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  1. New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity: crystallographic and biochemical study of STM3605 protein from Salmonella Typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalska, Karolina; Brown, Roslyn N.; Li, Hui; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Niemann, George; Heffron, Fred; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Phage viruses that infect prokaryotes integrate their genome into the host chromosome; thus, microbial genomes typically contain genetic remnants of both recent and ancient phage infections. Often phage genes occur in clusters of atypical G+C content that reflect integration of the foreign DNA. However, some phage genes occur in isolation without other phage gene neighbors, probably resulting from horizontal gene transfer. In these cases, the phage gene product is unlikely to function as a component of a mature phage particle, and instead may have been co-opted by the host for its own benefit. The product of one such gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, STM3605, encodes a protein with modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close homologs in other bacteria share this characteristic. The structure of the STM3605 protein was characterized by X-ray crystallography, and functional assays showed that it is a stable, folded protein whose structure closely resembles lysozyme. However, this protein is unlikely to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. Instead, STM3605 is presumed to have evolved an alternative function because it shows some lytic activity and partitions to micelles.

  2. New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity: crystallographic and biochemical study of STM3605 protein from Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Karolina; Brown, Roslyn N; Li, Hui; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Niemann, George S; Heffron, Fred; Cort, John R; Adkins, Joshua N; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Phage viruses that infect prokaryotes integrate their genome into the host chromosome; thus, microbial genomes typically contain genetic remnants of both recent and ancient phage infections. Often phage genes occur in clusters of atypical G+C content that reflect integration of the foreign DNA. However, some phage genes occur in isolation without other phage gene neighbors, probably resulting from horizontal gene transfer. In these cases, the phage gene product is unlikely to function as a component of a mature phage particle, and instead may have been co-opted by the host for its own benefit. The product of one such gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, STM3605, encodes a protein with modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close homologs in other bacteria share this characteristic. The structure of the STM3605 protein was characterized by X-ray crystallography, and functional assays showed that it is a stable, folded protein whose structure closely resembles lysozyme. However, this protein is unlikely to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. Instead, STM3605 is presumed to have evolved an alternative function because it shows some lytic activity and partitions to micelles.

  3. Autotaxin : biochemical and functional studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, Anna Jacoba Sara

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on autotaxin (ATX), the main enzyme responsible for the production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The ATX-LPA receptor axis has a wide implication in health and disease. The studies described in this thesis aim at characterizing the biochemical and functional properties of ATX,

  4. Chronic exposure to quinalphos shows biochemical changes and genotoxicty in erythrocytes of silver barb, Barbonymus gonionotus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiqul Islam M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo study was carried out on the freshwater fish Barbonymus gonionotus to evaluate the genotoxic effects of the organophosphate quinalphos. The fish were exposed to sub-lethal doses of quinalphos (0%, 10%, 25%, and 50% of LC50 for a period of 30 days. Analysis of biochemical characteristics (protein and lipid contents of different organs, nuclear abnormalities of erythrocytes (NAE and morphological abnormalities of erythrocytes (MAE were performed on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at post-treatment intervals of 0 and 30 days. The biochemical results revealed a significant dose-dependent decline in protein and lipid contents and increase in the frequencies of NAE as well as MAE. Our findings also confirmed that the morphological deformations of erythrocytes in addition to NAE on fish erythrocytes in vivo are effective tools in determining the potential genotoxicity of organophosphates.

  5. Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-28

    Magnaporthe grisea) causes significant yield loss in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to isolate, identify and characterize the pathogen (using morphological, physiological and biochemical methods). Methodology and ...

  6. Haematological and Biochemical Studies on some Ruminants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    CHUKU, L C; *UWAKWE, A A. Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: Haematological studies of ruminant vertebrates (cow, sheep and goat) present one acceptable method of understanding the ecological biochemical and physiological relationship between lower and ...

  7. Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary supplementation with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. ... Furthermore, high dietary supplementation of vitamin E showed no deleterious effects on rats and no pathological changes in the liver, kidney and heart tissues were observed in the ...

  8. Structural, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Characterizations of Glyoxylate/Hydroxypyruvate Reductases Show Their Division into Two Distinct Subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Jan; Shabalin, Ivan G; Matelska, Dorota; Handing, Katarzyna B; Gasiorowska, Olga; Sroka, Piotr; Gorna, Maria W; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Minor, Wladek

    2018-02-13

    The d-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (2HADH) family illustrates a complex evolutionary history with multiple lateral gene transfers and gene duplications and losses. As a result, the exact functional annotation of individual members can be extrapolated to a very limited extent. Here, we revise the previous simplified view on the classification of the 2HADH family; specifically, we show that the previously delineated glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GHPR) subfamily consists of two evolutionary separated GHRA and GHRB subfamilies. We compare two representatives of these subfamilies from Sinorhizobium meliloti (SmGhrA and SmGhrB), employing a combination of biochemical, structural, and bioinformatics approaches. Our kinetic results show that both enzymes reduce several 2-ketocarboxylic acids with overlapping, but not equivalent, substrate preferences. SmGhrA and SmGhrB show highest activity with glyoxylate and hydroxypyruvate, respectively; in addition, only SmGhrB reduces 2-keto-d-gluconate, and only SmGhrA reduces pyruvate (with low efficiency). We present nine crystal structures of both enzymes in apo forms and in complexes with cofactors and substrates/substrate analogues. In particular, we determined a crystal structure of SmGhrB with 2-keto-d-gluconate, which is the biggest substrate cocrystallized with a 2HADH member. The structures reveal significant differences between SmGhrA and SmGhrB, both in the overall structure and within the substrate-binding pocket, offering insight into the molecular basis for the observed substrate preferences and subfamily differences. In addition, we provide an overview of all GHRA and GHRB structures complexed with a ligand in the active site.

  9. Structural and Biochemical Studies of LysM Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Mei Mei Jaslyn Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The Lysin Motif (LysM) is a well characterised carbohydrate-binding module that is present, usually as repeated entities, in proteins from all organisms except archaea. The functional significance of the multiplicity of the LysM module was investigated using two homologous NlpC/P60 endopeptidases...... involved in peptidoglycan hydrolysis; the Cell Wall Lytic enzyme associated with cell Separation (CwlS) from Bacillus subtilis, and P60_Tth from Thermus thermopiles. Biochemical studies conducted on purified CwlS showed that multiple LysM modules function cooperatively to bind N-acetylglucosamine (NAG......) polymers, and that the increased affinity was positively correlated to the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The cooperativity of LysM domains was further demonstrated in structural studies on P60_2LysM, a variant of P60_Tth that contains only two LysM domains and lacks the catalytic domain. Ligand...

  10. Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolates of P. grisea showed ability to metabolize a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources among which dextrose and NaNO3 were the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources for mycelial growth of all isolates. The variations in the utilization of the various carbon and nitrogen compounds seem to reflect inherent ...

  11. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  12. Comparative biochemical studies of type 3 poliovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Minor, P D

    1980-01-01

    A study of the biochemistry of type 3 poliovirus strains which involves the examination of the virus-coded polypeptides in infected cells and the preparation of oligonucleotide maps is reported. The polypeptide patterns were shown to be a relatively stable property of virus strains and distinguished Sabin vaccine strains from wild strains of poliovirus type 3. This approach may be of value in deciding the origin (vaccine or nonvaccine) of field isolates of poliovirus. Oligonucleotide maps wer...

  13. biochemical and hormonal studies in obese cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, G.I.

    1993-01-01

    The present study was carried out on a total number of 116 obese and 23 non-obese control females. Obesity was assessed mainly by body mass index (BMI). Other skinfold thickness e.g. triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, as parameters of obesity assessment were determined in some obese patients. The degree of obesity was assessed by BMI and categorized as follows: i- Mild obesity, BMI=25-30 Kg/m 2 . ii-Moderate obesity, BMI=31-35 kg/m 2 . iii-severe obesity, BMI= above 35 kg/m 2 . Type of fat distribution was assessed by waist/hip circumference ratio (w/H) as :- i-gynoid (lower body segment obesity). (≤ 0.81) i i- android (upper body segment obesity). (≥0.82)

  14. Biochemical studies on microbial secondary metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udell, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the biosynthesis of the coumarin-glycoside antibiotic novobiocin was instigated to establish the order in which the component subunits were assembled and to isolate the enzymic systems catalyzing the reactions. Radiolabeled novobiocin was obtained by feeding L-(U-/sup 14/C)tyrosine to Streptomyces niveus, and hydrolytic procedures were developed to thus obtain the subunits in labelled form. Synthetic routes to the coumarin and benzoic acid moieties of novobiocin were also developed. The second part of the thesis describes the isolation from Fusarium species of an enzyme system catalyzing hydrolysis of the trichothecene mycotoxin 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol produced by cultures of Fusarium culmorum. A cell-free extract from Fusarium species C37410-90 efficiently hydrolyzed 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol to deoxynivalenol, and a structure-activity profile for the de-esterifying enzymes was investigated by incubating a range of natural and semisynthetic trichothecene mycotoxins. A quantitative HPLC assay for 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol was devised to monitor the enzymic hydrolysis. The enzyme catalyzing 3-de-esterification was purified approximately 22-fold with a yield of 2% by means of centrifugation, salt precipitation and ion exchange chromatography.

  15. Biochemical and histopathological studies on the methanolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study seeks to evaluate the biochemical and the histopathological characteristics of rats administered with various doses of methanolic extract of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf. Wistar albino rats fed with 500 mg/kg and 2 g/kg of methanolic extract of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf for 28 days were dissected and vital organs ...

  16. A pilot study on the isolation and biochemical characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... microbiological and biochemical methods, the study demonstrated the presence of fluorescent and nonfluorescent Pseudomonads in the rhizosphere of chemical intensive rice growing environments. Augmentation of such PGPR including, Pseudomonads in the rice ecosystems will ensure a healthy micro climate for rice.

  17. Epidemiological and biochemical studies on bovine anaplamosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study whose objective was to determine epidemiological, clinical and biochemical characteristics of bovine anaplasmosis was carried out into two phases. The first phase was carried out in November 2005 to October 2006 . The prevalence of bovine anaplasmosis was determined using thin blood film and IFT and the ...

  18. studies on blood and plasma biochemical characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The rats were fed on commercial grower mash and water provided ad libitum. Two separate blood samples were collected from the jugular veins of eight rats at 4th, 8th and 12th month stages of the experiment. One group of the samples was used for haematological studies and the other for biochemical tests. Data collected.

  19. Studies on blood and plasma biochemical characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats were fed on commercial grower mash and water provided ad libitum. Two separate blood samples were collected from the jugular veins of eight rats at 4th, 8th and 12th month stages of the experiment. One group of the samples was used for haematological studies and the other for biochemical tests. Data collected

  20. A comparative study on the biochemical effect of ocular and oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of oral and ocular exposure to cadmium for one and three months on some biochemical parameters using rabbits as animal model. The results obtained show that the kidney, femoral muscle, femur and brain of rabbits ocularly exposed to Cd had a significantly ...

  1. A Simple Approach to Study Designs in Complex Biochemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somdatta Sinha

    Protein sequences. • Biochemical & Genetic information. REVERSE ENGINEERING. LARGE NETWORKS. FORWARD ENGINEERING. All designs that are not physically forbidden are realizable, but not all realizable designs are functionally effective. (in relation to context and constraints of the system and environment).

  2. A case study of evolutionary computation of biochemical adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    François, Paul; Siggia, Eric D

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of evolution have a long history, but their relation to biology is questioned because of the perceived contingency of evolution. Here we provide an example of a biological process, adaptation, where simulations are argued to approach closer to biology. Adaptation is a common feature of sensory systems, and a plausible component of other biochemical networks because it rescales upstream signals to facilitate downstream processing. We create random gene networks numerically, by linking genes with interactions that model transcription, phosphorylation and protein–protein association. We define a fitness function for adaptation in terms of two functional metrics, and show that any reasonable combination of them will yield the same adaptive networks after repeated rounds of mutation and selection. Convergence to these networks is driven by positive selection and thus fast. There is always a path in parameter space of continuously improving fitness that leads to perfect adaptation, implying that the actual mutation rates we use in the simulation do not bias the results. Our results imply a kinetic view of evolution, i.e., it favors gene networks that can be learned quickly from the random examples supplied by mutation. This formulation allows for deductive predictions of the networks realized in nature

  3. Myopathies of endocrine disorders: A prospective clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Major categories of endocrine myopathy include those associated with: Adrenal dysfunction (as in Cushing′s disease or steroid myopathy; thyroid dysfunction (as in myxedema coma or thyrotoxic myopathy; vitamin D deficiency; parathyroid dysfunction; and pituitary dysfunction. Steroid myopathy is the most common endocrine myopathy. Objective: To study the etiology, varied presentations, and outcome after therapy of patients with endocrine myopathies. Materials and Methods: Myopathy was evaluated by the standard clinical procedures: Detailed clinical history, manual muscle strength testing, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK. Endocrine disorders were diagnosed as per clinical features and biochemical parameters. The treatment was given to patients as per underlying endocrine disease. Myopathy was assessed before and after treatment. Results: Out of the 37 patients who were diagnosed with endocrine myopathies, thyroid dysfunction was the most common cause (17 cases, followed by vitamin D deficiency in nine, adrenal dysfunction in six, parathyroid dysfunction in three, and pituitary dysfunction in two. Some patients had atypical presentation (repeated falls in one, tongue fasciculations in one, neck weakness in five, one with ptosis and facial weakness, asymmetrical onset in one, and calf hypertrophy in one. The serum creatine kinase (CK concentration did not correlate with muscle weakness. Following the treatment regimen which was specific for a given myopathy, 26 patients recovered fully. Conclusion: We found varied clinical presentations of endocrine myopathies. All the patients with neuromuscular complaints should be investigated for endocrine causes because significant number of them recovers fully with specific treatment.

  4. Study of interfacial phenomena for bio/chemical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hwall

    This work presents the fundamental study of biological and chemical interfacial phenomena and (bio)chemical sensing applications using high frequency resonator arrays. To realize a versatile (bio)chemical sensing system for the fundamental study as well as their practical applications, the following three distinct components were studied and developed: i) detection platforms with high sensitivity, ii) novel innovative sensing materials with high selectivity, iii) analytical model for data interpretation. 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator (muQCR) arrays with a fundamental resonance frequency of 60 ¡V 90 MHz have been used to provide a reliable detection platform with high sensitivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been explored and integrated into the sensing system as a smart chemical sensing material. The use of nanoporous gold (np-Au) enables the combination of the resonator and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for both quantitative and qualitative measurement. A statistical model for the characterization of resonator behavior to study the protein adsorption kinetics is developed by random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach with the integration of an effective surface depletion theory. The investigation of the adsorption kinetics of blood proteins is reported as the fundamental study of biological phenomena using the proposed sensing system. The aim of this work is to study different aspects of protein adsorption and kinetics of adsorption process with blood proteins on different surfaces. We specifically focus on surface depletion effect in conjunction with the RSA model to explain the observed adsorption isotherm characteristics. A number of case studies on protein adsorption conducted using the proposed sensing system has been discussed. Effort is specifically made to understand adsorption kinetics, and the effect of surface on the adsorption process as well as the properties of the adsorbed protein layer. The second half of the

  5. Study on the alteration of bubaline blood biochemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bubaline blood biochemistry as affected by slaughter was the agenda for this work. Blood samples were collected from 30 buffaloes from abattoirs before and at slaughter. After biochemical and statistical analysis (mean was compared with t-test), it was observed that the albumin, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase ...

  6. Studies on effects of salicylic acid and thiourea on biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Henrik

    2012-08-09

    Aug 9, 2012 ... biochemical activities and yield production in wheat. (Triticum aestivum var. Gimaza 9) ... The leaves which were produced were two-times sprayed with 2.5 and 5 mmol thiourea (Th) ... (growth promotors, photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrates, nitrogenous constituents and minerals). On the contrary, lipid ...

  7. Molecular and biochemical studies of some yeast strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... Kluyveromyces lactis (Y.9) and Pichia jadinii (Y.10) contained almost double the amount of total amino ... Differences between ... biochemical analysis (total protein profile and total amino acids) were used as tools to select the best yeast strains in Saudi Arabia and Egypt as a rich source of animal protein.

  8. [Biochemical, physiological, and enzymatic study of 78 strains of Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori isolated from gastroduodenal biopsies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, J; Alomar, P

    1990-03-01

    A biochemical, physiological and enzymatic study of 78 C. pylori strains isolated from gastroduodenal biopsies is reported. All strains were positive in the oxidase, catalase and urease tests. 97.4% produced SH2 in the lead acetate band and 79.4% showed beta-hemolytic activity in sheep blood agar. In the antibiotic selection tests, C. pylori was characterized to be resistant to nalidixic acid and sensitive to cefalotin . The enzymatic study demonstrated the presence of acid and alkaline phosphatases. This finding and the urease test give C. pylori a define bacteriological character which differentiate it from the remaining campylobacteria.

  9. Study of acute biochemical effects of thallium toxicity in mouse urine by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ritu; Rana, Poonam; Khan, Ahmad Raza; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Devi, M Memita; Chaturvedi, Shubhra; Tripathi, Rajendra P; Khushu, Subash

    2011-10-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a toxic heavy metal and its exposure to the human body causes physiological and biochemical changes due to its interference with potassium-dependent biological reactions. A high-resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy based metabonomic approach has been applied for investigating acute biochemical effects caused by thallium sulfate (Tl(2)SO(4)). Male strain A mice were divided in three groups and received three doses of Tl(2)SO(4) (5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) b.w., i.p.). Urine samples collected at 3, 24, 72 and 96 h post-dose time points were analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. NMR spectral data were processed and analyzed using principal components analysis to represent biochemical variations induced by Tl(2)SO(4). Results showed Tl-exposed mice urine to have distinct metabonomic phenotypes and revealed dose- and time-dependent clustering of treated groups. The metabolic signature of urine analysis from Tl(2)SO(4)-treated animals exhibited an increase in the levels of creatinine, taurine, hippurate and β-hydroxybutyrate along with a decrease in energy metabolites trimethylamine and choline. These findings revealed Tl-induced disturbed gut flora, membrane metabolite, energy and protein metabolism, representing physiological dysfunction of vital organs. The present study indicates the great potential of NMR-based metabonomics in mapping metabolic response for toxicology, which could ultimately lead to identification of potential markers for Tl toxicity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Children with autism show reduced somatosensory response: an MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Elysa J; Khatibi, Kasra; Hill, Susanna S; Siegel, Bryna; Arroyo, Monica S; Dowling, Anne F; Neuhaus, John M; Sherr, Elliott H; Hinkley, Leighton N B; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

    2012-10-01

    The neural underpinnings of sensory processing differences in autism remain poorly understood. This prospective magnetoencephalography (MEG) study investigates whether children with autism show atypical cortical activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in comparison with matched controls. Tactile stimuli were clearly detectable, and painless taps were applied to the distal phalanx of the second (D2) and third (D3) fingers of the right and left hands. Three tactile paradigms were administered: an oddball paradigm (standard taps to D3 at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 0.33 and deviant taps to D2 with ISI ranging from 1.32 s to 1.64 s); a slow-rate paradigm (D2) with an ISI matching the deviant taps in the oddball paradigm; and a fast-rate paradigm (D2) with an ISI matching the standard taps in the oddball. Study subjects were boys (age 7-11 years) with and without autism disorder. Sensory behavior was quantified using the Sensory Profile questionnaire. Boys with autism exhibited smaller amplitude left hemisphere S1 response to slow and deviant stimuli during the right-hand paradigms. In post-hoc analysis, tactile behavior directly correlated with the amplitude of cortical response. Consequently, the children were re-categorized by degree of parent-report tactile sensitivity. This regrouping created a more robust distinction between the groups with amplitude diminution in the left and right hemispheres and latency prolongation in the right hemisphere in the deviant and slow-rate paradigms for the affected children. This study suggests that children with autism have early differences in somatosensory processing, which likely influence later stages of cortical activity from integration to motor response. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Biochemical Study and Technical Applications of Fungal Pectinase

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jing

    2006-01-01

    Pectinases are a group of enzymes produced by bacteria, fungi, higher plants and animals. Pectinases can modify and degrade pectins, a class of heterogeneous and multifunctional polysaccharides present in middle lamellae and primary cell walls of plants. Pectins have been showed to play diverse roles in cell physiology, growth, adhesion and separation. Pectinases are used technically in the processing of fiber production and fruit juice or wine making. We have studied the mechanisms and appli...

  12. 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: Clinical, biochemical, enzymatic and molecular studies in 88 individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünert Sarah C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine metabolism caused by mutations in MCCC1 or MCCC2 encoding the α and β subunit of MCC, respectively. The phenotype is highly variable ranging from acute neonatal onset with fatal outcome to asymptomatic adults. Methods We report clinical, biochemical, enzymatic and mutation data of 88 MCC deficient individuals, 53 identified by newborn screening, 26 diagnosed due to clinical symptoms or positive family history and 9 mothers, identified following the positive newborn screening result of their baby. Results Fifty-seven percent of patients were asymptomatic while 43% showed clinical symptoms, many of which were probably not related to MCC deficiency but due to ascertainment bias. However, 12 patients (5 of 53 identified by newborn screening presented with acute metabolic decompensations. We identified 15 novel MCCC1 and 16 novel MCCC2 mutant alleles. Additionally, we report expression studies on 3 MCCC1 and 8 MCCC2 mutations and show an overview of all 132 MCCC1 and MCCC2 variants known to date. Conclusions Our data confirm that MCC deficiency, despite low penetrance, may lead to a severe clinical phenotype resembling classical organic acidurias. However, neither the genotype nor the biochemical phenotype is helpful in predicting the clinical course.

  13. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT in patients with hormone-resistant prostate cancer showing biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, Francesco; Ambrosini, Valentina; Boschi, Stefano; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Haematology Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Castellucci, Paolo [University of Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Haematology Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Unversitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, UO di Medicina Nucleare, PAD. 30, Bologna (Italy); Mamede, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Molecular Imaging Center, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Schiavina, Riccardo; Martorana, Giuseppe [University of Bologna, Department of Urology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Rubello, Domenico [' Santa Maria della Misericordia' Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT Centre, Rovigo (Italy); Fuccio, Chiara [Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Pavia (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    To determine the diagnostic efficacy of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in patients with prostate cancer (PC) after radical prostatectomy who presented with increasing PSA levels during follow-up in spite of being on hormone treatment (HT), and therefore showing HT resistance. We evaluated a large series of 157 consecutive PC patients previously treated by radical prostatectomy who presented with biochemical recurrence with increasing PSA levels in spite of ongoing HT (HT-resistant patients). At the time of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT, the mean value of trigger PSA level was 8.3 (range 0.2 - 60.6 ng/mL), the mean PSA doubling time (PSAdt) was 5.3 (range 0.4 - 35 months), and the mean PSA velocity (PSAvel) was 22.1 ng/mL/year (range 0.12 - 82 ng/mL/year). {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT was performed following a standard procedure at our centre to investigate increasing PSA levels, either as the first imaging procedure or in patients with negative conventional imaging. At the time of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT all patients were receiving HT (61 were receiving monotherapy and 96 multidrug therapy). PET-positive findings were validated by: (a) transrectal US-guided biopsy in patients with recurrence in the prostatic bed, (b) surgical pelvic lymphadenectomy, (c) other imaging modalities, including repeated {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT, performed during a minimum follow-up of 12-months. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT showed positive findings in 104 of the 157 patients (66 %). {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT detected: a single lesion in 40 patients (7 in the prostate bed, 10 in lymph nodes, 22 in bone, 1 at another site); two lesions in 18 patients (7 in lymph nodes, 7 in bone, 4 in both lymph nodes and bone); three or four lesions in 7 patients (4 in lymph nodes, 2 in bone, 1 at another site); and more than four lesions in the remaining 39 patients (2 in the prostate bed, 12 in lymph nodes, 12 in bone, 11 in both lymph nodes and bone, 2 at other sites). In {sup 11}C-choline PET-negative patients, the mean

  14. Biochemical Study of Anti-Inflammatory Proteins vCCI and vMIP-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-17

    not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. University of California - Merced 5200 North...Lake Road Merced , CA 95343 -5705 ABSTRACT Number of Papers published in peer-reviewed journals: Biochemical study of anti-inflammatory proteins vCCI and...inflammatory protein" Merced , CA. October 2012. 4. Invited Seminar: "Biochemical Design and Investigation of HIV entry inhibitors". California

  15. Biochemical Studies in Some Indigenous Dye Yielding Plants of Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joylani D. SAIKHOM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten natural dye yielding and two mordant plants were biochemically analyzed. Though natural dyes are widely used, information about the active principles responsible for dyeing is hardly available. In the present experiment, total chlorophyll, carotinoids, tannins, phenolics, flavonoids and curcumin were determined among the dye yielding plants, while K, S, P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu and Co were determined in the case of mordant plants. In Bixa orellana, used for yellow dyeing, the carotinoid content was 163.11 mg g-1 and in Clerodendrum chinense and Datura stramonium, which were used for green colouring, total chlorophyll content of 10.29 mg and 11.83 mg g-1 was recorded. Curcumin content responsible for orange colouring in Curcuma domestica was 27.7 mg g-1 while flavonoid content in Solanum nigrum and Terminalia chebula, which were used for brown, brown to black dyes was 24.89 and 21.73 mg g-1. Among the plants used for dyeing different colours, Punica granatum and Parkia timoriana were found to contain higher amounts of total phenols and bound phenols by recording 681.2 mg g-1 and 287.6 mg g-1 total phenols and 151.6 mg g-1 and 130.2mg g-1 bound phenols, while higher amounts of orthodihydric phenols and tannins were recorded in Punica granatum and Strobilanthes flaccidifolius by recording 20.11mg g-1 and 9.54mg g-1 orthodihydric phenols and 675.57mg g-1 and 648.12 mg g-1 tannins, respectively. In case of the plants used as mordant, higher contents of Ca, Mg, K, Zn, Fe and Mn were detected in Achyranthes aspera, while higher amounts of P, Fe and Cu were recorded in Garcinia xanthochymus.

  16. Case Study Shows Disconnect on Civic Journalism's Role

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, M.; Harmsen, S.; Singer, J.; Ekdale, B.

    2017-01-01

    This in-depth case study examines attempts to transform a traditional newsroom to one oriented around civic journalism principles, offering a unique look at the resistance toward those principles even in a digital environment that facilitates new audience relationships. Civic journalism emphasizes understanding and addressing community concerns from a citizen perspective. This study finds that journalists still struggle to integrate citizens’ contributions into newsroom practice in meaningful...

  17. Oklahoma Cherokee formation study shows benefits of gas tax credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, B.J.; Cline, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    To no one's surprise, the administration's recently released energy initiative package does not advocate the use of tax incentives such as the Internal Revenue Code Sec. 29 (tight sand gas) credit that expired Dec. 31, 1992. This is unfortunate since tax credits do stimulate drilling, as the authors' recent study of Oklahoma's Pennsylvanian age Cherokee formation demonstrates. Within this 783,000 acre study area, more than 130 additional wells were drilled between 1991--92 because of tax credit incentives. And such tax credits also increase total federal tax revenues by causing wells to be drilled that would not have been drilled or accelerating the drilling of wells, thereby increasing taxable revenue. In short, tax credits create a win-win situation: they stimulate commerce, increase tax revenues, reduce the outflow of capital to foreign petroleum projects, and add to the nation's natural gas reserve, which is beneficial for national security, balance of payments, the environment, and gas market development. The paper discusses the study assumptions, study results, and the tax credit policy

  18. Large clinical study shows value of therapeutic touch program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newshan, Gayle; Schuller-Civitella, Donna

    2003-01-01

    Representing the largest published sample size of therapeutic touch (TT) outcomes to date, data from this continuous quality improvement (CQI) clinical study suggests that TT, when provided in the clinical setting, promotes comfort, calmness, and well-being among hospitalized patients. In addition, patients are highly satisfied with TT. The newly developed Patient Satisfaction Survey and TT Performance Improvement Tool provide an effective means by which to evaluate a TT program.

  19. REALITY SHOW AS A TYPE OF MEDIA DISCOURSE (A STUDY OF THE REALITY SHOW KEEPING UP WITH THE KARDASHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Ikalyuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on defining peculiarities of the US reality show as a type of media discourse. Based on a study of the reality show Keeping up with the Kardashians, an attempt has been made to determine intralinguistic and extralinguistic factors of creating an image of an ordinary American family in order to attract the public attention.

  20. Biochemical Studies for Producing Biscuits from Irradiated Tomato Processed Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kuraieef, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to produce biscuits as therapeutic diets. Raw materials of tomato processed waste (TPW) were used as a source of some amino acids and elements, (phosphorus, potassium and magnesium), besides amino acids (Phenyl alanine was found to be the first limiting amino acids while lysine was the second limiting one). It was present about 30.66% fiber and 28.1% protein. The total tomato processed wastes remain un-utilized and they not only add to the disposal problem but also aggravate environmental pollution. Tomato processed wastes were irradiated at two doses (1.5 and 2.5 kGy) for preservation. Biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10 and 15% (TPW). All samples of biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation. Biological assay was carried out on rats fed biscuits containing 15% irradiated and non-irradiated (TPW). The weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined, besides the internal organs. The results obtained showed that 15% (TPW) biscuit had the highest content of lysine, isoleucine and fiber (6.36 and 24.80, respectively) and also scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable to control and there was significant changes were recorded irradiation treatment on the rats internal organs

  1. Biochemical study on the effect of some antioxidants on apoptosis in irradiated male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo Kodous, A.Sh.H.

    2011-01-01

    Male albino rats were whole body subjected to 2 Gy every other day up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Animals sacrificed on the 8th day after irradiation showed significant decreases in testis/body weight ratio. Biochemical analysis in testicular tissues showed significant decreases in SOD and CAT activities, concomitant with significant increase in XO activity and TBARS contents. Radiation exposure induced also significant increases in testicular DNA fragmentation, significant increases in mitochondrial NO and Ca +2 contents associated with significant decrease in nuclear GSH content. Testicular LDL-C content showed a significant increase which was much higher than its increase in serum, the content of HDL-C increased significantly, contrarily to serum where a significant decrease was recorded. Histological examination through electron microscope revealed apoptosis in testicular tissue. Either allopurinol (50 mg/kg body weight supplied via intra peritoneal injection) or Hesperidine (200 mg/kg body weight supplied orally by gastric intubation) or allopurinol + hesperidine supplied to rats during 7 consecutive days before irradiation or during 7 consecutive days after irradiation resulted in significant decrease of apoptosis associated with significant amelioration in the disequilibrium between antioxidants and oxidants. All treatments have improved the biochemical alteration in testicular tissues as well as mitochondrial and nuclear changes. However, the improvement was significantly higher when allopurinol, or hesperidine or allopurinol + hesperidine were administered pre-irradiation than post-irradiation. According to the results obtained in the current study, it could be concluded that antioxidants supplementation would protect testicular tissues from apoptosis.

  2. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of Co60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms, leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective was to carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 m NaCl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD50), and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labeled with 29.6 MBq of I using chloramine T method and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35 @ 5 g) were injected IP with 0.1 mL (2.4x10 cpm/mouse) of I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10 cpm/mouse) of I irradiated crotamine. The animals were sacrificed by ether inhalation at 0.08, 0.25, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change protein concentration, electrophoretic profile, or protein primary structure, although differences could be seen by spectroscopic techniques. Gamma radiation reduced crotamine toxicity, but did not eliminate bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. Native and irradiated crotamine have an affinity to skeletal muscle and did not cross the blood-brain barrier. (author)

  3. A comparative study on the biochemical effect of ocular and oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... and three months on some biochemical parameters using rabbits as animal model. The results obtained show that the kidney ..... MT is a heavy metal binding protein which is believed to influence the uptake, ... may probably be due to the omission of the portal blood system after ocular uptake of Cd. It is ...

  4. Immunological, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological studies on cows naturally infected with lumpy skin disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed N. F. Neamat-Allah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Lumpy skin disease (LSD is an infectious viral disease of cattle caused by an LSD virus (LSDV of the family Poxviridae characterized by skin nodules covering all parts of the body. There are many aspects of LSD remaining unknown, thus immunological, hematological, and biochemical parameters were estimated. Materials and Methods: During an outbreak of LSD in Sharkia governorate from Egypt, 211 cows aging (2-4 years were examined clinically for the presence of LSD lesions during the period from July to November 2014. A total of 134 cows from those showed lesions suspected to be LSD. Results: Recorded clinical signs were pyrexia with the development of skin nodules of varying sizes which ranged from a few to several hundred sometimes coalesced together enlargements of the peripheral lymph nodes. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were noticed in the histopathological examination. Immunological studies revealed a significant decrease of lymphocyte transformation rate, phagocytic % and killing % which was marked within 2 weeks postinfection. LSD resulted in non-significant in hemogram in 1st-2nd day post-infection while a macrocytic hypochromic anemia within 10-14th days post-infection. Leucopenia and lymphopenia were recorded 1st-2nd day post-infection while at 10-14th showed granulocytic leukocytosis. Biochemical analysis revealed hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperglobulinemia especially gamma globulins. The significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase activities, creatinine level, blood urea nitrogen and creatine phosphokinase Conclusion: LSDV infected cows in early stages revealed leucopenia. Immunosuppressive effect was pronounced later. In late stage revealed hemolytic anemia, leukocytosis and increase of serum CK, which could aid in diagnosis. Disturbance in liver and kidney function tests have been occurred.

  5. Biochemical studies on histones of the central nervous system. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, M.; Matthies, H.

    1979-01-01

    Rat brain histones were acetylated in vivo by intraventricular injection of [ 14 C]-acetate. More than 90% of the label is the result of a true acetylation. Enzymatic proteolysis of the labelled histone fraction and subsequent chromatographic investigation of the digestion products showed about 60% of the recovered radioactive material to be epsilon-acetyl lysine, whereas 22% of the radioactivity was found in an unidentified spot. (author)

  6. THE MODULATION EFFECT OF MELATONIN AGAINST GAMMA IRRADIATION IN BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON MALE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDOU, M.I.; OSMAN, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate the radiomodulatory role of melatonin in the regulation of some biochemical and histopathological damage in case of total body irradiated rats.Male albino rats weighing 120-150 g were divided into four groups, group (I) control animals, group (II) animals received melatonin daily by gavages (3 mg/kg body weight) for two weeks, group (III) animals irradiated with 4 Gy Gamma rays and group (IV) animals irradiated with 4 Gy Gamma rays followed by daily administration with melatonin (3 mg/kg body weight) for two weeks. Rats were sacrificed on the 1st and 2nd week post-irradiation. Blood samples were collected for biochemical investigations. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were determined as biomarkers of liver functions, urea and creatinine contents were measured as markers of kidney functions, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were selected to evaluate heart damage. Alteration in the level of serum glucose was also determined. Tissue specimens from liver, kidney, heart and spleen were collected for the pathological studies.The results indicated that, the levels of liver enzymes, kidney functions and glucose were increased after irradiation of rats and reduced by the treatment with melatonin. These reductions were more noticed during the second weeks except in case of glucose which increased during the second week compared to the first week. On the other hand, heart enzymes levels were reduced by the effect melatonin which may be important for cardiopathological patients.Histopathological results showed that irradiation of rats induced tissue injuries in liver, kidney, heart and spleen.Melatonin treatment reduced these injuries to minimum.It could be concluded that, melatonin could be used as antioxidant to protect vital organs and their functions against irradiation since it works as free radicals

  7. Study of the microbiological and biochemical effects of gamma radiation on tunisian Millet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Mustapha, Maha

    2006-01-01

    This research project is interested in the study of the effects of gamma radiation on the nutritional components of the Tunisian Pearl Millet (from Kairouan) like agricultural produce able to be contaminated by the mycotoxins, especially by Ochratoxin A (OTA). The first aim of this study was to show the effects of this process on the degree of contamination in term of FMT and yeasts and moulds, then to study its effects on the availability of the OTA after irradiation. The results were positive with a decimal reduction dose (D 10) equal to 1,5KGy for the FMT, and 3,7 KGy for Moulds, as well as a reduction of 74% of the OTA to a dose of irradiation equal to 10 KGy. The study of the effects on the biochemical and nutritional properties after irradiation, like the indice of peroxyd of lipidic oxidation and profile of the fatty acids, the deterioration of proteins and the profile of the amino acids, the polyphenols, a loposoluble vitamin (Vita), the polysaccharides and reducing sugars, shows a relatively loss of nutritional quality and degradations of some major components of our product if we'll irradiate with doses exceeding 2 KGy. (author). 80 refs

  8. Study of some biochemical and genetic risk factors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA ), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) ( both serum levels and the genotypes of the MCP-1 A-2518G polymorphism) with the development of carotid atherosclerosis in systemic ...

  9. A comparative study of some hematology and biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of breed on serum biochemistry and hematological parameters of clinically healthy dogs was studied by collecting blood from the cephalic vein of ten (10) Alsatian and ten (10) local dogs. The parameters evaluated were not significantly different between the two breeds.

  10. STUDIES ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF OVARIAN FOLLICULAR FLUID AND PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Arshad, N. Ahmad, Zia-ur-Rahman1, H. A. Samad, N. Akhtar and S. Ali

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This project was designed to study some biochemical constituents of ovarian follicular fluid (FF and peripheral blood in buffaloes. For this purpose, ovaries were collected from adult buffaloes immediately after slaughter, FF was aspirated and stored at -4°C. Blood samples were also collected from these buffaloes before slaughter, plasma was separated and stored for further analysis. Samples were classified into two groups according to the follicle diameter i.e. small (3-10 mm and large (11-20 mm. The FF and plasma samples were analyzed for various biochemical constituents, including glucose, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, globulin, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, triiodothyronine and thyroxine contents, using commercial kits.The results showed that small follicles had significantly lower (P<0.05 glucose contents than large follicles, while blood plasma had significantly higher (P<0.05 glucose contents than fluid from both classes of follicles. The differences in concentrations of cholesterol, total proteins, albumin and globulin between small and large follicles were non-significant. The concentrations of these compounds were higher in the blood than in FF, except albumin, which was higher in FF than in the blood. Contents of electrolytes and trace elements did not vary between the two follicle classes. However, the plasma levels of these electrolytes and trace elements, except potassium and zinc, were significantly higher (p<0.05 than their levels in FF. The level of potassium was significantly higher (P<0.05 in FF than in the plasma, while serum zinc level did not differ from FF. The differences in concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine in fluid from small and large sized follicles were non-significant. Likewise, the levels of these hormones were non-significantly higher in blood plasma than in FF. It was concluded that FF levels of glucose differed between small and large follicle groups, while blood levels of

  11. Studies on Nodulation, Biochemical Analysis and Protein Profiles of Rhizobium Isolated From Indigofera species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodulation characteristics in five species of Indigofera viz., I .trita, I. linnaei, I. astragalina, I. parviflora and I. viscosa was studied at regular intervals on the plants raised in garden soil. Among the species studied, highest average number of nodules per plant of 23 with maximum sized nodules of 8.0 mm diameter was observed in I. astragalina. Biochemical analysis of root nodules of I. astragalina revealed that the leghaemoglobin content of nodules and nitrogen content of root, shoot, leaves and nodules were gradually increased up to 60 DAS, and then decreased with increase in age. Rhizobium isolates of five species of Indigofera were isolated and screened for enzymatic activities and total cellular protein profiles. All the five isolates showed nitrate reductase, citrase, tryptophanase and catalase activity while much variation was observed for enzymes like gelatinase, urease, caseinase, lipase, amylase, lysine decarboxylase and protease activities. Among the isolates studied, only the isolate from I. viscosa has the ability to solubilize the insoluble tricalcium phosphate. All the Rhizobium isolates exhibit similarity in protein content, except the isolate from I. viscosa which showed one additional protein band.

  12. Acute heat stroke. Epidemiologic, biochemical, renal, and coagulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T F

    1975-11-24

    Fifteen Marine recruits with acute heat stroke were examined for (1) predisposing factors, (2) blood coagulation disturbances, (3) renal function abnormalities, and (4) blood composition alterations. Epidemiologic data identified the following risk factors; previous residence in a temperate climate, first phase of training, fatigue, and strenuous exercise in hot, humid conditions. Results of blood coagulation studies disclosed an increase in prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, with a decrease in platelet count, probably indicating a transient, low-grade consumptive process. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and creatinine clearance were normal. Only mild elevations of SGOT, SGPT, and lactic dehydrogenase levels were noted, and in combination with clinical observations, they argued against significant muscle damage. No deaths or instances of renal failure occurred.

  13. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel kader, S.M.; El Sayed, M.M.; El Malt, E.A.; Shaker, E.S.; Abdel Aziz, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  14. Biochemical and biophysical methods for studying mitochondrial iron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Hampton, Gregory P; Tong, Wing-Hang; Rouault, Tracey A

    2014-01-01

    Iron is a heavily utilized element in organisms and numerous mechanisms accordingly regulate the trafficking, metabolism, and storage of iron. Despite the high regulation of iron homeostasis, several diseases and mutations can lead to the misregulation and often accumulation of iron in the cytosol or mitochondria of tissues. To understand the genesis of iron overload, it is necessary to employ various techniques to quantify iron in organisms and mitochondria. This chapter discusses techniques for determining the total iron content of tissue samples, ranging from colorimetric determination of iron concentrations, atomic absorption spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In addition, we discuss in situ techniques for analyzing iron including electron microscopic nonheme iron histochemistry, electron energy loss spectroscopy, synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging, and confocal Raman microscopy. Finally, we discuss biophysical methods for studying iron in isolated mitochondria, including ultraviolet-visible, electron paramagnetic resonance, X-ray absorbance, and Mössbauer spectroscopies. This chapter should aid researchers to select and interpret mitochondrial iron quantifications.

  15. Biological and biochemical studies on irradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.F.M

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study and overcome two important diseases which attacks potato plant, using some chemical and physical treatments. The first disease was pre harvest brown rot caused by ralstonia solanacearum and the second was post harvest dry rot caused by fusarium oxysporum. The results are summarized as follows: firstly brown rot : 1- Foliar treatment of salicylic acid or calcium chloride on potato plants leads to increasing in plant height and number of potato tubers, since salicylic acid give the highest value of plant height and also calcium chloride give the highest number of potato tubers. Also, this treatment leads to insignificant decreasing in number of potato tubers infected by brown rot. 2- The bacteria ralstonia solanacearum isolated from infected tubers obtained from the project of brown rot, Ministry of agriculture, Egypt, added with irrigate water to the pots this bacteria could infect healthy potato plant and the symptoms of brown rot observed on tubers also pathogenicity test was carried out using seedling of tomato cultivar Gs plants and wilting of tomato plant observed after 10-15 days from injection with R.solanacearum. 3- Concerning D 10 -value determined from the relation between dose rate of gamma ray (k-rad) and log count of bacterial number it was found that the D 10 -value for R.solanacearum was 0.25 kGy

  16. End organ damage in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus : biochemical and magnetic resonance imaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeerdema, Nathanja

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this thesis was to evaluate biomarkers of cardiovascular end organ damage in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. We performed cross-sectional studies with biochemical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. We have demonstrated that insulin resistance is a strong

  17. Study on Biochemical Indices of Liver Function Tests of Albino Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on Biochemical Indices of Liver Function Tests of Albino Rats Supplemented with Three. Sources of Vegetable Oils. 1K.E. Imafidon and *2L.O. Okunrobo. 1Biochemistry Department, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State. 2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City ...

  18. Morphofunctional and Biochemical Approaches for Studying Mitochondrial Changes during Myoblasts Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barbieri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes mitochondrial behaviour during the C2C12 myoblast differentiation program and proposes a proteomic approach to mitochondria integrated with classical morphofunctional and biochemical analyses. Mitochondrial ultrastructure variations were determined by transmission electron microscopy; mitochondrial mass and membrane potential were analysed by Mitotracker Green and JC-1 stains and by epifluorescence microscope. Expression of PGC1 , NRF1 , and Tfam genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis was studied by real-time PCR. The mitochondrial functionality was tested by cytochrome c oxidase activity and COXII expression. Mitochondrial proteomic profile was also performed. These assays showed that mitochondrial biogenesis and activity significantly increase in differentiating myotubes. The proteomic profile identifies 32 differentially expressed proteins, mostly involved in oxidative metabolism, typical of myotubes formation. Other notable proteins, such as superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, a cell protection molecule, and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein (VDAC1 involved in the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, were found to be regulated by the myogenic process. The integration of these approaches represents a helpful tool for studying mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis, and functionality in comparative surveys on mitochondrial pathogenic or senescent satellite cells.

  19. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, Malvina Boni

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective of this thesis was carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with 60 Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast Performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 M Na Cl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a 60 Co source. The native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD 50 and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labelled with 29.6 MBq of 125 I using chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35± 5 g), were injected i.p. with o.1 mL (2.4 x 10 6 cpm/mouse) of 125 I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10 6 cpm/mouse) of 125 I irradiated crotamine. At 0.08; 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 12 and 24 hours the animal were killed by ether inhalation. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration, the electroforetic profile or the primary structure of the protein, although differences were shown by spectroscopic techniques. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of crotamine, but it did not abolish bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. The native and irradiated crotamine have affinity by skeletal muscle and they did not pass the blood - brain

  20. Structural and biochemical studies on ATP binding and hydrolysis by the Escherichia coli RNA chaperone Hfq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Hämmerle

    Full Text Available In Escherichia coli the RNA chaperone Hfq is involved in riboregulation by assisting base-pairing between small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs and mRNA targets. Several structural and biochemical studies revealed RNA binding sites on either surface of the donut shaped Hfq-hexamer. Whereas sRNAs are believed to contact preferentially the YKH motifs present on the proximal site, poly(A(15 and ADP were shown to bind to tripartite binding motifs (ARE circularly positioned on the distal site. Hfq has been reported to bind and to hydrolyze ATP. Here, we present the crystal structure of a C-terminally truncated variant of E. coli Hfq (Hfq(65 in complex with ATP, showing that it binds to the distal R-sites. In addition, we revisited the reported ATPase activity of full length Hfq purified to homogeneity. At variance with previous reports, no ATPase activity was observed for Hfq. In addition, FRET assays neither indicated an impact of ATP on annealing of two model oligoribonucleotides nor did the presence of ATP induce strand displacement. Moreover, ATP did not lead to destabilization of binary and ternary Hfq-RNA complexes, unless a vast stoichiometric excess of ATP was used. Taken together, these studies strongly suggest that ATP is dispensable for and does not interfere with Hfq-mediated RNA transactions.

  1. Biochemical and Histopathological study of Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom in the experimental rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koohi, M.K.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In tropical and subtropical countries, envenomation by scorpions (so-called scorpionism represents a serious public health problem. In the present study, the toxic effects of mice LD50 injections of Mesobuthus eupeus (Me venom on the kidney and liver of anesthetized rabbits were investigated. Six rabbits were selected and ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine were measured at 0, 1 and 3 hours after envenomation and histopathological studies were carried out postmortem. All the animals showed signs and symptoms ofenvenomation within 30-40 minutes and died 3 to 3.5 hours after venom injection. Histopathological examinations revealed glumerolar congestion, dilated vessels of interstitium and focal interstitial congestion in the kidney and focal hemorrhage, central vein congestion, congested vessels in portal areas and dilatedsinusoids in the liver at 3 to 3.5 hrs following venom injection. In addition, biochemical analyses indicated significant rise in the levels of ALT and creatinine following Mesobuthus eupeus envenomation in animals at 3 hrs. However no significant changes were observed at 1 hr. In conclusion, scorpion (Mesobuthuseupeus venom leads to damage in vital organs such as liver and kidney.

  2. New biochemical markers of bone resorption derived from collagen breakdown in the study of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, R; Diaz Martin, M A; Diaz Diego, E M; Disla, T; Rapado, A; de la Piedra, C

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work was to perform a comparative study between three recently developed biochemical markers of bone resorption derived from collagen metabolism--(1) total urinary free pyridinolines (Pyr), (2) serum pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (ICTP) and (3) a urinary-specific sequence for a part of the C-telopeptide of the alpha 1 chain of type I collagen (CTX)--in the diagnosis and follow-up of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Results were also evaluated relative to the classical biochemical marker urinary hydroxyproline (Hyp). The study included 20 untreated osteoporotic postmenopausal women (OSP), age 60 +/- 6 years, range 46-69 years; 27 osteoporotic postmenopausal women treated (OSP-T) by cyclic therapy with disodium etidronate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium for a period between 3 months and 4 years (25 +/- 15 months), age 59 +/- 7 years, range 41-67 years; 17 osteopenic postmenopausal women, age 57 +/- 6 years, range 46 +/- 68 years; and 29 healthy control postmenopausal women, age 56 +/- 7 years, range 41-70 years. The diagnostic criterion for postmenopausal osteoporosis was a bone mineral density (BMD) (Hologic QDR-1000) in lumbar spine and/or femoral neck more than 2 SD below the mean value corresponding to an age- and sex-matched healthy control group. For inclusion in the osteopenic group BMD values had to be between 1 and 2 SD below the mean BMD value corresponding to the control group. We found a significant increase (p < 0.01) in the levels of Pyr/Cr and CTX/Cr (Cr = creatinine) in OSP patients with respect to the control group and we did not observe any significant difference between control and OSP-T or osteopenic women. It is interesting to note that there was a mean increase in CTX/Cr in OSP patients of 101% of the control values, while the mean increase found in Pyr/Cr concentration was only 33%. However, we did not find significant differences in the concentrations of ICTP and Hyp/Cr between groups

  3. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaleem, Shereen Abdelhakim; Hassan, Osama A.; Ahmed, Rasha F.; Zenhom, Nagwa M.; Rifaai, Rehab A.; El-Tahawy, Nashwa F.

    2017-01-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this ...

  4. Comparative study of native and irradiated crotoxin. Biochemical and pharmacological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, N. do.

    1991-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venom, without affecting significantly their antigenic and immunogenic properties. In order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative biochemical and pharmacological study between native and gamma irradiated (2000Gy) crotoxin, main toxin of south american rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified from crude venom by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and then irradiated. Immunodiffusion, electrophoresis and gel filtration showed that the molecular integrity was preserved after irradiation with some higher molecular weight aggregate formation and maintenance of its antigenic capacity. The antibodies induced by irradiated toxin had a similar titer to the antibodies induced by native crotoxin; however with higher protective effects in mice. Crotoxin toxicity became 15 times lower after irradiation, as determined by LD sub(50) in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution occurred with a similar general pattern, with renal elimination. In contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native crotoxin is initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3hs) occurs in phagocyticmononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junctions rich organs (muscle and brain). (author)

  5. Structural and Biochemical Studies of TIGAR (TP53-induced Glycolysis and Apoptosis Regulator)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Jogl, G

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the p53 tumor suppressor by cellular stress leads to variable responses ranging from growth inhibition to apoptosis. TIGAR is a novel p53-inducible gene that inhibits glycolysis by reducing cellular levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an activator of glycolysis and inhibitor of gluconeogenesis. Here we describe structural and biochemical studies of TIGAR from Danio rerio. The overall structure forms a histidine phosphatase fold with a phosphate molecule coordinated to the catalytic histidine residue and a second phosphate molecule in a position not observed in other phosphatases. The recombinant human and zebra fish enzymes hydrolyze fructose-2,6-bisphosphate as well as fructose-1,6-bisphosphate but not fructose 6-phosphate in vitro. The TIGAR active site is open and positively charged, consistent with its enzymatic function as bisphosphatase. The closest related structures are the bacterial broad specificity phosphatase PhoE and the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of the bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. The structural comparison shows that TIGAR combines an accessible active site as observed in PhoE with a charged substrate-binding pocket as seen in the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of the bifunctional enzyme.

  6. Transgenic Peanut (Arachis hypogaeaL.) OverexpressingmtlDGene Showed Improved Photosynthetic, Physio-Biochemical, and Yield-Parameters under Soil-Moisture Deficit Stress in Lysimeter System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kirankumar G; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Mishra, Gyan P; Mandaliya, Viralkumar B; Kumar, Abhay; Dobaria, Jentibhai R

    2017-01-01

    Peanut, an important oilseed crop, frequently encounters drought stress (DS) during its life cycle. In this study, four previously developed mtlD transgenic (T) peanut lines were used for detailed characterization under DS, at the reproductive stage using lysimeter system under controlled greenhouse conditions. In dry-down experiments, T lines maintained better photosynthetic machinery, such as, photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and SPAD (Soil-Plant Analyses Development) values, and had lower oxidative damage, including lipid membrane peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical accumulation than WT, when exposed to 24 days of DS. WT plants had a more negative water potential (WP; up to -3.22 MPa) than T lines did (-2.56 to -2.71 MPa) at day 24 of DS treatment. During recovery, T lines recovered easily whereas 67% of WT plants failed to recover. In T lines, the rate of photosynthesis strongly and positively correlated with the transpiration rate ( r = 0.92), RWC ( r = 0.90), WP ( r = 0.86), and total chlorophyll content ( r = 0.75), suggesting its strong correlation with water retention-related parameters. Furthermore, yield parameters such as, pod weight and harvest index of T lines were up to 2.19 and 1.38 times more than those of WT plants, respectively. Thus, the significantly better performance of mtlD T peanut lines than of WT plants under DS could be attributed to the accumulation of mannitol, which in turn helped in maintaining the osmoregulation and ROS scavenging activity of mannitol and ultimately conferred water-economizing capacity and higher yield in T lines than in WT plants.

  7. Haemato-biochemical and pathological studies on aflatoxicosis and treatment of broiler chicks in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hashem

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of protexin (probiotic, inulin (prebiotic and both (synbiotics, when included in a diet containing aflatoxins and fed to growing broiler chicks (from 1 to 21 days old. The criteria of the evaluation included body weight gain, haematological profile and biochemistry, in addition to associated lesions in chicks. A total of 160 Hubbard male day-old broiler chicks were separated into eight groups that all received different diets (additional aflatoxins, protexin, inulin and symbiotic. The birds were weighed and sacrificed at the age of 21 days. Compared to the controls, aflatoxins alone significantly (p<0.05 decreased body weight gain in one group. No difference in body weight gain was found in three groups, indicating apparent protection against the deleterious effects caused by aflatoxins. The weight gain of chicks fed on the diet containing synbiotics alone or synbiotics and aflatoxins was significantly (p<0.05 greater than that of chicks on a diet containing the other treatments. The birds the second group showed significant (p<0.05 reduction in the haematological parameters in comparison with the controls. The biochemical analysis showed a considerable (p<0.05 increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, uric acid and creatinine levels, with a reduction in the serum total proteins, albumin and globulins. The addition of protexin, inulin, or both, diminished the adverse effects of aflatoxins. Finally, it was concluded that the protexin, inulin and synergism of both are effective in the amelioration of the toxic effects of aflatoxins that may be present in poultry rations at levels up to 4 mg/kg diet. Synbiotics (protexin and inulin are more effective than the protexin and the inulin alone which are variable in the alleviation of toxic effects caused by aflatoxins.

  8. Biochemical and Physiological Studies on the Effects of Senescence Leaves of Populus deltoides on Triticum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinder Pal Khaket

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticum vulgare (Wheat based products are the major dietary source of food in developing countries. In India, it grows in association with boundary plantations of Populus deltoids (poplar. During winter, poplar enters in dormancy which cause a heavy leaf fall at the time of wheat seed germination. Large number of poplar senescence leaves may adversely affect the wheat. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine the effect of senescence poplar leaves on wheat germ and some other biochemical parameters. Seed’s germination rate was determined by measuring root and shoot lengths, percent germination, germination index, and inhibition percentage. Biochemical parameters, namely, pigment, carbohydrate, protein, and phenol content, were estimated. Activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase which are stress marker enzymes were also measured. Results revealed that germination and other biochemical parameters of wheat were severely affected by senescence poplar leaves even at very low concentration. So, intercropping of poplar along with wheat may be chosen carefully as wheat is the major dietary staple.

  9. Biochemical studies on some anti nutritional factors in some feed stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah El-Din, M.F.S.

    2001-01-01

    the present work was carried out to study the effect of gamma radiation on some anti nutritional factors in sorghum and barley grains. also,to study the effect of the other treatments(poly ethlene glycol or K-enzyme ) on the physiological and biochemical responses of chicks (arbor acres). the results obtained revealed that , the treatment of sorghum or barley grains with different doses of gamma radiation (0,10,40,60,80 and 100 KGy) did not induce any significant differences in the dry matter and ash percentages. while, the crud fat, crud protein and crude fiber percentages were reduced, in contrast, the carbohydrate percentage was increased

  10. Yoga Practice Improves Physiological and Biochemical Status at High Altitudes: A Prospective Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himashree, Gidugu; Mohan, Latika; Singh, Yogesh

    2016-09-01

    Context • High altitude (HA) is a psychophysiological stressor for natives of lower altitudes. Reducing the morbidity and optimizing the performance of individuals deployed in an HA region has been attempted and reported with varied results. Objective • The present study intended to explore the effects of comprehensive yogic practices on the health and performance of Indian soldiers deployed at HAs. Design • The research team designed a prospective, randomized, case-control study. The study was done at Karu, Leh, India, at an altitude of 3445 m. Participants • Fully acclimatized soldiers in the Indian army were randomly selected from those posted to HA regions (ie, altitudes >3000 m). Intervention • The soldiers were divided into 2 groups of equal size. The first group, the control group, carried out the routine activities for physical training in the Indian army. The second group, the intervention group practiced a comprehensive yoga package, including physical asanas, pranayama, and meditation, and did not perform the physical training that the first group did. Both groups were monitored during their activities. Outcome Measures • A wide and comprehensive range of anthropometrical, physiological, biochemical, and psychological parameters were measured: (1) height and weight; (2) body fat percentage (BFP); (3) heart rate (HR); (4) respiratory rate (RR); (5) systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DPB); (6) peripheral saturation of oxygen; (7) end tidal CO2 (EtCO2); (8) chest expansion; (9) pulmonary function; (10) physical work capacity (VO2Max); (11) hematological variables; (12) lipid profile; (13) serum urea; (14) creatinine; (15) liver enzymes; (16) blood glucose; and (17) anxiety scores. Measurements were made at baseline and postintervention. Results • Two-hundred soldiers took part in the study. The yoga group showed a significant improvement in health indices and performance as compared with the control group. They had lower weights, BFPs, RRs

  11. Biochemical and physiological modifications in tissues of Sardina pilchardus: spatial and temporal patterns as a baseline for biomonitoring studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva Nunes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sardina pilchardus is a marine species common in the North Atlantic Ocean, and is subjected to diffuse anthropogenic chemical contamination and seasonal fluctuations in biotic and abiotic parameters that may alter its physiology and condition. Biological material is easily available through commercial fisheries, which could facilitate its use as a bioindicator species. The aim of the present work was to address its potential inclusion in biomonitoring studies, considering a combinatory approach through the use of enzymatic biomarkers and somatic indices, by assessing spatial and temporal patterns in a metapopulation along the west coast of Portugal. Our results showed significant variability of the biochemical and physiological profile of the fish, mainly concordant between sampling sites. Large differences for most markers were found across periods of the year, showing the importance of seasonality, which was mostly related to the reproductive cycle. Hence, environmental scientists should acknowledge seasonality as a strong driving force for physiological adaptations, influencing biochemical markers that are normally used to identify effects of chemical contamination. The here-obtained set of data suggests that S. pilchardus may be successfully included in oceanic biomonitoring studies, when one considers that the contribution of seasonal factors may exceed the influence of eventual anthropogenic contamination.

  12. Biochemical and molecular study of genetic stability in tomatoes plants rom seeds treated with low doses of X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, R; Gonzalez, LM; Chavez, Licet; Camejo, Yanelis; Gonzalez, Maria C; Fernandez, Arais

    2008-01-01

    For the extensive agricultural exploitation of vegetable radio stimulation, it is indispensable to study the genetic stability of treated varieties, having in mind X ray potentialities of inducing not only physiological but genetic changes as well. Therefore, biochemical and molecular markers were employed in tomato plants derived from irradiated seeds at low doses of X rays. For the biochemical analysis, peroxidases, polyphenoloxidases and dismutase superoxide isoenzymes were determined whereas the Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method based on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used for the molecular analysis. When comparing the electrophoretic patterns from the control and irradiated treatments applied to the three enzymatic systems, there were not appreciable variations on the number of bands and their intensities, indicating the little variability induced in these systems by the low X ray doses. Also, from the molecular viewpoint, electrophoretic patterns showed a clear amplification of DNA by generating a total of 155 bands in all varieties studied. This molecular marker showed a high monomorphism independently of the treatments applied, with values ranging between 86 and 97 %, indicating that irradiation at low doses did not induce an important genetic variability and confirming its possible practical usefulness for stimulating some physiological processes without causing. (Author)

  13. Parasitological and biochemical studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shara'b District, Taiz, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmaa, Qhtan; Al-Shamerii, Salwa; Al-Tag, Mohammed; Al-Shamerii, Adam; Li, Yiping; Osman, Bashir H

    2017-07-04

    The leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by intracellular haemoflagellate protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Leishmaniasis has diverse clinical manifestations; cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common form of leishmaniasis which is responsible for 60% of disability-adjusted life years. CL is endemic in Yemen. In Shara'b there is no reference study available to identify the prevalence of endemic diseases and no investigation has been conducted for diagnosing the diseases. This study was conducted in villages for CL which collected randomly. The study aimed at investigating the epidemiological factors of CL in Shara'b by using questioner. Symptoms of lesions in patients suffering from CL, confirmed by laboratory tests, gave a new evidence of biochemical diagnosis in 525 villagers aged between 1 and 60 years old. Venous bloods were collected from 99 patients as well as from 51 control after an overnight fast. The percentage prevalence of CL was found 18.8%. The prevalence rate of infection among males (19.3%) was higher than females (18.40%). Younger age group (1-15) had a higher prevalence rate (20.3%) than the other age groups. Furthermore, the population with no formal education had the higher rate of infection (61% of the total). A significant increase of serum malondialdehyde (P < 0.001) in CL patients was obtained. The highest level of MDA may be due to over production of ROS and RNS results in oxidative stress and the acceleration of lipid peroxidation in CL patients. There were high prevalence rates of CL in Shara'b. The patient who had CL has been found with many changes in some biochemical levels. This study provides a clear indication on the role of MDA as an early biochemical marker of peroxidation damage occurring during CL. Increased uric acid, and catalase activity was provided of free radical.

  14. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic substrates: evaluation of anaerobic biodegradability using data from an international interlaboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raposo, F.; Fernandez-Cegri, V.; Rubia, de la M.A.; Borja, R.; Beline, F.; Cavinato, C.; Demirer, G.; Fernandez, B.; Fernandez-Polanco, M.; Frigon, J.C.; Ganesh, R.; Kaparaju, P.; Koubova, J.; Mendez, R.; Menin, G.; Peene, A.; Scherer, P.; Torrijos, M.; Uellendahl, H.; Wierinck, I.; Wilde, de V.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper describes results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, all experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and

  15. Some hematological and biochemical parameters of different goat breeds in Sultanate of Oman "A preliminary study"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Al-Bulushi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In Sultanate of Oman, goats are considered as one of the most important livestock in which there are many breeds of goat such as Batinah, Jabali, Dhofari, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam. Little hematological and biochemical information is known on Omani goat breeds; therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine reference baseline data regarding hematological and biochemical values of different Omani goat breeds. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 healthy animals of different Omani goat breeds (Jabali, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam were selected randomly from different areas in Sultanate of Oman. The blood samples were collected from the jugular vein into two tubes for blood hematology and biochemical analysis. Statistical analysis was applied by using GraphPad Prism 7 software to calculate the minimum and maximum values to determine the range, mean, standard deviation of the mean and the p value. Results: No statistically significant variation in most hematological and biochemical parameters was found among the Omani goat breeds. The results of blood hematology revealed that the mean white blood cells (14.6±3.32 x103/μL, and the percentage of neutrophils in Omani goats (60.87±8.46% were higher than that in most goat breeds. Higher values of red blood cells (12.8±1.28 x106/μL, hemoglobin (10.4±1.92 g/dl, hematocrit (38.29±4.06%, and lower values of mean corpuscular HGB concentration (27.05±3.5 g/dl were observed in Omani goat breeds comparing to that in the other goat breeds. Lower values of total bilirubin (0.22±0.03 mg/dl, blood urea nitrogen (14.62±2.66 mg/dl, and cholesterol (48.58±19.05 mg/dl were found in Omani goat breeds when compared to that of the other goat breeds. Conclusion: The obtained results are considered as the first values to be published for the different Omani goat breeds. This study is considered as preliminary study which can be used as a reference for further

  16. CDIO Projects in DTU’s Chemical and Biochemical B.Eng. Study Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Karsten; Harris, Pernille; Agersø, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe how the CDIO standards [1] have influenced the cross-disciplinary projects that are part of the study plan for the Chemical and Biochemical B.Eng. program. Four projects are described: The 1st semester design-build project on cleaning of waste water from a power...... plant, the 2nd semester laboratory project concerning antimicrobial resistant E. coli bacteria in retail meats, the 3rd semester project on unit operations in enzyme production, the 4th semester project on the fermentation and purification part of enzyme production....

  17. Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Syzigium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaje, E O; Adeneye, A A; Daramola, A O

    2009-05-07

    The effects of long-term administration of boiled aqueous extract of Syzigium aromaticum (SYZ), commonly known as clove (which has been locally employed for treating gastrointestinal tract diseases and also used as food spices), on some biochemical indices, such as body weight, liver functions and blood parameters were studied in adult albino rats of both sexes. Selected doses of 300 and 700 mg kg(-1) were given orally through cannular to groups of animals for a period of 90 days, while the control group received distilled water throughout the duration of study via the same route. Blood samples collected after therapy and assayed for activities of some liver enzymes recorded a significant (p<0.05) and prominent effect on ALP and AST. Measurement of haematological parameters also revealed significant effects (p<0.05; p<0.001) on Hb, RBC (p<0.05), PCV (p<0.001), platelets (p<0.001) and granulocytes (p<0.001). An insignificant reduction was recorded for total WBC. The histopathological study conducted was in consonance with the results of the biochemical investigations that the aqueous extract of SYZ even at moderate doses, significantly affects body organs, their enzymes as well as the various functions. LD(50) for both intraperitoneal and oral routes of SYZ were 263 and 2500 mg kg(-1) respectively. The present work has revealed the toxicity of sub chronic administration of SYZ, which suggests that its prolonged usage must be avoided.

  18. FT-IR study of the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle of Labeo rohita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Renju, V. B.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental problem in the modern world due to increasing human activities. Zinc is an essential element involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. However, it becomes toxic when elevated concentrations are introduced into the environment. The goal of the present study is to investigate the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle tissues of freshwater species Labeo rohita using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Since the muscle constitutes the greatest mass of the fish that is consumed, the present study has paid particular attention to muscle component. The result reveals that the zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical contents of the L. rohita muscle tissues. In addition, it causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the α-helix and increasing the β-sheet contents of muscle tissues. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-penicillamine improves the protein and lipid contents in the muscle tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that D-penicillamine is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings.

  19. Heritability and genetic advance studies for biochemical traits in F2-3 introgressed families of Brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhatullah, N.K.; Khalil, I.H.; Nahed, H.

    2015-01-01

    Higher heritability estimates along with high genetic advance values are effective in envisaging gain under selection in developing genotypes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate variability, heritability and genetic advance in 10 interspecific F2-3 families of Brassica species (B. napus * B. juncea, B. napus * B. rapa). These families were studied for heterospecific introgression of biochemical traits. Low to high heritability estimates were recorded for seed quality traits. Considerable variations within F2-3 families were observed for biochemical traits. Most of the F2-3 families for oil content and erucic showed moderate to high heritability indicating the slightest influence of environment thus modification of trait by selection would be more effective. Among F2-3 introgressed families Bn-510 x Bj-109 produced high oil i.e., 49.5% while Bn-532 x Br-118 (24.4%), Bn-533 x Bj-109 (24.1%) and high protein percentage in terms of mean performance. In the present research, individual segregating progenies of interspecific cross populations i.e., which possessed combination of desirable traits, were identified which could be incorporated in the future Breeding programs and it may facilitate varietal development. (author)

  20. Biochemical studies on gamma irradiated male rats fed on whey protein concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E; Anwar, M.M.; El-bostany, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.

  1. Biochemical approaches to C4 photosynthesis evolution studies: the case of malic enzymes decarboxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigo, Mariana; Tronconi, Marcos A; Gerrard Wheeler, Mariel C; Alvarez, Clarisa E; Drincovich, María F; Andreo, Carlos S

    2013-11-01

    C4 photosynthesis enables the capture of atmospheric CO2 and its concentration at the site of RuBisCO, thus counteracting the negative effects of low atmospheric levels of CO2 and high atmospheric levels of O2 (21 %) on photosynthesis. The evolution of this complex syndrome was a multistep process. It did not occur by simply recruiting pre-exiting components of the pathway from C3 ancestors which were already optimized for C4 function. Rather it involved modifications in the kinetics and regulatory properties of pre-existing isoforms of non-photosynthetic enzymes in C3 plants. Thus, biochemical studies aimed at elucidating the functional adaptations of these enzymes are central to the development of an integrative view of the C4 mechanism. In the present review, the most important biochemical approaches that we currently use to understand the evolution of the C4 isoforms of malic enzyme are summarized. It is expected that this information will help in the rational design of the best decarboxylation processes to provide CO2 for RuBisCO in engineering C3 species to perform C4 photosynthesis.

  2. A biochemically structured model for ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus: A batch fermentation and kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Hobley, Timothy John; Calabrò, V.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic batch fermentations of ricotta cheese whey (i.e. containing lactose) were performed under different operating conditions. Ethanol concentrations of ca. 22gL−1 were found from whey containing ca. 44gL−1 lactose, which corresponded to up to 95% of the theoretical ethanol yield within 15h....... The experimental data could be explained by means of a simple knowledge-driven biochemically structured model that was built on bioenergetics principles applied to the metabolic pathways through which lactose is converted into major products. Use of the model showed that the observed concentrations of ethanol......, lactose, biomass and glycerol during batch fermentation could be described within a ca. 6% deviation, as could the yield coefficients for biomass and ethanol produced on lactose. The model structure confirmed that the thermodynamics considerations on the stoichiometry of the system constrain the metabolic...

  3. Study of microbiological, physico-chemical and biochemical a fourth range salad irradiated for people immunosuppressed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayadi, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    We are interested in this work to immunocompromised patients in the National Transplant Center Bone Marrow of Tunis, that's why a raw salad IV range was irradiated and chosen as auxiliary dish. Following a series of microbiological analysis carried out on samples treated with different doses : 0 (control) , 1, 2 , 3, 3.5 and 4 kGy. 4 kGy dose was the most suitable for this type of dish ensuring good bacterial quality below the limits prescribed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for 9 days of refrigerated storage. The physico-chemical and biochemical parameters showed no significant effect on the gamma radiation on nutrients such as proteins , trace elements and vitamin E. The raw salads IV range perfectly packaged and irradiated can be a good way to stimulate the immune system in immunocompromised patients and improve their health.

  4. Original study of the biochemical and oil composition of the Cambodia nut Irvingia malayana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelier, J; Chunhieng, T; Olle, M; Montet, D

    2002-03-13

    Analysis of the biochemical composition of Irvingia malayana was carried out. This Cambodian nut contains 7.5% water and 70% oil. Most of the fatty acids are saturated and include 42% C12:0 and 41.8% C14:0; the sterol composition is similar to that of other vegetable oils. This oil is less rich in alpha-tocopherol than in gamma-tocopherol. Analysis of the solid content of the oil with respect to the temperature by NMR shows a fast fall of solid content around its fusion range at 38-39 degrees C. The main differences in the properties of the indigenous Cambodia nut from other known oleaginous seeds are in its selenium content, fatty acid composition, fusion temperature profile, and content of antioxidants. These important characteristics can soon make possible its application in pharmacology, cosmetics, the margarine industry, etc.

  5. THE STUDY OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bularda Morozan Mihai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of some biochemical parameters obtained in the laboratory of “Elena Beldiman” Emergency Hospital Barlad, and in the”Dr. Stoian –Dr. Ungureanu”Private Medical Practice on 10 patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma during 2005-2011. Numerous researches over serum proteins with the help of various methods ( refractometry have shown the presence of some changes in protein fractions of blood serum. These changes express the change of the normal ratio between these fractions, that means disorders in colloidal structure of blood. The results of the electrophoresis analysis, also in accordance with those from the scholarly literature, show that the changes in the condition of the blood serum are due to the increase in the globulins fractions which is linked to the growth of the immunological processes, the antibodies synthesis being especially closely linked to gammaglobulinic fraction

  6. biochemical and physiological studies on adult women suffering from obesity and/or some liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Naser, H.F.O.

    2004-01-01

    this study investigates the biochemical and physiological studies on adult women suffering from obesity and/or some liver diseases.100 women in premenopausal period (between 30-45 years) were divided into 5 groups:group(1) control, group(2) obese,group (3) HCV non-obese, group(4) HCV obese and group (5) other liver diseases. the obtained results indicated that, for all female-studied groups there were very highly significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist ,hip circumferences, while ,there were non-significant differences in height and waist hip ratio.also there were very highly significant differences in AST, ALT,Alkaline phosphatase,GGT,bilirubin, these results may be due to hepatic injury and metabolic dysfunction. there were very highly significant differences in HDL,triglycerides and total lipids, whereas it was significant difference in cholesterol and non-significant for LDL, these differences might be contributed to obesity and hepatitis virus C infection

  7. Real-time nonlinear feedback control of pattern formation in (bio)chemical reaction-diffusion processes: a model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt-Pollmann, U; Lebiedz, D; Diehl, M; Sager, S; Schlöder, J

    2005-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies related to manipulation of pattern formation in self-organizing reaction-diffusion processes by appropriate control stimuli become increasingly important both in chemical engineering and cellular biochemistry. In a model study, we demonstrate here exemplarily the application of an efficient nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) algorithm to real-time optimal feedback control of pattern formation in a bacterial chemotaxis system modeled by nonlinear partial differential equations. The corresponding drift-diffusion model type is representative for many (bio)chemical systems involving nonlinear reaction dynamics and nonlinear diffusion. We show how the computed optimal feedback control strategy exploits the system inherent physical property of wave propagation to achieve desired control aims. We discuss various applications of our approach to optimal control of spatiotemporal dynamics.

  8. Biochemical genetics of some Indian fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Qasim, S.Z.

    Studies on biochemical genetics of fishes, using electrophoretic methods, are relatively of recent origin. Earlier serum and eye lens protein were used to identify marine populations. This technique showed that closely related species have...

  9. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  10. Oxidative damage following cerebral ischemia depends on reperfusion - a biochemical study in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nita, D A; Nita, V; Spulber, S

    2002-01-01

    The extent of brain injury during reperfusion appears to depend on the experimental pattern of ischemia/reperfusion. The goals of this study were: first, to identify the rate of free radicals generation and the antioxidant activity during ischemia and reperfusion by means of biochemical measurement...... of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and both enzymatic (superoxide dismutase - SOD, catalase - CAT, glutathione peroxidase - GPx) and non-enzymatic antioxidants activity (glutathione - GSH); and second, to try to find out how the pattern of reperfusion may influence the balance between free radical production...... homogenate using spectrophotometrical techniques. All groups subjected to ischemia shown an increase of LPO and a reduction of the activity of enzymatic antioxidative systems (CAT, GPx, SOD) and non-enzymatic systems (GSH). For both groups subjected to ischemia and reperfusion, results shown an important...

  11. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

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    Oganesyants Lev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties cultivated in the Rostov region of Russia. Cold winters are considered to be the major stress for the grape plants. Under these conditions, leaves accumulate large amount of biologically active substances, including trans-resveratrol, which provide significant advantage compared with the harvest from grapes cultivated in areas where the plants are not protected during winter. Comparative studies on the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous and European varieties were conducted, including on the use of bioassay systems in vitro. It was found that extracts of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties have a marked effect on the rate of glutathione reductase and pyruvate kinase reactions that are demonstrating their angioprotective and energizing properties. The increase in the rate of the catalase reaction indicates the manifestation of antioxidant properties. The technology of CO2 – and highly concentrated hydrophilic extracts production from red vine leaves that preserves biologically active compounds to the maximum extent possible. The extracts are used for the manufacture of soft drinks that have the venomotor action and may be applied in the process of the manufacture of fat products with extended shelf life, as well as the main raw material for the preparations with the pronounced angioprotective effect.

  12. Glycogen storage disease type 1a in Israel: biochemical, clinical, and mutational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvari, R; Lei, K J; Bashan, N; Hershkovitz, E; Korman, S H; Barash, V; Lerman-Sagie, T; Mandel, H; Chou, J Y; Moses, S W

    1997-10-31

    Glycogen storage disease type 1a (von Gierke disease, GSD 1a) is caused by the deficiency of microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity which catalyzes the final common step of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The recent cloning of the G6Pase cDNA and characterization of the human G6Pase gene enabled the characterization of the mutations causing GSD 1a. This, in turn, allows the introduction of a noninvasive DNA-based diagnosis that provides reliable carrier testing and prenatal diagnosis. In this study, we report the biochemical and clinical characteristics as well as mutational analyses of 12 Israeli GSD 1a patients of different families, who represent most GSD 1a patients in Israel. The mutations, G6Pase activity, and glycogen content of 7 of these patients were reported previously. The biochemical data and clinical findings of all patients were similar and compatible with those described in other reports. All 9 Jewish patients, as well as one Muslim Arab patient, presented the R83C mutation. Two Muslim Arab patients had the V166G mutation which was not found in other patients' populations. The V166G mutation, which was introduced into the G6Pase cDNA by site-directed mutagenesis following transient expression in COS-1 cells, was shown to cause complete inactivation of the G6Pase. The characterization of all GSD 1a mutations in the Israeli population lends itself to carrier testing in these families as well as to prenatal diagnosis, which was carried out in 2 families. Since all Ashkenzai Jewish patients harbor the same mutation, our study suggests that DNA-based diagnosis may be used as an initial diagnostic step in Ashkenazi Jews suspected of having GSD 1a, thereby avoiding liver biopsy.

  13. Effects of colchicine on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid. Ultrastructural, biochemical, and radiochemical studies in fasting rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelka, M.; Gangl, A.

    1983-01-01

    The involvement of microtubules in the transepithelial transport of exogenous lipid in intestinal absorptive cells has been suggested. Using electronmicroscopic, biochemical, and radiochemical methods, researchers have studied the effects of the antimicrotubular agent colchicine on the intestinal mucosa and on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid of rats in the fasting state. After colchicine treatment, the concentration of triglycerides in intestinal mucosa of rats fasted for 24 h doubled, and electron microscopic studies showed a striking accumulation of lipid particles in absorptive epithelial cells of the tips of jejunal villi. These findings suggest that colchicine interferes with the intestinal transepithelial transport of endogenous lipoproteins. Additional studies, using an intraduodenal pulse injection of [ 14 C]linoleic acid, showed that colchicine does not affect the uptake of fatty acids by intestinal mucosa. However, it had divergent effects on fatty acid esterification, enhancing their incorporation into triglycerides relative to phospholipids, and caused a significant accumulation of endogenous diglycerides, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters within the absorptive intestinal epithelium. Detailed ultrastructural and morphometric studies revealed a decrease of visible microtubules, and a displacement of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, it is shown that after colchicine treatment, microvilli appear at the lateral plasma membrane of intestinal absorptive cells, a change not previously reported to our knowledge. Thus, our study shows that colchicine causes significant changes in enterocyte ultrastructure and colchicine perturbs the reesterification of absorbed endogenous fatty acids and their secretion in the form of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the enterocyte

  14. [Biochemical studies of blood serum use for diagnostics and efficacy of treatment evaluation of TMJ pain dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimova, R S

    2007-01-01

    Study of biochemical indices of blood serum in patients with the pain disfunction of temporomandibular joint syndrome was performed. Analysis of biochemical studies of blood serum revealed the essential increase of adenozintriphosphate (ATPh) level on 17.5%, histamin--on 51.7%, stress hormones: adrenalin--on 76.9%, cortizol--on 51.4% in patients with the syndrome of pain disfunction of TMJ in comparison with the control group. Biochemical studies of blood revealed the more marked lowering of the level of histamin, adrenalin, cortizol in blood serum of patients after the treatment of alternative methods than after pharmaco- and physiotherapy. the high informative level of the studying of ATPh, histamin, kortisol of blood's serum for diagnostics and evaluation of the efficiency of treatment of the pain disfunction of temporomandibular joint syndrome was proved.

  15. Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy: A report on clinical, biochemical, and genetic study in Gujarat population, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandava V Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In India, various groups have studied different regions to find out deletion pattern of dystrophin gene. We have investigated its deletion pattern among Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (D/BMD patients across Gujarat. Moreover, in this study we also correlate the same with reading frame rule. However, we too consider various clinicopathological features to establish as adjunct indices when deletion detection fails. Materials and Methods: In this pilot study, a total of 88 D/BMD patients consulting at our centers in Gujarat, India were included. All patients were reviewed on basis of their clinical characteristics, tested by three primer sets of 10-plex, 9-plex, and 7-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR for genetic analysis; whereas, biochemical indices were measured using automated biochemical analyzers. Results: The diagnosis of D/BMD was confirmed by multiplex-PCR (M-PCR in D/BMD patients. A number of 65 (73.86% out of 88 patients showed deletion in dystrophin gene. The exon 50 (58.46% was the most frequent deletion found in our study. The mean age of onset of DMD and BMD was 4.09 ΁ 0.15 and 7.14 ΁ 0.55 years, respectively. In patients, mean creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and myoglobin levels were elevated significantly (P < 0.05 in comparison to controls. Addition to CPK, LDH and myoglobin are good adjunct when deletion detection failed. These data are further in accordance with world literature when correlated with frame rule. Conclusion: The analysis has been carried out for the first time for a total of 88 D/BMD patients particularly from Gujarat, India. More research is essential to elucidate specific mutation pattern in association with management and therapies of proband.

  16. Gel-Based Purification and Biochemical Study of Laccase Isozymes from Ganoderma sp. and Its Role in Enhanced Cotton Callogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna K. Sharma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomycetous fungi, Ganoderma lucidum MDU-7 and Ganoderma sp. kk-02 secreted multiple laccase isozymes under diverse growth condition. Aromatic compounds and metal salts were also found to regulate the differential expression of laccase isozymes from both the Ganoderma sp. Laccase isozymes induced in the presence of copper from G. lucidum MDU-7 were purified by gel-based (native-PAGE purification method. The purity of laccase isozymes was checked by zymogram and SDS-PAGE. The SDS-PAGE of purified proteins confirmed the multimeric nature of laccase isozymes. The molecular mass of isozymes was found to be in the range of 40–66 kDa. Further, the purified laccase isozymes and their peptides were confirmed with the help of MALDI-TOF peptide fingerprinting. The biochemical characterization of laccase isozymes viz. Glac L2, Glac L3, Glac L4, and Glac L5 have shown the optimum temperature in the range of 30°–45°C and pH 3.0. The Km values of all the laccase isozymes determined for guaiacol were (96–281 μM, ABTS (15–83 μM and O-tolidine (78–724 μM. Further, laccase isozymes from G. lucidum whole genome were studied using bioinformatics tools. The molecular modeling and docking of laccase isozymes with different substrates showed a significant binding affinity, which further validates our experimental results. Interestingly, copper induced laccase of 40 U/ml in culture medium was found to significantly induce cotton callogenesis. Interestingly, all the laccase isozymes were found to have an antioxidative role and therefore capable in free radicals scavenging during callogenesis. This is the first detailed study on the biochemical characterization of all the laccase isozymes purified by a gel-based novel method.

  17. Gel-Based Purification and Biochemical Study of Laccase Isozymes fromGanodermasp. and Its Role in Enhanced Cotton Callogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Deepti; Sharma, Krishna K; Arora, Sakshi; Singh, Amarjeet K; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Singhal, Barkha

    2017-01-01

    Basidiomycetous fungi, Ganoderma lucidum MDU-7 and Ganoderma sp. kk-02 secreted multiple laccase isozymes under diverse growth condition. Aromatic compounds and metal salts were also found to regulate the differential expression of laccase isozymes from both the Ganoderma sp. Laccase isozymes induced in the presence of copper from G. lucidum MDU-7 were purified by gel-based (native-PAGE) purification method. The purity of laccase isozymes was checked by zymogram and SDS-PAGE. The SDS-PAGE of purified proteins confirmed the multimeric nature of laccase isozymes. The molecular mass of isozymes was found to be in the range of 40-66 kDa. Further, the purified laccase isozymes and their peptides were confirmed with the help of MALDI-TOF peptide fingerprinting. The biochemical characterization of laccase isozymes viz. Glac L2, Glac L3, Glac L4, and Glac L5 have shown the optimum temperature in the range of 30°-45°C and pH 3.0. The K m values of all the laccase isozymes determined for guaiacol were (96-281 μM), ABTS (15-83 μM) and O -tolidine (78-724 μM). Further, laccase isozymes from G. lucidum whole genome were studied using bioinformatics tools. The molecular modeling and docking of laccase isozymes with different substrates showed a significant binding affinity, which further validates our experimental results. Interestingly, copper induced laccase of 40 U/ml in culture medium was found to significantly induce cotton callogenesis. Interestingly, all the laccase isozymes were found to have an antioxidative role and therefore capable in free radicals scavenging during callogenesis. This is the first detailed study on the biochemical characterization of all the laccase isozymes purified by a gel-based novel method.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids, inflammatory status and biochemical markers of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Curado Borges

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the concentrations of eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP and other inflammatory mediators. Objective: To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Methods: Experimental clinical study (clinical trial: NCT02524795; 49 women with SLE (ACR1982/1997 were randomized: 22 to the omega-3 group (daily intake of 1080 mg EPA + 200 mg DHA, for 12 weeks and 27 to the control group. The inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers at T0 and T1 in omega-3 group were compared using Wilcoxon test. U-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare variations of measured variables [ΔV = pre-treatment (T0 − post-treatment (T1 concentrations] between groups. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The median (interquartile range - IQR of age was 37 (29-48 years old, of disease duration was 7 (4-13 years, and of SLEDAI-2K was 1 (0-2. The median (IQR of variation in CRP levels between the two groups showed a decrease in omega-3 group while there was an increase in control group (p = 0.008. The serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10, leptin and adiponectin did not change after a 12 week treatment. Conclusions: Supplementation with omega-3 had no impact on serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, leptin and adiponectin in women with SLE and low disease activity. There was a significant decrease of CRP levels as well as evidence that omega-3 may impact total and LDL-cholesterol.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids, inflammatory status and biochemical markers of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado Borges, Mariane; de Miranda Moura Dos Santos, Fabiana; Weiss Telles, Rosa; Melo de Andrade, Marcus Vinícius; Toulson Davisson Correia, Maria Isabel; Lanna, Cristina Costa Duarte

    Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the concentrations of eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other inflammatory mediators. To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Experimental clinical study (clinical trial: NCT02524795); 49 women with SLE (ACR1982/1997) were randomized: 22 to the omega-3 group (daily intake of 1080mg EPA+200mg DHA, for 12 weeks) and 27 to the control group. The inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers at T0 and T1 in omega-3 group were compared using Wilcoxon test. U-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare variations of measured variables [ΔV=pre-treatment (T0)-post-treatment (T1) concentrations] between groups. p<0.05 was considered significant. The median (interquartile range - IQR) of age was 37 (29-48) years old, of disease duration was 7 (4-13) years, and of SLEDAI-2K was 1 (0-2). The median (IQR) of variation in CRP levels between the two groups showed a decrease in omega-3 group while there was an increase in control group (p=0.008). The serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10, leptin and adiponectin did not change after a 12 week treatment. Supplementation with omega-3 had no impact on serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, leptin and adiponectin in women with SLE and low disease activity. There was a significant decrease of CRP levels as well as evidence that omega-3 may impact total and LDL-cholesterol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  20. Clinical and hemato-biochemical studies on fever of unknown origin in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the clinical observation and haemato-biochemical studies on fever of unknown origin (FUO in buffaloes which were presented for treatment at the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex (TVCC, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (LUVAS, Hisar. Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted on total 106 clinical cases presented at “TVCC, LUVAS, Hisar.” Diseased animals having history of fever and increased rectal temperature were considered for the current study. Diagnosis of FUO was done on the basis of negative parasitological examination, culture examination, fecal and urine test. The cases in which etiology could not be established (such as pneumonia, metritis, traumatic reticuloperitonitis, urinary tract infection, trypanosomosis, diaphragmatic hernia, Brucellosis, and foreign body were considered as true cases of FUO. Results: Out of 106 clinical cases different etiologies were identified in 76 (71.70% cases including pneumonia, traumatic pericarditis, trypanosomosis, bacteremia, etc. and 30 cases (28.30% remained undiagnosed even after detailed investigation. The mean rectal temperature (104.43±0.16°F, respiration rate (56.57±1.51/min and pulse rate (83.40±1.77/min of animals (n=30 suffering from FUO were significantly higher, whereas ruminal movement (1.00±0.23 was significantly lower compared to healthy control group. The mean value of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, and packed cell volume were significantly lower, whereas mean value of neutrophils was significantly higher compared to that of healthy control animals. Mean value of serum levels of glucose, phosphorus, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and creatinine were found to be significantly higher, whereas mean value of calcium value was significantly lower in all clinically affected animals compared to the healthy

  1. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Abdelhakim Abdelaleem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups. Tramadol was given to albino rats at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight for 3 months and after withdrawal periods (7–15 days rats were sacrificed. Long term use of tramadol induced severe histopathological changes in adrenal glands. Tramadol decreased the levels of serum cortisol and DHEAS hormones. In addition, it increased the level of adrenal MDA and decreased the genetic expression of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in adrenal gland tissues. All these changes started to return to normal after withdrawal of tramadol. Thus, it was confirmed that long term use of tramadol can induce severe adrenal insufficiency.

  2. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaleem, Shereen Abdelhakim; Hassan, Osama A; Ahmed, Rasha F; Zenhom, Nagwa M; Rifaai, Rehab A; El-Tahawy, Nashwa F

    2017-01-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups). Tramadol was given to albino rats at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight for 3 months and after withdrawal periods (7-15 days) rats were sacrificed. Long term use of tramadol induced severe histopathological changes in adrenal glands. Tramadol decreased the levels of serum cortisol and DHEAS hormones. In addition, it increased the level of adrenal MDA and decreased the genetic expression of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in adrenal gland tissues. All these changes started to return to normal after withdrawal of tramadol. Thus, it was confirmed that long term use of tramadol can induce severe adrenal insufficiency.

  3. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  4. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  5. Auxologic, biochemical and clinical (ABC) profile of low birth weight babies- a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth, K E; Krishnan, Viji; Zachariah, Philip

    2007-12-01

    Low Birth Weight (LBW) is a key determinant of neonatal mortality, morbidity, subsequent growth and development as well as early onset of adulthood diseases. It represents a conflation of two outcomes-preterm- and term 'light for date' (LFD) babies. This study looks at key auxologic, biochemical and clinical (ABC) parameters of a cohort of LBW babies, both preterm- and term in comparison to a group of normal-term (control) babies. An attempt was also made to see how these parameters were at the end of a 2 year follow-up period with the currently available interventions. A cohort of 500 babies was selected at birth from a tertiary care teaching hospital in Kerala, India, key ABC indices were measured including relevant maternal data. The initial biochemical measurements were done using umbilical cord blood. Currently recommended nutritional interventions were provided to all the normal and LBW babies. At the end of 2 years, the measurements were repeated in a subset of babies available for follow-up (n = 147). From the cohort of 500 babies, two had to be eliminated as biochemical parameters could not be done due to technical reasons from the available umbilical cord blood. They were categorized into three groups: preterm-LBW (11.85%), term-LBW (38.55%) and normal-term controls (49.6%). The maternal characteristics like socio-economic status, maternal weight, height, BMI and hemoglobin levels were comparable in the three subsets. All of them belonged to middle or low-socio-economic status representing the non-affluent. In the initial group (n = 498), all the auxologic measurements and the nutrients measured namely, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron levels were significantly lower (p birth compared to term-normal babies, this was lowest among the preterm babies. As this reserve may be further lowered by recurrent infections and inappropriate feeding habits, there is a need for special feeding and nutrient

  6. [Medico-genetic study of isolates in Uzbekistan. IV. Clinico-biochemical diagnosis of hereditary diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, S I; Diachenko, S S; Khannanova, F K; Kuleshov, N P; Khodzhaeva, G K

    1976-01-01

    be examined are determined, as well as concrete tasks and the staff of the expedition. The conclusive stage is the medico-genetic examination proper, including clinical, biochemical, immunological and cytogenetic diagnoses of hereditary pathological phenomena. The place of the disposition is a village or a district hospital. More complicated laboratory studies should be performed on the basis of the institution by which the expedition is formed. The results obtained by such expeditions would be important for the investigation of the problems of genogeography, for the discovery of new forms of mutant alleles, for the investigation of the causes and the conditions of the formation of the definite populational structure, of clinical polymorphism of human hereditary diseases.

  7. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR study on cyanide induced biochemical and structural changes in rat sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiddappa Mallappa Shivanoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, great attention had been focused on cyanide toxicity because of its widespread use in industries and considered to be a ubiquitous pollutant in the environment. Therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the toxic effect of cyanide on rat sperms at molecular level by using FT-IR technique. For this purpose, rats were randomly divided into four groups and treated with 0.0, 0.64, 1.2 and 3.2 mg kg−1 body weight (BW for the period of 90 days. The group treated with lower dose (0.64 mg kg−1 BW showed an insignificant change in all the peaks, except the peaks assigned to olefinic CH, CH2 asymmetric and CH2 symmetric stretching vibration in the lipids. While, the groups treated with higher doses (1.2 and 3.2 mg kg−1 BW showed the significant decrease in the area under the peaks corresponds to different bio-molecules. In addition, spectral second derivative analysis showed the significant alteration in α-helix, turns, β-sheet, aggregated β-sheet and random coil structures in the proteins. In conclusion, the selected higher dosage of cyanide had caused significant decrease in the biochemical composition of rat sperms along with structural changes in the proteins. The FT-IR technique is an excellent tool used for the analysis of oxidative damage in the sperms.

  8. Genetic and biochemical heterogeneity in patients with the rhizomelic form of chondrodysplasia punctata--a complementation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikoop, J. C.; Wanders, R. J.; Strijland, A.; Purvis, R.; Schutgens, R. B.; Tager, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The genetic relationship between 10 patients with clinical manifestations of rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) was studied by complementation analysis after somatic cell fusion. Biochemically, 9 out of the 10 patients were characterized by a partial deficiency of acyl-CoA: dihydroxyacetone

  9. Biochemical Studies of the Lagunamides, Potent Cytotoxic Cyclic Depsipeptides from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tai Leong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lagunamides A (1 and B (2 are potent cytotoxic cyclic depsipeptides isolated from the filamentous marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula, from Pulau Hantu, Singapore. These compounds are structurally related to the aurilide-class of molecules, which have been reported to possess exquisite antiproliferative activities against cancer cells. The present study presents preliminary findings on the selectivity of lagunamides against various cancer cell lines as well as their mechanism of action by studying their effects on programmed cell death or apoptosis. Lagunamide A exhibited a selective growth inhibitory activity against a panel of cancer cell lines, including P388, A549, PC3, HCT8, and SK-OV3 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 1.6 nM to 6.4 nM. Morphological studies showed blebbing at the surface of cancer cells as well as cell shrinkage accompanied by loss of contact with the substratum and neighboring cells. Biochemical studies using HCT8 and MCF7 cancer cells suggested that the cytotoxic effect of 1 and 2 might act via induction of mitochondrial mediated apoptosis. Data presented in this study warrants further investigation on the mode of action and underscores the importance of the lagunamides as potential anticancer agents.

  10. Peripheral tissue involvement in sporadic, iatrogenic, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: an immunohistochemical, quantitative, and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Mark W; Ritchie, Diane; Smith, Nadine; McLoughlin, Victoria; Nailon, William; Samad, Sazia; Masson, Stephen; Bishop, Matthew; McCardle, Linda; Ironside, James W

    2004-01-01

    Human prion diseases are rare fatal neurodegenerative conditions that occur as acquired, familial, or idiopathic disorders. A key event in their pathogenesis is the accumulation of an altered form of the prion protein, termed PrP(Sc), in the central nervous system. A novel acquired human prion disease, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is thought to result from oral exposure to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent. This disease differs from other human prion diseases in its neurological, neuropathological, and biochemical phenotype. We have used immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques to analyze the tissue distribution and biochemical properties of PrP(Sc) in peripheral tissues in a unique series of nine cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We have compared this with the distribution and biochemical forms found in all of the major subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in a case of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with growth hormone therapy. The results show that involvement of the lymphoreticular system is a defining feature of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, but that the biochemical isoform of PrP(Sc) found is influenced by the cell type in which it accumulates.

  11. Biochemical and hematological study of goats envenomed with natural and 60Co-irradiated bothropic venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas de Oliveira, P.C.; Madruga, R.A.; Barbosa, N.P.U.; Sakate, M.

    2007-01-01

    Venoms from snakes of the Bothrops genus are proteolytic, coagulant, hemorrhagic and nephrotoxic, causing edema, necrosis, hemorrhage and intense pain at the bite site, besides systemic alterations. Many adjuvants have been added to the venom used in the sensitization of antiserum-producer animals to increase antigenic induction and reduce the envenomation pathological effects. Gamma radiation from 60 Co has been used as an attenuating agent of the venoms toxic properties. The main objective was to study, comparatively, clinical and laboratory aspects of goats inoculated with bothropic (Bothrops jararaca) venom, natural and irradiated from a 60 Co source. Twelve goats were divided into two groups of six animals: GINV, inoculated with 0.5 mg/kg of natural venom; and GIIV, inoculated with 0.5 mg/kg of irradiated venom. Blood samples were collected immediately before and one, two, seven, and thirty days after venom injection. Local lesions were daily evaluated. The following exams were carried out: blood tests; biochemical tests of urea, creatinine, creatine kinase, aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transferase; clotting time; platelets count; and total serum immunoglobulin measurement. In the conditions of the present experiment, irradiated venom was less aggressive and more immunogenic than natural venom. (author)

  12. DNA Riboprinting and Biochemical Studies on The Effect of Exposure to Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzook, E.A.; EL-Abiad, N.M.; Awwad, M.H.; El-Aragi, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) was used to evaluate the effect of exposure on some molecular and biochemical aspects in male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Three groups of rats were exposed to PEMF (10, 15, 20 pulses/day three times per week for three weeks) with frequency of 8-12 GHz. An unexposed group was considered the control group. At the end of experiment, serum levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, testosterone, triglycerides and cholesterol were determined. The results revealed that exposure to electromagnetic field induced significant increases in scrum total protein, globulin, triglycerides and testosterone hormone on the second exposed group only. Non significant changes were found in serum levels of albumin and cholesterol in the same group with decreased A/G ratio. All the tested parameters were not affected on the other two exposed groups. An indicative hypothesis for spotting the effect of electromagnetic spectrum on the liver of albino rats was proposed based on the examination of total DNA genome by using PacI, Sfil, Notl and SWal restriction endonucleases. The results achieved have established the value of the physical map as an additional complement to the standard biodosimetric methods

  13. Biochemical and hematological study of goats envenomed with natural and 60Co-irradiated bothropic venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas de Oliveira, P.C.; Madruga, R.A.; Barbosa, N.P.U. [Uberaba School of Veterinary Medicine (UNIUBE), MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: pedrolucaso@uol.com.br; Sakate, M. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry

    2007-07-01

    Venoms from snakes of the Bothrops genus are proteolytic, coagulant, hemorrhagic and nephrotoxic, causing edema, necrosis, hemorrhage and intense pain at the bite site, besides systemic alterations. Many adjuvants have been added to the venom used in the sensitization of antiserum-producer animals to increase antigenic induction and reduce the envenomation pathological effects. Gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co has been used as an attenuating agent of the venoms toxic properties. The main objective was to study, comparatively, clinical and laboratory aspects of goats inoculated with bothropic (Bothrops jararaca) venom, natural and irradiated from a {sup 60}Co source. Twelve goats were divided into two groups of six animals: GINV, inoculated with 0.5 mg/kg of natural venom; and GIIV, inoculated with 0.5 mg/kg of irradiated venom. Blood samples were collected immediately before and one, two, seven, and thirty days after venom injection. Local lesions were daily evaluated. The following exams were carried out: blood tests; biochemical tests of urea, creatinine, creatine kinase, aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transferase; clotting time; platelets count; and total serum immunoglobulin measurement. In the conditions of the present experiment, irradiated venom was less aggressive and more immunogenic than natural venom. (author)

  14. Estimation of salivary lactate dehydrogenase in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: a biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shrikant; Metgud, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is found in the cells of almost all body tissues. The profile of salivary total LDH enzymes is similar to that found in oral epithelium, indicating that the major source of salivary LDH is probably the oral epithelium-shedding cells. Consequently, LDH concentration in saliva, as an expression of cellular necrosis, could be a specific indicator for oral lesions that affect the integrity of the oral mucosa. Study comprised of three groups as follows: Group I: Comprised of 25 healthy individuals of comparable age. Group II: 25 otherwise healthy and consenting patients with oral leukoplakia (OL). Group III: 25 otherwise healthy and consenting oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Biochemical estimation of LDH was done with the help of Semiautomatic Analyzer. Inter comparison of salivary total LDH levels between all the three groups revealed that salivary LDH levels increase from healthy control group to Oral Leukoplakia group to further increase in OSCC group. On comparisons between the histopathological grades of OSCC group the level of LDH were found to increase from well differentiated to moderately differentiated to further increase in poorly differentiated patients. The present salivary analysis for LDH enzyme reveals an overall altered salivary LDH enzyme level in OL and OSCC cases.

  15. Biochemical and Molecular Study of Carpobrotus edulis Bioactive Properties and Their Effects on Dugesia sicula (Turbellaria, Tricladida) Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddeb, Emna; Charni, Mohamed; Ghazouani, Tesnime; Cozzolino, Autilia; Fratianni, Florinda; Raboudi, Faten; Nazzaro, Filomena; Fattouch, Sami

    2017-07-01

    The traditional medicinal properties of Carpobrotus edulis are well recognized, particularly in Tunisia where it is used for wound healing. Thus, in this study, biochemical and molecular properties of its leaves' bioactive aqueous-acetone extract were investigated. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extract was estimated to be 184 ± 5 mg/100 g of fresh matter (FM). The qualitative and quantitative polyphenolic profile was determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UPLC-DAD) and showed that chlorogenic acid was the major compound (43.7%). The extract exhibits potent antioxidant capacities with IC50 = 56.19 and 58.91 μg/ml, as accessed via the anionic DPPH and cationic ABTS radical scavenging assays, respectively. The extract has high antibacterial properties, especially against the Gram+ Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus strains. To investigate the extract effect on regeneration, the flatworm Dugesia sicula Lepori, 1948, was used as a model. The macroscopic analysis of planarian cultures in ordinary medium containing phenolic extract at non-toxic concentrations illustrated that the extract caused morphological changes. Additionally, the molecular study through the fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) technique showed that C. edulis polyphenols can harm the stem cells' development. These results emphasize the ecotoxicological impact of phenolic rejections in the environment on flatworms' physiology.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON BIOCHEMICAL PARTICULARITIES OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN VARIETIES USED IN ANIMAL NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA VASILE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is one of the most important agronomical crops used both in human and animal nutrition, and for processing. The content of soybean in protein and oil may vary from one variety to another being between 30% protein content and 17-25% oil content, in seeds, and 15% protein content and 5% oil content, in plants, respectively. Also, these are very much influenced by both the environment factors (temperature, humidity, type of soil and the technology applied (irrigation, nonirrigation, and entire system of cultivation, and the cultivars, too. The experiment was designed to determine if the biochemical particularities are influenced by the two factors: cultivar and herbicide. Two Romanian cultivars have been used, Danubiana and Columna, being cultivated under herbicide treatment ( a mixture of Gallat -2l/ha + 70g Dynam, and non herbicide (control conditions. The experiment shows that the herbicide did not influence the mineral substance, protein and lipid content, for instance the highest value of total dry matter content of soybean pods was registered for Columna variety being of 28,54% for control and 25,67 % for herbicide mixture variant. In addition the content of mineral elements may vary between 1,56% for Danubiana variety under herbicide mixture variant and 1,78 % for Columna variety as control . Nevertheless the herbicide had a great influence on the both seed weight varieties, increasing from 130g to 171g for Danubiana and from 150g to 167g for Columna variety, respectively.The differences between cultivars are small, for water, and mineral element content, and fat acids, but they are much higher for lipid and protein content.Amongst the two varieties, Danubiana is recommended to be used in the animal nutrition due to its mineral elements and protein.

  17. Toxic effect and biochemical study of chlorfluazuron, oxymatrine, and spinosad on honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabea, Entsar I; Nasr, Hoda M; Badawy, Mohamed E I

    2010-04-01

    Under laboratory conditions, the comparative effects of two insect growth regulators, chlorfluazuron and oxymatrine, and spinosad as a biopesticide were examined on honey bee workers (Apis mellifera L.). Separate groups of bees were left for 24 h to feed on 50% sucrose solution containing different concentrations of the tested insecticides, and the lethal concentration that caused 50% mortality (LC(50)) was estimated. The inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities as biochemical indicators were determined in vivo after 24 h in head, thorax, and abdomen of surviving bees obtained after treatments with a view to explore the possible mode of action of these compounds. Results indicated that exposure to spinosad showed toxicity to honey bees with LC(50) value of 7.34 mg L(-1), followed by oxymatrine (LC(50) = 10.68 mg L(-1)), while chlorfluazuron was the least acutely toxic of the tested compounds (LC(50) = 2,526 mg L(-1)). Oxymatrine and spinosad at the same tested concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1)) significantly inhibited AChE activity in different organs of honey bee workers, and high inhibition percentage was obtained with the enzyme isolated from the thorax. However, chlorfluazuron at 400, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 mg L(-1) caused high inhibition of AChE activity isolated from the head (39.65% and 44.22% at 2,000 and 4,000 mg L(-1), respectively). In addition, the toxic effects of the tested compounds on activity of ATPase indicated that spinosad caused the highest inhibitory effect in different organs compared with oxymatrine at the same concentrations, and high inhibition was found with ATPase isolated from the head. The results also indicated that oxymatrine was the least active compound for inhibition of AChE and ATPase.

  18. Biological and biochemical studies on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, treated with low concentrations of certain molluscicides (synthetic and of plant origin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Kader, Ahmed; Hamdi, Salwa A H; Rawi, Sayed M

    2005-12-01

    The effect of low concentrations of different synthetic and natural mollusciciding agents may introduce to fresh water environment on reproduction and biochemical aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina was studied. Different mollusciciding agents (copper sulphate, Bayluscide, Uccmaluscide, Agave filifera & A. attenuate) inhibited egg production, induced marked increased the percent of abnormal laid eggs and induced marked reduction in their hatchability. The maximal reductions in egg hatchability resulted with Bayluscide (0.0%) and Uccmaluscide (18%), A. filifera (21%) and A. attenuata (15%). All the antimolluscal materials caused a successful killing effect against miracidia and cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni. CuSo4, Bayluscide and Uccmaluscide killed 40% of the exposed miracidia and 50% of cercariae after an hour exposure. The plants sublethal concentration killed 100% of cercariae and miracidia after 6 hours exposure. Water leaving behaviour among the exposed snails was noticed especially during the first three weeks, showing maximal percentage (60%) after one week of exposure to Bayluscide. A general decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) especially with Bayluscide (48.4%) and in acetylcholine esterase activity in the haemolymph especially on applying plant molluscicide A. filifera (50.8%) was noticed. Transaminases showed marked elevations in activities during the 1st three weeks, then began to drop (ASAT: 61.5%, with Bayluscide & ALAT: 50.8% with Uccmaluscide). The results reflect the effect of the metabolic disorders on life, egg laying, egg hatchability, hepatic cells damages, lack of smooth transmission at nerve junction, loss of muscular coordination and convulsions, then snails' death.

  19. Ethylenediurea as a potential tool in evaluating ozone phytotoxicity: a review study on physiological, biochemical and morphological responses of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Supriya

    2017-06-01

    Present-day climate change scenario has intensified the problem of continuously increasing ground-level ozone (O 3 ), which is responsible for causing deleterious effects on growth and development of plants. Studies involving use of ethylenediurea (EDU), a chemical with antiozonant properties, have given some promising results in evaluating O 3 injury in plants. The use of EDU is especially advantageous in developing countries which face a more severe problem of ground-level O 3 , and technical O 3 -induced yield loss assessment techniques like open-top chambers cannot be used. Recent studies have detected a hormetic response of EDU on plants; i.e. treatment with higher EDU concentrations may or may not show any adverse effect on plants depending upon the experimental conditions. Although the mode of action of EDU is still debated, it is confirmed that EDU remains confined in the apoplastic regions. Certain studies indicate that EDU significantly affects the electron transport chain and has positive impact on the antioxidant defence machinery of the plants. However, the mechanism of protecting the yield of plants without significantly affecting photosynthesis is still questionable. This review discusses in details the probable mode of action of EDU on the basis of available data along with the impact of EDU on physiological, biochemical, growth and yield response of plants under O 3 stress. Data regarding the effect of EDU on plant 'omics' is highly insufficient and can form an important aspect of future EDU research.

  20. New Study Shows 59 Percent of Americans Will Develop Kidney Disease in Their Lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STUDY SHOWS 59 PERCENT OF AMERICANS WILL DEVELOP KIDNEY DISEASE IN THEIR LIFETIME National Kidney Foundation Recommends Annual ... 2013) – Nearly six of ten Americans will develop kidney disease in their lifetime, according to a new analysis ...

  1. Use of Arius thalassinus fish in a pollution biomonitoring study, applying combined oxidative stress, hematology, biochemical and histopathological biomarkers: A baseline field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2016-05-15

    The present field study aimed to determine the extent of pollution in the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic using a battery of biomarkers in sea catfish, Arius thalassinus, originating from a reference site in comparison with a polluted site. We reported the concentration of heavy metals in some vital fish organs and their effects on the morphological, hematological, biochemical and oxidative stress biomarkers accompanied by the examination of histopathological alterations. The obtained results showed clear signs of stress in fish from a polluted site. Linear correlation analysis exhibited that the biomarkers response could be linked to the detected metals bioaccumulation. In addition, principal component analysis showed a clear separation of sampling sites in two different assemblages. Semi-quantitative analysis for the observed histopathological lesions revealed that gills were the most affected organs with signs of severe alterations. This field investigation provides a baseline data on pollution status in this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover in Patients with β-Thalassemia Major: A Single Center Study from Southern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Skeletal complications in β-homozygous thalassemic patients are uncommon but often debilitating, even amongst children and adolescent patients with well maintained transfusion and chelation therapy. The aim is to evaluate the biochemical markers of bone turnover in regularly transfused thalassemic patients and its possible correlations with demographic data and hematological and biochemical markers. Methods. In this prospective cross-sectional study, 36 β-thalassemia major patients were enrolled from March 2012 to March 2014. All patients underwent complete blood counts, LFTs, serum ferritin, serum calcium, phosphorus, serum albumin, alkaline phosphatase, 25-OH vitamin D, and parathormone (PTH levels. Results. There were 17 males and 19 females with mean age of 12.56 ± 5.9 years. Hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia were seen in 66.6% and 19.4%, respectively, while 25-OH vitamin D deficiency was present in 72.2% of thalassemic children and adolescents. Hypoparathyroidism was seen in 13.8% while hyperparathyroidism was detected in 8.3% of patients. There was direct correlation between serum phosphorus and ferritin levels (P0.05. Conclusions. Biochemical profile is significantly altered in patients with β-thalassemia major and bone associated biochemical abnormalities like hypocalcaemia, 25-OH vitamin D deficiency, and hypophosphatemia are not uncommon in Pakistani patients with thalassemia major.

  3. Preliminary study on physicochemical and biochemical stress markers at poultry slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Santonicola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-slaughter stress can result in variations in the glycogen storage and metabolic changes of muscle, responsible for quality poultry meat. Aim of this study was to investigate, as pre-slaughter stress markers and quality meat, physicochemical (pH, biochemical (muscle glycogen content, and chemical (super oxides free radicals parameters. The carcass quality, as incidence of individual carcass defects, was also evaluated. Twenty broilers were processed with two different electrical stunning: high (250 Hz; 640 mA; 60V (Lot C or control and low (150 Hz; 360 mA; 60 V (Lot A frequency and intensity, using sinusoidal alternating current. As preliminary results, the use of low frequency and intensity induced faster pH decline post mortem and adequate acidification of pH at 3 hours (6.49 Lot C; 6.37 Lot A, better muscle glycogen reserve (0.770 μL/50 mL Lot C; 1.497 μL/50mL Lot A, and lightly more rapid muscle oxidation (IDF: 0.109 Lot C; 0.122 Lot A, (FOX: 0.131 MeqO2/kg Lot C; 0.140 MeqO2/kg Lot A. The incidence of individual carcass defects sufficient to cause downgrading or rejection, both in Lot C and Lot A, was generally low. In a multidisciplinary approach, to assess animal welfare and quality poultry meat, additional and feasible parameters should be implemented. Monitoring of pH, muscle glycogen reserve and superoxide free radical production measurements might be markers easier to use, routinely, in practice at abattoir. Further studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness of these parameters.

  4. Clinico-Biochemical Correlation to Histological Findings in Alcoholic Liver Disease: A Single Centre Study from Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanra, Dibbendhu; Sonthalia, Nikhil; Kundu, Supratip; Biswas, Kaushik; Talukdar, Arunansu; Saha, Manjari; Bera, Himel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alcoholism is a health problem not only in developed countries but also in developing countries. Cirrhosis due to alcohol is a common cause of death among individuals abusing alcohol. A better knowledge of the spectrum of alcoholic liver diseases, its clinical, biochemical and histopathological features could result in early detection and prevention of alcoholic liver diseases before it’s catastrophic and life threatening effects. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients with alcoholic liver diseases were studied with respect to alcohol consumption, clinical features, biochemical and histopathological changes. The clinical features, biochemical parameters, and histopathology of liver including Ishak’s modified histological activity index (HAI) were correlated with the amount and duration of alcohol consumed. Result: Majority of the patients were in the age group of 40-49 years and all the cases were males. Majority consumed alcohol of about 75-90 grams per day for a duration of 10–12 years. Anorexia and jaundice were the most common symptom and clinical finding respectively. Hyperbilirubinemia and hypoalbuminemia were the most common abnormalities observed in liver function tests. Advanced HAI stages with features of cirrhosis were most frequent histo-pathological finding noted in this study. Clinico-biochemical profile was significantly correlated with degree of alcohol ingestion as well as with liver histopathology. Conclusion: The wide prevalence of alcoholic liver disease including cirrhosis among Indian males was noted with significantly lower quantity and duration of alcohol ingestion. The severity of liver damage is directly proportional to the quantity and duration of alcohol consumed. Clinical features and biochemical changes may forecast the liver histopathology among the patients of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25478382

  5. Insights into the coiled-coil organization of the Hendra virus phosphoprotein from combined biochemical and SAXS studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrandi, Matilde; Blocquel, David; Erales, Jenny; Barbier, Pascale; Cavalli, Andrea; Longhi, Sonia

    2015-03-01

    Nipah and Hendra viruses are recently emerged paramyxoviruses belonging to the Henipavirus genus. The Henipavirus phosphoprotein (P) consists of a large intrinsically disordered domain and a C-terminal domain (PCT) containing alternating disordered and ordered regions. Among these latter is the P multimerization domain (PMD). Using biochemical, analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies, we show that Hendra virus (HeV) PMD forms an elongated coiled-coil homotrimer in solution, in agreement with our previous findings on Nipah virus (NiV) PMD. However, the orientation of the N-terminal region differs from that observed in solution for NiV PMD, consistent with the ability of this region to adopt different conformations. SAXS studies provided evidence for a trimeric organization also in the case of PCT, thus extending and strengthening our findings on PMD. The present results are discussed in light of conflicting reports in the literature pointing to a tetrameric organization of paramyxoviral P proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Histopathological studies show protective efficacy of Hippophae leaf extract against damage to jejunum in whole body 60Co-a-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Manish; Prasad, Jagdish; Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ionizing radiation affect living tissue by causing majority of in vivo damage by free radical production. Earlier we reported that our preparation from Hippophae leaf offered survival benefit to >90% mice population which was whole body irradiated ( 60 Co-a-rays, 10 Gy). Objective: This study was planned to examine the protective effects of our drug (from Hippophae leaf) on ( 60 Co-a-ray induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in jejunum. Methods: Around 2 months old adult male Strain 'A' mice were irradiated (10 Gy). Drug was administered intraperitoneally (-30 mm.). Histological parameters were studied after staining the sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Malondialdehyde formation (index of lipid peroxidation), alkaline phosphatase activity, and total thiol content were determined by biochemical techniques. The data was obtained at different time interval upto 30 days. Results: Biochemical studies showed that in comparison to the untreated controls, in the irradiated (10 Gy) mice, there was significant increase in the alkaline phosphatase activity and level of malondialdehyde whereas decrease in total thiol content within 2 days. Histological studies showed that whole body irradiation (10 Gy), damaged the jejunam crypt cells and decreased the villi height within 2 days. Intra-peritoneal administration of drug, 30 mm prior to irradiation, protected the crypt cells and villi height, countered the radiation induced increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and lipid peroxidation and values were comparable to the level of control in 30 days. Conclusions: These biochemical and histopathological studies suggested that our drug can offer effective radioprotection against the oxidative damage to jejunum in vivo. (author)

  7. Study of Biochemical Changes and Elevated Levels of Enzymes in Salmonella typhi Infected Patients in Pakistani Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Shamim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever causes significant biochemical changes and hepatic complications. As many studies have indicated several biochemical parameters that are involved in developing the risk of typhoid fever. The current study was designed to evaluate these risk factors in general Pakistani population. Serum biochemistry and liver enzymes were studied to investigate the relationship of these risk factors to Typhoid fever. Total 100 subjects were studied, 50 healthy individuals and 50 typhoid patients. Blood samples were collected from Allied and National Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan. In this study, Nested PCR was used to test the samples. Elevated level of ALT (P<0.0001 and AST (P<0.0001 were observed in typhoid patients. Typhoid patients had significantly higher concentrations of Triglyceride (P=0.0044, Globulin (P=0.0004 and Total protein (P=0.0978 while LDL (P=0.0197, Albumin (P<0.0001, Glucose (P=0.0006, HDL-cholesterol (P<0.0001 and Cholesterol (P=0.04 were significantly lower than those of healthy individuals. This study appears to be ample evidence based on the physiological and biochemical parameters in typhoid patients to explain influence of typhoid morbidity. Extensive research in this field would enable us to make modern drugs to treat typhoid fever patients.

  8. Biochemical activity of a fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G: Molecular modeling, electrochemical, spectroscopic and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Masum, Abdulla; Chakraborty, Maharudra; Ghosh, Soumen; Laha, Dipranjan; Karmakar, Parimal; Islam, Md Maidul; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2016-11-01

    Interaction of CT DNA with Rhodamine 6G (R6G) has been studied using molecular docking, electrochemical, spectroscopic and thermodynamic methods. From the study, it was illustrated that Rhodamine 6G binds to the minor groove of CT DNA. The binding was cooperative in nature. Circular voltametric study showed significant change in peak current and peak potential due to complexation. All the studies showed that the binding constant was in the order of 10 6 M -1 . Circular dichroic spectra showed significant conformational change on binding and DNA unwind during binding. Thermodynamic study showed that binding was favored by negative enthalpy and positive entropy change. From thermodynamic study it was also observed that several positive and negative free energies played significant role during binding and the unfavorable conformational free energy change was overcame by highly negative hydrophobic and salt dependent free energy changes. The experimental results were further validated using molecular docking study and the effect of structure on binding has been studied theoretically. From docking study it was found that the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds played a significant role during binding. The dye was absorbed by cell and this phenomenon was studied using fluorescent microscope. Cell survivability test showed that the dye active against Human Breast Cancer cells MDA-MB 468. ROS study showed that the activity is due to the production of reactive oxygen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biochemical methods to study the interactions between integrins and ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crociani, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions between integrins and ion channels consist in a complicated bidirectional talk, not yet understood in detail, which triggers a downstream signaling network. Such a coordinated process occurs in discrete, localized microcompartments and involves different membrane and cytoplasmic proteins. Since the early nineties, when the first functional association between integrins and ion channels was characterized, the number of similar examples is constantly increasing. Identifying the components of this pathway has general importance for cell physiology and will eventually lead to fully understand the role of ion channels in the physiological processes typically controlled by integrin receptors, such as cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Here, we detail the main experimental methods currently available to study these processes and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Biochemical copurification and genetic interaction studies, as well as high-throughput screening, can be performed to initially identify the interacting proteins. Successively, in vitro binding assays such as pull-down and immunoprecipitation-based techniques allow to verify and better characterize these partnerships, possibly in combination with mass spectrometry methods. When transient interactions are involved, more sophisticated techniques, such as photoaffinity labelingprocedures, are necessary to detect the multiprotein complexes by having them covalently bound together as they interact. To provide even more thorough analyses of the formation, function and composition of protein complexes, other technologies such as confocal microscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy and site directed mutagenesis (possibly in murine models) have to be performed. The progressive accumulation of data defining novel protein-protein interactions has been considerably accelerated by the identification of specific sequence motifs that regulate integrin binding to

  10. Hepatic lipidosis in anorectic, lactating holstein cattle: a retrospective study of serum biochemical abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebra, C K; Garry, F B; Getzy, D M; Fettman, M J

    1997-01-01

    The association between hepatic lipidosis (HL) and disease in 59 anorectic, ketotic, lactating Holstein heifers and cows was investigated. Severe HL, as determined by histologic evaluation of liver tissue, was present in 46 animals; only half of these animals required intensive treatment for ketosis, and only half had serum biochemical evidence of liver disease, as determined by the presence of a last value of 2-fold or greater than the upper limit of the reference ranges for at least 2 of the 4 serum tests: gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities and bile acid concentrations. Most cattle with biochemical evidence of liver disease and severe HL had been lactating for 14 or more days. Cows that required intensive treatment inconsistently had serum biochemical evidence of liver disease. Although cattle with severe HL had significantly higher serum bilirubin concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities than cattle with less severe lipidosis, the specificity of abnormally high serum sorbitol dehydrogenase activity or bilirubin concentration for severe lipidosis was only 8%. Abnormally high serum aspartate aminotransferase activity was 83% sensitive and 62% specific for severe lipidosis. Serum glucose and total carbon dioxide concentrations were significantly lower in cattle with severe lipidosis than in those with mild or moderate lipidosis, and low serum glucose or total carbon dioxide concentrations were rare in cattle without severe lipidosis. From these data, we conclude that the use of a single biochemical or histopathologic criterion to define severity of disease or degree of liver compromise in anorectic, ketotic cows results in the misidentification of many animals.

  11. A case study of human hepatic hydatidosis and the biochemical Profile of cyst wall and fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshadullah Malik

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The non specific haematological changes and negative Casoni's test suggest that ultrasonography is more reliable for the diagnosis and epidemiological stud­ies of human hydatidosis. The majo.r biochemical compo­nents like glycogen, proteins, nucleic acids, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acids and phospho­lipid fractions were analysed and compared with the other host's cysts. The differences were discussed in the light of strain variations in Echinococcus granulosus.

  12. Biochemical studies on antibiotic production from Streptomyces sp.: Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Houssam M. Atta

    2015-01-01

    Tunicamycin is a nucleotide antibiotic which was isolated from the fermentation broth of a Streptomyces strain No. T-4. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain T-4 was identified as Streptomyces torulosus. It is active in vitro against some microbial pathogenic viz: Staphylococcus aureus, NCTC 7447; Micrococcus lutea, ATCC 9341; Bacillus subtilis, NCTC 10400; B. pumilus, NCTC; Klebsiella pneumonia, NCIMB 9...

  13. Biochemical derangements prior to emergency laparotomy at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi: A cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark G

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine biochemical investigations not routinely performed prior to emergency laparotomy in patients at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, a low-resource public hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. A prospective cross-sectional study of adults (N = 15) needing emergency laparotomy over a 4-week period were studied at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital. Biochemical investigations, not routinely performed for economic reasons, were performed preoperatively; these included sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, urea, and calcium levels. Gastrointestinal pathology was predominant among the emergency laparotomies performed. Large bowel obstruction and bowel perforation secondary to typhoid were most frequent. Clinically significant biochemical derangements among the study patients were as follows: cases of moderate-to-severe hypokalaemia (n = 2), severe hyponatraemia (n = 1), moderate hypernatraemia (n = 1), and severe hypocalcaemia (n = 1). The most frequent abnormalities seen were uraemia and hypochloraemia (n = 11). Accurate electrolyte estimation in critically ill preoperative patients is desireable for optimal perioperative management but frequently absent in resource-challenged environments.

  14. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high-fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C; Bach Knudsen, Knud E; Serena, Anja

    2006-01-01

    This study presents an NMR-based metabonomic approach to elucidate the overall endogenous biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet. Two diets with similar levels of dietary fibre and macronutrients, but with contrasting levels of wholegrain ingredients, were prepared from wholegrain rye (wholegrain...... disclosed biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet on plasma betaine content and excretion of betaine and creatinine....

  15. Assessment of dietary habits, nutritional status and blood biochemical parameters in patients prepared for bariatric surgery: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Jastrzębska-Mierzyńska, Marta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Morbid obesity needs to be treated by bariatric procedures. Proper dietary preparation of patients before surgery conditions their postoperative status. Aim Assessment of dietary habits, nutritional status and biochemical parameters of the blood in patients being prepared for different bariatric procedures. Material and methods The study involved a group of 27 obese adults: 19 women (mean age: 40.4 ±13.9 years) and 8 men (mean age: 39.6 ±12.7 years) qualified for bariatric proced...

  16. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (I) Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic Study on Maca using Clinical Laboratory Model on Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Mscisz, A; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Kapczynski, W; Barchia, I

    2006-09-01

    Ovariectomized rats were used in a model laboratory study to examine biochemical and pharmacodynamic effects of pre-gelatinized organic preparation of Lepidium peruvianum Chacon (Maca-GO). Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic effects of Maca-GO (250 mg Maca-GO per kg body weight (bw) administered by intubation twice daily) were assessed in a 28 day model laboratory study on ovariectomized (by laparoscopy) Wistar rats with pharmacodynamic tests performed at the conclusion of the trial followed by blood collection for morphology and biochemical tests. Toxicity of Maca-GO used in the study was determined in bioassay on mice and rats. Anti-depressive function (Porsolt's test) and anxiolytic sedative and cognitive effects (using elevated-plus maze, locomotor activity and passive avoidance tests) were assessed against control (laparotomized female rats with intact ovaries). In addition to blood morphology, the following blood serum constituents were analyzed: Estrogen (E2), Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, and T4), Iron (Fe) and lipid profile (Triglycerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). Analytically-determined non-toxic status of Maca-GO was confirmed in bioassays when applied to mice and rats at levels of 0.5 and up to 15mg/kg bw which shows it safe use in humans with the LD50>15 mg/kg bw. Maca-GO showed a distinctive, (PMaca-GO on sex hormone levels show its potential as a safe preparation for use in correcting physiological symptoms characteristic in postmenopausal stage with an indication of potentially even more value for its use in pre-menopausal women.

  17. Contesting the “nature” of conformity : what Milgram and Zimbardo's studies really show

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Alexander; Reicher, Stephen David

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work inf...

  18. Studies on Impact of Irradiation Treatment on Certain Pharmacological and Biochemical Responses of Naja nigricollis Snake Venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Hamid, F.Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    Snakebite is a serious medical problem worldwide, especially in the tropics. In Egypt, the Black-neck Spitting Cobra; Naja nigricollis is one of the most venomous snakes distributed in the south part of Egypt. The lethality as well as the immunological, biochemical and histological effects of Naja nigricollis venom at a sublethal dose has been investigated before and after exposure to gamma radiation (1.5 KGy and 3 KGy). The toxicity of irradiated venom decreased as compared to that of the native one. There was no change in the antigenic reactivity between both native and irradiated venom. The effect of ½ LD 50 of native or irradiated (1.5 KGy) was studied on the activities of heart enzymes: CPK, CK-MB, LDH and AST after (1, 2, 4, 24 hours) of envenomation. The present study showed that snake venom envenomation caused significant (p ≤ 0.05) elevation in serum CPK, CK-MB, LDH and AST levels. In contrast, the 1.5 KGy gamma-irradiated venom recorded no significant changes compared to that of normal rats. Histopathological study of heart confirmed these findings. The 1.5 KGy and 3 KGy gamma irradiation decrease the phospholipase activity of the venom. Anticoagulant activity was prominent when re calcification time was tested on human plasma using each venom (native, γ- irradiated venoms) as a test solution. Naja nigricollis venom detoxified by gamma irradiation (1.5 KGy or 3 KGy) was used as toxoid for active immunization of rabbits following a short schedule of immunization with complete Freund's adjuvant. Effective neutralization of venom toxin by immune sera of rabbits was observed.

  19. Clinical and biochemical study of D-serine metabolism among schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Tallawy HN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy N El-Tallawy,1 Tahia H Saleem,2 Abdallah MAA El-Ebidi,3 Mohammed H Hassan,4 Romany H Gabra,1 Wafaa MA Farghaly,1 Nagwa Abo El-Maali,5 Hoda S Sherkawy3 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, 3Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, 4Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, 5Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Background: Schizophrenia is a typical N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R hypofunction disorder. Decreased d-serine (d-Ser levels in the periphery occur in schizophrenia and may reflect decreased availability of d-Ser to activate NMDA-R in the brain.Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the role of d-Ser metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia via biochemical assays and correlates, the serum level of d-Ser, d-serine racemase (SR (responsible for its formation from l-serine [l-Ser] and d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO (responsible for its catabolism, among different clinical types of schizophrenia patients.Patients and methods: This cross-sectional case–control study was carried out on 100 patients and 50 controls. They were recruited from the outpatients’ psychiatric unit of the Neuropsychiatric Department of Assiut University Hospital, Upper Egypt. The type of schizophrenia was determined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV, while the severity of schizophrenia was determined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5. Serum d-Ser levels were estimated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, while serum SR and DAAO were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.Results: There

  20. Executive functioning shows differential maturation from early to late adolescence: longitudinal findings from a TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelema, Sarai R; Harakeh, Zeena; Ormel, Johan; Hartman, Catharina A; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; van Zandvoort, Martine J E

    2014-03-01

    Maturation of executive functioning (EF) is topical, especially in relation to adolescence, yet longitudinal research covering early and late adolescence is lacking. This, however, is a prerequisite for drawing conclusions on normal cognitive development, and understanding deviant maturation. The aim of this study is to longitudinally investigate 6 subcomponents of EF in early (mean age 11) and late adolescence (mean age 19) and to investigate the influence of sex and socioeconomic status (SES). We used data of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). A number of 2,217 participants carried out tasks of the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT), measuring Focused Attention, Inhibition, Sustained Attention, Speed of Processing, Working Memory, and Shift Attention. Linear growth model with individual varying times of observation showed significant slopes for all 6 measures. Sex differences were found for the majority of the measures, where boys showed more maturation. Maturation was influenced by SES for Sustained Attention and Inhibition. Results show that significant maturation takes place for all the measured subcomponents over adolescence. Overall, girls show better baseline performance and smaller maturational rates, suggesting more mature skills in early adolescence. Maturation is only influenced by SES for Sustained Attention and Inhibition. Findings underline that for making statements about EF maturation in adolescence, it is essential to look at subcomponents. Furthermore, sex differences are an important factor when investing (ab)normal maturation of EF. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Study of gamma radiation from 60Co effects on Apis mellifera venom: biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Helena

    2001-01-01

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. Ionizing radiation is able to modify molecular structures affecting the biological properties of proteins. It decreases toxic and enzymatic activities and so, it appears promising as a venom detoxification tool. The main objective of this work was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects. Africanized Apis mellifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M NaCl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a 60 Co source. Native and irradiated bee venoms were submitted to high performance size exclusion chromatography (Tosohaas G2000SW column), high performance reversed phase chromatography in a C-18 column under water/acetonitrile gradient, SDS-PAGE. For both venoms studies have been carried out in UV absorption spectrum, protein concentration, hemolytic activity, and PLA 2 activity analysis, lethality assay (LD 50 ). Biodistribution studies was carried out after labelling native and irradiated bee venom with 99m Tc. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration nor its immunogenicity, although it could be observed that irradiated bee venom UV spectrum and SDS-PAGE profile presented differences when compared to native bee venom. This suggests that some structural alterations in bee venom components could have occurred after irradiation. HPLC-RP profiles showed that gamma radiation could have caused conformational changes, such as unfolding of molecule chains, changing their hydrophobic groups exposuring. The hemolytic and the PLA 2 activities of irradiated bee venom were smaller than the native ones. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of bee venom, but did not abolish its bioactivity, like hemolysis. Biodistribution studies

  2. Sulfur mustard inhalation induced respiratory lesions in guinea pigs: Physiological, biochemical, and histological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allon, N.; Gilat, E.; Amir, A.; Fishbine, E.; Liani, H.

    1993-05-13

    Inhalation exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) vapor causes long term damage to the respiratory system. The lesions were characterized by specific physiological, biochemical and histopathological methods. Awake 128 guinea-pigs (GP) were exposed for 10 min to SM (1200-1700 microns x min/1). Respiratory parameters were monitored per animal before, during and after the exposure using plethysmography. Biochemical and histological evaluations were performed at different time intervals for up to 7 days post exposure. SM inhalation resulted in a decrease in both respiratory rate and minute volume, and in an increase in tidal volume. These changes occurred immediately after the onset of exposure and lasted for up to 7 days. The changes in the respiratory parameters were accompanied by a massive reduction in O2 diffusion capacity. Evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid indicated neutrophil infiltration, an increase in the protein content, and in the activity of both lysosomal enzymes and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the alveolar space. In addition, a decrease in glutathione content was observed one day post exposure in the BAL fluid and the lung whereas an increase in lung glutathione content was observed 6 days later. Histological evaluation of the lungs and trachea revealed severe lesions in both tissues. Recovery was incomplete 7 days post exposure. The detailed characterization of the effect of SM inhalation offers a reliable model for the evaluation of potential therapies against SM exposure.

  3. Young adolescents with autism show abnormal joint attention network: A gaze contingent fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oberwelland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral research has revealed deficits in the development of joint attention (JA as one of the earliest signs of autism. While the neural basis of JA has been studied predominantly in adults, we recently demonstrated a protracted development of the brain networks supporting JA in typically developing children and adolescents. The present eye-tracking/fMRI study now extends these findings to adolescents with autism. Our results show that in adolescents with autism JA is subserved by abnormal activation patterns in brain areas related to social cognition abnormalities which are at the core of ASD including the STS and TPJ, despite behavioral maturation with no behavioral differences. Furthermore, in the autism group we observed increased neural activity in a network of social and emotional processing areas during interactions with their mother. Moreover, data indicated that less severely affected individuals with autism showed higher frontal activation associated with self-initiated interactions. Taken together, this study provides first-time data of JA in children/adolescents with autism incorporating the interactive character of JA, its reciprocity and motivational aspects. The observed functional differences in adolescents ASD suggest that persistent developmental differences in the neural processes underlying JA contribute to social interaction difficulties in ASD.

  4. Contesting the “Nature” Of Conformity: What Milgram and Zimbardo's Studies Really Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S. Alexander; Reicher, Stephen. D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right. PMID:23185132

  5. Contesting the "Nature" Of Conformity: what Milgram and Zimbardo's studies really show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander; Reicher, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right.

  6. Contesting the "Nature" Of Conformity: what Milgram and Zimbardo's studies really show.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Alexander Haslam

    Full Text Available Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right.

  7. Stigmatization of eating disorders: a controlled study of the effects of the television show Starved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterman, Shawn N; Klump, Kelly L

    2010-01-01

    Starved is a situational comedy ("sitcom") that depicted individuals with eating disorders that was feared to increase stigma. Our study directly examined this possibility by randomly assigning participants to watch Starved or The Comeback (a sitcom unrelated to eating disorders) and measuring eating disorder stigma/stereotypes before and after viewing. Participants who viewed Starved did not show increased levels of stigma, suggesting that short-term exposure to an extreme portrayal of eating disorder stereotypes may not increase stigma. Future research should examine prolonged exposure and other potential sources of these negative attitudes.

  8. Complete Comparison Display (CCD) evaluation of ethanol extracts of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera shows that they can non-synergistically ameliorate biochemical and behavioural damages in MPTP induced Parkinson's model of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Maheep; Goel, Ishan; Roy, Tathagato; Khurana, Sukant

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease remains as one of the most common debilitating neurodegenerative disorders. With the hopes of finding agents that can cure or reduce the pace of progression of the disease, we studied two traditional medicinal plants: Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera that have been explored in some recent studies. In agreement with the previous work on ethanol extracts of these two plants in mice model, we saw an improvement in oxidative stress profile as well as behavioral performance in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced Parkinson-like symptoms in Balb/c mice. Given the known potential of both the herbal extracts in improving Parkinson-like symptoms, we expected the combination of the two to show better results than either of the two but surprisingly there was no additivity in either oxidative stress or behavioural recovery. In fact, in some assays, the combination performed worse than either of the two individual constituents. This effect of mixtures highlights the need of testing mixtures in supplements market using enthomedicine. The necessity of comparing multiple groups in this study to get most information from the experiments motivated us to design a ladder-like visualization to show comparison with different groups that we call complete comparison display (CCD). In summary, we show the potential of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera to ameliorate Parkinson’s disorder. PMID:28510600

  9. Complete Comparison Display (CCD evaluation of ethanol extracts of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera shows that they can non-synergistically ameliorate biochemical and behavioural damages in MPTP induced Parkinson's model of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheep Bhatnagar

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease remains as one of the most common debilitating neurodegenerative disorders. With the hopes of finding agents that can cure or reduce the pace of progression of the disease, we studied two traditional medicinal plants: Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera that have been explored in some recent studies. In agreement with the previous work on ethanol extracts of these two plants in mice model, we saw an improvement in oxidative stress profile as well as behavioral performance in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP induced Parkinson-like symptoms in Balb/c mice. Given the known potential of both the herbal extracts in improving Parkinson-like symptoms, we expected the combination of the two to show better results than either of the two but surprisingly there was no additivity in either oxidative stress or behavioural recovery. In fact, in some assays, the combination performed worse than either of the two individual constituents. This effect of mixtures highlights the need of testing mixtures in supplements market using enthomedicine. The necessity of comparing multiple groups in this study to get most information from the experiments motivated us to design a ladder-like visualization to show comparison with different groups that we call complete comparison display (CCD. In summary, we show the potential of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera to ameliorate Parkinson's disorder.

  10. Complete Comparison Display (CCD) evaluation of ethanol extracts of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera shows that they can non-synergistically ameliorate biochemical and behavioural damages in MPTP induced Parkinson's model of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Maheep; Goel, Ishan; Roy, Tathagato; Shukla, Sunil Dutt; Khurana, Sukant

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease remains as one of the most common debilitating neurodegenerative disorders. With the hopes of finding agents that can cure or reduce the pace of progression of the disease, we studied two traditional medicinal plants: Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera that have been explored in some recent studies. In agreement with the previous work on ethanol extracts of these two plants in mice model, we saw an improvement in oxidative stress profile as well as behavioral performance in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced Parkinson-like symptoms in Balb/c mice. Given the known potential of both the herbal extracts in improving Parkinson-like symptoms, we expected the combination of the two to show better results than either of the two but surprisingly there was no additivity in either oxidative stress or behavioural recovery. In fact, in some assays, the combination performed worse than either of the two individual constituents. This effect of mixtures highlights the need of testing mixtures in supplements market using enthomedicine. The necessity of comparing multiple groups in this study to get most information from the experiments motivated us to design a ladder-like visualization to show comparison with different groups that we call complete comparison display (CCD). In summary, we show the potential of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera to ameliorate Parkinson's disorder.

  11. Laboratory study of fungal bioreceptivity of different fractions of composite flooring tiles showing efflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaphy, Segula; Lavi, Ido; Sultz, Stephan; Zabari, Limor

    2014-06-01

    Fungi can grow in extreme habitats, such as natural stone and mineral building materials, sometimes causing deterioration. Efflorescence-concentrated salt deposits-results from water movement through building material; it can damage masonry materials and other bricks. Fungal isolate KUR1, capable of growth on, and dissolution of stone chips composing terrazzo-type floor tiles, was isolated from such tiles showing fiber-like crystalline efflorescence. The isolate's ribosomal DNA sequences were 100 % identical to those of Nigrospora sphaerica. The ability of KUR1 to colonize and degrade the different stone chips composing the tiles was studied in axenic culture experiments. When exposed to each of the different mineral chip types composed of dolomite, calcite, or calcite-apatite mineral in low-nutrition medium, the fungus showed selective nutrient consumption, and different growth and stone mineral dissolution rates. Micromorphological examination of the fungus-colonized chips by electron microscopy showed the production of a fungal biofilm with thin films around the hyphae on the surface of the examined chips and disintegration of the calcite-apatite fraction. More than 70 % dissolution of the introduced powdered (<1 mm particle size) mineral was obtained within 10 days of incubation for the soft calcite-apatite fraction.

  12. Structural And Biochemical Studies of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype C1 Light Chain Protease: Implications for Dual Substrate Specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, R.; Sikorra, S.; Stegmann, C.M.; Pich, A.; Binz, T.; Brunger, A.T.

    2009-06-01

    Clostridial neurotoxins are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic disease botulism and tetanus. They block neurotransmitter release through specific proteolysis of one of the three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) SNAP-25, syntaxin, and synaptobrevin, which constitute part of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. The catalytic component of the clostridial neurotoxins is their light chain (LC), a Zn2+ endopeptidase. There are seven structurally and functionally related botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), termed serotype A to G, and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT). Each of them exhibits unique specificity for their target SNAREs and peptide bond(s) they cleave. The mechanisms of action for substrate recognition and target cleavage are largely unknown. Here, we report structural and biochemical studies of BoNT/C1-LC, which is unique among BoNTs in that it exhibits dual specificity toward both syntaxin and SNAP-25. A distinct pocket (S1') near the active site likely achieves the correct register for the cleavage site by only allowing Ala as the P1' residue for both SNAP-25 and syntaxin. Mutations of this SNAP-25 residue dramatically reduce enzymatic activity. The remote a-exosite that was previously identified in the complex of BoNT/A-LC and SNAP-25 is structurally conserved in BoNT/C1. However, mutagenesis experiments show that the a-exosite of BoNT/C1 plays a less stringent role in substrate discrimination in comparison to that of BoNT/A, which could account for its dual substrate specificity.

  13. Biochemical studies on the ocular lens in relation to cataractogenesis. Final report, July 1, 1968--December 31, 1978J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsey, V.E.; Reddy, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    As indicated in the scope and purpose of this program, the broad aim of these investigations was to provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which various inorganic ions and a number of organic substances, particularly amino acids, enter and leave the ocular lens and to assay the role of these mechanisms in the physiological and pathological conditions of the eye. The studies also dealt with the mechanisms of glutathione in the lens and its relationship to amino acid transport, the effect of x-ray on the protein aggregation mechanism as well as the studies of the biochemical changes associated with the development of the experimentally induced galactose cataract

  14. Boswellic acids and glucosamine show synergistic effect in preclinical anti-inflammatory study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surjeet; Khajuria, Anamika; Taneja, Subhash Chandra; Khajuria, Ravi Kant; Singh, Jaswant; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi

    2007-07-01

    The present study revealed the synergistic effect of boswellic acid mixture (BA) and glucosamine for anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities in rats. Two studies were conducted, that is, acute anti-inflammatory by carrageenan edema and chronic anti-arthritic by Mycobacterium-induced developing arthritis. Five groups of animals were included in each of the study: the vehicle control, positive control (ibuprofen 100mg/kg), boswellic acids (250 mg/kg), glucosamine (250 mg/kg) and a combination of boswellic acids (125 mg/kg) and glucosamine (125 mg/kg). BA when administered at 250 mg/kg in rats, carrageenan-induced paw edema and Mycobacterium-induced developing arthritis were significantly inhibited. In comparison to boswellic acids, glucosamine when administered at 250 mg/kg showed a mild effect in carrageenan-induced edema and moderate inhibition of paw swelling against developing arthritis. Although the combination of boswellic acids and glucosamine did not affect the acute inflammation to a greater extent yet a significant anti-arthritic activity was observed in rats. In conclusion, a synergistic effect was observed in chronic inflammatory conditions when two chemical entities were administered in combination in preclinical study.

  15. A multicenter study of using carbon nanoparticles to show sentinel lymph nodes in early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhangyuanzhu; Yu, Jiang; Deng, Zhenwei; Xue, Fangqing; Zheng, Yu; Chen, Feng; Shi, Hong; Chen, Gang; Lu, Jianping; Cai, Lisheng; Cai, Mingzhi; Xiang, Gao; Hong, Yunfeng; Chen, Wenbo; Li, Guoxin

    2016-04-01

    Lymph node metastasis occurs in approximately 10% of early gastric cancer. Preoperative or intra-operative identification of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer is crucial for surgical planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using carbon nanoparticles to show sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in early gastric cancer. A multicenter study was performed between July 2012 and November 2014. Ninety-one patients with early gastric cancer identified by preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography were recruited. One milliliter carbon nanoparticles suspension, which is approved by Chinese Food and Drug Administration, was endoscopically injected into the submucosal layer at four points around the site of the primary tumor 6-12 h before surgery. Laparoscopic radical resection with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed. SLNs were defined as nodes that were black-dyed by carbon nanoparticles in greater omentum and lesser omentum near gastric cancer. Lymph node status and SLNs accuracy were confirmed by pathological analysis. All patients had black-dyed SLNs lying in greater omentum and/or lesser omentum. SLNs were easily found under laparoscopy. The mean number of SLNs was 4 (range 1-9). Carbon nanoparticles were around cancer in specimen. After pathological analysis, 10 patients (10.99%) had lymph node metastasis in 91 patients with early gastric cancer. SLNs were positive in 9 cases and negative in 82 cases. In pathology, carbon nanoparticles were seen in lymphatic vessels, lymphoid sinus, and macrophages in SLNs. When SLNs were positive, cancer cells were seen in lymph nodes. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of black-dyed SLNs in early gastric cancers were 90, 100, and 98.9 %, respectively. No patient had any side effects of carbon nanoparticles in this study. It is feasible to use carbon nanoparticles to show SLNs in early gastric cancer. Carbon nanoparticles suspension is safe for submucosal injection.

  16. A comparative clinical, pathological, biochemical and genetic study of fused in sarcoma proteinopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashley, Tammaryn; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Bandopadhyay, Rina

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease and atypical frontotemporal lobar degeneration are rare diseases characterized by ubiquitin-positive inclusions lacking transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 and tau. Recently, mutations in the fused in sarcoma gene have been shown to cause...... familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and fused in sarcoma-positive neuronal inclusions have subsequently been demonstrated in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease and atypical frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions. Here we provide clinical, imaging, morphological...... findings, as well as genetic and biochemical data in 14 fused in sarcoma proteinopathy cases. In this cohort, the age of onset was variable but included cases of young-onset disease. Patients with atypical frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions all presented with behavioural...

  17. How does culture show? A case study of an international and interprofessional course in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahor, Majda; Rasmussen, Birgit H

    2009-09-01

    Research shows slow improvement of the care of dying persons and their significant others. One of the reasons for that is the lack of palliative care education as an integral part of health professionals' undergraduate education. The paper discusses an attempt to develop innovative forms of palliative care education: an international, interprofessional and IT-supported undergraduate course for Swedish and Slovenian students of nursing, medicine, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology and social work, which has been developed jointly by the two authors. One of the aims of the course has been to address differences in professional and national cultures relevant to quality in palliative care. The development and pilot implementation phases of the course were analysed qualitatively, using evaluation materials from students and teachers and from an external evaluation study. The results show that the interprofessional approach in the course enabled students to get to know other professions, as well as enabling them to work together as a team and resolve conflicts. Cultural differences between Sweden and Slovenia were not very pronounced, yet they came to the fore regarding teamwork and relationships between professions, as well as in respect of the "right thing" to do in relation to patient' problems.

  18. Material rhetoric: spreading stones and showing bones in the study of prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reybrouck, David; de Bont, Raf; Rock, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces the concept of material rhetoric to understand the promotional regimes in which material objects play an essential argumentative role. It analyzes the phenomenon by looking at two students of prehistory from nineteenth-century Belgium. In the study of human prehistory and evolution, material data are either fairly abundant stone tools or very scarce fossil bones. These two types of material data stand for two different strategies in material rhetoric. In this article, the first strategy is exemplified by Aimé Rutot, who gathered great masses of eoliths (crudely chipped stones which he believed to be prehistoric tools). The second strategy is typified by the example of Julien Fraipont, who based his scientific career on only two Neanderthal skeletons. Rutot sent his "artifacts" to a very wide audience, while Fraipont showed his skeletons to only a few selected scholars. Unlike Rutot, however, Fraipont was able to monitor his audience's interpretation of the finds by means of personal contacts. What an archaeologist gains in reach, he or she apparently loses in control. In this article we argue that only those scholars who find the right balance between the extremes of reach and control will prove to be successful.

  19. Genome-wide association study of blood lead shows multiple associations near ALAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Nicole M; Zhu, Gu; Dy, Veronica; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Hemani, Gibran; Kemp, John P; Mcmahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean; Lawlor, Debbie A; Steer, Colin; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Davey Smith, George; Evans, David M; Whitfield, John B

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental lead, or biomarker evidence of high body lead content, is associated with anaemia, developmental and neurological deficits in children, and increased mortality in adults. Adverse effects of lead still occur despite substantial reduction in environmental exposure. There is genetic variation between individuals in blood lead concentration but the polymorphisms contributing to this have not been defined. We measured blood or erythrocyte lead content, and carried out genome-wide association analysis, on population-based cohorts of adult volunteers from Australia and UK (N = 5433). Samples from Australia were collected in two studies, in 1993-1996 and 2002-2005 and from UK in 1991-1992. One locus, at ALAD on chromosome 9, showed consistent association with blood lead across countries and evidence for multiple independent allelic effects. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1805313 (P = 3.91 × 10(-14) for lead concentration in a meta-analysis of all data), is known to have effects on ALAD expression in blood cells but other SNPs affecting ALAD expression did not affect blood lead. Variants at 12 other loci, including ABO, showed suggestive associations (5 × 10(-6) > P > 5 × 10(-8)). Identification of genetic polymorphisms affecting blood lead reinforces the view that genetic factors, as well as environmental ones, are important in determining blood lead levels. The ways in which ALAD variation affects lead uptake or distribution are still to be determined. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Watching a food-related television show and caloric intake. A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenlos, Jamie S; Wormuth, Bernadette M

    2013-02-01

    Television watching has been positively associated with overeating and obesity. How popular food-related television shows affects eating behavior has not been examined. An experimental study was conducted to examine how exposure to a food-related television program affects amount and type of food consumed in adults (N=80). Participants were randomized to watch a cooking or nature television program and were then presented with 800 total calories of chocolate covered candies, cheese curls, and carrots. Food was weighed before and after the ad libitum eating session to determine amount consumed. After controlling for dietary restraint, hunger and food preference, significantly more chocolate covered candies were consumed among individuals who watched the cooking program compared to the nature program. No significant differences between conditions were found for overall caloric intake or for cheese curl or carrot consumption. Findings suggest that watching food-related television programs may affect eating behavior and has implications for obesity prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RADON AND THORON MEASUREMENTS IN FOUR ROMANIAN SHOW CAVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghele, B D; Cucos, A; Papp, B; Dicu, T; Pressyanov, D; Dimitrov, D; Dimitrova, I; Constantin, S

    2017-11-01

    Measurements have been carried out using four types of passive detectors in four of the most popular show caves in Romania. Three types of detectors (RSKS, RadTrak and CD) were used for radon measurements and two (Raduet and CD) for thoron measurement. Activity concentrations in air were measured in the same locations for two seasons, autumn and winter. Measured values for the different caves varied between below detection limit (5 Bq m-3) and 4024 Bq m-3 for radon and from below 10 to 583 Bq m-3 for thoron. The results indicate a very good correlation between RSKS and RadTrak detectors (r = 0.96). The most significant difference between radon concentrations measured with different types of detectors (RSKS and CD) was higher than 150%. The study suggests that the activity concentration of radon in caves, measured using track detectors, could not be influenced by the type of detector used if the microclimate factor is acknowledged. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies of the C-type lectin bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Nielsen, E H; Storgaard, P

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate the supramolecular organization of conglutinin (BK) with its primary and tertiary structure and to gain more knowledge of functionally important regions of the molecule. BK analyzed by SDS-PAGE under standard reducing conditions (40 mM DTT) showed a major band...... digestion and SDS-PAGE under reducing and nonreducing conditions resulted in bands of 20 and 15 kDa, respectively, indicating the presence of intrachain, rather than interchain, disulfide bonds in the carboxy terminus. Deglycosylation and glycan differentiation analysis of BK revealed the presence of O...

  3. Biochemical studies on antibiotic production from Streptomyces sp.: Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssam M. Atta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunicamycin is a nucleotide antibiotic which was isolated from the fermentation broth of a Streptomyces strain No. T-4. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain T-4 was identified as Streptomyces torulosus. It is active in vitro against some microbial pathogenic viz: Staphylococcus aureus, NCTC 7447; Micrococcus lutea, ATCC 9341; Bacillus subtilis, NCTC 10400; B. pumilus, NCTC; Klebsiella pneumonia, NCIMB 9111; Escherichia coli, NCTC 10416; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ATCC 10145; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763; Candida albicans, IMRU 3669; Aspergillus flavus, IMI 111023; Aspergillus niger IMI 31276; Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 16424; Fusarium oxysporum; Rhizoctonia solani; Alternaria alternata; Botrytis fabae and Penicillium chrysogenium. The production media were optimized for maximum yield of secondary metabolites. The metabolites were extracted using n-butanol (1:1, v/v at pH 7.0. The chemical structural analysis with UV, IR, and MS spectral analyses confirmed that the compound produced by Streptomyces torulosus, T-4 is tunicamycin antibiotic.

  4. Biochemical and secondary metabolites changes under moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed the importance of carbohydrate and nitrogen cycle related metabolites in mediating tolerance in cassava by affecting their phenotypic expression in the plant. Keywords: Hydrothermal stress, bio-chemicals, pigments, secondary metabolites, cassava. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(31) 3173-3186 ...

  5. Severe experimental folate deficiency in a human subject - a longitudinal study of biochemical and haematological responses as megaloblastic anaemia develops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Paul Henry

    2014-01-01

    The currently accepted theory, that the human liver store of folate is limited to about four months, is based on the findings of Victor Herbert and others of the era before folate fortification of food. A recent model, developed by Lin et al., predicts far greater liver folate storage capacity than reported by Herbert. The conflict between Herbert's and Lin's models needs to be resolved experimentally, however current research is restricted because ethical considerations prevent such risky experimentation on patients or healthy human volunteers. The objective was to provide a detailed record of the biochemical and haematological responses to the development of severe experimental folate deficiency in an initially replete human subject. This 58 year old male severely depleted himself of folate, using a folate-deficient diet, until overt megaloblastic anaemia developed. The biochemical and haematological responses were monitored by routine blood tests. Daily intake of dietary supplements prevented deficiencies of other relevant nutrients. The rate of change of all analytes was significantly slower, and the delay before any change for several analytes was significantly longer, than reported for previous experiments. The time before reporting of abnormal biochemical and haematological results was therefore very significantly longer than reported by Herbert, but was consistent with the recent model of Lin et al. Serum folate and red-cell folate became abnormally low after 219 and 413 days respectively. Macrocytic anaemia was produced after 469 days, and megaloblastic anaemia was confirmed by bone marrow biopsy on day 575. Folate starvation ceased on day 586, and recovery was complete on day 772. The currently accepted four month time scale for development of megaloblastic anaemia from folate deficiency, based on the early work of Herbert and others, is not consistent with the results from this study. The > 300 day liver folate storage time, predicted by the

  6. Assessment of dietary habits, nutritional status and blood biochemical parameters in patients prepared for bariatric surgery: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębska-Mierzyńska, Marta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    Morbid obesity needs to be treated by bariatric procedures. Proper dietary preparation of patients before surgery conditions their postoperative status. Assessment of dietary habits, nutritional status and biochemical parameters of the blood in patients being prepared for different bariatric procedures. The study involved a group of 27 obese adults: 19 women (mean age: 40.4 ±13.9 years) and 8 men (mean age: 39.6 ±12.7 years) qualified for bariatric procedures. Body composition, dietary habits and selected biochemical parameters of blood were assessed. Statistical analysis of the results was conducted using Statistica 9.0. Daily food rations consumed by women provided 1910.6 ±915.9 kcal/day, and by men 2631 ±1463.2 kcal/day on average. In both groups, the consumption of major nutrients was found to be inadequate. In both groups, deficiency was observed in the dietary intake of folic acid and potassium. Additionally, there was a decrease in the intake of vitamin D(3), calcium and iron in women and magnesium in men. In the two groups, disturbances were noted in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Our study indicates the necessity for dietary instructions in bariatric patients with regard to proper dietary habits and to reduce the risk of malnutrition before and after surgery.

  7. Cadmium in Salix. A study to show the capacity of Salix to remove cadmium from farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestman, G.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this report has been to show the ability of Salix to take up cadmium and how the uptake varies between different types of soil. The information that the results are based on has been obtained from analyses of soil and Salix. The samples were taken at five sites in the district around Lake Maelaren. Two or three stands were taken at each place. The factors studied were the pH, the organic matter content, and the concentration of cadmium in the soil. Salix has a good ability, relative to other crops, to remove cadmium from arable land. The cadmium uptake is 35 times higher with Salix than with straw or energy grass. Salix uptake of cadmium varies between 3 and 14% of the cadmium content in the soil that is accessible to plants. The present annual increase of cadmium in arable land is 1 g/ha, whereas the removal in a Salix plantation is 21 g Cd/ha, yr at an annual growth of 10 tonnes DM. If the Cd uptake is the same each year, then a total of 420 g Cd/ha is removed when Salix is grown over a 20-year period. This is a very large part of the topsoil's total cadmium content, which is 550 g/ha on average in Sweden. The investigation reveals no clear relationship between the Cd concentration in Salix and the concentration of Cd in the soil, the organic matter content or the pH. 22 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Biochemical toxicology studies of methomyl and its kinetic reaction with cholinesterase in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.M.; Abdel-Hamid, F.M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide methomyl on acetylcholinesterase activities in brain and blood of male rats in vivo and the kinetics involved in their reaction in vitro were studied. Also, its effect on peroxidase action of catalase in vivo was studied using 14C - formate. The results showed that methomyl is a competitive inhibitor for acetylcholinesterase and the concentration levels that caused 50% inhibition of the enzyme activity were 2.1 x 10-2 M and 1.9 x 10-4 for brain and blood- Ache, respectively. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity decreased to 67.5 % at the time of appearance of toxicity symptoms. The radioactivity eliminated in both the expired air and in urine was reduced

  9. Lubricin expression in human osteoarthritic knee meniscus and synovial fluid: a morphological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Loreto, Carla; Leonardi, Rosalia; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Castorina, Sergio; Mobasheri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of lubricin, the product of the human PRG4 (proteoglycan 4) gene, in menisci and synovial fluid from normal donors and patients with osteoarthritis (OA), using a combination of histology, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and Western blotting analysis, to provide further insight on the role of this protein in the progression of OA and pathological processes in the meniscus. Lubricin expression was studied in samples from 40 patients and in 9 normal donors after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Histological analysis confirmed normal microanatomy and the absence of structural changes in control samples. Menisci derived from OA patients showed evidence of structural alterations, fibrillations and clefts. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed very strong lubricin immunostaining in normal menisci in contrast to weak/moderate staining seen in osteoarthritic menisci. Quantitative ELISA and Western blot analysis confirmed the above results. The findings of this study support the notion that changes in lubricin expression and boundary-lubricating ability of cartilage is followed by the development of OA. This study could provide the biological foundation for the development of novel therapeutic treatments, to be applied before the surgery, for the prevention of post-traumatic cartilage damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK AS ANTI-DIABETIC SUPPLEMENT: BIOCHEMICAL, MOLECULAR AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmed A; Nassan, Mohammed A; Saleh, Osama M; Soliman, Mohamed M

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious disease affects human health. Diabetes in advanced stages is accompanied by general weakness and alteration in fats and carbohydrates metabolism. Recently there are some scientific trends about the usage of camel milk (CM) in the treatment of diabetes and its associated alterations. CM contains vital active particles with insulin like action that cure diabetes and its complications but how these effects occur, still unclear. Seventy-five adult male rats of the albino type divided into five equal groups. Group 1 served as a negative control (C). Group 2 was supplemented with camel milk (CM). Diabetes was induced in the remaining groups (3, 4 and 5). Group 3 served as positive diabetic control (D). Group 4 served as diabetic and administered metformin (D+MET). Group 5 served as diabetes and supplemented with camel milk (D+CM). Camel milk was supplemented for two consecutive months. Serum glucose, leptin, insulin, liver, kidney, antioxidants, MDA and lipid profiles were assayed. Tissues from liver and adipose tissues were examined using RT-PCR analysis for the changes in mRNA expression of genes of carbohydrates and lipid metabolism. Pancreas and liver were used for immunohistochemical examination using specific antibodies. Camel milk supplementation ameliorated serum biochemical measurements that altered after diabetes induction. CM supplementation up-regulated mRNA expression of IRS-2 , PK , and FASN genes, while down-regulated the expression of CPT-1 to control mRNA expression level. CM did not affect the expression of PEPCK gene. On the other hand, metformin failed to reduce the expression of CPT-1 compared to camel milk administered rats. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that CM administration restored the immunostaining reactivity of insulin and GLUT-4 in the pancreas of diabetic rats. CM administration is of medical importance and helps physicians in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  11. Liver Transplantation for Acute Intermittent Porphyria: Biochemical and Pathologic Studies of the Explanted Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Makiko; Erwin, Angelika L; Liu, Lawrence U; Balwani, Manisha; Chen, Brenden; Kadirvel, Senkottuvelan; Gan, Lin; Fiel, M Isabel; Gordon, Ronald E; Yu, Chunli; Clavero, Sonia; Arvelakis, Antonios; Naik, Hetanshi; Martin, L David; Phillips, John D; Anderson, Karl E; Sadagoparamanujam, Vaithamanithi M; Florman, Sander S; Desnick, Robert J

    2015-06-05

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal-dominant hepatic disorder caused by the half-normal activity of hydroxymethylbilane (HMB) synthase. Symptomatic individuals experience life-threatening acute neurovisceral attacks that are precipitated by factors that induce the hepatic expression of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1), resulting in the marked accumulation of the putative neurotoxic porphyrin precursors 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG). Here, we provide the first detailed description of the biochemical and pathologic alterations in the explanted liver of an AIP patient who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) due to untreatable and debilitating chronic attacks. After OLT, the recipient's plasma and urinary ALA and PBG rapidly normalized, and her attacks immediately stopped. In the explanted liver, (a) ALAS1 mRNA and activity were elevated approximately ~3- and 5-fold, and ALA and PBG concentrations were increased ~3- and 1,760-fold, respectively; (b) uroporphyrin III concentration was elevated; (c) microsomal heme content was sufficient, and representative cytochrome P450 activities were essentially normal; (d) HMB synthase activity was approximately half-normal (~42%); (e) iron concentration was slightly elevated; and (f) heme oxygenase I mRNA was increased approximately three-fold. Notable pathologic findings included nodular regenerative hyperplasia, previously not reported in AIP livers, and minimal iron deposition, despite the large number of hemin infusions received before OLT. These findings suggest that the neurovisceral symptoms of AIP are not associated with generalized hepatic heme deficiency and support the neurotoxicity of ALA and/or PBG. Additionally, they indicate that substrate inhibition of hepatic HMB synthase activity by PBG is not a pathogenic mechanism in acute attacks.

  12. Short-chain carboxylic acids, a new class of teratogens: studies of potential biochemical mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coakley, M.E.; Rawlings, S.J.; Brown, N.A.

    1986-12-01

    Certain short-chain carboxylic acids (SCCA) appear to share a common teratogenic potential, although the structural requirements for activity remain obscure. By using a whole rat embryo culture model system, several biochemical processes have been examined, either as potential initial sites of teratogenic action or as early steps in the pathway to malformation. Valproate, methoxyacetate, and butyrate were the prototype SCCA examined. Measurement of (/sup 14/C)glucose utilization and lactate production confirmed that energy production by the early organogenesis embryo is predominantly from glycolysis. While the positive control agent, iodoacetate, caused a significant inhibition of lactate production, none of the SCCA affected this process or glucose utilization at teratogenic concentrations. Pinocytosis by the visceral yolk sac (VYS) was measured by the uptake of (/sup 125/I)polyvinylpyrrolidone. This process ultimately supplies the embryo with amino-acids and is essential for normal development. SCCA induce morphological abnormalities of the VYS in embryo culture. Pinocytosis was slightly reduced by valproate, but not the other SCCA. However, comparison with the action of an antiserum, for which inhibition of pinocytosis is the initial teratogenic insult, suggests that this is not the mechanism for valproate. Incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into embryo or yolk sac was not affected after 3 hr of SCCA exposure, but there was a marked effect of the positive control, hydroxyurea. This suggests that DNA synthesis is not directly influenced by SCCA. It can be concluded that SCCA do not exert their teratogenic effects by actions on glycolysis; maintenance of cellular acetyl CoA; pinocytosis or DNA synthesis. These observations contrast with preliminary results which suggest significant effects of SCCA on embryonic and yolk sac lipid metabolic pathways.

  13. Evaluation of the effect of gamma rays on the venom of Vipera lebetina by biochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennacef-Heffar, N.; Laraba-Djebari, F.

    2003-01-01

    Snake bites represent a serious public health problem in many areas of the world. In Algeria, two widespread snakes are Vipera lebetina and Cerastes cerastes. Vipera lebetina venom causes local hemorrhage and necrosis, and it may lead to permanent limb loss. The principal causes of mortality after snakebites are acute renal failure and hemorrhage, which occur not only locally, at the site of the bite, but also systemically, contributing to the cardiovascular shock characteristic of severe envenomation. Gamma radiation has been shown to be effective for attenuating venom toxicity. Vipera lebetina venom was irradiated with two doses of gamma rays (1 and 2 kGy) from a 60 Co source, and the venom's toxic, enzymatic, and structural properties were analyzed. Intraperitoneal injection of the irradiated venoms (100-500 μg/20 g mouse body mass) revealed a significant decrease of the toxicity. Irradiated venoms with 1 and 2 kGy doses were four and nine times less toxic, respectively, than the native venom. A biochemical characterization of in vitro enzymatic activities was performed. Vipera lebetina displayed in vitro caseinolytic, amidolytic, esterasic, coagulant, and phospholipase A 2 activities. Caseinolytic, amidolytic, esterasic, and coagulative activities were reduced for the irradiated venoms; only phospholipase A 2 activity was abolished in the irradiated venom with a dose of 2 kGy. The native and irradiated venoms were separated by gel filtration and electrophoresis. Chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles were drastically changed as compared with the native venom. Vipera lebetina venom detoxified by gamma rays was used for active immunization, and the presence of antibody in the immune sera was detected by ELISA. The immunogenic properties were preserved and the antisera obtained with the irradiated venoms could cross-react. Antisera were able to neutralize the toxic effect of V. lebetina native venom. These results indicate that irradiation of V. lebetina

  14. Effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on salivary myeloperoxidase levels: A biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Dagar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myeloperoxidase (MPO, the most abundant protein in neutrophils, is the focus of inflammatory pathologies. MPO could participate in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients with healthy gingiva, gingivitis, periodontitis between age group of 20–55 years were selected. Group I - 20 Patients with healthy gingiva, Group II - 20 Patients with generalized gingivitis, Group III - 20 Patients with generalized chronic periodontitis, Group IV - 20 Patients of Group III after 1-month of scaling and root planning. The following parameters were recorded: Gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, salivary MPO levels. All the parameters were then statistically analyzed. Results: The mean MPO levels in Group I recorded was - 0.320 + 0.06, Group II was - 0.183 + 0.04, Group III was - 0.814 + 0.08 and Group IV was - 0.386 + 0.08 respectively. All these values were statistically significant when compared between the four groups (P < 0.05. A significantly elevated salivary MPO levels were found in subjects with chronic periodontitis as compared to the gingivitis group and the healthy group (P < 0.05. However, moderate but statistically significant increase in the MPO levels were observed in the gingivitis group as compared to the healthy group (P < 0.05. Furthermore, significant reduction in MPO levels were observed in Group IV after 1-month of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Conclusion: The activities of MPO enzyme were significantly increased in the saliva of patients with periodontal disease in comparison to healthy individuals. Furthermore, nonsurgical periodontal therapy was found to be effective in improving clinical parameters and in reducing MPO levels. Salivary enzymes like MPO could be considered as a biochemical marker of periodontal disease activity.

  15. Structural and biochemical alterations of human diabetic dermis studied by 3H-lysine incorporation and microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moczar, M.; Allard, R.; Ouzilou, J.; Robert, L.; Pieraggi, M.-T.; Bouissou, H.; Julian, M.

    1976-01-01

    The alteration of the structural organization of dermal connective tissue was studied by light and electron microscopy and by biochemical techniques in normal human and in diabetic patients using skin biopsies. Part of the tissue was used for light and electron microscopy, the rest was incubated in the presence of 3 H-lysine for four hours. The 3 H-lysine labelled biopsies were submitted to a sequential extraction procedure in order to obtain representative macromolecular fractions containing the matrix macromolecules. The extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and radioactivity. Electron microscopy revealed microstructural modifications of the fibroblasts, of the collagen and elastic fibers in the diabetic dermis. The incorporation pattern of 3 H-lysine into the macromolecular fractions was different in the normal and diabetic skin biopsies. The percentage of total radioactivity incorporated increased significantly in the 1M CaCl 2 extractable fraction and in the 6M urea extractable fraction and decreased significantly in the collagenase and elastase extracts in diabetic skin biopsy. These results demonstrate the existence of morphological and biochemical alterations in diabetic connective tissue (dermis) reflecting alterations in the relative rates of synthesis and/or degradation of the intercellular matrix macromolecules as well as of their microarchitectural arrangement

  16. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of genetic, pharmacogenetic and biochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, C; Faraone, S V; Scassellati, C

    2016-01-01

    The adult form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has a prevalence of up to 5% and is the most severe long-term outcome of this common disorder. Family studies in clinical samples as well as twin studies suggest a familial liability and consequently different genes were investigated in association studies. Pharmacotherapy with methylphenidate (MPH) seems to be the first-line treatment of choice in adults with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and some studies were conducted on the genes influencing the response to this drug. Finally some peripheral biomarkers were identified in ADHD adult patients. We believe this work is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of candidate gene association studies, pharmacogenetic and biochemical (metabolomics) studies performed in adults with ADHD to identify potential genetic, predictive and peripheral markers linked specifically to ADHD in adults. After screening 5129 records, we selected 87 studies of which 61 were available for candidate gene association studies, 5 for pharmacogenetics and 21 for biochemical studies. Of these, 15 genetic, 2 pharmacogenetic and 6 biochemical studies were included in the meta-analyses. We obtained an association between adult ADHD and the gene BAIAP2 (brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2), even after Bonferroni correction, with any heterogeneity in effect size and no publication bias. If we did not apply the Bonferroni correction, a trend was found for the carriers allele 9R of dopamine transporter SLC6A3 40 bp variable tandem repeat polymorphism (VNTR) and for 6/6 homozygotes of SLC6A3 30 bp VNTR. Negative results were obtained for the 9-6 haplotype, the dopamine receptor DRD4 48 bp VNTR, and the enzyme COMT SNP rs4680. Concerning pharmacogenetic studies, no association was found for the SLC6A3 40 bp and response to MPH with only two studies selected. For the metabolomics studies, no differences between ADHD adults and controls were

  17. Fabry's disease: biochemical and histochemical studies on hair roots for carrier detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermorken, A J; Weterings, P J; Spierenburg, G T; vanBennekom, C A; Wirtz, P; deBruyn, C H; Oei, T L

    1978-02-01

    A method of assay alpha-galactosidase and acid phosphatase activities in single hair roots is described. Enzyme histochemical studies show that the distribution of acid phosphatase in the human hair root matches that of alpha-galactosidase. Histochemically, the main activity is located in the upper part of the sheath near the orifice of the duct of the sebaceous gland. This is confirmed by enzyme assays on different parts of the hair root after dissection. The variation in the values found in individual hair roots is improved by relating alpha-galactosidase to acid phosphatase activities. Storage experiments indicate a remarkable stability of both alpha-galactosidase and acid phosphatase in human hair roots.

  18. Comparative studies on the biochemical properties of the malic enzymes from Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Alejandro E; Maugeri, Dante A; Opperdoes, Fred R; Cazzulo, Juan J; Nowicki, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies showed that, like Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei exhibits functional cytosolic and mitochondrial malic enzymes (MEs), which are specifically linked to NADP. Kinetic studies provided evidence that T. cruzi and T. brucei MEs display similarly high affinities towards NADP(+) and are also almost equally efficient in catalyzing the production of NADPH. Nevertheless, in contrast to the cytosolic ME from T. cruzi, which is highly activated by l-aspartate (over 10-fold), the T. brucei homologue is slightly more active (50%) in the presence of this amino acid. In T. brucei, both isozymes appear to be clearly more abundant in the insect stage, although they can be immunodetected in the bloodstream forms. By contrast, in T. cruzi the expression of the mitochondrial ME seems to be clearly upregulated in amastigotes, whereas the cytosolic isoform appears to be more abundant in the insect stages of the parasite. It might be hypothesized that in those environments where glucose is very low or absent, these pathogens depend on NADP-linked dehydrogenases such as the MEs for NADPH production, as in those conditions the pentose phosphate pathway cannot serve as a source of essential reducing power. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Consumption and biochemical impact of commercially available plant-derived nutritional supplements. An observational pilot-study on recreational athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrione Paolo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing consumption of natural (plant-derived dietary supplements with ergogenic aims, with particular regard for ecdysteroids, phytoestrogens and vegetal sterols, has been registered over the last years among “recreational” athletes. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the real knowledge of plant-derived nutritional supplements among physically active people as well as their real consumption. Additional aim was to evaluate the effects of these supplements on the health profile of the users. Methods Twenty-three trained subjects who habitually used natural dietary supplements, and 30 matched controls were analyzed for plasma biochemical markers and hormonal profile. Results The laboratory tests revealed the absence of any sign of organ toxicity/damage in both athletes and controls. On the contrary, hormone profiles revealed marked alterations in 15 (65% out of the 23 of investigated athletes. Specifically, 10 males presented increased plasma levels of progesterone, 15 subjects presented abnormal estrogen levels, including 5 (2 F and 3 M presenting a “dramatic” increased estrogen values and 2 two males with increased estrogen levels, increased testosterone levels and associated suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Conclusions The results of the present study highlighted that the habitual consumption of plant-derived nutritional supplements is frequently associated with significant hormonal alterations both in male and female subjects. Although these biochemical alterations were not associated with signs or symptoms of organ toxicity/damage at the moment of the study, it cannot be excluded that, in the mid/long-term, these subjects would suffer of health problems secondary to chronic exposure to heavily altered hormonal levels. Further large scale studies are needed to confirm the results of this pilot study as well as to investigate the biological mechanisms at

  20. Biochemical and structural studies of N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide mutase from the acidophilic bacterium Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Charles Z; Starks, Courtney M; Mill, Christopher P; Ransome, Aaron E; Karpowicz, Steven J; Francois, Julie A; Goodman, Rena A; Kappock, T Joseph

    2006-07-11

    N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide (N5-CAIR) mutase (PurE) catalyzes the reversible interconversion of acid-labile compounds N5-CAIR and 4-carboxy-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (CAIR). We have examined PurE from the acidophilic bacterium Acetobacter aceti (AaPurE), focusing on its adaptation to acid pH and the roles of conserved residues His59 and His89. Both AaPurE and Escherichia coli PurE showed quasi-reversible acid-mediated inactivation, but wt AaPurE was much more stable at pH 3.5, with a > or = 20 degrees C higher thermal unfolding temperature at all pHs. His89 is not essential and does not function as part of a proton relay system. The kcat pH-rate profile was consistent with the assignment of pK1 to unproductive protonation of bound nucleotide and pK2 to deprotonation of His59. A 1.85 A resolution crystal structure of the inactive mutant H59N-AaPurE soaked in CAIR showed that protonation of CAIR C4 can occur in the absence of His59. The resulting species, modeled as isoCAIR [4(R)-carboxy-5-iminoimidazoline ribonucleotide], is strongly stabilized by extensive interactions with the enzyme and a water molecule. The carboxylate moiety is positioned in a small pocket proposed to facilitate nucleotide decarboxylation in the forward direction (N5-CAIR --> CAIR) [Meyer, E., Kappock, T. J., Osuji, C., and Stubbe, J. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 3012-3018]. Comparisons with model studies suggest that in the reverse (nonbiosynthetic) direction PurE favors protonation of CAIR C4. We suggest that the essential role of protonated His59 is to lower the barrier to decarboxylation by stabilizing a CO2-azaenolate intermediate.

  1. A numerical study of synchronization in the process of biochemical substance exchange in a diffusively coupled ring of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T.; Balaž, Igor; Arsenić, Ilija

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we numerically investigate a model of a diffusively coupled ring of cells. To model the dynamics of individual cells we propose a map with cell affinity, which is a generalization of the logistic map. First, the basic features of a one-cell system are studied in terms of the Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov complexity and Sample Entropy. Second, the notion of observational heterarchy, which is a perpetual negotiation process between different levels of the description of a phenomenon, is reviewed. After these preliminaries, we study how the active coupling induced by the consideration of the observational heterarchy modifies the synchronization property of the model with N=100 cells. It is shown numerically that the active coupling enhances synchronization of biochemical substance exchange in several different conditions of cell affinity.

  2. Physiological and biochemical responses of halophyte Kalidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of a halophyte Kalidium foliatum to salinity were studied. In order to reflect salt-tolerance in K. foliatum and to analyze the physiological and biochemical mechanism for its salt tolerance, salinity threshold and biochemical parameters were studied. A halophyte ...

  3. Excessive users of violent video games do not show emotional desensitization: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szycik, Gregor R; Mohammadi, Bahram; Hake, Maria; Kneer, Jonas; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F; Te Wildt, Bert T

    2017-06-01

    Playing violent video games have been linked to long-term emotional desensitization. We hypothesized that desensitization effects in excessive users of violent video games should lead to decreased brain activations to highly salient emotional pictures in emotional sensitivity brain regions. Twenty-eight male adult subjects showing excessive long-term use of violent video games and age and education matched control participants were examined in two experiments using standardized emotional pictures of positive, negative and neutral valence. No group differences were revealed even at reduced statistical thresholds which speaks against desensitization of emotion sensitive brain regions as a result of excessive use of violent video games.

  4. Measuring substance use in the club setting: a feasibility study using biochemical markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gripenberg-Abdon Johanna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last few decades the use of club drugs (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines has been of increased concern in nightlife settings. Traditionally, surveys have been used to estimate the use of club drugs, however, they mostly rely on self-reports which may not be accurate. Recent advances have allowed for readily accessible drug testing methods such as oral fluid drug testing. Nevertheless, research using oral fluid sampling to measure the frequency of drug use in the club environment is scarce. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of measuring the frequency of alcohol and drug use among Swedish clubbers using breath alcohol and oral fluid drug testing. Method The setting was a 40 hour electronic music dance event (EMDE on a cruise ship on the Baltic Sea, departing from Sweden, with 875 passengers. Groups of participants at the EMDE were randomly invited to participate. Data were collected with face-to-face and self-administered questionnaires. Further, oral fluid samples were collected to determine illicit drug use, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC levels were measured using a breath analyzer. Results A total of 422 passengers were asked to participate in the study whereof 21 declined (5.0% refusal rate. Of the 401 study participants (accounting for 45.8% of all attendees, 5 declined oral fluid drug testing. Results show that there was a discrepancy between self-reported and actual drug use as 10.1% of the participants were positive on illicit drug use (amphetamines, ecstasy/MDMA, cannabis, cocaine, while only 3.7% of the participants reported drug use during the last 48 hours. The average BAC level was 0.10% and 23.7% had BAC levels ≥ 0.15%, while 5.9% had levels below the detection limit. The mean BAC levels for the illicit drug users were significantly higher (p = 0.004 than for non-drug users (0.13% vs. 0.10%. Self-reported AUDIT-C scores (using a threshold of ≥ 5 for men and ≥ 4 for women

  5. Measuring substance use in the club setting: a feasibility study using biochemical markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripenberg-Abdon, Johanna; Elgán, Tobias H; Wallin, Eva; Shaafati, Marjan; Beck, Olof; Andréasson, Sven

    2012-02-09

    During the last few decades the use of club drugs (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines) has been of increased concern in nightlife settings. Traditionally, surveys have been used to estimate the use of club drugs, however, they mostly rely on self-reports which may not be accurate. Recent advances have allowed for readily accessible drug testing methods such as oral fluid drug testing. Nevertheless, research using oral fluid sampling to measure the frequency of drug use in the club environment is scarce. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of measuring the frequency of alcohol and drug use among Swedish clubbers using breath alcohol and oral fluid drug testing. The setting was a 40 hour electronic music dance event (EMDE) on a cruise ship on the Baltic Sea, departing from Sweden, with 875 passengers. Groups of participants at the EMDE were randomly invited to participate. Data were collected with face-to-face and self-administered questionnaires. Further, oral fluid samples were collected to determine illicit drug use, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels were measured using a breath analyzer. A total of 422 passengers were asked to participate in the study whereof 21 declined (5.0% refusal rate). Of the 401 study participants (accounting for 45.8% of all attendees), 5 declined oral fluid drug testing. Results show that there was a discrepancy between self-reported and actual drug use as 10.1% of the participants were positive on illicit drug use (amphetamines, ecstasy/MDMA, cannabis, cocaine), while only 3.7% of the participants reported drug use during the last 48 hours. The average BAC level was 0.10% and 23.7% had BAC levels ≥ 0.15%, while 5.9% had levels below the detection limit. The mean BAC levels for the illicit drug users were significantly higher (p = 0.004) than for non-drug users (0.13% vs. 0.10%). Self-reported AUDIT-C scores (using a threshold of ≥ 5 for men and ≥ 4 for women) revealed that 76.0% of the men and 80.7% of

  6. Large-scale experimental studies show unexpected amino acid effects on protein expression and solubility in vivo in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The biochemical and physical factors controlling protein expression level and solubility in vivo remain incompletely characterized. To gain insight into the primary sequence features influencing these outcomes, we performed statistical analyses of results from the high-throughput protein-production pipeline of the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium. Proteins expressed in E. coli and consistently purified were scored independently for expression and solubility levels. These parameters nonetheless show a very strong positive correlation. We used logistic regressions to determine whether they are systematically influenced by fractional amino acid composition or several bulk sequence parameters including hydrophobicity, sidechain entropy, electrostatic charge, and predicted backbone disorder. Decreasing hydrophobicity correlates with higher expression and solubility levels, but this correlation apparently derives solely from the beneficial effect of three charged amino acids, at least for bacterial proteins. In fact, the three most hydrophobic residues showed very different correlations with solubility level. Leu showed the strongest negative correlation among amino acids, while Ile showed a slightly positive correlation in most data segments. Several other amino acids also had unexpected effects. Notably, Arg correlated with decreased expression and, most surprisingly, solubility of bacterial proteins, an effect only partially attributable to rare codons. However, rare codons did significantly reduce expression despite use of a codon-enhanced strain. Additional analyses suggest that positively but not negatively charged amino acids may reduce translation efficiency in E. coli irrespective of codon usage. While some observed effects may reflect indirect evolutionary correlations, others may reflect basic physicochemical phenomena. We used these results to construct and validate predictors of expression and solubility levels and overall protein usability, and we

  7. A case study of lightning attachment to flat ground showing multiple unconnected upward leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Kenneth L.; Krider, E. Philip; Olbinski, Mike; Holle, Ronald L.

    2018-04-01

    On 10 July 2015, a cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash that produced two ground terminations was photographed from inside the safety of a truck in southern New Mexico. An analysis of archived NLDN data verified that this was a two-stroke flash, and a close-up view of the first stroke shows that it also initiated at least 12 unconnected, upward leaders (or "streamers") near the ground termination. No unconnected upward leaders were seen near the second ground attachment. After combining an analysis of the photograph with information provided by the NLDN, we infer that the first stroke was of negative (normal) polarity, had modest peak current, and struck about 460 m (± 24%) from the camera. Attachment occurred when an upward-propagating positive leader reached an inferred height of about 21 m above local ground. The second stroke struck ground about 740 m from the camera, and the height of its attachment leader is estimated to be 15 m. The estimated lengths of the unconnected upward leaders in the two-dimensional (2-D) plane of the first stroke range from 2 to 8 m, and all appear to be located within 15 m (2-D) of the main ground termination, with 24% uncertainty. Many of the unconnected upward leaders (inferred to be positive) exhibit multiple upward branches, and most of those branches have upward-directed forks or splits at their ends. This is the first report showing such extensive branching for positive upward leaders in natural lightning strikes to ground. None of the upward leaders can be seen to emanate from the tops of tall, isolated, or pointed objects on the ground, but they likely begin on small plants and rocks, or flat ground. In terms of lightning safety, this photo demonstrates that numerous upward leaders can be produced near a lightning strike point and have the potential to damage or cause injury at more than one specific point on the ground.

  8. A study on biochemical changes during cultivation of Rhizopus oryzae in deproteinized whey medium in relation to chitosan production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S; Guha, A K

    2014-08-01

    The kinetics of cultivation of zygomycete filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae in deproteinized whey medium in relation to chitosan production was studied here to optimize chitosan production from R. oryzae as well as utilize whey, a by-product of sweetmeat industry as a cheap source of sugar in the cultivation process. Chitosan content of R. oryzae biomass was found to be increased with time during cultivation and reached maximum (13·6%) after 72 h and then declined steadily. Maximum 1·13 g of chitosan was obtained from one litre of deproteinized whey medium. Concentration of lactose in the medium was observed to be reduced from 45·0 to 11·7 g l(-1) during cultivation resulting in decrease in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of whey by approx. 60%, and this was important from environmental point of view before discharging whey into any water body. However, no significant change in pH or titratable acidity was noted during the entire course of cultivation, probably due to good buffering capacity of the medium. Molecular weight of chitosan varied from 130 to 230 kDa depending on the time of cultivation, but no significant change in degree of deacetylation of chitosan (approx. 87%) was found during cultivation. Whey is the largest by-product of dairy industries, and its disposal is a big environmental issue because of its high biological oxygen demand (BOD) value. This study will help to lower BOD value of whey by using it as a cultivation medium for fungus R. oryzae that contains chitosan, a very commercially important material on its cell wall. Moreover, the study on biochemical changes in whey during cultivation process with R. oryzae will help to understand the exact changes occurring in the medium and optimize cultivation process to isolate chitosan in larger extent with better and uniform physicochemical properties. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Diagnosis and fellow-up of prostate cancer: Biochemical and Scintigraphic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakeir, M.A.; Al-Kaial, S.J.; Murad, S.; Aissa, A.W.

    2000-03-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the clinical usefulness of total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) determination and the free-to-total PSA (FPSA) ratio in improving differential diagnosis of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PC), and to evaluate the use of total PSA measurements in predicting of radionuclide bone scintigraphy findings in patients with PC. Serum total PSA and free PSA concentrations were determined in 35 healthy volunteers and in 42 patients with BPH. Total PSA and bone scintigraphy were performed for 53 patients with PC. Also, FPSA was measured in PC cases where total PSA level in serum is not markedly elevated. The PSA values found in serum from healthy volunteers ranged between 0.6 and 5.7 ng/ml with a mean of 1.8 ± 1.22 ng/ml. The PSA values in this group ranged between 0.28 and 0.9 ng/ml with a mean of 0.51 ± 0.18. The ratio of FPSA/PSA in this group ranged between 13-33%. Moderately elevated values of PSA were found in BPH ranged between 0.9 and 11 ng/ml with a mean of 5.49 ± 2.31 ng/ml. The FPSA values ranged between 0.05-5.46 ng/ml with a mean of 1.2 ± 0.96 ng/ml. Similar ratios of FPSA/PSA to volunteers were found in patients with BPH ranging between 10-49% with a mean of 22.1 ± 9.9%. High levels of PSA were detected in most of PC patients ranging between 0.9 to 338 ng/ml with a mean value of 63.9 ± 69.7. The FPSA/PSA ratios were lower compared to BPH values which ranged between 3.3-16.7% with a mean value of 10.9 ± 4.2%. The correlation of bone scan findings and PSA concentrations in PC patients showing that no patient with PSA value up to 15 ng/ml had a positive bone scan, only one patient with PSA value of 19 ng/ml or less had a positive bone scan. Whereas all patients with PSA value above 50 had positive bone scans. The results of this study suggest that serum PSA is a useful marker for detecting prostate cancer.ur data also showed that the ratio of FPSA/PSA in serum is lower in patients with PC than

  10. Biochemical and nutritional studies of lupin (Lupinus jermis) seed cultivated in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, Malik El Mubarak Mohamed

    1996-12-01

    Two lupin varieties (Rubatab and Dongola) purchased from the local market were used in this study. Physical properities showed that the weight and volume of cv.Dongola were higher than those of cv.Rubatab while thickness and density of cv.Rubatab were higher than those of cv.Dongola. Moisture content ranged from 4.4 to 5.7%. Fiber content ranged from 8.8 to 10.9% of whole seed and for kernels and testa it ranged from 0.9 to 1.8% and from 45 to 47% respectively. The ash content ranged from 1.3 to 1.9%. Oil content ranged from 9.9 to 10.9% in whole seed (raw, debittered) and in kernels ranged from 11.5 to 12.0% while the testa had very low oil content (0.6-1.1 %). Protein content ranged from 49.4 to 50.4 % for raw whole seed and was 47.1 to 50.4 % for debittered whole seeds. For kernels it ranged from 56 to 59%. The protien content of testa ranged from 5.6 to 9.3%. Carbohydrates content was about 23% for raw whole seed and ranged from 25 to 26% for debittered whole seed. It ranged from 21 to 24% for kernels and increased to 39% in testa. Calorific value for 100 g of whole seed ranged from 381 to 433 kcal. It decreased in testa ranging from 187 to193 kcal. In this study both varieties did not contain antinutritional factors e.g. trypsin inhibitors. The tannins content and phytate was very low presumably due to debittering. Fatty acid composition of lupin seed oil showed that it is composed of ten fatty acids presented by Oleic (52-60%), Linoleic acid (16-19%), Palmatic (10-11%)and palmitoleic, lauric, myristeic, largeric, lenolenic, arrashidic acids. The mineral content of lupin seed showed Ca 0.1%, K 0.4-0.5%. Mg 0.2-0.3%. Zn 107-135 μg/g. Pb 9-10 μg/g. In this study lupin proteins were fractionated by two methods: Mendel-osborne method and landry and moureaux. Protein fractions obtained by the first method were allbumin which ranged from 3.1 to 24.8%, globulin ranged 1.9 to 3%, gluelin raanged from 13.2 to 62% The landry and moureaux method gave globulins in the

  11. Effect of smoking on potential salivary markers of periodontal disease: A clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Dev Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco smoking exerts a harmful effect on the periodontal tissues manifested by periodontal pockets, attachment loss, and periodontal bone loss. Various factors contribute to the deleterious periodontal effects of smoking, including alteration of both microbial and host response factors. Moreover, smoking may exert effects throughout the cytokine network. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of smoking on periodontal biomarkers possibly related to the development of periodontitis including inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in saliva. Materials and Methods: A total of sixty subjects aged 30–55 years were included in the study and divided into three groups: systemically and periodontally healthy individuals (Group 1, subjects with pocket probing depth (PPD ≥5 mm and clinical attachment loss (CAL of ≥2 mm (Group 2, and a subjects smoking (≥10 cigarettes a day with periodontal parameters of Group 2 (Group 3. Periodontal parameters of PPD, CAL, gingival index (GI, and plaque index were measured using standard indices and criteria. Three milliliters of unstimulated saliva was taken, and salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8 were determined using ELISA technique. Results: The mean GI was lowest for Group 3, but the mean probing depth of Group 3 (4.93 ± 0.41 was highest. The mean TNF-α level of Group 3 was significantly different and higher as compared to Group 1 and Group 2 (24.32 ± 8.32 ng/ml vs. 6.43 ± 2.65 ng/ml, q = 16.14; P< 0.001. Similarly, the mean MMP-8 level of Group 3 (461.71 ± 58.01 ng/ml was significantly different (P < 0.001 and higher as compared to Group 1 (192.96 ± 134.89 ng/ml and Group 2 (347.83 ± 206.72 ng/ml. Both markers showed positive and significant correlation with their periodontal status. Conclusion: Our study clearly indicates a profound effect of smoking on salivary markers of periodontal disease (TNF-α and

  12. Memantine shows promise in reducing gambling severity and cognitive inflexibility in pathological gambling: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Potenza, Marc N; Kim, Suck Won

    2010-12-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is relatively common, pharmacotherapy research for PG is limited. Memantine, an N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antagonist, appears to reduce glutamate excitability and improve impulsive decision making, suggesting it may help individuals with PG. This study sought to examine the safety and efficacy of Memantine in PG. Twenty-nine subjects (18 females) with DSM-IV PG were enrolled in a 10-week open-label treatment study of memantine (dose ranging from 10 to 30 mg/day). Subjects were enrolled from January 2009 until April 2010. Change from baseline to study endpoint on the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling (PG-YBOCS) was the primary outcome measure. Subjects underwent pre- and post-treatment cognitive assessments using the stop-signal task (assessing response impulsivity) and the intra-dimensional/extra-dimensional (ID/ED) set shift task (assessing cognitive flexibility). Twenty-eight of the 29 subjects (96.6%) completed the 10-week study. PG-YBOCS scores decreased from a mean of 21.8 ± 4.3 at baseline to 8.9 ± 7.1 at study endpoint (p gambling per week and money spent gambling both decreased significantly (p medication was well-tolerated. Memantine treatment was associated with diminished gambling and improved cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest that pharmacological manipulation of the glutamate system may target both gambling and cognitive deficits in PG. Placebo-controlled, double-blind studies are warranted in order to confirm these preliminary findings in a controlled design.

  13. The eight-item modified Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey: psychometric evaluation showed excellent performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, André; Stuck, Andreas E.; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluation and validation of the psychometric properties of the eight-item modified Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (mMOS-SS). Study Design and Setting Secondary analyses of data from three populations: Boston breast cancer study (N = 660), Los Angeles breast cancer study (N = 864), and Medical Outcomes Study (N = 1,717). The psychometric evaluation of the eight-item mMOS-SS compared performance across populations and with the original 19-item Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SS). Internal reliability, factor structure, construct validity, and discriminant validity were evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha, principal factor analysis (PFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Spearman and Pearson correlation, t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Results mMOS-SS internal reliability was excellent in all three populations. PFA factor loadings were similar across populations; one factor >0.6, well-discriminated two factor (instrumental/emotional social support four items each) >0.5. CFA with a priori two-factor structure yielded consistently adequate model fit (root mean squared errors of approximation 0.054–0.074). mMOS-SS construct and discriminant validity were similar across populations and comparable to MOS-SS. Psychometric properties held when restricted to women aged ≥65 years. Conclusion The psychometric properties of the eight-item mMOS-SS were excellent and similar to those of the original 19-item instrument. Results support the use of briefer mMOS-SS instrument; better suited to multidimensional geriatric assessments and specifically in older women with breast cancer. PMID:22818947

  14. Study of medication-free children with Tourette syndrome do not show imaging abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Signe Søndergaard; Debes, Nanette Mol; Simonsen, Helle Juhl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imaging studies of patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) across different cohorts have shown alterations in gray and white matter in areas associated with the cortico-striato-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) pathways; however, no consistent findings have subsequently established a clear...... indication of the pathophysiology of TS. METHODS: This study was designed to investigate changes in gray and white matter in medication-free children with TS in the CSTC areas. With MRI, 24 children with TS and 18 healthy controls were analyzed using three complementary methods. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION...

  15. Material Rhetoric: Spreading Stones and Showing Bones in the Study of Prehistory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reybrouck, D.; de Bont, R.; Rock, J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces

  16. New study shows normally helpful natural bacteria may also trigger lupus | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR scientists have discovered that a protein produced by bacteria that naturally inhabit our bodies may trigger the autoimmune disease lupus. The results of the study could unveil an entirely new set of drug targets for treating lupus and other autoimmune diseases. Read more…

  17. Affiliation, joint venture or PSO? Case studies show why provider strategies differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Joint venture, affiliation or PSO? Here are three case studies of providers who chose different paths under Medicare risk, plus some key questions you'll want to ask of your own provider organization. Learn from these examples so you'll make the best contracting decisions.

  18. New azole derivatives showing antimicrobial effects and their mechanism of antifungal activity by molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, İnci Selin; Saraç, Selma; Sari, Suat; Kart, Didem; Eşsiz Gökhan, Şebnem; Vural, İmran; Dalkara, Sevim

    2017-04-21

    Azole antifungals are potent inhibitors of fungal lanosterol 14α demethylase (CYP51) and have been used for eradication of systemic candidiasis clinically. Herein we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of 1-phenyl/1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethanol esters. Many of these derivatives showed fungal growth inhibition at very low concentrations. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 15 was 0.125 μg/mL against Candida albicans. Additionally, some of our compounds, such as 19 (MIC: 0.25 μg/mL), were potent against resistant C. glabrata, a fungal strain less susceptible to some first-line antifungal drugs. We confirmed their antifungal efficacy by antibiofilm test and their safety against human monocytes by cytotoxicity assay. To rationalize their mechanism of action, we performed computational analysis utilizing molecular docking and dynamics simulations on the C. albicans and C. glabrata CYP51 (CACYP51 and CGCYP51) homology models we built. Leu130 and T131 emerged as possible key residues for inhibition of CGCYP51 by 19. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Field study - Steinle Ranch, an intermediate depth oil field, shows significant benefit from bauxite proppants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlhaas, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Steinle Ranch field initially was developed in the mid-1970s. Wells were drilled, cased, perforated, and treated by chemical injection with lease-crude or condensate carriers to restore oil saturation to the formation, which is suspected to be hydrophobic. Stimulation by hydraulic fracturing of 4 wells was attempted from 1975 through 1977 with mixed results and no particular success. These treatments used sand and glass beads for proppant. A fifth hydraulic fracture treatment, in which sintered bauxite was used as the proppant was very successful. As a result, all wells in the field have been fractured. This program, in a mature field in late stages of depletion, at intermediate depth (10,600 ft), has been very successful; ca 940,000 bbl of additional reserves have resulted for a total cost of ca $2,000,000, a return on investment of 9.4:1. Comparing these reserves to estimated reserves if the wells had been propped with sand shows a 23:1 return by the incremental reserves on the incremental cost of the bauxite.

  20. Kemampuan Menulis Melalui Show Not Tell Dalam Pendekatan Quantum Learning (Studi pada Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Kartoharjo Madiun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Inderasari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research serves an analysis for depicting: 1 the writing skill onexperiences can be developed through quantum learning approach for thestudents of fifth grade, Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, Kartoharjo, Madiun, 2 theimpacts of the implementation of quantum learning approach for thestudents of fifth grade, Islamic State Elementary School, Kartoharjo,Municipality of Madiun, 3 the efforts of teachers in developing students’writing skill on experiences in learning Bahasa Indonesia. This researchmakes use of Classroom Action Research under the collaboration of theresearcher, the teachers and the students. The analysis brings aboutconclusions that quantum learning approach has a significant influence onthe development of students’ writing skill and learning activity for thestudents of fifth grade of State Elementary School 03 Kanigoro, Kartoharjo,Municipality of Madiun. The reflection through indicators shows that: 1students make development in their learning activity, 2 under quantumlearning approach, teachers are capable of generating students’ learningmotivation, 3 teachers are comfortable in implementing quantum learningapproach, 4 teachers are capable of managing the class well, and 5 studentsgrades up writing skill scores through report, by 65.2 in pretest, 71.9 in testand 75.6 in posttest in average.

  1. A morphometric CT study of Down's syndrome showing small posterior fossa and calcification of basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieshima, A.; Yoshino, K.; Takashima, S.; Takeshita, K.; Kisa, T.

    1984-01-01

    We report characteristic and morphometric changes of cranial computed tomography (CT) with increasing age in 56 patients with Down's syndrome aged from 0 month to 37 years. Patients were compared with 142 normal controls aged 0 to 59 years. Width of ventricles, Sylvian fissures, posterior fossa, pons and cisterna magna were measured on CT. The incidences of the cavum septi pellucidi, cavum vergae and cavum veli interpositi and high density in the basal ganglia were examined. There was high incidence (10.7%) of bilateral calcification of basal ganglia in Down's syndrome, although that of pineal body and choroid plexus calcification was similar in Down's syndrome and controls. Basal ganglia calcification is more frequently seen in young Down's syndrome and may be related to the premature aging characteristic of Down's syndrome. The CT in Down's syndrome showed relatively small posterior fossa, small cerebellum, small brain stem and relatively large Sylvian fissures in those under one year of age. There was a high frequency of midline cava and large cisterna magna. There were no significant atrophic changes on CT except after the fifth decade comparing with controls. (orig.)

  2. Can arsenates replace phosphates in natural biochemical processes? A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jissy, A K; Datta, Ayan

    2013-07-18

    A bacterial strain, GFAJ-1 was recently proposed to be substituting arsenic for phosphorus to sustain its growth. We have performed theoretical calculations for analyzing this controversial hypothesis by examining the addition of phosphate to ribose and glucose. Dispersion corrected Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in small molecules and QM/MM calculations on clusters derived from crystal structure are performed on structures involved in phosphorylation, considering both phosphates and arsenates. The exothermicity as well as the activation barriers for phosphate and arsenate transfer were examined. Quantum mechanical studies reveal that the relative stability of the products decrease marginally with successive substitution of P with As. However, simultaneously, the transition state barriers decrease with P replacement. This indicates that, kinetically, addition of As is more facile. Pseudorotation barriers for the pentavalent intermediates formed during the nucleophilic attack are also analyzed. A monotonic increase in barriers is observed for pseudorotation with the successive replacement of phosphorus with arsenic in methyl-DHP. A glucokinase crystal structure was chosen to construct a model system for QM/MM calculations. Free energy of the reaction (ΔG) reduces by less than 2.0 kcal/mol and the activation barrier (ΔG(‡)) decreases by ∼1 kcal/mol on arsenic incorporation. Thus, both DFT and QM/MM calculations show that arsenic can readily substitute phosphorus in key biomolecules. Secondary kinetic isotope effects for phosphorylation mechanism obtained by QM/MM calculations are also reported. The solvent kinetic isotopic effects (SKIE) for ATP and ATP (As) are calculated to be 5.81 and 4.73, respectively. A difference of ∼1.0 in SKIE suggests that it should be possible to experimentally determine the As-phosphorylation process.

  3. Mitochondrial glutamate carriers from Drosophila melanogaster: biochemical, evolutionary and modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunetti, Paola; Cappello, Anna Rita; Marsano, René Massimiliano; Pierri, Ciro Leonardo; Carrisi, Chiara; Martello, Emanuela; Caggese, Corrado; Dolce, Vincenza; Capobianco, Loredana

    2013-10-01

    The mitochondrial carriers are members of a family of transport proteins that mediate solute transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Two isoforms of the glutamate carriers, GC1 and GC2 (encoded by the SLC25A22 and SLC25A18 genes, respectively), have been identified in humans. Two independent mutations in SLC25A22 are associated with severe epileptic encephalopathy. In the present study we show that two genes (CG18347 and CG12201) phylogenetically related to the human GC encoding genes are present in the D. melanogaster genome. We have functionally characterized the proteins encoded by CG18347 and CG12201, designated as DmGC1p and DmGC2p respectively, by overexpression in Escherichia coli and reconstitution into liposomes. Their transport properties demonstrate that DmGC1p and DmGC2p both catalyze the transport of glutamate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Computational approaches have been used in order to highlight residues of DmGC1p and DmGC2p involved in substrate binding. Furthermore, gene expression analysis during development and in various adult tissues reveals that CG18347 is ubiquitously expressed in all examined D. melanogaster tissues, while the expression of CG12201 is strongly testis-biased. Finally, we identified mitochondrial glutamate carrier orthologs in 49 eukaryotic species in order to attempt the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the glutamate carrier function. Comparison of the exon/intron structure and other key features of the analyzed orthologs suggests that eukaryotic glutamate carrier genes descend from an intron-rich ancestral gene already present in the common ancestor of lineages that diverged as early as bilateria and radiata. © 2013.

  4. BIOCHEMICAL CONTROL DURING LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP OF 230 ADULT PATIENTS WITH CUSHING DISEASE: A MULTICENTER RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Eliza B; Shafiq, Ismat; Gordon, Murray B; Bonert, Vivien; Ayala, Alejandro; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Katznelson, Laurence; Lalazar, Yelena; Manuylova, Ekaterina; Pulaski-Liebert, Karen J; Carmichael, John D; Hannoush, Zeina; Surampudi, Vijaya; Broder, Michael S; Cherepanov, Dasha; Eagan, Marianne; Lee, Jackie; Said, Qayyim; Neary, Maureen P; Biller, Beverly M K

    2017-08-01

    Cushing disease (CD) results from excessive exposure to glucocorticoids caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary tumor. Inadequately treated CD is associated with significant morbidity and elevated mortality. Multicenter data on CD patients treated in routine clinical practice are needed to assess treatment outcomes in this rare disorder. The study purpose was to describe the burden of illness and treatment outcomes for CD patients. Eight pituitary centers in four U.S. regions participated in this multicenter retrospective chart review study. Subjects were CD patients diagnosed at ≥18 years of age within the past 20 years. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted to examine presenting signs, symptoms, comorbidities, and treatment outcomes. Of 230 patients, 79% were female (median age at diagnosis, 39 years; range, 18 to 78 years). Length of follow-up was 0 to 27.5 years (median, 1.9 years). Pituitary adenomas were 0 to 51 mm. The most common presenting comorbidities included hypertension (67.3%), polycystic ovary syndrome (43.5%), and hyperlipidemia (41.5%). Biochemical control was achieved with initial pituitary surgery in 41.4% patients (91 of 220), not achieved in 50.0% of patients (110 of 220), and undetermined in 8.6% of patients (19 of 220). At the end of follow-up, control had been achieved with a variety of treatment methods in 49.1% of patients (110 of 224), not achieved in 29.9% of patients (67 of 224), and undetermined in 21.0% of patients (47 of 224). Despite multiple treatments, at the end of follow-up, biochemical control was still not achieved in up to 30% of patients. These multicenter data demonstrate that in routine clinical practice, initial and long-term control is not achieved in a substantial number of patients with CD. BLA = bilateral adrenalectomy CD = Cushing disease CS = Cushing syndrome eCRF = electronic case report form MRI = magnetic resonance imaging PCOS = polycystic ovary syndrome.

  5. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALKHEDAIDE, ADEL; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; SALAH-ELDIN, ALAA-ELDIN; ISMAIL, TAMER AHMED; ALSHEHIRI, ZAFER SAAD; ATTIA, HOSSAM FOUAD

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca-Cola, Pepsi and 7-Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe the changes in the expression of genes in the liver and kidney, which are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Histopathological investigations were performed to determine the changes in bone, liver and kidney tissues using hematoxylin and eosin stains. SDC affected liver, kidney and bone function biomarkers. Soft drinks increased oxidative stress, which is represented by an increase in malondialdehyde and a decrease in antioxidant levels. SDC affected serum mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorus. Soft drinks downregulated the expression levels of glutathione-S-transferase and super oxide dismutase in the liver compared with that of control rats. Rats administered Coca-Cola exhibited a hepatic decrease in the mRNA expression of α2-macroglobulin compared with rats administered Pepsi and 7-Up. On the other hand, SDC increased the mRNA expression of α1-acid glycoprotein. The present renal studies revealed that Coca-Cola increased the mRNA expression levels of desmin, angiotensinogen and angiotensinogen receptor compared with the other groups, together with mild congestion in renal histopathology. Deleterious histopathological changes were reported predominantly in the bone and liver of the Coca-Cola and Pepsi groups. In conclusion, a very strict caution must be considered with SDC due to the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and disruption in the expression of certain genes

  6. 'Show me the money': financial incentives increase chlamydia screening rates among tertiary students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Marian J; Schmidt, Matthias; Davis, Belinda K; Baynes, Anne M; O'Keefe, Elissa J; Bavinton, Tim P; McNiven, Michelle; Martin, Sarah J; Bowden, Francis J

    2010-03-01

    We hypothesise that text-messaging and financial incentives would increase tertiary student participation in chlamydia screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted over two phases on eight tertiary campuses during 2007. During Phase 1 (6 months) study activities were advertised through student organisations and media. Education and screening were offered during a range of student activities. During Phase 2 (4 days) education and screening were offered via text messages. Non-financial incentives were offered during Phase 1 and a $10 cash incentive was offered during Phase 2. Rates of specimens provided by students and the direct costs incurred during each phase were compared. 2786 students attended the 31 activities conducted in Phase 1. Of these, 627 students (22.5%) provided urine specimens for chlamydia testing. During Phase 2, the dissemination of 866 text messages resulted in urine specimens from 392 students (45.3%). Costs per test were AUD $175.11 in Phase 1 and AUD $27.13 in Phase 2. Compared with more labour intensive (and therefore more expensive) screening activities conducted over a 6-month period, offering a small financial incentive to tertiary students through text messaging over a 4-day period significantly increased participation in on-campus chlamydia screening. This model could readily be applied to other populations to increase participation in chlamydia screening.

  7. Microbiological and biochemical studies on certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from certain clinical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, H.M.AL.M.

    2008-01-01

    . Determination of B-lactamase and AmpC-B-lactamase enzyme production were carried out by two methods. Cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, cefoxitin and aztreonam were used with and without amoxycillin clavulanic acid to detect the presence of extended-spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL) harbouring isolates by using double-disk diffusion synergy test (DDST). Combined disk method was used also to detect the presence of ESBL harbouring isolates by using cefoperazone (CFP) and cefoperazone sulbactam (SCF) among the tested strains. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ampicillin sulbactam, cefoperazone, gentamycin and levofloxacin alone and in combination (Ampicillin sulbactam with both of gentamycin and levofloxacin) and (cefoperazone with both of gentamycin and levofloxacin). Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) for the combined antibiotics were calculated according to checkerboard method and synergistic effect were determined. Some resistant isolates were subjected to molecular studies including plasmid profile (Kleb.52 Morg.60 and Ps.72 ) by using a high pure plasmid isolation kit and protein pattern of Ps.72 before and after irradiation in the presence of different antibiotics alone (cefoperazone, gentamycin and ampicillin sulbactam) or in combined (cefoperazone with gentamycin and ampicillin sulbactam with gentamycin)The result of the present investigation showed that, 9 multi-drug resistant isolates were identified as; 2 isolates Escherichia coli, 2 isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 isolate Citrobacter freundii, 1 isolate Morganella morganii all were isolated from urine samples

  8. Bibliographic study showed improving statistical methodology of network meta-analyses published between 1999 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, Maria; Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Veroniki, Areti-Angeliki; Rios, Patricia; Vafaei, Afshin; Zarin, Wasifa; Giannatsi, Myrsini; Sullivan, Shannon; Tricco, Andrea C; Chaimani, Anna; Egger, Matthias; Salanti, Georgia

    2017-02-01

    To assess the characteristics and core statistical methodology specific to network meta-analyses (NMAs) in clinical research articles. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until April 14, 2015, for NMAs of randomized controlled trials including at least four different interventions. Two reviewers independently screened potential studies, whereas data abstraction was performed by a single reviewer and verified by a second. A total of 456 NMAs, which included a median (interquartile range) of 21 (13-40) studies and 7 (5-9) treatment nodes, were assessed. A total of 125 NMAs (27%) were star networks; this proportion declined from 100% in 2005 to 19% in 2015 (P = 0.01 by test of trend). An increasing number of NMAs discussed transitivity or inconsistency (0% in 2005, 86% in 2015, P < 0.01) and 150 (45%) used appropriate methods to test for inconsistency (14% in 2006, 74% in 2015, P < 0.01). Heterogeneity was explored in 256 NMAs (56%), with no change over time (P = 0.10). All pairwise effects were reported in 234 NMAs (51%), with some increase over time (P = 0.02). The hierarchy of treatments was presented in 195 NMAs (43%), the probability of being best was most commonly reported (137 NMAs, 70%), but use of surface under the cumulative ranking curves increased steeply (0% in 2005, 33% in 2015, P < 0.01). Many NMAs published in the medical literature have significant limitations in both the conduct and reporting of the statistical analysis and numerical results. The situation has, however, improved in recent years, in particular with respect to the evaluation of the underlying assumptions, but considerable room for further improvements remains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Topical Tetracycline Gel with Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Hba1c and Lipid Profile in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Clinico- Biochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haerian-Ardakani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to evaluate the Effect of topical tetracycline gel application with non surgical periodontal therapy on HbA1c and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: A total of 30 type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received scaling and root planning, whereas the second group received scaling and root planning with topically applied tetracycline gel. Clinical factors such as GI, PI, PPD and biochemical factors such as HbA1c and lipid profile were assessed in beginning of study and 3 months later. Results: Comparing the clinical factors between the two groups revealed that periodontal pocket depth significantly reduced in tetracycline-received group. Regarding the biochemical factors, triglyceride levels decreased significantly in tetracycline-received group. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in regard with other clinical and biochemical factors. Conclusion: The study findings demonstrated that clinical and biochemical parameters have been improved after non surgical periodontal treatment in both groups. Although it seems that application of topical tetracycline gel combined with non-surgical periodontal therapy is effective in improvement of some clinical and biochemical factors like PPD and TG, it doesn’t offer any superiority in regard with other factors compared to mere non surgical periodontal therapy.

  10. Melia azedarach plants show tolerance properties to water shortage treatment: an ecophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Celeste; Azevedo, Carla; Costa, Maria; Pinto, Glória; Santos, Conceição

    2014-02-01

    Candidate species for reforestation of areas prone to drought must combine water stress (WS) tolerance and economic or medicinal interest. Melia azedarach produces high quality timber and has insecticidal and medicinal properties. However, the impact of WS on M. azedarach has not yet been studied. Two-month old M. azedarach plants were exposed to WS during 20 days. After this period, plant's growth, water potential, photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. WS did not affect plants' growth, but induced stomatal closure, reduced net CO₂ assimilation rate (A) and the intercellular CO₂ availability in mesophyll (C(i)). WS also reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII but not the pigment levels. WS up-regulated the antioxidant enzymes and stimulated the production of antioxidant metabolites, preventing lipid peroxidation. Therefore, despite some repression of photosynthetic parameters by WS, they did not compromise plant growth, and plants increased their antioxidant capacity. Our data demonstrate that M. azedarach juvenile plants have the potential to acclimate to water shortage conditions, opening new perspectives to the use of this species in reforestation/afforestation programs of drought prone areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice.

  12. Feasibility Study on the Development of Index that Shows Social and Cultural Acceptance of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, SeongKyung; Choi, Seungho; Yoon, Hana; Song, Jiyeon

    2015-01-01

    In this context, it is necessary to manage and develop an index that can measure the level of public acceptance by establishing the terms of social/cultural public acceptance of nuclear power in a practical manner and by identifying influential factors of public acceptance. Developing an index itself is not intended to increase the public acceptance of nuclear power. This study intends to contribute to determining energy policy acceptable to the public by estimating the level of potential social conflicts related to nuclear power policies with eligible evaluation criteria on social/cultural acceptance and by reducing relevant social costs. Key conclusions and proposal of this research are as follows. First, the influential factors of acceptance are reliability of nuclear safety, risk perception of nuclear power and beneficial perception of nuclear power. Among them, reliability of nuclear safety appears to have the most influence. In addition, benefit perception of nuclear power at the social level is significantly higher than that at the individual level. However, in relation to risk perception, a gap between experts and the public is found as nuclear industry premises that accident does not occur while the public premises that accident may occur

  13. Drug- not carrier-dependent haematological and biochemical changes in a repeated dose study of cyclosporine encapsulated polyester nano- and micro-particles: Size does not matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatpurwar, V.P.; Rhodes, S.; Oien, K.A.; Elliott, M.A.; Tekwe, C.D.; Jørgensen, H.G.; Kumar, M.N.V. Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The particulate delivery allows an increase in dose range without accrual of toxicities. • The altered haematological and biochemical changes are drug, but not particle dependent. • PLGA nano/microparticles are safe on subacute peroral dosing over 28 days. • Nano-toxicology, drug needs to be considered. - Abstract: Biodegradable nanoparticles are being considered more often as drug carriers to address pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic issues, yet nano-product safety has not been systematically proven. In this study, haematological, biochemical and histological parameters were examined on 28 day daily dosing of rats with nano- or micro-particle encapsulated cyclosporine (CsA) to confirm if any changes observed were drug or carrier dependent. CsA encapsulated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) [PLGA] nano- (nCsA) and micro-particles (mCsA) were prepared by emulsion techniques. CsA (15, 30, 45 mg/kg) were administered by oral gavage to Sprague Dawley (SD) rats over 28 days. Haematological and biochemical metrics were followed with tissue histology performed on sacrifice. Whether presented as nCsA or mCsA, 45 mg/kg dose caused significant loss of body weight and lowered food consumption compared to untreated control. Across the doses, both nCsA and mCsA produce significant decreases in lymphocyte numbers compared to controls, commensurate with the proprietary product, Neoral ® 15. Dosing with nCsA showed higher serum drug levels than mCsA presumably owing to the smaller particle size facilitating absorption. The treatment had no noticeable effects on inflammatory/oxidative stress markers or antioxidant enzyme levels, except an increase in ceruloplasmin (CP) levels for high dose nCsA/mCsA group. Further, only subtle, sub-lethal changes were observed in histology of nCsA/mCsA treated rat organs. Blank (drug-free) particles did not induce changes in the parameters studied. Therefore, it is extremely important that the encapsulated drug in the nano-products is

  14. Study on Biochemical Indices of Liver Function Tests of Albino Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Liver weight, body weight, feed intake and faecal output were also determined. Results show increase in liver weight, serum total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, ALT (in rats fed with palm and groundnut oil-based diet), AST (in rats fed with coconut oil-based diet only) as well as ...

  15. Alpha-ketoadipic aciduria, a new inborn error of lysine metabolism; biochemical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przyrembel, Hildegard; Bachmann, Dorothea; Lombeck, Ingrid; Becker, K.; Wendel, U.; Wadman, S.K.; Bremer, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    Investigation of a psychomotorically retarded girl showed excretion of abnormal amounts of alpha-ketoadipic acid, alpha-hydroxyadipic acid, alpha-aminoadipic acid, 1,2-butenedicarboxylic acid and elevation of plasma alpha-aminoadipic acid levels. The identity of these metabolites was established by

  16. Biochemical studies on some components of onion and garlic treated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.N.E.

    2007-01-01

    the present work was carried out in order to evaluate the biological activities of garlic and onion essential oils as chemo preventive agents on male albino rats treated with AFB 1 -CCL 4 . the results showed that the main constituent of onion and garlic essential oil were dipropyl disulfide (DPDS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS), respectively. the determination of different biological parameters showed a significant high levels of ALT,AST, caspase-3, GSH, total bilirubin, creatinine and urea in rat serum treated with AFB 1 -CCL 4 . on the other hand , a noticeable decrease in total protein, GST activity were detected, onion or garlic essential oils application have been found to regulate the biological parameters activities to the normal levels, besides, enhancing the accumulation of protein and their fractions. allicin compounds have been found to possess a lowering action of blood sugar

  17. NMR-based metabolomics and breath studies show lipid and protein catabolism during low dose chronic T(1)AM treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, J A; Reiland, H; Butz, D E; Tonelli, M; Porter, W P; Zucchi, R; Scanlan, T S; Chiellini, G; Assadi-Porter, F M

    2013-12-01

    3-Iodothyronamine (T1 AM), an analog of thyroid hormone, is a recently discovered fast-acting endogenous metabolite. Single high-dose treatments of T1 AM have produced rapid short-term effects, including a reduction of body temperature, bradycardia, and hyperglycemia in mice. The effect of daily low doses of T1 AM (10 mg/kg) for 8 days on weight loss and metabolism in spontaneously overweight mice was monitored. The experiments were repeated twice (n = 4). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of plasma and real-time analysis of exhaled (13) CO2 in breath by cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) were used to detect T1 AM-induced lipolysis. CRDS detected increased lipolysis in breath shortly after T1 AM administration that was associated with a significant weight loss but independent of food consumption. NMR spectroscopy revealed alterations in key metabolites in serum: valine, glycine, and 3-hydroxybutyrate, suggesting that the subchronic effects of T1 AM include both lipolysis and protein breakdown. After discontinuation of T1 AM treatment, mice regained only 1.8% of the lost weight in the following 2 weeks, indicating lasting effects of T1 AM on weight maintenance. CRDS in combination with NMR and (13) C-metabolic tracing constitute a powerful method of investigation in obesity studies for identifying in vivo biochemical pathway shifts and unanticipated debilitating side effects. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  18. Study of Okra Powder (Abelmoscus Esculentus Effects on Histology of Liver Tissue and Sero-Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N erfani majd

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabete is a kind of metabolic disease that it is associated with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and disturbed liver function.  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of Okra Powder on liver damage in high fat diet fed / streptozotocin (HFD-STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 25 Wistar Albino female rats with an average weight of (200–220 g were randomly divided  into 5 groups: Group I: (control group rats were fed the standard diet, Group II: healthy rats that received Okra Powder (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks; Group III (HFD/STZ group: Rats were fed with high-fat diet (HFD (60% fat for 4 weeks  and then injected low dose of STZ (35 mg/kg, Group IV:  Diabetic rats that received Okra Powder (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. GroupV: Diabetic rats that received metformin (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, biochemical parameters were measured. Liver samples were removed and 5-6 µ sections were made and stained by H&E and Sudan black staining. Results: The results showed that all the biochemical parameters, except HDL-C and serum insulin were increased in diabetic rats, while they were decreased in Okra supplementation group compared  to diabetic rats (p<0.05. The liver structure alterations were improved in treated diabetic rats with Okra Powder and metformin.  Conclusion: Our findings confirmed the potential anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Okra Powder. Thus, it seems it has an important role in the management of type 2 diabete.

  19. Biochemical studies on the effect of curcumin and embelin during N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... ceride accumulation observed in the fatty liver caused by the administration of the DENA/PB in our study. Several earlier studies report increased accumulation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids during. DENA/PB induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats (Jiang et al., 2006). In accordance ...

  20. Study of biochemical biomarkers in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium borellii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) exposed to organophosphate fenitrothion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavarías, S; García, C; Crespo, R; Pedrini, N; Heras, H

    2013-10-01

    Several agrochemicals like organophosphates are extensively used to control pests in agricultural practices but they also adversely affect non-target fauna. The effect of organophosphorous fenitrothion on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii was evaluated. The 96-h LC50 was determined. Activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid oxidation levels, were evaluated in the hepatopancreas from adults exposed to sublethal fenitrothion concentrations for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. In addition, superoxide dismutase mRNA expression, acetylcholinesterase inhibition and haemocyte DNA damage were determined. The 96-h LC50 was 4.24μg/l of fenitrothion. Prawn exposed to sublethal FS concentrations showed an increase of both catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, mainly after 2 and 4 days exposure and an increase of glutathione-S-transferase activity from day 2 to day 7 while lipid oxidation levels increased mainly on day 1. Superoxide dismutase transcripts were significantly higher in fenitrothion -treated prawns, indicating an induction mechanism. Hemolymph analysis showed that while acetylcholinesterase activity decreased after 2 days, haemocytes displayed most DNA damage after 7-day exposure to fenitrothion. These results indicate that prawn enzymes are highly sensitive to fenitrothion exposure, and these biological responses in M. borellii could be valuable biomarkers to monitor organophosphorous contamination in estuarine environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation and modeling of biochemical methane potential (BMP) of landfilled solid waste: a pilot scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgili, M Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Varank, Gamze

    2009-01-01

    scale landfill reactors. The initial methane potential of solid wastes filled to the reactors was around 0.347 L/CH(4)/g dry waste, which decreased with operational time of landfill reactors to values of 0.117 and 0.154 L/CH(4)/g dry waste for leachate recirculated (R1) and non-recirculated (R2......) reactors, respectively. Results indicated that the average rate constant increased by 32% with leachate recirculation. Also, the performance of the system was modeled using the BMP data for the samples taken from reactors at varying operational times by MATLAB program. The first-order rate constants for R1...... and R2 reactors were 0.01571 and 0.01195 1/d, respectively. The correlation between the model and the experimental parameters was more than 95%, showing the good fit of the model....

  2. Arsenic induced toxicity in broiler chicks and its alleviation with ascorbic acid: a toxico-patho-biochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahrar; Sharaf, Rabia; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Mahmood, Fazal

    2013-01-01

    To find out toxico-pathological effects of arsenic (As) and ameliorating effect of ascorbic acid (Vit C), broilers birds were administered 50 and 250 mg/kg arsenic and Vit C, respectively alone/in combination. As-treated birds exhibited severe signs of toxicity such as dullness, depression, increased thirst, open mouth breathing and watery diarrhea. All these signs were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. As-treated birds showed a significant decrease in serum total proteins while serum enzymes, urea and creatinine were significantly increased. Alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase completely whereas proteins, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine were partial ameliorated in birds treated with As+Vit C as compared to As-treated and control birds. Pale and hemorrhagic liver and swollen kidneys were observed in As-treated birds. Histopathologically, liver exhibited congestion and cytoplasmic vacuolation while in kidneys, condensation of tubular epithelium nuclei, epithelial necrosis, increased urinary spaces, sloughing of tubules from basement membrane and cast deposition were observed in As-treated birds. Pathological lesions were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. It can be concluded that arsenic induces biochemical and histopathological alterations in broiler birds; however, these toxic effects can be partially attenuated by Vit C.

  3. Anatomical and biochemical studies of anthocyanidins in flowers of Annagalis monelli L. (Primulaceae) hybrids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quintana, A.; Albrechtová, Jana; Griesbach, R. J.; Freyre, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 4 (2007), s. 413-421 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600110507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : flower color * epidermis * structural study Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.694, year: 2007

  4. Membrane prteins of herpes simplex infected cells. Immunological and biochemical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling-Wester, Sijtske

    1981-01-01

    As a consequence of infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV), cells exhibit a number of alterations. One of these is expressed as a change in the polypeptide composition of the surface of the infected cells. In this study several methods used for the isolation of these polypeptides expressed on the

  5. Cultured neurons as model systems for biochemical and pharmacological studies on receptors for neurotransmitter amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, A; Drejer, J; Hansen, Gert Helge

    1985-01-01

    action of GABA on evoked release of glutamate, which is the neurotransmitter in cerebellar granule cells. Also glutamate receptors have been studied with regard to the 2 types of neurons. Both cerebral cortex neurons (GABAergic) and cerebellar granule cells (glutamatergic) possess glutamate receptors...

  6. Progression of acromegalic arthropathy despite long-term biochemical control: a prospective, radiological study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, K.M.; Ramautar, S.R.; Pereira, A.M.; Smit, J.W.A.; Roelfsema, F.; Romijn, J.A.; Kroon, H.M.; Kloppenburg, M.; Biermasz, N.R.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Arthropathy is an invalidating complication of acromegaly, of which the prognosis and determinants are currently unknown in treated acromegaly. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the radiographic progression of arthropathy over a mean follow-up period of 2.6

  7. Kinetic and biochemical studies on tumor growth. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1967--April 1, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dethlefsen, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    The growth kinetics of four lines of the C3H mammary tumor have been studied by standard autoradiographic procedures in combination with volumetric growth curve analysis. Thus, such parameters as volumetric doubling time, mean cell generation time, growth fraction, and cell loss have been measured. Two of these lines (Slow and S102F) are currently being used for studying hormone responsiveness both in vivo and in vitro and the perturbed kinetics following insults with therapeutic agents. The respective values for the above parameters are: Slow; 21.0 days, 34 hours, 0.20, 9 percent per day, and S102F; 2.5 days, 17 hours, 0.60, 27 percent per day. A direct method ( 125 I-IUdR Method) for measuring cell loss has also been developed. This method consists of injecting mice with 125 I-IUdR and then measuring the loss of 125 I-activity from the tumor. The antigenic status of these tumors has been studied as one possible factor underlying the different growth kinetics. The mouse's immunological system was either suppressed (thymectomy and whole-body x-irradiation) or stimulated (previous exposure to tumor cells) and the percent takes, latent period, and growth rates measured. There was no evidence for a strong antigenic factor in any of these tumors. Hydroxyurea is being used as a tool for studying the perturbed cellular kinetics of the duodenum and the Slow and S102F tumors. The methods used are autoradiography, volumetric growth curve analysis, and measurements of the rates of DNA synthesis. Hormone effects on growth have been studied. Insulin had no effect but large doses of corticosterone (20 μg/ml and greater) were inhibitory and prolactin appeared to partially reverse these effects in the Slow line. (U.S.)

  8. Azadirachta indica mitigates DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity- a biochemical and radiometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, Ashwani; Mohan, Vandana; Bharati, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The hepatoprotective potential of aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) was assessed against DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity. DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene) treatment (40 mg/kg body weight, ip) to male Balb/c mice resulted in the derailment of liver function as revealed by extremely slow clearance of 99m Tc-mebrofenin from liver, elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine transaminase (ALT), compared to control group. In addition, elevated micronuclei score and high apoptotic index indicated hepatogenotoxicity in DMBA-treated mice. DMBA treatment also upregulated cytochrome P450 (CYP), cytochrome b 5 (Cyt b 5 ) and decreased glutathione-S-transferase activity in hepatic tissue, compared to control group. Enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels along with decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level were also observed in DMBA group, compared to control group. AAILE co-treatment (200 mg/kg body weight, po, thrice a week) for 8 weeks followed by DMBA injection showed significant improvement in hepatic status, as revealed by normalization of 99m Tc-mebrofenin clearance rate, decreased ALP and ALT levels, reduced genotoxicity in terms of micronuclei score and apoptotic index. Levels of LPO were significantly decreased along with increased hepatic GST and GSH levels in AAILE + DMBA group, compared to DMBA group. However, no significant change was observed in hepatic CYP and Cyt b 5 levels, compared to DMBA group. The results indicated that AAILE effectively ameliorated DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity. (author)

  9. Study on biochemical and molecular genetic analysis of radiation effects on domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Michiharu; Fukusho, Akio; Sakota, Yoshihiro

    1997-01-01

    In the previous year, we constructed a shuttle rector pSVLsup which can replicate in animal cells and carries supF gene of E. coli as a target gene for detection of a mutation. And the effects of 35 S-labelled amino acids on the rate of mutation were investigated using pSVLsup vector. In this year, animal cells transfected with pSVLsup were cultured in the presence of 32 P-labelled deoxynucleotides to determine the rate of mutation on pSVLsup. Addition of radioactive dCTP (up to 1100 Bq) into the culture medium did not cause significant change in the mutation rate of NA-resistant E. coli transfected with pSVLsup which was recovered from Cos cells. Thus, development a more sensitive detection method seems to be necessary. Thus, the radiation effects on double stranded RNA investigated using agarose electrophoresis. The sixth segment of Africa horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 was transfected to cells infected with AHSV-A3, however, any resortant (reassembled virus) could not be obtained. When the sixth segment was exposed to 32 P-dATP (37 MBq), its band on agarose gel diminished with time, showing that contrary to expectations the damages by RI exposure in double stranded RNA are considerably large. (M.N.)

  10. Fluorescent spectral studies of the toxic effect of chlororganic pesticides on the biochemical parameters of synaptosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraev, K. M.; Bekshokov, K. S.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Abdullaeva, N. M.; Israpov, E. Kh.; Gashimov, I. Sh.

    2017-04-01

    The results of the study of the fluorescence spectra of suspensions of synaptosomes, which have been exposed to a chlororganic pesticide, thiamethoxam, at a concentration of 50 MPC during different time periods, at the excitation/emission wavelengths of 290 ± 5/310-600, 340 ± 5/360-700, and 420 ± 5/450-800 nm are given for the first time. It has been demonstrated that the development of intoxication results in weakening of the fluorescence intensity of tryptophan, NAD(P)·H, derivatives of vitamin B6, and vitamin A and in an increase in the fluorescence of pyridoxic acid, lipofuscin, and flavin and porphyrin complexes. The results of the spectral studies indicate that the toxic effect of the chlororganic pesticide for the functioning of living systems is based on free radical toxicity.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment Studies of Chemical and Biochemical Processes through the new LCSoft Software-tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Supawanich, Perapong; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment or LCA is an effective tool for quantifying the potential environmental impacts of products, processes, or services in order to support the selection making of desired products and/or processes from different alternatives. For more sustainable process designs, technical requ...... on the LCI assessment results. The fourth task has been added to validate and improve LCSoft by testing it against several case studies and compare the assessment results with other available tools....

  12. Serum biochemical study of major elements of captive Asiatic Lions Panthera leo persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Jani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The serum biochemistry of captive Asiatic Lions Panthera leo persica in India has not been studied in depths. We report here the results of an analysis of a large number of individuals with the aim of providing reference ranges for major serological parameters in male and female Asiatic lions in health and diseases. This information will be of use to zoo veterinarians and pathologists.

  13. A biochemical study on the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Panneerselvam, Saranya; Arumugam, Geetha

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata (HAEAP) in male albino wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were pretreated with HAEAP (100,200,500mg/kg b. wt for 30 days) and then gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol, aspirin, pylorus ligation and cold restraint stress models. Ulcer score was determined in all the ulcer models. pH, gastric volume, titrable acidity, pepsin, mucin, myeloperoxidase, H +...

  14. Binding interaction of phosphorus heterocycles with bovine serum albumin: A biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Roy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA and phosphorus heterocycles (PHs was studied using multi-spectroscopic techniques. The results indicated the high binding affinity of PHs to BSA as it quenches the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA. The experimental data suggested the fluorescence quenching mechanism between PHs and BSA as a dynamic quenching. From the UV–vis studies, the apparent association constant (Kapp was found to be 9.25×102, 1.27×104 and 9.01×102 L/mol for the interaction of BSA with PH-1, PH-2 and PH-3 respectively. According to the Förster's non-radiation energy transfer (FRET theory, the binding distances between BSA and PHs were calculated. The binding distances (r of PH-1, PH-2 and PH-3 were found to be 2.86, 3.03, and 5.12 nm, respectively, indicating energy transfer occurs between BSA and PHs. The binding constants of the PHs obtained from the fluorescence quenching data were found to be decreased with increase of temperature. The negative values of the thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔS and ΔG at different temperatures revealed that the binding process is spontaneous; hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interaction were the main force to stabilize the complex. The microenvironment of the protein-binding site was studied by synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD techniques and data indicated that the conformation of BSA changed in the presence of PHs. Finally, we studied the BSA-PHs docking using Autodock and results suggest that PHs is located in the cleft between the domains of BSA.

  15. Biochemical support for the "threshold" theory of creativity: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Rex E; Gasparovic, Charles; Chavez, Robert S; Flores, Ranee A; Smith, Shirley M; Caprihan, Arvind; Yeo, Ronald A

    2009-04-22

    A broadly accepted definition of creativity refers to the production of something both novel and useful within a given social context. Studies of patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders and neuroimaging studies of healthy controls have each drawn attention to frontal and temporal lobe contributions to creativity. Based on previous magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy studies demonstrating relationships between cognitive ability and concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a common neurometabolite, we hypothesized that NAA assessed in gray and white matter (from a supraventricular slab) would relate to laboratory measures of creativity. MR imaging and divergent thinking measures were obtained in a cohort of 56 healthy controls. Independent judges ranked the creative products of each participant, from which a "Composite Creativity Index" (CCI) was created. Different patterns of correlations between NAA and CCI were found in higher verbal ability versus lower verbal ability participants, providing neurobiological support for a critical "threshold" regarding the relationship between intelligence and creativity. To our knowledge, this is the first report assessing the relationship between brain chemistry and creative cognition, as measured with divergent thinking, in a cohort comprised exclusively of normal, healthy participants.

  16. Biochemical Support for the “Threshold” Theory of Creativity: A Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Rex E.; Gasparovic, Charles; Chavez, Robert S.; Flores, Ranee A.; Smith, Shirley M.; Caprihan, Arvind; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    A broadly accepted definition of creativity refers to the production of something both novel and useful within a given social context. Studies of patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders and neuroimaging studies of healthy controls have each drawn attention to frontal and temporal lobe contributions to creativity. Based on previous magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy studies demonstrating relationships between cognitive ability and concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a common neurometabolite, we hypothesized that NAA assessed in gray and white matter (from a supraventricular slab) would relate to laboratory measures of creativity. MR imaging and divergent thinking measures were obtained in a cohort of 56 healthy controls. Independent judges ranked the creative products of each participant, from which a “Composite Creativity Index” (CCI) was created. Different patterns of correlations between NAA and CCI were found in higher verbal ability versus lower verbal ability participants, providing neurobiological support for a critical “threshold” regarding the relationship between intelligence and creativity. To our knowledge, this is the first report assessing the relationship between brain chemistry and creative cognition, as measured with divergent thinking, in a cohort comprised exclusively of normal, healthy participants. PMID:19386928

  17. Biochemical and structural studies of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis O6-methylguanine methyltransferase and mutated variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiano, Riccardo; Casazza, Valentina; Garavaglia, Silvia; Ciaramella, Maria; Perugino, Giuseppe; Rizzi, Menico; Rossi, Franca

    2013-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis displays remarkable genetic stability despite continuous exposure to the hostile environment represented by the host's infected macrophages. Similarly to other organisms, M. tuberculosis possesses multiple systems to counteract the harmful potential of DNA alkylation. In particular, the suicidal enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (OGT) is responsible for the direct repair of O(6)-alkylguanine in double-stranded DNA and is therefore supposed to play a central role in protecting the mycobacterial genome from the risk of G · C-to-A · T transition mutations. Notably, a number of geographically widely distributed M. tuberculosis strains shows nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in their OGT-encoding gene, leading to amino acid substitutions at position 15 (T15S) or position 37 (R37L) of the N-terminal domain of the corresponding protein. However, the role of these mutations in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis is unknown. We describe here the in vitro characterization of M. tuberculosis OGT (MtOGT) and of two point-mutated versions of the protein mimicking the naturally occurring ones, revealing that both mutated proteins are impaired in their activity as a consequence of their lower affinity for alkylated DNA than the wild-type protein. The analysis of the crystal structures of MtOGT and MtOGT-R37L confirms the high level of structural conservation of members of this protein family and provides clues to an understanding of the molecular bases for the reduced affinity for the natural substrate displayed by mutated MtOGT. Our in vitro results could contribute to validate the inferred participation of mutated OGTs in M. tuberculosis phylogeny and biology.

  18. Molecular Simulation and Biochemical Studies Support an Elevator-type Transport Mechanism in EIIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jumin; Ren, Zhenning; Zhou, Ming; Im, Wonpil

    2017-06-06

    Enzyme IIC (EIIC) is a membrane-embedded sugar transport protein that is part of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferases. Crystal structures of two members of the glucose EIIC superfamily, bcChbC in the inward-facing conformation and bcMalT in the outward-facing conformation, were previously solved. Comparing the two structures led us to the hypothesis that sugar translocation could be achieved by an elevator-type transport mechanism in which a transport domain binds to the substrate and, through rigid body motions, transports it across the membrane. To test this hypothesis and to obtain more accurate descriptions of alternate conformations of the two proteins, we first performed collective variable-based steered molecular dynamics (CVSMD) simulations starting with the two crystal structures embedded in model lipid bilayers, and steered their transport domain toward their own alternative conformation. Our simulations show that large rigid-body motions of the transport domain (55° in rotation and 8 Å in translation) lead to access of the substrate binding site to the alternate side of the membrane. H-bonding interactions between the sugar and the protein are intact, although the side chains of the binding-site residues were not restrained in the simulation. Pairs of residues in bcMalT that are far apart in the crystal structure become close to each other in the simulated model. Some of these pairs can be cross-linked by a mercury ion when mutated to cysteines, providing further support for the CVSMD-generated model. In addition, bcMalT binds to maltose with similar affinities before and after the cross-linking, suggesting that the binding site is preserved after the conformational change. In combination, these results support an elevator-type transport mechanism in EIIC. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cerebral biochemical pathways in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and adjuvant arthritis: a comparative metabolomic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert W Lutz

    Full Text Available Many diseases, including brain disorders, are associated with perturbations of tissue metabolism. However, an often overlooked issue is the impact that inflammations outside the brain may have on brain metabolism. Our main goal was to study similarities and differences between brain metabolite profiles of animals suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE and adjuvant arthritis (AA in Lewis rat models. Our principal objective was the determination of molecular protagonists involved in the metabolism underlying these diseases. EAE was induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA and spinal-cord homogenate (SC-H, whereas AA was induced by CFA only. Naive rats served as controls (n = 9 for each group. Two weeks after inoculation, animals were sacrificed, and brains were removed and processed for metabolomic analysis by NMR spectroscopy or for immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, both inflammatory diseases caused similar, though not identical, changes in metabolites involved in regulation of brain cell size and membrane production: among the osmolytes, taurine and the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate, were decreased, and the astrocyte marker, myo-inositol, slightly increased in both inoculated groups compared with controls. Also ethanolamine-containing phospholipids, sources of inflammatory agents, and several glycolytic metabolites were increased in both inoculated groups. By contrast, the amino acids, aspartate and isoleucine, were less concentrated in CFA/SC-H and control vs. CFA rats. Our results suggest that inflammatory brain metabolite profiles may indicate the existence of either cerebral (EAE or extra-cerebral (AA inflammation. These inflammatory processes may act through distinct pathways that converge toward similar brain metabolic profiles. Our findings open new avenues for future studies aimed at demonstrating whether brain metabolic effects provoked by AA are pain/stress-mediated and

  20. Resveratrol Promotes Remyelination in Cuprizone Model of Multiple Sclerosis: Biochemical and Histological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaiad, Heba R; Nooh, Mohammed M; El-Sawalhi, Maha M; Shaheen, Amira A

    2017-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating neurodegenerative disease, representing a major cause of neurological disability in young adults. Resveratrol is a stilbenoid polyphenol, known to pass blood brain barrier and exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects in several brain injuries. Cuprizone model of MS is particularly beneficial in studying demyelination/remyelination. Our study examined the potential neuroprotective and pro-remyelination effects of resveratrol in cuprizone-intoxicated C57Bl/6 mice. Mice were fed with chow containing 0.7 % cuprizone for 7 days, followed by 3 weeks on 0.2 % cuprizone diet. Resveratrol (250 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was given for 3 weeks starting from the second week. At the end of the experiment, animals were tested on rotarod to evaluate changes in balance and motor coordination. Mice were then sacrificed to measure the brain content of glutathione, lipid peroxidation products, adenosine triphosphate, and phospho-inhibitory subunit of nuclear factor κB-α. The activities of cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase were also assessed. The gene expression of myelin basic protein, 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase, oligodendrocyte transcription factor-1 (Olig1), NF-κB p65 subunit, and tumor necrosis factor-α was also estimated. Luxol fast blue/periodic acid-Schiff stained brain sections were blindly scored to assess the myelin status. Resveratrol effectively enhanced motor coordination and balance, reversed cuprizone-induced demyelination, improved mitochondrial function, alleviated oxidative stress, and inhibited NF-κB signaling. Interestingly, resveratrol increased Olig1 expression that is positively correlated to active remyelination. The present study may be the first to indicate a pro-remyelinative effect for resveratrol which might represent a potential additive benefit in treating MS.

  1. Biochemical and clinical effects of Whey protein supplementation in Parkinson's disease: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Boonla, Chanchai; Dissayabutra, Thasinas; Kaewwilai, Lalita; Muensri, Sasipa; Chotipanich, Chanisa; Joutsa, Juho; Rinne, Juha; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj

    2016-08-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an oxidative stress-mediated degenerative disorder. Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is frequently found in the levodopa-treated PD patients, is associated with disease progression and is a marker of oxidative stress. Whey protein is a rich source of cysteine, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). It has been shown that supplementation with Whey protein increases glutathione synthesis and muscle strength. In this study, we conducted a placebo-controlled, double-blind study (NCT01662414) to investigate the effects of undenatured Whey protein isolate supplementation for 6months on plasma glutathione, plasma amino acids, and plasma Hcy in PD patients. Clinical outcome assessments included the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) and striatal L-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(18)F-fluorophenylalanine (FDOPA) uptake were determined before and after supplementation. 15 patients received Whey protein, and 17 received Soy protein, served as a control group. Significant increases in plasma concentration of reduced glutathione and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione were found in the Whey-supplemented patients but not in a control group. This was associated with a significant decrease of plasma levels of Hcy. The plasma levels of total glutathione were not significantly changed in either group. Plasma BCAA and essential amino acids (EAA) were significantly increased in the Whey-supplemented group only. The UPDRS and striatal FDOPA uptake in PD patients were not significantly ameliorated in either group. However, significant negative correlation was observed between the UPDRS and plasma BCAA and EAA in the pre-supplemented PD patients. This study is the first to report that Whey protein supplementation significantly increases plasma reduced glutathione, the reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio, BCAAs and EAAs in patients with PD, together with a concomitant significant reduction of plasma Hcy. However, there were no significant changes in

  2. Zinc Fertilization in Potato: A Physiological and Bio-chemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hirak Banerjee; Sukamal Sarkar; Prahlad Deb; Ivi Chakraborty; Sayan Sau; Krishnendu Ray

    2017-01-01

    Aims: More than 54% of soils in West Bengal are Zinc (Zn) deficient and therefore, Zn−fertilization is assumed to play a key role not only for increasing potato yield but also for combating wide spread deficiency of micronutrients (mainly Zn) in many potato growing areas of the state. Place and Duration of Study: A two-year field experiment was conducted during winter 2013-14 and 2014-15 at to assess the advantages of Zn nutrition in potato cv. Kufri Jyoti under alluvial soil (Entisols) o...

  3. A Biochemical Study of Noncovalent Forces in Proteins Using Phycocyanin from Spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Barbara A.; Gindt, Yvonne M.

    2000-11-01

    Protein tertiary structure is maintained by noncovalent forces. These forces are disrupted by simple environmental changes (increasing temperature, pH, or adding denaturants) but are not always simple to observe. This experiment, suitable for all levels of undergraduate biochemistry laboratories, uses absorption spectroscopy to monitor the denaturation of a pigmented protein. The protein, phycocyanin, contains a covalently attached pigment whose visible spectrum is sensitive to changes in protein environment. The experiment can be done in one or two 3-hour lab periods. The first session isolates the protein from cyanobacteria capsules and the second session studies the denaturation of the protein.

  4. Biochemical study on some tumour angiogenesis factors and inhibitors in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.M.E

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study was undertaken to investigate the significance of some tumour angiogenic factors (e.g. MMP, ADAM-12 and VEGF) and tumour angiogenic inhibitors (endostatin and TIMP-1) in the aetiology of breast cancer and their responsiveness to cancer treatment as well . We also sought to assess the significance of these angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in the prognosis and diagnosis of breast cancer. The cases were allocated into five groups: Normal control group (Gr.l), fibroadenoma (Gr.l l), breast cancer (invasive duct carcinoma type grade l l) (Gr.lll) , breast cancer + chemo hormonal therapy (Gr.IV), and breast cancer + chemo hormonal and radiotherapy (Gr.V).Results obtained from this study reported absence of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)activity in the urine and serum of normal subjects and fibroadenoma patients and its significant depression in the urine and serum of breast cancer patients treated with chemo hormonal therapy alone or followed by radiotherapy, compared to breast cancer group as reference. A significantly mild elevation in urinary MMP-2 activity and a non significant change in its activity in the serum of fibroadenoma patients, compared to the dramatic rise in the urine and serum of breast cancer patients were observed

  5. Metal based SOD mimetic therapeutic agents: Synthesis, characterization and biochemical studies of metal complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Coordination compounds of Fe(III, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II with the Schiff base obtained through the condensation of L1 and L2 (L1 – obtained through the condensation of 4-aminoantipyrine with furfuraldehyde and L2 – derived from 2-aminobenzothiazole and 3-nitrobenzaldehyde were synthesized under reflux conditions. The newly formed complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, 1H NMR, UV–Vis., IR and ESR techniques. Cyclic voltammogram of the complexes in DMSO solution at 300 K was recorded and their salient features were summarized. The X-band ESR spectrum of the copper complex in DMSO solution at 300 and 77 K was recorded. The in vitro biological screening of the investigated compounds was tested against the bacterial species, and fungal species by disc diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of metal complexes was dependent on the microbial species tested, ligand and the metal salts used. A comparative study of inhibition values of Schiff bases and their complexes indicates that the complexes exhibit higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands. The DNA binding studies were performed for the complexes using cyclic voltammetry and electronic absorption spectra. Superoxide dismutase activity of these complexes has also been examined.

  6. biochemical studies o the effect of gonadotropin hormones on the growth of six organs of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, K.A.; Abd-ElGhaney, I.Y.; El-kolaly, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    a major share of the control of sexual functions in both the male and female begins with secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) by the hypothalamus. this hormone simulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete two other hormones called gonadotropin hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). in this present study five groups of young rats (two weeks old ) were arranged, each group consisted of 8 rats and subdivided into two subgroups, subgroup one consisted of four male and subgroup two consisted of four female rats. the first group was the non-injected control group , while the other groups were injected intravenous with variable doses of FSH and LH at time intervals of one week for five weeks. After injection of FSH and LH hormones, blood samples were obtained from each rat and FSH and LH hormones were measured using immunoradiometric assay technique.at the end of the injection schedule of FSH and LH the male sex assay technique.At the end of the injection schedule of FSH and LH the male sex organs (testes) and the female organs (ovaries) were dissected, isolated and weighted for each rat . Comparing the sex organs of the injected groups with that of non - injected group , significant variations in weight , morphology and size were observed according to the dose of FSH and LH injected. From this study the effect of gonadotropin hormones therapy on the growth of sex organs was observed

  7. The innervation of the uterus in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela). A morphological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H; Schindelmeiser, J; Straub, H

    1983-01-01

    The innervation of the uterus in the ovoviviparous urodele Salamandra salamandra was studied. In whole mount preparations of the thin-walled uterus of pregnant females, a dense adrenergic network was demonstrated using a modified glyoxylic acid fluorescence technique. Based on vesicle type and cytochemical reactivity after chromate/dichromate fixation for electron microscopy at least two types of neural process were distinguished and classified as adrenergic and cholinergic. Both types are preferentially situated above or between the smooth muscles of the uterine tissue. Adjacent to the muscles in the walls of arterioles mainly adrenergic fibers are seen. Using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in tissue homogenates of uterus a considerable amount of noradrenaline could be identified. The significance of the dense innervation is discussed with respect to the function of the uterus during pregnancy and birth.

  8. Estrogen receptors in the human male bladder, prostatic urethra, and prostate. An immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Balslev, E; Juul, B R

    1995-01-01

    The distribution and quantity of estrogen receptors (ERs) in the human male bladder, prostatic urethra and the prostate were studied in eight males with recurrent papillomas of the bladder or monosymptomatic hematuria (median age 61 years), 14 men undergoing transurethral resection due to benign...... prostatic hyperplasia (median age 70 years), and nine men undergoing cystectomy due to malignant tumour of the bladder (median age 70 years). In the first group of patients, biopsies for immunohistochemical examination were obtained from the bladder vault, bottom, both side-walls, the trigone area......, and the mid-portion of the prostatic urethra, and in the second group from three locations of the prostatic urethra (bladder neck, mid-portion and veramontanum). In the third group, tissue specimens were taken from the vault of the bladder, prostatic urethra, and the prostate, for immunohistochemical as well...

  9. Salivary changes in medically compromised patients: A clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoshuva R Tummuru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medically compromised patients require special attention when dental procedures are performed on them. These individuals may require modified or slightly altered techniques. Aims and Objectives: The present study was taken up with two main objectives. The first one being examining and recording various oral manifestations in medically compromised patients, and the second objective was to collect samples of saliva from such patients and to analyze and establish any salivary changes in such medically compromised patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients were selected for the study. These patients were divided into four groups of 25 patients each: diabetes mellitus group, chronic renal failure group, liver cirrhosis group and control group. All the selected patients were subjected to a detailed general and intra oral examinations and the relevant data was recorded on a specially designed proforma; salivary analysis was done to know the flow rate, pH, total salivary proteins, sodium, potassium, and LDH levels. Results: From the findings, it can be inferred that salivary changes namely changes in salivary pH, salivary flow rates, salivary sodium, salivary potassium, salivary total proteins, and salivary lactate dehydrogenase are significant in medically compromised patients namely uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, cirrhosis of liver compared to the control group. Conclusion: pH of saliva was elevated in chronic renal failure patients. Salivary flow rates and sodium were decreased in diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and cirrhosis of liver patients. There was a significant elevation of salivary potassium in chronic renal failure patients. LDH elevation was significant in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.

  10. A biochemical study to assess and compare salivary magnesium levels in periodontal health and diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teertha J Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic magnesium (Mg deficiency has been associated with a number of chronic systemic diseases, including osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease. Mg may also alter the course and outcome of the periodontal disease. Aim: To evaluate salivary Mg levels in healthy individuals and patients with chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis (CP. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 individuals were selected randomly, which included both males and females with age range between 20 and 45 years. Periodontal status was recorded using the following parameters − gingival index, plaque index, oral hygiene index − simplified and clinical attachment loss. Following periodontal examination, individuals were divided into three groups as follows: Group 1: (n = 50 − comprised of healthy individuals; Group 2: (n = 50 − comprised of patients with gingivitis; Group 3: (n = 50 − comprised of patients with CP. The unstimulated saliva samples from the study individuals were collected and subjected to the estimation of salivary Mg levels using Abcam’s Mg assay kit and Erba EM 360 fully automated auto analyzer (Erba Diagnostic, Mannheim, Germany. Results: In this study, there was an increase in salivary Mg level with increasing severity of the periodontal disease. A significant increase in salivary Mg levels was recorded in patients with gingivitis (1.66 ± 0.28 mg/dl and periodontitis (2.05 ± 0.66 mg/dl as compared to healthy individuals (1.35 ± 0.28 mg/dl. Conclusion: Salivary Mg does not play an active role in the modulation of periodontal disease process and, hence, cannot be used as a reliable biomarker associated with periodontal health and disease.

  11. ROS dependent copper toxicity in Hydra-biochemical and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Mohammed; Murugadas, Anbazhagan; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Rajendran, Ramasamy Babu; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2016-01-01

    Copper, an essential microelement, is known to be toxic to aquatic life at concentrations higher than that could be tolerated. Copper-induced oxidative stress has been documented in vitro, yet the in vivo effects of metal-induced oxidative stress have not been extensively studied in the lower invertebrates. The objective of the present study has been to find the effect of ROS-mediated toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of copper at organismal and cellular levels in Hydra magnipapillata. Exposure to copper at sublethal concentrations (0.06 and 0.1mg/L) for 24 or 48h resulted in generation of significant levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We infer that the free radicals here originate predominantly at the lysosomes but partly at the mitochondria also as visualized by H2-DHCFDA staining. Quantitative real-time PCR of RNA extracted from copper-exposed polyps revealed dose-dependent up-regulation of all antioxidant response genes (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST, GR, G6PD). Concurrent increase of Hsp70 and FoxO genes suggests the ability of polyps to respond to stress, which at 48h was not the same as at 24h. Interestingly, the transcript levels of all genes were down-regulated at 48h as compared to 24h incubation period. Comet assay indicated copper as a powerful genotoxicant, and the DNA damage was dose- as well as duration-dependent. Western blotting of proteins (Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3) confirmed ROS-mediated mitochondrial cell death in copper-exposed animals. These changes correlated well with changes in morphology, regeneration and aspects of reproduction. Taken together, the results indicate increased production of intracellular ROS in Hydra on copper exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles exposed to non-heating alternating magnetic field in biochemical applications: theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovin, Yuri I., E-mail: nano@tsutmb.ru [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation); Gribanovsky, Sergey L.; Golovin, Dmitry Y.; Zhigachev, Alexander O. [G.R. Derzhavin Tambov State University, Nanocenter (Russian Federation); Klyachko, Natalia L.; Majouga, Alexander G. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation); Sokolsky, Marina [University of North Carolina, Center for Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy (United States); Kabanov, Alexander V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    In the past decade, magneto-nanomechanical approach to biochemical systems stimulation has been studied intensively. This method involves macromolecule structure local deformation via mechanical actuation of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (f-MNPs) by non-heating low frequency (LF) alternating magnetic field (AMF). Specificity at cellular or molecular level and spatial locality in nanometer scale are its key advantages as compared to magnetic fluid hyperthermia. However, current experimental studies have weak theoretical basis. Several models of magneto-nanomechanical actuation of macromolecules and cells in non-heating uniform LF AMF are presented in the article. Single core-shell spherical, rod-like, and Janus MNPs, as well as dimers consisting of two f-MNPs with macromolecules immobilized on their surfaces are considered. AMF-induced rotational oscillations of MNPs can affect properties and functioning of macromolecules or cellular membranes attached to them via periodic deformations in nanometer scale. This could be widely used in therapy, in particular for targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, and cancer cell killing. An aggregate composed of MNPs can affect associated macromolecules by force up to several hundreds of piconewton in the case of MNPs of tens of nanometers in diameter and LF AMF below 1 T. AMF parameters and MNP design requirements for effective in vitro and in vivo magneto-nanomechanical treatment are presented.

  13. Characterization of postmortem biochemical changes in rabbit plasma using ATR-FTIR combined with chemometrics: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Li, Bing; Wang, Qi; Li, Chengzhi; Zhang, Yinming; Lin, Hancheng; Wang, Zhenyuan

    2017-02-01

    Postmortem interval (PMI) determination is one of the most challenging tasks in forensic medicine due to a lack of accurate and reliable methods. It is especially difficult for late PMI determination. Although many attempts with various types of body fluids based on chemical methods have been made to solve this problem, few investigations are focused on blood samples. In this study, we employed an attenuated total reflection (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique coupled with principle component analysis (PCA) to monitor biochemical changes in rabbit plasma with increasing PMI. Partial least square (PLS) model was used based on the spectral data for PMI prediction in an independent sample set. Our results revealed that postmortem chemical changes in compositions of the plasma were time-dependent, and various components including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids contributed to the discrimination of the samples at different time points. A satisfactory prediction within 48 h postmortem was performed by the combined PLS model with a good fitting between actual and predicted PMI of 0.984 and with an error of ± 1.92 h. In consideration of the simplicity and portability of ATR-FTIR, our preliminary study provides an experimental and theoretical basis for application of this technique in forensic practice.

  14. Caffeine intake decreases oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in experimental liver diseases induced by thioacetamide: Biochemical and histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Mona G; Mazen, Nehad F; Mohamed, Ahmed M

    2017-03-01

    Liver disease remains a significant global health problem. Increased caffeine consumption has been associated with a lower prevalence of chronic liver disease. This study aimed to investigate the modifying effects of caffeine on liver injury induced by thioacetamide (TAA) administration in male rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Forty adult male rats were equally classified into four groups: control group, received only tap water; caffeine-treated group, received caffeine (37.5 mg/kg per day); TAA-treated group, received intraperitoneal (i.p.) TAA (200 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week; and caffeine + TAA-treated group, received combined TAA and caffeine in the same previous doses. After eight weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and liver specimens were prepared for histological and immunohistochemical studies and for assessment of oxidative stress. TAA induced liver toxicity with elevated liver enzymes and histological alterations, fatty changes, apoptosis, and fibrosis evidenced by increased immunohistochemical reaction to matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and collagen type IV in hepatocytes. Also, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in serum were significantly elevated. Co-treatment with caffeine and TAA restored normal liver structure and function. Caffeine provided an anti-fibrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effect that was associated with recovery of hepatic histological and functional alterations from TAA-induced hepatotoxicity.

  15. Sero-epidemiology and hemato-biochemical study of bovine leptospirosis in flood affected zone of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Muhammad; Abbas, Syed Nazar; Farooqi, Shahid Hussain; Aqib, Amjad Islam; Anwar, Ghulam Ali; Rehman, Abdul; Ali, Muhammad Muddassir; Mehmood, Khalid; Khan, Amjad

    2018-01-01

    The bovine leptospirosis is an economically important zoonotic disease of flood affected areas worldwide, but scarce information is available about its epidemiology in Pakistan. This is a first study on sero-epidemiology of bovine leptospirosis in Pakistan. The objectives of this study were to investigate the sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of bovine leptospirosis in flood affected zone of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 385 serum samples were randomly collected from four tehsils of district Muzaffargarh, Pakistan. The serum samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the detection of anti-leptospira antibodies. The overall sero-prevalence of leptospirosis was 30.39%. The prevalence was significantly higher (p0.05) difference among TLC values among sero-positive and sero-negative animals. The serum biochemical profile revealed significant differences (pzone of Pakistan, and the disease needs to be explored comprehensively in other parts of the country to sort out solid strategies for its control and eradication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Acute Deltamethrin Poisoning on Rat Adrenal Glands: Biochemical and Pathomorphological Study

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    Eugene A. Chigrinski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deltamethrin is known all over the world as an effective preparation for the control of insects. In connection with this, its role as a chemical stressor increases. The aim of the study was to determine the features of the functioning and structure of AG after a single administration of synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin in experimental animals at a dose of 17.4 mg/kg (1/5 LD50. Material and Methods: For the experiment, 88 male Wistar rats with a body weight of 240±10 g were divided into 8 groups of 10–12 animals each. Groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 were control groups, which were administered physiological solution intragastrically. The animals in Groups 2, 4, 6, and 8 received a single dose (17.4mg/kg of deltamethrin, which corresponds to 1/5 LD50. In the serum of rats, the content of ACTH, progesterone, DHEA-sulfate, corticosterone and aldosterone was determined by EIA. Histological preparations of adrenal glands were stained with H&E, picrofuxin according to Van Gieson, and with Bismarck brown according to Shubich. On frozen sections, lipids were detected by Sudan Black B.\tResults: One day after intoxication, we identified an increase in adrenal mass, edema of the parenchyma and blood capillary overflow, and a large number of lipids in corticocytes. In the blood serum, the concentration of ACTH and corticosteroids increased, but their level decreased in the adrenal cortex. After 3 days, the concentration of corticosterone in the blood serum of the experimental animals remained above the control value, but the content of other hormones decreased. At the border of the cortex and the medulla of the adrenal glands, there were mast cells in a state of degranulation; the amount of lipids decreased with time. In the subsequent terms of the study, a decrease in the weight of AG with a decrease in the concentration of hormones in the blood serum and adrenal tissue was detected. Conclusion: The intoxication of rats with deltamethrin causes

  17. Biochemical Studies on Rosemary Extracts as an Antioxidant in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abady, M.M.; Zahran, A.M.; Mansour, S.Z.; Ragab, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) essential oil and crude ethanolic extract, have been attributed to its phenolic diterpene, carnosol, carnosic acid, caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These aroma compounds were identified to protect biological membranes from oxidative stress in addition to divers pharmacological and therapeutic activities. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of natural extract derived from rosemary herb, as an antioxidant defensive element in irradiated rats. Mixture of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract was orally administered to rats by gavage (150 mg/kg B.w.) for 35 days before exposure to the first fraction of irradiation exposure and during the whole period of irradiation treatment (12 days). Whole body irradiation was delivered as fractionated doses at 1 Gy increment every other day up to total cumulative dose of 6 Gy. Changes in the content of reduced glutathion (GSH), glutathion peroxidase (GSHPx), glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat.) in blood, liver and spleen were evaluated in different rat groups. The results revealed that transient noticeable increase during the 1st hour post irradiation in the aforementioned parameters, followed by significant decrease recorded after 7 days. Rats supplemented rosemary extract before irradiation have significantly ameliorate the radiation induced depletion in the antioxidant component system

  18. Morphological and biochemical studies on the innervation of the testis of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J; Bergmann, M; Straub, H; Greven, H

    1983-05-01

    The innervation of the male gonad of Salamandra salamandra was studied by fluorescence microscopy using the glyoxylic acid method, acetylcholinesterase histochemistry, electron microscopy using glutaraldehyde/osmium tetroxide and chromate/dichromate fixation, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection of biogenic amines in homogenates of the testicular tissue. Noradrenaline has been found to be the prevailing neurotransmitter in the testicular nerves; dopamine could be identified only in minor concentration. The relatively scarce noradrenergic innervation is mainly restricted to the connective tissue septa between the immature and the mature part of the testis and between the mature part and the glandular tissue. Most of the fluorescent fibers have a close connection to blood vessels. After chromate/dichromate fixation the nerve profiles contain in most cases small vesicles with electron-dense reaction products, indicating the presence of catecholamines. Varicosities are to be found near the capillaries, in the vicinity of vascular (in the wall of arterioles) and non-vascular (near the testicular surface) smooth muscle cells; no relationships were found between nerve fibers and glandular (steroid hormone-secreting) or germinal cells. Cholinergic fibers could not be identified, non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic fibers were present only in very small numbers.

  19. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata: A Behavioral and Biochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Bae Weon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory impairment. Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata has been employed clinically for lung inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of fermented C. lanceolata (300, 500, and 800 mg/kg on learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine by using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. To elucidate possible mechanism of cognitive-enhancing activity, we measured acetylcholinesterase (AchE activity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB expression in the brain of mice. Administration of fermented C. lanceolata (800 mg/kg led to reduced scopolamine-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. Accordingly, the administration of fermented C. lanceolata inhibited AchE activity. Interestingly, the level of CREB phosphorylation and BDNF expression in hippocampal tissue of scopolamine-treated mice was significantly increased by the administration of fermented C. lanceolata. These results indicate that fermented C. lanceolata can ameliorate scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mouse and may be an alternative agent for the treatment of AD.

  20. Laser cleaning of parchment: structural, thermal and biochemical studies into the effect of wavelength and fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Craig J.; Vest, Marie; Cooper, Martin; Wess, Tim J.

    2004-01-01

    Laser cleaning of parchment is a novel technique that has the potential to provide contactless, chemical-free cleaning of historically important documents. However, the effect of laser cleaning on the collagenous structure of parchment is still poorly understood, as is the effect of the wavelength or the energy density (fluence level) used to clean parchment. In this study, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), shrinkage temperature (Ts) measurements by the micro hot table technique and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of parchment samples after laser cleaning reveal the effect of cleaning to the structural, thermal and molecular characteristics of parchment, respectively. The effect of cleaning at infrared (1064 nm), green (532 nm) and ultraviolet (266 nm) wavelengths at a range of fluence levels is investigated. SAXS is used to investigate the removal of dirt from parchment. Laser cleaning at IR or green wavelengths appears not to alter the collagen diffraction pattern from SAXS, the shrinkage activity or shrinkage temperature from Ts measurements or the molecular integrity of parchment as shown by SDS-PAGE. However, parchments cleaned at the ultraviolet wavelength display structural damage and a reduction in hydrothermal stability and molecular integrity

  1. Metabolomics study on the biochemical profiles of odor elements in urine of human with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobu, Kohei; Sun, Changhai; Yoshioka, Saburo; Yokota, Junko; Onogawa, Masahide; Kawada, Chiaki; Inoue, Keiji; Shuin, Taro; Sendo, Toshiaki; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that dogs are capable of identifying cancer in humans by detecting a specific odor: bladder cancer by detecting urine odor and other cancers by detecting exhaled breath odor. However, no odor recognized by dogs that indicates cancer has been identified. In this study, we examined whether bladder cancer could be detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics analysis of urine odor. Nine patients with bladder cancer and 7 healthy controls were recruited as participants. Patients collected urine 3 d before and for 3-7 d after surgery. The concentrated urine odor was analyzed by GC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Results indicated 12 metabolites of urine odor. Score plots of 7 of the preoperative bladder cancer patients were clearly different from those of controls on the PCA map. The distribution of controls was in the negative domain of principal component (PC) 1, whereas the distribution of preoperative patients was in the positive domain of PC1. Bladder cancer was diagnosed in 5 of the 9 patients on the basis of urinary cytology. The findings indicate the potential to screen bladder cancer by analyzing urine odor. Moreover, diagnosis of bladder cancer on the basis of urine odor might have higher sensitivity than screening by urinary cytology.

  2. Study of sodium arsenite induced biochemical changes on certain biomolecules of the freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic impact of sublethal concentration (1 mg/L; 5% of 96h LC50 value of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 on certain biomolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and glycogen of five tissue components (muscles, liver, brain, skin, and gills of the freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus was analysed. The important toxic manifestations include marked decrease in the concentration of proteins (21.72-45.42% in muscles; 3.42-53.94% in liver; 15.39-45.42% in brain; 15.40-4.00% in skin and 11.35-64.13% in gills, DNA (0.55-22.95% in muscles; 8.33-14.06% in liver; 5.30-18.40% in brain; 13.57-52.80% in skin; and 12.38-31.01% in gills, RNA (42.68-76.16% in muscles; 10.68-39.75% in liver; 5.66-29.05% in brain; 7.72-27.93% in skin and 21.47-44.38% in gills and glycogen (24.00-51.72% in muscles; 49.11-72.45% in liver; 11.49-26.03% in brain; 26.13-38.05% in skin and 17.80-37.97% in gills. Excepting liver where the lipid content increases (15.82-24.13%, the fat content also showed depletion in their concentration (10.40-29.83% in muscles; 8.30-34.45% in brain; 8.94-31.47% in skin and 12.75-28.86% in gills, in the rest of the organ systems.Foi analisado o impacto tóxico da concentração subletal (1 mg/L; 5% do valor de LC50 de 96h do arsenito de sódio (NaAsO2 sobre certas biomoléculas (proteinas, ácidos nucleicos, lipídios e glicogênio de cinco tecidos (músculos, fígado, cérebro, pele e brânquias do bagre Clarias batrachus. As manifestações tóxicas importantes incluiram o decréscimo acentuado na concentração de proteinas (21,72-45,42% nos músculos; 3,42-53,94% no fígado; 15,39-45,42% no cérebro; 15,40-4,00% na pele e 11,35-64,13% nas brânquias, DNA (0,55-22,95% nos músculos; 8,33-14,06% no fígado; 5,30-18,40% no cérebro; 13,57-52,80% na pele e 12,38-31,01% nas brânquias, RNA (42,68-76,16% nos músculos; 10,68-39,75% no fígado; 5,66-29,05% no cérebro; 7,72-27,93% na pele e 21,47-44,38% nas brânquias e glicogênio (24,00-51,72% nos músculos; 49

  3. An Association Study Between Gene Polymorphisms of Folic Acid Metabolism Enzymes and Biochemical and Hormonal Parameters in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetik Vardarlı, Aslı; Zengi, Ayhan; Bozok Çetintaş, Vildan; Karadeniz, Muammer; Tamsel, Sadık; Küçükaslan, Ali Şahin; Köse, Timur; Saygılı, Füsun; Eroglu, Zuhal

    2015-08-01

    Folate metabolism is fundamental to several biological functions and required for cell replication, division, and survival. The mammalian folic acid cycle is highly complex and the enzymes, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), have crucial roles in this metabolic pathway. The common polymorphisms of the MTHFR (C677T and A1298C), MTRR (A66G), and MTR (A2756G) enzymes are well documented as folate deficiency-related disorders, but their roles have not been examined in acromegalic patients. The aim of this study was to compare the genotypic distribution of these gene polymorphisms between patients with acromegaly and controls and explore whether these polymorphisms were associated with biochemical and hormonal parameters in acromegaly. We examined 91 acromegaly patients and 112 healthy subjects who were compared in terms of age and gender. Blood specimens of the subjects were collected in tubes containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes and genotyping of the MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) gene polymorphisms was assessed by melting temperature analyses after real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas MTRR A66G and MTR A2756G gene polymorphism analyses were performed by PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism from the isolated DNA of the subjects. MTHFR-677TT genotype frequency was significantly higher in the acromegaly group than the control group (p=0.017), and a significant increase was found in fibrinogen (p=0.032) levels in 677TT-carrying acromegaly patients. MTRR-66AA genotype was significantly higher in the control group than the acromegaly group (p=0.004). Total cholesterol (p=0.048) and C-reactive protein (p=0.046) levels decreased significantly in 66AA genotypes. Although MTR-2756AG genotype frequency was not different between the control and acromegaly groups, 2756AG genotype-carrying individuals have higher left

  4. Immunotoxicological, biochemical, and histopathological studies on Roundup and Stomp herbicides in Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan G. Moustafa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was directed to investigate the immunotoxic and oxidative stress effects of Roundup and Stomp herbicides and their combination on Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out on 120 fish that randomly divided into four equal groups with three replicates: The first group kept as control, the second group exposed to 1/2 96 h lethal concentration 50 (LC50 of Roundup, the third group exposed to 1/2 96 h LC50 of Stomp, and the fourth one exposed to a combination of Roundup and Stomp at previously-mentioned doses. The experiment was terminated after 15 days; blood samples were obtained at 1st, 8th, and 15th days of treatment where the sera were separated for estimation of antioxidant enzymes. Meanwhile, at 15th day of exposure part of blood was collected from all groups with an anticoagulant for evaluation of phagocytic activity, then the fish were sacrificed, and specimens from the liver of all groups were obtained for histopathological examination. Results: Our results indicated that both herbicides either individually or in combination elucidated significant decrease in phagocytic activity that was highly marked in group exposed to both herbicides. Furthermore, our data elicited an obvious elevation in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Meanwhile, the data depicted reduction in levels of reduced glutathione (GSH and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. Histopathological investigation of liver proved the aforementioned results. Conclusion: It could be concluded that either Roundup or Stomp alone cause significant deleterious effects on aquatic vertebrates. However, the use of their combination enhanced their toxic effects. Toxicity can end up in humans through the food chain.

  5. The study of the biochemical properties of Nigelia Sativa L. and their use as radiation protectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzayev, N.R; Guliyev, N.T.; Kiseleva, T.L; Pavlova, L.A; Bereza, N.S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : Recently in order to protect organisms from the of radiation effect radio protectors have been applied principally concerning to sulfur compounds, aminothioles and indolilalkins. Due to the long-term exploitations and misuse of soil under man-made factor the area of eroded soils has significantly increased. Consequently, cultivation and pasture areas have decreased. Recently the use of synthetic medicinal preparations has increased in order to meet the demands of people. Race mates are not observed in natural substances. The presence of race mates and isomers in human organism causes different diseases. Therefore its required to set new soils in operation and cultivate highly-productive species. The seeds and seed oil have been used as a diuretic, appetitive, hemorrhagic and anti dandruff therapy in folk medicine. The seeds have also been used traditionally for centuries in the Middle East, Far East, and some Mediterranean and European countries for the treatment of deferent ailments such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac diseases, hemorrhoids, and sexual diseases and a s an abortifacient. Essential oil plants are potential radio protectors. Many plants are applied according to radio protector features of essential oils. Radiotherapy is one of the most common therapies for treating human cancers. Several studies have indicated that irradiation induces reactive oxygen species which play an important role in radiation damage of the cell. In the scientific literature there results as alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages have been used to treat burns radioactive substances and their removal from the body. Our progress in the preparation of liqueurs, sadofos, soft drinks from plants, will allow the successful use. Clean oil of sea buck thorn, black cumin and basil have strong radio protective properties. The production of these oils without determinant of impurities has been tested in laboratory conditions, the implementations of this technology

  6. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  7. An international multicenter study evaluating the impact of an alternative biochemical failure definition on the judgment of prostate cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Scott G.; Duchesne, Gillian M.; Gogna, N. Kumar; Millar, Jeremy L.; Pickles, Tom; Pratt, Gary R.; Turner, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of an alternative biochemical failure (bF) definition on the performance of existing plus de novo prognostic models. Methods and Materials: The outcomes data of 1,458 Australian and 703 Canadian men treated with external-beam radiation monotherapy between 1993 and 1997 were analyzed using a lowest prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level to date plus 2 ng/mL (L + 2) bF definition. Two existing prognostic models were scrutinized using discrimination (Somers Dxy [SDxy]) and calibration indices. Alternative prognostic models were also created using recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) and multivariate nomogram methods for comparison. Results: Discrimination of bF was improved using the L + 2 definition compared with the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) definition using both the three-level risk model (SDxy 0.30 and 0.22, respectively) or the nomogram (SDxy 0.35 and 0.27, respectively). Both existing prognostic models showed only modest calibration accuracy. Using RPA, five distinct risk groups were identified based primarily on Gleason score (GS) and all subsequent divisions based on PSA. All GS 7-10 tumors were intermediate or high risk. This model and the developed nomogram showed improved discrimination over the existing models as well as accurate calibration against the Canadian data, apart from the 30-50% failure region. Conclusions: The L + 2 definition of bF provides improved capacity for discrimination of failure risk. New prognostic models based on this endpoint have overall statistical performance superior to those based on the ASTRO consensus definition but continue to have unreliable discrimination in the intermediate-risk region

  8. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high-fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C; Bach Knudsen, Knud E; Serena, Anja

    2006-01-01

    This study presents an NMR-based metabonomic approach to elucidate the overall endogenous biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet. Two diets with similar levels of dietary fibre and macronutrients, but with contrasting levels of wholegrain ingredients, were prepared from wholegrain rye (wholegra...

  9. Biochemical study of human periodontal ligament: preparation of cell attachment materials induced by pulsed electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K T

    1990-09-01

    The periodontium, especially the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, are tissues constantly subjected to physical stress such as occlusion and mastication. This study was designed to explore the effect of the pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on the cell attachment and the spread of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) and rat osteoblasts (ROB). PEMF are categorized as one type of mechanical stress. HPLF were obtained by the explantation method described by Saito et al. They were then subcultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (D-MEM) and supplemented with 2 mg/ml dialyzed fetal calf serum protein (FCSP), 50 micrograms/ml ascorbic acid and penicillin/streptomycin after trypsinization. ROB were isolated from a two-day-old rat calvaria by the sequential bacterial collagenase digestion method described by Dziak and Brand and were subcultured in D-MEM supplemented with FCSP, ascorbic acid and penicillin/streptomycin. After the confluent HPLF were cultured with serum-free MCDB 107 medium, the quiescent HPLF were exposed with or without PEMF for 24 hr. This was followed by the collection of the control conditioned medium (C-CM) and PEMF exposed conditioned medium (PEMF-CM). The cell attachment assay was performed so that the hydrophobic 24 multiwells were coated with the whole conditioned medium or fractionated conditioned medium by a PO-60K column. After coating, heat inactivated BSA blocked nonspecific sites for cell adhesion, and 3H-TdR labeled HPLF or ROB were cultured on the precoated wells. The activity of cell attachment and spreading was determined by the radioactivity of 3H-TdR using a scintillation counter. The characters of cell attachment factors derived from HPLF were hydrophobic, heat labile and proteolytic enzyme digestible. In addition, the fractionated PEMF-CM enhanced the spreading activity of ROB. PEMF induced the 10 KDa which can enhance the HPLF and ROB spreading. Therefore, the cell attachment and spreading factors secreted by

  10. Isolation, purification and studies on radiation induced biochemical and physiological changes of bovine growth hormone in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Salam, H.M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Growth hormone has a great importance in the field of animal physiology. Bovine growth hormone was extracted by alteration of the hydrogen ion concentration of phosphate buffer extract of frozen pituitary glands. The extracted bovine growth hormone has similar absorption peaks at UV and infrared spectra, bands of the same location on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis plate and had a molecular weight exactly as the standard bovine growth hormone and equal to 20.9 KD. Labelling of bovine growth hormone with 131 I was carried out with fast and least expensive method. The biological and physiological effects of labelled and non labelled bovine growth hormone were studied on rabbits. The labelled bovine growth hormone decreased the biological and physiological effects of the hormone. Bovine growth hormone (unlabelled) and different effects on growth performance traits, body chemical composition (water, fat,protein and ash), and also on the serum biochemical parameters. We conclude that the bovine growth hormone affects on the biological and physiological properties but this depends on the dose, type of delivery of hormone, time of treatment, and the diet content of the animal. 6 tabs., 13.2 figs., 110 refs

  11. Development of biochemical heterogeneity of articular cartilage: Influences of age and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brama, P.A.J.; Tekoppele, J.M.; Bank, R.A.; Barneveld, A.; Weeren, P.R. van

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document the development of biochemical heterogeneity from birth to maturity in equine articular cartilage, and to test the hypothesis that the amount of exercise during early life may influence this process. Neonatal foals showed no biochemical heterogeneity

  12. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-02

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  13. Metabolite and light regulation of metabolism in plants: lessons from the study of a single biochemical pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C. Oliveira

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available We are using molecular, biochemical, and genetic approaches to study the structural and regulatory genes controlling the assimilation of inorganic nitrogen into the amino acids glutamine, glutamate, aspartate and asparagine. These amino acids serve as the principal nitrogen-transport amino acids in most crop and higher plants including Arabidopsis thaliana. We have begun to investigate the regulatory mechanisms controlling nitrogen assimilation into these amino acids in plants using molecular and genetic approaches in Arabidopsis. The synthesis of the amide amino acids glutamine and asparagine is subject to tight regulation in response to environmental factors such as light and to metabolic factors such as sucrose and amino acids. For instance, light induces the expression of glutamine synthetase (GLN2 and represses expression of asparagine synthetase (ASN1 genes. This reciprocal regulation of GLN2 and ASN1 genes by light is reflected at the level of transcription and at the level of glutamine and asparagine biosynthesis. Moreover, we have shown that the regulation of these genes is also reciprocally controlled by both organic nitrogen and carbon metabolites. We have recently used a reverse genetic approach to study putative components of such metabolic sensing mechanisms in plants that may be conserved in evolution. These components include an Arabidopsis homolog for a glutamate receptor gene originally found in animal systems and a plant PII gene, which is a homolog of a component of the bacterial Ntr system. Based on our observations on the biology of both structural and regulatory genes of the nitrogen assimilatory pathway, we have developed a model for metabolic control of the genes involved in the nitrogen assimilatory pathway in plants.

  14. STUDY OF CORRELATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVE PHASE OF THYROID EYE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM Role of Interleukin-6 and HS-CRP Levels in the assessment of active thyroid eye disease. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective observational study of 30 patients from the age group of 20-60 years with thyroid eye disease done at Regional Institute of Ophthalmology. All patients were subjected to detailed history, ocular examination, systemic examination, biochemical analysis and Imaging. Patients are categorised as mild, moderate and severe active disease based on clinical activity score. For the period of two years, patients are followed at regular periodic intervals according to the severity of disease and results were analysed. RESULTS Out of 30 patients studied, majority of the patients were females (60%, and 70% of the patients had bilateral disease. Among 30 patients, 83.33% in hyperthyroid state, 3.33% in Hypothyroid state, 13.33% in Euthyroid state (Table 3. Smoking being important risk factor in 30% among males. 50% of patients presented with mild disease, 30% with moderate disease, 0% with severe disease. IL-6, HS-CRP levels are increased only in patients with severe active disease (Table 6. Remission attained in all patients when treated earlier with steroids. CONCLUSION Identifying disease activity early and aggressive treatment with systemic steroids in active phase of moderate and severe disease has reduced the morbidity associated with disease. Correlation of IL-6, HS-CRP, TFT levels are significantly increased only in patients with active phase of severe thyroid eye disease but not significantly elevated in active phase of moderate disease. Another pitfall is IL-6 is an expensive ELISA based diagnosis. Thus, IL-6 & HS-CRP cannot be routinely used to screen patients with Thyroid eye disease.

  15. Cross-sectional study on respiratory effect of toner-exposed work in manufacturing plants, Japan: pulmonary function, blood cells, and biochemical markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, H; Terunuma, N; Kurosaki, S; Hata, K; Ide, R; Kuga, H; Kakiuchi, N; Masuda, M; Totsuzaki, T; Osato, A; Uchino, B; Kitahara, K; Iwasaki, A; Yoshizumi, K; Morimoto, Y; Kasai, H; Murase, T; Higashi, T

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between toner-exposed work and health indices related to respiratory disorders and to confirm the baseline of a cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure in manufacturing plants. Subjects were 1614 male workers (809 toner-exposed workers and 805 referents) who were engaged in toner manufacturing plants in Japan (Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd). The age of subjects was from 19 to 59 years, and the average age was 40.2 years(median 40 years, SD 7.67). We conducted a pulmonary function test (PEFR, VC, FVC, FEV(1.0)%, V25/Ht) and a blood cell test (RBC, Hb, Hct, Plt, WBC, cell contents of WBC) and measured biochemical indices in blood (ALT, AST, gamma-GTP, CRP, IgE) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine. Student t-test and logistic regression analysis were applied to compare between the toner-exposed workers and the referents and to analyze the relationship among indices of effects and independent factors. There was no significant difference between the two groups in blood cell count and biochemical indices. Inflammation- and allergy-related markers such as 8OHdG and IgE also showed no significant difference between toner-exposed workers and the referents. The influence of smoking on pulmonary function indices was observed, but there was no relationship between the pulmonary function and toner-exposed work. In this article, we report a preliminary cross-sectional analysis in the subjects of a cohort study. No difference in pulmonary function indices was observed between the toner-exposed workers and the referents, and there was no consistent relationship between the exposure status and examined indices; however, the prevalence of subjective respiratory symptoms was higher in the exposed workers as presented in another report. Further analysis is important in the ongoing cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure on respiratory systems.

  16. Current status of temporomandibular joint disorders and the therapeutic system derived from a series of biomechanical, histological, and biochemical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Tanne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was designed to report the current status of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs and the therapeutic system on the basis of a series of clinical, biomechanical, histological and biochemical studies in our research groups. In particular, we have focused on the association of degenerative changes of articular cartilage in the mandibular condyle and the resultant progressive condylar resorption with mechanical stimuli acting on the condyle during the stomatognathic function. In a clinical aspect, the nature and prevalence of TMDs, association of malocclusion with TMDs, association of condylar position with TMDs, association of craniofacial morphology with TMDs, and influences of TMDs, TMJ-osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA in particular, were examined. In a biomechanical aspect, the nature of stress distribution in the TMJ from maximum clenching was analyzed with finite element method. In addition, the pattern of stress distribution was examined in association with varying vertical discrepancies of the craniofacial skeleton and friction between the articular disk and condyle. The results demonstrated an induction of large compressive stresses in the anterior and lateral areas on the condyle by the maximum clenching and the subsequent prominent increases in the same areas of the mandibular condyle as the vertical skeletal discrepancy became more prominent. Increase of friction at the articular surface was also indicated as a cause of larger stresses and the relevant disk displacement, which further induced an increase in stresses in the tissues posterior to the disks, indicating an important role of TMJ disks as a stress absorber. In a histological or biological aspect, increase in TMJ loading simulated by vertical skeletal discrepancy, which has already been revealed by the preceding finite element analysis or represented by excessive mouth opening, produced a decrease in the thickness of cartilage layers, an increase in the numbers of

  17. Effects of progressive soil water deficit on growth, and physiological and biochemical responses of populus euphratica in arid area: a case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Li, W.; Zhu, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of Populus euphratica seedlings under a short-term soil water deficit. To mimic natural conditions in which drought stress develops gradually, stress was imposed by subjecting plants to a gradual decrease of soil water content for a period of 21 d. We studied growth, physiological and biochemical responses to progressive soil water deficit of potted Populus euphratica seedlings at outdoors. Results showed that, in 6 d of water withholding, the soil moisture content decreased to a slight drought stress level, and it reached a severe drought stress level after 15 d of water withholding in July. In the process of soil water declining from saturated to severe drought levels, the increasing soil water deficit resulted in decreases in the height, stem base diameter, number of lateral branches. Leaf predawn water potential decreased after 15 d of withholding irrigation. After 21 d of withholding irrigation, actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in light-adapted leaves and photochemical quenching coefficient decreased, respectively; the peroxidase activity, the content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b decreased. There were no significant changes in proline, malondialdehyde content, chlorophyll a/b value and superoxide dismutase activity. (author)

  18. Online biochemical oxygen demand monitoring for wastewater process control--full-scale studies at Los Angeles Glendale wastewater plant, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranpour, Reza; Zermeno, Miguel

    2008-04-01

    The main objective of this investigation is to determine whether or not it would be feasible to use the measured values of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewater obtained by an online instrument at the Los Angeles/Glendale Water Reclamation Plant (California) for controlling its activated sludge process. This investigation is part of a project to develop online BOD monitoring for process control in the City of Los Angeles wastewater treatment plants. Tests studied the Siepmann und Teutscher GmbH (ISCO-STIP Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska) BIOX-1010, which uses a bioreactor containing a culture of microbes from the wastewater to measure soluble BOD in 2 minutes. This rapid approximation to the operation of secondary treatment allows anticipation of system response. Calibration measurements allow the operators to find a conversion factor for the instrument's microprocessor to compute values of BOD that agree well with the standard 5-day BOD (BOD5) measurement, despite the differences in the details of the two testing methods. This instrument has recently been used at other wastewater treatment plants, at a number of airports in Europe and the United States to monitor runway runoff, and is also being used on waste streams at an increasing number of food processing plants. A comparison was made between the plant influent BOD values obtained by the BIOX-1010 online monitor from the end of August, 2000, to late January, 2001, and the individual and average values obtained for the same period using the standard BOD5, 20 degrees C test, to determine the effectiveness of the Biox-1010 to identify shock loads and their duration. Individual BOD estimates and averages over periods of overly high biological loads (shock loads) were compared, and the instrument readings were evaluated for their effectiveness in detecting shock loads. The results were highly satisfactory, so the instrument was used to trigger a shock-load warning alarm since late September, 2000. This allowed flow

  19. Ameliorative effect of parsley oil on cisplatin-induced hepato-cardiotoxicity: A biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatief, Suhair A; Galal, Azza A A; Farouk, Sameh M; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2017-02-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, CDDP) is an effective DNA alkylating agent used in the treatment of different types of tumors; however, its clinical use is associated with hepato-cardiotoxicity. The current study was designed to assess the potential protective effect of parsley oil (PO) against CDDP-induced hepato-cardiotoxicity. For this purpose, 25 adult male rats were assigned into five groups, each containing five animals. Group I (control) was administered saline solution. Group II was administered PO at a dosage of 0.42ml/kg BW. Group III were administered CDDP at a dosage of 5mg/kg BW. Group IV was administered PO in addition to CDDP. Group V was administered saline solution in addition to CDDP, after which they were administered PO for five days. Oral administration of either saline solution or PO was performed each day for 10days, while administration of CDDP was via a single intraperitoneal injection five days following the commencement of the experiment. The recorded results revealed that CDDP induced obvious hepatic and cardiac injuries that were indicated by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical alterations, including elevation of serum hepatic and cardiac injury markers as well as proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, CDDP induced an increase in the level of hepatic and cardiac injury biomarkers, decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, a decrease in GSH concentration, and an increase in MDA concentration. CDDP also induced histopathological hepatocellular and myocardial changes, and overexpression of p53 and COX-2 in hepatic and cardiac tissues. Administration of PO either as a preventative medicine or as treatment significantly improved all the observed deleterious effects induced by CDDP in rat liver and heart. Thus, it may be concluded that PO, with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities, can potentially be used in the treatment of CDDP-induced hepatic and cardiac injuries. Copyright

  20. Salvage Radiation Therapy Dose Response for Biochemical Failure of Prostate Cancer After Prostatectomy—A Multi-Institutional Observational Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisansky, Thomas M., E-mail: pisansky.thomas@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Agrawal, Shree [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Koontz, Bridget F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Liauw, Stanley L. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Abramowitz, Matthew C.; Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Moghanaki, Drew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Hunter Holmes McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Den, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kattan, Michael W. [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a dose-response relationship exists for salvage radiation therapy (RT) of biochemical failure after prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Individual data from 1108 patients who underwent salvage RT at 10 academic centers were pooled. The cohort was enriched for selection criteria more likely associated with tumor recurrence in the prostate bed (margin positive and pre-RT prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of ≤2.0 ng/mL) and without the confounding of planned androgen suppression. The cumulative incidence of biochemical failure and distant metastasis over time was computed, and competing risks hazard regression models were used to investigate the association between potential predictors and these outcomes. The association of radiation dose with outcomes was the primary focus. Results: With a 65.2-month follow-up duration, the 5- and 10-year estimates of freedom from post-RT biochemical failure (PSA level >0.2 ng/mL and rising) was 63.5% and 49.8%, respectively, and the cumulative incidence of distant metastasis was 12.4% by 10 years. A Gleason score of ≥7, higher pre-RT PSA level, extraprostatic tumor extension, and seminal vesicle invasion were associated with worse biochemical failure and distant metastasis outcomes. A salvage radiation dose of ≥66.0 Gy was associated with a reduced cumulative incidence of biochemical failure, but not of distant metastasis. Conclusions: The use of salvage radiation doses of ≥66.0 Gy are supported by evidence presented in the present multicenter pooled analysis of individual patient data. The observational reporting method, limited sample size, few distant metastasis events, modest follow-up duration, and elective use of salvage therapy might have diminished the opportunity to identify an association between the radiation dose and this endpoint.

  1. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  2. Trajectories of CKD-MBD biochemical parameters over a 2-year period following diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism: a pharmacoepidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipozzi, Pierre; Ayav, Carole; Ngueyon Sime, Willy; Laurain, Emmanuelle; Kessler, Michèle; Brunaud, Laurent; Frimat, Luc

    2017-03-27

    To define groups of patients according to the changes of biochemical parameters, that is, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH), over a 2-year follow-up period using group-based multi-trajectory modeling (GBMM) among a cohort of dialysis patients with newly diagnosed secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) (ie, PTH≥500 ng/L for the first time) and to compare their patient characteristics and treatments. Pharmacoepidemiological study. In the 12 dialysis units located in the French region of Lorraine. A total of 269 dialysis patients with newly diagnosed SHPT were prospectively included from December 2009 to May 2012 and followed-up for 2 years. We identified four distinct trajectory groups: 'rapid PTH drop' experiencing a rapid and sharp decrease (over weeks) in PTH level associated with decreasing phosphate level within normal range (n=34; 12.7%), 'gradual PTH decrease' experiencing a gradual and continuous decrease (over months) in PTH level and maintaining phosphate at a middle level throughout the study (n=98; 36.4%), 'slow PTH decrease with high phosphate' experiencing a slow decrease in PTH level associated with a relatively high phosphate level (n=105; 39.0%) and 'uncontrolled SHPT' with high levels of PTH and phosphate throughout the study (n=32; 11.9%). Patients in the 'uncontrolled SHPT' group were significantly (p<0.00001) younger than patients in other groups. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) targets for PTH, phosphate and calcium were reached simultaneously for 14.9% of patients at baseline and 16.7% at the end of the study. Patients were given cinacalcet more frequently at months 3 and 6 in the 'rapid PTH drop' and at month 24 in the 'uncontrolled SHPT' groups. Over 2 years following a new SHPT diagnosis, a younger age and a higher rate of alkaline phosphatase were associated to a continuous uncontrolled SHPT. Patients with the lowest PTH at the end of the follow-up tended to receive more often cinacalcet. Clinical

  3. Inverse problem studies of biochemical systems with structure identification of S-systems by embedding training functions in a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Ketan Dinkar; Kumar, V Ravi; Kulkarni, B D

    2016-05-01

    An efficient inverse problem approach for parameter estimation, state and structure identification from dynamic data by embedding training functions in a genetic algorithm methodology (ETFGA) is proposed for nonlinear dynamical biosystems using S-system canonical models. Use of multiple shooting and decomposition approach as training functions has been shown for handling of noisy datasets and computational efficiency in studying the inverse problem. The advantages of the methodology are brought out systematically by studying it for three biochemical model systems of interest. By studying a small-scale gene regulatory system described by a S-system model, the first example demonstrates the use of ETFGA for the multifold aims of the inverse problem. The estimation of a large number of parameters with simultaneous state and network identification is shown by training a generalized S-system canonical model with noisy datasets. The results of this study bring out the superior performance of ETFGA on comparison with other metaheuristic approaches. The second example studies the regulation of cAMP oscillations in Dictyostelium cells now assuming limited availability of noisy data. Here, flexibility of the approach to incorporate partial system information in the identification process is shown and its effect on accuracy and predictive ability of the estimated model are studied. The third example studies the phenomenological toy model of the regulation of circadian oscillations in Drosophila that follows rate laws different from S-system power-law. For the limited noisy data, using a priori information about properties of the system, we could estimate an alternate S-system model that showed robust oscillatory behavior with predictive abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cancer-affine radiopharmaceuticals for the study of biochemical nature of cancer and in the early diagnosis and follow-up of cancer and its systemic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.K.; Cipriani, C.; Atzei, G.

    1998-01-01

    Cancer patient needs less diagnosis but an effective therapy. The systemic nature of cancer, often right from its inception, requires systemic therapy with cancer-affine radiopharmaceuticals which contain radionuclide species recognizing both the primary and secondary cancers which have generally different biochemical properties. Cancers may be classified into two groups: I. CATIONIC COMPLEX-AFFINE TUMOURS; Lung cancer, thyroid cancer, primary breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, bone metastases from anionic complex-affine cancers, ...; II. ANIONIC COMPLEX-AFFINE TUMOURS; Primary prostate cancer, melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, bone metastases from cationic complex-affine cancer. With cancer-affine citratogallate-67 complexes we have diagnosed and followed up, and with citratoyttrate-90 complexes we have treated advanced breast, prostate, renal cell cancer patients. The patient preparation by advising to avoid cancer risk factors and to take cancer preventing and radiopharmaceutical stabilizing diets during diagnosis and therapy have given better results. Friendliness, caring visits and telephone calls from the therapist group help to obtain better outcomes of the diagnosis, and mainly of the therapy. The complexes of these radionuclides with other chelating agents EDTA and DPTA are expected to give better images and cure of advanced cancer patients. Cancer-affine formulations of Tc-99m(V), Re-186(V) and Re-188(V)-DMSA are being studied for their future use in early diagnosis and follow-up, and for the systemic therapy of cancer which will show affinity for them. (author)

  5. Conversion of D-ribulose 5-phosphate to D-xylulose 5-phosphate : new insights from structural and biochemical studies on human RPE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, W.; Ouyang, S.; Shaw, N.; Joachimiak, A.; Zhang, R.; Liu, Z.; Biosciences Division; Chinese Academy of Sciences

    2011-02-01

    The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) confers protection against oxidative stress by supplying NADPH necessary for the regeneration of glutathione, which detoxifies H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. RPE functions in the PPP, catalyzing the reversible conversion of D-ribulose 5-phosphate to D-xylulose 5-phosphate and is an important enzyme for cellular response against oxidative stress. Here, using structural, biochemical, and functional studies, we show that human D-ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase (hRPE) uses Fe{sup 2+} for catalysis. Structures of the binary complexes of hRPE with D-ribulose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate provide the first detailed molecular insights into the binding mode of physiological ligands and reveal an octahedrally coordinated Fe{sup 2+} ion buried deep inside the active site. Human RPE folds into a typical ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8} triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel with a loop regulating access to the active site. Two aspartic acids are well positioned to carry out the proton transfers in an acid-base type of reaction mechanism. Interestingly, mutating Ser-10 to alanine almost abolished the enzymatic activity, while L12A and M72A mutations resulted in an almost 50% decrease in the activity. The binary complexes of hRPE reported here will aid in the design of small molecules for modulating the activity of the enzyme and altering flux through the PPP.

  6. Improvement in shelf life of minimally processed cilantro leaves through integration of kinetin pretreatment and packaging interventions: Studies on microbial population dynamics, biochemical characteristics and flavour retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitha, K; Shivashankara, K S; Sudhakar Rao, D V; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Roy, T K; Bharathamma, H

    2017-04-15

    Effect of integrating optimized combination of pretreatment with packaging on shelf life of minimally processed cilantro leaves (MPCL) was appraised through analysis of their sensory attributes, biochemical characteristics, microbial population and flavour profile during storage. Minimally pretreated cilantro leaves pretreated with 50ppm kinetin and packed in 25μ polypropylene bags showed a shelf life of 21days. Optimized combination helped in efficiently maintaining sensory parameters, flavour profile, and retention of antioxidants in MPCL until 21days. Studies conducted on the effect of optimized combination on microbial population and flavour profile revealed that among different microorganisms, pectinolysers had a significant effect on spoilage of MPCL and their population of ⩽3.59logcfu/g was found to be acceptable. Principal component analysis of headspace volatiles revealed that (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-hexadecenal, (E)-2-tetradecenal & (E)-2-tetradecen-1-ol in stored samples clustered with fresh samples and therefore, could be considered as freshness indicators for MPCL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal......, and of the meaning that viewers take from the musical talent show genre....

  8. In-State and Interstate Associations Between Gun Shows and Firearm Deaths and Injuries: A Quasi-experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthay, Ellicott C; Galin, Jessica; Rudolph, Kara E; Farkas, Kriszta; Wintemute, Garen J; Ahern, Jennifer

    2017-12-19

    Gun shows are an important source of firearms, but no adequately powered studies have examined whether they are associated with increases in firearm injuries. To determine whether gun shows are associated with short-term increases in local firearm injuries and whether this association differs by the state in which the gun show is held. Quasi-experimental. California. Persons in California within driving distance of gun shows. Gun shows in California and Nevada between 2005 and 2013 (n = 915 shows) and rates of firearm-related deaths, emergency department visits, and inpatient hospitalizations in California. Compared with the 2 weeks before, postshow firearm injury rates remained stable in regions near California gun shows but increased from 0.67 injuries (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.80 injuries) to 1.14 injuries (CI, 0.97 to 1.30 injuries) per 100 000 persons in regions near Nevada shows. After adjustment for seasonality and clustering, California shows were not associated with increases in local firearm injuries (rate ratio [RR], 0.99 [CI, 0.97 to 1.02]) but Nevada shows were associated with increased injuries in California (RR, 1.69 [CI, 1.16 to 2.45]). The pre-post difference was significantly higher for Nevada shows than California shows (ratio of RRs, 1.70 [CI, 1.17 to 2.47]). The Nevada association was driven by significant increases in firearm injuries from interpersonal violence (RR, 2.23 [CI, 1.01 to 4.89]) but corresponded to a small increase in absolute numbers. Nonfirearm injuries served as a negative control and were not associated with California or Nevada gun shows. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Firearm injuries were examined only in California, and gun show occurrence was not randomized. Gun shows in Nevada, but not California, were associated with local, short-term increases in firearm injuries in California. Differing associations for California versus Nevada gun shows may be due to California's stricter firearm regulations. National

  9. [Clinical significance of studies of microorganisms of the intestinal mucosa by culture biochemical methods and mass fragmentography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, G A; Parfenov, A I; Verkhovtseva, N V; Ruchkina, I N; Kurchavov, V A; Boĭko, N B; Rogatina, E L

    2003-01-01

    This research is a continuation of the series of studies of the parietal microbiota of the bowel tissue samplings by the gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS) method [G.A. Ossipov et al.//Journal of the Society of Russian Gastroenterologists, 2001, 1:54-69]. The purpose was to study a number of new microorganisms in view of new data on the composition of their fatty acids (FA) and aldehydes; to confirm the presence of a number of bacteria, fungi and aerobic actinomycetes revealed earlier by FA markers in the composition of the bowel parietal microbiota by their isolation in a pure culture; to amend the estimation of the clinical value of changes in the composition of the human bowel parietal microflora in case of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and antibiotics-associated diarrhea (AAD). We examined 31 patients with IBS with predominating diarrhea, 18 patients with AAD and 3 volunteers (a control group). We studied the blood samples, tissue samplings of the mucous coat of the jejunum, ileum and colon and composition of healthy people's feces. The GCMS method was applied. Morphology of defined strains was controlled by methods of light and scanning electron microscopy. We found a substantial portion of eubacteria among the bowel microorganisms and specific changes of their species in case of IBS and AAD. Taking into account their physiological and biochemical activity, when regulating their concentration one can expect at least the same effect as when regulating the number of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in treatment of intestinal pathologies and other diseases related to bowel dysbacteriosis. The analysis of the feces microbiota using the GCMS method by FA of parietal microorganisms provides reliable data on their number both in feces and in tissue samplings. We found a substantial portion of eubacteria among other bowel microorganisms (27% in the jejunum and 16% in the colon) and specific changes of their species in case of IBS and AAD. The

  10. Tissue-Based MicroRNAs as Predictors of Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy: What Can We Learn from Past Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongwei; Stephan, Carsten; Weickmann, Sabine; Jung, Monika; Kristiansen, Glen; Jung, Klaus

    2017-09-21

    With the increasing understanding of the molecular mechanism of the microRNAs (miRNAs) in prostate cancer (PCa), the predictive potential of miRNAs has received more attention by clinicians and laboratory scientists. Compared with the traditional prognostic tools based on clinicopathological variables, including the prostate-specific antigen, miRNAs may be helpful novel molecular biomarkers of biochemical recurrence for a more accurate risk stratification of PCa patients after radical prostatectomy and may contribute to personalized treatment. Tissue samples from prostatectomy specimens are easily available for miRNA isolation. Numerous studies from different countries have investigated the role of tissue-miRNAs as independent predictors of disease recurrence, either alone or in combination with other clinicopathological factors. For this purpose, a PubMed search was performed for articles published between 2008 and 2017. We compiled a profile of dysregulated miRNAs as potential predictors of biochemical recurrence and discussed their current clinical relevance. Because of differences in analytics, insufficient power and the heterogeneity of studies, and different statistical evaluation methods, limited consistency in results was obvious. Prospective multi-institutional studies with larger sample sizes, harmonized analytics, well-structured external validations, and reasonable study designs are necessary to assess the real prognostic information of miRNAs, in combination with conventional clinicopathological factors, as predictors of biochemical recurrence.

  11. Tissue-Based MicroRNAs as Predictors of Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy: What Can We Learn from Past Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing understanding of the molecular mechanism of the microRNAs (miRNAs in prostate cancer (PCa, the predictive potential of miRNAs has received more attention by clinicians and laboratory scientists. Compared with the traditional prognostic tools based on clinicopathological variables, including the prostate-specific antigen, miRNAs may be helpful novel molecular biomarkers of biochemical recurrence for a more accurate risk stratification of PCa patients after radical prostatectomy and may contribute to personalized treatment. Tissue samples from prostatectomy specimens are easily available for miRNA isolation. Numerous studies from different countries have investigated the role of tissue-miRNAs as independent predictors of disease recurrence, either alone or in combination with other clinicopathological factors. For this purpose, a PubMed search was performed for articles published between 2008 and 2017. We compiled a profile of dysregulated miRNAs as potential predictors of biochemical recurrence and discussed their current clinical relevance. Because of differences in analytics, insufficient power and the heterogeneity of studies, and different statistical evaluation methods, limited consistency in results was obvious. Prospective multi-institutional studies with larger sample sizes, harmonized analytics, well-structured external validations, and reasonable study designs are necessary to assess the real prognostic information of miRNAs, in combination with conventional clinicopathological factors, as predictors of biochemical recurrence.

  12. Network of vascular diseases, death and biochemical characteristics in a set of 4,197 patients with type 1 diabetes (The FinnDiane Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadén Johan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of premature death in patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients with diabetic kidney disease have an increased risk of heart attack or stroke. Accurate knowledge of the complex inter-dependencies between the risk factors is critical for pinpointing the best targets for research and treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the association patterns between clinical and biochemical features of diabetic complications. Methods Medical records and serum and urine samples of 4,197 patients with type 1 diabetes were collected from health care centers in Finland. At baseline, the mean diabetes duration was 22 years, 52% were male, 23% had kidney disease (urine albumin excretion over 300 mg/24 h or end-stage renal disease and 8% had a history of macrovascular events. All-cause mortality was evaluated after an average of 6.5 years of follow-up (25,714 patient years. The dataset comprised 28 clinical and 25 biochemical variables that were regarded as the nodes of a network to assess their mutual relationships. Results The networks contained cliques that were densely inter-connected (r > 0.6, including cliques for high-density lipoprotein (HDL markers, for triglycerides and cholesterol, for urinary excretion and for indices of body mass. The links between the cliques showed biologically relevant interactions: an inverse relationship between HDL cholesterol and the triglyceride clique (r P -16, a connection between triglycerides and body mass via C-reactive protein (r > 0.3, P -16 and intermediate-density cholesterol as the connector between lipoprotein metabolism and albuminuria (r > 0.3, P -16. Aging and macrovascular disease were linked to death via working ability and retinopathy. Diabetic kidney disease, serum creatinine and potassium, retinopathy and blood pressure were inter-connected. Blood pressure correlations indicated accelerated vascular aging in individuals with kidney disease

  13. Long-term integrated studies show complex and surprising effects of climate change in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Groffman; Lindsey Rustad; Pamela H. Templer; John Campbell; Lynn M. Christenson; Nina K. Lany; Anne M. Socci; Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur; Paul Schaberg; Geoffrey F. Wilson; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Christine L. Goodale; Mark B. Green; Steven P. Hamburg; Chris E. Johnson; Myron J. Mitchell; Jennifer L. Morse; Linda H. Pardo; Nicholas L. Rodenhouse

    2012-01-01

    Evaluations of the local effects of global change are often confounded by the interactions of natural and anthropogenic factors that overshadow the effects of climate changes on ecosystems. Long-term watershed and natural elevation gradient studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest and in the surrounding region show surprising results demonstrating the effects...

  14. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  15. A Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre: Talent Shows in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Esser, Andrea; Keinonen, Heidi

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in early 2013. Within the international business model of selling and adapting...... television formats, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, Got Talent, X Factor and, more recently, Voice have sold to a large variety of countries. As an example, Idols alone has been adapted in over 40 territories, covering all...... of the communal viewing experience, real and imagined, national, sub-national and transnational; of identification, and of the meaning that viewers take from the musical talent show genre. (Part of the panel “Television across borders: The local-global nexus”)...

  16. Fitness effects of fluctuations in biochemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanase-Nicola, Sorin

    2009-03-01

    The concentration of many cellular components fluctuates not only as a response to external and internal inputs but also due to random birth and death events of individual molecules. This biochemical noise affects the capacity of every individual cell in a population to respond and adapt to the environment. While the sources and effects of biochemical fluctuations on individual cells have been intensively studied, the effects of noise on the growth rate of a population of cells are much less understood. We present a model of the cell cycle in which the growth and division of individual cells are coupled with the noisy dynamics of their internal components. The model allows us to compute the contribution of the biochemical noise to the average growth rate of a population of cells as a function of the noise strength and the correlation time of the fluctuations. We show that, due to fluctuations, the growth rate of a population of cells is always larger than the average growth rate of a individual cell and can be larger even than a corresponding deterministic model. In most relevant cases it is assumed that the average concentration of a cellular component is close to a value that maximizes the population growth as given by the external, environmental, conditions and the internal cellular regulation. In such cases we show that contribution of fluctuations to the growth rate is negative and increases with the sensitivity of the biochemical networks to the noise sources and the noise correlation time. We also discuss how the selection pressure due to fluctuations affects the structure and parameters of genetic regulatory networks.

  17. Allowable warm ischemic time and morphological and biochemical changes in uterine ischemia/reperfusion injury in cynomolgus macaque: a basic study for uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Umene, Kiyoko; Adachi, Masataka; Emoto, Katsura; Nogami, Yuya; Banno, Kouji; Itagaki, Iori; Kawamoto, Ikuo; Nakagawa, Takahiro; Narita, Hayato; Yoshida, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Aoki, Daisuke

    2017-10-01

    How long is the allowable warm ischemic time of the uterus and what morphological and biochemical changes are caused by uterine ischemia/reperfusion injury in cynomolgus macaques? Warm ischemia in the uterus of cynomolgus macaques is tolerated for up to 4 h and reperfusion after uterine ischemia caused no further morphological and biochemical changes. Uterus transplantation is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility. The allowable warm ischemic time and ischemia/reperfusion injury of the uterus in humans and non-human primates is unknown. This experimental study included 18 female cynomolgus macaques with periodic menstruation. Animals were divided into six groups of three monkeys each: a control group and groups with uterine ischemia for 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h. Biopsies of uterine tissues were performed before blood flow blockage, after each blockage time, and after reperfusion for 3 h. Blood sampling was performed after each blockage time, and after reperfusion for 5, 15 and 30 min for measurement of biochemical data. Resumption of menstruation was monitored after the surgical procedure. Morphological, physiological and biochemical changes after ischemia and reperfusion were evaluated. Mild muscle degeneration and zonal degeneration were observed in all animals subjected to warm ischemia for 4 or 8 h, but there were no marked differences in the appearance of specimens immediately after ischemia and after reperfusion for 3 h in animals subjected to 4 or 8 h of warm ischemia. There were no significant changes in any biochemical parameters at any time point in each group. Periodical menstruation resumed in all animals with warm ischemia up to 4 h, but did not recover in animals with warm ischemia for 8 h with atrophic uteri. Warm ischemia in actual transplantation was not exactly mimicked in this study because uteri were not perfused, cooled, transplanted or reanastomosed with vessels. Results in non-human primates cannot always be extrapolated to

  18. Biochemical Study on the Effect of Aloe vera (Latex and Leaves) as a Dietary Supplement to Rats Exposed to Gamma Radiation and/or Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltahawy, N. A.; Saada, H.N.; Sayed, R.M.; Abdallah, N.M.; Abdel Hamid, F. F.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) and/or gamma (γ) - radiation (IR), are neuro toxicant, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuro degenerative disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective role of Aloe Vera Latex and Leaves (AV) as natural antioxidant on exposure of Al and/or IR-induced brain oxidative damage and toxicity. A total of forty-eight healthy adult male rats were divided into eight groups: Group (control), Group II (AV alone 200 mg/kg body weight orally daily for 4 weeks), Group III (irradiated 8Gy; 2Gy/ week for 4 weeks), Group IV(Both irradiated and AV treated), Group V(Al-sulphate alone, 0.2 mg/ kg body weight orally daily for 4 weeks), Group VI (Both AV and Al- sulphate treated), Group VII (Both irradiated and Al-sulphate treated) and Group VIII (irradiated and both AV and Al-sulphate treated). The results of the present study clearly indicated that Al-sulphate and/or γ-radiation have significantly altered the normal levels of aluminum, Lipid peroxides, monoamines neurotransmitters; serotonin and its metabolite and glutathione levels of rat brain. The activity of brain antioxidant enzymes were found to be highly decreased associated with significant increase in monoamine oxidase activity in both the aluminum and irradiated treated groups. Severe changes were observed after combined exposure to radiation and Al-sulphate showing synergistic effect. Treatment with A. vera revealed an improvement in the neurological damage induced by Al-sulphate and/or radiation as indicated by improvement in most of the biochemical markers. In conclusion A. vera appears to have protective role against the synergistic action of aluminium and/or radiation induced brain toxicity

  19. Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anshuman; Nizammuddin, Sheikh; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Singh, Sakshi; Prakash, Satya; Siddiqui, Niyamat Ali; Rai, Niraj; Carlus, S Justin; Sudhakar, Digumarthi V S; Tripathi, Vishnu P; Möls, Märt; Kim-Howard, Xana; Dewangan, Hemlata; Mishra, Abhishek; Reddy, Alla G; Roy, Biswajit; Pandey, Krishna; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Das, Pradeep; Nath, Swapan K; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2017-03-01

    Our understanding of the genetics of skin pigmentation has been largely skewed towards populations of European ancestry, imparting less attention to South Asian populations, who behold huge pigmentation diversity. Here, we investigate skin pigmentation variation in a cohort of 1,167 individuals in the Middle Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent. Our data confirm the association of rs1426654 with skin pigmentation among South Asians, consistent with previous studies, and also show association for rs2470102 single nucleotide polymorphism. Our haplotype analyses further help us delineate the haplotype distribution across social categories and skin color. Taken together, our findings suggest that the social structure defined by the caste system in India has a profound influence on the skin pigmentation patterns of the subcontinent. In particular, social category and associated single nucleotide polymorphisms explain about 32% and 6.4%, respectively, of the total phenotypic variance. Phylogeography of the associated single nucleotide polymorphisms studied across 52 diverse populations of the Indian subcontinent shows wide presence of the derived alleles, although their frequencies vary across populations. Our results show that both polymorphisms (rs1426654 and rs2470102) play an important role in the skin pigmentation diversity of South Asians. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies the alterations of biochemical and mineral contents in bone tissue of mus musculus due to aluminum toxicity and the protective action of desferrioxamine and deferiprone by FTIR, ICP-OES, SEM and XRD techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J

    2014-05-21

    The present study has attempt to analyze the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of aluminum intoxicated bone and determine the protective action of desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP) by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques for four groups of animals such as control (Group I), aluminum intoxicated (Group II), Al+DFP (Group III) and Al+DFO+DFP (Group IV) treated groups respectively. The FTIR spectra of the aluminum intoxicated bone showed significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The bands ratio at I1400/I877 significantly decreased from control to aluminum, but enhanced it by Al+DFP to Al+DFO+DFP treated bone tissue for treatments of 16 weeks. This result suggests that DFO and DFP are the carbonate inhibitor, recovered from chronic growth of bone diseases and pathologies. The alteration of proteins profile indicated by Amide I and Amide II, where peak area values decreased from control to aluminum respectively, but enhanced by treated with DFP (p.o.) and DFO+DFP (i.p.) respectively. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to aluminum toxicity. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the aluminum exposed bone were less than those of the control group, and enhanced by treatments with DFO and DFP. The concentrations of trace elements were found by ICP-OES. Therefore, present study suggests that due to aluminum toxicity severe loss of bone minerals, decrease in the biochemical constituents and changes in the surface morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in the structure and function of the kidney of rats chronically exposed to cadmium. I. Biochemical and histopathological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina [Department of Toxicology, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2c str., 15-222, Bialystok (Poland); Kaminski, Marcin; Supernak-Bobko, Dorota [Department of Histology and Embryology, Silesian School of Medicine, Medykow 20, 40-752, Katowice-Ligota (Poland); Zwierz, Krzysztof [Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2A, 15-222, Bialystok (Poland)

    2003-06-01

    We have created an experimental model using rats intoxicated with Cd administered in drinking water at the concentration of 5 or 50 mg Cd/l for 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The degree of kidney damage was evaluated biochemically and histopathologically. Sensitive biomarkers of Cd-induced proximal tubular injury such as urinary total N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase (NAG-T) and its isoenzyme B (NAG-B), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used. Cd content in the kidney increased with the level and duration of exposure leading to dose- and time-dependent structural and functional renal failure. In rats exposed to 5 mg Cd/l, first symptoms of injury of the main tubules of long and short nephrons (structural damage to epithelial cells, increased urinary activities of NAG-T and NAG-B) were noted after 12 weeks of the experiment. The damage occurred at a low kidney Cd concentration amounting to 4.08{+-}0.33 {mu}g/g wet weight (mean {+-}SE) and a urinary concentration of 4.31{+-}0.28 {mu}g/g creatinine. On exposure to 50 mg Cd/l, damage to the main tubules (blurred structure of tubular epithelium, atrophy of brush border, partial fragmentation of cells with release of nuclei into tubular lumen as well as increased urinary activities of NAG-T, NAG-B and ALP) was already evident after 6 week s with the kidney Cd concentration of 24.09{+-}1.72 {mu}g/g wet weight. In rats exposed to 50 mg Cd/l, a lack of regular contour of glomeruli was noted after 12 weeks, whereas after 24 weeks thickening of capillary vessels and widening of filtering space were evident. After 24 weeks of exposure to Cd, increased urea concentration in the serum with simultaneous decrease in its level in the urine, indicating decreased clearance of urea, and increased excretion of total protein were observed, but endogenous creatinine clearance remained unaffected. At the lower exposure, symptoms of structural, but not functional, damage to the glomeruli were also evident after 24 weeks of the experiment. Our

  2. Explorations into Chemical Reactions and Biochemical Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-12-01

    A brief overview of the work in the research group of the present author on extracting knowledge from chemical reaction data is presented. Methods have been developed to calculate physicochemical effects at the reaction site. It is shown that these physicochemical effects can quite favourably be used to derive equations for the calculation of data on gas phase reactions and on reactions in solution such as aqueous acidity of alcohols or carboxylic acids or the hydrolysis of amides. Furthermore, it is shown that these physicochemical effects are quite effective for assigning reactions into reaction classes that correspond to chemical knowledge. Biochemical reactions constitute a particularly interesting and challenging task for increasing our understanding of living species. The BioPath.Database is a rich source of information on biochemical reactions and has been used for a variety of applications of chemical, biological, or medicinal interests. Thus, it was shown that biochemical reactions can be assigned by the physicochemical effects into classes that correspond to the classification of enzymes by the EC numbers. Furthermore, 3D models of reaction intermediates can be used for searching for novel enzyme inhibitors. It was shown in a combined application of chemoinformatics and bioinformatics that essential pathways of diseases can be uncovered. Furthermore, a study showed that bacterial flavor-forming pathways can be discovered. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Clinical and biochemical effects of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese and diabetic patients: a pilot open study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Adamczyk, Przemysław; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Giannitti, Chiara; Urso, Renato; Tołodziecki, Michał; Ponikowska, Irena

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type 2 diabetes. Spa therapy has long been used for treating obesity and its comorbidities. Enlargement of adipose tissue has been linked to a dysregulation of adipokine secretion and adipose tissue inflammation. Adipokines are currently investigated as potential drug targets in these conditions. Our primary aim was to assess the clinical efficacy of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes. The secondary aim was to examine whether this combined program influences the response of serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Fifty obese males were enrolled and 21 of these featured a type 2 diabetes. During the 3-week period of the study, the patients were on a 1,000-kcal diet and were involved in mineral bath and total body's mud-pack applications (15 procedures). Patients were assessed at baseline and at the end of the therapy for clinical and biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemia, and adipokines). We showed that a 3-week program of spa therapy in obese patients induced significant decrease of body weight, body mass index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycemia, and serum levels of leptin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. So, a cycle of mud-bath therapy associated with a controlled diet may be a promising treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes decreasing body weight and many risk factors for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.

  4. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormali- ties was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39 ...

  5. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  6. Diversity in Biochemical Characteristics and Antibiotics Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out on one hundred and fifty poultry isolates of Escherichia coli using Microscan® Dried Gram-negative Breakpoint Combo Pannels. The microscan panel analysed bacterial isolates for 24 biochemical tests and 23 to 25 antimicrobial agents following ...

  7. Noise exposure in movie theaters: a preliminary study of sound levels during the showing of 25 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszawa, Anna; Sataloff, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The harmful effects of noise exposure during leisure-time activities are beginning to receive some scrutiny. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the noise levels during the showings of 25 different films. During each screening, various sound measurements were made with a dosimeter. The movies were classified on the basis of both their Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and their genre, and the size of the theater and the size of the audience were taken into consideration in the final analysis. Our findings suggest that the sound levels of many movies might be harmful to hearing, although we can draw no definitive conclusions. We did not discern any relationship between noise levels and either MPAA rating or genre. Further studies are recommended.

  8. Whole blood DNA aberrant methylation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma shows association with the course of the disease: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertas Dauksa

    Full Text Available Pancreatic tumors are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage in the progression of the disease, thus reducing the survival chances of the patients. Non-invasive early detection would greatly enhance therapy and survival rates. Toward this aim, we investigated in a pilot study the power of methylation changes in whole blood as predictive markers for the detection of pancreatic tumors. We investigated methylation levels at selected CpG sites in the CpG rich regions at the promoter regions of p16, RARbeta, TNFRSF10C, APC, ACIN1, DAPK1, 3OST2, BCL2 and CD44 in the blood of 30 pancreatic tumor patients and in the blood of 49 matching controls. In addition, we studied LINE-1 and Alu repeats using degenerate amplification approach as a surrogate marker for genome-wide methylation. The site-specific methylation measurements at selected CpG sites were done by the SIRPH method. Our results show that in the patient's blood, tumor suppressor genes were slightly but significantly higher methylated at several CpG sites, while repeats were slightly less methylated compared to control blood. This was found to be significantly associated with higher risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Additionally, high methylation levels at TNFRSCF10C were associated with positive perineural spread of tumor cells, while higher methylation levels of TNFRSF10C and ACIN1 were significantly associated with shorter survival. This pilot study shows that methylation changes in blood could provide a promising method for early detection of pancreatic tumors. However, larger studies must be carried out to explore the clinical usefulness of a whole blood methylation based test for non-invasive early detection of pancreatic tumors.

  9. Study of seasonal variation biochemical parameters of rodents and lagomorphs from the Vivarium of the Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Osti Spinelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Spinelli M.O., da Cruz R.J., de Godoy C.M.S.C., Motta M.C. & Damy S.B. [Study of seasonal variation biochemical parameters of rodents and lagomorphs from the Vivarium of the Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.] Estudo da variação sazonal dos parâmetros bioquímicos de roedores e lagomorfos do biotério da Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:219-225, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina, Divisão Técnica de Apoio ao Ensino e Pesquisa, Biotério Central, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo, 455, Cerqueira César, São Paulo, SP 01246-903, Brasil. E-mail: marilda@biot.fm.usp.br This work aimed to study the seasonal variation of the biochemical parameters of mice inbred BALB / c and C57BL / 6 mice, rats and rabbits New Zealand, the Vivarium of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo. Which is its clinical significance, assessing the analytes plasma ALT (alanine aminotransferase, AST (aspartate aminotransaminase, urea, urea-BUN (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol and fractions VLDL (very low density lipoprotein, HDL (high density lipoprotein and LDL (low density lipoprotein? The results showed an increase in concentrations of analytes, statistical significance, especially in summer. The hypotheses that causes nutritional, infectious, water stress or climatic variations did not affect them, suggesting that to assess the health status of colonies of laboratory animals, biochemical parameters must be considered within the range of variation expected for each colony under study.

  10. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

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    Yu-Mei Chang

    Full Text Available The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species.

  11. Biochemical studies with bi-resistant mutants (ethambutol plus streptomycin and isoniazid plus streptomycin) of Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 607

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwar, Kavita; Khuller, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Biochemical characteristics of bi-resistant mutants (resistant to ethambutol plus streptomycin or isoniazid plus streptomycin) of mycobacteria isolated by replica plating from Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC were compared with those of the drug-susceptible strains. Reduced incorporation of ( 14 C)uracil, ( 3 H)lysine and ( 14 C)acetate into RNA, protein and phospholipids respectively was seen in the resistant mutants. Total phospholipids were enhanced in ethambutol plus streptomycin resistant mutant and decreased in ioniazid plus streptomycin resistant mutant. There were similar changes in levels of individual phospholipids. The resistant mutants revealed an accumulation of phospholipids in the cell wall, and a marked decrease of phospholipids in the cell memebrane in comparison to the susceptible strain. Several qualitative alterations in the polypeptide profile (with respect to number and molecular weight) of the crude protein extract and of different subcellular compartments were seen in the resistant mutants. (author). 35 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Focal salvage iodine-125 brachytherapy for prostate cancer recurrences after primary radiotherapy: A retrospective study regarding toxicity, biochemical outcome and quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Max; Maenhout, Metha; Voort van Zyp, Jochem R.N. van der; Moerland, Marinus A.; Moman, Maaike R.; Steuten, Lotte M.G.; Deursen, Marijke J.H. van; Vulpen, Marco van

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Whole-gland salvage for recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) shows high failure and toxicity rates. Early and adequate localization of recurrences enables focal salvage, thereby potentially improving functional outcomes, while maintaining cancer control. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis yielded 20 focal salvage I125 brachytherapy patients for locally recurrent PCa after primary radiotherapy. Tumor was defined by multiparametric MRI and correspondence with transrectal biopsies. Dose data were obtained intra-operatively. The tumor was prescribed ⩾144 Gy. Toxicity was scored by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4 (CTCAE-4). Biochemical failure (BF) was defined using the Phoenix criteria (PSA-nadir + 2.0 ng/ml). Quality of life (QoL) was measured by SF-36 Health Survey and European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) C30+3 and PR25 questionnaires. Results: With a median follow-up of 36 months (range 10–45), six patients experienced BF, of which three had no initial response. Grade 3 genitourinary (GU) toxicity occurred in one patient (a urethral stricture). The five previously potent patients retained erectile function. QoL remained decreased with regard to urinary symptoms. Conclusion: Focal salvage I125 brachytherapy showed one grade 3 GU toxicity in the 20 treated patients. Biochemical response and QoL were acceptable

  13. Novel Aldo-Keto Reductases for the Biocatalytic Conversion of 3-Hydroxybutanal to 1,3-Butanediol: Structural and Biochemical Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taeho; Flick, Robert; Brunzelle, Joseph; Singer, Alex; Evdokimova, Elena; Brown, Greg; Joo, Jeong Chan; Minasov, George A.; Anderson, Wayne F.; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F. (KRICT); (Toronto); (NWU)

    2017-01-27

    The nonnatural alcohol 1,3-butanediol (1,3-BDO) is a valuable building block for the synthesis of various polymers. One of the potential pathways for the biosynthesis of 1,3-BDO includes the biotransformation of acetaldehyde to 1,3-BDO via 3-hydroxybutanal (3-HB) using aldolases and aldo-keto reductases (AKRs). This pathway requires an AKR selective for 3-HB, but inactive toward acetaldehyde, so it can be used for one-pot synthesis. In this work, we screened more than 20 purified uncharacterized AKRs for 3-HB reduction and identified 10 enzymes with significant activity and nine proteins with detectable activity. PA1127 fromPseudomonas aeruginosashowed the highest activity and was selected for comparative studies with STM2406 fromSalmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium, for which we have determined the crystal structure. Both AKRs used NADPH as a cofactor, reduced a broad range of aldehydes, and showed low activities toward acetaldehyde. The crystal structures of STM2406 in complex with cacodylate or NADPH revealed the active site with bound molecules of a substrate mimic or cofactor. Site-directed mutagenesis of STM2406 and PA1127 identified the key residues important for the activity against 3-HB and aromatic aldehydes, which include the residues of the substrate-binding pocket and C-terminal loop. Our results revealed that the replacement of the STM2406 Asn65 by Met enhanced the activity and the affinity of this protein toward 3-HB, resulting in a 7-fold increase inkcat/Km. Our work provides further insights into the molecular mechanisms of the substrate selectivity of AKRs and for the rational design of these enzymes toward new substrates.

    IMPORTANCEIn this study, we identified several aldo-keto reductases with significant activity in reducing 3

  14. Evaluation of clinical and metabolic changes after non surgical periodontal treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: A clinico biochemical study

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    Kudva Praveen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the clinical and metabolic changes following nonsurgical periodontal therapy of type-2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Fifteen nondiabetics and fifteen type-2 diabetics with moderate to severe periodontitis were selected after meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. Periodontal pocket probing was performed using a Williams graduated periodontal probe and comparisons of the clinical and biochemical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein were done between and within two groups at baseline and 3 month. Results: A correlation was observed between clinical and biochemical parameters between and within two groups at baseline and 3 month. The P value of diabetic group was<0.001 in all clinical parameters (plaque index PI, Gingival index GI, and Probing Pocket Depth PPD in diabetic and nondiabetic group, showed statistically highly significant difference in GI, PI, PPD, <.01 in Glycated Hemoglobulin (HbAlc1 in test group and<0.05 in control group showed statistically significant difference. The P value of test group was >0.05 in Lipid profile (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, serum triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein that showed no significant difference and in control group<0.05 in total Cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and <0.01 in Low density lipoprotein, Very Low Density Lipoprotein, and Serum Triglyceride, respectively, showed statistically significant in Total cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein, Very Low Density Lipoprotein, and Serum Triglyceride, not significant in high density lipoprotein. The P value >0.05 showed no statistical significance of correlation between the test and control groups. Conclusion: Both groups of patients showed an improvement in clinical and

  15. Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Laurinavichius, K S

    1998-01-01

    Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

  16. Dactylifera L) on the biochemical indicators of lead poisoning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the biochemical parameters. Thus, the treatment by the pectin of dates reduced the high concentration of these parameters. Our results show that the pectins of dates may have a corrective effect on the biochemical disturbances induced by the lead. Keywords: Phoenix Dactylifera, Pectin, Lead, Biochemical parameters ...

  17. The potential impact of biochemical mediators on telomere attrition in major depressive disorder and implications for future study designs: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoliu, Andrei; Bosch, Oliver G; Brakowski, Janis; Brühl, Annette B; Seifritz, Erich

    2018-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been proposed to represent a "disease of premature aging", which is associated with certain biomarkers of cellular ageing and numerous other age-related diseases. Over the last decade, telomere length (TL) arose as a surrogate for cellular aging. Recent data suggests that TL might be reduced in patients with MDD, however, results are still inconclusive. This might be explained by the lack of assessment of potential biochemical mediators that are directly associated with telomere shortening and frequently observed in patients with MDD. A narrative review was performed. The PubMed database was searched for relevant studies. We identified four major mediators, which are recurrently reported in patients with MDD and are associated with reduced TL: inflammation/oxidative stress, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic dysbalance including insulin resistance, and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These mediators are also mutually associated and were not systematically assessed in current studies investigating TL and MDD, which might explain inconclusive findings across current literature. Finally, we discuss possible ways to assess those mediators and potential implications of such approaches for future research. The majority of identified studies had cross-sectional designs and used heterogeneous methods to assess TL and associated relevant biochemical mediators. A better understanding of the complex interactions between biochemical mediators, somatic comorbidities and shortened telomeres in patients with MDD might further specify the pathophysiology-based conceptualization and, based on that, personalized treatment of MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Soft tissue recurrent ameloblastomas also show some malignant features: A clinicopathological study of a 15-year database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zitong; Sun, Guowen; Hu, Qingang; Chen, Fei; Wen, Shanhui

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the clinicopathological features of six cases of soft tissue recurrent ameloblastoma and explore the role of increased aggressive biological behavior in the recurrences and treatment of this type of ameloblastomas. Material and Methods In this study, we retrospectively reviewed recurrent ameloblastomas during a 15-year period; six cases were diagnosed as soft tissue recurrent ameloblastoma. The clinical, radiographic, cytological and immunohistochemical records of these six cases were investigated and analyzed. Results All the six soft tissue recurrent ameloblastomas occurred after radical bone resection, and were located in the adjacent soft tissues around the osteotomy regions. In Case 4, the patient developed pulmonary metastasis, extensive skull-base infiltration and cytological malignancy after multiple recurrences and malignant transformation was diagnosed. In the other five cases, although there were no cytological signs are sufficient to justify an ameloblastoma as malignant, some malignant features were observed. In Case 1, the tumor showed moderate atypical hyperplasia and the Ki-67 staining percentage was 40% positive, which are strongly suggestive of potential malignance. In Case 5, the patient developed a second soft tissue recurrence in the parapharyngeal region and later died of tumor-related complications. All the remaining three patients showed cytology atypia of varying degrees and high expression of PCNA or Ki-67, which confirmed active cell proliferation. Conclusions Increased aggressiveness is an important factor of soft tissue recurrence. An intraoperative rapid pathological examination and more radical treatment are suggested for these cases. Key words: Ameloblastoma, soft tissue recurrence, aggressive biological behaviour. PMID:25662548

  19. Retrospective cohort study shows that the risks for retinopathy of prematurity included birth age and weight, medical conditions and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliaa A; Gomaa, Nancy A S; Awadein, Ahmed R; Al-Hayouti, Huda H; Hegazy, Ahmed I

    2017-12-01

    This study described the characteristics and risk factors of neonates who developed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and severe treatable ROP in two Egyptian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This retrospective cohort study comprised 108 preterm neonates who were screened for ROP after being admitted to the two NICUs run by Cairo University Hospital from June 2014 to May 2015. Patients were examined using digital fundus photography and indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed if ROP was detected. Retinopathy of prematurity occurred in 75 patients. Late-onset sepsis, ventilation and hypercapnia were independently associated with ROP. Patients who developed severe treatable ROP had a younger gestational age (GA) than patients who did not develop ROP or developed mild or moderate ROP (29 weeks, range 27-33 weeks versus 32 weeks, range 28-36 weeks, p = 0.002) and a lower birthweight (1200 g, range 980-1590 g versus 1460 g, range 770-2475 g, p = 0.029). The risk factors associated with severe treatable ROP included the duration of admission, the duration of incubator oxygen, late-onset sepsis, intraventricular haemorrhage, total parenteral nutrition and the duration of caffeine citrate therapy. This study showed that the risks for ROP were wide-ranging and included GA and weight, medical conditions and treatment. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Chronic fatigue syndrome: biochemical examination of blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakariya, Yukiko; Kuratsune, Hirohiko

    2007-06-01

    Though patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have lots of complaints, abnormal findings cannot be detected by biochemical screening tests. However, some specialized blood tests have revealed neuroendocrine immune axis abnormalities, which is closely associated with each other. Recent studies indicate that CFS can be understood as a special condition based on abnormality of the psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunological system, with the distinguishing feature of CFS seeming to be the secondary brain dysfunction caused by several cytokines and/or autoantibodies. In this paper, we summarize these abnormalities found in CFS and show the neuro-molecular mechanism leading to chronic fatigue.

  1. Micromagnetic, rockmagnetic and mineralogical studies on Dacitic Pumice from the Pinatubo Eruption (1991, Phillipines) Showing self-reversed TRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, V.; Fehr, K. Th.

    Detailed micromagnetic, rockmagnetic and mineralogical investigations on dacitic pumice from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (1991, Phillipines) showing reversed NRM/TRM are presented. Two intergrown hemoilmenite-phases in chemically zoned particles were detected as being responsible: a rim-(or covering) phase consisting of a weak-ferromagnetic (disordered) hemoilmenite phase (low saturation magnetization but magnetically hard like hematite, FeTiO3 content 53-57 mol percent) and a core-phase consisting of a ferrimagnetic (ordered) hemoilmenite phase (high saturation magnetization but magnetically softer, constant FeTiO3 content ≈ 58 mol percent). Preliminary studies were carried out in order to elucidate the magnetic interactions (possibly exchange coupling) responsible for the self-reversal of the NRM/TRM. A preliminary and schematic model is presented which summarizes the main points of acquisition of a self-reversed TRM according to our results.

  2. Following Musical Shows: A Study with Focal Groups on Satisfaction of Musical Concerts Regular Visitors and Socialization between Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúmia Massa Garcia Pires

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to identify which attributes impact more significantly on the satisfaction of concerts’ regular visitors and socialization between them when inserted in these kinds of events. Thus, we used a qualitative methodology, performing focus groups. Among the main results of this study, we found, regarding satisfaction of concerts’ visitors, the attributes that most influence the public are related to services - especially for beverage supply, cleaning of bathrooms and lines formed inside the event - organization, show infrastructure and performance artists. Furthermore, considering the socialization of the visitors, we found that most respondents often go to concerts together with other people, but some did not exclude the possibility to attend the concerts alone when it comes to a familiar artist.

  3. Ethical Disputes and Public Service Televison. Case Study: Otvoreno Political Talk Show, Broadcasted on 21st of January, 2010

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    Gordana Škaljac Narančić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ratings of the television programs as well as commercial effects become crucial measures of the media success and journalists’ efficiency neglecting minimal ethical standards. The profit maximisation logic and mere survival in times of the economic crisis also has the impact on preserving the sensitive ethical standards. In this respect, the television, as the most influential medium, especially public television, has the biggest responsibility. Violation of the ethical norms on public television means that it does not fulfil its key role – the role of public service. In important cases of the violation of ethical rules, the lack of clear responses of the regulators is the other side of the problem. The case study in this text shows us how easy it is to turn to the contempt of the professional journalistic standards and, consequently, ethical norms. This leads us to think how difficult is today to remain professional and ethical in times of the tangible commercialism and sensationalism.

  4. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Bach Knudsen, Knud E.; Serena, Anja

    2006-01-01

    This study presents an NMR-based metabonomic approach to elucidate the overall endogenous biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet. Two diets with similar levels of dietary fibre and macronutrients, but with contrasting levels of wholegrain ingredients, were prepared from wholegrain rye (wholegrain...... diet (WGD)) and non-wholegrain wheat (non-wholegrain diet (NWD)) and fed to four pigs in a crossover design. Plasma samples were collected after 7 d on each diet, and 1H NMR spectra were acquired on these. Partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) on spectra obtained for plasma...

  5. Complex mixtures of dissolved pesticides show potential aquatic toxicity in a synoptic study of Midwestern U.S. streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Norman, Julia E.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Shoda, Megan E.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Stone, Wesley W.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle L.

    2018-01-01

    Aquatic organisms in streams are exposed to pesticide mixtures that vary in composition over time in response to changes in flow conditions, pesticide inputs to the stream, and pesticide fate and degradation within the stream. To characterize mixtures of dissolved-phase pesticides and degradates in Midwestern streams, a synoptic study was conducted at 100 streams during May–August 2013. In weekly water samples, 94 pesticides and 89 degradates were detected, with a median of 25 compounds detected per sample and 54 detected per site. In a screening-level assessment using aquatic-life benchmarks and the Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI), potential effects on fish were unlikely in most streams. For invertebrates, potential chronic toxicity was predicted in 53% of streams, punctuated in 12% of streams by acutely toxic exposures. For aquatic plants, acute but likely reversible effects on biomass were predicted in 75% of streams, with potential longer-term effects on plant communities in 9% of streams. Relatively few pesticides in water—atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, imidacloprid, fipronil, organophosphate insecticides, and carbendazim—were predicted to be major contributors to potential toxicity. Agricultural streams had the highest potential for effects on plants, especially in May–June, corresponding to high spring-flush herbicide concentrations. Urban streams had higher detection frequencies and concentrations of insecticides and most fungicides than in agricultural streams, and higher potential for invertebrate toxicity, which peaked during July–August. Toxicity-screening predictions for invertebrates were supported by quantile regressions showing significant associations for the Benthic Invertebrate-PTI and imidacloprid concentrations with invertebrate community metrics for MSQA streams, and by mesocosm toxicity testing with imidacloprid showing effects on invertebrate communities at environmentally relevant concentrations. This study documents the most

  6. Genetic cytological and biochemical study of a tomato chlorophyll mutant of the xanthic type, obtained by irradiation of the seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, M.; Duranton, J.; Galmiche, J.M.; Roux, E.

    1958-01-01

    Irradiation of Lycopersicum aesculantum seeds with increasing doses of X-rays and thermal neutrons leads to the appearance of chlorophyll mutations in the descendants of the irradiated seeds. A genetic study of one of these mutants of the xanthic type showed that it was a recessive mutant with typical mono-genetic separation, while the cytological study demonstrated that the differentiation of the plast stopped at the stage of elementary lamella. Finally it is shown that in the light, the mutation brings about a very large deviation of the carbon metabolism towards the synthesis of amino acids and proteins, at the expense of that of glucosides. (author) [fr

  7. National data study showed that adolescents living in poorer households and with one parent were more likely to be bullied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, S B; Fransson, E; Modin, B; Östberg, V

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether sociodemographic household characteristics were associated with which Swedish adolescents were more likely to be bullied. The data were derived from the Swedish Living Conditions Survey and its child supplements from the survey years 2008-2011. The analyses included information on 3951 adolescents aged 10-18 years. Exposure to bullying was reported by adolescents, and information on sociodemographic household characteristics was reported by parents and obtained from official registers. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data. Adolescents were more likely to be bullied if they lived in households with no cash margin, defined as the ability to pay an unexpected bill of 8000 Swedish Kronor or about 800 Euros, and if they lived with just one custodial parent. In the unadjusted analyses, elevated risks were identified if adolescents lived in working class households and had unemployed and foreign-born parents. However, these associations were at least partly accounted for by other sociodemographic household characteristics, in particular the lack of a cash margin. This study showed that Swedish adolescents living in households with more limited financial resources had an increased risk of being bullied, supporting results from previous international research. ©2017 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  8. Cefepime shows good efficacy and no antibiotic resistance in pneumonia caused by Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis - an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2016-03-23

    Many antibiotics have no effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbes, which necessitates the prescription of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that can lead to increased risk of antibiotic resistance. These pathogens constitute a further threat because they are also resistant to numerous beta-lactam antibiotics, as well as other antibiotic groups. This study retrospectively investigates antimicrobial resistance in hospitalized patients suffering from pneumonia triggered by Gram-negative Serratia marcescens or Proteus mirabilis. The demographic and clinical data analyzed in this study were obtained from the clinical databank of the HELIOS Clinic, Witten/Herdecke University, Wuppertal, Germany, for inpatients presenting with pneumonia triggered by S. marcescens or P. mirabilis from 2004 to 2014. An antibiogram was conducted for the antibiotics utilized as part of the management of patients with pneumonia triggered by these two pathogens. Pneumonia was caused by Gram-negative bacteria in 115 patients during the study period from January 1, 2004, to August 12, 2014. Of these, 43 (37.4 %) hospitalized patients [26 males (60.5 %, 95 % CI 45.9 %-75.1 %) and 17 females (39.5 %, 95 % CI 24.9 %-54.1 %)] with mean age of 66.2 ± 13.4 years had pneumonia triggered by S. marcescens, while 20 (17.4 %) patients [14 males (70 %, 95 % CI 49.9 %-90.1 %) and 6 females (30 %, 95 % CI 9.9 %-50.1 %)] with a mean age of 64.6 ± 12.8 years had pneumonia caused by P. mirabilis. S. marcescens showed an increased antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (100 %), ampicillin-sulbactam (100 %), and cefuroxime (100 %). P. mirabilis had a high resistance to tetracycline (100 %) and ampicillin (55 %). S. marcescens (P marcescens and P. mirabilis were resistant to several commonly used antimicrobial agents, but showed no resistance to cefepime.

  9. Inhibition and Biochemical Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Shikimate Dehydrogenase: An in Silico and Kinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Avitia-Domínguez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus auerus (MRSA strains are having a major impact worldwide, and due to their resistance to all β-lactams, an urgent need for new drugs is emerging. In this regard, the shikimate pathway is considered to be one of the metabolic features of bacteria and is absent in humans. Therefore enzymes involved in this route, such as shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH, are considered excellent targets for discovery of novel antibacterial drugs. In this study, the SDH from MRSA (SaSDH was characterized. The results showed that the enzyme is a monomer with a molecular weight of 29 kDa, an optimum temperature of 65 °C, and a maximal pH range of 9–11 for its activity. Kinetic studies revealed that SDH showed Michaelis-Menten kinetics toward both substrates (shikimate and NADP+. Initial velocity analysis suggested that SaSDH catalysis followed a sequential random mechanism. Additionally, a tridimensional model of SaSDH was obtained by homology modeling and validated. Through virtual screening three inhibitors of SaSDH were found (compounds 238, 766 and 894 and their inhibition constants and mechanism were obtained. Flexible docking studies revealed that these molecules make interactions with catalytic residues. The data of this study could serve as starting point in the search of new chemotherapeutic agents against MRSA.

  10. Biochemical and pathological studies on the effects of levamisole and chlorambucil on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhry S. Salem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinicopathological studies on the effects of combining immunostimulant drugs (levamisole with anti-cancer drugs (chlorambucil revealed the enhancement of the latter against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice and resulted in a reduction in the size of tumour. An evaluation of liver and kidney functions showed a significant increase of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST and creatinine in all groups. Histopathological studies of one group that received an intraperitoneal injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (2.5 × 106 showed that hepatic parenchyma revealed degenerative changes. The portal area was oedematous and showed rounded cell aggregations. Cell death within hypertrophied Kupper cells was observed in some hepatic cells. The neoplastic emboli could be seen either inside blood vessels or hepatic sinusoids, while another group which had been treated orally with a combination of Leukeran™ (0.2 mg/kg body weight and levamisole (5 mg/kg body weight revealed that hepatic parenchyma revealed massive necrosis with proliferative bile duct epithelium. No neoplastic cells were observed without the hepatic parenchyma, while the renal cortex presented a large number of lymphocytes and plasma cells forming bands or aggregates, mainly around the blood vessels. It was concluded that the addition of levamisole to chlorambucil improved the anti-cancer effect of chlorambucil against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. However, it had adverse effects on the liver and kidneys as shown by liver and kidney function tests and confirmed by histopathology.

  11. Clinical and biomarker changes in premanifest Huntington disease show trial feasibility: a decade of the PREDICT-HD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane S Paulsen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing consensus that intervention and treatment of Huntington disease (HD should occur at the earliest stage possible. Various early-intervention methods for this fatal neurodegenerative disease have been identified, but preventive clinical trials for HD are limited by a lack of knowledge of the natural history of the disease and a dearth of appropriate outcome measures. Objectives of the current study are to document the natural history of premanifest HD progression in the largest cohort ever studied and to develop a battery of imaging and clinical markers of premanifest HD progression that can be used as outcome measures in preventive clinical trials. PREDICT-HD is a 32-site, international, observational study of premanifest HD, with annual examination of 1013 participants with premanifest HD and 301 gene-expansion negative controls between 2001 and 2012. Findings document 39 variables representing imaging, motor, cognitive, functional, and psychiatric domains, showing different rates of decline between premanifest Huntington disease and controls. Required sample size and models of premanifest HD are presented to inform future design of clinical and preclinical research. Preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD with participants who have a medium or high probability of motor onset are calculated to be as resource-effective as those conducted in diagnosed HD and could interrupt disease seven to twelve years earlier. Methods and measures for preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD more than a dozen years from motor onset are also feasible. These findings represent the most thorough documentation of a clinical battery for experimental therapeutics in stages of premanifest HD, the time period for which effective intervention may provide the most positive possible outcome for patients and their families affected by this devastating disease.

  12. Do early neural correlates of visual consciousness show the oblique effect? A binocular rivalry and event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Bradley N; Roeber, Urte; O'Shea, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    When dissimilar images are presented one to each eye, we do not see both images; rather, we see one at a time, alternating unpredictably. This is called binocular rivalry, and it has recently been used to study brain processes that correlate with visual consciousness, because perception changes without any change in the sensory input. Such studies have used various types of images, but the most popular have been gratings: sets of bright and dark lines of orthogonal orientations presented one to each eye. We studied whether using cardinal rival gratings (vertical, 0°, and horizontal, 90°) versus oblique rival gratings (left-oblique, -45°, and right-oblique, 45°) influences early neural correlates of visual consciousness, because of the oblique effect: the tendency for visual performance to be greater for cardinal gratings than for oblique gratings. Participants viewed rival gratings and pressed keys indicating which of the two gratings they perceived, was dominant. Next, we changed one of the gratings to match the grating shown to the other eye, yielding binocular fusion. Participants perceived the rivalry-to-fusion change to the dominant grating and not to the other, suppressed grating. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we found neural correlates of visual consciousness at the P1 for both sets of gratings, as well as at the P1-N1 for oblique gratings, and we found a neural correlate of the oblique effect at the N1, but only for perceived changes. These results show that the P1 is the earliest neural activity associated with visual consciousness and that visual consciousness might be necessary to elicit the oblique effect.

  13. Clinical and Biomarker Changes in Premanifest Huntington Disease Show Trial Feasibility: A Decade of the PREDICT-HD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jane S; Long, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Hans J; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Ross, Christopher A; Williams, Janet K; Nance, Martha A; Erwin, Cheryl J; Westervelt, Holly J; Harrington, Deborah L; Bockholt, H Jeremy; Zhang, Ying; McCusker, Elizabeth A; Chiu, Edmond M; Panegyres, Peter K

    2014-01-01

    There is growing consensus that intervention and treatment of Huntington disease (HD) should occur at the earliest stage possible. Various early-intervention methods for this fatal neurodegenerative disease have been identified, but preventive clinical trials for HD are limited by a lack of knowledge of the natural history of the disease and a dearth of appropriate outcome measures. Objectives of the current study are to document the natural history of premanifest HD progression in the largest cohort ever studied and to develop a battery of imaging and clinical markers of premanifest HD progression that can be used as outcome measures in preventive clinical trials. Neurobiological predictors of Huntington's disease is a 32-site, international, observational study of premanifest HD, with annual examination of 1013 participants with premanifest HD and 301 gene-expansion negative controls between 2001 and 2012. Findings document 39 variables representing imaging, motor, cognitive, functional, and psychiatric domains, showing different rates of decline between premanifest HD and controls. Required sample size and models of premanifest HD are presented to inform future design of clinical and preclinical research. Preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD with participants who have a medium or high probability of motor onset are calculated to be as resource-effective as those conducted in diagnosed HD and could interrupt disease 7-12 years earlier. Methods and measures for preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD more than a dozen years from motor onset are also feasible. These findings represent the most thorough documentation of a clinical battery for experimental therapeutics in stages of premanifest HD, the time period for which effective intervention may provide the most positive possible outcome for patients and their families affected by this devastating disease.

  14. Follow-up study in local allergic rhinitis shows a consistent entity not evolving to systemic allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondón, Carmen; Campo, Paloma; Zambonino, Maria Angeles; Blanca-Lopez, Natalia; Torres, Maria J; Melendez, Lidia; Herrera, Rocio; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Canto, Gabriela; Blanca, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is a common disease that affects 25.7% of the rhinitis population and more than 47% of patients previously diagnosed with nonallergic rhinitis. Whether LAR is the first step in the natural history of allergic rhinitis (AR) with systemic atopy or a consistent entity is unknown. The aim was to evaluate the natural history of a population with LAR of recent onset and the development of AR and asthma. A prospective 10-year follow-up study with initial cohorts of 194 patients with LAR of recent onset and 130 healthy controls is being undertaken. A clinical-demographic questionnaire, spirometry, skin prick test, and specific IgE to aeroallergens were done yearly. Nasal allergen provocation tests with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Alternaria alternata, Olea europea, and a mix of grass pollen were performed at baseline and after 5 years. At disease onset, most of the patients with LAR had moderate-to-severe persistent-perennial rhinitis; conjunctivitis and asthma were the main comorbidities (51.1% and 18.8%, respectively), and D pteronyssinus was the most relevant aeroallergen (51.1%). After 5 years of follow-up, a worsening of rhinitis was detected in 26.2%, with an increase in symptom persistence and severity, and new associations with conjunctivitis and asthma. Atopy was detected by skin prick test and/or serum specific-IgE in patients with LAR (6.81%) and in controls (4.5%). This study shows a similar rate of development of systemic atopy in LAR and controls, which suggests that LAR is an entity well differentiated from AR. To determine the natural course of LAR more precisely, this study is in progress to complete 10 years of follow-up. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do early neural correlates of visual consciousness show the oblique effect? A binocular rivalry and event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, Urte; O’Shea, Robert P.

    2017-01-01

    When dissimilar images are presented one to each eye, we do not see both images; rather, we see one at a time, alternating unpredictably. This is called binocular rivalry, and it has recently been used to study brain processes that correlate with visual consciousness, because perception changes without any change in the sensory input. Such studies have used various types of images, but the most popular have been gratings: sets of bright and dark lines of orthogonal orientations presented one to each eye. We studied whether using cardinal rival gratings (vertical, 0°, and horizontal, 90°) versus oblique rival gratings (left-oblique, –45°, and right-oblique, 45°) influences early neural correlates of visual consciousness, because of the oblique effect: the tendency for visual performance to be greater for cardinal gratings than for oblique gratings. Participants viewed rival gratings and pressed keys indicating which of the two gratings they perceived, was dominant. Next, we changed one of the gratings to match the grating shown to the other eye, yielding binocular fusion. Participants perceived the rivalry-to-fusion change to the dominant grating and not to the other, suppressed grating. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we found neural correlates of visual consciousness at the P1 for both sets of gratings, as well as at the P1-N1 for oblique gratings, and we found a neural correlate of the oblique effect at the N1, but only for perceived changes. These results show that the P1 is the earliest neural activity associated with visual consciousness and that visual consciousness might be necessary to elicit the oblique effect. PMID:29232704

  16. Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; El Hadj Ali, Nedra; Ktari, Naourez; Jellouli, Kemel; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Dhulster, Pascal; Nasri, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) using Alcalase 2.4 L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs) increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited antioxidative activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NH1-CPHs generally showed greater antioxidative activity than Alcalase protein hydrolysates (P Alcalase and NH1 protein hydrolysates were able to retard lipid peroxidation and β-carotene-linoleic acid oxidation. Alcalase-CPH (DH = 12.5%) and NH1-CPH (DH = 15%) contained 75.36% and 80.11% protein, respectively, with histidine and arginine as the major amino acids, followed by glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, lysine, and leucine. In addition, CPHs have a high percentage of essential amino acids made up 48.85% and 50.04%. Cuttlefish muscle protein hydrolysates had a high nutritional value and could be used as supplement to poorly balanced dietary proteins.

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies novel locus for neuroticism and shows polygenic association with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Marleen H.M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Verweij, Karin J.H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Luciano, Michelle; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; Amin, Najaf; Gordon, Scott D.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hart, Amy B.; Seppälä, Ilkka; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Minyoung; Miller, Mike; Nutile, Teresa; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Viktorin, Alexander; Wedenoja, Juho; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jüri; Appel, Katja; Bigdeli, Timothy B.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Costa, Paul T.; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; de Wit, Harriet; Ding, Jun; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbara; Giegling, Ina; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heinonen, Kati; Henders, Anjali K.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Karlsson, Robert; Kemp, John P.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Latvala, Antti; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Magri, Chiara; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Marten, Jonathan; Maschio, Andrea; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nauck, Matthias; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Pettersson, Erik; Polasek, Ozren; Qian, Yong; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M.; Pourcain, Beate St; Sutin, Angelina R.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Trochet, Holly; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Wouda, Jasper; Wright, Margaret J.; Zgaga, Lina; Scotland, Generation; Porteous, David; Minelli, Alessandra; Palmer, Abraham A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Metspalu, Andres; Kaprio, Jaakko; Deary, Ian J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Wilson, James F.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Bierut, Laura J.; Hettema, John M.; Grabe, Hans J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Evans, David M.; Schlessinger, David; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Terracciano, Antonio; McGue, Matt; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    shows that neuroticism is influenced by many genetic variants of small effect that are either common or tagged by common variants. These genetic variants also influence MDD. Future studies should confirm the role of the MAGI1 locus for neuroticism, and further investigate the association of MAGI1 and the polygenic association to a range of other psychiatric disorders that are phenotypically correlated with neuroticism. PMID:25993607

  18. Clinical presentation, biochemical, and haematological parameters and their association with outcome in patients with Ebola virus disease: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Luke; Gupta-Wright, Ankur; Simms, Victoria; Tamba, Fayia; Knott, Victoria; Tamba, Kongoneh; Heisenberg-Mansaray, Saidu; Tamba, Emmanuel; Sheriff, Alpha; Conteh, Sulaiman; Smith, Tom; Tobin, Shelagh; Brooks, Tim; Houlihan, Catherine; Cummings, Rachael; Fletcher, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Clinical management of Ebola virus disease remains challenging. Routine laboratory analytics are often unavailable in the outbreak setting, and few data exist for the associated haematological and biochemical abnormalities. We aimed to assess laboratory and clinical data from patients with Ebola virus disease to better inform clinical management algorithms, improve understanding of key variables associated with outcome, and provide insight into the pathophysiology of Ebola virus disease. We recruited all patients, alive on arrival, with confirmed Ebola virus disease who were admitted to the Kerry Town Ebola treatment centre in Sierra Leone. At admission, all patients had clinical presentation recorded and blood taken for Ebola confirmation using reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and for haematological and biochemical analysis. We studied the association between these and clinical outcome. The primary outcome was discharge from the Ebola treatment centre. 150 patients were admitted to the treatment centre between Dec 8, 2014, and Jan 9, 2015. The mean age of patients was 26 years (SD 14·7). Case fatality rate was 37% (55/150). Most patients presented with stage 2 (gastrointestinal involvement, 72/118 [61%]) and stage 3 (severe or complicated, 12/118 [10%]) disease. Acute kidney injury was common (52/104 [50%]), as were abnormal serum potassium (32/97 [33%]), severe hepatitis (54/92 [59%]), and raised C-reactive protein (21/100 [21%]). Haematological abnormalities were common, including raised haematocrit (15/100 [15%]), thrombocytopenia (47/104 [45%]), and granulocytosis (44/104 [42%]). Severe acute kidney injury, low RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ebola virus disease is associated with a high prevalence of haematological and biochemical abnormalities, even in mild disease and in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Clinical care that targets hypovolaemia, electrolyte disturbance, and acute kidney injury is likely to reduce historically high case fatality rates

  19. Study of the Biochemical Responses and Enzymatic Activity of GF677 (Peach and Almond Hybrid Rootstock to In Vitro Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mashayekhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is the most significant abiotic factor limiting crop productivity and several physiological responses, including modification of ion balance, water status, mineral nutrition, stomatal behavior, photosynthetic efficiency and so on. The GF677 (Prunuspersica×Prunusamygdalus is widelyusedas rootstock for peach and almond. It is mainly used as a rootstock because of its resistance to drought, calcic soil and Fe deficiency. Nowadays, using tissue culture techniques is very popular for the selection of plant resistant to abiotic stress (in vitro salinity; because in vitro conditions are more controllable than in vivo conditions and the large number of genotypes can be evaluated in a limited space. For example, in the field, plants are exposed to variable biological and climatic conditions which result in some interaction effects. In other words, the nutrition and climatic effects are easily controllable in the in vitro conditions all over the year. The objective of this study is to identify biochemical markers of salinity stress of GF677 rootstock under in vitro conditions. Materials and Methods: Plantlets of GF677 rootstock were subcultured into the Murashige and Skoog (MS proliferation medium containing1 mg/l BA (6-Benzyladenineand 0.1 mg/l NAA (naphthaline acetic acid with different concentrations (0, 40, 80 and 120 mM of sodium chloride (NaCl with four replicates. Cultures were transferred to the growth chamber with temperature of 25±2°C, relative humidity of 70%, under a 16/8 h (day/night photoperiod. Data were collected at the end of the experiment (6th weeks. Antioxidant enzymes activity (catalase and peroxidase,total protein content, proline content, soluble sugars, and Na and Cl were measured. The experiments were set up in a completely randomized design (CRD with four replicates (a vessel in each replicate and statistical analysis was performed using MSTAT-C program. Means were separated according to the Duncan

  20. Large population study shows that adolescents with celiac disease have an increased risk of multiple autoimmune and nonautoimmune comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assa, Amit; Frenkel-Nir, Yael; Tzur, Dorit; Katz, Lior H; Shamir, Raanan

    2017-06-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a systemic disorder that is associated with various autoimmune disorders and a higher prevalence of other diagnoses and complications. This large, cross-sectional, population-based study investigated the associations between CD and various medical conditions during late adolescence. We included 2 001 353 Jewish Israeli adolescents who underwent a general health examination at a median age of 17.1 (16.9-17.4) years from 1988 to 2015. Comprehensive data regarding medical status were available for 1 588 041 (79%) subjects. A definite diagnosis of CD was based on accepted criteria. Covariate data included demographic measures and data on associated medical conditions. Overall, data on 7145 subjects with CD and 1 580 896 controls were analysed. Multivariate analyses showed that autoimmune diseases were significantly more common in subjects with CD, including insulin dependent diabetes, with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.5, inflammatory bowel diseases (OR = 3.8), arthritis (OR = 2.4), thyroid diseases (OR = 1.8) and psoriatic skin disorders (OR = 1.6). Further associations included asthma (OR = 1.5), bile stones (OR = 3.6), migraine (OR = 2.3), anaemia (OR = 1.7) and menstrual abnormalities (OR = 1.5). Long bone fractures and axial fractures were no more common in adolescents with CD than controls. CD was already associated with multiple comorbidities by adolescence, and these were not limited to autoimmune disorders. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Biochemical studies of effects of alcohol consumption on fat and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed different levels of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalan, M.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    Alcohol, ethanol and ethyl alcohol are synonymously used during the present dissertation. Alcohol probably was among the first psychoactive substances to be used by man (Winger et al., 1992). Ethanol is mainly oxidized to acetaldehyde in the liver (Ugarte and Peresa, 1978) by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Alcohol is associated with many metabolic disorders inside the body (Thayer and Rubin, 1979; Forsander and Poso, 1988; Poso and Hirsimaki, 1991; Bernal, et al., 1992). The nutritional factors which received little attention have an important role in alcoholic metabolizing alterations. Morphologically and biochemically, an increase in hepatic lipid was demonstrated when ethanol was given either as a supplement or as an iso caloric substitute for carbohydrate together with an otherwise nutritionally adequate diet. Low-protein diets have been shown to diminish hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) levels in rats and to slow down the metabolism of ethanol considerably (Wilson et al., 1986). Hepatic steatosis was produced, even with a high-protein, vitamin-supplemented diet and was accompanied by major ultrastructural liver changes and by elevations of hepatic transaminases in blood (Lieber et al., 1963 and 1965 and Lane and Lieber, 1966). If dietary fat was reduced from 35 to 25% of total calories, hepatic triglyceride accumulation greatly decreased (Lieber and DeCarli, 970)

  2. Deciphering the Biochemical Pathway and Pharmacokinetic Study of Amyloid βeta-42 with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) Using Systems Biology Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Aman Chandra; Kumar, Ajay; Dwivedi, Vivek Dhar; Bharadwaj, Shiv; Kumar, Sanjay; Bharti, Kritika; Kumar, Pavan; Chaudhary, Ravi Kumar; Mishra, Sarad Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis leads to the appearance of senile plaques due to the production and deposition of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have potential role in the detection and imaging of Aβ plaques in AD. SPIONs have shown appropriate potential in the diagnosis and treatment of AD. In the present study, the pharmacokinetics of SPIONs and its effect in the biochemical pathway of AD were analyzed using collected information. During analysis, the interaction of SPIONs with amyloid beta-42 (Aβ 42 ), a biomarker for AD progression, has been shown. Nodes represent the entities and edges represent the relation (interactions) of one node to another node. Aβ 42 and their interaction with other entities making up biochemical network are involved in AD mechanism in presence of SPION. The kinetic simulation was done to investigate pharmacokinetics of SPIONs for AD, where concentration was assigned of nanoparticles and other entities were applied as a kinetic irreversible simple Michaelis-Menten or mass action kinetics. Simulation was done in presence and absence of SPIONs to investigate pharmacokinetic effect in AD and explore the mechanism of Aβ 42 in presence of SPIONs. This study may lead to better understanding, which is required to target the metabolism of Aß 42 peptide, a pivotal player in this pathology.

  3. Electrophysiological and biochemical studies of the effects of radiation on brain activity and development. Progress report, November 1973--October 31, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timiras, P.S.

    1974-01-01

    Some biochemical aspects of synaptogenesis were explored in recent studies, through the use of x-radiation techniques, particularly in the cerebellum where x-radiation was shown to preferentially destroy specific cell populations (the external granular layer cells) as well as to inhibit cell migration. Studies in this area demonstrated clearly that x radiation causes significant abnormalities in cholinergic neurotransmission, in GABA, and in monoamine metabolism. These abnormalities were localized to CNS regions, such as the cerebellum, which were active in terms of cell proliferation, cell migration, and growth at the time of exposure to x-irradiation. The data accumulated thus far does not yet allow conclusions to be drawn as to the mode of action whereby x radiation brings about the increase in cholinergic and monaminergic metabolism; however, it is proposed that x radiation interferes with developmental aspects of neurotransmitter metabolism involving, perhaps, alterations to the cell population of the receptor area and/or changes in the branching of axonal terminals of the particular transmitter neuron. It was further hypothesized that when abnormalities occur in the physical contact of neurons, at critical developmental stages of the nervous system, biochemical aspects of cell differentiation related to neurotransmission are concomitantly affected. Different fibers exert influence on developing neurons and, consequently, that cell connectivity is integrally related to neuronal maturation. (U.S.)

  4. Are Mussels Always the Best Bioindicators? Comparative Study on Biochemical Responses of Three Marine Invertebrate Species to Chronic Port Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitano, María V; Fernández-Gimenez, Analía V

    2016-07-01

    Bivalves have traditionally been considered good bioindicators due to their sensitivity to pollution, among other features. This characteristic is shared by several other non-bivalve species as well, though studies in this respect remain scarce. This work aims to compare biomarker sensitivity to chronic port pollution among three intertidal invertebrate species with good bioindicator characteristics. Mussels' immunological (phenoloxidase and peroxidases) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase) responses were contrasted against those of limpets and barnacles. The three species under study evidenced activity of all the enzymes measured, although with differences. Barnacle Balanus glandula was the most sensitive species showing pollution modulation of the three enzymes, which suggests that mussels would not always be the best bioindicator species among marine invertebrates depending on the responses that are assessed.

  5. Opium and heroin alter biochemical parameters of human's serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Divsalar; Tahereh, Haghpanah; Mohammadreza, Afarinesh; Minoo, Mahmoudi Zarandi

    2010-05-01

    Iran is a significant consumer of opium, and, generally, of opioids, in the world. Addiction is one of the important issues of the 21st century and is an imperative issue in Iran. Long-term consumption of opioids affects homeostasis. To determine the effects of opium and heroin consumption on serum biochemical parameters. In a cross-sectional study, subjects who had consumed heroin (n = 35) or opium (n = 42) for more than two years and 35 nonaddict volunteers as the control group were compared in regard to various biochemical parameters such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, creatinine, and total protein. Chromatography was used to confirm opioid consumption, and the concentration of biochemical parameters was determined by laboratory diagnostic tests on serum. No significant differences were found in Na(+), Ca(2+), BUN, UA, TG, creatinine, and total protein concentrations among the three groups. FBS, K(+), and UA levels were significantly lower in opium addicts compared to the control group. Serum Ca(2+) concentration of heroin addicts showed a significant decrease compared to that of the control group. Both addict groups showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Chronic use of opium and heroin can change serum FBS, K(+), Ca(2+), UA, and cholesterol. This study, one of few on the effects of opium on serum biochemical parameters in human subjects, has the potential to contribute to the investigation of new approaches for further basic studies.

  6. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alasdair; Tao, Yong; Luo, Qing; Zhong, Gemei; Romm, Jeff; Colford, John M; Ray, Isha

    2015-01-01

    In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT) methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP) from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness. We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC), and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013-2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data. Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method). Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water). Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, pwater (-0.45, pwater, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34-0.70, pwater users (RR = 0.70, 0.53-0.93, pwater access and reduce HAP exposure in rural China.

  7. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Cohen

    Full Text Available In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness.We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC, and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013-2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data.Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method. Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water. Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, p<0.001, followed by bottled water (-0.45, p<0.001 and pots (-0.44, p<0.01. Compared to households drinking untreated water, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34-0.70, p<0.001, followed by bottled water users (RR = 0.70, 0.53-0.93, p<0.05 and households boiling with pots (RR = 0.74, 0.54-1.02, p = 0.06.As far as we are aware, this is the first HWT-focused study in China, and the first to quantify the

  8. Repeatedly Heading a Soccer Ball Does Not Increase Serum Levels of S-100B, a Biochemical Marker of Brain Tissue Damage: an Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sojka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyse whether the controlled heading of soccer balls elicits increased serum concentrations of a biochemical marker of brain tissue damage S-100B.Methods: Nineteen male soccer players were randomly divided into two groups, A and B. Group A headed a soccer ball falling from 18 m five times, while group B served as controls (no heading. Blood samples were taken before and 0.5 h, 2 h and 4 h after the heading for analysis of S-100B.Results: No statistically significant (p > 0.05 increases in serum concentrations of S-100B were encountered in group A at 0.5 h (0.109 ± 0.024 μg/L, 2 h (0.098 ± 0.026 μg/L, and 4 h (0.113 ± 0.035 μg/L when the blood samples obtained before and after the heading were compared (0.157 ± 0.134 μg/L. No statistically significant difference was found when the serum concentrations of S-100B were compared between groups A and B either before or after heading.Conclusions: Heading a soccer ball dropped from a height of 18 m five times was not found to cause an increase in serum concentrations of S-100B, indicating that the impact was not sufficient to cause biochemically discernible damage of brain tissue.

  9. Biochemical validity of imaging techniques (X-ray, MRI, and dGEMRIC) in degenerative disc disease of the human cervical spine-an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelmann, Richard; Bostelmann, Tamara; Nasaca, Adrian; Steiger, Hans Jakob; Zaucke, Frank; Schleich, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    On a molecular level, maturation or degeneration of human intervertebral disc is among others expressed by the content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). According to the degenerative status, the disc content can differ in nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF), respectively. Research in this area was conducted mostly on postmortem samples. Although several radiological classification systems exist, none includes biochemical features. Therefore, we focused our in vivo study on a widely spread and less expensive imaging technique for the cervical spine and the correlation of radiological patterns to biochemical equivalents in the intervertebral discs. The aim of this pilot study was to (1) measure the GAG content in human cervical discs, (2) to investigate whether a topographic biochemical GAG pattern can be found, and (3) whether there is a correlation between imaging data (X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] including delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage [dGEMRIC] as a special imaging technique of cartilage) and the biochemical data. We conducted a prospective experimental pilot study. Only non-responders to conservative therapy were included. All subjects were physically and neurologically examined, and they completed their questionnaires. Visual analogue scale neck and arm, Neck Disability Index score, radiological parameters (X-rays, MRI, dGEMRIC), and the content of GAG in the cervical disc were assessed. After surgical removal of 12 discs, 96 fractions of AF and NP were biochemically analyzed for the GAG content using dimethylmethylene blue assay. A quantitative pattern of GAGs in the human cervical disc was identified. There were (1) significantly (p<.001) higher values of GAGs (µg GAG/mg tissue) in the NP (169.9 SD 37.3) compared with the AF (132.4 SD 42.2), and (2) significantly (p<.005) higher values of GAGs in the posterior (right/left: 149.9/160.2) compared with the anterior (right/left: 112.0/120.2) part of the AF. Third, we found

  10. A Metabolic Study on the Biochemical Effects of Chiral Illegal Drugs in Rats Using1H-NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Kiyoshi; Ohno, Akiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri

    2017-01-01

    Considering the pharmacological effects of chiral drugs, enantiopure drugs may differ from their racemic mixture formulation in efficacy, potency, or adverse effects. Levomethorphan (LVM) and Dextromethorphan (DXM) act on the central nervous system and exhibit different pharmacological features. LVM, the l-stereoisomer of methorphan, shows many similarities to opiates such as heroin, morphine and codeine, including the potential for addiction, while the d-stereoisomer, DXM, does not have the same opioid effect. In the present study, NMR-based metabolomics were performed on the urine of rats treated with these stereoisomers, and showed significant differences in metabolic profiles. In urine within 24 h after treatment of these samples, levels of citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, creatine, and dimethylglycine were higher in LVM-treated rats than in DXM-treated rats. While urinary levels of hippurate and creatinine gradually increased over 72 h in DXM-treated rats, these metabolites were decreased in the urine by 48-72 h after treatment with LVM. The levels of these changed metabolites may provide the first evidence for different cellular responses to the metabolism of stereoisomers.

  11. Association of serial biochemical markers with acute ischemic stroke: the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Lindsell, Christopher; Broderick, Joseph; Fagan, Susan C; Tilley, Barbara C; Levine, Steven R

    2006-10-01

    Biochemical markers of acute neuronal injury may aid in the diagnosis and management of acute ischemic stroke. Serum samples from the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Study were analyzed for the presence of 4 biochemical markers of neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell injury. These biochemical markers, myelin basic protein (MBP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100beta, and soluble thrombomodulin, were studied for an association with initial stroke severity, infarct volume, and functional outcome. In the original NINDS study, serum samples were drawn from all patients on presentation to the Emergency Department and at approximately 2 and 24 hours after initiation of study therapy. In this analysis, stored serum samples were available for 359 patients; 107 patients had samples for all 3 time points. Serum marker concentrations were measured by ELISA techniques. We examined the relation between serum concentrations of each marker and the degree of baseline neurological deficit, functional outcome, and infarct size on computed tomography at 24 hours and the effect of fibrinolytic therapy. Higher 24-hour peak concentrations of MBP, NSE, and S100beta were associated with higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale baseline scores (r=0.186, P<0.0001; r=0.117, P=0.032; and r=0.263, P<0.0001, respectively). Higher peak concentrations of MBP and S100beta (r=0.209, P<0.0001; r=0.239, P<0.0001) were associated with larger computed tomography lesion volumes. Patients with favorable outcomes had smaller changes in MBP and S100beta (P<0.05) concentrations in the first 24 hours. Soluble thrombomodulin was not associated with any severity or outcome measure. This study corroborates previous work demonstrating correlations of MBP, NSE, and S100beta with clinical and radiographic features in acute stroke. Despite significantly better outcomes in the tissue plasminogen activator-treated group, we

  12. Study of 60 Co gamma radiation effects on the biochemical, biological and immunological properties of the Bothrops jararaca venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarnieri, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma radiation, by including different modifications on the toxic, enzymatic and immunological activities of proteins, could be an useful implement for detoxification of snake venoms. The present work was done to study the mechanism of action and effects of gamma rays on the Bothrops jararaca venom, determining the radiation dose that attenuates the toxic and enzymatic activities maintaining the immunological properties of venom, and also the most important free radicals on this process. The results of immuno diffusion, immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, immunization of mice and rabbits, and neutralization tests, showed the maintenance of antigenic and immunogenic properties and decrease of neutralizing capacity of antibodies induced by 3,000 and 4,000 Gy irradiated venom. Since the immunological properties were the most radioresistant, it was possible to determine the dose of 2,000 Gy, as the ideal radiation dose in the treatment of venoms aiming the improvement of the immunization schedule to obtain bothropic antisera. (author). 164 refs, 19 tabs, 54 figs

  13. Mood Dimensions Show Distinct Within-Subject Associations With Non-exercise Activity in Adolescents: An Ambulatory Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena D. Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to preserve both physical and mental health. However, the physical activity levels of a large proportion of adolescents are insufficient. This is critical, since physical activity levels in youth have been shown to translate into adulthood. Whereas in adult populations, mood has been supposed to be one important psychological factor that drives physical activity in everyday life, this issue has been poorly studied in adolescent populations. Ambulatory Assessment is the state-of-the-art approach to investigate how mood and non-exercise activity fluctuate within persons in everyday life. Through assessments in real time and real life, this method provides ecological validity, bypassing several limitations of traditional assessment methods (e.g., recall biases. To investigate whether mood is associated with non-exercise activity in adolescents, we equipped a community-based sample comprising 113 participants, aged 12–17 years, with GPS-triggered e-diaries querying for valence, energetic arousal, and calmness, and with accelerometers continuously measuring physical activity in their everyday lives for 1 week. We excluded all acceleration data due to participants' exercise activities and thereafter we parameterized non-exercise activity as the mean value across 10-min intervals of movement acceleration intensity following each e-diary prompt. We used multilevel analyses to compute the effects of the mood dimensions on non-exercise activity within 10-min intervals directly following each e-diary prompt. Additionally, we conducted explorative analyses of the time course of the effects, i.e., on different timeframes of non-exercise activity up to 300 min following the mood assessment. The results showed that valence (p < 0.001 and energetic arousal (p < 0.001 were positively associated with non-exercise activity within the 10 min interval, whereas calmness (p < 0.001 was negatively associated with non-exercise activity

  14. Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Show Impaired Adaptation During Stress: An Executive Functioning Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2018-04-01

    Evidence for problems in executive functioning (EF) in children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) is mixed and the impact stress may have on EF is understudied. Working memory, sustained attention, inhibition and cognitive flexibility of boys with ODD/CD (n = 65) and non-clinical controls (n = 32) were examined under typical and stressful test conditions. Boys with ODD/CD showed impaired working memory under typical testing conditions, and impairments in working memory and sustained attention under stressful conditions. In contrast to controls, performance on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility and inhibition was less influenced by stress in boys with ODD/CD. These results suggest that boys with ODD/CD show impairments in adaptation to the environment whereas typically developing boys show adaptive changes in EF.

  15. Female emotional eaters show abnormalities in consummatory and anticipatory food reward: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja

    2009-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that emotional eaters show greater neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake than nonemotional eaters and whether these differences are amplified during a negative versus neutral mood state. Female emotional eaters and nonemotional eaters (N = 21) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution while in a negative and neutral mood. Emotional eaters showed greater activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and anterior cingulate (ACC) in response to anticipated receipt of milkshake and greater activation in the pallidum, thalamus, and ACC in response to receipt of milkshake during a negative relative to a neutral mood. In contrast, nonemotional eaters showed decreased activation in reward regions during a negative versus a neutral mood. Results suggest that emotional eating is related to increased anticipatory and consummatory food reward, but only during negative mood. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Paganini, Adam W

    2015-06-01

    The change in oceanic carbonate chemistry due to increased atmospheric PCO2  has caused pH to decline in marine surface waters, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on organisms have been shown to be widespread among diverse taxa from a wide range of habitats. The majority of studies of organismal response to OA are in short-term exposures to future levels of PCO2 . From such studies, much information has been gathered on plastic responses organisms may make in the future that are beneficial or harmful to fitness. Relatively few studies have examined whether organisms can adapt to negative-fitness consequences of plastic responses to OA. We outline major approaches that have been used to study the adaptive potential for organisms to OA, which include comparative studies and experimental evolution. Organisms that inhabit a range of pH environments (e.g. pH gradients at volcanic CO2 seeps or in upwelling zones) have great potential for studies that identify adaptive shifts that have occurred through evolution. Comparative studies have advanced our understanding of adaptation to OA by linking whole-organism responses with cellular mechanisms. Such optimization of function provides a link between genetic variation and adaptive evolution in tuning optimal function of rate-limiting cellular processes in different pH conditions. For example, in experimental evolution studies of organisms with short generation times (e.g. phytoplankton), hundreds of generations of growth under future conditions has resulted in fixed differences in gene expression related to acid-base regulation. However, biochemical mechanisms for adaptive responses to OA have yet to be fully characterized, and are likely to be more complex than simply changes in gene expression or protein modification. Finally, we present a hypothesis regarding an unexplored area for biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification. In this hypothesis, proteins and membranes exposed to the

  17. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism studies in Asian Indian pregnant women biochemically identifies gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran A; Jahan, Parveen; Hasan, Qurratulain; Rao, Pragna

    2014-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first recognized during pregnancy. Insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of a 287 bp Alu repetitive sequence in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been widely investigated in Asian Indian populations with different ethnic origins. The present study examined possible association between I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene and GDM in Asian Indian pregnant women. A total of 200 pregnant women (100 GDM and 100 non-GDM) were recruited in this study and I/D polymorphism of a 287 bp Alu1 element inside intron 16 of the ACE gene was examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based gel electrophoresis. The distribution of the variants like II, ID, and DD genotypes of ACE gene showed differences between normal GDM versus non-GDM subjects, and the frequency of the ID+ DD Vs II genotype was significant (p=0.0002) in the GDM group. ACE gene polymorphism was associated with GDM in Asian Indian pregnant women. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Study of the effects of ionizing radiation on the biochemical and biological properties of garlic (Allium sativum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meddeb, Wiem

    2008-01-01

    Garlic is used since sevral hundred years to deal with various health issues. During last decades sevral works was interested to specify these problems, in this work we studied the effects of the gamma irradiation on the physico-chemical and biological properties of Allium sativum. This study was undertaken on the bulb irradiated by implying amounts of differents irradiation from 140 to 260Gy. First we proceeded to analyse the effects of these irradiations on the composition of garlic such as : allicin, protein, reducing sugars, total sugars, triglycerides and polyphenols. Second we tested the effect of these extracts radiotreated on the cell multiplication and the enzymatic activity of salmonella Hadar. The obtained results showed that the irradiated garlic extracts, present a slight nonsignificant reduction in the allicine proteinn sugar reducers, triglyceride and polyphenols concentration. However, this reduction is significant during application of the amount 260Ky. In addition, a deterioration of the growth observed after treatment by different concentrations of aqueous irradiated garlic extract. This inhibition is dependent on the concentration of aqueous extract of garlic used and the used irradiation dose. These observations would be in favor that the irradiations induce a slight midification of physico-chemical properties and they affect the anbacterial activity against salmonella Hdar. (Author)

  19. Biochemical and immunohistochemical characterisation of mucins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and immunohistochemical characterisation of mucins in 8 cases of colonic disease - a pilot study. N Chirwa, A Mall, M Tyler, B Kavin, P Goldberg, JEJ Krige, Z Lotz, D Khan, D Govender, A Hunter ...

  20. Type II to type I transformation of chronically stimulated goat latissimus dorsi muscle: a histoenzymological, biochemical, bioenergetic, and functional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermecker, M A; Focant, B; Hautecler, T; Huriaux, F; Duyckerts, C; Chaussende, F; Reznik, M; Limet, R; Sluse, F E

    1996-01-01

    Five goat latissimus dorsi muscles (LDM) were submitted to a progressive chronic electrostimulation program to reach an integrated understanding of the fast-to-slow transformation process in large mammals. LDM were regularly sampled and followed during a period of 8 months. Each sample was simultaneously assessed for histoenzymological study, myosin and LDH isoforms and bioenergetic capacities [NADH dehydrogenase cytochrome c oxidoreductase (NADH Cyt c OR), succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome c oxidoreductase (Succ Cyt c OR), cytochrome c oxidase (Cyt c Ox) and LDH]. Such muscles were also tested with and without completion of II to I transformation for their mechanical properties in isometric and isotonic strain gauge testing. The conversion of fast-to-slow myosin monitored by heavy chain (HC I) and light chain slow component (LC2s) began a few days after stimulation and was almost 100% after 100 days. The H-LDH isoforms evolved similarly but did not reach 100% conversion after 200 days. The activity of respiratory chain oxidases increased within 36 h but to a variable extent and peaked after 32 days, corresponding to a 75% transformation of myosin compared to initial levels. NADH Cyt c OR, Succ Cyt c OR, and Cyt c Ox, respectively increased 10-, 5- and 5-fold. These activities then significantly decreased before the completion of the myofibrillar transformation and reached a plateau with stable activities that remained 2- to 3-fold higher than the unstimulated LDM. LDH activity sharply decreased until day 62 (5-fold) and then plateaued. Functionally, muscle showed a reduced speed of contraction and moderate reduction in power output but had become fatigue-resistant. This study documents the transformation process in large mammals and suggests the dynamic relation between workload, aerobic-anaerobic metabolism and the contractile myofibrillar system.

  1. Physiological and Biochemical Studies on The Possible Protective Role of Ginseng in Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkiki, Sh.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Administration of Ginseng prior to radiation exposure at both doses 2 or 6 Gy of gamma rays minimize the hazardous effect of radiation by decreasing the level of serum total lipid, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, MDA and lipids of RBCS membrane. Also, Ginseng treatment before exposure to single separate doses 2 and 6 Gy of γ- rays increasing the levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein, albumin, globulin, RBCs count, WBCs count, hemoglobin content and erythropoietin. Morphological studies of bone marrow revealed that administration of Ginseng before exposure to 2 or 6 Gy of γ- radiation improve the cellularity comparing to the irradiated one. While administration of Ginseng after exposure to 6 Gy of γ-rays had no effect and showed severe hypo cellularity and loss cell wall. The radioprotective effect of Ginseng administration before exposure to irradiation was more effective than that of Ginseng administered after exposure to irradiation. Ginseng was obviously investigated as an effective agent on hematopoiesis

  2. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS.

  3. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  4. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  5. Associations of Milk Consumption and Vitamin B2 and Β12 Derived from Milk with Fitness, Anthropometric and Biochemical Indices in Children. The Healthy Growth Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Moschonis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of dairy consumption seem to extend beyond its significant contribution to ensuring nutrient intake adequacy as indicated by the favourable associations with several health outcomes reported by different studies. The aims of the present study were to examine the associations of milk consumption with fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices in children and further explore whether the observed associations are attributed to vitamins B2 and B12 derived from milk. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9–13 years participating in the Healthy Growth Study was examined. Data were collected on children’s dietary intake, using 24 h recalls, as well as on fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices. Regression analyses were performed for investigating the research hypothesis, adjusting for potential confounders and for B-vitamin status indices (i.e., plasma riboflavin, methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine concentrations, dietary calcium intake and plasma zinc concentrations that could possibly act as effect modifiers. Milk consumption was positively associated with the number of stages performed in the endurance run test (ERT (β = 0.10; p = 0.017 and negatively with body mass index (BMI (β = −0.10; p = 0.014, after adjusting for several potential confounders and effect modifiers. Dietary intakes of vitamin B2 and B12 derived from milk were also positively associated with the number of ERT stages (β = 0.10; p = 0.015 and β = 0.10; p = 0.014 respectively. In conclusion, higher intake of milk as well as vitamin B2 and B12 derived from milk were independently associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness in Greek preadolescents. The key roles of these B-vitamins in substrate oxidation, energy production, haemoglobin synthesis and erythropoiesis could provide a basis for interpreting these associations. However, further research is needed to confirm this potential interpretation.

  6. Biochemical Studies on the Effect of Monosodium Glutamate and Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedid, S.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of foods and beverages containing additives has intensely increased over the past decades. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the main flavor enhancer that can be consumed in high concentrations. Also, human exposure to ionizing radiation (RAD) has become inevitable with its vast application in diagnosis and industry. Although the use of additives and exposure to RAD in therapeutic treatments are believed to be relatively safe their combined effect remain unclear. The objective of this work was to evaluate the role of fish oil (FO); rich in the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA), on some biochemical alterations induced by exposure to MSG, RAD and MSG+RAD. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups and treated in parallel: 1-Control, 2-FO: received FO (400 mg/Kg/day), 3-MSG: received MSG (450 mg/Kg/day), 4- FO+MSG: received FO with MSG, 5-RAD: whole body irradiated with 2Gy/week up to 8Gy, 6-FO+RAD: received FO daily during RAD exposure, 7- MSG+RAD: received MSG daily during RAD exposure. 8- FO+MSG+RAD: received FO daily during MSG+RAD exposure. Exposure to RAD and/or MSG induced oxidative stress evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (marker of lipid peroxidation), and protein carbonyl (marker of protein oxidation) associated to decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione content (antioxidant biomarkers). Alteration in neurotransmitters was noted by a decrease in the level of serotonin (inhibitory neurotransmitter) and increased aspartic and glutamic acids (excitatory amino acids) though this increase was not recorded after exposure to MSG alone. The level of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA was decreased. Furthermore, exposure to RAD and/or MSG elevate serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol though this decrease was not observed after MSG exposure alone

  7. A systematic study of biochemical effects of heavy metal pollution. Programme of the research and preliminary results on cadmium and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Girardi, F.; Marafante, E.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of labelled metal pollutants at low-dose in organs, subcellular fractions and isolated and fractional component of subcellular fractions, in view of identifying specific metal binding component, was studied. Two types of experiments were carried out, on rats. Long-term experiments (up to 3-4 months), the labelled metal was administred at low concentrations (environmental levels) over long periods of time in order to simulate as close as possible the conditions of polluted environments. Short-term experiments (1-7 days), the labelled metal was injected at acute or subacute levels. 5 elements were selected (Cd, Zn, Se, Hg, Cr) for the long term experiments and 4 elements (Pb, V, Ni, Be) for the short term experiments. The essential present knowledge on the behavior at cellular level of heavy metals which were chosen were summarized. Preliminary results on biochemical effects of cadmium and lead were reported

  8. Biochemical Markers for Assessing Aquatic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers, specifically enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD - were used to determine the quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in fish muscle (PCB, HCB, HCH, OCS, DDT. Eight rivers were monitored (Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina; and the River Blanice was used as a control. The indicator species selected was the chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. There were no significant differences in cytochrome P450 content between the locations monitored. The highest concentration of cytochrome P450 in fish liver was in the Vltava (0.241 nmol mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (0.120 nmol mg-1 protein. Analysis of EROD activity showed a significant difference between the Blanice and the Vltava (P< 0.05, and also between the Orlice and the Vltava (P< 0.01, the Orlice and the Bílina (P< 0.01, and the Orlice and the Ohře (P< 0.05. The highest EROD activity in fish liver was in the Vltava (576.4 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (63.05 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. In individual locations, results of chemical monitoring and values of biochemical markers were compared. A significant correlation (P< 0.05 was found between biochemical markers and OCS, and PCB. Among the tributaries studied those that contaminated the Elbe most were the Vltava and the Bílina. These tributaries should not be considered the main sources of industrial contamination of the River Elbe, because the most important contamination sources were along the river Elbe itself.

  9. Plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain distribution of 14C-melatonin in rat: a biochemical and autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitte, P.A.; Harthe, C.; Lestage, P.; Claustrat, B.; Bobillier, P.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of 14C-Melatonin (14C-MT) after systemic injection was studied in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain of rats. Chromatographic analysis (thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography) indicated that the radioactivity from biological samples taken at various times following the injection of label was mainly associated with 14C-MT. Computer analysis of plasma 14C-MT kinetics showed a three-compartment system with half-lives of 0.21 +/- 0.05, 5.97 +/- 1.11, and 47.52 +/- 8.86 min. The volume of distribution and the clearance were 1,736 +/- 349 ml.kg-1 and 25.1 +/- 1.7 ml.min-1.kg-1 respectively. The entry of 14C-MT into the CSF was rapid and reached a maximum at 5 min. The decay followed a two-compartment system with half-lives of 16.5 +/- 2.9 and 47.3 +/- 8.6 min. The CSF/plasma concentration ratio was 0.38 at the steady state (30 min). At 2 min the level of 14C-MT in the brain was 3.8 higher than in the CSF. Representative autoradiograms revealed an heterogeneous localization of 14C-MT in the grey matter. The highest regional values, as evaluated by the permeability area product technique, were found in cortex, thalamic nuclei, medial geniculate nucleus, anterior pretectal area, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, choroid plexuses, and bulb-pons. Thirty minutes later 14C-MT was still detected in most of the brain regions analyzed. These results point to a low but rapid penetration of circulating MT into the brain and the CSF. The heterogeneous distribution and the partial retention of 14C-MT in the brain are compatible with the hypothesis of a central action of this hormone mediated via binding sites

  10. A hospital based study of biochemical markers of bone turnovers & bone mineral density in north Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The osteoporotic risk for women increases soon after menopause. Bone turnover markers are known to be associated with bone loss and fracture risk. This study was aimed to assess bone turnover using bone markers and their correlation with bone mineral density (BMD in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods: A total of 255 healthy women (160 pre- and 95 post-menopausal were enrolled. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (sBAP and serum N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX were measured to evaluate the bone formation and resorption, respectively. Bone mineral density was determined at lumbar spine (L2-L4 anteroposteriorly, femoral neck and Ward′s triangle using Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA system. The comparison of years since menopause with respect to BMD and bone markers was also evaluated. Results: NTX and sBAP showed significant negative correlation with BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle in postmenopausal women. BMD of all three sides were significant variables for NTX and BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle for sBAP in postmenopausal women. BMD lumbar spine was a significant variable for sBAP in premenopausal women. The mean values of NTX increased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. The BMD of all three sides decreased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. Interpretation & conclusions: Serum NTX and sBAP were inversely correlated to BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle in post-menopausal women. Simultaneous measurements of NTX and BMD in the north Indian women, suggest that bone resorption in women with low BMD remains high after menopause.

  11. The role of the dorsomedial part of the prefrontal cortex serotonergic innervation in rat responses to the aversively conditioned context: behavioral, biochemical and immunocytochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Małgorzata; Taracha, Ewa; Turzyńska, Danuta; Sobolewska, Alicja; Hamed, Adam; Kołomańska, Paulina; Skórzewska, Anna; Maciejak, Piotr; Szyndler, Janusz; Bidziński, Andrzej; Płaźnik, Adam

    2008-10-10

    In this study we have explored differences in animal reactivity to conditioned aversive stimuli using the conditioned fear test (a contextual fear-freezing response), in rats subjected to the selective lesion of the prefrontal cortex serotonergic innervation, and differing in their response to the acute painful stimulation, a footshock (HS--high sensitivity rats, and LS--low sensitivity rats, selected arbitrarily according to their behavior in the 'flinch-jump' pre-test). Local administration of serotonergic neurotoxin (5,7-dihydroxytryptamine) to the dorsomedial part of the prefrontal cortex caused a very strong, structure and neurotransmitter selective depletion of serotonin concentration. In HS rats, the serotonergic lesion significantly disinhibited rat behavior controlled by fear, enhanced c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial prefrontal area, and increased the concentration of GABA in the basolateral amygdala, measured in vivo after the testing session of the conditioned fear test. The LS animals revealed an opposite pattern of behavioral and biochemical changes after serotonergic lesion: an increase in the duration of a freezing response, and expression of c-Fos in the basolateral and central nuclei of amygdala, and a lower GABA concentration in the basolateral amygdala. In control conditions, c-Fos expression did not differ in LS and HS, naïve, not conditioned and not exposed to the test cage animals. The present study adds more arguments for the controlling role of serotonergic innervation of the dorsomedial part of the prefrontal cortex in processing emotional input by other brain centers. Moreover, it provides experimental data, which may help to better explain the anatomical and biochemical basis of differences in individual reactivity to stressful stimulation, and, possibly, to anxiolytic drugs with serotonergic or GABAergic profiles of action.

  12. A Case Study Showing How One Young Child Represented Issues Concerned with Attachment and Separation in Her Spontaneous Explorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Cath

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a young child, demonstrating evidence of a connection between "enveloping" objects and understanding presence and absence of a temporary and permanent nature. The starting point for the researcher was: an interest in identifying schemas or repeated patterns in order to understand cognitive development and; a…

  13. Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.S. Ngwa; F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A.C. Frazier-Wood (Alexis); D.K. Houston (Denise); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); R.N. Lemaitre (Rozenn ); J. Luan; V. Mikkilä (Vera); F. Renström (Frida); E. Sonestedt (Emily); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); A.Y. Chu (Audrey); L. Qi (Lu); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.C. De Oliveira Otto (Marcia); E.J. Dhurandhar (Emily); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); I. Johansson (Ingegerd); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); K. Lohman (Kurt); A. Manichaikul (Ani); N.M. McKeown (Nicola ); D. Mozaffarian (Dariush); A.B. Singleton (Andrew); K. Stirrups (Kathy); J. Viikari (Jorma); Z. Ye (Zheng); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); I.E. Barroso (Inês); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); A. Hofman (Albert); Y. Liu (YongMei); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K.E. North (Kari); M. Dimitriou (Maria); G. Hallmans (Göran); M. Kähönen (Mika); C. Langenberg (Claudia); J.M. Ordovas (Jose); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F.B. Hu (Frank); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); O. Raitakari (Olli); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Johnson (Anthony); V. Emilsson (Valur); J.A. Schrack (Jennifer); R.D. Semba; D.S. Siscovick (David); D.K. Arnett (Donna); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P.W. Franks (Paul); S.B. Kritchevsky (Stephen); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M. Orho-Melander (Marju); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); N.J. Wareham (Nick); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); J.A. Nettleton (Jennifer )

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Macronutrient intake varies substantially between individuals, and there is evidence that this variation is partly accounted for by genetic variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with macronutrient intake.

  14. Study shows aspirin reduces the risk and recurrence of prostate cancer in African-American men | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American men who take a daily dose of aspirin experience a significantly lower risk of developing advanced prostate cancer – the aggressive and deadly form of the disease – than African-American men who do not regularly use aspirin, according to a study from the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis. Learn more...

  15. Biochemical correlates in an animal model of depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    A valid animal model of depression was used to explore specific adrenergic receptor differences between rats exhibiting aberrant behavior and control groups. Preliminary experiments revealed a distinct upregulation of hippocampal beta-receptors (as compared to other brain regions) in those animals acquiring a response deficit as a result of exposure to inescapable footshock. Concurrent studies using standard receptor binding techniques showed no large changes in the density of alpha-adrenergic, serotonergic, or dopaminergic receptor densities. This led to the hypothesis that the hippocampal beta-receptor in responses deficient animals could be correlated with the behavioral changes seen after exposure to the aversive stimulus. Normalization of the behavior through the administration of antidepressants could be expected to reverse the biochemical changes if these are related to the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. This study makes three important points: (1) there is a relevant biochemical change in the hippocampus of response deficient rats which occurs in parallel to a well-defined behavior, (2) the biochemical and behavioral changes are normalized by antidepressant treatments exhibiting both serotonergic and adrenergic mechanisms of action, and (3) the mode of action of antidepressants in this model is probably a combination of serotonergic and adrenergic influences modulating the hippocampal beta-receptor. These results are discussed in relation to anatomical and biochemical aspects of antidepressant action

  16. Biochemical Abnormalities in Batten's Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jytte Lene; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov

    1978-01-01

    The present data indicate that a group of ten patients with Batten's syndrome showed reduced activity of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px) (glutathione: H2O2 oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.9.) using H2O2 as peroxide donor. Assay of erythrocyte GSHPx using H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide and t......-butyl hydroperoxide as donors also makes it possible biochemically to divide Batten's syndrome into two types: (1) one type with decreased values when H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide are used, and (2) one type with increased values when t-butyl hydroperoxide is used. Furthermore an increased content of palmitic, oleic...

  17. Prospective cohort study showing persistent HSV-2 shedding in women with genital herpes 2 years after acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Meena; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Barnum, Gail; Huang, Meei-Li Wu; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2017-11-25

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a prevalent infection with great variability in clinical and virological manifestations among individuals. This prospective cohort study aims to evaluate the natural history of HSV-2 reactivation in the genital area in the same group of women over time. Eighteen immunocompetent HSV-2 seropositive women were evaluated for viral shedding for 70 consecutive days within a median of 8 months (range 1-24 months) of HSV-2 acquisition and again approximately 2.5 years later from the original study. Participants obtained daily swabs of genital secretions for HSV PCR and recorded genital symptoms. The viral shedding rate was 29% during the initial study and 19% in the follow-up study (32% reduction, P=0.019). Subclinical shedding rate also decreased from 24% to 13% (37% reduction, P=0.032), as did the rate of days with genital lesions from 22% to 15% (33% reduction, P=0.24). The mean copy number during viral shedding remained unchanged over time at 4.8 log 10 c/mL (SD=2.0 and 1.6 during each study, respectively, P=0.33). Women with high viral shedding rates in the past were likely to continue to have high shedding rates (r=0.63, P=0.005). Despite some reduction, high viral shedding rates persist in women with genital HSV-2 greater than 2 years after acquisition. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Rebinding in biochemical reactions on membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Sean D.; Keener, James P.

    2017-10-01

    The behavior of many biochemical processes depends crucially on molecules rapidly rebinding after dissociating. In the case of multisite protein modification, the importance of rebinding has been demonstrated both experimentally and through several recent computational studies involving stochastic spatial simulations. As rebinding stems from spatio-temporal correlations, theorists have resorted to models that explicitly include space to properly account for the effects of rebinding. However, for reactions in three space dimensions it was recently shown that well-mixed ordinary differential equation (ODE) models can incorporate rebinding by adding connections to the reaction network. The rate constants for these new connections involve the probability that a pair of molecules rapidly rebinds after dissociation. In order to study biochemical reactions on membranes, in this paper we derive an explicit formula for this rebinding probability for reactions in two space dimensions. We show that ODE models can use the formula to replicate detailed stochastic spatial simulations, and that the formula can predict ultrasensitivity for reactions involving multisite modification of membrane-bound proteins. Further, we compute a new concentration-dependent rebinding probability for reactions in three space dimensions. Our analysis predicts that rebinding plays a much larger role in reactions on membranes compared to reactions in cytoplasm.

  19. Oilsands for the USA : while environmental groups ask for a shutdown, new study shows significant resulting economic benefits in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    The United States is beginning to appreciate the value of having massive oil sands resources located in relatively close proximity to their northern border. This article discussed a recent study conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess the impact of Canada's oil sands development on the economy of the United States. The study forecasted that the demand for oil sands-related goods and services from American companies will continue to increase as the industry expands. The top national-level goods and services impacts will be derived from increases in manufacturing; finance; insurance; real estate; and professional, scientific, and technical services. Accommodation and food services in the United States will also benefit from the growth of the oil sands industry. The United States may not risk pushing ahead with strict carbon-cutting legislation targeting the oil sands when policy-makers consider the potential impacts of Canada selling its resources to China. 1 fig.

  20. Commonly studied polymorphisms in inflammatory cytokine genes show only minor effects on mortality and related risk factors in nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dato, Serena; Krabbe, Karen S; Thinggaard, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation is consistently associated with functional status, cognitive functioning, multimorbidity, and survival in oldest olds. If inflammation is either a cause or a consequence of age-related pathology, genetic determinants of late-life survival can reside in cytokine genes....... Additionally, associations were investigated between inflammatory markers and major predictors of mortality as cognitive and functional status. Modest sex-specific associations were found with survival, cognitive functioning, and handgrip strength. Evaluation of combined genotypes indicated that......, in nonagenarian men, the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory activity at IL18 and IL10 loci is protective against cognitive decline. In conclusion, in this large study with virtually complete follow-up, commonly studied polymorphisms in cytokine genes do not have a major impact on late-life survival...

  1. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  2. The binucleate cell of okapi and giraffe placenta shows distinctive glycosylation compared with other ruminants: a lectin histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Wilsher, Sandra A; Wooding, F B P; Benirschke, K; Allen, W R

    2015-02-01

    The placenta of ruminants contains characteristic binucleate cells (BNC) with a highly conserved glycan structure which evolved early in Ruminant phylogenesis. Giraffe and Okapi placentae also contain these cells and it is not known whether they have a similar glycan array. We have used lectin histochemistry to examine the glycosylation of these cells in these species and compare them with bovine BNC which have a typical ruminant glycan composition. Two placentae, mid and near term, from Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and two term placenta of Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) were embedded in resin and stained with a panel of 23 lectins and compared with near-term bovine (Bos taurus) placenta. Significant differences were found in the glycans of Giraffe and Okapi BNC compared with those from the bovine, with little or no expression of terminal αN-acetylgalactosamine bound by Dolichos biflorus and Vicia villosa agglutinins which instead bound to placental blood vessels. Higher levels of N-acetylglucosamine bound by Lycopersicon esculentum and Phytolacca americana agglutinins were also apparent. Some differences between Okapi and Giraffe were evident. Most N-linked glycans were similarly expressed in all three species as were fucosyl residues. Interplacentomal areas in Giraffe and Bovine showed differences from the placentomal cells though no intercotyledonary BNC were apparent in Okapi. In conclusion, Giraffidae BNC developed different glycan biosynthetic pathways following their split from the Bovidae with further differences evolving as Okapi and Giraffe diverged from each other, affecting both inter and placentomal BNC which may have different functions during development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Birth Cohort Analysis to Study Dog Walking in Adolescence Shows No Relationship with Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Ness, Andrew R.; Mattocks, Calum; Christley, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity during childhood and adolescence is a serious health concern. There are few studies of the activity undertaken by adolescents when walking with the family dog, and the effect of this on objectively measured physical activity levels. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometers were recorded at age 11–12, 13–14, and 15–16 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (ALSPAC, UK) birth cohort during the 2000s. Family pet ownership was collected retrospectively using a questionnaire at age 18 years, for the ages 7, 11, 13, and 15 years. In addition, approximate frequency per week of walks undertaken with dogs were also reported. Multilevel, multivariable modeling was used to investigate the relationship between dog ownership and dog walking status, and physical activity outcomes. There were a total of 4,373 complete data observations for use in 2,055 children. Reported participation in dog walking tended to increase during adolescence, as did dog ownership. The majority of who own dogs reported walking them either 2–6 times/week (range 39–46%) or never (range 27–37%). A small minority (7–8%) reported walking their dog every day. Most reported never walking any other dog either (94–87%). We found no evidence for an association between dog ownership or reported dog walking, and objectively measured physical activity (counts per minute, P = 0.3, or minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, P = 0.7) during adolescence. This study provides no evidence to support a relationship between adolescent dog ownership and physical activity, and demonstrates the importance of using objective activity measures and considering dog walking rather than just dog ownership. PMID:28560222

  4. A Birth Cohort Analysis to Study Dog Walking in Adolescence Shows No Relationship with Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carri Westgarth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity during childhood and adolescence is a serious health concern. There are few studies of the activity undertaken by adolescents when walking with the family dog, and the effect of this on objectively measured physical activity levels. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometers were recorded at age 11–12, 13–14, and 15–16 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC (ALSPAC, UK birth cohort during the 2000s. Family pet ownership was collected retrospectively using a questionnaire at age 18 years, for the ages 7, 11, 13, and 15 years. In addition, approximate frequency per week of walks undertaken with dogs were also reported. Multilevel, multivariable modeling was used to investigate the relationship between dog ownership and dog walking status, and physical activity outcomes. There were a total of 4,373 complete data observations for use in 2,055 children. Reported participation in dog walking tended to increase during adolescence, as did dog ownership. The majority of who own dogs reported walking them either 2–6 times/week (range 39–46% or never (range 27–37%. A small minority (7–8% reported walking their dog every day. Most reported never walking any other dog either (94–87%. We found no evidence for an association between dog ownership or reported dog walking, and objectively measured physical activity (counts per minute, P = 0.3, or minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, P = 0.7 during adolescence. This study provides no evidence to support a relationship between adolescent dog ownership and physical activity, and demonstrates the importance of using objective activity measures and considering dog walking rather than just dog ownership.

  5. Heart transplant centers with multidisciplinary team show a higher level of chronic illness management - Findings from the International BRIGHT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Baumgartner, Eva; Berben, Lut; Denhaerynck, Kris; Helmy, Remon; Schönfeld, Sandra; Berger, Gabriele; Vetter, Christine; Dobbels, Fabienne; Russell, Cynthia L; De Geest, Sabina

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) explore the proportion of HTx centers that have a multidisciplinary team and (2) assess the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of chronic illness management (CIM). The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) recommends a multidisciplinary approach in heart transplant (HTx) follow-up care but little is known regarding the proportion of HTx centers that meet this recommendation and the impact on patient care. HTx centers with a multidisciplinary team may offer higher levels of CIM, a care model that has the potential to improve outcomes after HTx. We conducted a secondary analysis of the BRIGHT study, a cross-sectional study in 11 countries. Multidisciplinarity in the 36 HTx centers was assessed through HTx director reports and was defined as having a team that was composed of physician(s), nurse(s), and another healthcare professional (either a social worker, psychiatrist, psychologist, pharmacist, dietician, physical therapist, or occupational therapist). CIM was assessed with the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC). Multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of CIM. Twenty-nine (80.6%) of the HTx centers had a multidisciplinary team. Furthermore, multidisciplinarity was significantly associated with higher levels of CIM (β = 5.2, P = 0.042). Majority of the HTx centers follows the ISHLT recommendation for a multidisciplinary approach. Multidisciplinarity was associated with CIM and point toward a structural factor that needs to be in place for moving toward CIM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanical Preparation Showed Superior Shaping Ability than Manual Technique in Primary Molars - A Micro-Computed Tomography Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, Lídia Regina da Costa; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Carvalho, Emily Eduardo da Silva; Consolaro, Alberto; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate canal preparation in primary molars with hand files, ProTaper Next and Self-Adjusting File (SAF) by 2D and 3D micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Canals of 24 primary molars were prepared with hand files (HF), ProTaper Next (PTN) and SAF (n=8/group). The teeth were scanned before and after root canal preparation and the pre- and postoperative micro-CT images were reconstructed. Changes in 2D (area, perimeter, roundness, minor and major ...

  7. Nationwide study of headache pain in Italy shows that pain assessment is still inadequate in paediatric emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Franca; Piga, Simone; Zangardi, Tiziana; Messi, Gianni; Tomasello, Caterina; Pirozzi, Nicola; Cuttini, Marina

    2016-05-01

    Italian national guidelines on pain management were published in 2010, but there is little information on how effective pain management is in paediatric emergency care, with other countries reporting poor levels. Using headache as an indicator, we described pain assessment in Italian emergency departments and identified predictors of algometric scale use. All Italian paediatric and maternal and child hospitals participated, plus four general hospitals. Data on all children aged 4-14 years admitted during a one-month period with headache as their chief complaint were abstracted from clinical records. Multivariable analyses identified predictors of algometric assessment, taking into account the cluster study design. We studied 470 admissions. During triage, pain was assessed using a standardised scale (41.5%), informally (15.5%) or was not recorded (42.9%). Only 32.1% of the children received analgesia in the emergency department. The odds ratios for predictors of algometric assessment were non-Italian nationality (3.6), prehospital medication (1.8), admission to a research hospital (7.3) and a more favourable nurses-to-admissions ratio of 10.8 for the highest versus lowest tertile. Despite national guidelines, paediatric pain assessment in Italian emergency care was suboptimal. Hospital variables appeared to be stronger predictors of adequate assessment than patient characteristics. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  8. Correlation between 31P NMR phosphomonoester and biochemically determined phosphorylethanolamine and phosphatidylethanolamine during development of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, R; Lazeyras, F; Aue, W P; Straehl, P; Bigler, P; Althaus, U; Herschkowitz, N

    1988-01-01

    Phosphomonoesters were measured in the developing rat brain by in vivo and in vitro 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and by classical biochemical methods. In vitro NMR showed that the main component of the phosphomonoester peak is phosphorylethanolamine. Phosphomonoesters measured by in vivo NMR decreased during development at the same rate as the biochemically estimated phosphorylethanolamine. Phosphorylethanolamine, a precursor of the membrane lipid phosphatidylethanolamine, decreased during development parallel to an increase of the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine, which was measured biochemically. These studies show that 31P NMR can be used to monitor brain development in vivo.

  9. Biochemical and clinical deficiency is uncommon in African immigrants despite a high prevalence of low vitamin D: the Africans in America study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoreson, Caroline K; Chung, Stephanie T; Ricks, Madia; Reynolds, James C; Remaley, Alan T; Periwal, Vipul; Li, Yanjun; Sumner, Anne E

    2015-11-01

    African ancestry is associated with low vitamin D levels but high bone density. Fifty percent of African immigrants had low vitamin D levels, but immigrants without evidence of deficiency needs to be determined. The Endocrine Society and Institute of Medicine (IOM) have concluded from studies in largely white populations that 25(OH)D is necessary for bone health. However, their definition of vitamin D insufficiency differs. The Endocrine Society recommends a 25(OH)D threshold of immigrants the relationship of 25(OH)D to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and BMD. One hundred eighty-six African immigrants(69 % male, age 38 ± 10 (mean ± SD), range 20-64 years) living in metropolitan Washington, DC, were enrolled. BMD was determined from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Decreased BMD required T-scores ≤-1.0. The threshold for low 25(OH)D was the concentration of 25(OH)D at which PTH became suppressed. This is known as the inflection point. Biochemical deficiency required low 25(OH)D and PTH of >65 pg/mL. Clinical deficiency required low 25(OH)D and T-scores ≤-1.0. 25(OH)D immigrants, respectively. PTH inversely correlated with 25(OH)D (r = -0.31, P = 0.002). The inflection point occurred at a 25(OH)D concentration of 20 ng/mL. Biochemical and clinical deficiency occurred in only 8 and 3 % of immigrants, respectively. As PTH became suppressed at 25(OH)D of 20 ng/mL, the 25(OH)D immigrants. However, ~50 % of African immigrants have 25(OH)D immigrants with 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL and no detectable evidence of deficiency needs to be determined.

  10. Mono- and dinuclear manganese(III) complexes showing efficient catechol oxidase activity: syntheses, characterization and spectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Kazi Sabnam; Chattopadhyay, Tanmay; Banerjee, Arpita; Mukherjee, Madhuparna; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Patra, Goutam Kumar; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis

    2009-10-28

    Four side-off compartmental ligands L1-L4 [L1 = N,N'-ethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methyl-salicylaldimine), L2 = N,N'-1-methylethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine), L3 = N,N'-1,1-dimethylethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine) and L4= N,N'-cyclohexenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine)] having two binding sites, N2O2 and O4, have been chosen to synthesize mononuclear and dinuclear manganese(III) complexes with the aim to study their catecholase activity using 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) as substrate in the presence of molecular oxygen. In all cases only mononuclear manganese complexes (1-4) were obtained, with manganese coordination taking place at the N2O2 binding site only, irrespective of the amount of manganese salt used. All these complexes have been characterized by routine physico-chemical techniques. Complex MnL2Cl.4H2O (2) has further been structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal structure analysis. Four dinuclear manganese complexes, 5-8, were obtained after condensing the two pending formyl groups on each ligand (L1-L4) with aniline followed by reaction with MnCl2 to put the second Mn atom onto another N2O2 site. The catalytic activity of all complexes 1-8 has been investigated following the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) to 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone (3,5-DTBQ) with molecular oxygen in two different solvents, methanol and acetonitrile. The study reveals that the catalytic activity is influenced by the solvent and to a significant extent by the backbone of the diamine and the behavior seems to be related mainly to steric rather than electronic factors. Experimental data suggest that a correlation, the lower the E(1/2) value the higher the catalytic activity, can be drawn between E(1/2) and Vmax of the complexes in a particular solvent. The EPR measurements suggest that the catalytic property of the complexes is related to the metal center(s) participation rather than to a radical mechanism.

  11. Delirium superimposed on dementia: a survey of delirium specialists shows a lack of consensus in clinical practice and research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sarah; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Davis, Daniel H J; Neufeld, Karin J; Kamholz, Barbara A; Trabucchi, Marco; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Morandi, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Despite advances in delirium knowledge and the publication of best practice guidelines, uncertainties exist regarding assessment of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (DSD). An international survey of delirium specialists was undertaken to evaluate current practice. Invitations to participate in an online survey were distributed by email among members of four international delirium associations with additional publication on their websites. The survey covered the assessment and diagnosis of DSD in clinical practice and research studies. Questions were structured around current practice and attitudes. The 205 responders were mostly confident that they could detect DSD with 60% rating their confidence at 7 or above on a likert scale of 0 (none) to 10 (excellent). Seventy-six percent felt that Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) was the most challenging dementia subtype in which to diagnose DSD. Several scales were used to assess for the presence of DSD including the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) (54%), DSM-5 criteria (25%) and CAM-ICU (15%). Responders stated that attention (71%), fluctuation in cognitive status (65%), and arousability (41%) were the most clinically useful features to assess when diagnosing DSD. Motor fluctuations were also deemed important but 61% had no specific test to monitor these. The largest survey of DSD practice to date demonstrates that despite good levels of confidence in recognizing DSD, there exists a lack of consensus concerning assessment and diagnosis globally. These findings suggest the need for the development of more research leading to precise diagnostic criteria and comprehensive guidelines regarding the assessment and diagnosis of DSD.

  12. Ohio study shows that insurance coverage is critical for children with special health care needs as they transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, Anthony; Carle, Adam C

    2011-12-01

    Nearly 30 percent of young adults with special health care needs in Ohio lack health insurance, compared to 5 percent of the state's children with special health care needs. As children with such needs become too old for Medicaid or insurance through their parents' employer, they face great challenges in obtaining insurance. Lack of insurance is highly predictive of unmet needs, which in turn are predictive of costly hospital-based encounters. Young adults with special health care needs who are uninsured are more than twice as likely as their peers with insurance to forgo filling prescriptions and getting care and to have problems getting care. Even after insurance status is accounted for, young adults with special health care needs are more likely than children with such needs to not fill prescriptions because of cost and to delay or forgo needed care. This study demonstrates that continuous and adequate health insurance is vital to the continued well-being of children with special health care needs as they transition to young adulthood.

  13. Characterization of fibromyalgia symptoms in patients 55-95 years old: a longitudinal study showing symptom persistence with suboptimal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sandra A; Simpson, Rachel G; Lubahn, Cheri; Hu, Chengcheng; Belden, Christine M; Davis, Kathryn J; Nicholson, Lisa R; Long, Kathy E; Osredkar, Tracy; Lorton, Dianne

    2015-02-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) has been understudied in the elderly population, a group with particular vulnerabilities to pain, reduced mobility, and sleep disruption. To characterize FM symptoms and treatments in a cohort of older subjects examined over time to determine the extent to which current, community-based treatment for older FM patients is in accord with published guidelines, and effective in reducing symptoms. A longitudinal, observational study of 51 subjects with FM (range 55-95 years) and 81 control subjects (58-95 years) performed at Banner Sun Health Research Institute in Sun City, AZ, USA. Serial history and examination data were obtained over a 6-year period. FM data included medical history, medications, physical examination, tender point examination, neuropsychological testing, sleep and pain ratings, the Physical Function Subscale of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and other standardized scales to evaluate depression and other psychiatric symptoms, and cognitive and functional impairment. Pain and stiffness that interfered with physical activity, sleep, and mood were reported by 80 % or more of subjects. Over time, pain involved an increasing number of body areas. Over half of subjects were treated with NSAIDs, one-quarter with opioids, and one-quarter with estrogen. Few were treated with dual-acting antidepressants or pregabalin. In this cohort of elders with suboptimally treated FM, substantial persistence of symptoms was seen over time. In general, recommended treatments were either not used or not tolerated. Age-appropriate treatments as well as education of primary care providers are needed to improve treatment of FM in the older population.

  14. A Pragmatic Study Shows Failure of Dental Composite Fillings Is Genetically Determined: A Contribution to the Discussion on Dental Amalgams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Silva, Marília B; Souza, Kesia K A; Filho, Arnôldo V A; Rosenblatt, Aronita; Modesto, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Composite resins for posterior tooth restorations have become a viable alternative to dental amalgam. Failures sometimes cannot be easily explained, and we hypothesize that a genetic component may influence longevity of restorations. We aimed to determine if there is any evidence for a difference in the performance of amalgams versus composite resin in extensive posterior restorations. We also aimed to determine if risk factors such as age, sex, smoking tobacco, alcohol drinking, diabetes status, and periodontal health status may have a role in the failures of extensive anterior composite restorations. Finally, we investigated if genetic variation in matrix metalloproteinases that are present in the mineralized dentin is associated with failure of composite resin. The data used to perform this research were obtained from the Dental Registry and DNA Repository project after screening 4,856 patients. All restorations were evaluated at times of 1, 2, and 5 years after the restoration placement. 6,266 amalgam and 2,010 composite restorations were analyzed in a total of 807 patients in a period of approximately 10 years (period corresponding to the database existence). An additional 443 extensive direct composite resin restorations in anterior teeth were also studied. Failure rates of amalgam and composite restorations are similar, and by the end of 5 years, composites outperformed amalgams slightly. Failures of anterior composite restorations occurred more often in males who smoked tobacco ( p  = 0.05), despite a similar number of females and males that smoked tobacco in the sample (116 individuals smoked tobacco, 54 females and 62 males). Alcohol drinking increased failure rate within 2 years ( p  = 0.03). We found a statistically significant association between matrix metalloproteinase 2 rs9923304 and failure of composite restorations ( p  = 0.007). Composite resins can replace amalgam restorations. Smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol will

  15. A Pragmatic Study Shows Failure of Dental Composite Fillings Is Genetically Determined: A Contribution to the Discussion on Dental Amalgams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre R. Vieira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Composite resins for posterior tooth restorations have become a viable alternative to dental amalgam. Failures sometimes cannot be easily explained, and we hypothesize that a genetic component may influence longevity of restorations. We aimed to determine if there is any evidence for a difference in the performance of amalgams versus composite resin in extensive posterior restorations. We also aimed to determine if risk factors such as age, sex, smoking tobacco, alcohol drinking, diabetes status, and periodontal health status may have a role in the failures of extensive anterior composite restorations. Finally, we investigated if genetic variation in matrix metalloproteinases that are present in the mineralized dentin is associated with failure of composite resin. The data used to perform this research were obtained from the Dental Registry and DNA Repository project after screening 4,856 patients. All restorations were evaluated at times of 1, 2, and 5 years after the restoration placement. 6,266 amalgam and 2,010 composite restorations were analyzed in a total of 807 patients in a period of approximately 10 years (period corresponding to the database existence. An additional 443 extensive direct composite resin restorations in anterior teeth were also studied. Failure rates of amalgam and composite restorations are similar, and by the end of 5 years, composites outperformed amalgams slightly. Failures of anterior composite restorations occurred more often in males who smoked tobacco (p = 0.05, despite a similar number of females and males that smoked tobacco in the sample (116 individuals smoked tobacco, 54 females and 62 males. Alcohol drinking increased failure rate within 2 years (p = 0.03. We found a statistically significant association between matrix metalloproteinase 2 rs9923304 and failure of composite restorations (p = 0.007. Composite resins can replace amalgam restorations. Smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol

  16. Biochemical and Molecular Phylogenetic Study of Agriculturally Useful Association of a Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium and Nodule Sinorhizobium with Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Karaushu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed inoculation with bacterial consortium was found to increase legume yield, providing a higher growth than the standard nitrogen treatment methods. Alfalfa plants were inoculated by mono- and binary compositions of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. Their physiological and biochemical properties were estimated. Inoculation by microbial consortium of Sinorhizobium meliloti T17 together with a new cyanobacterial isolate Nostoc PTV was more efficient than the single-rhizobium strain inoculation. This treatment provides an intensification of the processes of biological nitrogen fixation by rhizobia bacteria in the root nodules and an intensification of plant photosynthesis. Inoculation by bacterial consortium stimulates growth of plant mass and rhizogenesis and leads to increased productivity of alfalfa and to improving the amino acid composition of plant leaves. The full nucleotide sequence of the rRNA gene cluster and partial sequence of the dinitrogenase reductase (nifH gene of Nostoc PTV were deposited to GenBank (JQ259185.1, JQ259186.1. Comparison of these gene sequences of Nostoc PTV with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that this cyanobacterial strain does not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this cyanobacterium clustered with high credibility values with Nostoc muscorum.

  17. Biochemical and Molecular Phylogenetic Study of Agriculturally Useful Association of a Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium and Nodule Sinorhizobium with Medicago sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaushu, E V; Lazebnaya, I V; Kravzova, T R; Vorobey, N A; Lazebny, O E; Kiriziy, D A; Olkhovich, O P; Taran, N Yu; Kots, S Ya; Popova, A A; Omarova, E; Koksharova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Seed inoculation with bacterial consortium was found to increase legume yield, providing a higher growth than the standard nitrogen treatment methods. Alfalfa plants were inoculated by mono- and binary compositions of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. Their physiological and biochemical properties were estimated. Inoculation by microbial consortium of Sinorhizobium meliloti T17 together with a new cyanobacterial isolate Nostoc PTV was more efficient than the single-rhizobium strain inoculation. This treatment provides an intensification of the processes of biological nitrogen fixation by rhizobia bacteria in the root nodules and an intensification of plant photosynthesis. Inoculation by bacterial consortium stimulates growth of plant mass and rhizogenesis and leads to increased productivity of alfalfa and to improving the amino acid composition of plant leaves. The full nucleotide sequence of the rRNA gene cluster and partial sequence of the dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) gene of Nostoc PTV were deposited to GenBank (JQ259185.1, JQ259186.1). Comparison of these gene sequences of Nostoc PTV with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that this cyanobacterial strain does not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this cyanobacterium clustered with high credibility values with Nostoc muscorum.

  18. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  19. STUDIES ON BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES OF DOGS AFTER EPIDURAL KETAMINE ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH PENTAZOCINE OR MEPERIDINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prawesh Ram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen clinically healthy mongrel dogs of either sex of about one year of age were randomly divided in to three groups containing five dogs in each. The ketamine hydrochloride was administered epidurally at lumbosacral space in group I, whereas pentazocine and meperidine hydrochloride were given epidurally in combination with ketamine hydrochloride in group II and III, respectively. AST, ALT, glucose and creatinine showed a significant variation within normal physiological limits; whereas, GGT, BUN and total protein did not showed a significant variation (P>0.05 at respective intervals of observation. It may be concluded that epidural administration of ketamine in combination of opioids are safe and did not produce deleterious effect on vital organs.

  20. Genetic and Biochemical Studies on Mannose-Negative Mutants That Are Deficient in Phosphomannose Isomerase in Escherichia coli K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovitz, Alvin; Sydiskis, Robert J.; Lieberman, Michael M.

    1967-01-01

    Two mannose-negative mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 have been isolated. These mutants are deficient in the ability to synthesize phosphomannose isomerase and capsular polysaccharide when grown on glucose-containing media. Interrupted mating experiments to determine the kinetics of genetic transfer show that the two mannose-negative mutations map together between the histidine and tryptophan regions of the E. coli chromosome. PMID:4862193

  1. hematological and biochemical studies on the effect of some natural antioxidants pre-injection in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashour, S.E.S.

    2011-01-01

    The present work was carried out in order to evaluate the biological activities of some natural antioxidants such as ziziphus and olive leaves extract as radioprotective agents on male albino rats treated with gamma irradiation. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of ziziphus and olive leaves have high content of phenolic and flavonoid compound. GC-MS showed that ethanolic extracts of ziziphus and olive leaves contains some important phenolic compounds include (Catechin, Chlorogenic,Zizyphine F, Luteolin and Succinylsulfathiazol), (Caffeic acid, Quercetin, Rutin, Diosmetine, Luteolin-7-glucoside and Oleuropein) respectively. γ-irradiation caused a significant decrease in body weight after 2 weeks as compared with control group. Administration of ethanolic extracts of olive and ziziphus leaves to normal rats exhibited a decrease in body weight after 2 weeks as compared with control group.The determination of different biological parameters showed a significant high level of ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine and urea in rat serum treated with gamma radiation. A significant depression in Hb, RBCs, HCT, MCV, WBC and PLT in rats after exposure to gamma radiation was noticed. The ethanolic extracts of ziziphus leaves and olive leaves application have been found to regulate the hematological parameters with narrow range around the normal level. A depressive effect of radiation was noticed on total protein, and albumin. Ethanolic extracts of olive and ziziphus leaves enhanced the accumulation of protein fraction.

  2. MM2-thalamic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: neuropathological, biochemical and transmission studies identify a distinctive prion strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio; Suardi, Silvia; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Indaco, Antonio; Limido, Lucia; Vimercati, Chiara; Ruggerone, Margherita; Campagnani, Ilaria; Langeveld, Jan; Terruzzi, Alessandro; Brambilla, Antonio; Zerbi, Pietro; Fociani, Paolo; Bishop, Matthew T; Will, Robert G; Manson, Jean C; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2012-09-01

    In Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), molecular typing based on the size of the protease resistant core of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc) ) and the M/V polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene correlates with the clinico-pathologic subtypes. Approximately 95% of the sporadic 129MM CJD patients are characterized by cerebral deposition of type 1 PrP(Sc) and correspond to the classic clinical CJD phenotype. The rare 129MM CJD patients with type 2 PrP(Sc) are further subdivided in a cortical and a thalamic form also indicated as sporadic fatal insomnia. We observed two young patients with MM2-thalamic CJD. Main neuropathological features were diffuse, synaptic PrP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex and severe neuronal loss and gliosis in the thalamus and olivary nucleus. Western blot analysis showed the presence of type 2A PrP(Sc) . Challenge of transgenic mice expressing 129MM human PrP showed that MM2-thalamic sporadic CJD (sCJD) was able to transmit the disease, at variance with MM2-cortical sCJD. The affected mice showed deposition of type 2A PrP(Sc) , a scenario that is unprecedented in this mouse line. These data indicate that MM2-thalamic sCJD is caused by a prion strain distinct from the other sCJD subtypes including the MM2-cortical form. © 2012 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2012 International Society of Neuropathology.

  3. Biochemical studies on the production of biofuel (bioethanol) from potato peels wastes by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects of fermentation periods and nitrogen source concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, Ryan A.; Al-Bar, Omar A.; Soliman, Youssri M. Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an interesting micro-organism with good prospects in the future of yeast bioethanol production. In this study, both commercial and genetically modified S. cerevisiae were obtained from the local shops in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia and the Microbial Biotechnology Department - National Research Center (Dokki - Egypt) respectively, and incubated at 25 °C before being acclimatized for the conditions of this research. In this work, the impact of two different biochemical conditions (fermentation periods and nitrogen source concentration) on the growth, carbohydrates yields, and mainly bioethanol productivity from potato peels wastes (PPW) were studied in both species. PPW were used as a solo carbon source in this study with HCl acidic pre-treatment method. When studying the impact of fermentation periods, the best fermentation periods were found to be between the third and the fourth day. Additionally, the optimal nitrogen source concentration added to the fermentation medium was 2 g/L. This study concludes with some suggestions for future work in an attempt to reach commercial production of bioethanol at the lowest possible costs

  4. A study on biochemical changes in the penaeid shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) following exposure to sublethal doses of organochlorine pesticide (endosulfan)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryavanshi, U.; Sreepada, R.A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Nigam, S.; Badesab, S.

    Endosulfan, a broad-spectrum non-systemic organochlorine (OC) pesticide is extensively used to control a wide variety of pests in agriculture, horticulture and public health programmes. Biochemical changes occurring in the metabolically active...

  5. Perceived weight discrimination and chronic biochemical stress: A population?based study using cortisol in scalp hair

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Sarah E.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is increasing evidence for weight?based discrimination against persons with obesity. This study aimed to examine the physiological impact of perceived weight discrimination on cortisol in hair, an indicator of chronic stress exposure. Methods Data were from 563 nonsmoking individuals with obesity (body mass index, BMI ?30 kg/m2) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Experiences of discrimination were reported via questionnaire, and hair cortisol concentrat...

  6. On the Adaptive Design Rules of Biochemical Networks in Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical networks are the backbones of physiological systems of organisms. Therefore, a biochemical network should be sufficiently robust (not sensitive to tolerate genetic mutations and environmental changes in the evolutionary process. In this study, based on the robustness and sensitivity criteria of biochemical networks, the adaptive design rules are developed for natural selection in the evolutionary process. This will provide insights into the robust adaptive mechanism of biochemical networks in the evolutionary process. We find that if a mutated biochemical network satisfies the robustness and sensitivity criteria of natural selection, there is a high probability for the biochemical network to prevail during natural selection in the evolutionary process. Since there are various mutated biochemical networks that can satisfy these criteria but have some differences in phenotype, the biochemical networks increase their diversities in the evolutionary process. The robustness of a biochemical network enables co-option so that new phenotypes can be generated in evolution. The proposed robust adaptive design rules of natural selection gain much insight into the evolutionary mechanism and provide a systematic robust biochemical circuit design method of biochemical networks for biotechnological and therapeutic purposes in the future.

  7. Radio-metabolite analysis of carbon-11 biochemical partitioning to non-structural carbohydrates for integrated metabolism and transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst, Benjamin A; Karve, Abhijit A; Judt, Tatjana

    2013-06-01

    Metabolism and phloem transport of carbohydrates are interactive processes, yet each is often studied in isolation from the other. Carbon-11 ((11)C) has been successfully used to study transport and allocation processes dynamically over time. There is a need for techniques to determine metabolic partitioning of newly fixed carbon that are compatible with existing non-invasive (11)C-based methodologies for the study of phloem transport. In this report, we present methods using (11)C-labeled CO2 to trace carbon partitioning to the major non-structural carbohydrates in leaves-sucrose, glucose, fructose and starch. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was adapted to provide multisample throughput, raising the possibility of measuring different tissues of the same individual plant, or for screening multiple plants. An additional advantage of HPTLC was that phosphor plate imaging of radioactivity had a much higher sensitivity and broader range of sensitivity than radio-HPLC detection, allowing measurement of (11)C partitioning to starch, which was previously not possible. Because of the high specific activity of (11)C and high sensitivity of detection, our method may have additional applications in the study of rapid metabolic responses to environmental changes that occur on a time scale of minutes. The use of this method in tandem with other (11)C assays for transport dynamics and whole-plant partitioning makes a powerful combination of tools to study carbohydrate metabolism and whole-plant transport as integrated processes.

  8. Biochemical and structural studies of the oligomerization domain of the Nipah virus phosphoprotein: evidence for an elongated coiled-coil homotrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocquel, David; Beltrandi, Matilde; Erales, Jenny; Barbier, Pascale; Longhi, Sonia

    2013-11-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a recently emerged severe human pathogen that belongs to the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. The NiV genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid that is the substrate used by the polymerase for transcription and replication. The polymerase is recruited onto the nucleocapsid via its cofactor, the phosphoprotein (P). The NiV P protein has a modular organization, with alternating disordered and ordered domains. Among these latter, is the P multimerization domain (PMD) that was predicted to adopt a coiled-coil conformation. Using both biochemical and biophysical approaches, we show that NiV PMD forms a highly stable and elongated coiled-coil trimer, a finding in striking contrast with respect to the PMDs of Paramyxoviridae members investigated so far that were all found to tetramerize. The present results therefore represent the first report of a paramyxoviral P protein forming trimers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Strain improvement studies on Microbacterium foliorum GA2 for production of α-amylase in solid state fermentation: Biochemical characteristics and wash performance analysis at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi; Kuddus, Mohammed

    2018-01-15

    Microbacterium foliorum GA2, an alkali-tolerant bacterium, was randomly mutated using UV radiation and sodium azide to obtain a mutant with a higher cold-active extracellular amylolytic activity. A mutant, designated as MFSD20, was selected owing to its higher amylase activity at 20°C. Under optimized conditions, amylase production was achieved best with raw banana peels (5000 units) in solid-state fermentation (SSF). The enzyme was purified by salt precipitation and chromatographic methods and afterwards characterized biochemically. The purified enzyme showed maximal activity at temperatures between 15-25°C and at pH 8.0. Interestingly, this mutant biocatalyst (MFSD20) displays higher catalytic activity under conditions of low temperature (4°C) and high pH (10.0), in the presence of SDS (0.1 and 1%), and exhibited 85% and 50% requirement of divalent metallic ions Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , respectively. This mutant enzyme extract in combination with "Wheel detergent" was highly effective in the removal of tomato sauce and chocolate stains from white cotton fabric was demonstrated by ~50% additional reflectance compared with detergent alone, in a wash performance analysis at 20 ± 2°C. The features shown by mutant M. foliorum GA2 make it a promising candidate for industrial applications involving starch degradation at low temperatures.

  10. A study of the effects of crude oil pollution and oil-degrading bacteria on some biochemical and growth factors of Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Keramat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria-Plant systems for bioremediation of oil polluted sites are one of the most effective approaches of biotechnology in the recent years. It is well known that oil pollution induces oxidative stress in plants. In this research, the effects of crude oil pollution on Zea mays and bioremediation by synergism between plant and crude oil degrading bacteria, four different treatments were designed. Some physiological and microbial factors were assayed for determining the effects of oil pollution. The results showed that 1% crude oil in soil shoot, dry weight was reduced and the amount of phenolic compounds increased. With crude oil and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium, shoot dry weight, chlorophyll (a, total chlorophyll and anthocyanins decreased wherase phenolic compounds, malodialdehyde and catalase enzyme activity increased. With 1% crude oil and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus bacterium, significant changes were seen in the parameters of growth. Photosynthetic pigment did not increase whereas anthocyanin, phenolic compounds, malodialdehyde and catalase activity increased. White Crude oil and the presence of both bacteria shoot dry weight and chlorophyll levels decreased and increased levels of anthocyanin and malon-dialdehyde were observed. Addition of oil to the soil, increased the numbers of crude oil degrading bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria but crude oil were removed from soil by biodegradation. By application of bacterial-plant systems in the field, industrial wastes from refinery and biochemical factories could be removed oppropriately.

  11. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase from Down Syndrome and Normal Children Erythrocytes: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ragaa R.; Maharem, Tahany M.; Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Sabry, Gilane M.; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Guneidy, Rasha A.

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21. Our study was concerned with the characterization and purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) from normal and Down syndrome (DS) erythrocytes to illustrate the difference in the role of this enzyme in the cell. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione (GSH) was…

  12. Specific nutritional supplement (Supportan®) in the supportive care of the radio-chemotherapy treatment of head and neck cancers: biochemical parameters. Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casbarien, Octavio; Cresta, Pablo; Silva, Carolina; Feliu, Maria S; Badia, Alejandra; Delgado, Norberto L; Navigante, Alfredo; Slobodianik, Nora

    2013-12-01

    This is a preliminary study of a specific nutritional supplement -Supportan(®) - for the clinical support of patients with locally advanced head and neck (H&N) cancers who underwent treatment with concurrent radiochemotherapy (RT-CHT). Seven patients received nutritional supplement (Supportan(®)) plus habitual diet during a median time of treatment with RT on 7.8 weeks plus concurrent weekly CHT(S). Specific serum protein fractions as a potential useful tool to evaluate the nutritional status were determined. The main objective was to assess the compliance with the above-mentioned treatment. Patients completed the nutritional support, 5 / 7 patients via oral route and 2/7 patients through nasogastric tube. All studied patients, that completed treatment, had not severe mucositis -ulcera, hemrraghe and/ or infection. None of them had another severe toxicity by treatment nor had impairment of Pefomance Status. No differences in all specific sera proteins were observed between S and To. In this preliminary study of few patients, we have observed a potential usefulness of Supportan(®) in the compliance of concurrent RT-CHT in patients with H&N cancers; moreover, its administration was useful to maintain the initial biochemical nutritional profile.

  13. The Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS identification versus biochemical tests: a study with enterobacteria from a dairy cattle environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara Miranda Bento Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Mastitis adversely affects milk production and in general cows do not regain their full production levels post recovery, leading to considerable economic losses. Moreover the percentage decrease in milk production depends on the specific pathogen that caused the infection and enterobacteria are responsible for this greater reduction. Phenotypic tests are among the currently available methods used worldwide to identify enterobacteria; however they tend to misdiagnose the species despite the multiple tests carried out. On the other hand The Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS technique has been attracting attention for its precise identification of several microorganisms at species level. In the current study, 183 enterobacteria were detected in milk (n = 47 and fecal samples (n = 94 from cows, and samples from water (n = 23 and milk lines (n = 19. All these samples were collected from a farm in Rio de Janeiro with the specific purpose of presenting the MALDI-TOF MS technique as an efficient methodology to identify Enterobacteriaceae from bovine environments. The MALDI-TOF MS technique results matched the biochemical test results in 92.9% (170/183 of the enterobacteria species and the gyrB sequencing confirmed 100% of the proteomic technique results. The amino acid decarboxylation test made the most misidentifications and Enterobacter spp. was the most misidentified genus (76.9%, 10/13. These results aim to clarify the current biochemical errors in enterobacteria identification, considering isolates from a bovine environment, and show the importance for more careful readings of phenotypic tests which are often used in veterinary microbiology laboratories.

  14. Toxicological and biochemical studies on Schinus terebinthifolius concerning its curative and hepatoprotective effects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Rania H; Saleh, Sherif Y; Khalil, Waleed F

    2015-05-01

    Recently, many efforts have been made to discover new products of natural origin which can limit the xenobiotic-induced hepatic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a highly toxic chemical that is widely used to study hepatotoxicity in animal models. The present study was conducted to investigate the curative and protective effects of Schinus terbenthifolius ethanolic extract against CCl4 -induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. S. terbenthifolius extract was orally administered in a dose of 350 mg dried extract/kg b.wt. before and after intoxication with CCl4 for curative and protective experiments, respectively. A group of hepatotoxicity indicative enzymes, oxidant-antioxidant capacity, DNA oxidation, and apoptosis markers were measured. CCl4 increased liver enzyme leakage, oxidative stress, hepatic apoptosis, DNA oxidation, and inflammatory markers. Administration of S. terebinthifolius, either before or after CCl4 intoxication, significantly decreased elevated serum liver enzymes and reinstated the antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, S. terebinthifolius extract inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis as revealed by approximately 20 times down-regulation in caspase-3 expression when compared to CCl4 untreated group. On the other hand, there was neither protective nor curative effect of S. terebinthifolius against DNA damage caused by CCl4. The present study suggests that S. terebinthifolius extract could be a substantially promising hepatoprotective agent against CCl4 toxic effects and may be against other hepatotoxic chemical or drugs.

  15. THE INVESTIGATION OF BIOCHEMICAL CONTENT OF Elaeagnus angustifolia

    OpenAIRE

    yıldırım, Işıl

    2018-01-01

    AbstractStudies about herbal products are increasing every day due to their rich biochemical content. Elaeagnus angustofolia is one of the best known plant species to have a strong biochemical substance spectrum. This work was performed to identify the some biochemical content of Eleagnus angustofolia. In this study, vitamins A, E, and C, total sugar content, inverted sugar content, cellulose content, amount of total protein, and fatty acid properties were studied. Our investigations revealed...

  16. Honey collected from different floras of Chandigarh Tricity: a comparative study involving physicochemical parameters and biochemical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Sindhu, Rakesh K; Narayan, Shridhar; Singh, Inderbir

    2010-12-01

    Different monofloral honeys have a distinctive flavor and color because of differences in physicochemical parameters because of their principal nectar sources or floral types. Honey samples were collected from Apis mellifera colonies forged on 10 floras to analyze the quality of honey in terms of standards laid by Honey Grading and Marking Rules (HGMR), India, 2008 and Codex Alimentarious Commission (CAC), 1969 . The honey samples were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters of honey quality control, i.e., pH, total acidity, moisture, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, total sugars, water insoluble solids (WIS), ash content, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural content, and diastase value. The antioxidant potential was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Further, honey samples were assayed for antibacterial activities against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using the hole-plate diffusion method. The physicochemical variation in the composition of honey because of floral source shows Ziziphus honey with high pH and diastase values along with low acidity, whereas Helianthus honey contained high reducing sugar and low moisture content. Amomum, Brassica, Acacia, and Citrus contained lowest amount of non-reducing sugars, ash, WIS, and moisture, respectively. Lowest 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) value was detected in Amomum honey, while highest HMF value was observed with Eucalyptus. The maximum antibacterial and antioxidant potential was observed in Azadirachta and Citrus, respectively. The quality of honey produced by local beekeepers met HGMR and CAC standards, and the chemical composition and biological properties of honey were dependent on the floral source from which it was produced.

  17. Effect of age and estrogen on biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women: a population-based study from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardhe BD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bashu Dev Pardhe, Sabala Pathak, Anjeela Bhetwal, Sumitra Ghimire, Shreena Shakya, Puspa Raj Khanal, Sujan Babu Marahatta Department of Laboratory Medicine, Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Osteoporosis, a common disease worldwide, is characterized by low bone mass and architectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and increase in fracture risks. Both menopause and aging are related factors leading to greater risk of bone disease, particularly among postmenopausal women. Hence, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in biochemical markers of bone turnover and to evaluate the association of hormones and age-related factors with biochemical markers between pre- and postmenopausal women.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 6 months among the female population of Dholahity community, Lalitpur, Nepal. A total of 496 healthy women were selected based on the questionnaire strategy. Among them, 244 were premenopausal and 252 were postmenopausal women. Different bone markers were evaluated as per the guideline provided by the reagent manufacturer, and hormonal assay, particularly estradiol level assessment, was performed by chemiluminescence immunoassay-based technique.Results: A significant decrease in serum calcium level and estradiol level was observed in postmenopausal women as compared to premenopausal women, whereas a significant increase in serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels was seen among postmenopausal (p<0.001. Age was significantly correlated with bone markers (ALP and calcium in postmenopausal group (p<0.005, while there was no significant correlation in premenopausal group. In addition, there was significant positive correlation between calcium and estradiol in postmenopausal women, while ALP was negatively correlated with estradiol in that group. Further, no significant correlation

  18. Sodium 2-(4-amino-(5-(furan-2-yl-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetate, synthesis, study of biochemical indicators of blood serum cows in its use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Danilchenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Heterocyclic system of 1,2,4-triazole is interesting and has a popularity among scientists around the world every year. Most attention today is attracted to the compounds formed by a combination of 1,2,4-triazole and various structural residues of an aliphatic, aromatic, heterocyclic nature. Recent publications on the study of physical, chemical and biological properties of 1,2,4-triazole substituted prove the obvious relevance of the search for potential pharmacologically active molecules is among the water-soluble derivatives of 1,2,4-triazole. It should be noted that 1,2,4-triazole derivatives are successfully used in veterinary practice as original domestic drugs. The aim of our work was to synthesize the sodium 2-(4-amino-(5-(furan-2-yl-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio acetate for which we decided to provide a comparative screening studies on determination of some biochemical parameters of cows blood serum and determine the possibility of its further implementation. Materials and methods of research. As the starting compound for the synthesis it was used a 2-(4-amino-(5-(furan-2-yl-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio acetic acid. The obtained compound is an individual white crystalline substance, which is soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents. Results and discussion. At the first day of administration of sodium 2-(4-amino-(5-(furan-2-yl-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio acetate in experimental animals it was recorded significant increase in total protein content of the serum, γ-globulin, reduction of enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase. On the third day it was marked increase in total protein, γ-globulin, and decrease of activity of LDH and LF. On the seventh day in the experimental animals was recorded increase of total protein and γ-globulins. Decreased activity of LDH and exercise therapy. Conclusions. First we synthesized sodium 2-(4-amino-(5-(furan-2-yl-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio acetate whose structure is

  19. A pilot study evaluating changes to haematological and biochemical tests after Flexible Ureterorenoscopy for the treatment of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Alyson Jayne; Lamb, Rebecca May; Ella-Tongwiis, Peter; Pushkaran, Anish; Ahmed, Issam; Shergill, Iqbal; Hughes, Stephen Fôn

    2017-01-01

    Currently there is limited research documenting the changes in blood parameters, following Flexible Ureterorenoscopy. This study aims to determine whether there are any changes in haematology and biochemistry parameters, following Flexible Ureterorenoscopy for the treatment of kidney stones. 40 consecutive patients aged between 27-87 years (median 49 years) undergoing Flexible Ureterorenoscopy for the treatment of kidney stones were recruited (26 male, 14 female). Blood samples were collected from each patient at four time points: baseline (pre-operatively) followed by 30 minutes, 120 minutes and 240 minutes post-operatively. On these samples, routine haematological and biochemistry tests were carried out. In addition to the assessment of clinical parameters prospectively from the medical notes. There was a significant decrease observed following Flexible Ureterorenoscopy in the following parameters: lymphocytes (p = 0.007), eosinophils (p = 0.001), basophils (p = 0.001), haemoglobin (p = 0.002), red blood cells (p = 0.001), platelet count (p = 0.001), fibrinogen concentration (p = 0.001), von Willebrand factor (p = 0.046), C reactive protein (p = 0.01), total protein (p = 0.001), albumin (p = 0.001), globulin (p = 0.001) and alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.001). In addition, there was a significant increase observed in the following parameters: white blood cells (p = 0.001), neutrophils (p = 0.001), activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.001), total bilirubin (p = 0.012), creatinine (p = 0.008), sodium (p = 0.002) and potassium (p = 0.001). Limiting factors for this study were the sample size, and restriction on the recruitment time points. Significant changes were noted to occur in haematology and biochemistry parameters following Flexible Ureterorenoscopy. Some of the data presented in this study may represent the 'normal' post-operative response following FURS, as no major complications occurred, in the majority of our patients. This data on the 'normal

  20. A Study of the Microbial Spatial Heterogeneity of Bahamian Thrombolites Using Molecular, Biochemical, and Stable Isotope Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louyakis, Artemis S.; Mobberley, Jennifer M.; Vitek, Brooke E.; Visscher, Pieter T.; Hagan, Paul D.; Reid, R. Pamela; Kozdon, Reinhard; Orland, Ian J.; Valley, John W.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Casaburi, Giorgio; Foster, Jamie S.

    2017-05-01

    Thrombolites are buildups of carbonate that exhibit a clotted internal structure formed through the interactions of microbial mats and their environment. Despite recent advances, we are only beginning to understand the microbial and molecular processes associated with their formation. In this study, a spatial profile of the microbial and metabolic diversity of thrombolite-forming mats of Highborne Cay, The Bahamas, was generated by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and predictive metagenomic analyses. These molecular-based approaches were complemented with microelectrode profiling and in situ stable isotope analysis to examine the dominant taxa and metabolic activities within the thrombolite-forming communities. Analyses revealed three distinctive zones within the thrombolite-forming mats that exhibited stratified populations of bacteria and archaea. Predictive metagenomics also revealed vertical profiles of metabolic capabilities, such as photosynthesis and carboxylic and fatty acid synthesis within the mats that had not been previously observed. The carbonate precipitates within the thrombolite-forming mats exhibited isotopic geochemical signatures suggesting that the precipitation within the Bahamian thrombolites is photosynthetically induced. Together, this study provides the first look at the spatial organization of the microbial populations within Bahamian thrombolites and enables the distribution of microbes to be correlated with their activities within modern thrombolite systems.

  1. Perceived weight discrimination and chronic biochemical stress: A population-based study using cortisol in scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah E; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing evidence for weight-based discrimination against persons with obesity. This study aimed to examine the physiological impact of perceived weight discrimination on cortisol in hair, an indicator of chronic stress exposure. Data were from 563 nonsmoking individuals with obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Experiences of discrimination were reported via questionnaire, and hair cortisol concentrations were determined from the scalp-nearest 2-cm hair segment. Height and weight were objectively measured. ANCOVAs tested associations between perceived weight discrimination and hair cortisol concentration overall and by degree of obesity. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and BMI. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were 33% higher in those who had experienced weight discrimination than those who had not (mean log pg/mg 1.241 vs. 0.933, F = 12.01, P = 0.001). The association between weight discrimination and hair cortisol was particularly pronounced in individuals with severe (class II/III) obesity (1.402 vs. 0.972, F = 11.58, P = 0.001). Weight discrimination is associated with the experience of stress at a biological level. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of cortisol may play a role in generating a vicious circle of weight gain and discrimination and contribute to obesity-associated health conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  2. Perceived weight discrimination and chronic biochemical stress: A population‐based study using cortisol in scalp hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is increasing evidence for weight‐based discrimination against persons with obesity. This study aimed to examine the physiological impact of perceived weight discrimination on cortisol in hair, an indicator of chronic stress exposure. Methods Data were from 563 nonsmoking individuals with obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥30 kg/m2) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Experiences of discrimination were reported via questionnaire, and hair cortisol concentrations were determined from the scalp‐nearest 2‐cm hair segment. Height and weight were objectively measured. ANCOVAs tested associations between perceived weight discrimination and hair cortisol concentration overall and by degree of obesity. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and BMI. Results Mean hair cortisol concentrations were 33% higher in those who had experienced weight discrimination than those who had not (mean log pg/mg 1.241 vs. 0.933, F = 12.01, P = 0.001). The association between weight discrimination and hair cortisol was particularly pronounced in individuals with severe (class II/III) obesity (1.402 vs. 0.972, F = 11.58, P = 0.001). Conclusions Weight discrimination is associated with the experience of stress at a biological level. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of cortisol may play a role in generating a vicious circle of weight gain and discrimination and contribute to obesity‐associated health conditions. PMID:27740706

  3. CEREBROSPINAL FLUID BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES IN PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE: TOWARDS A POTENTIAL SEARCH FOR BIOMARKERS FOR THIS DISEASE

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    Félix Javier eJiménez-Jiménez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier supplies brain tissues with nutrients and filters certain compounds from the brain back to the bloodstream. In several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD, there are disruptions of the blood-brain barrier. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF has been widely investigated in PD and in other parkinsonian syndromes with the aim of establishing useful biomarkers for an accurate differential diagnosis among these syndromes. This review article summarizes the studies reported on CSF levels of many potential biomarkers of PD. The most consistent findings are: (a the possible role of CSF urate on the progression of the disease; (b the possible relations of CSF total tau and phosphotau protein with the progression of PD and with the preservation of cognitive function in PD patients; (c the possible value of CSF beta-amyloid 1-42 as a useful marker of further cognitive decline in PD patients, and (d the potential usefulness of CSF neurofilament (NFL protein levels in the differential diagnosis between PD and other parkinsonian syndromes. Future multicentric, longitudinal, prospective studies with long-term follow-up and neuropathological confirmation would be useful inestablishing appropriate biomarkers for PD.

  4. The biochemical characterization, stabilization studies and the antiproliferative effect of bromelain against B16F10 murine melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São Paulo Barretto Miranda, Íngara Keisle; Fontes Suzart Miranda, Anderson; Souza, Fernanda Vidigal Duarte; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Pepe, Iuri Muniz; Rodowanski, Ivanoé João; Ferreira, Katiúcia Tícila de Souza Eduvirgens; Mendes Souza Vaz, Luciano; de Assis, Sandra Aparecida

    2017-06-01

    The current study aims to extract bromelain from different parts (stem, crown, peels, pulp and leaves) of Ananas comosus var. comosus AGB 772; to determine of optimum pH and temperature; to test bromelain stability in disodium EDTA and sodium benzoate, and to investigate its pharmacological activity on B16F10 murine melanoma cells in vitro. The highest enzymatic activity was found in bromelain extracted from the pulp and peel. The optimum bromelain pH among all studied pineapple parts was 6.0. The optimum temperature was above 50 °C in all bromelain extracts. The fluorescence analysis confirmed the stability of bromelain in the presence of EDTA and sodium benzoate. Bromelain was pharmacologically active against B16F10 melanoma cells and it was possible verifying approximately 100% inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in vitro. Since bromelain activity was found in different parts of pineapple plants, pineapple residues from the food industry may be used for bromelain extraction.

  5. Effect of excimer laser (Arf, 193 nm) on aqueous humor during photorefractive keratectomy biophysical and biochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S.S.; Mahmoud, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (193 nm) produced by an excimer laser has been used to produce precise tissue ablation with minimal thermal damage to adjacent tissue. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of excimer laser during photo refractive keratectomy (PRK) on aqueous humor constituents and also the effect of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD)- applied topically- on these changes if exist. Five groups of schenchilla rabbits were involved in this study, where four groups underwent corneal stromal ablation using argon fluoride excimer laser (Ar F, 193 nm). Two of these four groups were treated with superoxide dismutase intra operatively. The fifth group was used as control one. The obtained results revealed depletion of aqueous humor ascorbate and glutathione contents. Aqueous humor refractive index, cholesterol, phospholipids, malondialdehyde (MDA) and total protein were measured. In conclusion, the excimer laser can induce changes in aqueous humor constituents during PRK. These changes lasted at least for 24 hours and as the time increased to 4 weeks, these changes became limited. The use of exogenous SOD seems to exert beneficial effect on aqueous humor refractive index and total protein

  6. Biochemical studies on the effect of different water resources in Hail region on liver and kidney functions of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkhan, Ola F A; Abd Elwahab, Safaa A E; Shalapy, Ebtessam M

    2016-08-01

    Low concentration of a heavy metal is toxic and can be classified as one of the pollution sources. Industrial and human waste can pollute water with heavy metals and soils breaking down under the effect of acidic rain, which release heavy metals into river, streams, lakes, and ground water. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vital organs of the human body damages these organs, including the liver and kidney, which are the main organs for metabolism, detoxification, and excretion. The present study aims to investigate into concentrations of such heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in both ground and tap water samples collected from different areas in Hail region, KSA. Then, this study moves forward to examine the effects of such concentrations on the biochemistry of serum in rats. In this regard, the results demonstrate the presence of significant differences (p water, when compared with the control group. In addition, there were significant differences (p water can cause disturbance in the liver and kidney function parameters, which highlights health risks of the water polluted with heavy metals. In this sense, the concerned authorities should regularly carry out survey and should monitor underground water, and people have to be aware of such risks.

  7. Structural characterization, AC conductivity, optical properties and biochemical study of a new hybrid phosphate: Scavenger of free radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezai, Ramzi; Hemissi, Hanene; Mezni, Ali; Rzaigui, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Single crystal of the hybrid compound [p-(F)C6H4NH3]6P6O18·2H2O has been grown with sizes up to 0.65 × 0.45 × 0.3 mm3 by the slow evaporation method. The crystal structure of this material was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the triclinic space group P 1 bar with the lattice parameters a = 10.16(3) Å, b = 15.87(3) Å, c = 16.36(4) Å, α = 80.93(2)°, β = 85.92(18)°, γ = 85.31(2)°, V = 2591.1(12) Å3 and Z = 2. Its crystal structure is a packing of alternated inorganic and organic layers parallel to (a, c) planes. The cohesion of the structure is essentially ensured by a hydrogen bonding network as well as electrostatic and Van Der Waals interactions and also F…F interactions so as to increase the stability of the 3D-network. The effect of the nature of the substituent in para-position with respect to amine group on obtained structures and on other studied properties was discussed. Crystal symmetry is confirmed by 31P MAS-NMR. Furthermore, IR characteristics and thermal analysis are given. The luminescent properties of this material have been carried out at room temperature based on UV absorption spectroscopy data. AC conductivity of this compound has been investigated by means of impedance spectroscopy measurements in the 303-383 K temperature range. The antioxidant study was determined, in vitro, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical and reducing power and with ascorbic acid as a control. X-rays structural results are correlated with electrical and antioxidant findings.

  8. Clinical, Biochemical Characteristics and Hospital Outcome of Acute Intermittent Porphyria Patients: A Descriptive Study from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Susheel; Bhalla, Ashish; Sharma, Navneet; Dhibar, Deba Prasad; Kumari, Savita; Varma, Subhash

    2017-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by disordered heme biosynthesis. There is no recent study reported from India. It was a retrospective, observational study. Clinical records of patients of AIP with acute porphyric attacks admitted from April 2008 to December 2016 were analyzed. Fifteen AIP patients constituted of eight females and seven males were analyzed. Mean age at presentation was 34.33 ± 15.86 years. Thirteen patients (86.67%) had acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). All of them had peripheral neuropathy. These patients concomitantly had abdominal pain, seizure, encephalopathy, autonomic hyperactivity, history of passage of dark urine, and electrolyte abnormality (hyponatremia) in various combinations. Abdominal pain was the presenting symptom in 11 (73.33%) patients. Seven (46.67%) patients had seizure episodes. Five patients (33.33%) had hyponatremia at presentation. Significantly higher percentage of them had seizure at presentation or during hospital stay ( P = 0.007). These patients also had evidence of autonomic hyperactivity in the form of higher pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure at presentation. They had prolonged duration of hospital stay as well ( P = 0.016). Eleven patients had partial recovery and rest four patients (26.67%) had in-hospital mortality. Patients had severe neurological involvement manifesting mainly as AFP and seizure episodes. We recommend screening for AIP in patients presenting with features of AFP along with any combination of clinical/laboratory manifestations such as abdominal pain, seizure, encephalopathy, autonomic hyperactivity, passage of dark urine, and hyponatremia. Electrolyte abnormality in the form of hyponatremia was an important severity marker.

  9. Study of β-galactosidase activity in Lactobacilli separated from milk and cheese by biochemical and PCR methods

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    zohre bahadori

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In some people the inadequate amount of Beta-galactosidase enzyme, in layer of villous epithelium of the small intestine, causes the disorder of lactose intolerance. This examination was done to observe the existence of Beta-galactosidase enzyme that is produced by separated Lactobacillus from samples of dairy products (milk and cheese. Materials and Methods: Pasteurized and local samples of milk and cheese were perchased from Lorestan,Ilam and Hamedan provinces. By keeping the samples in MRS media and according to some phenotypic features, Lactobacillus were recognized. Through X-gal and ONPG methods the ability of Beta-galactosidase production was examined.By PCR method the existence of Beta- galactosidase gene was studied. Results: Among studied samples 131 Lactobacillus(13 strains were separated,which in media containing X-gal green colonies were acquired(but in different occasions.Green colonies demonstrated the existence of Beta-galactosidase enzyme in the media. In ONPG test, all Lactobacillus indicated the Beta-galactosidase activiy that in 25 strains the amount of enzyme was more than the others, (also the greatest amount of enzyme in a strain of Lactobacillus delberoki separated from Kermanshah local cheese was measured by 2010 miller unit /ml. In a standard strain of Lactobacillus Plantarum(RITCC 1273 and 29 strains of separated Lactobacillus Plantarum the 399bp band of Beta-galactosidase gene was examined and confirmed through PCR method. Conclusion: In dairy products, using Lactobacilli which contain Beta-galactosidase enzyme,we can help the people who lack lactose tolerance. Meanwhile those Lactobacillus that creat more Beta-galactosidase are more suitable to use.

  10. Estimation and Comparison of Salivary Calcium, Phosphorous, Alkaline Phosphatase and pH Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease: A Cross-sectional Biochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rufi Murad; Varma, Siddhartha; Suragimath, Girish; Zope, Sameer

    2016-07-01

    In oral diagnostics there is a great challenge to determine biomarkers for screening and evaluating the disease activity. Biomarkers can also serve as a useful tool to measure the efficacy of the therapy. To evaluate and compare the levels of salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH levels in periodontally healthy subjects and patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. The present study consisted of 150 subjects aged between 20-45 years who were divided into three groups; periodontally healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Prior to the clinical examination the demographic details, relevant information of the subject, gingival index, plaque index, Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) and pH were recorded. Biochemical assay of saliva i.e., inorganic calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase were estimated by colorimetric method. ANOVA and Tukey's test were applied for statistical analysis. The mean levels of biomarkers studied were; inorganic calcium (12.55μg/dl), phosphorous (14.50μg/dl), alkaline phosphatase (49.62μg/dl) and pH (11.65). There was a gradual increase in these levels as the condition progressed from health to gingivitis or periodontitis which was statistically significant at ppH can be considered for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal tissues in disease and health.

  11. The effect of tadalafil therapy on kidney damage caused by sepsis in a polymicrobial septic model induced in rats: a biochemical and histopathological study

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    Erdal Benli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction Sepsis is an inflammatory reaction to bacteria involving the whole body and is a significant cause of mortality and economic costs. The purpose of this research was to determine whether tadalafil exhibits a preventive effect on sepsis in a septic model induced in rats with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Materials and Methods Rats were randomly separated into groups, 10 rats in each: (i a sham (control group, (ii an untreated sepsis group, (iii a sepsis group treated with 5mg/kg tadalafil and (iv a sepsis group treated with 10mg/kg tadalafil. A polymicrobial sepsis model was induced in rats using CLP. Rats were sacrificed after 16h, and blood and kidney tissues were collected for biochemical and histopathological study. Results Levels of the inflammatory parameter IL-6 decreased significantly in the sepsis groups receiving tadalafil in comparison with the untreated sepsis group (p<0.05. In terms of histopathology, inflammation scores investigated in kidney tissues decreased significantly in the sepsis groups receiving tadalafil compared to the untreated sepsis group (p<0.05. In addition, levels of creatinine and cystatin C measured in septic rats receiving tadalafil were lower by a clear degree than in septic rats (p<0.05. Conclusion In this study, tadalafil exhibited a preventive effect for sepsis-related damage by suppressing inflammation in serum and kidney tissue of septic rats in a polymicrobial sepsis model induced with CLP.

  12. Environmental plasticity of Pinot noir grapevine leaves: A trans-European study of morphological and biochemical changes along a 1,500-km latitudinal climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Antonella; Csepregi, Kristóf; Neugart, Susanne; Zipoli, Gaetano; Večeřová, Kristýna; Jakab, Gábor; Jug, Tjaša; Llorens, Laura; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Martínez-Lüscher, Johann; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación; Ranieri, Annamaria; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Schreiner, Monika; Teszlák, Péter; Tittmann, Susanne; Urban, Otmar; Verdaguer, Dolors; Jansen, Marcel A K; Hideg, Éva

    2017-11-01

    A 2-year study explored metabolic and phenotypic plasticity of sun-acclimated Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir leaves collected from 12 locations across a 36.69-49.98°N latitudinal gradient. Leaf morphological and biochemical parameters were analysed in the context of meteorological parameters and the latitudinal gradient. We found that leaf fresh weight and area were negatively correlated with both global and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, cumulated global radiation being a stronger correlator. Cumulative UV radiation (sumUVR) was the strongest correlator with most leaf metabolites and pigments. Leaf UV-absorbing pigments, total antioxidant capacities, and phenolic compounds increased with increasing sumUVR, whereas total carotenoids and xanthophylls decreased. Despite of this reallocation of metabolic resources from carotenoids to phenolics, an increase in xanthophyll-cycle pigments (the sum of the amounts of three xanthophylls: violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin) with increasing sumUVR indicates active, dynamic protection for the photosynthetic apparatus. In addition, increased amounts of flavonoids (quercetin glycosides) and constitutive β-carotene and α-tocopherol pools provide antioxidant protection against reactive oxygen species. However, rather than a continuum of plant acclimation responses, principal component analysis indicates clusters of metabolic states across the explored 1,500-km-long latitudinal gradient. This study emphasizes the physiological component of plant responses to latitudinal gradients and reveals the physiological plasticity that may act to complement genetic adaptations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Pro-Oxidant Role of Silibinin in DMBA/TPA Induced Skin Cancer: 1H NMR Metabolomic and Biochemical Study.

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    Jasmine Sati

    Full Text Available Silibinin, a major bioactive flavonolignan in Silybum marianum, has received considerable attention in view of its anticarcinogenic activity. The present study examines its anticancer potential against 7, 12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA induced skin cancer. Male LACA mice were randomly segregated into 4 groups: Control, DMBA/TPA, Silibinin and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA. Tumors in DMBA/TPA and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA groups were histologically graded as squamous cell carcinoma. In the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group, significant reduction in tumor incidence (23%, tumor volume (64.4%, and tumor burden (84.8% was observed when compared to the DMBA/TPA group. The underlying protective mechanism of Silibinin action was studied at pre-initiation (2 weeks, post-initiation (10 weeks and promotion (22 weeks stages of the skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant nature of Silibinin was evident at the end of 2 weeks of its treatment. However, towards the end of 10 and 22 weeks, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO levels indicate the pro-oxidative nature of Silibinin in the cancerous tissue. TUNEL assay revealed enhanced apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group with respect to the DMBA/TPA group. Therefore, it may be suggested that raised LPO could be responsible for triggering apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the metabolic profile of the skin /skin tumors. Dimethylamine (DMA, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, glucose, lactic acid, taurine and guanine were identified as the major contributors for separation between the groups from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the metabolite data. Enhanced DMA levels with no alteration in GPC, glucose and lactate levels reflect altered choline metabolism with no marked Warburg effect in skin tumors. However, elevated guanine levels with potent suppression of taurine and glucose levels in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group

  14. Pro-Oxidant Role of Silibinin in DMBA/TPA Induced Skin Cancer: 1H NMR Metabolomic and Biochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Jasmine; Mohanty, Biraja Prasad; Garg, Mohan Lal; Koul, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Silibinin, a major bioactive flavonolignan in Silybum marianum, has received considerable attention in view of its anticarcinogenic activity. The present study examines its anticancer potential against 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced skin cancer. Male LACA mice were randomly segregated into 4 groups: Control, DMBA/TPA, Silibinin and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA. Tumors in DMBA/TPA and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA groups were histologically graded as squamous cell carcinoma. In the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group, significant reduction in tumor incidence (23%), tumor volume (64.4%), and tumor burden (84.8%) was observed when compared to the DMBA/TPA group. The underlying protective mechanism of Silibinin action was studied at pre-initiation (2 weeks), post-initiation (10 weeks) and promotion (22 weeks) stages of the skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant nature of Silibinin was evident at the end of 2 weeks of its treatment. However, towards the end of 10 and 22 weeks, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels indicate the pro-oxidative nature of Silibinin in the cancerous tissue. TUNEL assay revealed enhanced apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group with respect to the DMBA/TPA group. Therefore, it may be suggested that raised LPO could be responsible for triggering apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the metabolic profile of the skin /skin tumors. Dimethylamine (DMA), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glucose, lactic acid, taurine and guanine were identified as the major contributors for separation between the groups from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the metabolite data. Enhanced DMA levels with no alteration in GPC, glucose and lactate levels reflect altered choline metabolism with no marked Warburg effect in skin tumors. However, elevated guanine levels with potent suppression of taurine and glucose levels in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group are

  15. A study to correlate histopathology, biochemical marker and immunohistochemical expression of sex-steroid receptors in prostatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Sukla; Kundu, Soumya Kanti; Bhattacharyya, Nirmal Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Pranab Kumar; Kundu, Anup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Prostate gland is a fibromusculoglandular structure situated at the neck of urinary bladder. So, enlargement or growth of prostate due to nodular hyperplasia (NHP) or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) or adenocarcinoma may give rise to bladder outlet obstruction. Malignant growth i.e., PIN or adenocarcinoma cases are associated with increased blood level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and increased expression of different sex-steroid receptors because the growth is dependent on the interactions of androgen, progesterone and estrogen. The aim of our study is to correlate the histopathology, PSA levels and expression of different sex-steroid receptors by immunohistochemistry in different prostatic growth lesions. Among the total 50 cases received, inclusive of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy and radical prostatectomy, 34 cases were diagnosed as NHP, 4 cases as PIN and 12 cases as adenocarcinoma histopathologically. Serum PSA values above 10 ng/ml were seen in 2 cases of PIN and 11 cases of adenocarcinoma and none of NHP. Estrogen receptor (ER) () expressions were negative in all cases. Progesterone receptor (PR) expressions were strongly positive in 35% cases of both NHP and adenocarcinoma, whereas androgen receptor (AR) expressions were strong among all cases of adenocarcinoma and only in four cases of NHP. By observing these findings it can be suggested that antiandrogen and antiprogesterone therapy simultaneously will do better than antiandrogen alone in treating prostatic growth lesions.

  16. Antagonistic effects of Spirulina platensis against sub-acute deltamethrin toxicity in mice: Biochemical and histopathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; El-Bialy, Badr E; Rahman, Haidy G Abdel; Radi, Abeer M; Hefny, Hany A; Hassan, Ahmed M

    2016-02-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP); a microalga with high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, acts as a food supplement in human and as many animal species. Deltamethrin (DLM) is a synthetic pyrethroid with broad spectrum activities against acaricides and insects and widely used for veterinary and agricultural purposes. Exposure to DLM leads to hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects for human and many species, including birds and fish. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of SP against sub-acute DLM toxicity in male mice. DLM intoxicated animals revealed a significant increase in serum hepatic and renal injury biomarkers as well as TNF-α level and AChE activity. Moreover, liver, kidney and brain lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers were altered due to DLM toxicity. Spirulina normalized the altered serum levels of AST, ALT, APL, LDH, γ-GT, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, creatinine AChE and TNF-α. Furthermore, it reduced DLM-induced tissue lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, that Spirulina supplementation could overcome DLM-induced hepatotoxicty, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity by abolishing oxidative tissue injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Biochemical studies of DNA strand break repair and molecular characterization of mei-41, a gene involved in DNA break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveri, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to repair X-irradiation induced single-strand DNA breaks was examined in mutagen-sensitive mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. This analysis demonstrated that examined stocks possess a normal capacity to repair X-ray induced single-strand breaks. One of the mutants in this study, mei-41, has been shown to be involved in a number of DNA metabolizing functions. A molecular characterization of this mutant is presented. A cDNA hybridizing to genomic DNA both proximal and distal to a P element inducing a mei-41 mutation was isolated from both embryonic and adult female recombinant lambda phage libraries. A 2.2 kilobase embryonic cDNA clone was sequenced; the sequence of an open reading frame was identified which would predict a protein of 384 amino acids with a molecular weight of 43,132 daltons. An examination of homologies to sequences in protein and nucleic acid data bases revealed no sequences with significant homology to mei-41, however, two potential Zinc-finger domains were identified. Analysis of RNA hybridizing to the embryonic cDNA demonstrated the existence of a major 2.2 kilobase transcript expressed primarily in embryos and adult flies. An examination of the transcription of this gene in mei-41 mutants revealed significant variation from wild-type, an indication that the embryonic cDNA does represent a mei-41 transcript. Expression in tissues from adult animals demonstrated that the 2.2 kilobase RNA is expressed primarily in reproductive tissues. A 3.8kb transcript is the major species of RNA in the adult head and thorax. Evidence is presented which implies that expression of the mei-41 gene is strongly induced by exposure of certain cells to mutagens

  18. Effects of Karela (Bitter Melon; Momordica charantia) on genes of lipids and carbohydrates metabolism in experimental hypercholesterolemia: biochemical, molecular and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Dalia Yossri; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Baiomy, Ahmed A; Yassin, Magdy Hassan; El-Sawy, Hanan Basiouni

    2017-06-17

    Hypercholesterolemia is a serious diseases associated with type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders and liver diseases. Humans seek for safe herbal medication such as karela (Momordica charantia/bitter melon) to treat such disorders to avoid side effect of pharmacotherapies widely used. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups; control group with free access to food and water, cholesterol administered group (40 mg/kg BW orally); karela administered group (5 g /kg BW orally) and mixture of cholesterol and karela. The treatments continued for 10 weeks. Karela was given for hypercholesterolemic rats after 6 weeks of cholesterol administration. Serum, liver and epididymal adipose tissues were taken for biochemical, histopathological and genetic assessments. Hypercholesterolemia induced a decrease in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels that were ameliorated by karela administration. Hypercholesterolemia up regulated antioxidants mRNA expression and altered the expression of carbohydrate metabolism genes. In parallel, hypercholesterolemic groups showed significant changes in the expression of PPAR-alpha and gamma, lipolysis, lipogenesis and cholesterol metabolism such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1). Acyl CoA oxidase (ACO), fatty acids synthase (FAS), sterol responsible element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) at hepatic and adipose tissue levels. Interestingly, Karela ameliorated all altered genes confirming its hypocholesterolemic effect. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings revealed that hypercholesterolemia induced hepatic tissue changes compared with control. These changes include cholesterol clefts, necrosis, karyolysis and sever congestion of portal blood vessel. Caspase-3 immunoreactivity showed positive expression in

  19. Biochemical activity of fullerenes and related derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huczko, A.; Lange, H.; Calko, E.

    1999-01-01

    An astonishing scientific interest, embodied in over 15000 research articles so far, has been encountered since 1985 when fullerenes were discovered. From new superconductors to a rich electrochemistry and reaction chemistry, fullerene nanostructures continue to excite the scientific world, and new findings continue at record pace. This review presents many examples of the biochemical activities of fullerenes and derivatives, e. g. cytotoxic activity, selective DNA cleavage and antiviral activity against HIV. We also present some results of our testing which show that, despite its chemical and biochemical activity, fullerene matter does not present any health hazard directly related to skin irritation and allergic risks. (author)

  20. Cognition enhancing effect of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on non-transgenic Alzheimer's disease rat model: Biochemical, histological, and behavioural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavadas, Sowmya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2017-11-01

    Several dietary supplements are actively being tested for their dual role of alleviating the metabolic perturbations and restricting the consequent cognitive dysfunctions seen in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of aqueous extract of cinnamon (CE) on the monosodium glutamate-induced non-transgenic rat model of AD (NTAD) established with insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, neuronal loss, and cognitive impairment at a very early stage of life. The experimental design included oral administration of CE (50 mg/kg body weight) for 20 weeks to 2-month and 10-month-old NTAD rats. Following the treatments, the animals attained 7 and 15 months of age, respectively. They were then subjected to behavioural testing, biochemical analysis, and stereology experiments. The results demonstrated that CE treatment improved the insulin sensitivity, increased phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (pGSK3β), inhibited the cholinesterase activity, and improved the learning ability in NTAD rats. Histological evaluation has shown an increase in neuron count in the DG sub-field of hippocampus upon treatment with CE. These beneficial effects of CE are suggestive of considering cinnamon as a dietary supplement in modulating the metabolic changes and cognitive functions.

  1. Clinicopathological Risk Factors and Biochemical Predictors of Safe Discharge after Total Thyroidectomy and Central Compartment Node Dissection for Thyroid Cancer: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-mi Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the clinicopathological risk factors and reliable biochemical predictors of the development of hypocalcemic symptoms after total thyroidectomy on the basis of serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH levels measured 1 hour after surgery, a prospective study was performed on 817 patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection (CCND due to well-differentiated thyroid cancer. We evaluated the correlations between hypocalcemic symptom development and clinicopathological factors. And the predictability for hypocalcemic symptom development of intact PTH cut-offs (<10 pg/mL and <20 pg/mL, resp. according to serum calcium level subgroup was analyzed. Female gender (P<0.001 was the only independent risk factor for hypocalcemic symptom development in multivariate regression analysis. The negative predictive value (NPV of intact PTH, signifying nondevelopment of hypocalcemic symptoms, was higher than the positive predictive value (PPV which signified development of hypocalcemic symptoms. In addition, when we applied the different adoption of the intact PTH cut-off according to serum calcium level, we could obtain more increased NPVs. A female gender and the application of more specific cut-offs for intact PTH according to the serum calcium levels measured 1 hour after surgery may help the patients to be more safely discharged.

  2. The protective effects of sildenafil in acute lung injury in a rat model of severe scald burn: A biochemical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokakin, Ali Kagan; Deveci, Koksal; Kurt, Atilla; Karakus, Boran Cihat; Duger, Cevdet; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Topcu, Omer

    2013-09-01

    Severe burn induces biochemical mediators such as reactive oxygen species that leads to lipid peroxidation which may have a key role in formation of acute lung injury (ALI). Sildenafil is a selective and potent inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate specific phosphodiesterase-5. Sildenafil preserves alveolar growth, angiogenesis, reduces inflammation and airway reactivity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different dosages of sildenafil in ALI due to severe scald burn in rats. Twenty-four rats were subjected to 30% total body surface area severe scald injury and were randomly divided into three equal groups as follow: control, 10 and 20mg/kg sildenafil groups. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), catalase (Cat), total oxidative stress (TOS), and total antioxidative capacity (TAC) were measured in both tissues and serums. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. A semi-quantitative scoring system was used for the evaluation of histopatological findings. Sildenafil increased Gpx, Cat, TAC and decreased MDA, TOS and OSI. Sildenafil decreased inflammation scores in lungs. Our results reveal that sildenafil is protective against scald burn related ALI by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation and the dosage of 10mg/kg could be apparently better than 20mg/kg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Biochemical markers can predict the response in bone mass during alendronate treatment in early postmenopausal women. Alendronate Osteoporosis Prevention Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Clemmesen, B; Christiansen, C

    1999-01-01

    Data from the Danish cohort (n = 67) of a multicenter trial of oral alendronate in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis were used to evaluate the capacity of the biochemical markers to predict changes in bone mineral density (BMD). A panel of markers were measured: serum N-terminal midfr......Data from the Danish cohort (n = 67) of a multicenter trial of oral alendronate in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis were used to evaluate the capacity of the biochemical markers to predict changes in bone mineral density (BMD). A panel of markers were measured: serum N...... at month 6 in the biochemical markers for predicting prevention of bone loss in the spine over 2 years. The cutpoints used were a 30% (N-MID OC) or 50% (all other markers) decrease from baseline. Sensitivity levels were 82% (N-MID OC), 98% (total OC), 78% (sCL and NTX), and 89% (uCL). Specificities were 91...... at the spine were similar: sensitivity, 82%; specificity, 55%; and positive predictive value, 79%. In conclusion, short-term changes in biochemical markers were valid predictors of long-term changes in BMD. Short-term changes in the sensitive biochemical markers revealed a predictive capacity similar to bone...

  4. Structural and biochemical characterization of autotaxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) was originally discovered as an “autocrine motility factor” from melanoma cells, more than two decades ago, but its biochemical function remained elusive. It took another decade to show that ATX functions as a lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid growth factor

  5. Protective effect of Cnestis ferruginea and its active constituent on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice: a behavioral and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Tota, Santoshkumar; Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O; Agbaje, Esther O; Narender, Tadigulopulla; Shukla, Rakesh

    2013-07-01

    Cnestis ferruginea Vahl ex DC (Connaraceae) (CF) is used in traditional African medicine in the management of CNS disorders. The degeneration and dysfunction of cholinergic neurons is closely associated with the cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and oxidative stress has been implicated in its pathogenesis. However, the influence of C. ferruginea on the cholinergic system and oxidative stress parameters has not been explored. The present study investigates the effect of methanol root extract of C. ferruginea and its active constituent amentoflavone (CF-2) on memory, oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in scopolamine-induced amnesia. Mice were orally treated with CF (25-200 mg/kg), CF-2 (6.25-25 mg/kg) for three days and memory impairment was induced by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (3 mg/kg). Memory function was evaluated by passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. Biochemical parameters of oxidative stress and cholinergic function were estimated in brain after the completion of behavioral studies. Scopolamine caused memory impairment along with increased AChE activity and oxidative stress in mice brain. Oral administration of CF and CF-2 significantly prevented scopolamine-induced memory impairment, inhibited AChE and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity in the brain following scopolamine injection as compared to vehicle administration in scopolamine (i.p.)-treated mice that were comparable to the effect of tacrine. The study demonstrated that C. ferruginea and its constituent have significant protective effect against scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mice that can be attributed to their antioxidant and antiAChE activity.

  6. A combined morphological, ultrastructural, molecular, and biochemical study of the peculiar family Gomontiellaceae (Oscillatoriales) reveals a new cylindrospermopsin-producing clade of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohunická, Markéta; Mareš, Jan; Hrouzek, Pavel; Urajová, Petra; Lukeš, Martin; Šmarda, Jan; Komárek, Jiří; Gaysina, Lira A; Strunecký, Otakar

    2015-12-01

    Members of the morphologically unusual cyanobacterial family Gomontiellaceae were studied using a polyphasic approach. Cultured strains of Hormoscilla pringsheimii, Starria zimbabweënsis, Crinalium magnum, and Crinalium epipsammum were thoroughly examined, and the type specimen of the family, Gomontiella subtubulosa, was investigated. The results of morphological observations using both light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were consistent with previous reports and provided evidence for the unique morphological and ultrastructural traits of this family. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the monophyletic origin of non-marine repre-sentatives of genera traditionally classified into this family. The family was phylogenetically placed among other groups of filamentous cyanobacterial taxa. The presence of cellulose in the cell wall was analyzed and confirmed in all cultured Gomontiellaceae members using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Evaluation of toxins produced by the studied strains revealed the hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in available strains of the genus Hormoscilla. Production of this compound in both Hormoscilla strains was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem with high resolution mass spectrometry and confirmed by positive PCR amplification of the cyrJ gene from the CYN biosynthetic cluster. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CYN production by soil cyanobacteria, establishing a previously unreported CYN-producing lineage. This study indicates that cyanobacteria of the family Gomontiellaceae form a separate but coherent cluster defined by numerous intriguing morphological, ultrastructural, and biochemical features, and exhibiting a toxic potential worthy of further investigation. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  7. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co; Estudo bioquimico e farmacologico das crotaminas nativa e irradiada com radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitake, Malvina Boni

    2000-07-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective of this thesis was carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with {sup 60} Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast Performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 M Na Cl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a {sup 60} Co source. The native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD{sub 50} and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labelled with 29.6 MBq of {sup 125} I using chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35{+-} 5 g), were injected i.p. with o.1 mL (2.4 x 10{sup 6} cpm/mouse) of {sup 125} I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10{sup 6} cpm/mouse) of {sup 125} I irradiated crotamine. At 0.08; 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 12 and 24 hours the animal were killed by ether inhalation. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration, the electroforetic profile or the primary structure of the protein, although differences were shown by spectroscopic techniques. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of crotamine, but it did not abolish bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. The native and irradiated crotamine have affinity by skeletal

  8. Effect of ONO-5334 on bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis: 2-year results from the OCEAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastell, Richard; Nagase, Shinichi; Small, Maria; Boonen, Steven; Spector, Tim; Ohyama, Michiyo; Kuwayama, Tomohiro; Deacon, Steve

    2014-02-01

    Cathepsin K inhibitors, such as ONO-5334, are being developed for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, their relative effects on bone resorption and formation, and how quickly the effects resolve after treatment cessation, are uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of 24-month treatment with ONO-5334 and to assess the effect of treatment cessation over 2 months. We studied 197 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia with one fragility fracture. Patients were randomized to ONO-5334 50 mg twice daily, 100 mg or 300 mg once daily, alendronate 70 mg once weekly (positive control), or placebo for 24 months. After 24 months, all ONO-5334 doses were associated with increased bone mineral density (BMD) for lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck (p < 0.001). ONO-5334 300 mg significantly suppressed the bone-resorption markers urinary (u) NTX and serum and uCTX-I throughout 24 months of treatment and to a similar extent as alendronate; other resorption marker levels remained similar to placebo (fDPD for ONO-5334 300 mg qd) or were increased (ICTP, TRAP5b, all ONO-5334 doses). Levels of B-ALP and PINP were suppressed in all groups (including placebo) for approximately 6 months but then increased for ONO-5334 to close to baseline levels by 12 to 24 months. On treatment cessation, there were increases above baseline in uCTX-I, uNTX, and TRAP5b, and decreases in ICTP and fDPD. There were no clinically relevant safety concerns. Cathepsin K inhibition with ONO-5334 resulted in decreases in most resorption markers over 2 years but did not decrease most bone formation markers. This was associated with an increase in BMD; the effect on biochemical markers was rapidly reversible on treatment cessation. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. Haematological And Biochemical Effects Of Sulphadimidine In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and biochemical efects of sulphadmidine were studied in Nigerian mongrel dogs. Five Nigerian mongrel dogs of either sex weighing between 7 and 12 kg were used for the study. The pretreatment blood and serum samples were collected and the weight of animals taken before the administraton of 100 ...

  10. Biochemical and serological characterization of Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the isolation rate, serotypes and biochemical profiles of E. coli from colibacillosis and dead-in-shell embryos in Zaria, Northern-Nigeria. The isolation rate of E. coli from hatcheries studied were 4.67% and 7.50% from farms of Simtu Agricultural Company and National Animal Production ...

  11. A comparison of the impact of screen-positive results obtained from ultrasound and biochemical screening for Down syndrome in the first trimester : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinans, M.J.; Kooij, L.; Muller, M.A.; Bilardo, K.M.; van Lith, J.M.; Tymstra, T.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the experiences of women who received a screen-positive test result for Down syndrome after nuchal translucency screening or after biochemical screening in the first trimester of pregnancy in the Netherlands. METHOD: Semi-quantitative questionnaires were sent to 40 women with a

  12. A comparison of the impact of screen-positive results obtained from ultrasound and biochemical screening for Down syndrome in the first trimester: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinans, Martin J. N.; Kooij, Loes; Müller, Moira A.; Bilardo, Katia M.; van Lith, Jan M. M.; Tymstra, Tjeerd

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the experiences of women who received a screen-positive test result for Down syndrome after nuchal translucency screening or after biochemical screening in the first trimester of pregnancy in the Netherlands. Method Semi-quantitative questionnaires were sent to 40 women with a

  13. On the macro-economic impact of bioenergy and biochemicals : Introducing advanced bioeconomy sectors into an economic modelling framework with a case study for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meijl, H.; Tsiropoulos, I.; Bartelings, H.; Hoefnagels, R.; Smeets, E.; Tabeau, A.; Faaij, A.

    2018-01-01

    Advanced uses of biomass for bioenergy and biochemicals are being gradually introduced and are expected to grow considerably in regional economies, thus raising questions on their mid-term macro-economic impacts. To assess these impacts, we use a computable general equilibrium model and a regional

  14. On the macro-economic impact of bioenergy and biochemicals – Introducing advanced bioeconomy sectors into an economic modelling framework with a case study for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Tsiropoulos, I.; Bartelings, H.; Hoefnagels, R.; Smeets, E.; Tabeau, A.; Faaij, A.

    2018-01-01

    Advanced uses of biomass for bioenergy and biochemicals are being gradually introduced and are expected to grow considerably in regional economies, thus raising questions on their mid-term macro-economic impacts. To assess these impacts, we use a computable general equilibrium model and a regional

  15. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  16. Effect of omega 3 fatty acids plus low-dose aspirin on both clinical and biochemical profiles of patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwakeel, N M; Hazaa, H H

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was, first, to investigate the effect of omega 3 (ω3) fatty acids plus low-dose aspirin with closed debridement in the treatment of patients with periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and second, to estimate the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP-3) in response to the supposed modulatory therapy. Forty patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 DM were equally divided into groups 1 (patients received ω3 plus low-dose aspirin for 6 mo) and 2 (patients received placebo during the same period). Evaluation was done clinically (pocket depth, clinical attachment loss, gingival index and plaque index) and biochemically by estimating levels of interleukin 1β and MCP-3 in gingival crevicular fluid, plus investigating the effect of treatment on glycemic control by levels of glycated hemoglobin A1c in serum. All data were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 mo after treatment. Subjects of group 1 showed a highly significant reduction in pocket depth, clinical attachment loss, gingival index (p ≤ 0.01) after 3 and 6 mo compared to group 2. Glycated hemoglobin A1c levels showed a reduction in both groups at the end of the study period, with a non-significant difference (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the treatment protocol showed a significant reduction in levels of MCP-3 and interleukin 1β at 3 and 6 mo compared to the placebo group. Within the limits of the present study, ω3 plus low-dose aspirin proved effective as an adjunct to closed periodontal therapy in the management of patients with periodontitis and type 2 DM. Moreover, MCP-3 was proven to be effective both in the pathogenesis of the disease and as a biomarker in evaluating the response to periodontal treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dynamic analysis of biochemical network using complex network method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the stochastic biochemical reaction model is proposed based on the law of mass action and complex network theory. The dynamics of biochemical reaction system is presented as a set of non-linear differential equations and analyzed at the molecular-scale. Given the initial state and the evolution rules of the biochemical reaction system, the system can achieve homeostasis. Compared with random graph, the biochemical reaction network has larger information capacity and is more efficient in information transmission. This is consistent with theory of evolution.

  18. Consequences of Incomplete Smoke-Free Legislation in the Republic of Korea: Results from Environmental and Biochemical Monitoring: Community Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Yun, E Hwa; Lim, Min Kyung; Lee, Do-Hoon; Yang, Wonho; Jeong, Bo Yoon; Hwang, Sang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In some countries with high smoking prevalence, smoke-free legislation has only been implemented in specific public places, as opposed to a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places. The purpose of this study was to provide valid data on second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure that reflect the consequences of incomplete smoke-free legislation, and provide a rationale for expanding this legislation. Indoor and outdoor environmental exposure (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], air nicotine, and dust 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK]) was monitored in 35 public places where smoking is prohibited by law in Goyang, Republic of Korea. Biomarkers of SHS exposure (urinary cotinine, hair nicotine, and urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) were measured in 37 non-smoking employees. Geometric means and standard deviations were used in comparison of each measure. Considerable exposure of SHS was detected at all indoor monitoring sites (PM2.5, 95.5 μg/m(3) in private educational institutions; air nicotine, 0.77 μg/m(3) in large buildings; and dust NNK, 160.3 pg/mg in large buildings); environmental measures were higher in private or closed locations, such as restrooms. Outdoor measures of SHS exposure were lowest in nurseries and highest in government buildings. Biochemical measures revealed a pattern of SHS exposure by monitoring site, and were highest in private educational institutions. The evidence of SHS exposure in legislative smoke-free places in Korea suggests that incomplete smoke free legislation and lack of enforcement of it might not protect people from exposure to smoke. Therefore, active steps should be taken toward a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and its enforcement.

  19. Association of renal biochemical parameters with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in a community-based elderly population in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relationship of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD with parameters that could provide more information than hemodynamic renal indexes has not been clarified. We aimed to explore the association of comprehensive renal parameters with LVDD in a community-based elderly population. METHODS: 1,166 community residents (aged ≥ 65 years, 694 females participating in the Shanghai Heart Health Study with complete data of renal parameters were investigated. Echocardiography was used to evaluate diastolic function with conventional and tissue Doppler imaging techniques. Serum urea, creatinine, urea-to-creatinine ratio, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR were analyzed on their associations with LVDD. RESULTS: The prevalence of LVDD increased in proportion to increasing serum urea, urea-to-creatinine ratio and UACR. These three renal parameters were found negatively correlated to peak early (E to late (A diastolic velocities ratio (E/A, and positively to left atrial volume index; UACR also positively correlated with E to peak early (E' diastolic mitral annular velocity ratio (E/E'. Serum urea, urea-to-creatinine ratio and UACR correlated with LVDD in logistic univariate regression analysis, and urea-to-creatinine ratio remained independently correlated to LVDD [Odds ratio (OR 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.34-5.95] after adjustment. Serum urea (OR 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.34, creatinine (OR 6.53, 95%CI 1.70- -25.02, eGFR (OR 0.22, 95%CI 0.07-0.65 and UACR (OR 2.15, 95%CI 1.42-3.24 were revealed independent correlates of advanced (moderate and severe LVDD. CONCLUSIONS: Biochemical parameters of renal function were closely linked with LVDD. This finding described new cardio-renal relationship in the elderly population.

  20. Haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler chickens fed copper and probiotics supplemented diets. A total of 180-day old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six treatment groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were divided into three replicates of ten ...

  1. Histopathological and biochemical disrupting effects of Escravos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-02-27

    Feb 27, 2014 ... The aim of this study was to investigate the histological and biochemical disrupting effects of Escravos ... rupturing or leaking of production infrastructures that are described as, “very old and lack regular ... crude oil were measured in weight on an electronic weighing balance and given orally (oral gavage) ...

  2. Reference Physiological Ranges for Serum Biochemical Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A valid scientific evaluation of the efficacy of HIV vaccines or antiretroviral drugs includes measurement of changes in physiological parameters of subjects from known established baseline reference ranges. This study was designed to establish reference ranges for biochemical parameters among healthy ...

  3. Selected plasma biochemical parameters in improved indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the biochemical parameters of apparently healthy NIGERHYB pigs and comparison of age and sex related differences in these parameters. One hundred and thirty five NIGERHYB pigs (35 boar, 35 sow, 30 weaned boar piglets and 35 weaned gilt piglets) obtained from intensively managed pig ...

  4. Effects Of Ceftriaxone On Haematological And Biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term effects of ceftriaxone on haematological and biochemical parameters of Nigerian local turkey poults were studied. The pre-treatment blood and serum samples were collected and the weight of animals taken before the administration of body weight for a period of 4 days. The animals were weighed daiy.

  5. Biochemical and microstructural characteristics of meat samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of different plant proteases for changing biochemical and microstructural characteristics in muscle foods. The meat samples from chicken, giant catfish, pork and beef were treated with four types of proteolytic enzymes: Calotropis procera latex proteases, papaya latex ...

  6. Scalable Parameter Estimation for Genome-Scale Biochemical Reaction Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbacher, Barbara; Hasenauer, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Mechanistic mathematical modeling of biochemical reaction networks using ordinary differential equation (ODE) models has improved our understanding of small- and medium-scale biological processes. While the same should in principle hold for large- and genome-scale processes, the computational methods for the analysis of ODE models which describe hundreds or thousands of biochemical species and reactions are missing so far. While individual simulations are feasible, the inference of the model parameters from experimental data is computationally too intensive. In this manuscript, we evaluate adjoint sensitivity analysis for parameter estimation in large scale biochemical reaction networks. We present the approach for time-discrete measurement and compare it to state-of-the-art methods used in systems and computational biology. Our comparison reveals a significantly improved computational efficiency and a superior scalability of adjoint sensitivity analysis. The computational complexity is effectively independent of the number of parameters, enabling the analysis of large- and genome-scale models. Our study of a comprehensive kinetic model of ErbB signaling shows that parameter estimation using adjoint sensitivity analysis requires a fraction of the computation time of established methods. The proposed method will facilitate mechanistic modeling of genome-scale cellular processes, as required in the age of omics. PMID:28114351

  7. BIOCHEMICAL NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF LIVER CIRRHOSIS PATIENTS WITH HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zanatta PORT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Liver cirrhosis patients with hepatocellular carcinoma present nutritional alterations and metabolic disorders that negatively impact the prognosis. Objective The objective is to identify alterations in the metabolism of macro and micronutrients among liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma and their relation to the Child-Turcote-Pugh score and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Methods Analytical transversal study, with 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 48 liver cirrhosis patients. Laboratorial exams were carried out. The existence of an association between the biochemical parameters and the disease severity as well as the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was assessed. Results The metabolic-nutritional profile of liver cirrhosis patients caused by the hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma showed alterations, specifically the lipid (total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, protein (albumin, creatinine and uric acid, iron (transferrin, iron and ferritin saturation, hematocrit and hemoglobin, zinc and B12 vitamin profiles. There is a relation between nutritional biochemical markers and the Child-Turcote-Pugh, as well as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Conclusions Considering the existence of alterations in the metabolism of nutrients in liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma, and also that conventional nutritional assessment methods present limitations for this population, the biochemical laboratorial exams are valid to complement the diagnosis of the nutritional state in a quick and practical manner.

  8. Skin biochemical composition analysis by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Patricia Karen; Tosato, Maira Gaspar; Alves, Rani de Souza; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro, E-mail: amartin@univap.br [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomedica, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento - IP e D, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UniVap, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Skin aging is characterized by cellular and molecular alterations. In this context, Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used in vivo to measure these biochemical changes as function of the skin depth. In this study we have tried to correlate spectra from pure amino acids to in vivo spectra from volunteers with different ages. This study was performed on 32 volunteers: 11 from Group A (20-23 years), 11 from Group B (39-42 years) and 10 from Group C (59-62 years). For each group, the Raman spectra were measured on the surface (0 mm), 30 +- 3 mm and 60 +- 3 {mu}m below the surface. The results from intergroup comparisons showed that the oldest group had a prevalence of the tyrosine band, but it also presented a decrease in the band centered at 875 cm{sup -1} of pyrrolidone acid. The amide I band centered at 1637 cm{sup -1} that is attributed to collagen, as well as other proteins and lipid, showed a smaller amount of these biomolecules for Group C, which can be explained by the decrease in collagen concentration as a function of age. (author)

  9. Association between the biochemical profiles in blood and bone mineral density in Chinese Han population: findings from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen HX

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Xia Chen,1,2,* Li-Bing Wu,3,* Zhong-Ji Meng1 1Institute of Biomedicine, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Environmental, Agricultural, & Occupational Health, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: This study investigated the possible correlation between blood biochemical profiles and bone mineral density (BMD in the Chinese Han population. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using participants randomly selected from the Health Screening Center of Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, which included a total of 285 individuals, varied in ages from 31 years to 63 years. The height, weight, and body mass index (BMI of each subject were measured, as well as fasting blood glucose (FBG, triglycerides, total cholesterol, blood uric acid (UA, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We evaluated BMD at the wrist (grams per centimeter square using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. The mean ages of female and male groups were 45.32±8.24 years and 46.76±9.01 years, respectively. The mean age of the study population was 46.14±8.79 years, which is similar to the general population. The mean BMI values were 22.08±2.38 kg/m2 and 24.50±2.67 kg/m2 in the female and male population, respectively, representing a statistically significant difference (P<0.05. No significant differences in levels of FBG total cholesterol, or triglycerides were seen among the male and female population. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed using BMD as outcome variables and BMI, blood UA, FBG, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine as covariates, and the regression equation was established as Y=0

  10. Study of the radio restoration effects of some biochemical compounds on mice embryos (Oryza sativa L. var. Cigalon) irradiated with cobalt 60 gamma radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Harithi, S.

    1982-01-01

    Research work on improvement of mutagenesis experiment techniques with emphasis on an improved repair of potentially lethal damage induced by high gamma radiation doses in rice embryos. The protective and recovery effects of the following biochemicals were investigated: cytokinines; indolylacetic acid; glucose; glucose phosphate; ATP; ATP-MG ++ complex; spermidine; cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. Only ATP-MG ++ , C-AMP and C-GMP were able to increase the survival fraction of lethally irradiated rice embryos [fr

  11. Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African dwarf goats vaccinated against Pestes des petit ruminants (PPR) ... blood biochemical indices of forty randomly selected West African dwarf (WAD) goats were studied. Packed cell volume ... neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and white blood cells (WBC) than females.

  12. Differential response of biochemical parameters to EMS and MMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B.B.D. Khalandar

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Abstract Aim: To study the effect of alkylating agents such as EMS and MMS on chromosomes and biochemical parameters in induced diabetic mouse. Methods: Chromosome preparations from bone marrow was made using the method of Evans et al. (1964) and biochemical estimations from the liver was ...

  13. Possible Biochemical Markers in Protein-Energy Malnutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine possible biochemical markers in children suffering from Plasmodium falciparum malaria and Protein-Energy Malnutrition in a Hospital setting in Western Kenya. Spectrophotometric assays of selected biochemical parameters namely, albumin, total proteins, glucose, glutamate ...

  14. Local biochemical and morphological differences in human Achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Fredberg, U.; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy....... The expressions of growth factors, inflammatory mediators and tendon morphology were determined in both chronically diseased and healthy tendon parts....

  15. Online Fault Diagnosis for Biochemical Process Based on FCM and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfang; Du, Haoze; Tan, Jinglu

    2016-12-01

    Fault diagnosis is becoming an important issue in biochemical process, and a novel online fault detection and diagnosis approach is designed by combining fuzzy c-means (FCM) and support vector machine (SVM). The samples are preprocessed via FCM algorithm to enhance the ability of classification firstly. Then, those samples are input to the SVM classifier to realize the biochemical process fault diagnosis. In this study, a glutamic acid fermentation process is chosen as an example to diagnose the fault by this method, the result shows that the diagnosis time is largely shortened, and the accuracy is extremely improved by comparing to a single SVM method.

  16. Characterizing multistationarity regimes in biochemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Otero-Muras

    Full Text Available Switch like responses appear as common strategies in the regulation of cellular systems. Here we present a method to characterize bistable regimes in biochemical reaction networks that can be of use to both direct and reverse engineering of biological switches. In the design of a synthetic biological switch, it is important to study the capability for bistability of the underlying biochemical network structure. Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT may help at this level to decide whether a given network has the capacity for multiple positive equilibria, based on their structural properties. However, in order to build a working switch, we also need to ensure that the bistability property is robust, by studying the conditions leading to the existence of two different steady states. In the reverse engineering of biological switches, knowledge collected about the bistable regimes of the underlying potential model structures can contribute at the model identification stage to a drastic reduction of the feasible region in the parameter space of search. In this work, we make use and extend previous results of the CRNT, aiming not only to discriminate whether a biochemical reaction network can exhibit multiple steady states, but also to determine the regions within the whole space of parameters capable of producing multistationarity. To that purpose we present and justify a condition on the parameters of biochemical networks for the appearance of multistationarity, and propose an efficient and reliable computational method to check its satisfaction through the parameter space.

  17. Biochemical constituents of seaweeds along the Maharashtra coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Protein, carbohydrate and organic carbon were estimated in 43 marine algal species from different stations along the Maharashtra Coast in India These species showed variation in their biochemical contents Protein varied from 10 to 33% Chlorophyceae...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2083 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2083 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data... following table: (d) Table. The following table shows the data requirements for experimental use permit... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experimental use permit biochemical...

  19. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wesley-Smith, J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available of Botany, Volume 115, Issue 6 pp. 991-1000. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo- exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum James Wesley-Smith1,2, Christina...