a qualitative or quantitative method, focusing mainly on Biochemistry teaching, as well as on metabolism, with an expressive amount of activities using educational software, followed by practical classes. There has been a change in the prevailing fundamentals of the teaching-learning process with the emergence in the

  19. Learning effectiveness and satisfaction of international medical students: Introducing a Hybrid-PBL curriculum in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiu; Ma, Li; Zhu, Lina; Zhang, Wenli

    2017-07-08

    A biochemistry course is a fundamental but important subject in medical education in China. In recent years, the number of international medical students has increased. Curriculum reform in biochemistry teaching is needed because of the knowledge limitations of students, a close linkage of biochemical content with clinics, the shortcomings of lecture-centered teaching, and the requirements for early clinical practice training and competence. In this study, we analyzed a novel curriculum reform, "Hybrid-PBL," which combined problem-based learning (PBL) with biochemistry lectures and was implemented for biochemical teaching at Dalian Medical University (DMU) in China. The change in curriculum affected 189 international medical students. This study selected two PBL cases concerning the basic biochemical issues of carbohydrate metabolism and liver biochemistry for the analysis, and ten examples of learning issues for each case were reported by the international students. A questionnaire was utilized to evaluate students' perceptions of the Hybrid-PBL, and examination scores were analyzed to assess the curriculum reform in biochemistry teaching. A statistical analysis revealed that the Hybrid-PBL curriculum was well accepted by the international students as an effective supplement to lecture-centered teaching programs. The students obtained more abilities, higher examination scores, and an improved understanding of biomedical information from the Hybrid-PBL program than from conventional teaching methods. Our study was an innovative trial that applied a PBL curriculum to the specific discipline of biochemistry and may provide a potential and promising new teaching method that can be widely utilized. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):336-342, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Teaching molecular genetics: Chapter 1--Background principles and methods of molecular biology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this first chapter of the series "Teaching molecular genetics," an introduction to molecular genetics is presented. We describe the structure of DNA and genes and explain in detail the central dogma of molecular biology, that is, the flow of genetic information from DNA via RNA to polypeptide

  1. Interactive analysis of systems biology molecular expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Sunil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology aims to understand biological systems on a comprehensive scale, such that the components that make up the whole are connected to one another and work through dependent interactions. Molecular correlations and comparative studies of molecular expression are crucial to establishing interdependent connections in systems biology. The existing software packages provide limited data mining capability. The user must first generate visualization data with a preferred data mining algorithm and then upload the resulting data into the visualization package for graphic visualization of molecular relations. Results Presented is a novel interactive visual data mining application, SysNet that provides an interactive environment for the analysis of high data volume molecular expression information of most any type from biological systems. It integrates interactive graphic visualization and statistical data mining into a single package. SysNet interactively presents intermolecular correlation information with circular and heatmap layouts. It is also applicable to comparative analysis of molecular expression data, such as time course data. Conclusion The SysNet program has been utilized to analyze elemental profile changes in response to an increasing concentration of iron (Fe in growth media (an ionomics dataset. This study case demonstrates that the SysNet software is an effective platform for interactive analysis of molecular expression information in systems biology.

  2. [Molecular biology for sarcoma: useful or necessary?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, Agnès; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Chibon, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors. Their diagnosis is based on morphology and immunohistochemical profile, with categories of tumors according to the type of tissue that they resemble. Nevertheless, for several tumors, cellular origin is unknown. Molecular analysis performed in recent years allowed, combining histophenotype and genomics, better classifying such sarcomas, individualizing new entities and grouping some tumors. Simple and recurrent genetic alterations, such as translocation, mutation, amplification, can be identified in one of two sarcomas and appear as new diagnostic markers. Their identification in specialized laboratories in molecular pathology of sarcomas is often useful and sometimes necessary for a good diagnosis, leading to a heavy and multidisciplinary multi-step treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Otosclerosis: From Genetics to Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Thomas A; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2018-04-01

    Over the past several years, with the evolution of genetic and molecular research, several etiologic factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of otosclerosis. Overall, current evidence suggests that otosclerosis is a complex disease with a variety of potential pathways contributing to the development of abnormal bone remodeling in the otic capsule. These pathways involved in the pathogenesis of otosclerosis are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. DNA nanomechanical devices for molecular biology and DNA nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hongzhou

    The aim of nanotechnology is to put specific atomic and molecular species where we want them, when we want them there. Achieving such a dynamic and functional control could lead to molecular programming. Structural DNA nanotechnology offers a powerful route to this goal by combining stable branched DNA motifs with cohesive ends to produce objects, programmed nanomechanical devices and fixed or modified patterned lattices. In Chapter II, a two-armed nanorobotic device is built based on a DNA origami substrate. The arms face each other, ready to capture different DNA nanostructures into distinguishable nanopatterns. Combining with a simple error-correction protocol, we are able to achieve this goal in a nearly flawless fashion. In Chapter III, a DNA-based programmable assembly line is developed by combining three PX/JX2 cassettes and a novel DNA walker on a DNA origami substrate. This programmable assembly line can generate eight products by switching the cassettes to PX (ON) or JX2 (OFF) state when the DNA walker passes by. DNA nanomechanical devices hold the promise of controlling structure and performing exquisitely fine measurements on the molecular scale. Several DNA nanomechanical devices based on different biochemistry phenomena have been reported before. In Chapter IV, a scissors-based DNA device is built to measure the work that can be done by a DNA-bending protein (MutS) when it binds to DNA.

  5. The nucleic acid revolution continues - will forensic biology become forensic molecular biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Peter; Walsh, Simon; Roux, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biology has evolved far beyond that which could have been predicted at the time DNA identity testing was established. Indeed we should now perhaps be referring to "forensic molecular biology." Aside from DNA's established role in identifying the "who" in crime investigations, other developments in medical and developmental molecular biology are now ripe for application to forensic challenges. The impact of DNA methylation and other post-fertilization DNA modifications, plus the emerging role of small RNAs in the control of gene expression, is re-writing our understanding of human biology. It is apparent that these emerging technologies will expand forensic molecular biology to allow for inferences about "when" a crime took place and "what" took place. However, just as the introduction of DNA identity testing engendered many challenges, so the expansion of molecular biology into these domains will raise again the issues of scientific validity, interpretation, probative value, and infringement of personal liberties. This Commentary ponders some of these emerging issues, and presents some ideas on how they will affect the conduct of forensic molecular biology in the foreseeable future.

  6. Using molecular biology to maximize concurrent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Keith

    2014-11-01

    Very few sports use only endurance or strength. Outside of running long distances on a flat surface and power-lifting, practically all sports require some combination of endurance and strength. Endurance and strength can be developed simultaneously to some degree. However, the development of a high level of endurance seems to prohibit the development or maintenance of muscle mass and strength. This interaction between endurance and strength is called the concurrent training effect. This review specifically defines the concurrent training effect, discusses the potential molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, and proposes strategies to maximize strength and endurance in the high-level athlete.

  7. Molecular revision of the genus Wallaceina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostygov, A. Y.; Grybchuk-Ieremenko, A.; Malysheva, M. N.; Frolov, A. O.; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 5 (2014), s. 594-604 ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-23986S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosomatidae * molecular phylogeny * Leishmaniinae * Wallaceina * Wallacemonas Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.045, year: 2014

  8. Leishmania infections: Molecular targets and diagnosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akhoundi, M.; Downing, T.; Votýpka, Jan; Kuhls, K.; Lukeš, Julius; Cannet, A.; Ravel, C.; Marty, P.; Delaunay, P.; Kasbari, M.; Granouillac, B.; Gradoni, L.; Sereno, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, OCT (2017), s. 1-29 ISSN 0098-2997 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : molecular markers * diagnostic methods * hybrid strains * sympatric species * genome-wide map Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 5.686, year: 2016

  9. Teaching molecular genetics: Chapter 1--Background principles and methods of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoers, Nine V A M; Monnens, Leo A H

    2006-02-01

    In this first chapter of the series "Teaching molecular genetics," an introduction to molecular genetics is presented. We describe the structure of DNA and genes and explain in detail the central dogma of molecular biology, that is, the flow of genetic information from DNA via RNA to polypeptide (protein). In addition, several basic and frequently used general molecular tools, such as restriction enzymes, Southern blotting, DNA amplification and sequencing are discussed, in order to lay the foundations for the forthcoming chapters.

  10. The molecular biology of WHO grade I astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Nicholas F; Weil, Robert J

    2012-12-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) grade I astrocytomas include pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA). As technologies in pharmacologic neo-adjuvant therapy continue to progress and as molecular characteristics are progressively recognized as potential markers of both clinically significant tumor subtypes and response to therapy, interest in the biology of these tumors has surged. An updated review of the current knowledge of the molecular biology of these tumors is needed. We conducted a Medline search to identify published literature discussing the molecular biology of grade I astrocytomas. We then summarized this literature and discuss it in a logical framework through which the complex biology of these tumors can be clearly understood. A comprehensive review of the molecular biology of WHO grade I astrocytomas is presented. The past several years have seen rapid progress in the level of understanding of PA in particular, but the molecular literature regarding both PA and SEGA remains nebulous, ambiguous, and occasionally contradictory. In this review we provide a comprehensive discussion of the current understanding of the chromosomal, genomic, and epigenomic features of both PA and SEGA and provide a logical framework in which these data can be more readily understood.

  11. Ordinary differential equations with applications in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, M; Turnea, M; Rotariu, M

    2012-01-01

    Differential equations are of basic importance in molecular biology mathematics because many biological laws and relations appear mathematically in the form of a differential equation. In this article we presented some applications of mathematical models represented by ordinary differential equations in molecular biology. The vast majority of quantitative models in cell and molecular biology are formulated in terms of ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of concentrations of molecular species. Assuming that the diffusion in the cell is high enough to make the spatial distribution of molecules homogenous, these equations describe systems with many participating molecules of each kind. We propose an original mathematical model with small parameter for biological phospholipid pathway. All the equations system includes small parameter epsilon. The smallness of epsilon is relative to the size of the solution domain. If we reduce the size of the solution region the same small epsilon will result in a different condition number. It is clear that the solution for a smaller region is less difficult. We introduce the mathematical technique known as boundary function method for singular perturbation system. In this system, the small parameter is an asymptotic variable, different from the independent variable. In general, the solutions of such equations exhibit multiscale phenomena. Singularly perturbed problems form a special class of problems containing a small parameter which may tend to zero. Many molecular biology processes can be quantitatively characterized by ordinary differential equations. Mathematical cell biology is a very active and fast growing interdisciplinary area in which mathematical concepts, techniques, and models are applied to a variety of problems in developmental medicine and bioengineering. Among the different modeling approaches, ordinary differential equations (ODE) are particularly important and have led to significant advances

  12. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shugart, L.R.; D'Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO 6 -ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O 6 -ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP

  13. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies.

  14. Xenon preconditioning: molecular mechanisms and biological effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wenwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Xenon is one of noble gases and has been recognized as an anesthetic for more than 50 years. Xenon possesses many of the characteristics of an ideal anesthetic, but it is not widely applied in clinical practice mainly because of its high cost. In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that xenon as an anesthetic can exert neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in different models. Moreover, xenon has been applied in the preconditioning, and the neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects of xenon preconditioning have been investigated in a lot of studies in which some mechanisms related to these protections are proposed. In this review, we summarized these mechanisms and the biological effects of xenon preconditioning.

  15. Overview of selected molecular biological databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayl, K.D.; Gaasterland, T.

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the purpose, content, and design of a subset of the currently available biological databases, with an emphasis on protein databases. Databases included in this summary are 3D-ALI, Berlin RNA databank, Blocks, DSSP, EMBL Nucleotide Database, EMP, ENZYME, FSSP, GDB, GenBank, HSSP, LiMB, PDB, PIR, PKCDD, ProSite, and SWISS-PROT. The goal is to provide a starting point for researchers who wish to take advantage of the myriad available databases. Rather than providing a complete explanation of each database, we present its content and form by explaining the details of typical entries. Pointers to more complete ``user guides`` are included, along with general information on where to search for a new database.

  16. The importance of having a flexible scope ISO 15189 accreditation and quality specifications based on biological variation – the case of validation of the biochemistry analyzer Dimension Vista

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Calle, Pilar; Pelaz, Sandra; Oliver, Paloma; Alcaide, Maria Jose; Gomez-Rioja, Ruben; Buno, Antonio; Iturzaeta, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Technological innovation requires the laboratories to ensure that modifications or incorporations of new techniques do not alter the quality of their results. In an ISO 15189 accredited laboratory, flexible scope accreditation facilitates the inclusion of these changes prior to accreditation body evaluation. A strategy to perform the validation of a biochemistry analyzer in an accredited laboratory having a flexible scope is shown. Materials and methods: A validation procedure including the evaluation of imprecision and bias of two Dimension Vista analysers 1500 was conducted. Comparability of patient results between one of them and the lately replaced Dimension RxL Max was evaluated. All studies followed the respective Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocols. 30 chemistry assays were studied. Coefficients of variation, percent bias and total error were calculated for all tests and biological variation was considered as acceptance criteria. Quality control material and patient samples were used as test materials. Interchangeability of the results was established by processing forty patients’ samples in both devices. Results: 27 of the 30 studied parameters met allowable performance criteria. Sodium, chloride and magnesium did not fulfil acceptance criteria. Evidence of interchangeability of patient results was obtained for all parameters except magnesium, NT-proBNP, cTroponin I and C-reactive protein. Conclusions: A laboratory having a well structured and documented validation procedure can opt to get a flexible scope of accreditation. In addition, performing these activities prior to use on patient samples may evidence technical issues which must be corrected to minimize their impact on patient results. PMID:23457769

  17. Molecular biology - Part I: Techniques, terminology, and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J. Martin

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: One of the barriers to understanding modern molecular biology is the lack of a clear understanding of the relevant terminology, techniques, and concepts. This refresher course is intended to address these deficiencies starting from a basic level. The lecture will cover many of the common uses of recombinant DNA, including gene cloning and manipulation. The goal is to enable the nonspecialist to increase his or her understanding of molecular biology in order to more fully enjoy reading current publications and/or listening seminars. Radiation biologists trying to understand a little more molecular biology should also benefit. The following concepts will be among those explained and illustrated: restriction endonucleases, gel electrophoresis, gene cloning, use of vectors such as plasmids, bacteriophage, cosmids and viruses, cDNA and genomic libraries, Southern, Northern, and Western blotting, fluorescent in situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), gel retardation, and reporter gene assays

  18. Plant synthetic biology for molecular engineering of signalling and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Torii, Keiko U

    2016-03-02

    Molecular genetic studies of model plants in the past few decades have identified many key genes and pathways controlling development, metabolism and environmental responses. Recent technological and informatics advances have led to unprecedented volumes of data that may uncover underlying principles of plants as biological systems. The newly emerged discipline of synthetic biology and related molecular engineering approaches is built on this strong foundation. Today, plant regulatory pathways can be reconstituted in heterologous organisms to identify and manipulate parameters influencing signalling outputs. Moreover, regulatory circuits that include receptors, ligands, signal transduction components, epigenetic machinery and molecular motors can be engineered and introduced into plants to create novel traits in a predictive manner. Here, we provide a brief history of plant synthetic biology and significant recent examples of this approach, focusing on how knowledge generated by the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana has contributed to the rapid rise of this new discipline, and discuss potential future directions.

  19. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 51, Molecular biology of /ital Homo sapiens/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume is the second part of a collection of papers submitted by the participants to the 1986 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitled Molecular Biology of /ital Homo sapiens/. The 49 papers included in this volume are grouped by subject into receptors, human cancer genes, and gene therapy. (DT)

  20. pGLO Mutagenesis: A Laboratory Procedure in Molecular Biology for Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri, Eby A.

    2011-01-01

    A five-session laboratory project was designed to familiarize or increase the laboratory proficiency of biology students and others with techniques and instruments commonly used in molecular biology research laboratories and industries. In this project, the EZ-Tn5 transposon is used to generate and screen a large number of cells transformed with…

  1. Molecular Biology of Rotavirus Entry and Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marie Christine; Leon, Theresa; Diaz, Yuleima; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2009-01-01

    Rotavirus is a nonenveloped, double-stranded, RNA virus belonging to the Reoviridae family and is the major etiological agent of viral gastroenteritis in young children and young animals. Remarkable progress in the understanding of the rotavirus cycle has been made in the last 10 years. The knowledge of viral replication thus far acquired is based on structural studies, the expression and coexpression of individual viral proteins, silencing of individual genes by siRNAs, and the effects that these manipulations have on the physiology of the infected cell. The functions of the individual rotavirus proteins have been largely dissected; however, the interactions between them and with cell proteins, and the molecular mechanisms of virus replication, are just beginning to be understood. These advancements represent the basis for the development of effective vaccination and rational therapeutic strategies to combat rotavirus infection and diarrhea syndromes. In this paper, we review and try to integrate the new knowledge about rotavirus entry, replication, and assembly, and pose some of the questions that remain to be solved. PMID:20024520

  2. Encapsulins: molecular biology of the shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Robert J; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Chaijarasphong, Thawatchai; Savage, David F

    2017-10-01

    Compartmentalization is both a fundamental principle of cellular organization and an emerging theme in prokaryotic biology. Work in the past few decades has shown that protein-based organelles called microcompartments enhance the function of encapsulated cargo proteins. More recently, the repertoire of known prokaryotic organelles has expanded beyond microcompartments to include a new class of smaller proteinaceous compartments, termed nanocompartments (also known as encapsulins). Nanocompartments are icosahedral capsids that are smaller and less complex than microcompartments. Encapsulins are formed by a single species of shell protein that self-assembles and typically encapsulates only one type of cargo protein. Significant progress has been made in understanding the structure of nanocompartment shells and the loading of cargo to the interior. Recent analysis has also demonstrated the prevalence of encapsulin genes throughout prokaryotic genomes and documented a large diversity of cargo proteins with a variety of novel functions, suggesting that nanocompartments play an important role in many microbes. Here we review the current understanding of encapsulin structure and function and highlight exciting open questions of physiological significance.

  3. Marine microbial L-asparaginase: Biochemistry, molecular approaches and applications in tumor therapy and in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadpanah Qeshmi, Fatemeh; Homaei, Ahmad; Fernandes, Pedro; Javadpour, Sedigheh

    2018-03-01

    The marine environment is a rich source of biological and chemical diversity. It covers more than 70% of the Earth's surface and features a wide diversity of habitats, often displaying extreme conditions, where marine organisms thrive, offering a vast pool for microorganisms and enzymes. Given the dissimilarity between marine and terrestrial habitats, enzymes and microorganisms, either novel or with different and appealing features as compared to terrestrial counterparts, may be identified and isolated. L-asparaginase (E.C. 3.5.1.1), is among the relevant enzymes that can be obtained from marine sources. This amidohydrolase acts on L-asparagine and produce L-aspartate and ammonia, accordingly it has an acknowledged chemotherapeutic application, namely in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Moreover, L-asparaginase is also of interest in the food industry as it prevents acrylamide formation. Terrestrial organisms have been largely tapped for L-asparaginases, but most failed to comply with criteria for practical applications, whereas marine sources have only been marginally screened. This work provides an overview on the relevant features of this enzyme and the framework for its application, with a clear emphasis on the use of L-asparaginase from marine sources. The review envisages to highlight the unique properties of marine L-asparaginases that could make them good candidates for medical applications and industries, especially in food safety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. A decade of molecular cell biology: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Asifa; Fuchs, Elaine; Mitchison, Tim; Shaw, Reuben J; St Johnston, Daniel; Strasser, Andreas; Taylor, Susan; Walczak, Claire; Zerial, Marino

    2011-09-23

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology celebrated its 10-year anniversary during this past year with a series of specially commissioned articles. To complement this, here we have asked researchers from across the field for their insights into how molecular cell biology research has evolved during this past decade, the key concepts that have emerged and the most promising interfaces that have developed. Their comments highlight the broad impact that particular advances have had, some of the basic understanding that we still require, and the collaborative approaches that will be essential for driving the field forward.

  5. Known structure, unknown function: An inquiry‐based undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Cynthia; Price, Carol W.; Lee, Christopher T.; Dewald, Alison H.; Cline, Matthew A.; McAnany, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Undergraduate biochemistry laboratory courses often do not provide students with an authentic research experience, particularly when the express purpose of the laboratory is purely instructional. However, an instructional laboratory course that is inquiry‐ and research‐based could simultaneously impart scientific knowledge and foster a student's research expertise and confidence. We have developed a year‐long undergraduate biochemistry laboratory curriculum wherein students determine, via experiment and computation, the function of a protein of known three‐dimensional structure. The first half of the course is inquiry‐based and modular in design; students learn general biochemical techniques while gaining preparation for research experiments in the second semester. Having learned standard biochemical methods in the first semester, students independently pursue their own (original) research projects in the second semester. This new curriculum has yielded an improvement in student performance and confidence as assessed by various metrics. To disseminate teaching resources to students and instructors alike, a freely accessible Biochemistry Laboratory Education resource is available at http://biochemlab.org. © 2015 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 43(4):245–262, 2015. PMID:26148241

  6. Molecular Biology of STLV-III and HTLV-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-22

    21702-5012 63105A 63105H29 AC 072 11. TITLE (Include Security Clasification ) Molecular Biology of STLV-III and HTLV-IV 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Joseph...variants are presently unknown. These determinants may reside in the transcriptional regulatory functions of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR), in the...composition of the viral regulatory genes (vif, t r and nef), or in features of the structural components of the virus. To understand the molecular

  7. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all...... are important human pathogens. Chlamydia is obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellularly chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) are small, metabolic inactive, infectious particles with a tight outer cell membrane. After internalization into host cells the chlamydial...

  8. Implications of molecular heterogeneity for the cooperativity of biological macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomatin, Sergey V; Greenfeld, Max; Herschlag, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Cooperativity, a universal property of biological macromolecules, is typically characterized by a Hill slope, which can provide fundamental information about binding sites and interactions. We demonstrate, through simulations and single-molecule FRET (smFRET) experiments, that molecular heterogeneity lowers bulk cooperativity from the intrinsic value for the individual molecules. As heterogeneity is common in smFRET experiments, appreciation of its influence on fundamental measures of cooperativity is critical for deriving accurate molecular models.

  9. Human papillomavirus molecular biology and disease association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Griffin, Heather; Kranjec, Christian; Murakami, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have evolved over millions of years to propagate themselves in a range of different animal species including humans. Viruses that have co‐evolved slowly in this way typically cause chronic inapparent infections, with virion production in the absence of apparent disease. This is the case for many Beta and Gamma HPV types. The Alpha papillomavirus types have however evolved immunoevasion strategies that allow them to cause persistent visible papillomas. These viruses activate the cell cycle as the infected epithelial cell differentiates in order to create a replication competent environment that allows viral genome amplification and packaging into infectious particles. This is mediated by the viral E6, E7, and E5 proteins. High‐risk E6 and E7 proteins differ from their low‐risk counterparts however in being able to drive cell cycle entry in the upper epithelial layers and also to stimulate cell proliferation in the basal and parabasal layers. Deregulated expression of these cell cycle regulators underlies neoplasia and the eventual progression to cancer in individuals who cannot resolve high‐risk HPV infection. Most work to date has focused on the study of high‐risk HPV types such as HPV 16 and 18, which has led to an understanding of the molecular pathways subverted by these viruses. Such approaches will lead to the development of better strategies for disease treatment, including targeted antivirals and immunotherapeutics. Priorities are now focused toward understanding HPV neoplasias at sites other than the cervix (e.g. tonsils, other transformation zones) and toward understanding the mechanisms by which low‐risk HPV types can sometimes give rise to papillomatosis and under certain situations even cancers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25752814

  10. Connecting Biology to Electronics: Molecular Communication via Redox Modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Jinyang; Tschirhart, Tanya; Terrell, Jessica L; Kim, Eunkyoung; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Kelly, Deanna L; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2017-12-01

    Biology and electronics are both expert at for accessing, analyzing, and responding to information. Biology uses ions, small molecules, and macromolecules to receive, analyze, store, and transmit information, whereas electronic devices receive input in the form of electromagnetic radiation, process the information using electrons, and then transmit output as electromagnetic waves. Generating the capabilities to connect biology-electronic modalities offers exciting opportunities to shape the future of biosensors, point-of-care medicine, and wearable/implantable devices. Redox reactions offer unique opportunities for bio-device communication that spans the molecular modalities of biology and electrical modality of devices. Here, an approach to search for redox information through an interactive electrochemical probing that is analogous to sonar is adopted. The capabilities of this approach to access global chemical information as well as information of specific redox-active chemical entities are illustrated using recent examples. An example of the use of synthetic biology to recognize external molecular information, process this information through intracellular signal transduction pathways, and generate output responses that can be detected by electrical modalities is also provided. Finally, exciting results in the use of redox reactions to actuate biology are provided to illustrate that synthetic biology offers the potential to guide biological response through electrical cues. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Restriction Enzymes in Microbiology, Biotechnology and Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey G. Wilson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the nineteen-seventies, a collection of simple enzymes termed Type II restriction endonucleases, made by microbes to ward off viral infections, have transformed molecular biology, spawned the multi-billion dollar Biotechnology industry, and yielded fundamental insights into the biochemistry of life, health and disease. In this article we describe how these enzymes were discovered, and we review their properties, organizations and genetics. We summarize current ideas about the mechanism underlying their remarkable ability to recognize and bind to specific base pair sequences in DNA, and we discuss why these ideas might not be correct. We conclude by proposing an alternative explanation for sequence-recognition that resolves certain inconsistencies and provides, in our view, a more satisfactory account of the mechanism.

  12. Beneficial liaisons: radiobiology meets cellular and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Mary Ann; Coleman, C. Norman

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this course is to familiarize radiation oncologists with the concepts and terminology and molecular and cellular biology that are especially relevant to radiation oncology. The ability of radiation oncologists to remain current with the new discoveries of modern biology is essential to the development of improved therapeutic strategies and, importantly, to the proper balance between investment in technology and biology. Objective: This year, this Refresher Course is part of a three-part ''series'' including Drs. Martin Brown and Amato Giaccia. The objective is to provide continuing education for the academic and practicing radiation oncologist, physicist and biologist in the modern biologic concepts of cancer and its treatment. An effort will be made to relate these general concepts to the clinic by providing a broad view as to potential new biological treatments which might enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy. The specific focus of this Course will vary from year to year. Some of the classic radiation biology models which form the basis of clinical practice and laboratory research will be examined and 'newer' models will be presented which take into account the emerging knowledge of cellular and molecular biology. A few techniques in molecular and cellular biology will be described to the extent necessary to understand their basic concepts and their applicability. Aspects of radiation biology which will be covered include cell cycle, radiation-induced changes in the cellular phenotype, and considerations of the effect of the tumor microenvironment. It is not the expectation that the attendees will become experts in the particular subjects presented. Rather, it is the intent to increase their curiosity as to the new knowledge that is emerging and to demonstrate that these seemingly complicated areas can be understood and appreciated with a modicum of the effort

  13. The identification of new substrates of human DHRS7 by molecular modeling and in vitro testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, L.; Palani, Kirubakaran; Pato, I. H.; Štambergová, H.; Vondrášek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 1 (2017), s. 171-182 ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015047 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : DHRS7 * SDR superfamily * SDR34C1 * homology modeling * molecular modeling Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.671, year: 2016

  14. “METABOLIC RIDE” a conceptual evaluation tool for metabolic biochemistry teaching for graduate and postgraduate students in biological sciences and related areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Hessel Gaeta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry as a discipline have a high degree of difficulty. Otherwise, application of creative games as teaching methodology has spread in various disciplines. "METABOLIC RIDE" board game is a conceptual and perceptual evaluation tool for biochemistry teaching, aiming to review concepts transmitted in classroom, promoting a competitive challenge to students without denying tools that are at their disposal, stimulating their skills such as their creativity. Further, it makes possible to correlate metabolic routes and their interconnections to establish that metabolic pathways are not separated, such as a railway map. In addition, this game proved to be an excellent tool for student’s complementary evaluation, which allowed to analyze the student’s perception and thus realize that when properly stimulated some groups could show a great productive and creative capacity. However, this game demonstrated to students new ways to approach complex subjects in biochemistry using creativity.

  15. Myoglobin structure and function: A multiweek biochemistry laboratory project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd P; Kirk, Sarah R; Meyer, Scott C; Holman, Karen L McFarlane

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a multiweek laboratory project in which students isolate myoglobin and characterize its structure, function, and redox state. The important laboratory techniques covered in this project include size-exclusion chromatography, electrophoresis, spectrophotometric titration, and FTIR spectroscopy. Regarding protein structure, students work with computer modeling and visualization of myoglobin and its homologues, after which they spectroscopically characterize its thermal denaturation. Students also study protein function (ligand binding equilibrium) and are instructed on topics in data analysis (calibration curves, nonlinear vs. linear regression). This upper division biochemistry laboratory project is a challenging and rewarding one that not only exposes students to a wide variety of important biochemical laboratory techniques but also ties those techniques together to work with a single readily available and easily characterized protein, myoglobin. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  17. How phenotypic plasticity made its way into molecular biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-08-03

    Aug 3, 2009 ... Phenotypic plasticity has been fashionable in recent years. It has never been absent from the studies of evolutionary biologists, although the availability of stable animal models has limited its role. Although opposed by the reductionist and deterministic approach of molecular biology, phenotypic plasticity ...

  18. A discussion of molecular biology methods for protein engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zawaira, A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of molecular biology techniques are available to generate variants from a particular start gene for eventual protein expression. The authors discuss the basic principles of these methods in a repertoire that may be used to achieve...

  19. Classical embryology to molecular biology: a personal view of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-02-24

    Feb 24, 2009 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 1. Classical embryology to molecular biology: a personal view of amphibian embryonic development. Horst Grunz. Perspectives Volume 34 Issue 1 March 2009 pp 5-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Assessing Practical Laboratory Skills in Undergraduate Molecular Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Lynne; Koenders, Annette; Gynnild, Vidar

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a new strategy of assessing laboratory skills in a molecular biology course to improve: student effort in preparation for and participation in laboratory work; valid evaluation of learning outcomes; and students' employment prospects through provision of evidence of their skills. Previously, assessment was based on written…

  1. molecular biology approach to the search for novel hiv proteases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... which could be tested in the animal models of HIV infection before subjection to clinical trials. Optimistically, the magic HIV therapeutics may be hidden in such insects and may require the application of molecular biology techniques to unravel. KEY WORDS: Antiretroviral drugs, malaria, proteases, restriction enzymes, ...

  2. Zsyntax: a formal language for molecular biology with projected applications in text mining and biological prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniolo, Giovanni; D'Agostino, Marcello; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo

    2010-03-03

    We propose a formal language that allows for transposing biological information precisely and rigorously into machine-readable information. This language, which we call Zsyntax (where Z stands for the Greek word zetaomegaeta, life), is grounded on a particular type of non-classical logic, and it can be used to write algorithms and computer programs. We present it as a first step towards a comprehensive formal language for molecular biology in which any biological process can be written and analyzed as a sort of logical "deduction". Moreover, we illustrate the potential value of this language, both in the field of text mining and in that of biological prediction.

  3. Epigenetic Regulation of Biological Rhythms: An Evolutionary Ancient Molecular Timer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Tyler J

    2017-12-05

    Biological rhythms are pervasive in nature, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern timing is far from complete. The rapidly emerging research focus on epigenetic plasticity has revealed a system that is highly dynamic and reversible. In this Opinion, I propose an epigenetic clock model that outlines how molecular modifications, such as DNA methylation, are integral components for timing endogenous biological rhythms. The hypothesis proposed is that an epigenetic clock serves to maintain the period of molecular rhythms via control over the phase of gene transcription and this timing mechanism resides in all cells, from unicellular to complex organisms. The model also provides a novel framework for the timing of epigenetic modifications during the lifespan and transgenerational inheritance of an organism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. tRNA--the golden standard in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) represent a major class of RNA molecules. Their primary function is to help decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence in order to synthesize protein and thus ensures the precise translation of genetic information that is imprinted in DNA. The discovery of tRNA in the late 1950's provided critical insight into a genetic machinery when little was known about the central dogma of molecular biology. In 1965, Robert Holley determined the first nucleotide sequence of alanine transfer RNA (tRNA(Ala)) which earned him the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Today, tRNA is one of the best described and characterized biological molecules. Here we review some of the key historical events in tRNA research which led to breakthrough discoveries and new developments in molecular biology.

  5. Dr. Earl N. Meyer, in the Lab, with a Scalpel: A Murder Mystery as a Biochemistry Recruitment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcu, Felicia; Heirwegh, Meagan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing student participation in science is an ongoing challenge for many universities. In this active learning workshop, centered on inquiry and teamwork, we introduce high-school students to biochemistry and molecular biology techniques using a murder mystery activity. During this intensive 3 hr workshop, we engage students in a murder…

  6. The Beginning of Biochemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fermentation; enzymes; catalysis; proteins; biochemistry. Author Affiliations. T Ramasarma1. INSA Honorary Scientist Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit and Department of Biochemistry Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol.

  7. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (IJBCS) is a journal published by International Formulae Group (IFG). It is devoted to the publication of contributions in all fields of biology including microbiology, parasitology, biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, physiology, pathology, health sciences, ...

  8. Time scale of diffusion in molecular and cellular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcman, D; Schuss, Z

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion is the driver of critical biological processes in cellular and molecular biology. The diverse temporal scales of cellular function are determined by vastly diverse spatial scales in most biophysical processes. The latter are due, among others, to small binding sites inside or on the cell membrane or to narrow passages between large cellular compartments. The great disparity in scales is at the root of the difficulty in quantifying cell function from molecular dynamics and from simulations. The coarse-grained time scale of cellular function is determined from molecular diffusion by the mean first passage time of molecular Brownian motion to a small targets or through narrow passages. The narrow escape theory (NET) concerns this issue. The NET is ubiquitous in molecular and cellular biology and is manifested, among others, in chemical reactions, in the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient of receptors diffusing on a neuronal cell membrane strewn with obstacles, in the quantification of the early steps of viral trafficking, in the regulation of diffusion between the mother and daughter cells during cell division, and many other cases. Brownian trajectories can represent the motion of a molecule, a protein, an ion in solution, a receptor in a cell or on its membrane, and many other biochemical processes. The small target can represent a binding site or an ionic channel, a hidden active site embedded in a complex protein structure, a receptor for a neurotransmitter on the membrane of a neuron, and so on. The mean time to attach to a receptor or activator determines diffusion fluxes that are key regulators of cell function. This review describes physical models of various subcellular microdomains, in which the NET coarse-grains the molecular scale to a higher cellular-level, thus clarifying the role of cell geometry in determining subcellular function. (topical review)

  9. International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Debra; Hibbs, Matthew; Kall, Lukas; Komandurglayavilli, Ravikumar; Mahony, Shaun; Marinescu, Voichita; Mayrose, Itay; Minin, Vladimir; Neeman, Yossef; Nimrod, Guy; Novotny, Marian; Opiyo, Stephen; Portugaly, Elon; Sadka, Tali; Sakabe, Noboru; Sarkar, Indra; Schaub, Marc; Shafer, Paul; Shmygelska, Olena; Singer, Gregory; Song, Yun; Soumyaroop, Bhattacharya; Stadler, Michael; Strope, Pooja; Su, Rong; Tabach, Yuval; Tae, Hongseok; Taylor, Todd; Terribilini, Michael; Thomas, Asha; Tran, Nam; Tseng, Tsai-Tien; Vashist, Akshay; Vijaya, Parthiban; Wang, Kai; Wang, Ting; Wei, Lai; Woo, Yong; Wu, Chunlei; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro; Yan, Changhui; Yang, Jack; Yang, Mary; Ye, Ping; Zhang, Miao

    2009-12-29

    The Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference has provided a general forum for disseminating the latest developments in bioinformatics on an annual basis for the past 13 years. ISMB is a multidisciplinary conference that brings together scientists from computer science, molecular biology, mathematics and statistics. The goal of the ISMB meeting is to bring together biologists and computational scientists in a focus on actual biological problems, i.e., not simply theoretical calculations. The combined focus on "intelligent systems" and actual biological data makes ISMB a unique and highly important meeting, and 13 years of experience in holding the conference has resulted in a consistently well organized, well attended, and highly respected annual conference. The ISMB 2005 meeting was held June 25-29, 2005 at the Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan. The meeting attracted over 1,730 attendees. The science presented was exceptional, and in the course of the five-day meeting, 56 scientific papers, 710 posters, 47 Oral Abstracts, 76 Software demonstrations, and 14 tutorials were presented. The attendees represented a broad spectrum of backgrounds with 7% from commercial companies, over 28% qualifying for student registration, and 41 countries were represented at the conference, emphasizing its important international aspect. The ISMB conference is especially important because the cultures of computer science and biology are so disparate. ISMB, as a full-scale technical conference with refereed proceedings that have been indexed by both MEDLINE and Current Contents since 1996, bridges this cultural gap.

  10. PathSys: integrating molecular interaction graphs for systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raval Alpan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of information integration in systems biology is to combine information from a number of databases and data sets, which are obtained from both high and low throughput experiments, under one data management scheme such that the cumulative information provides greater biological insight than is possible with individual information sources considered separately. Results Here we present PathSys, a graph-based system for creating a combined database of networks of interaction for generating integrated view of biological mechanisms. We used PathSys to integrate over 14 curated and publicly contributed data sources for the budding yeast (S. cerevisiae and Gene Ontology. A number of exploratory questions were formulated as a combination of relational and graph-based queries to the integrated database. Thus, PathSys is a general-purpose, scalable, graph-data warehouse of biological information, complete with a graph manipulation and a query language, a storage mechanism and a generic data-importing mechanism through schema-mapping. Conclusion Results from several test studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in retrieving biologically interesting relations between genes and proteins, the networks connecting them, and of the utility of PathSys as a scalable graph-based warehouse for interaction-network integration and a hypothesis generator system. The PathSys's client software, named BiologicalNetworks, developed for navigation and analyses of molecular networks, is available as a Java Web Start application at http://brak.sdsc.edu/pub/BiologicalNetworks.

  11. The early years of molecular biology: personal recollections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Robin

    2003-05-01

    The early years of molecular biology were characterized by a strong interaction between theory and experiment. This included the elucidation of the structure of DNA itself; genetic fine structure, recombination and repair; DNA replication; template-directed protein synthesis; the universality of the triplet genetic code, and the co-linearity of the DNA sequence of structural genes and the sequence of amino acids in proteins. The principle of co-linearity was later modified when split genes were discovered. It is suggested that accurate splicing of gene transcripts might also be template directed. In 1958 Crick proposed a 'central dogma' of molecular biology stating that information could not be transmitted from proteins to DNA. Nevertheless, proteins can chemically modify DNA, and this is now known to have strong effects on gene expression.

  12. Light-weight integration of molecular biological databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing number of molecular biological databases and the exponential growth of their contents, database integration is an important topic of research in bioinformatics. Existing approaches in this area have in common that considerable efforts are needed to provide integrated access to heterogeneous data sources. This article describes the LIMBO architecture as a light-weight approach to molecular biological database integration. By building systems upon this architecture, the efforts needed for database integration can be significantly lowered. As an illustration of the principle usefulness of the underlying ideas, a prototypical implementation based upon the LIMBO architecture is described. This implementation is exclusively based on freely available open source components like the PostgreSQL database management system and the BioRuby project. Additional files and modified components are available upon request from the author.

  13. Molecular biological factors in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Ponomareva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have made a complex analysis of the molecular biological factors associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. They have revealed that infection by oncogenic human papillomavirus types is associated with suppressed apoptosis and enhanced cellular proliferative activity, which can be effectively used in the diagnosis and prediction of cervical neoplasias to optimize management tac- tics and to improve the results of treatment.

  14. Molecular and cellular biology of small-bowel mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Paul A.; Walters, Julian R.F.

    2001-03-01

    Study of the molecular and cellular biology of the small-intestinal mucosa is providing insights into the remarkable properties of this unique tissue. With its structured pattern of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and its ability to adapt following exposure to luminal nutrients or injury from surgery or pathogens, it functions in a regulated but responsive manner. We review recent publications on factors affecting development, gene expression, cell turnover, and adaptation.

  15. Electron scattering from molecules and molecular aggregates of biological relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorfinkiel, Jimena D.; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2017-09-01

    In this Topical Review we survey the current state of the art in the study of low energy electron collisions with biologically relevant molecules and molecular clusters. We briefly describe the methods and techniques used in the investigation of these processes and summarise the results obtained so far for DNA constituents and their model compounds, amino acids, peptides and other biomolecules. The applications of the data obtained is briefly described as well as future required developments.

  16. A discussion of molecular biology methods for protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawaira, Alexander; Pooran, Anil; Barichievy, Samantha; Chopera, Denis

    2012-05-01

    A number of molecular biology techniques are available to generate variants from a particular start gene for eventual protein expression. We discuss the basic principles of these methods in a repertoire that may be used to achieve the elemental steps in protein engineering. These include site-directed, deletion and insertion mutagenesis. We provide detailed case studies, drawn from our own experiences, packaged together with conceptual discussions and include an analysis of the techniques presented with regards to their uses in protein engineering.

  17. Biochemistry (by Jochanan Stenesh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasfeld, Arthur

    1999-06-01

    Plenum: New York, 1998. Hardcover, ISBN 0 306-45732-6. 95. Paperback, ISBN 0 306 45733 4. 55 (set of 3). Solutions manual and transparencies available. According to the promotional materials accompanying this text, its intended audience is students in one-semester undergraduate biochemistry courses. At just over 500 pages, the book is shorter than the norm of well over 1000 pages. The challenge, then, is to present the subject in a coherent and compelling fashion while necessarily omitting a large fraction of the material that one normally finds in more inclusive texts. That kind of editing is obviously going to lead to squawking from some quarters, so I should put my prejudices on the table. I teach a one-semester course in biochemical structure, and I have a long-standing interest in using molecular models to explain biochemical behavior, both in research and in teaching. The editing performed by Professor Stenesh is likely to trouble someone with a structural or mechanistic background. Rather than selectively excluding some topics, Stenesh has created a table of contents that looks like it's from a much longer text. The usual chapters on biochemical structure, catalysis, metabolism and molecular genetics are included here. The ax fell elsewhere, and most obvious to my eye are the omissions of structure and chemical mechanism beyond those few chapters that are dedicated to them. A brief presentation on the structure and function of hemoglobin is given in the chapter on proteins, and the catalytic mechanism of chymotrypsin is briefly presented in the chapter on catalysis. But in chapters on metabolism, the structures of substrates and products are shown while mechanisms of conversion are omitted. For example, in the description of aldolase, we're informed that the enzyme catalyzes a reverse aldol condensation, but the reader isn't shown how the aldol condensation relates to the chemical conversion we see in the figure. (Part of the problem may be that the text

  18. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  19. A comprehensive study into the molecular methodology and molecular biology of methanogenic Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, M.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    Methanogens belong to the kingdom of Euryarchaeota in the domain of Archaea. The Archaea differ from Bacteria in many aspects important to molecular work. Among these are cell wall composition, their sensitivity to antibiotics, their translation and transcription machinery, and their very strict...... procedures. Efficient genetic manipulation systems, including shuttle and integration vector systems, have appeared for mesophilic, but not for thermophilic species within the last few years and will have a major impact on future investigations of methanogenic molecular biology....

  20. Combining content and elements of communication into an upper-level biochemistry course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Carli P; Pellock, Samuel J; Cunningham, Rebecca L; Cox, James R

    2014-01-01

    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established techniques and incorporated them into various presentations throughout the course. Three students describe their use of specific resources and how the skills learned relate to their future career. The importance and relevance of science communication are receiving unprecedented national attention. The academic scientific community must respond by incorporating more communication-centered instruction and opportunities in the classroom and laboratory. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. A semester-long project-oriented biochemistry laboratory based on Helicobacter pylori urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, Kate R; Dube, Danielle H

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the development of a 13 week project-oriented biochemistry laboratory designed to introduce students to foundational biochemical techniques and then enable students to perform original research projects once they have mastered these techniques. In particular, we describe a semester-long laboratory that focuses on a biomedically relevant enzyme--Helicobacter pylori (Hp) urease--the activity of which is absolutely required for the gastric pathogen Hp to colonize the human stomach. Over the course of the semester, students undertake a biochemical purification of Hp urease, assess the success of their purification, and investigate the activity of their purified enzyme. In the final weeks of the semester, students design and implement their own experiments to study Hp urease. This laboratory provides students with an understanding of the importance of biochemistry in human health while empowering them to engage in an active area of research. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Comprehensive experiment-clinical biochemistry: determination of blood glucose and triglycerides in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a standard clinical biochemistry exercise. The students are not only exposed to techniques and equipment but are also inspired to think more about the biochemical mechanisms of diseases. When linked with lecture topics about the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, the students obtain a better understanding of the relevance of abnormal metabolism in relation to diseases. Such understanding provides a solid foundation for the medical students' future research and for other clinical applications. © 2014 Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education.

  3. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRoche, J.; Falkowski, P.G.; Geider, R.

    1992-01-01

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies

  4. A comparative cellular and molecular biology of longevity database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jeffrey A; Liang, Ping; Luo, Xuemei; Page, Melissa M; Gallagher, Emily J; Christoff, Casey A; Robb, Ellen L

    2013-10-01

    Discovering key cellular and molecular traits that promote longevity is a major goal of aging and longevity research. One experimental strategy is to determine which traits have been selected during the evolution of longevity in naturally long-lived animal species. This comparative approach has been applied to lifespan research for nearly four decades, yielding hundreds of datasets describing aspects of cell and molecular biology hypothesized to relate to animal longevity. Here, we introduce a Comparative Cellular and Molecular Biology of Longevity Database, available at ( http://genomics.brocku.ca/ccmbl/ ), as a compendium of comparative cell and molecular data presented in the context of longevity. This open access database will facilitate the meta-analysis of amalgamated datasets using standardized maximum lifespan (MLSP) data (from AnAge). The first edition contains over 800 data records describing experimental measurements of cellular stress resistance, reactive oxygen species metabolism, membrane composition, protein homeostasis, and genome homeostasis as they relate to vertebrate species MLSP. The purpose of this review is to introduce the database and briefly demonstrate its use in the meta-analysis of combined datasets.

  5. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  6. A ten-week biochemistry lab project studying wild-type and mutant bacterial alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, D Scott

    2016-11-12

    This work describes a 10-week laboratory project studying wild-type and mutant bacterial alkaline phosphatase, in which students purify, quantitate, and perform kinetic assays on wild-type and selected mutants of the enzyme. Students also perform plasmid DNA purification, digestion, and gel analysis. In addition to simply learning important techniques, students acquire novel biochemical data in their kinetic analysis of mutant enzymes. The experiments are designed to build on students' work from week to week in a way that requires them to apply quantitative analysis and reasoning skills, reinforcing traditional textbook biochemical concepts. Students are assessed through lab reports focused on journal style writing, quantitative and conceptual question sheets, and traditional exams. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(6):555-564, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. Biogenic amines and polyamines: similar biochemistry for different physiological missions and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Miguel Angel; Urdiales, José Luis; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos; Ramírez, Francisco Javier; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca

    2003-01-01

    Biogenic amines are organic polycations derived from aromatic or cationic amino acids. All of them have one or more positive charges and a hydrophobic skeleton. Nature has evolved these molecules to play different physiological roles in mammals, but maintains similar patterns for their metabolic and intracellular handling. As deduced from this review, many questions still remain to be solved around their biochemistry and molecular biology, blocking our aims to control the relevant pathologies in which they are involved (cancer and immunological, neurological, and gastrointestinal diseases). Advances in this knowledge are dispersed among groups working on different biomedical areas. In these pages, we put together the most relevant information to remark how fruitful it can be to learn from Nature and to take advantage of the biochemical similarities (key protein structures and their regulation data on metabolic interplays and binding properties) to generate new hypothesis and develop different biomedical strategies based on biochemistry and molecular biology of these compounds.

  8. TAILOR-MADE BIOCATALYSTS: COMBINING THERMODYNAMICS, ORGANIC SYNTHESIS, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY AND MICROBIOLOGY FOR THE DESIGN OF ENZYME SELECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Jestin

    2012-09-01

    A second link was created between enzymes and their products. By making use of the chelate effect and of Inovirus particles as a chemical, affinity chromatography for the reaction product is then sufficient to isolate among 106 to 1011 proteins and their genes, the rare ones coding for catalysts of interest. The strategy for the parallel processing of information on the catalytic activity of variants from a large protein repertoire is highlighted in this review.

  9. Estimation of the Asymmetrical Arrangement of Plasma Membrane Aminophospholipids. An Experimental Assay for Students of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Yague, J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes an experiment to discover the topology of plasma membrane aminophospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine) using whole platelets and trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) as a probe. Reports changes in phospholipid distribution during platelet activation with simultaneous action of thrombia and collagen. Details the…

  10. The Experimental Teaching Reform in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology for Undergraduate Students in Peking University Health Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohan; Sun, Luyang; Zhao, Ying; Yi, Xia; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Pu; Lin, Hong; Ni, Juhua

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, second-year undergraduate students of an eight-year training program leading to a Doctor of Medicine degree or Doctor of Philosophy degree in Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC) have been required to enter the "Innovative talent training project." During that time, the students joined a research lab and…

  11. Exploring protein structure and dynamics through a project-oriented biochemistry laboratory module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipchock, James M; Ginther, Patrick S; Douglas, Bonnie B; Bird, Kelly E; Patrick Loria, J

    2017-09-01

    Here, we present a 10-week project-oriented laboratory module designed to provide a course-based undergraduate research experience in biochemistry that emphasizes the importance of biomolecular structure and dynamics in enzyme function. This module explores the impact of mutagenesis on an important active site loop for a biomedically-relevant human enzyme, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Over the course of the semester students guide their own mutant of PTP1B from conception to characterization in a cost-effective manner and gain exposure to fundamental techniques in biochemistry, including site-directed DNA mutagenesis, bacterial recombinant protein expression, affinity column purification, protein quantitation, SDS-PAGE, and enzyme kinetics. This project-based approach allows an instructor to simulate a research setting and prepare students for productive research beyond the classroom. Potential modifications to expand or contract this module are also provided. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(5):403-410, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Molecular Biology of the Photoregulator of Photosynthetic Light- Harversting Complexes in Marine Dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DINOFLAGELLATA, * MOLECULAR BIOLOGY , *PHOTOSYNTHESIS, ALGAE, CELLS, CLONES, DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACIDS, ENVIRONMENTS, GENES, LIGHT, NUTRIENTS, OCEANS, OPTICAL PROPERTIES, PHYTOPLANKTON, PRODUCTION, PROTEINS, REGULATIONS.

  13. A focus on polarity: Investigating the role of orientation cues in mediating student performance on mRNA synthesis tasks in an introductory cell and molecular biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olimpo, Jeffrey T; Quijas, Daniel A; Quintana, Anita M

    2017-11-01

    The central dogma has served as a foundational model for information flow, exchange, and storage in the biological sciences for several decades. Despite its continued importance, however, recent research suggests that novices in the domain possess several misconceptions regarding the aforementioned processes, including those pertaining specifically to the formation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcripts. In the present study, we sought to expand upon these observations through exploration of the influence of orientation cues on students' aptitude at synthesizing mRNAs from provided deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) template strands. Data indicated that participants (n = 45) were proficient at solving tasks of this nature when the DNA template strand and the mRNA molecule were represented in an antiparallel orientation. In contrast, participants' performance decreased significantly on items in which the mRNA was depicted in a parallel orientation relative to the DNA template strand. Furthermore, participants' Grade Point Average, self-reported confidence in understanding the transcriptional process, and spatial ability were found to mediate their performance on the mRNA synthesis tasks. Collectively, these data reaffirm the need for future research and pedagogical interventions designed to enhance students' comprehension of the central dogma in a manner that makes transparent its relevance to real-world scientific phenomena. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(6):501-508, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. [Molecular Biology on the Mechanisms of Autism Spectrum Disorder for Clinical Psychiatrists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinodan, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    While, in general, a certain number of clinical psychiatrists might not be familiar with molecular biology, the mechanisms of mental illnesses have been uncovered by molecular biology for decades. Among mental illnesses, even biological psychiatrists and neuroscientists have paid less attention to the biological treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia since ASD has been regarded as a developmental disorder that was seemingly untreatable. However, multifaceted methods of molecular biology have revealed the mechanisms that would lead to the medication of ASD. In this article, how molecular biology dissects the pathobiology of ASD is described in order to announce the possibilities of biological treatment for clinical psychiatrists.

  15. Lecture-free biochemistry: A Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhout, Vicky; Loertscher, Jennifer

    2007-05-01

    Biochemistry courses at Seattle University have been taught exclusively using process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) without any traditional lecture component since 1997. In these courses, students participate in a structured learning environment, which includes a preparatory assignment, an in-class activity, and a follow-up skill exercise. Instructor-designed learning activities provide the content of the course while the cooperative learning structure provides the content-free procedures that promote development of critical process skills needed for learning. This format enables students to initially explore a topic independently, work together in groups to construct and refine knowledge, and eventually develop deep understanding of the essential concepts. These stages of exploration and concept development form the foundation for application to high level biochemical problems. At the end of this course, most students report feeling confident in their knowledge of biochemistry and report substantial gains in independence, critical thinking, and respect for others. Copyright © 2007 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Dissecting the Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases through Network Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Santiago

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are rarely caused by a mutation in a single gene but rather influenced by a combination of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Emerging high-throughput technologies such as RNA sequencing have been instrumental in deciphering the molecular landscape of neurodegenerative diseases, however, the interpretation of such large amounts of data remains a challenge. Network biology has become a powerful platform to integrate multiple omics data to comprehensively explore the molecular networks in the context of health and disease. In this review article, we highlight recent advances in network biology approaches with an emphasis in brain-networks that have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s (AD, Parkinson’s (PD and Huntington’s diseases (HD. We discuss how integrative approaches using multi-omics data from different tissues have been valuable for identifying biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In addition, we discuss the challenges the field of network medicine faces toward the translation of network-based findings into clinically actionable tools for personalized medicine applications.

  17. Future directions for radiological physics: An interface with molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experiments with low energy x-rays and fast molecular ions have shown that the products of the interaction of several ionizations within a few nanometers dominate radiation effects. However, the authors still can only make assumptions about the physical and chemical nature of this initial damage. Enzymatic repair of DNA damage is another key factor, but they have little idea of what governs the success or failure (misrepair) of these processes. Unresolved problems like these dictate the future direction of radiological physics. Molecular biology techniques are being applied to determine molecular alterations which result in observed damage. Interpretation of these experiments will require new data on the physics of energy transfer to macromolecules and the stochastics of energy deposition in time. Future studies will attempt to identify the initial damage, before biological processes have amplified it. This will require a detailed understanding of the role of chromatin structure in governing gene expression, the transport of energy within macromolecules, the transport of ions and radicals in the semiordered environment near DNA strands, and many other physical characteristics within the living cell

  18. MYC Cofactors: Molecular Switches Controlling Diverse Biological Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor MYC has fundamental roles in proliferation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, and stem cell pluripotency. Over the last 30 years extensive information has been gathered on the numerous cofactors that interact with MYC and the target genes that are regulated by MYC as a means of understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling its diverse roles. Despite significant advances and perhaps because the amount of information learned about MYC is overwhelming, there has been little consensus on the molecular functions of MYC that mediate its critical biological roles. In this perspective, the major MYC cofactors that regulate the various transcriptional activities of MYC, including canonical and noncanonical transactivation and transcriptional repression, will be reviewed and a model of how these transcriptional mechanisms control MYC-mediated proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis will be presented. The basis of the model is that a variety of cofactors form dynamic MYC transcriptional complexes that can switch the molecular and biological functions of MYC to yield a diverse range of outcomes in a cell-type- and context-dependent fashion. PMID:24939054

  19. Naumovozyma castellii: an alternative model for budding yeast molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir Andersson, Ahu; Cohn, Marita

    2017-03-01

    Naumovozyma castellii (Saccharomyces castellii) is a member of the budding yeast family Saccharomycetaceae. It has been extensively used as a model organism for telomere biology research and has gained increasing interest as a budding yeast model for functional analyses owing to its amenability to genetic modifications. Owing to the suitable phylogenetic distance to S. cerevisiae, the whole genome sequence of N. castellii has provided unique data for comparative genomic studies, and it played a key role in the establishment of the timing of the whole genome duplication and the evolutionary events that took place in the subsequent genomic evolution of the Saccharomyces lineage. Here we summarize the historical background of its establishment as a laboratory yeast species, and the development of genetic and molecular tools and strains. We review the research performed on N. castellii, focusing on areas where it has significantly contributed to the discovery of new features of molecular biology and to the advancement of our understanding of molecular evolution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Proteomics in reproductive biology: beacon for unraveling the molecular complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rahul D; Balasinor, N H; Kumar, Anita V; Sachdeva, Geetanjali; Parte, Priyanka; Dumasia, Kushaan

    2013-01-01

    Proteomics, an interface of rapidly evolving advances in physics and biology, is rapidly developing and expanding its potential applications to molecular and cellular biology. Application of proteomics tools has contributed towards identification of relevant protein biomarkers that can potentially change the strategies for early diagnosis and treatment of several diseases. The emergence of powerful mass spectrometry-based proteomics technique has added a new dimension to the field of medical research in liver, heart diseases and certain forms of cancer. Most proteomics tools are also being used to study physiological and pathological events related to reproductive biology. There have been attempts to generate the proteomes of testes, sperm, seminal fluid, epididymis, oocyte, and endometrium from reproductive disease patients. Here, we have reviewed proteomics based investigations in humans over the last decade, which focus on delineating the mechanism underlying various reproductive events such as spermatogenesis, oogenesis, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, embryo development. The challenge is to harness new technologies like 2-DE, DIGE, MALDI-MS, SELDI-MS, MUDPIT, LC-MS etc., to a greater extent to develop widely applicable clinical tools in understanding molecular aspects of reproduction both in health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Organization of a radioisotope based molecular biology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized the application of molecular techniques to medicine. Together with other molecular biology techniques it is being increasingly applied to human health for identifying prognostic markers and drug resistant profiles, developing diagnostic tests and genotyping systems and for treatment follow-up of certain diseases in developed countries. Developing Member States have expressed their need to also benefit from the dissemination of molecular advances. The use of radioisotopes, as a step in the detection process or for increased sensitivity and specificity is well established, making it ideally suitable for technology transfer. Many molecular based projects using isotopes for detecting and studying micro organisms, hereditary and neoplastic diseases are received for approval every year. In keeping with the IAEA's programme, several training activities and seminars have been organized to enhance the capabilities of developing Member States to employ in vitro nuclear medicine technologies for managing their important health problems and for undertaking related basic and clinical research. The background material for this publication was collected at training activities and from feedback received from participants at research and coordination meetings. In addition, a consultants' meeting was held in June 2004 to compile the first draft of this report. Previous IAEA TECDOCS, namely IAEA-TECDOC-748 and IAEA-TECDOC-1001, focused on molecular techniques and their application to medicine while the present publication provides information on organization of the laboratory, quality assurance and radio-safety. The technology has specific requirements of the way the laboratory is organized (e.g. for avoiding contamination and false positives in PCR) and of quality assurance in order to provide accurate information to decision makers. In addition while users of the technology accept the scientific rationale of using radio

  2. Biodiversity: molecular biological domains, symbiosis and kingdom origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.

    1992-01-01

    The number of extant species of organisms is estimated to be from fewer than 3 to more than 30 x 10(6) (May, 1992). Molecular biology, comparative genetics and ultrastructural analyses provide new insights into evolutionary relationships between these species, including increasingly precise ideas of how species and higher taxa have evolved from common ancestors. Accumulation of random mutations and large macromolecular sequence change in all organisms since the Proterozoic Eon has been importantly supplemented by acquisition of inherited genomes ('symbiogenesis'). Karyotypic alterations (polyploidization and karyotypic fissioning) have been added to these other mechanisms of species origin in plants and animals during the Phanerozoic Eon. The new evolution concepts (coupled with current rapid rates of species extinction and ignorance of the extent of biodiversity) prompted this analysis of the field of systematic biology and its role in the reorganization of extant species into higher taxa. Two superkingdoms (= Domains: Prokaryotae and Eukaryotae) and five kingdoms (Monera = Procaryotae or Bacteria; Protoctista: algae, amoebae, ciliates, foraminifera, oomycetes, slime molds, etc.; Mychota: 'true' fungi; Plantae: one phylum (division) of bryophytes and nine phyla of tracheophytes; and Animalia) are recognized. Two subkingdoms comprise the monera: the great diverse lineages are Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. The criteria for classification using molecular, ultrastructural and genetic data for this scheme are mentioned. For the first time since the nineteenth century, logical, technical definitions for each group are given with their time of appearance as inferred from the fossil record in the primary scientific literature. This classification scheme, which most closely reflects the evolutionary history, molecular biology, genetics and ultrastructure of extant life, requires changes in social organization of biologists, many of whom as botanists and zoologists, still

  3. Molecular insights into the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Quinn, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) genetics has revealed some important findings. First, multiple paternity in broods is more prevalent than previously thought, and leks do not comprise kin groups. Second, the Greater Sage-Grouse is genetically distinct from the congeneric Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus). Third, the Lyon-Mono population in the Mono Basin, spanning the border between Nevada and California, has unique genetic characteristics. Fourth, the previous delineation of western (C. u. phaios) and eastern Greater Sage-Grouse (C. u. urophasianus) is not supported genetically. Fifth, two isolated populations in Washington show indications that genetic diversity has been lost due to population declines and isolation. This chapter examines the use of molecular genetics to understand the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse for the conservation and management of this species and put it into the context of avian ecology based on selected molecular studies.

  4. Research Applications of Proteolytic Enzymes in Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Tőzsér

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteolytic enzymes (also termed peptidases, proteases and proteinases are capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds in proteins. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have great medical and pharmaceutical importance due to their key role in biological processes and in the life-cycle of many pathogens. Proteases are extensively applied enzymes in several sectors of industry and biotechnology, furthermore, numerous research applications require their use, including production of Klenow fragments, peptide synthesis, digestion of unwanted proteins during nucleic acid purification, cell culturing and tissue dissociation, preparation of recombinant antibody fragments for research, diagnostics and therapy, exploration of the structure-function relationships by structural studies, removal of affinity tags from fusion proteins in recombinant protein techniques, peptide sequencing and proteolytic digestion of proteins in proteomics. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular biological aspects of proteolytic enzymes and summarize their applications in the life sciences.

  5. New approaches in mathematical biology: Information theory and molecular machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.

    1995-01-01

    My research uses classical information theory to study genetic systems. Information theory was founded by Claude Shannon in the 1940's and has had an enormous impact on communications engineering and computer sciences. Shannon found a way to measure information. This measure can be used to precisely characterize the sequence conservation at nucleic-acid binding sites. The resulting methods, by completely replacing the use of ''consensus sequences'', provide better models for molecular biologists. An excess of conservation led us to do experimental work on bacteriophage T7 promoters and the F plasmid IncD repeats. The wonderful fidelity of telephone communications and compact disk (CD) music can be traced directly to Shannon's channel capacity theorem. When rederived for molecular biology, this theorem explains the surprising precision of many molecular events. Through connections with the Second Law of Thermodyanmics and Maxwell's Demon, this approach also has implications for the development of technology at the molecular level. Discussions of these topics are held on the internet news group bionet.info-theo. (author). (Abstract only)

  6. How restriction enzymes became the workhorses of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard J

    2005-04-26

    Restriction enzymes have proved to be invaluable for the physical mapping of DNA. They offer unparalleled opportunities for diagnosing DNA sequence content and are used in fields as disparate as criminal forensics and basic research. In fact, without restriction enzymes, the biotechnology industry would certainly not have flourished as it has. The first experiments demonstrating the utility of restriction enzymes were carried out by Danna and Nathans and reported in 1971. This pioneering study set the stage for the modern practice of molecular biology in which restriction enzymes are ubiquitous tools, although they are often taken for granted.

  7. Dictionary of microbiology and molecular biology. 2nd ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, P.; Sainsbury, D.

    1988-01-01

    A newly revised edition of the standard reference for microbiology and molecular biology. Includes a multitude of new terms and designations which, although widely used in the literature, are seldom defined outside the book or paper in which they first appeared. Also accounts for the changes in the meanings of older terms brought about by advances in knowledge. Definition of all terms reflects their actual usage in current journals and texts, and also given (where appropriate) are former meanings, alternative meanings, and synonyms. Includes terms from such fields as mycology, protozoology, virology, etc.

  8. Lycium ruthenicum studies: Molecular biology, Phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanqing; Li, Jiaoning; Tao, Weiwei; Zhang, Xia; Gao, Xiaojuan; Yong, Jingjiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Liming; Li, Yongzhou; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2018-02-01

    Lycium ruthenicum has been used as ethnic medicine and nutraceutical food. Existing studies of L. ruthenicum can be classifies into three areas: (1) those in which molecular biology methods were used to study its origin, genetic variation and relationships with other species; (2) those in which phytochemical methods were used to extract, isolate, and identify compounds; and (3) those in which pharmacological methods were used to study active compounds. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of L. ruthenicum studies. This review will provide a useful bibliography for further investigations and applications of L. ruthenicum in medicines and foods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A complex systems approach to computational molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapedes, A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States)

    1993-09-01

    We report on the containing research program at Santa Fe Institute that applies complex systems methodology to computational molecular biology. Two aspects are stressed here are the use of co-evolving adaptive neutral networks for determining predictable protein structure classifications, and the use of information theory to elucidate protein structure and function. A ``snapshot`` of the current state of research in these two topics is presented, representing the present state of two major research thrusts in the program of Genetic Data and Sequence Analysis at the Santa Fe Institute.

  10. Building bridges between cellular and molecular structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Ardan; Brandt, Robert; Butcher, Sarah J; Collinson, Lucy; Gault, David; Grünewald, Kay; Hecksel, Corey; Huiskonen, Juha T; Iudin, Andrii; Jones, Martin L; Korir, Paul K; Koster, Abraham J; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Lawson, Catherine L; Mastronarde, David; McCormick, Matthew; Parkinson, Helen; Rosenthal, Peter B; Saalfeld, Stephan; Saibil, Helen R; Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Solanes Valero, Irene; Subramaniam, Sriram; Swedlow, Jason R; Tudose, Ilinca; Winn, Martyn; Kleywegt, Gerard J

    2017-07-06

    The integration of cellular and molecular structural data is key to understanding the function of macromolecular assemblies and complexes in their in vivo context. Here we report on the outcomes of a workshop that discussed how to integrate structural data from a range of public archives. The workshop identified two main priorities: the development of tools and file formats to support segmentation (that is, the decomposition of a three-dimensional volume into regions that can be associated with defined objects), and the development of tools to support the annotation of biological structures.

  11. A guide to using case-based learning in biochemistry education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, Verena; Newton, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate that the majority of students in undergraduate biochemistry take a surface approach to learning, associated with rote memorization of material, rather than a deep approach, which implies higher cognitive processing. This behavior relates to poorer outcomes, including impaired course performance and reduced knowledge retention. The use of case-based learning (CBL) into biochemistry teaching may facilitate deep learning by increasing student engagement and interest. Abundant literature on CBL exists but clear guidance on how to design and implement case studies is not readily available. This guide provides a representative review of CBL uses in science and describes the process of developing CBL modules to be used in biochemistry. Included is a framework to implement a directed CBL assisted with lectures in a content-driven biochemistry course regardless of class size. Moreover, this guide can facilitate adopting CBL to other courses. Consequently, the information presented herein will be of value to undergraduate science educators with an interest in active learning pedagogies. © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Molecular biology III - Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaccia, Amato J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this course is to introduce to radiation oncologists the basic concepts of tumorigenesis, building on the information that will be presented in the first and second part of this series of lectures. Objective: Our objective is to increase the current understanding of radiation oncologists with the process of tumorigenesis, especially focusing on genes that are altered in many tumor types that are potential candidates for novel molecular strategies. As strategies to treat cancer of cancer are becoming more sophisticated, it will be important for both the practitioner and academician to develop a basic understanding of the function of cancer 'genes'. This will be the third in a series of refresher courses that are meant to address recent advances in Cancer Biology in a way that both clinicians without previous knowledge of molecular biology or experienced researchers will find interesting. The lecture will begin with a basic overview of tumorigenesis; methods of detecting chromosome/DNA alterations, approaches used to isolate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, and their role in cell killing by apoptosis. Special attention will be given to oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that are modulated by ionizing radiation and the tumor microenvironment. We will relate the biology of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes to basic aspects of radiation biology that would be important in clinical practice. Finally, we will review recent studies on the prognostic significance of p53 mutations and apoptosis in tumor specimens. The main point of this lecture is to relate both researcher and clinician what are the therapeutic ramifications of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene mutations found in human neoptasia

  13. Working towards an exegesis for lipids in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H Alex; Murphy, Robert C

    2009-09-01

    As a field, lipidomics is in its infancy, yet it has already begun to influence lipid biochemistry in myriad ways. As with other omic technologies, the field is driven by advances in analytical chemistry, particularly by mass spectrometry. At the heart of a renaissance in lipid biochemistry, systems biology is being used to define the cellular lipome, build a comprehensive picture of metabolic interconnections, discover new molecular species and determine how lipids modulate biological functions.

  14. Galloylation of polyphenols alters their biological activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, D.; Ulrichová, J.; Valentová, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 223-240 ISSN 0278-6915 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15082; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15084; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/G163 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Polyphenols * Gallic acid * Galloylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016

  15. The molecular mass of dextran used to modify magnetite nanoparticles affects insulin amyloid aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sipošová, K.; Pospíšková, K.; Bednáriková, Z.; Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Kubovčíková, M.; Kopčanský, P.; Gázová, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 427, April (2017), s. 48-53 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : amyloid aggregation * nanoparticles * magnetic fluid * dextran * insulin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2016

  16. Errant life, molecular biology, and biopower: Canguilhem, Jacob, and Foucault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talcott, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the theoretical circumstances that urged Michel Foucault to analyse modern societies in terms of biopower. Georges Canguilhem's account of the relations between science and the living forms an essential starting point for Foucault's own later explorations, though the challenges posed by the molecular revolution in biology and François Jacob's history of it allowed Foucault to extend and transform Canguilhem's philosophy of error. Using archival research into his 1955-1956 course on "Science and Error," I show that, for Canguilhem, it is inauthentic to treat a living being as an error, even if living things are capable of making errors in the domain of knowledge. The emergent molecular biology in the 1960s posed a grave challenge, however, since it suggested that individuals could indeed be errors of genetic reproduction. The paper discusses how Canguilhem and Foucault each responded to this by examining, among other texts, their respective reviews of Jacob's The Logic of the Living. For Canguilhem this was an opportunity to reaffirm the creativity of life in the living individual, which is not a thing to be evaluated, but the source of values. For Foucault, drawing on Jacob's work, this was the opportunity to develop a transformed account of valuation by posing biopower as the DNA of society. Despite their disagreements, the paper examines these three authors as different iterations of a historical epistemology attuned to errancy, error, and experimentation.

  17. Obstructive renal injury: from fluid mechanics to molecular cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro C Ucero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Alvaro C Ucero1,*, Sara Gonçalves2,*, Alberto Benito-Martin1, Beatriz Santamaría1, Adrian M Ramos1, Sergio Berzal1, Marta Ruiz-Ortega1, Jesus Egido1, Alberto Ortiz11Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Fundación Renal Iñigo Alvarez de Toledo, Madrid, Spain; 2Nefrologia e Transplantação Renal, Hospital de Santa Maria EPE, Lisbon, Portugal *Both authors contributed equally to the manuscriptAbstract: Urinary tract obstruction is a frequent cause of renal impairment. The physiopathology of obstructive nephropathy has long been viewed as a mere mechanical problem. However, recent advances in cell and systems biology have disclosed a complex physiopathology involving a high number of molecular mediators of injury that lead to cellular processes of apoptotic cell death, cell injury leading to inflammation and resultant fibrosis. Functional studies in animal models of ureteral obstruction using a variety of techniques that include genetically modified animals have disclosed an important role for the renin-angiotensin system, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and other mediators of inflammation in this process. In addition, high throughput techniques such as proteomics and transcriptomics have identified potential biomarkers that may guide clinical decision-making.Keywords: urinary tract obstruction, renal injury, fluid mechanics, molecular cell biology

  18. The isolated Leptospira Spp. Identification by molecular biological techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangjai Suwancharoen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacteria of Leptospira spp. Identification of this bacterium relies on serotyping and genotyping. Data base for animal causative serovars in Thailand is limited. As the unknown serovars are found in the laboratory, they need to be sent overseas for referent identification. To reduce the cost, this research intended to develop a leptospiral identification method which is user–friendly and able to classify efficiently. Ten Leptospira isolations were cultured from urine samples. They were identified by three molecular biological techniques, including Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE, Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST. These methods were developed and compared to find the most suitable one for leptospiral identification. VNTR was found to be inappropriate since it could not identify the agents and it did not show the PCR product. PFGE and MLST gave the same results of the unknown 1 and 2 which were L.weilii sv Samin st Samin. Unknown 4 showed different results by each technique. Unknown 5 to 10 were likely to be L.meyeri sv Ranarum st ICF and Leptonema illini sv Illini st 3055 by PFGE but MLST could not identify the serovar. However, molecular biological technique for Leptospira identification should be done by several methods in order to confirm the result of each other.

  19. Biochemistry of Tungstoenzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, E.

    2007-01-01

    The cell uses a variety of transition metals to provide greater catalytic diversity than could be achieved using only the functional groups of amino acids. The biochemistry of molybdenum and tungsten is unusual: they are the only 4d and 5d metal ions with established biological role(s). This thesis

  20. There is No Overkill in Biochemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 12. There is No Overkill in Biochemistry - Har Gobind Khorana, a Pioneer in Membrane Biology. Sadashiva Karnik Sriram Subramaniam. General Article Volume 17 Issue 12 December 2012 pp 1157-1164 ...

  1. Molecular Biology of Insect Sodium Channels and Pyrethroid Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Du, Yuzhe; Rinkevich, Frank; Nomura, Yoshiko; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lingxin; Silver, Kristopher; Zhorov, Boris S.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the initiation and propagation of the action potential in neurons and other excitable cells. Because of their critical roles in electrical signaling, sodium channels are targets of a variety of naturally occurring and synthetic neurotoxins, including several classes of insecticides. This review is intended to provide an update on the molecular biology of insect sodium channels and the molecular mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Although mammalian and insect sodium channels share fundamental topological and functional properties, most insect species carry only one sodium channel gene, compared to multiple sodium channel genes found in each mammalian species. Recent studies showed that two posttranscriptional mechanisms, alternative splicing and RNA editing, are involved in generating functional diversity of sodium channels in insects. More than 50 sodium channel mutations have been identified to be responsible for or associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Elucidation of molecular mechanism of kdr led to the identification of dual receptor sites of pyrethroids on insect sodium channels. Most of the kdr mutations appear to be located within or close to the two receptor sites. The accumulating knowledge of insect sodium channels and their interactions with insecticides provides a foundation for understanding the neurophysiology of sodium channels in vivo and the development of new and safer insecticides for effective control of arthropod pests and human disease vectors. PMID:24704279

  2. Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rietman Edward A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer.

  3. Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, Edward A; Karp, Robert L; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2011-06-22

    In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer.

  4. Detection of biological threats. A challenge for directed molecular evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Valery A; Sorokulova, Iryna B

    2004-08-01

    The probe technique originated from early attempts of Anton van Leeuwenhoek to contrast microorganisms under the microscope using plant juices, successful staining of tubercle bacilli with synthetic dyes by Paul Ehrlich and discovery of a stain for differentiation of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by Hans Christian Gram. The technique relies on the principle that pathogens have unique structural features, which can be recognized by specifically labeled organic molecules. A hundred years of extensive screening efforts led to discovery of a limited assortment of organic probes that are used for identification and differentiation of bacteria. A new challenge--continuous monitoring of biological threats--requires long lasting molecular probes capable of tight specific binding of pathogens in unfavorable conditions. To respond to the challenge, probe technology is being revolutionized by utilizing methods of combinatorial chemistry, phage display and directed molecular evolution. This review describes how molecular evolution methods are applied for development of peptide, antibody and phage probes, and summarizes the author's own data on development of landscape phage probes against Salmonella typhimurium. The performance of the probes in detection of Salmonella is illustrated by a precipitation test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescent, optical and electron microscopy.

  5. Advances in the cellular and molecular biology of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, Stuart; Bicknell, Roy

    2011-12-01

    Capillaries have been recognized for over a century as one of the most important components in regulating tissue oxygen transport, and their formation or angiogenesis a pivotal element of tissue remodelling during development and adaptation. Clinical interest stems from observations that both excessive and inadequate vascular growth plays a major role in human diseases, and novel developments in treatments for cancer and eye disease increasingly rely on anti-angiogenic therapies. Although the discovery of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) provided the first clue for specificity of signalling in endothelial cell activation, understanding the integrative response that drives angiogenesis requires a much broader perspective. The Advances in the Cellular and Molecular Biology of Angiogenesis meeting brought together researchers at the forefront of this rapidly moving field to provide an update on current understanding, and the most recent insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms of vascular growth. The plenary lecture highlighted the integrative nature of the angiogenic process, whereas invited contributions from basic and clinician scientists described fundamental mechanisms and disease-associated issues of blood vessel formation, grouped under a number of themes to aid discussion. These articles will appeal to academic, clinical and pharmaceutical scientists interested in the molecular and cellular basis of angiogenesis, their modulation or dysfunction in human diseases, and application of these findings towards translational medicine.

  6. Update in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: providing alternative for Sciences and Biology Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of the Coordination of Education and Dissemination of CBME is to contribute for the dissemination and the learning in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology in  all the educational levels. Thus, composing one of our actions in 2007, a course of update in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology directed to 21 teachers of Sciences and Biology of São Carlos (SP, Brazil was carried through, totalizing 24 hours. In one of the meetings, we presented the techniques involving restriction enzymes, gel electrophoresis and its applications, followed of an experimental activity. Also we constructed and  considered the use, for the teachers, of a macroscopic model of a gel box that would represent the displacement of DNA fragments. After that a written questionnaire was used to evaluate the importance attributed for the teachers to the subject, the possibilities of didactic transposition, as well as their interests for other activities that would deal this thematic at great length. From this,  we registered that the 93% of the teachers showed interest in the subject, considering it important and also, 79% of them affirmed to have possibility of didactic transposition of this subject after they have experienced the course. On the other hand, 86% of the teachers did not work the subject in their classes , amongst which 50% for the lack of time or not enough preparation. Therefore, the data suggest that the course had an impact on the vision of the teachers concerning the alternatives to include the subject Molecular Biology and Biotechnology in their curricular planning.

  7. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (IJBCS) is a journal published by International Formulae Group (IFG). It is devoted to the publication of contributions in all fields of biology including microbiology, parasitology, biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, physiology, ...

  8. Transmission electron microscopy in molecular structural biology: A historical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J Robin

    2015-09-01

    In this personal, historic account of macromolecular transmission electron microscopy (TEM), published data from the 1940s through to recent times is surveyed, within the context of the remarkable progress that has been achieved during this time period. The evolution of present day molecular structural biology is described in relation to the associated biological disciplines. The contribution of numerous electron microscope pioneers to the development of the subject is discussed. The principal techniques for TEM specimen preparation, thin sectioning, metal shadowing, negative staining and plunge-freezing (vitrification) of thin aqueous samples are described, with a selection of published images to emphasise the virtues of each method. The development of digital image analysis and 3D reconstruction is described in detail as applied to electron crystallography and reconstructions from helical structures, 2D membrane crystals as well as single particle 3D reconstruction of icosahedral viruses and macromolecules. The on-going development of new software, algorithms and approaches is highlighted before specific examples of the historical progress of the structural biology of proteins and viruses are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene amplification by PCR and subcloning into a GFP-fusion plasmid expression vector as a molecular biology laboratory course*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Joshua A; Deibel, Michael A; Mulnix, Amy B

    2004-05-01

    A novel experimental sequence for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course has been developed at Earlham College. Utilizing recent improvements in molecular techniques for a time-sensitive environment, undergraduates were able to create a chimera of a selected gene and green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a bacterial expression plasmid over the course of a single semester in a weekly 3-h laboratory period. Students designed PCR primers for amplification of the selected gene using computational DNA sequence analysis tools. During the experimental portion of the course, students amplified and ligated the target DNA into a commercially available GFP expression vector. Following transformation of the ligation product, plasmids were harvested from the resulting bacterial colonies and were analyzed by restriction digestion to confirm the creation of the chimeric GFP-DNA. This course gave students valuable experience with commonly used molecular techniques in an authentic research project. In addition, students gained experience with experimental design and execution. The techniques presented here are flexible and can be generalized for use with almost any DNA sequence and expression vector. This series also serves as an example of how faculty can adapt their ongoing research projects to the undergraduate laboratory. Copyright © 2004 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. The emerging molecular biology toolbox for the study of long noncoding RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Ezio T; Scholefield, Janine; Fanucchi, Stephanie; Mhlanga, Musa M

    2017-10-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in many biological processes. However, due to the unique nature of lncRNAs and the consequential difficulties associated with their characterization, there is a growing disparity between the rate at which lncRNAs are being discovered and the assignment of biological function to these transcripts. Here we present a molecular biology toolbox equipped to help dissect aspects of lncRNA biology and reveal functionality. We outline an approach that begins with a broad survey of genome-wide, high-throughput datasets to identify potential lncRNA candidates and then narrow the focus on specific methods that are well suited to interrogate the transcripts of interest more closely. This involves the use of imaging-based strategies to validate these candidates and observe the behaviors of these transcripts at single molecule resolution in individual cells. We also describe the use of gene editing tools and interactome capture techniques to interrogate functionality and infer mechanism, respectively. With the emergence of lncRNAs as important molecules in healthy and diseased cellular function, it remains crucial to deepen our understanding of their biology.

  11. Molecular profile of 5-fluorouracil pathway genes in colorectal carcinoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunická, T.; Procházka, Pavel; Krus, I.; Bendová, Petra; Protivová, M.; Susová, S.; Hlaváč, V.; Liška, V.; Novák, P.; Schneiderová, M.; Pitule, P.; Bruha, J.; Vyčítal, O.; Vodička, Pavel; Souček, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, oct (2017), s. 795 ISSN 1471-2407 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT14329; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1585 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : colorectal carcinoma * 5-fluorouracil * methylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.288, year: 2016

  12. Tick-Pathogen Ensembles: Do Molecular Interactions Lead Ecological Innovation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Estrada-Peňa, A.; Rego, Ryan O. M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, 13 March (2017), č. článku 74. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-pathogen interactions * transcriptional reprogramming * epigenetics * ecological adaptation * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  13. Biochemistry on the Media: daily science in audio and video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Melo et al

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry on the Media: daily science in audio and video Melo,B. P1; Henriques, L. R1; Júnior, H. G2; Galvão, G. R2; Costa, M. M2; Silva, A. S3; Costa, M. P3; Barreto, L. P3; Almeida, A. A3; Fontes, P. P3; Meireles, L. M3; Costa, P. A3; Costa, C. B3; Monteiro, L. M. O3 Konig, I. M3; Dias, B. K. M1; Santos, R. C. V1; Bagno, F. F1; Fernandes, L1; Alves, P. R1; Sales, F. M1; Martins, T. C. N1; Moreira, V. J. V1; Marchiori, J. M1; Medeiros, L.4; Leite, J. P. V5; Moraes, G. H. K6.   1 Members of ETP-Biochemistry UFV; 2 Students of program Jovens Talentos para a Ciência UFV; 3 Graduating Students of ETP; 4 Coordinator in Espaço Ciência UFV; 5 Pharmaceutical, professor at Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Department (BBD UFV, ETP’s tutor; 6 Agronomist, professor at BDD, work’s advisor.   INTRODUCTION: The Educational Tutorial Program in Biochemistry (ETP from UFV have worked in qualification of basic science teachers, offering courses about Biochemistry. In courses, was detected the necessity of a personal material to inspire them. To do it, ETP compiled some media spots in a box and have used it in qualification courses. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this work was construct a part of a permanent material to be used in courses to qualifications high school's teachers and evaluate it. METODOLOGY: Applying questionnaires to high school students, ETP's members had detected that these students don't have a solid idea about how is Biochemistry. Thus, themes about common Biochemistry daily things were elected to be transformed in spots to radio and television. Texts about shampoo composition, vegetable’s darkening, bread’s fermentation, etc, were written and a script done by Journalism’s students of Espaço Ciência(*. Finally, the spots were recorded and vehiculated on universitary channel. In 2013, the spots were compiled in a media box. It has been included in a permanent material used in qualification courses. According to ALBAGLI

  14. Biologia molecular aplicada às dermatoses tropicais Molecular biology in tropical dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Roselino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados conceitos básicos sobre célula, código genético e síntese protéica, e sobre algumas técnicas de biologia molecular, tais como PCR, PCR-RFLP, seqüenciamento de DNA, RT-PCR e immunoblotting. São fornecidos protocolos de extração de nucleotídeos e de proteínas, como salting out no sangue periférico e métodos do fenol-clorofórmio e do trizol em tecidos. Seguem-se exemplos comentados da aplicação de técnicas de biologia molecular para o diagnóstico etiológico e pesquisa em dermatoses tropicais, com ênfase na leishmaniose tegumentar americana e hanseníase.Initially, basic concepts are presented concerning the cell, genetic code and protein synthesis, and some techniques of molecular biology, such as PCR, PCR-RFLP, DNA sequencing, RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Protocols of nucleotides and of proteins extraction are supplied, such as salting out in peripheral blood allied to phenol-chloroform and trizol methods in skin samples. To proceed, commented examples of application of those techniques of molecular biology for the etiologic diagnosis and for research in tropical dermatoses, with emphasis to American tegumentary leishmaniasis and leprosy are presented.

  15. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer: translating molecular biology approaches into the clinical realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Grimm, Jan; F Donati, Olivio; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. • Advanced imaging techniques allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions in prostate cancer. • MRI/PET, optical and Cerenkov imaging facilitate the translation of molecular biology. • Multiple compounds targeting PSMA expression are currently undergoing clinical translation. • Other targets (e.g., PSA, prostate-stem cell antigen, GRPR) are in development.

  16. Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study of an Antibiotic-Sensing Noncoding RNA Integrated into a One-Semester Project-Based Biochemistry Lab Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerczei, Timea

    2017-01-01

    A laboratory sequence is described that is suitable for upper-level biochemistry or molecular biology laboratories that combines project-based and traditional laboratory experiments. In the project-based sequence, the individual laboratory experiments are thematically linked and aim to show how a bacterial antibiotic sensing noncoding RNA (the…

  17. Biología molecular y cáncer de tiroides Molecular biology and thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cassola Santana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una revisión actualizada sobre aspectos de biología molecular que servirán de base al cirujano actuante para un mejor conocimiento del cáncer tiroideo. El objetivo radica en alertar a los cirujanos sobre las nuevas evaluaciones a las que podrán someterse los tumores de la tiroides, que implicarán cambios en toda la gama de conductas actuales en estos casos. Se señalan aspectos que sin duda cambiarán los conceptos que se manejan hoy día.A updating review is carry out on the features of molecular biology as a basis for acting surgeon to a better knowledge of thyroid cancer. The objective is to alert surgeons on the new assessments for this type of cancer, implicating changes in all the range of current behaviors in these cases. The features that will change the nowadays concepts in this respect.

  18. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Analogs Clicked in the C Domain: Chemical Synthesis and Biological Activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčková, Kateřina; Collinsová, Michaela; Chrudinová, Martina; Selicharová, Irena; Pícha, Jan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Vaněk, Václav; Žáková, Lenka; Brzozowski, A. M.; Jiráček, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 24 (2017), s. 10105-10117 ISSN 0022-2623 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : IGF-1 * receptor * synthesis * triazole Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 6.259, year: 2016 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b01331

  19. A Freshman Biochemistry Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toma, Francis J.; Campbell, Mary K.

    1982-01-01

    A one-semester biochemistry course was developed as an alternative to traditional freshman chemistry. Lecture topics and laboratory exercises focus on the course's unifying theme of the origin and early stages of the evolution of life on earth. (Author/SK)

  20. Exploiting Molecular Biology by Time-Resolved Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Francis; Fattinger, Christof

    Many contemporary biological investigations rely on highly sensitive in vitro assays for the analysis of specific molecules in biological specimens, and the main part of these assays depends on high-sensitivity fluorescence detection techniques for the final readout. The analyzed molecules and molecular interactions in the specimen need to be detected in the presence of other highly abundant biomolecules, while the analyzed molecules themselves are only present at nano-, pico-, or even femtomolar concentration.A short scientific rationale of fluorescence is presented. It emphasizes the use of fluorescent labels for sensitive assays in life sciences and specifies the main properties of an ideal fluorophore. With fluorescence lifetimes in the microsecond range and fluorescence quantum yield of 0.4 some water soluble complexes of Ruthenium like modified Ru(sulfobathophenanthroline) complexes fulfill these properties. They are outstanding fluorescent labels for ultrasensitive assays as illustrated in two examples, in drug discovery and in point of care testing.We discuss the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of the most sensitive time-gated fluorescence assays. We reflect on how the imaging devices currently employed for readout of these assays might evolve in the future. Many contemporary biological investigations rely on highly sensitive in vitro assays for the analysis of specific molecules in biological specimens, and the main part of these assays depends on high-sensitivity fluorescence detection techniques for the final readout. The analyzed molecules and molecular interactions in the specimen need to be detected in the presence of other highly abundant biomolecules, while the analyzed molecules themselves are only present at nano-, pico-, or even femtomolar concentration.A short scientific rationale of fluorescence is presented. It emphasizes the use of fluorescent labels for sensitive assays in life sciences and specifies the main properties of an ideal

  1. Artificial intelligence in molecular biology: a review and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, C J; Fox, J P

    1994-06-29

    Over the past ten years, molecular biologists and computer scientists have experimented with various computational methods developed in artificial intelligence (AI). AI research has yielded a number of novel technologies, which are typified by an emphasis on symbolic (non-numerical) programming methods aimed at problems which are not amenable to classical algorithmic solutions. Prominent examples include knowledge-based and expert systems, qualitative simulation and artificial neural networks and other automated learning techniques. These methods have been applied to problems in data analysis, construction of advanced databases and modelling of biological systems. Practical results are now being obtained, notably in the recognition of active genes in genomic sequences, the assembly of physical and genetic maps and protein structure prediction. This paper outlines the principal methods, surveys the findings to date, and identifies the promising trends and current limitations.

  2. PGD for monogenic disorders: aspects of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spits, Claudia; Sermon, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for monogenic diseases has known a considerable evolution since its first application in the early 1990s. Especially the technical aspects of the genetic diagnosis itself, the single-cell genetic analysis, has constantly evolved to reach levels of accuracy and efficiency nearing those of genetic diagnosis on regular DNA samples. In this review, we will focus on the molecular biological techniques that are currently in use in the most advanced centers for PGD for monogenic disorders, including multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and post-PCR diagnostic methods, whole genome amplification (WGA) and multiple displacement amplification (MDA). As it becomes more and more clear that when it comes to ethically difficult indications, PGD goes further than prenatal diagnosis (PND), we will also briefly discuss ethical issues. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Biomarkers of Aging: From Function to Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Wagner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a major risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional impairments. Within a homogeneous age sample there is a considerable variation in the extent of disease and functional impairment risk, revealing a need for valid biomarkers to aid in characterizing the complex aging processes. The identification of biomarkers is further complicated by the diversity of biological living situations, lifestyle activities and medical treatments. Thus, there has been no identification of a single biomarker or gold standard tool that can monitor successful or healthy aging. Within this short review the current knowledge of putative biomarkers is presented, focusing on their application to the major physiological mechanisms affected by the aging process including physical capability, nutritional status, body composition, endocrine and immune function. This review emphasizes molecular and DNA-based biomarkers, as well as recent advances in other biomarkers such as microRNAs, bilirubin or advanced glycation end products.

  4. The molecular biology of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Julia C; Lever, Andrew M L

    2011-11-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is widespread in feline populations and causes an AIDS-like illness in domestic cats. It is highly prevalent in several endangered feline species. In domestic cats FIV infection is a valuable small animal model for HIV infection. In recent years there has been sa significant increase in interest in FIV, in part to exploit this, but also because of the potential it has as a human gene therapy vector. Though much less studied than HIV there are many parallels in the replication of the two viruses, but also important differences and, despite their likely common origin, the viruses have in some cases used alternative strategies to overcome similar problems. Recent advances in understanding the structure and function of FIV RNA and proteins and their interactions has enhanced our knowledge of FIV replication significantly, however, there are still many gaps. This review summarizes our current knowledge of FIV molecular biology and its similarities with, and differences from, other lentiviruses.

  5. Role of Molecular Biology in Cancer Treatment: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Aman; Qamar, Hafiza Yasara; Ali, Qurban; Naeem, Hafsa; Riaz, Mariam; Amin, Saima; Kanwal, Naila; Ali, Fawad; Sabar, Muhammad Farooq; Nasir, Idrees Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease and mainly arises due to a number of reasons include activation of onco-genes, malfunction of tumor suppressor genes or mutagenesis due to external factors. This article was written from the data collected from PubMed, Nature, Science Direct, Springer and Elsevier groups of journals. Oncogenes are deregulated form of normal proto-oncogenes required for cell division, differentiation and regulation. The conversion of proto-oncogene to oncogene is caused due to translocation, rearrangement of chromosomes or mutation in gene due to addition, deletion, duplication or viral infection. These oncogenes are targeted by drugs or RNAi system to prevent proliferation of cancerous cells. There have been developed different techniques of molecular biology used to diagnose and treat cancer, including retroviral therapy, silencing of oncogenes and mutations in tumor suppressor genes. Among all the techniques used, RNAi, zinc finger nucleases and CRISPR hold a brighter future towards creating a Cancer Free World.

  6. [Etiologic diagnosis in meningitis and encephalitis molecular biology techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conca, Natalia; Santolaya, María Elena; Farfan, Mauricio J; Cofré, Fernanda; Vergara, Alejandra; Salazar, Liliana; Torres, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The aetiological study of infections of the central nervous system has traditionally been performed using bacterial cultures and, more recently, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpes simplex virus (HSV). Bacterial cultures may not have good performance, especially in the context of patients who have received antibiotics prior to sampling, and a request for HSV only by PCR reduces the information to only one aetiological agent. The aim of this study is to determine the infectious causes of meningitis and encephalitis, using traditional microbiology and molecular biology to improve the aetiological diagnosis of these diseases. A prospective study was conducted on 19 patients with suspected meningitis, admitted to the Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital in Santiago, Chile, from March 1, 2011 to March 30, 2012. After obtaining informed consent, the CSF samples underwent cytochemical study, conventional culture, multiplex PCR for the major producing bacterial meningitis (N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae), real-time single PCR for HSV-1 and 2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6 and enterovirus. Clinical and epidemiological data were also collected from the clinical records. Of the 19 patients analysed, 2 were diagnosed by conventional methods and 7 by adding molecular biology (increase to 37%). Three patients had meningitis due to S. pneumoniae, one due to Enterobacter cloacae, 2 patients meningoencephalitis HSV-1, and one VZV meningitis. The addition of PCR to conventional diagnostic methods in CNS infections increases the probability of finding the causal agent. This allows a more adequate, timely and rational management of the disease. Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. Molecular and biological characterization of equine infectious anemia virus Rev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Susan; Dobbs, Drena

    2010-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is one of the most divergent members of the lentivirus subfamily of retroviruses and is considered a useful comparative model for molecular studies of lentivirus replication. The Rev protein of EIAV is functionally homologous with other lentiviral Revs and facilitates export of incompletely spliced viral mRNAs through a Crm1-dependent pathway. The trans- and cis-acting elements that mediate EIAV Rev function are similar to, but distinct from, the well-characterized elements in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), the prototypical Rev protein. In addition, the EIAV rev sequence is highly variable in vivo, and changes in Rev phenotype correlate with changes in clinical stages of EIAV infection. This review summarizes the molecular biology of EIAV Rev-RRE interactions and the consequences of Rev variation in vivo. A comparative perspective of Rev activity may enhance understanding of an essential lentiviral protein and stimulate new strategies for treatment and prevention of lentivirus infections in vivo.

  8. Molecular toolbox for studying diatom biology in Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaut, Magali; Heijde, Marc; Mangogna, Manuela; Montsant, Anton; Coesel, Sacha; Allen, Andrew; Manfredonia, Alessandro; Falciatore, Angela; Bowler, Chris

    2007-12-30

    Research into diatom biology has now entered the post-genomics era, following the recent completion of the Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum whole genome sequences and the establishment of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) databases. The thorough exploitation of these resources will require the development of molecular tools to analyze and modulate the function of diatom genes in vivo. Towards this objective, we report here the identification of several reference genes that can be used as internal standards for gene expression studies by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in P. tricornutum cells grown over a diel cycle. In addition, we describe a series of diatom expression vectors based on Invitrogen Gateway technology for high-throughput protein tagging and overexpression studies in P. tricornutum. We demonstrate the utility of the diatom Destination vectors for determining the subcellular localization of a protein of interest and for immunodetection. The availability of these new resources significantly enriches the molecular toolbox for P. tricornutum and provides the diatom research community with well defined high-throughput methods for the analysis of diatom genes and proteins in vivo.

  9. Molecular biological aspects on canine and human mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, P; von Euler, H

    2011-01-01

    The high incidence of mammary tumor disease reported in certain canine breeds suggests a significant genetic component, as has already been described in human familial breast cancer-in BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast cancer in particular. The identification of genetic risk factors is critical to improvements in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors. In recent years, there has been significant progress in developing the tools and reagents necessary to analyze the canine genome. This work has culminated in a high-quality draft genome sequence, as well as a single-nucleotide polymorphism map and single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays for genomewide association analysis. These tools provide an unprecedented opportunity to characterize the genetic influences in canine diseases such as cancer, eventually allowing for exploration of more effective therapies. Given the high homology between the canine genome sequence and its human counterpart--as well as the many similarities regarding the morphology, biological behavior, and clinical course of mammary tumors in both species--the dog has proven to be an excellent comparative model. This review highlights the comparative aspects regarding certain areas within molecular biology, and it discusses future perspectives. The findings in larger genomewide association analyses and cDNA expression arrays are described, and the BRCA1/BRCA2 complex is compared in detail between the 2 species.

  10. Molecular Sociology: Further Insights from Biological and Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahed Jumah Mahmoud Al-Khatib

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study expanded our previous study in which features of molecular sociology were mentioned. In this study, we added the microbial dimensions in which it is thought that religiosity may be impacted by microbes that manipulate brains to create better conditions for their existence. This hypothesis is called “biomeme hypothesis”. We talked about other environmental impacts on human behaviors through three studies in which exposure to lead caused violent behaviors ending with arresting in prisons. By conclusion, the present study has expanded our horizon about interferences on various levels including biological and environmental impacts with our behaviors. Although we are convinced that behavior is a very diverse and complex phenomenon and cannot be understood within certain frame as either biologically or environmentally, but further new insights are possible to participate in better understanding of human behaviors. Many behaviors have their roots in religion, and we showed how religious rituals may be affected by some microbes that make to form a microenvironment within the host for microbial benefits.

  11. Embryology meets molecular biology: Deciphering the apical ectodermal ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyden, Jamie M; Sun, Xin

    2017-09-15

    More than sixty years ago, while studying feather tracks on the shoulder of the chick embryo, Dr. John Saunders used Nile Blue dye to stain the tissue. There, he noticed a darkly stained line of cells that neatly rims the tip of the growing limb bud. Rather than ignoring this observation, he followed it up by removing this tissue and found that it led to a striking truncation of the limb skeletons. This landmark experiment marks the serendipitous discovery of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), the quintessential embryonic structure that drives the outgrowth of the limb. Dr. Saunders continued to lead the limb field for the next fifty years, not just through his own work, but also by inspiring the next generation of researchers through his infectious love of science. Together, he and those who followed ushered in the discovery of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) as the AER molecule. The seamless marriage of embryology and molecular biology that led to the decoding of the AER serves as a shining example of how discoveries are made for the rest of the developmental biology field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Teaching of Biochemistry: An Innovative Course Sequence Based on the Logic of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Henry V.; Owen, Whyte G.

    1998-06-01

    An innovative course sequence for the teaching of biochemistry is offered, which more truly reflects the common philosophy found in biochemistry texts: that the foundation of biological phenomena can best be understood through the logic of chemistry. Topic order is chosen to develop an emerging understanding that is based on chemical principles. Preeminent biological questions serve as a framework for the course. Lipid and lipid-aggregate structures are introduced first, since it is more logical to discuss the intermolecular association of simple amphiphiles to form micelle and bilayer formations than to discuss the complexities of protein structure/folding. Protein, nucleic acid, and carbohydrate structures are studied next. Binding, a noncovalent process and the simplest expression of macromolecular function, follows. The physical (noncovalent) transport of solute molecules across a biological membrane is studied next, followed by the chemical transformation of substrates by enzymes. These are logical extensions of the expression of molecular function, first involving a simpler (physical transport) and second, a more complex (covalent transformation) process. The final sequence involves energy and signal transduction. This unique course sequence emerges naturally when chemical logic is used as an organizing paradigm for structuring a biochemistry course. Traditional order, which seems to reflect historic trends in research, or even an order derived from the central dogma of biology can not provide this logical framework.

  13. Mathematical biology modules based on modern molecular biology and modern discrete mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeva, Raina; Davies, Robin; Hodge, Terrell; Enyedi, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We describe an ongoing collaborative curriculum materials development project between Sweet Briar College and Western Michigan University, with support from the National Science Foundation. We present a collection of modules under development that can be used in existing mathematics and biology courses, and we address a critical national need to introduce students to mathematical methods beyond the interface of biology with calculus. Based on ongoing research, and designed to use the project-based-learning approach, the modules highlight applications of modern discrete mathematics and algebraic statistics to pressing problems in molecular biology. For the majority of projects, calculus is not a required prerequisite and, due to the modest amount of mathematical background needed for some of the modules, the materials can be used for an early introduction to mathematical modeling. At the same time, most modules are connected with topics in linear and abstract algebra, algebraic geometry, and probability, and they can be used as meaningful applied introductions into the relevant advanced-level mathematics courses. Open-source software is used to facilitate the relevant computations. As a detailed example, we outline a module that focuses on Boolean models of the lac operon network.

  14. Mathematical Biology Modules Based on Modern Molecular Biology and Modern Discrete Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Robin; Hodge, Terrell; Enyedi, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We describe an ongoing collaborative curriculum materials development project between Sweet Briar College and Western Michigan University, with support from the National Science Foundation. We present a collection of modules under development that can be used in existing mathematics and biology courses, and we address a critical national need to introduce students to mathematical methods beyond the interface of biology with calculus. Based on ongoing research, and designed to use the project-based-learning approach, the modules highlight applications of modern discrete mathematics and algebraic statistics to pressing problems in molecular biology. For the majority of projects, calculus is not a required prerequisite and, due to the modest amount of mathematical background needed for some of the modules, the materials can be used for an early introduction to mathematical modeling. At the same time, most modules are connected with topics in linear and abstract algebra, algebraic geometry, and probability, and they can be used as meaningful applied introductions into the relevant advanced-level mathematics courses. Open-source software is used to facilitate the relevant computations. As a detailed example, we outline a module that focuses on Boolean models of the lac operon network. PMID:20810955

  15. Biochemistry in the idea of graduation students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Escoto et al

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Biochemistry is an interdisciplinary area that allows us to study chemical phenomena in live organisms. That way, its study is of extreme importance, in all levels, to enlarge the comprehension of natural phenomena. However, it is barely explored in the basic education and often fragmented in the higher education, or in graduation degrees that contemplate this area. Especially in the teacher training, where the fragmentation of knowledge can contribute to form wrong concepts. Based on that, this work aims to identify the concept of Biochemistry according to the future teachers of Natural Science. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The work was developed with 3º, 5º and 9º semesters students of the natural science degree on Universidade Federal do Pampa. 50 students, from 18 to 56 years old, were interviewed. The data was obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire. The methodology of categorization and analysis of content with emergent categories of speech was chosen for the analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Initially, 11 categories were chosen by content similarity. In descending order: chemical reactions in organisms, chemistry area, chemistry of life, cell metabolism, the study of living beings, origin of life, biology area, organic balance, chemical-biological study. The reports made possible to identify that most students do understand with clarity the goal of studying biochemistry. Although, we can see that there are some students that fragment the area, what means, they try to discriminate chemistry from biology. This way, they demonstrate a difficulty to comprehend biochemistry as interdisciplinary, what makes it hard to contextualize the built knowledge. It is important to develop strategies to overcome the fragmentation of knowledge, so that biochemistry can be comprehended in its fullness and help on the teaching processes that will be developed by the future teachers.

  16. Biological chemistry as a foundation of DNA genealogy: the emergence of "molecular history".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyosov, A A

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the basis of DNA genealogy, a new field of science, which is currently emerging as an unusual blend of biochemistry, history, linguistics, and chemical kinetics. The methodology of the new approach is comprised of chemical (biological) kinetics applied to a pattern of mutations in non-recombinant fragments of DNA (Y chromosome and mtDNA, the latter not being considered in this overview). The goal of the analysis is to translate DNA mutation patterns into time spans to the most recent common ancestors of a given population or tribe and to the dating of ancient migration routes. To illustrate this approach, time spans to the common ancestors are calculated for ethnic Russians, that is Eastern Slavs (R1a1 tribe), Western Slavs (I1 and I2 tribes), and Northern (or Uralic) Slavs (N1c tribe), which were found to live around 4600 years before present (R1a1), 3650 ybp (I1), 3000 and 10,500 ybp (I2, two principal DNA lineages), and 3525 ybp (N1c) (confidence intervals are given in the main text). The data were compared with the respective dates for the nearest common ancestor of the R1a1 "Indo-European" population in India, who lived 4050 years before present, whose descendants represent the majority of the upper castes in India today (up to 72%). Furthermore, it was found that the haplotypes of ethnic Russians of the R1a1 haplogroup (up to 62% of the population in the Russian Federation) and those of the R1a1 Indians (more than 100 million today) are practically identical to each other, up to 67-marker haplotypes. This essentially solves a 200-year-old mystery of who were the Aryans who arrived in India around 3500 years before the present. Haplotypes and time spans to the ancient common ancestors were also compared for the ethnic Russians of haplogroups I1 and I2, on one hand, and the respective I1 and I2 populations in Eastern and Western Europe and Scandinavia, on the other. It is suggested that the approach described in this overview lays the

  17. Molecular self-assembly for biological investigations and nanoscale lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheunkar, Sarawut

    Small, diffusible molecules when recognized by their binding partners, such as proteins and antibodies, trigger enzymatic activity, cell communication, and immune response. Progress in analytical methods enabling detection, characterization, and visualization of biological dynamics at the molecular level will advance our exploration of complex biological systems. In this dissertation, analytical platforms were fabricated to capture membrane-associated receptors, which are essential proteins in cell signaling pathways. The neurotransmitter serotonin and its biological precursor were immobilized on gold substrates coated with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of oligo(ethylene glycol)alkanethiols and their reactive derivatives. The SAM-coated substrates present the biologically selective affinity of immobilized molecules to target native membrane-associated receptors. These substrates were also tested for biospecificity using antibodies. In addition, small-molecule-functionalized platforms, expressing neurotransmitter pharmacophores, were employed to examine kinetic interactions between G-protein-coupled receptors and their associated neurotransmitters. The binding interactions were monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance equipped with liquid-flow injection. The interaction kinetics of G-protein-coupled serotonin 1A receptor and 5-hydroxytyptophan-functionalized surfaces were studied in a real-time, label-free environment. Key binding parameters, such as equilibrium dissociation constants, binding rate constants, and dissociative half-life, were extracted. These parameters are critical for understanding and comparing biomolecular interactions in modern biomedical research. By integrating self-assembly, surface functionalization, and nanofabrication, small-molecule microarrays were created for high-throughput screening. A hybrid soft-lithography, called microcontact insertion printing, was used to pattern small molecules at the dilute scales necessary for highly

  18. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, David S.

    2008-01-01

    The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages

  19. Introduction to the Minireview Series on Modern Technologies for In-cell Biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2016-02-19

    The last decade has seen enormous progress in the exploration and understanding of the behavior of molecules in their natural cellular environments at increasingly high spatial and temporal resolution. Advances in microscopy and the development of new fluorescent reagents as well as genetic editing techniques have enabled quantitative analysis of protein interactions, intracellular trafficking, metabolic changes, and signaling. Modern biochemistry now faces new and exciting challenges. Can traditionally "in vitro" experiments, e.g. analysis of protein folding and conformational transitions, be done in cells? Can the structure and behavior of endogenous and/or non-tagged recombinant proteins be analyzed and altered within the cell or in cellular compartments? How can molecules and their actions be studied mechanistically in tissues and organs? Is personalized cellular biochemistry a reality? This thematic series summarizes recent studies that illustrate some first steps toward successfully answering these modern biochemical questions. The first minireview focuses on utilization of three-dimensional primary enteroids and organoids for mechanistic studies of intestinal biology with molecular resolution. The second minireview describes application of single chain antibodies (nanobodies) for monitoring and regulating protein dynamics in vitro and in cells. The third minireview highlights advances in using NMR spectroscopy for analysis of protein folding and assembly in cells. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of structurally simplified noscapine analogues as microtubule binding agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ghaly, P.E.; Churchill, C.D.M.; Abou El-Magd, R.M.; Hájková, Zuzana; Dráber, Pavel; West, F.G.; Tuszyński, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 6 (2017), s. 649-655 ISSN 0008-4042 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-22194S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : noscapine * microtubule * tubulin * cytotoxicity * microtubule dynamics * docking Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.080, year: 2016

  1. A minimal molecular toolkit for mineral deposition? Biochemistry and proteomics of the test matrix of adult specimens of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakostis, Konstantinos; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Immel, Françoise; Guichard, Nathalie; Dru, Philippe; Lepage, Thierry; Plasseraud, Laurent; Matranga, Valeria; Marin, Frédéric

    2016-03-16

    The sea urchin endoskeleton consists of a magnesium-rich biocalcite comprising a small amount of occluded organic macromolecules. This structure constitutes a key-model for understanding the mineral--organics interplay, and for conceiving in vitro bio-inspired materials with tailored properties. Here we employed a deep-clean technique to purify the occluded proteins from adult Paracentrotus lividus tests. We characterized them by 1- and 2D-electrophoreses, ELISA and immunoblotting, and using liquid chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS), we identified two metalloenzymes (carbonic anhydrase and MMP), a set of MSP130 family members, several C-type lectins (SM29, SM41, PM27) and cytoskeletal proteins. We demonstrate the effect of the protein extract on the crystals, with an in vitro crystallization assay. We suggest that this small set of biomineralization proteins may represent a 'minimal molecular crystallization toolkit'. Biominerals often exhibit superior chemical properties, when compared to their inorganic counterparts. This is due pro parte to the proteins that are occluded in the mineral. However, the limited available studies on biomineralization have not yet succeeded in identifying a minimal set of proteins directly involved in the formation of the biomineral in vivo and sufficiently required for in vitro precipitation. Indeed, the high number of proteins identified by high-throughput screening in the recent years does not encourage the possibility of recreating or tailoring the mineral in vitro. Thus, the identification of biomineralization proteins involved in protein-mineral interactions is highly awaited. In the present study, we used the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus (P. lividus), to identify the native proteins directly taking part in protein-mineral interactions. We employed an improved deep-clean technique to extract and purify the native occluded skeletal matrix proteins from the test and identified them by the highly

  2. Molecular depth profiling of organic and biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, John S. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: John.Fletcher@manchester.ac.uk; Conlan, Xavier A. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Lockyer, Nicholas P. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Vickerman, John C. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-30

    Atomic depth profiling using secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, is common in the field micro-electronics; however, the generation of molecular information as a function of sample depth is difficult due to the accumulation of damage both on and beneath the sample surface. The introduction of polyatomic ion beams such as SF{sub 5} and C{sub 60} have raised the possibility of overcoming this problem as they deposit the majority of their energy in the upper surface of the sample resulting in increased sputter yields but with a complimentary reduction in sub-surface damage accumulation. In this paper we report the depth profile analysis of the bio-polymer polycaprolactone, PCL, using the polyatomic ions Au{sub 3}{sup +} and C{sub 60}{sup +} and the monoatomic Au{sup +}. Results are compared to recent analysis of a similar sample using SF{sub 5}{sup +}. C{sub 60}{sup +} depth profiling of cellulose is also demonstrated, an experiment that has been reported as unsuccessful when attempted with SF{sub 5}{sup +} implications for biological analysis are discussed.

  3. Molecular biological change in oral cancer, summary of our researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuharu Yamamoto, DDS, PhD

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular biological search and identification of cancer have a variety of clinical significance. Microarray, proteomics and metabolome analyses are powerful analytical methods for rapid screening of tumor markers. From the results, it was revealed that a number of genes are specifically expressed in oral cancers. From the results of CAN and LOH analyses of the entire genome, three candidate gene loci (D1S1189, D1S2151, D1S2595 were identified on 1q31.1 region. From the results obtained by using array CGH, amplification of the 11q13 regions was observed in 30% of the group with lymph node metastasis, and a numbers of genes were located in the 11q13 regions, in which increase of the copy number was observed in only the group with lymph node metastasis. From the results of proteomics analysis, three protein spots, in which expression increased in a common manner with a oral cancer cell line, as well as 27 spots, in which expression decreased in a common manner with a oral cancer cell line, were identified from these cataloged spots. Seven spots of proteins that are specifically expressed in the whole saliva of oral cancer patients before a surgery and not detected from the whole saliva after the surgery or the whole saliva of a healthy subject were selected. In the metabolome analysis, peaks of 250 of the major metabolic substances (136 cations, 114 anions were detected.

  4. RT-PCR Protocols - Methods in Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Monti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available “The first record I have of it, is when I made a computer file which I usually did whenever I had an idea, that would have been on the Monday when I got back, and I called it Chain Reaction.POL, meaning polymerase. That was the identifier for it and later I called the thing the Polymerase Chain Reaction, which a lot of people thought was a dumb name for it, but it stuck, and it became PCR”. With these words the Nobel prize winner, Kary Mullis, explains how he named the PCR: one of the most important techniques ever invented and currently used in molecular biology. This book “RT-PCR Protocols” covers a wide range of aspects important for the setting of a PCR experiment for both beginners and advanced users. In my opinion the book is very well structured in three different sections. The first one describes the different technologies now available, like competitive RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR or RT-PCR for cloning. An important part regards the usage of PCR in single cell mouse embryos, stressing how important...........

  5. GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND PIG MEAT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BULLA, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals in pig breeding have for many years been to improve growth rate, feedconversion and carcass composition. There have been less efforts to improve meat qualityparameters (WHC, pH, tenderness, colour etc. but the main contribution has been areduction of stress susceptibility and PSE meat. Unfortunately, the quantitative geneticapproach has yielded few clues regarding the fundamental genetic changes that accompaniedthe selection of animal for superior carcass attributes. While mapping efforts are makingsignificant major effects on carcass and his quality composition DNA test would be availableto detect some positive or negative alleles. There are clear breed effects on meat quality,which in some cases are fully related to the presence of a single gene with major effect (RYR1,MYF4, H-FABP, LEPR, IGF2. Molecular biology methods provides excellent opportunitiesto improve meat quality in selection schemes within breeds and lines. Selection on majorgenes will not only increase average levels of quality but also decrease variability (ei increaseuniformity. The aim of this paper is to discuss there genetic and non-genetic opportunities.

  6. GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND PIG MEAT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. BULLA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goals in pig breeding have for many years been to improve growth rate, feedconversion and carcass composition. There have been less efforts to improve meat qualityparameters (WHC, pH, tenderness, colour etc. but the main contribution has been areduction of stress susceptibility and PSE meat. Unfortunately, the quantitative geneticapproach has yielded few clues regarding the fundamental genetic changes that accompaniedthe selection of animal for superior carcass attributes. While mapping efforts are makingsignificant major effects on carcass and his quality composition DNA test would be availableto detect some positive or negative alleles. There are clear breed effects on meat quality,which in some cases are fully related to the presence of a single gene with major effect (RYR1,MYF4, H-FABP, LEPR, IGF2. Molecular biology methods provides excellent opportunitiesto improve meat quality in selection schemes within breeds and lines. Selection on majorgenes will not only increase average levels of quality but also decrease variability (ei increaseuniformity. The aim of this paper is to discuss there genetic and non-genetic opportunities.

  7. Basic Concepts in Molecular Biology Related to Genetics and Epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, Dolores; Ordovas, Jose M

    2017-09-01

    The observation that "one size does not fit all" for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, among other diseases, has driven the concept of precision medicine. The goal of precision medicine is to provide the best-targeted interventions tailored to an individual's genome. The human genome is composed of billions of sequence arrangements containing a code that controls how genes are expressed. This code depends on other nonstatic regulators that surround the DNA and constitute the epigenome. Moreover, environmental factors also play an important role in this complex regulation. This review provides a general perspective on the basic concepts of molecular biology related to genetics and epigenetics and a glossary of key terms. Several examples are given of polymorphisms and genetic risk scores related to cardiovascular risk. Likewise, an overview is presented of the main epigenetic regulators, including DNA methylation, methylcytosine-phosphate-guanine-binding proteins, histone modifications, other histone regulations, micro-RNA effects, and additional emerging regulators. One of the greatest challenges is to understand how environmental factors (diet, physical activity, smoking, etc.) could alter the epigenome, resulting in healthy or unhealthy cardiovascular phenotypes. We discuss some gene-environment interactions and provide a methodological overview. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Single molecular biology: coming of age in DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Lou, Hui-Qiang

    2017-09-20

    DNA replication is an essential process of the living organisms. To achieve precise and reliable replication, DNA polymerases play a central role in DNA synthesis. Previous investigations have shown that the average rates of DNA synthesis on the leading and lagging strands in a replisome must be similar to avoid the formation of significant gaps in the nascent strands. The underlying mechanism has been assumed to be coordination between leading- and lagging-strand polymerases. However, Kowalczykowski's lab members recently performed single molecule techniques in E. coli and showed the real-time behavior of a replisome. The leading- and lagging-strand polymerases function stochastically and independently. Furthermore, when a DNA polymerase is paused, the helicase slows down in a self-regulating fail-safe mechanism, akin to a ''dead-man's switch''. Based on the real-time single-molecular observation, the authors propose that leading- and lagging-strand polymerases synthesize DNA stochastically within a Gaussian distribution. Along with the development and application of single-molecule techniques, we will witness a new age of DNA replication and other biological researches.

  9. The Molecular Biology of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. L. Lever

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is widespread in feline populations and causes an AIDS-like illness in domestic cats. It is highly prevalent in several endangered feline species. In domestic cats FIV infection is a valuable small animal model for HIV infection. In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in FIV, in part to exploit this, but also because of the potential it has as a human gene therapy vector. Though much less studied than HIV there are many parallels in the replication of the two viruses, but also important differences and, despite their likely common origin, the viruses have in some cases used alternative strategies to overcome similar problems. Recent advances in understanding the structure and function of FIV RNA and proteins and their interactions has enhanced our knowledge of FIV replication significantly, however, there are still many gaps. This review summarizes our current knowledge of FIV molecular biology and its similarities with, and differences from, other lentiviruses.

  10. Hippeastrum reticulatum (Amaryllidaceae: Alkaloid Profiling, Biological Activities and Molecular Docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana R. Tallini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amaryllidaceae family has proven to be a rich source of active compounds, which are characterized by unique skeleton arrangements and a broad spectrum of biological activities. The aim of this work was to perform the first detailed study of the alkaloid constituents of Hippeastrum reticulatum (Amaryllidaceae and to determine the anti-parasitological and cholinesterase (AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities of the epimers (6α-hydroxymaritidine and 6β-hydroxymaritidine. Twelve alkaloids were identified in H. reticulatum: eight known alkaloids by GC-MS and four unknown (6α-hydroxymaritidine, 6β-hydroxymaritidine, reticulinine and isoreticulinine by NMR. The epimer mixture (6α-hydroxymaritidine and 6β-hydroxymaritidine showed low activity against all protozoan parasites tested and weak AChE-inhibitory activity. Finally, a molecular docking analysis of AChE and BuChE proteins showed that isoreticulinine may be classified as a potential inhibitory molecule since it can be stabilized in the active site through hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions.

  11. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens: Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.D.; Siniscalco, M.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.'' Sessions were entitled Human Gene Map, Human Cancer Genes, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, Drugs Made Off Human Genes, Receptors, and Gene Therapy. (DT)

  12. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens: Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.D.; Siniscalco, M.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.'' Sessions were entitled Human Gene Map, Human Cancer Genes, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, Drugs Made Off Human Genes, Receptors, and Gene Therapy. (DT)

  13. Microgravity research in plant biological systems: Realizing the potential of molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1993-01-01

    The sole all-pervasive feature of the environment that has helped shape, through evolution, all life on Earth is gravity. The near weightlessness of the Space Station Freedom space environment allows gravitational effects to be essentially uncoupled, thus providing an unprecedented opportunity to manipulate, systematically dissect, study, and exploit the role of gravity in the growth and development of all life forms. New and exciting opportunities are now available to utilize molecular biological and biochemical approaches to study the effects of microgravity on living organisms. By careful experimentation, we can determine how gravity perception occurs, how the resulting signals are produced and transduced, and how or if tissue-specific differences in gene expression occur. Microgravity research can provide unique new approaches to further our basic understanding of development and metabolic processes of cells and organisms, and to further the application of this new knowledge for the betterment of humankind.

  14. [From bioinformatics to systems biology: account of the 12th international conference on intelligent systems in molecular biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhno, S S

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology/Third European Conference on Computational Biology 2004 that was held in Glasgow, UK, during July 31-August 4. A number of talks, papers and software demos from the conference in bioinformatics, genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and systems biology are described. Recent applications of liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry, comparative genomics and DNA microarrays are given along with the discussion of bioinformatics curricular in higher education.

  15. Thiol biochemistry of prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The present studies have shown that GSH metabolism arose in the purple bacteria and cyanobacteria where it functions to protect against oxygen toxicity. Evidence was obtained indicating that GSH metabolism was incorporated into eucaryotes via the endosymbiosis giving rise to mitochrondria and chloroplasts. Aerobic bacteria lacking GSH utilize other thiols for apparently similar functions, the thiol being coenzyme A in Gram positive bacteria and chi-glutamylcysteine in the halobacteria. The thiol biochemistry of prokaryotes is thus seen to be much more highly diversified than that of eucaryotes and much remains to be learned about this subject.

  16. Digital learning material for experimental design and model building in molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Designing experimental approaches is a major cognitive skill in molecular biology research, and building models, including quantitative ones, is a cognitive skill which is rapidly gaining importance. Since molecular biology education at university level is aimed at educating future researchers, we

  17. Book Review of "The Molecular Biology of Cancer" by Stella Pelengaris, Michael Khan (Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Christian

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here, a review of "The Molecular Biology of Cancer" (Stella Pelengaris and Michael Khan [Editors] is given. The detailed description of the book is provided here: Pelengaris S, Khan M (Eds: The Molecular Biology of Cancer; Blackwell Publishing, Oxford (U.K.; 2006. 531 pages, 214 illustrations, ISBN 9-78140-511-814-9, £31.99.

  18. Just Working with the Cellular Machine: A High School Game for Teaching Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernanda Serpa; Dumpel, Renata; Gomes da Silva, Luisa B.; Rodrigues, Carlos R.; Santos, Dilvani O.; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; Castro, Helena C.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular biology is a difficult comprehension subject due to its high complexity, thus requiring new teaching approaches. Herein, we developed an interdisciplinary board game involving the human immune system response against a bacterial infection for teaching molecular biology at high school. Initially, we created a database with several…

  19. Dissolution of hypotheses in biochemistry: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The history of biochemistry and molecular biology is replete with examples of erroneous theories that persisted for considerable lengths of time before they were rejected. This paper examines patterns of dissolution of three such erroneous hypotheses: The idea that nucleic acids are tetrads of the four nucleobases ('the tetranucleotide hypothesis'); the notion that proteins are collinear with their encoding genes in all branches of life; and the hypothesis that proteins are synthesized by reverse action of proteolytic enzymes. Analysis of these cases indicates that amassed contradictory empirical findings did not prompt critical experimental testing of the prevailing theories nor did they elicit alternative hypotheses. Rather, the incorrect models collapsed when experiments that were not purposely designed to test their validity exposed new facts.

  20. Actualization and perspectives of Bachelor degree in Biochemistry from Universidade Federal de Viçosa(UFV - (Symposium SBBq Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. R. Fietto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bachelor Degree in Biochemistry of the UFV was  created in 2001 by the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department as a  groundbreaking initiative at Brazil. The program was an attempt to assume both academic and biotechnology sectors, preparing capable professionals for the development of new products and biochemical process. Our initial challenge came with the ingress of the first classes bringing doubts related to their formation and action profiles, sometimes confused with clinical analysts or pharmacists. Lecture series with professionals was used to demonstrate the present scenario with a growing market share, instigating discussions about the pedagogic project. The secondchallenge was the student’s pressure to recognition of under graduation programby the Brazilian Education Ministry (MEC and the biochemical professional recognition by one Regional Council. The bachelor degree was recognized by the MEC in 2004 and the Regional Council of Chemistry became our major partner. The  success of the initiative of the UFV has been giving good results such as the participation in the formation process of the Bachelor Degree in Biochemistry of the Federal University of São João Del Rei (UFSJ and stimulated the creation of another biochemistry course at State University of Maringá (UEM. The success of our students in Phd programs spread in Brazil evidences the quality of Biochemistry bachelors from UFV. Now the egresses have been recognized by biochemistry and biotechnology industry. However we still face problems with impaired recognition in many federal concourses that do not recognize the Biochemist as a chemistry and biotechnology professional. With high expectative, we wait that the biochemistry bachelordegree spreads widely in the country making possible the opening of new opportunities in all ways.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Acerentomidae (Protura), with description of Acerentuloides bernardi sp. nov. from North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shrubovych, J.; Starý, Josef; D'Haese, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 2 (2017), s. 433-443 ISSN 0015-4040 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08019 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acerentulus * DNA barcoding * Indiana * phylogeny * Podolinella * USA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 0.964, year: 2016

  2. Tick-Pathogen Interactions and Vector Competence: Identification of Molecular Drivers for Tick-Borne Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de la Fuente, J.; Antunes, S.; Bonnet, S.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Domingos, A.G.; Estrada-Peňa, A.; Johnson, N.; Kocan, K.M.; Mansfield, K. L.; Nijhof, A.M.; Papa, A.; Rudenko, Natalia; Villar, M.; Alberdi, P.; Torina, A.; Ayllón, N.; Vancová, Marie; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Caracappa, S.; Fooks, A. R.; Gortazar, C.; Rego, Ryan O. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, APR 7 (2017), č. článku 114. ISSN 2235-2988 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Anaplasma * flavivirus * Babesia * Borrelia * Microbiome * immunology * vaccine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  3. Molecular survey of Rickettsial organisms in ectoparasites from a dog shelter in Northern Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González-Álvarez, V. H.; Fernández de Mera, I.G.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; de la Fuente, J.; Ortega-Morales, A. I.; Almazán, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, December (2017), s. 143-148 E-ISSN 2405-9390 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Rhipicephalus sanguineus * Ctenocephalides felis * Heterodoxus spiniger * Rickettsia felis * Wolbachia pipientis * Dogs Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  4. Candidate gene molecular markers as tools for analyzing genetic susceptibility to morbillivirus infection in stranded Cetaceans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskalová, K.; Bayerova, Z.; Futas, J.; Hrazdilová, K.; Klumplerova, M.; Oppelt, J.; Šplíchalová, P.; Di Guardo, G.; Mazzariol, S.; Di Francesco, C. E.; Di Francesco, G.; Terracciano, G.; Paiu, R.M.; Ursache, T. D.; Modrý, David; Horin, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2017), s. 343-353 ISSN 2059-2302 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cetacea * haplotype * immunity * innate * mhc-dqb * Phocoena phocoena * polymorphism * single nucleotide * Stenella coeruleoalba Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  5. A survey on faculty perspectives on the transition to a biochemistry course-based undergraduate research experience laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Paul A

    2017-09-01

    It will always remain a goal of an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course to engage students hands-on in a wide range of biochemistry laboratory experiences. In 2006, our research group initiated a project for in silico prediction of enzyme function based only on the 3D coordinates of the more than 3800 proteins "of unknown function" in the Protein Data Bank, many of which resulted from the Protein Structure Initiative. Students have used the ProMOL plugin to the PyMOL molecular graphics environment along with BLAST, Pfam, and Dali to predict protein functions. As young scientists, these undergraduate research students wanted to see if their predictions were correct and so they developed an approach for in vitro testing of predicted enzyme function that included literature exploration, selection of a suitable assay and the search for commercially available substrates. Over the past two years, a team of faculty members from seven different campuses (California Polytechnic San Luis Obispo, Hope College, Oral Roberts University, Rochester Institute of Technology, St. Mary's University, Ursinus College, and Purdue University) have transferred this approach to the undergraduate biochemistry teaching laboratory as a Course-based Undergraduate Research Experience. A series of ten course modules and eight instructional videos have been created (www.promol.org/home/basil-modules-1) and the group is now expanding these resources, creating assessments and evaluating how this approach helps student to grow as scientists. The focus of this manuscript will be the logistical implications of this transition on campuses that have different cultures, expectations, schedules, and student populations. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(5):426-436, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Molecular eyes: proteins that transform light into biological information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, J.T.M.; Mathes, T.

    2013-01-01

    Most biological photoreceptors are protein/cofactor complexes that induce a physiological reaction upon absorption of a photon. Therefore, these proteins represent signal converters that translate light into biological information. Researchers use this property to stimulate and study various

  7. Genetics and molecular biology of haemophilias A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, P M; Montandon, A J; Bentley, D R; Giannelli, F

    1991-08-01

    The development of rapid procedures for the characterization of mutations is advancing the knowledge of the molecular biology of the haemophilias and transforming the strategies for the diagnoses required for genetic counselling. In haemophilia B more than 300 mutants have been fully characterized. These comprise complete and partial deletions, rare insertions, and 'point' mutations. The latter may impair transcription (promoter mutations), RNA processing (splicing mutations) and translation (frameshifts and stop codons) or cause single amino acid (aa) changes. Eighty-four residues are involved in the 105 presumed detrimental aa substitutions reported so far and these are usually conserved in the factor IX homologues (factors VII, X and protein C) and/or the factor IX of different mammalian species. There are clear correlations between the mutation and clinical features. In addition mutations causing gross physical or functional loss of coding information appear to predispose to the development of antibodies against therapeutic factor IX. Hotspots of mutations have been identified and are usually associated with CpG sequences. In haemophilia A the size and complexity of the factor VIII gene has hindered the analysis of mutants. Most of the studies published so far have analysed only a small fraction of the essential region of the factor VIII gene and this led to the repeated observation of specific types of mutation. The recent development of a rapid method to analyse RNA splicing and the whole coding region of the factor VIII gene should unblock this situation. With regard to genetic counselling, the direct detection of gene defects has increased the proportion of haemophilia B families that can be helped from 60% to virtually 100% and similar expectations may now be formulated for haemophilia A. In the UK a national database of haemophilia B mutations is being constructed to optimize genetic counselling. This should offer a model for a similar development in

  8. Prostate cancer: molecular biology of early progression to androgen independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadar, M D; Hussain, M; Bruchovsky, N

    1999-12-01

    To improve the therapy for prostate cancer, it will be necessary to address the problems of progression to androgen independence and the process of metastatic spread of tumour. The complexity of the latter condition is likely to mitigate against the immediate development of relevant therapeutic approaches. However, the basis of androgen independence appears to be a problem of simpler dimensions and more amenable to treatment with current therapeutic technology. Since early tumour progression can be detected by an incomplete prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to androgen withdrawal therapy, a study of the molecular biology of PSA gene regulation may well provide insight into new methods for preventing or delaying this problem. Mounting evidence suggests that ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor may be one underlying mechanism of androgen independence. In the absence of androgen, a compensatory increase in the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) enhances the ability of the androgen receptor to bind to the response elements regulating PSA gene expression. The activation of the androgen receptor through up-regulation of the PKA signal transduction pathway involves the amino-terminus of the androgen receptor, the function of which may be altered either by modifications such as phosphorylation, or through interactions with co-regulators or other proteins. Of therapeutic interest is the fact that this effect can be counteracted experimentally by the anti-androgen, bicalutamide, and clinically by several other similar agents. We speculate that the inhibition of PKA-activated androgen receptor might also be accomplished by decoy molecules that can bind to the relevant activated site on the amino-terminus or competitively interact with proteins recruited by the PKA pathway that are responsible for activating the receptor in the absence of androgen. Such molecules might include small mimetic substances or agents that can gain access to the

  9. Integrating bio-inorganic and analytical chemistry into an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Brewer, Sharon E; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by atomic absorption spectroscopy exercise as part of a five-week long laboratory-based project on the purification of myoglobin from beef. Students were required to prepare samples for chemical analysis, operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, critically evaluate their iron data, and integrate these data into a study of myoglobin. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Technical and didactic problems of virtual lab exercises in biochemistry and biotechnology education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Skriver, Karen; Dandanell, Gert

    methods. With web technologies we can now design exercises for remote or virtual labs, but we should not expect to improve student learning simply by recreating old didactic problems in new media. Unfortunately studies of the efficiency of different lab types (hands-on, virtual, and remote labs) suffer...... from a lack of conceptual analysis of what actually constitutes virtual labs. A clarification of these conceptual issues is suggested as part of a Danish research and development project on virtual lab exercises in biochemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology education. The main outcome...... of this clarification is that specific didactic problems of biochemistry education can now be addressed through the design of exercises in the virtual lab environment....

  11. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer: translating molecular biology approaches into the clinical realm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Grimm, Jan [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Donati, Olivio F. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. (orig.)

  12. Molecular biology of pancreatic cancer: how useful is it in clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakorafas, George H; Smyrniotis, Vasileios

    2012-07-10

    During the recent two decades dramatic advances of molecular biology allowed an in-depth understanding of pancreatic carcinogenesis. It is currently accepted that pancreatic cancer has a genetic component. The real challenge is now how these impressive advances could be used in clinical practice. To critically present currently available data regarding clinical application of molecular biology in pancreatic cancer. Reports about clinical implications of molecular biology in patients with pancreatic cancer were retrieved from PubMed. These reports were selected on the basis of their clinical relevance, and the data of their publication (preferentially within the last 5 years). Emphasis was placed on reports investigating diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. Molecular biology can be used to identify individuals at high-risk for pancreatic cancer development. Intensive surveillance is indicated in these patients to detect pancreatic neoplasia ideally at a preinvasive stage, when curative resection is still possible. Molecular biology can also be used in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, with molecular analysis on samples of biologic material, such as serum or plasma, duodenal fluid or preferentially pure pancreatic juice, pancreatic cells or tissue, and stools. Molecular indices have also prognostic significance. Finally, molecular biology may have therapeutic implications by using various therapeutic approaches, such as antiangiogenic factors, purine synthesis inhibitors, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, factors modulating tumor-stroma interaction, inactivation of the hedgehog pathway, gene therapy, oncolytic viral therapy, immunotherapy (both passive as well as active) etc. Molecular biology may have important clinical implications in patients with pancreatic cancer and represents one of the most active areas on cancer research. Hopefully clinical applications of molecular biology in pancreatic cancer will expand in the future, improving the

  13. Learning Biochemistry by Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C Guedes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Both sensations and biochemical reactions taken place or promoted during ingestion of chocolate were the motivation for  investigating  the  organic  compounds  present  in  this  source.  Cocoa  and  chocolate  are  composed  by  several substances , among them, aminoacids and alkaloids.The objective of this investigation was to purpose a contextured approach  of  biochemistry  through  the  sensations  and  reactions  involving  aminoacids,  theobromine  and  hormones. Methodology: 1. Theoretical part:  constituted  by theoretical  and tutorial classes  about aminoacids, theobromine and hormones  involved  at  the  metabolism;  2.  Questionary:  ten  questions  based  upon  theoretical  classes,  personal sensations  and  general  aspects  of chocolate;  3.Lecture:  Cientific  articles  searched  in  periodics  by  own  students  as well  as  newspaper  reports;  4.  Experimental:  Laboratory  experiments  including  extraction,  characterization, spectrometric quantification  after  specific reactions  and identification by  Rf  comparison with  standards  on TLC  from cocoa  almonds  and  both  powder  cocoa  and  chocolate.  The  study  was  applied  in  30  students  from  a  chemistry college. Results: The results pointed out to a higher frequency of the students and to a increased interest  from them by   biochemistry  issues  and  cientific  lectures,  as  well  as  a  satisfactory  acquirement  of  theoretical  and  practice knowledge of aminoacids and hormones, spectrometry and chromatography. Conclusion: A contextured approach is quite positive for learning biochemistry to chemists.

  14. [Inventive activity of the Departments of Protein Structure and Function, and Molecular Immunology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine. Part II. National breakthrough in the study and diagnostics of human hemostasis system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovska, N E

    2016-01-01

    The scientists of Protein Structure and Function, and Molecular Immunology Departments of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry (NAS of Ukraine) under the supervision of member of NASU and NAMSU, prof. S. V. Komisarenko and corresponding member of NASU prof. E. V. Lugovskoy have made the real breakthrough in the field of research of the mechanisms of fibrin polymerization and formation of fibrin framework of thrombi. The immunodiagnostic test-systems for the evaluation of the risk of thrombus formation were developed for the first time. Researches have obtained the monoclonal antibodies to fibrinogen, fibrin, D-dimer and their fragments. These monoclonal antibodies were used as molecular probes for the localization of newly detected fibrin polymerization sites. Obtained antibodies with high affinity interact with fibrinogen, D-dimer and soluble fibrin – main markers of the risk of thrombus formation. They were used for the development of the immunodiagnostic test-systems to quantify these markers in human blood plasma for the evaluation of the state of haemostasis system, detection of prethrombotic states, disseminated intravascular coagulation, detection of thrombosis and monitoring of antithrombotic and fibrinolytic therapy. The successful trial of developed test-systems was carried out in clinics of Ukraine, and the State registration was obtained for the implementation of them into the clinical practice. Presented works were awarded State prize of Ukraine in Science and technology.

  15. Promoting Mastery of Complex Biological Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, William S.; Groneman, Kathryn J.; Nelson, Jennifer; Bell, John D.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes efforts aimed at improving comprehension and retention of complex molecular mechanisms commonly studied in undergraduate biology and biochemistry courses. The focus is on the design of appropriate assessments, an active classroom emphasizing formative practice, and more effective out-of-class study habits. Assessments that…

  16. Molecular infection biology : interactions between microorganisms and cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hacker, Jörg (Jörg Hinrich); Heesemann, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    ...) Covers methods to analyze microbial pathogenicity, principles of gene regulation of virulence-associated genes, drug treatment and mechanisms of drug resistance, and molecular methods for diagnosis...

  17. 2012 Gordon Research Conference, Plant molecular biology, July 15-20 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, Michael R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-07-20

    The 2012 Gordon Conference on Plant Molecular Biology will present cutting-edge research on molecular aspects of plant growth and development, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries in molecular mechanisms involved with plant signaling systems. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics in plant molecular biology including hormone receptors and early events in hormone signaling, plant perception of and response to plant pathogen and symbionts, as well as technological and biological aspects of epigenomics particularly as it relates to signaling systems that regulate plant growth and development. Genomic approaches to plant signaling will be emphasized, including genomic profiling technologies for quantifying various biological subsystems, such as the epigenome, transcriptome, phosphorylome, and metabolome. The meeting will include an important session devoted to answering the question, "What are the biological and technological limits of plant breeding/genetics, and how can they be solved"?

  18. The molecular biological characteristics of childhood thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherstvoy, E; Nerovnya, A.; Voskoboinic, L.; Bogdanova, T.; Tronko, N.D.; Tonnachera, M.; Dumont, J.E.; Lamy, F.; Keller, G.; Boehm, J.; Hoefler, H.; Vecchio, G.C.; Viglietto, G.; Chiappetta, G.; Williams, G.H.; Thomas, G.A.; Williams, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    We have used molecular biology to study mutation and expression of key oncogenes in childhood thyroid carcinomas from Belarus and Ukraine. All cases were histologically verified by two or more pathologists including at least one from the CIS and one from the EU. We chose to study six genes which have been shown to be involved in thyroid carcinogenesis in adults: ret. Ha, Ki and N ras genes, p53 and the TSH receptor. Expression of the ret oncogene, which has been shown to be activated by translocation in a proportion of papillary carcinomas has been studied by two independent methods. The first, used by the Cambridge group uses RT-PCR to identify the expression of the tyrosine kinase domain of the gene; as the gene is normally silent in follicular cells, this approach allows demonstration of activation of ret, but does not identify the particular translocation involved. The second approach, used by the Naples group, also uses RT-PCR, but amplifies across the breakpoint of each of the three translocations already identified to provide information on the proportion of tumors which express the individual translocations of this gene. Mutations in the TSH receptor, a key modulator of thyroid follicular growth have been sought by the Brussels group using SSCP and direct sequencing. The Munich group have analyzed the samples for presence of mutation in p53, which is believed to play a role in genetic instability which is a features of carcinomas derived from may different tissues. Mutations in the common sites of the ras oncogenes have been studied by the Cambridge group. Analysis of 26 papillary carcinomas so far studied has shown that mutations in the TSH receptor and in p53 do not play a significant role in the genesis of the tumours studied. The proportion of tumours showing ret expression does not differ significantly from that found in a control non exposed population from the UK. However, the pathological study shows that nearly all the increased number of thyroid

  19. Novel flavonolignan hybrid antioxidants: From enzymatic preparation to molecular rationalization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavříková, Eva; Křen, Vladimír; Ježová-Kalachová, Lubica; Biler, M.; Chantemargue, B.; Pyszková, M.; Riva, S.; Kuzma, Marek; Valentová, Kateřina; Ulrichová, J.; Vrba, J.; Trouillas, P.; Vacek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 127, FEB 15 (2017), s. 263-274 ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14096; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15084; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Silybin * Vitamin C * Enzymatic coupling Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.519, year: 2016

  20. Molecular variation in Cucumis melo as revealed by isoenzyme and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular variation in Cucumis melo as revealed by isoenzyme and RAPD markers. Tarek M Mohamed. Abstract. No Abstract. The Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Vol. 23(2) 2005: 141-153. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Doctoral Conceptual Thresholds in Cellular and Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldon, David F.; Rates, Christopher; Sun, Chongning

    2017-01-01

    In the biological sciences, very little is known about the mechanisms by which doctoral students acquire the skills they need to become independent scientists. In the postsecondary biology education literature, identification of specific skills and effective methods for helping students to acquire them are limited to undergraduate education. To…

  2. Biochemistry and Physiology of Vitamins in Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Euglena gracilis Z requires vitamins B1 and B12 for growth. It takes up and accumulates large amounts of these exogenous vitamins through energy-dependent active transport systems. Except for these essential vitamins, E. gracilis Z has the ability to synthesize all human vitamins. Euglena synthesizes high levels of antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E, and, thus, are used as nutritional supplements for humans and domestic animals. Methods to effectively produce vitamins in Euglena have been investigated.Previous biochemical studies indicated that E. gracilis Z contains several vitamin-related novel synthetic enzymes and metabolic pathways which suggests that it is a highly suitable organism for elucidating the physiological functions of vitamins in comparative biochemistry and biological evolution. E. gracilis Z has an unusual biosynthetic pathway for vitamin C, a hybrid of the pathways found in animals and plants. This chapter presents up-to-date information on the biochemistry and physiological functions of vitamins in this organism.

  3. Molecular characterization and phylogeny of four new species of the genus trichonympha (Parabasalia, trichonymphea) from lower termite hindguts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boscaro, V.; James, E. R.; Fiorito, R.; Hehenberger, E.; Karnkowska, A.; del Campo, J.; Kolísko, Martin; Irwin, N. A.T.; Mathur, V.; Scheffrahn, R. H.; Keeling, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 9 (2017), s. 3570-3575, č. článku 002169. ISSN 1466-5026 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parabasalids * SSU rRNA phylogeny * termite symbionts * trichonympha Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2016

  4. Systems biology for molecular life sciences and its impact in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Miguel Ángel

    2013-03-01

    Modern systems biology is already contributing to a radical transformation of molecular life sciences and biomedicine, and it is expected to have a real impact in the clinical setting in the next years. In this review, the emergence of systems biology is contextualized with a historic overview, and its present state is depicted. The present and expected future contribution of systems biology to the development of molecular medicine is underscored. Concerning the present situation, this review includes a reflection on the "inflation" of biological data and the urgent need for tools and procedures to make hidden information emerge. Descriptions of the impact of networks and models and the available resources and tools for applying them in systems biology approaches to molecular medicine are provided as well. The actual current impact of systems biology in molecular medicine is illustrated, reviewing two cases, namely, those of systems pharmacology and cancer systems biology. Finally, some of the expected contributions of systems biology to the immediate future of molecular medicine are commented.

  5. Protein purification protocols [Methods in molecular biology, v. 59

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doonan, Shawn

    1996-01-01

    ... both chemical and molecular methods, and how to dry and store the purified protein. Protein Purification Protocols provides all that is needed to design and carry out a successful purification program...

  6. Introduction to the cellular and molecular biology of cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selby, P. (Peter); Knowles, Margaret A

    2005-01-01

    ... A. Prigent 186xii CONTENTS 12 Apoptosis: molecular physiology and significance for cancer therapeutics Dean A. Fennell 210 13 Mechanisms of viral carcinogenesis Paul Farrell 229 14 Cytokines and canc...

  7. A Comprehensive Experiment for Molecular Biology: Determination of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Human REV3 Gene Using PCR-RFLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Shao, Meng; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Zixuan; Zhou, Liping; Yan, Yongmin; Shao, Qixiang; Xu, Wenrong; Qian, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory exercise is helpful for medical students to understand the basic principles of molecular biology and to learn about the practical applications of molecular biology. We have designed a lab course on molecular biology about the determination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in human REV3 gene, the product of which is a subunit of…

  8. Practices and Exploration on Competition of Molecular Biological Detection Technology among Students in Food Quality and Safety Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaning; Peng, Yuke; Li, Pengfei; Zhuang, Yingping

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing importance in the application of the molecular biological detection technology in the field of food safety, strengthening education in molecular biology experimental techniques is more necessary for the culture of the students in food quality and safety major. However, molecular biology experiments are not always in curricula…

  9. Structural Molecular Biology-A Personal Reflection on the Occasion of John Kendrew's 100th Birthday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Patrick

    2017-08-18

    Here, I discuss the development and future of structural molecular biology, concentrating on the eukaryotic transcription machinery and reflecting on John Kendrew's legacy from a personal perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Laboratory techniques in plant molecular biology taught with UniformMu insertion alleles of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    An undergraduate course - Laboratory Techniques in Plant Molecular Biology - was organized around our research application of UniformMu insertion alleles to investigate mitochondrial functions in plant reproduction. The course objectives were to develop students’ laboratory, record keeping, bioinfor...

  11. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology. This report describes new approaches that are faster, less resource intensive, and more robust that can help ...

  12. Introducing Molecular Biology to Environmental Engineers through Development of a New Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerther, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a molecular biology course designed for environmental engineering majors using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid-targeted technology that allows students to identify and study microorganisms in bioreactor environments. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  13. The evolution of the Krebs cycle: A promising subject for meaningful learning of biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Caetano; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2016-05-06

    Evolution has been recognized as a key concept for biologists. To enhance comprehension and motivate biology undergraduates for the contents of central energetic metabolism, we addressed the Krebs cycle structure and functions in an evolutionary view. To this end, we created a study guide that contextualizes the emergence of the cyclic pathway, in light of the prokaryotic influence since the early anaerobic condition of the Earth to increase oxygen in the atmosphere. The study guide is composed of three interrelated sections: (1) a problem, designed to arouse curiosity, inform and motivate students, (2) a text about life evolution, including early microorganisms and the emergence of the Krebs cycle, and (3) questions for debate. The activity consisted on individual reading and peer discussion based on this written material, under the guidance of the instructors. The questions were designed to foster debate in an ever-increasing level of complexity and to strengthen the main contextual aspects leading to emergence, evolving, and permanency of a complex metabolic pathway. Based on classroom observation, analysis of student's written responses, and individual interviews, we noticed they were engaged and motivated by the task, especially during group discussion. The whole experience suggests that the study guide was a stimulus to broaden the comprehension of the Krebs cycle, reinforcing the evolutionary approach as an important subject for learning purposes. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:288-296, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Judith [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2012-06-22

    The Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology was held at Holderness School, Holderness New Hampshire, June 17 - 22, 2012. The 2012 Gordon Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (CMFB) will present the latest, cutting-edge research on the exciting and growing field of molecular and cellular aspects of fungal biology. Topics will range from yeast to filamentous fungi, from model systems to economically important organisms, and from saprophytes and commensals to pathogens of plants and animals. The CMFB conference will feature a wide range of topics including systems biology, cell biology and morphogenesis, organismal interactions, genome organisation and regulation, pathogenesis, energy metabolism, biomass production and population genomics. The Conference was well-attended with 136 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  15. Phosphorus-32 in the Phage Group: radioisotopes as historical tracers of molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Creager, Angela N.H.

    2009-01-01

    The recent historiography of molecular biology features key technologies, instruments and materials, which offer a different view of the field and its turning points than preceding intellectual and institutional histories. Radioisotopes, in this vein, became essential tools in postwar life science research, including molecular biology, and are here analyzed through their use in experiments on bacteriophage. Isotopes were especially well suited for studying the dynamics of chemical transformat...

  16. Workshop in computational molecular biology, April 15, 1991--April 14, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavare, S.

    1995-04-12

    Funds from this award were used to the Workshop in Computational Molecular Biology, `91 Symposium entitled Interface: Computing Science and Statistics, Seattle, Washington, April 21, 1991; the Workshop in Statistical Issues in Molecular Biology held at Stanford, California, August 8, 1993; and the Session on Population Genetics a part of the 56th Annual Meeting, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, San Francisco, California, August 9, 1993.

  17. Using yeast to determine the functional consequences of mutations in the human p53 tumor suppressor gene: An introductory course-based undergraduate research experience in molecular and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S; Brownell, Sara E; Seawell, Patricia Chandler; Malladi, Shyamala; Imam, Jamie F Conklin; Singla, Veena; Bradon, Nicole; Cyert, Martha S; Stearns, Tim

    2017-03-04

    The opportunity to engage in scientific research is an important, but often neglected, component of undergraduate training in biology. We describe the curriculum for an innovative, course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) appropriate for a large, introductory cell and molecular biology laboratory class that leverages students' high level of interest in cancer. The course is highly collaborative and emphasizes the analysis and interpretation of original scientific data. During the course, students work in teams to characterize a collection of mutations in the human p53 tumor suppressor gene via expression and analysis in yeast. Initially, student pairs use both qualitative and quantitative assays to assess the ability of their p53 mutant to activate expression of reporter genes, and they localize their mutation within the p53 structure. Through facilitated discussion, students suggest possible molecular explanations for the transactivation defects displayed by their p53 mutants and propose experiments to test these hypotheses that they execute during the second part of the course. They use a western blot to determine whether mutant p53 levels are reduced, a DNA-binding assay to test whether recognition of any of three p53 target sequences is compromised, and fluorescence microscopy to assay nuclear localization. Students studying the same p53 mutant periodically convene to discuss and interpret their combined data. The course culminates in a poster session during which students present their findings to peers, instructors, and the greater biosciences community. Based on our experience, we provide recommendations for the development of similar large introductory lab courses. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(2):161-178, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. StrateGene: object-oriented programming in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart, R E; Cash, H D; Moore, J F

    1988-03-01

    This paper describes some of the ways that object-oriented programming methodologies have been used to represent and manipulate biological information in a working application. When running on a Xerox 1100 series computer, StrateGene functions as a genetic engineering workstation for the management of information about cloning experiments. It represents biological molecules, enzymes, fragments, and methods as classes, subclasses, and members in a hierarchy of objects. These objects may have various attributes, which themselves can be defined and classified. The attributes and their values can be passed from the classes of objects down to the subclasses and members. The user can modify the objects and their attributes while using them. New knowledge and changes to the system can be incorporated relatively easily. The operations on the biological objects are associated with the objects themselves. This makes it easier to invoke them correctly and allows generic operations to be customized for the particular object.

  19. A Model of How Different Biology Experts Explain Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Caleb M.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Constructing explanations is an essential skill for all science learners. The goal of this project was to model the key components of expert explanation of molecular and cellular mechanisms. As such, we asked: What is an appropriate model of the components of explanation used by biology experts to explain molecular and cellular mechanisms? Do…

  20. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 4: the "nutritional systems biology level"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Cavallieri, D.; Roche, H.M.; Klein, U.I.; Daniel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional systems biology may be defined as the ultimate goal of molecular nutrition research, where all relevant aspects of regulation of metabolism in health and disease states at all levels of its complexity are taken into account to describe the molecular physiology of nutritional processes.

  1. What history tells us XVI. A third pillar for molecular biology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-02-27

    Feb 27, 2009 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 1. What history tells us XVI. A third pillar for molecular biology: Molecular embryology. Michel Morange. Series Volume 34 Issue 1 March 2009 pp 17-20. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Tangible Models and Haptic Representations Aid Learning of Molecular Biology Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Kristen; Powers, Jacklyn; Couper, Lisa; Silberglitt, Matt; Davenport, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    Can novel 3D models help students develop a deeper understanding of core concepts in molecular biology? We adapted 3D molecular models, developed by scientists, for use in high school science classrooms. The models accurately represent the structural and functional properties of complex DNA and Virus molecules, and provide visual and haptic…

  3. In vitro studies. Contribution of radioactive marking to molecular biology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentenac, A.

    1997-01-01

    The spectacular and rapid development of molecular biology is essentially related to the utilization of marked molecules which leads to quantitative and qualitative information; the use of radioactive tracers allowed for the observation of the biosynthesis of biological polymers, and thus, for example, the formation of DNA, RNA or proteins. A historical review of the great discoveries in this field, is presented

  4. From Gene to Protein: A 3-Week Intensive Course in Molecular Biology for Physical Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a 3-week intensive molecular biology methods course based upon fluorescent proteins, which is successfully taught at the McGill University to advanced undergraduates and graduates in physics, chemical engineering, biomedical engineering, and medicine. No previous knowledge of biological terminology or methods is expected, so…

  5. Molecular biology and its applications in orthodontics and oral and maxillofacial surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yjin

    2005-01-01

    : Molecular biology is an exciting, rapidly expanding field, which has enabled enormously greater understanding of the biology of diseases and malfunctions in many fields. It chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the

  6. Systems Biology-Driven Hypotheses Tested In Vivo: The Need to Advancing Molecular Imaging Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Garima; Palombo, Alessandro; Grigioni, Mauro; La Monaca, Morena; D'Avenio, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Processing and interpretation of biological images may provide invaluable insights on complex, living systems because images capture the overall dynamics as a "whole." Therefore, "extraction" of key, quantitative morphological parameters could be, at least in principle, helpful in building a reliable systems biology approach in understanding living objects. Molecular imaging tools for system biology models have attained widespread usage in modern experimental laboratories. Here, we provide an overview on advances in the computational technology and different instrumentations focused on molecular image processing and analysis. Quantitative data analysis through various open source software and algorithmic protocols will provide a novel approach for modeling the experimental research program. Besides this, we also highlight the predictable future trends regarding methods for automatically analyzing biological data. Such tools will be very useful to understand the detailed biological and mathematical expressions under in-silico system biology processes with modeling properties.

  7. Recent advances in yeast molecular biology: recombinant DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 25 papers presented at a workshop focusing on chromosomal structure, gene regulation, recombination, DNA repair, and cell type control, that have been obtained by experimental approaches incorporating the new technologies of yeast DNA transformation, molecular cloning, and DNA sequence analysis

  8. Recent advances in yeast molecular biology: recombinant DNA. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 25 papers presented at a workshop focusing on chromosomal structure, gene regulation, recombination, DNA repair, and cell type control, that have been obtained by experimental approaches incorporating the new technologies of yeast DNA transformation, molecular cloning, and DNA sequence analysis. (KRM)

  9. MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AT FATAL CONSEQUENCES OF VIRAL MYOCARDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smelyanskaya MV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diagnosis of viral myocarditis, based on the evidence base, is still one of the key problems of the heart disease. The presence of morphological features of the inflammatory process makes it possible to confirm the diagnosis of myocarditis, but, at the same time, the absence of these features is not sufficient to remove this diagnosis. In routine postmortem study of deaths in multidisciplinary (non-infectious hospital myocarditis is stated as a cause of death in 0.2-0.4% of all the autopsies. Mortality in myocarditis depends on the severity of the underlying disease, premorbid background, age and sex composition of the patients. According to different authors, it is very different and ranges from 0.03 to 26%. The aim of the work was to carry out histological and molecular biological studies postmortem material for confirming the etiologic role of herpesviruses with fatal consequences of infectious myocarditis during the observation period 2015-2016 years. Material & methods. The material of pathological heart, vascular endothelium, nerve ganglia, kidneys, liver and pancreas were investigated. Viral antigen detection was performed by fluorescent antibody technique with specific sera labeled with FITC (Dako Corporation, Carpinteria, CA and detection of the viral genome by PCR (in SYNEVO Laboratory. Morphological studies have been conducted in the post-mortem offices of the Kharkov clinical hospitals. Detection of viral genome was performed by PCR using certified commercial kits for detection of nucleotide sequences of herpesviruses «HSV I, II-EPh», «VZV-FL», «EBV-EPh», «CMV-EPh», «HHV VI-Eph», («AmpliSens». Diagnosis was made in «real time» using modern six-channel thermocycler «Rotor Gene 6000» (Qiagen, Germany. The first group consisted of 19 people who died from infectious myocarditis (group 1. The second group (group 2 consisted of 22 dead from complications of other cardiovascular disease. Pathoanatomical

  10. Postmortem Biochemistry and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Flanagan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of postmortem biochemistry and toxicology is either to help establish the cause of death, or to gain information on events immediately before death. If self-poisoning is suspected, the diagnosis may be straightforward and all that could be required is confirmation of the agents involved. However, if the cause of death is not immediately obvious then suspicion of possible poisoning or of conditions such as alcoholic ketoacidosis is of course crucial. On the other hand, it may be important to investigate adherence to prescribed therapy, for example with anticonvulsants or antipsychotics, hence sensitive methods are required. Blood sampling (needle aspiration, peripheral vein, for example femoral, ideally after proximal ligation before opening the body minimizes the risk of sample contamination with, for example, gut contents or urine. Other specimens (stomach contents, urine, liver, vitreous humor may also be valuable and may be needed to corroborate unexpected or unusual findings in the absence of other evidence. The site of sampling should always be recorded. The availability of antemortem specimens should not necessarily preclude postmortem sampling. Appropriate sample preservation, transport, and storage are mandatory. Interpretation of analytical toxicology results must take into account what is known of the pharmacokinetics and toxicology of the agent(s in question, the circumstances under which death occurred including the mechanism of exposure, and other factors such as the stability of the analyte(s and the analytical methods used. It is important to realise that changes may occur in the composition of body fluids, even peripheral blood, after death. Such changes are likely to be greater after attempted resuscitation, and with centrally-acting drugs with large volumes of distribution given chronically, and may perhaps be minimised by prompt refrigeration of the body and performing the autopsy quickly.

  11. Teaching Cell and Molecular Biology for Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sible, Jill C.; Wilhelm, Dayna E.; Lederman, Muriel

    2006-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, including cell biology, are characterized by the "leaky pipeline" syndrome in which, over time, women leave the discipline. The pipeline itself and the pond into which it empties may not be neutral. Explicating invisible norms, attitudes, and practices by integrating social…

  12. Towards molecular medicine: a case for a biological periodic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawad, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The recently amplified pace of development in the technologies to study both normal and aberrant cellular physiology has allowed for a transition from the traditional reductionist approaches to global interrogations of human biology. This transformation has created the anticipation that we will soon more effectively treat or contain most types of diseases through a 'systems-based' approach to understanding and correcting the underlying etiology of these processes. However, to accomplish these goals, we must first have a more comprehensive understanding of all the elements involved in human cellular physiology, as well as why and how they interact. With the vast number of biological components that have and are being discovered, creating methods with modern computational techniques to better organize biological elements is the next requisite step in this process. This article aims to articulate the importance of the organization of chemical elements into a periodic table had on the conversion of chemistry into a quantitative, translatable science, as well as how we can apply the lessons learned in that transition to the current transformation taking place in biology.

  13. [Research activity in clinical biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, H.L.; Larsen, B.; Ingwersen, P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitative bibliometric measurements of research activity are frequently used, e.g. for evaluating applicants for academic positions. The purpose of this investigation is to assess research activity within the medical speciality of Clinical Biochemistry by comparing it with a matched...... Clinical Biochemistry, 57 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Each of these 57 was matched according to medical title with two randomly chosen specialists from other specialities, totaling 114. Using Medline and the Web of Science, the number of publications and the number of citations were then ascertained....... RESULTS: 25% of the 11,691 specialists held a PhD degree or doctoral degree, DMSci, (Clinical Biochemistry: 61%). The 171 specialists included in the study had 9,823 papers in Medline and 10,140 papers in the Web of Science. The number of Medline papers per specialist was 71 for Clinical Biochemistry...

  14. Retinal Biochemistry, Physiology and Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ricardo Luiz; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Chong, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The vitreous, the vasculature of the retina, macular pigments, phototransduction, retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane and the extracellular matrix, all play an important role in the normal function of the retina as well as in diseases. Understanding the pathophysiology allows us to target treatment. As ocular angiogenesis, immunity and inflammation are covered elsewhere, those subjects will not be discussed in this chapter. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Medical Biochemistry – Clinical Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Henrique Cavalcante; Carla Rhuama de Freitas Araújo; Felipe Sales de Lima; Marcel Setúbal Costa; Hannaly Wana Bezerra Pereira; Iara Dantas de Souza; Jéssyca Tamires da Fonseca; Sara Ester de Lima Costa; Daniel Carlos Ferreira Lanza

    2017-01-01

    The presentation of situations that exemplifies the practical application of the biochemical concepts is one of the main challenges in the development of didactic materials for the teaching of biochemistry. So far, there are a small number of materials, especially in Portuguese language, that present practical situations exemplifying the application of the several biochemical concepts in the area of human health. The Medical Biochemistry-Clinical Cases app/ebook is intended to enable the inte...

  16. Biologia molecular do câncer cervical Molecular biology of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Augusto Rivoire

    2006-01-01

    . How HPV immortalizes cervical cells is not fully understood. Advances have been made in the application of molecular biology techniques in the understanding of this mechanism. Once established, these techniques will lead to a better assessment of cervical neoplasias and help the development of new therapies, hopefully less invasive and more effective.

  17. [Progress in molecular biology of a semi-mangrove, Millettia pinnata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianzi; Zhang, Wanke; Huang, Rongfeng; Zheng, Yizhi

    2015-04-01

    Millettia pinnata L. is a leguminous tree with great potential in biodiesel applications and also a typical semi-mangrove. In this review, we presented several aspects about the recent research progress in molecular biology of M. pinnata. We descrived several types of molecular markers used to assess the genetic diversity and phylogeny of this species, genome and transcriptome analyses based on high-throughput sequencing platform accomplished for this species, and several gene and genomic sequences of this species isolated for further research. Finally, based on the current research progress, we proposed some orientations for future molecular biology research on M. pinnata.

  18. Comparison of two different techniques of cooperative learning approach: Undergraduates' conceptual understanding in the context of hormone biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ayfer

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effects of two different techniques of the cooperative learning approach, namely Team-Game Tournament and Jigsaw, on undergraduates' conceptual understanding in a Hormone Biochemistry course. Undergraduates were randomly assigned to Group 1 (N = 23) and Group 2 (N = 29). Instructions were accomplished using Team-Game Tournament in Group 1 and Jigsaw in Group 2. Before the instructions, all groups were informed about cooperative learning and techniques, their responsibilities in the learning process and accessing of resources. Instructions were conducted under the guidance of the researcher for nine weeks and the Hormone Concept Test developed by the researcher was used before and after the instructions for data collection. According to the results, while both techniques improved students' understanding, Jigsaw was more effective than Team-Game Tournament. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(2):114-120, 2018. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. The role and future of in-vitro isotopic techniques in molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, L.; Khan, B.K.

    2004-01-01

    In this review we discuss isotopic in-vitro molecular biology techniques, and their advantages and applications. Isotopic methods have helped to shape molecular biology since its early days. Despite the availability of non-isotopic alternatives, isotopic methods continue to be used in molecular biology due to certain advantages, especially related to sensitivity and cost-effectiveness. Numerous techniques involving the use of isotopes help in the characterization of genes, including the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or mutations. Other isotopic molecular methods are utilized to study the phenotypic expression of gene sequences and their mutation. Emerging branches of molecular biology like functional genomics and proteomics are extremely important for exploiting the rapidly growing data derived from whole genomic sequencing of human and microbial genomes. Recent molecular biology applications like the high-throughput array techniques are relevant in the context of both structural and functional genomics. In proteomics, stable isotope based technology has found applications in the analysis of protein structure and interactions. (author)

  20. The molecular biology of pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Laura; Woodward, Mark; Coward, Richard J

    2018-04-01

    Over recent years routine ultrasound scanning has identified increasing numbers of neonates as having hydronephrosis and pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO). This patient group presents a diagnostic and management challenge for paediatric nephrologists and urologists. In this review we consider the known molecular mechanisms underpinning PUJO and review the potential of utilising this information to develop novel therapeutics and diagnostic biomarkers to improve the care of children with this disorder.

  1. Systems theoretic analysis of the central dogma of molecular biology: some recent results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Yu, Juanyi; Zhang, Mingjun; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Li, Jr-Shin

    2010-03-01

    This paper extends our early study on a mathematical formulation of the central dogma of molecular biology, and focuses discussions on recent insights obtained by employing advanced systems theoretic analysis. The goal of this paper is to mathematically represent and interpret the genetic information flow at the molecular level, and explore the fundamental principle of molecular biology at the system level. Specifically, group theory was employed to interpret concepts and properties of gene mutation, and predict backbone torsion angle along the peptide chain. Finite state machine theory was extensively applied to interpret key concepts and analyze the processes related to DNA hybridization. Using the proposed model, we have transferred the character-based model in molecular biology to a sophisticated mathematical model for calculation and interpretation.

  2. Molecular biology of mycoplasmas: from the minimum cell concept to the artificial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Caio M M; Hoeltgebaum, Daniela L; Machado, Laís D P N; Santos, Larissa Dos

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are a large group of bacteria, sorted into different genera in the Mollicutes class, whose main characteristic in common, besides the small genome, is the absence of cell wall. They are considered cellular and molecular biology study models. We present an updated review of the molecular biology of these model microorganisms and the development of replicative vectors for the transformation of mycoplasmas. Synthetic biology studies inspired by these pioneering works became possible and won the attention of the mainstream media. For the first time, an artificial genome was synthesized (a minimal genome produced from consensus sequences obtained from mycoplasmas). For the first time, a functional artificial cell has been constructed by introducing a genome completely synthesized within a cell envelope of a mycoplasma obtained by transformation techniques. Therefore, this article offers an updated insight to the state of the art of these peculiar organisms' molecular biology.

  3. Research Applications of Proteolytic Enzymes in Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Mótyán, János András; Tóth, Ferenc; Tőzsér, József

    2013-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes (also termed peptidases, proteases and proteinases) are capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds in proteins. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have great medical and pharmaceutical importance due to their key role in biological processes and in the life-cycle of many pathogens. Proteases are extensively applied enzymes in several sectors of industry and biotechnology, furthermore, numerous research applications ...

  4. Introduction to the special issue on molecular imaging in radiation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humm, John L; Dewhirst, Mark W; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2012-04-01

    Molecular imaging is an evolving science that is concerned with the development of novel imaging probes and biomarkers that can be used to non-invasively image molecular and cellular processes. This special issue approaches molecular imaging in the context of radiation research, focusing on biomarkers and imaging methods that provide measurable signals that can assist in the quantification of radiation-induced effects of living systems at the physical, chemical and biological levels. The potential to image molecular changes in response to a radiation insult opens new and exciting opportunities for a more profound understanding of radiation biology, with the possibility of translation of these techniques to radiotherapy practice. This special issue brings together 14 reviews dedicated to the use of molecular imaging in the field of radiation research. The initial three reviews are introductory overviews of the key molecular imaging modalities: magnetic resonance, nuclear and optical. This is followed by 11 reviews each focusing on a specialist area within the field of radiation research. These include: hypoxia and perfusion, tissue metabolism, normal tissue injury, cell death and viability, receptor targeting and nanotechnology, reporter genes, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and biological dosimetry. Over the preceding decade, molecular imaging brought significant new advances to our understanding of every area of radiation biology. This special issue shows us these advances and points to the vibrant future of our field armed with these new capabilities.

  5. A revision of the genus Neogrubea Dillon & Hargis, 1968 (Monogenea: Mazocraeidae): new morphological and molecular data from off the Patagonian coast of Argentina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Alama-Bermejo, Gema; Crespo, E.A.; Raga, J. A.; Montero, F. E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2014), s. 59-72 ISSN 0165-5752 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : kuhnia-scombri monogenea * 28s rdna sequences * host size * platyhelminthes * polyopisthocotylea * phylogeny * digenea * hamuli Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  6. Using Adobe Flash animations of electron transport chain to teach and learn biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the electron transport chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the electron transport chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. Teaching structure: student use of software tools for understanding macromolecular structure in an undergraduate biochemistry course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Sheila S; O'Hara, Patricia B; Williamson, Patrick L; Springer, Amy L

    2013-01-01

    Because understanding the structure of biological macromolecules is critical to understanding their function, students of biochemistry should become familiar not only with viewing, but also with generating and manipulating structural representations. We report a strategy from a one-semester undergraduate biochemistry course to integrate use of structural representation tools into both laboratory and homework activities. First, early in the course we introduce the use of readily available open-source software for visualizing protein structure, coincident with modules on amino acid and peptide bond properties. Second, we use these same software tools in lectures and incorporate images and other structure representations in homework tasks. Third, we require a capstone project in which teams of students examine a protein-nucleic acid complex and then use the software tools to illustrate for their classmates the salient features of the structure, relating how the structure helps explain biological function. To ensure engagement with a range of software and database features, we generated a detailed template file that can be used to explore any structure, and that guides students through specific applications of many of the software tools. In presentations, students demonstrate that they are successfully interpreting structural information, and using representations to illustrate particular points relevant to function. Thus, over the semester students integrate information about structural features of biological macromolecules into the larger discussion of the chemical basis of function. Together these assignments provide an accessible introduction to structural representation tools, allowing students to add these methods to their biochemical toolboxes early in their scientific development. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in biochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.K.M.; Jardetzky, O.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter aims to provide an orienting overview of the main directions in which the field of biological application of NMR has developed, the kinds of biochemical or biological questions which can be studied by NMR, and the major specific NMR techniques useful for this purpose. This discussion is preceded by a brief exposition of the elementary concepts of NMR and supplemented by references to the literature that treats each topic in greater depth. Applications of NMR of interest in biochemistry are treated in three major categories: (1) determination of the structure of biologically active compounds - especially new natural products; (2) studies of biochemical reactions, or processes, especially in vivo; and (3) studies of macromolecular structure and dynamics. 122 refs.; 35 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. Training in radioprotection at undergraduate and postgraduate level at the school of pharmacy and biochemistry, Buenos Aires University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergoc, R.M.; Caro, R.A.; Rivera, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    The advances of knowledge in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, medicine and pharmacology that has taken place in the last 60 years in really outstanding and the application of radioisotope techniques in these fields has contributed significantly to them. The research on metabolisms, biodistribution of pharmaceuticals, pharmacodynamics, etc., is mostly carried out by means of techniques employing radioactive materials. Radioisotopes and radiation are frequently used in medicine both as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Thus, in Nuclear Medicine, many diagnostic procedures are done with radiopharmaceuticals; their production and control are sometimes the responsibility of biochemist. Also, radiometric assays are today a routine method to determine many hormones in endocrinology and in clinical medicine. Receptor determination and characterization is a steadily growing methodology used in clinical biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. Therefore, this is consider of great importance to teach radioisotopes methodology at the undergraduate and postgraduate level in medicine and biomedicine and give to the future professionals, graduates and technicians, an adequate knowledge of this current tool. At the same time it is necessary to harmonize the use of radioisotope methodologies with the environment preservation. At present, the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires offers four different Courses on Methodology of Radioisotopes in which the Radiological Protection is focused on under different aspects: 1) A Course for students at the undergraduate level, in the Biochemistry Cycle; 2) A Course for post-Graduates in Medicine, Biochemistry, Biology, Chemists or other related disciplines to the health; 3) Another one for professionals wishing to up-date their skills; and finally, 4) A Course for Technicians in Nuclear Medicine and/or Biomedicine

  10. Combining Radiation Epidemiology With Molecular Biology-Changing From Health Risk Estimates to Therapeutic Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Michael; Port, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    The authors herein summarize six presentations dedicated to the key session "molecular radiation epidemiology" of the ConRad meeting 2015. These presentations were chosen in order to highlight the promise when combining conventional radiation epidemiology with molecular biology. Conventional radiation epidemiology uses dose estimates for risk predictions on health. However, combined with molecular biology, dose-dependent bioindicators of effect hold the promise to improve clinical diagnostics and to provide target molecules for potential therapeutic intervention. One out of the six presentations exemplified the use of radiation-induced molecular changes as biomarkers of exposure by measuring stabile chromosomal translocations. The remaining five presentations focused on molecular changes used as bioindicators of the effect. These bioindicators of the effect could be used for diagnostic purposes on colon cancers (genomic instability), thyroid cancer (CLIP2), or head and neck squamous cell cancers. Therapeutic implications of gene expression changes were examined in Chernobyl thyroid cancer victims and Mayak workers.

  11. Molecular biology of colorectal cancer: a silent revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Mauro de Souza Leite

    2008-01-01

    Embora os estudos sobre biologia molecular permaneçam como a principal expectativa para o surgimento de novos conceitos e recursos para o tratamento do câncer colorretal, a ausência de resultados de real impacto do ponto de vista clínico ao longo dos últimos anos podem representar uma frustração para quem não esteja acompanhando de perto a evolução das pesquisas nesta área. Assim sendo, nosso objetivo no presente texto é apresentar uma breve revisão do caminho percorrido até o momento desde o...

  12. Two-dimensional engineering of molecular nanoparticles for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tatkiewicz, Witold Ireneusz

    2015-01-01

    El trabajo realizado en esta tesis se ha centrado en dos sistemas de nanopartículas moleculares que tienen un uso potencial en el campo de la nanomedicina: i) vesículas lipídicas – entidades supramoleculares que se proponen como sistemas de liberación de fármacos y ii) cuerpos de inclusión (Inclusion Bodies, IBs) – nanopartículas formadas por agregados proteicos. La primiera parte del trabajo se ha centrado en el estudio comparativo de sistemas vesiculares preparados por i) diferentes metodol...

  13. Molecular biology and immunology of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Theresa; Califano, Joseph A

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, our knowledge and understanding of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has expanded dramatically. New high-throughput sequencing technologies have accelerated these discoveries since the first reports of whole-exome sequencing of HNSCC tumors in 2011. In addition, the discovery of human papillomavirus in relationship with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma has shifted our molecular understanding of the disease. New investigation into the role of immune evasion in HNSCC has also led to potential novel therapies based on immune-specific systemic therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling human risk: Cell & molecular biology in context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    It is anticipated that early in the next century manned missions into outer space will occur, with a mission to Mars scheduled between 2015 and 2020. However, before such missions can be undertaken, a realistic estimation of the potential risks to the flight crews is required. One of the uncertainties remaining in this risk estimation is that posed by the effects of exposure to the radiation environment of outer space. Although the composition of this environment is fairly well understood, the biological effects arising from exposure to it are not. The reasons for this are three-fold: (1) A small but highly significant component of the radiation spectrum in outer space consists of highly charged, high energy (HZE) particles which are not routinely experienced on earth, and for which there are insufficient data on biological effects; (2) Most studies on the biological effects of radiation to date have been high-dose, high dose-rate, whereas in space, with the exception of solar particle events, radiation exposures will be low-dose, low dose-rate; (3) Although it has been established that the virtual absence of gravity in space has a profound effect on human physiology, it is not clear whether these effects will act synergistically with those of radiation exposure. A select panel will evaluate the utilizing experiments and models to accurately predict the risks associated with exposure to HZE particles. Topics of research include cellular and tissue response, health effects associated with radiation damage, model animal systems, and critical markers of Radiation response.

  15. Modeling human risk: Cell ampersand molecular biology in context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    It is anticipated that early in the next century manned missions into outer space will occur, with a mission to Mars scheduled between 2015 and 2020. However, before such missions can be undertaken, a realistic estimation of the potential risks to the flight crews is required. One of the uncertainties remaining in this risk estimation is that posed by the effects of exposure to the radiation environment of outer space. Although the composition of this environment is fairly well understood, the biological effects arising from exposure to it are not. The reasons for this are three-fold: (1) A small but highly significant component of the radiation spectrum in outer space consists of highly charged, high energy (HZE) particles which are not routinely experienced on earth, and for which there are insufficient data on biological effects; (2) Most studies on the biological effects of radiation to date have been high-dose, high dose-rate, whereas in space, with the exception of solar particle events, radiation exposures will be low-dose, low dose-rate; (3) Although it has been established that the virtual absence of gravity in space has a profound effect on human physiology, it is not clear whether these effects will act synergistically with those of radiation exposure. A select panel will evaluate the utilizing experiments and models to accurately predict the risks associated with exposure to HZE particles. Topics of research include cellular and tissue response, health effects associated with radiation damage, model animal systems, and critical markers of Radiation response

  16. Molecular Phenotyping Combines Molecular Information, Biological Relevance, and Patient Data to Improve Productivity of Early Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawnel, Faye Marie; Zhang, Jitao David; Küng, Erich; Aoyama, Natsuyo; Benmansour, Fethallah; Araujo Del Rosario, Andrea; Jensen Zoffmann, Sannah; Delobel, Frédéric; Prummer, Michael; Weibel, Franziska; Carlson, Coby; Anson, Blake; Iacone, Roberto; Certa, Ulrich; Singer, Thomas; Ebeling, Martin; Prunotto, Marco

    2017-05-18

    Today, novel therapeutics are identified in an environment which is intrinsically different from the clinical context in which they are ultimately evaluated. Using molecular phenotyping and an in vitro model of diabetic cardiomyopathy, we show that by quantifying pathway reporter gene expression, molecular phenotyping can cluster compounds based on pathway profiles and dissect associations between pathway activities and disease phenotypes simultaneously. Molecular phenotyping was applicable to compounds with a range of binding specificities and triaged false positives derived from high-content screening assays. The technique identified a class of calcium-signaling modulators that can reverse disease-regulated pathways and phenotypes, which was validated by structurally distinct compounds of relevant classes. Our results advocate for application of molecular phenotyping in early drug discovery, promoting biological relevance as a key selection criterion early in the drug development cascade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL FACTORS IN THE PREDICTION OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vtorushin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to review the available data on molecular-genetic diagnostic and prognostic markers in prostate cancer. Material and methods. The following electronic databases were used for our systematic review: Medline, Cochrane Library and Elibrary. Of 540 studies, 61 were used for our systematic review. Results. There are currently a variety of both prognostic and diagnostic markers used for diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. The review presents the classification of markers depending on the method and medium in which they were identified. The molecular mechanisms of participation of the different genes and proteins in the pathogenesis and progression of prostate carcinoma were analyzed and the potential importance of their use in clinical practice was provided. Conclusion. Many of the existing markers can be used for screening and early detection of tumors, and they have been proved to have a prognostic value. However, contradictory findings with regard to certain proteins and genes require further study, their validation with the subsequent implementation into clinical practice.

  18. An interactive computer lab of the galvanic cell for students in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrand, Emma; Buetti-Dinh, Antoine; Friedman, Ran

    2018-01-01

    We describe an interactive module that can be used to teach basic concepts in electrochemistry and thermodynamics to first year natural science students. The module is used together with an experimental laboratory and improves the students' understanding of thermodynamic quantities such as Δ r G, Δ r H, and Δ r S that are calculated but not directly measured in the lab. We also discuss how new technologies can substitute some parts of experimental chemistry courses, and improve accessibility to course material. Cloud computing platforms such as CoCalc facilitate the distribution of computer codes and allow students to access and apply interactive course tools beyond the course's scope. Despite some limitations imposed by cloud computing, the students appreciated the approach and the enhanced opportunities to discuss study questions with their classmates and instructor as facilitated by the interactive tools. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(1):58-65, 2018. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. An overview of HCV molecular biology, replication and immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Zafar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV causes acute and chronic hepatitis which can eventually lead to permanent liver damage, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of HCV infection due to high degree of strain variation. The current treatment of care, Pegylated interferon α in combination with ribavirin is costly, has significant side effects and fails to cure about half of all infections. In this review, we summarize molecular virology, replication and immune responses against HCV and discussed how HCV escape from adaptive and humoral immune responses. This advance knowledge will be helpful for development of vaccine against HCV and discovery of new medicines both from synthetic chemistry and natural sources.

  20. K+ transport in plants: physiology and molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerba, Mark W; Britto, Dev T; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2009-03-15

    Potassium (K(+)) is an essential nutrient and the most abundant cation in plant cells. Plants have a wide variety of transport systems for K(+) acquisition, catalyzing K(+) uptake across a wide spectrum of external concentrations, and mediating K(+) movement within the plant as well as its efflux into the environment. K(+) transport responds to variations in external K(+) supply, to the presence of other ions in the root environment, and to a range of plant stresses, via Ca(2+) signaling cascades and regulatory proteins. This review will summarize the molecular identities of known K(+) transporters, and examine how this information supports physiological investigations of K(+) transport and studies of plant stress responses in a changing environment.