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Sample records for biochemical stress response

  1. Physiological and biochemical responses to low temperature stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cuttings of three hybrid clones of P. ussuriensis × P. deltoides were exposed to different low temperatures (cold and freezing) for 24 h, or consecutive low temperatures (5°C, 0 to 120 h), to determine physiological and biochemical responses to cold stress in these woody plants. Soluble sugar and protein contents increased ...

  2. Physiological and biochemical response to high temperature stress in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamanesh, Shahnoosh; Keitel, Claudia; Ahmad, Nabil; Trethowan, Richard

    2016-04-01

    High temperature has been shown to lower the growth and yield of Okra, an important summer vegetable crop grown in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Australia. We aimed to characterise the physiological and biochemical response of Okra to heat stress. 150 genotypes from Pakistan and the AVRDC (The World Vegetable Centre) were screened for their physiological response (fluorescence, electrolyte leakage and yield) to heat in a greenhouse. Four genotypes (including heat tolerant and sensitive) were selected and subsequently grown in control and hot greenhouses. Daytime temperatures were on average 10°C warmer in the hot greenhouse, whereas nighttime temperatures were similar between the two temperature treatments. During a 12 week period, the physiological (assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, water potential) and biochemical (carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, C content) response of the four genotypes to heat stress was assessed. The effect of heat stress on the C allocation patterns and yield in Okra will be discussed.

  3. Physiological and biochemical responses of Hibiscus sabdariffa to drought stress in the presence of salicylic acid

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    Marzieh Mirshekari

    2017-08-01

    Salicylic acid (SA is one of the important signal molecules, which modulates plant responses to environmental stress. In the present work, impact of exogenous SA on some physiological and biochemical traits of Hibiscus sabdariffa in response to drought stress was studied. Hibiscus sabdariffa seedlings were exposed to six drought levels (0, -0.05, -0.1, -0.5, -0.75, and 1 MPa with two SA concentrations (0 and 500 µM in 5 days intervals up to 20 days in a factorial design. During drought stress period, the root and shoot growth, relative water content, pigments content, non-reducing sugar and starch content was significantly decreased. SA treatment cause prevention of the growth reduction and improvement of relative water content. Protein concentration was roughly unchanged during drought stress with SA, while, reducing sugars accumulates and non-reducing sugars and starch significantly decreases. The results show that exogenous SA application on leaves during drought stress can ameliorate detrimental effects of stress through reducing water loss and accumulating reducing sugars, which cause preserving turgor pressure of the cells.

  4. Biochemical responses and oxidative stress in Francisella tularensis infection: a European brown hare model

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    Treml Frantisek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate biochemical and oxidative stress responses to experimental F. tularensis infection in European brown hares, an important source of human tularemia infections. Methods For these purposes we compared the development of an array of biochemical parameters measured in blood plasma using standard procedures of dry chemistry as well as electrochemical devices following a subcutaneous infection with a wild Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strain (a single dose of 2.6 × 109 CFU pro toto. Results Subcutaneous inoculation of a single dose with 2.6 × 109 colony forming units of a wild F. tularensis strain pro toto resulted in the death of two out of five hares. Plasma chemistry profiles were examined on days 2 to 35 post-infection. When compared to controls, the total protein, urea, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were increased, while albumin, glucose and amylase were decreased. Both uric and ascorbic acids and glutathione dropped on day 2 and then increased significantly on days 6 to 12 and 6 to 14 post-inoculation, respectively. There was a two-fold increase in lipid peroxidation on days 4 to 8 post-inoculation. Conclusions Contrary to all expectations, the present study demonstrates that the European brown hare shows relatively low susceptibility to tularemia. Therefore, the circumstances of tularemia in hares under natural conditions should be further studied.

  5. Physiological and biochemical responses to severe drought stress of nine Eucalyptus globulus clones: a multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granda, Víctor; Delatorre, Carolina; Cuesta, Candela; Centeno, María L; Fernández, Belén; Rodríguez, Ana; Feito, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    Seasonal drought, typical of temperate and Mediterranean environments, creates problems in establishing plantations and affects development and yield, and it has been widely studied in numerous species. Forestry fast-growing species such as Eucalyptus spp. are an important resource in such environments, selected clones being generally used for production purposes in plantations in these areas. However, use of mono-specific plantations increases risk of plant loss due to abiotic stresses, making it essential to understand differences in an individual clone's physiological responses to drought stress. In order to study clonal differences in drought responses, nine Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) clones (C14, C46, C97, C120, C222, C371, C405, C491 and C601) were gradually subjected to severe drought stress (<14% of field capacity). A total of 31 parameters, physiological (e.g., photosynthesis, gas exchange), biochemical (e.g., chlorophyll content) and hormonal (abscisic acid [ABA] content), were analysed by classic and multivariate techniques. Relationships between parameters were established, allowing related measurements to be grouped into functional units (pigment, growth, water and ABA). Differences in these units showed that there were two distinct groups of E. globulus clones on the basis of their different strategies when faced with drought stress. The C14 group (C14, C120, C405, C491 and C601) clones behave as water savers, maintaining high water content and showing high stomatal adjustment, and reducing their aerial growth to a great extent. The C46 group (C46, C97, C222 and C371) clones behave as water spenders, reducing their water content drastically and presenting osmotic adjustment. The latter maintains the highest growth rate under the conditions tested. The method presented here can be used to identify appropriate E. globulus clones for drought environments, facilitating the selection of material for production and repopulation environments. © The

  6. Escherichia coli under Ionic Silver Stress: An Integrative Approach to Explore Transcriptional, Physiological and Biochemical Responses.

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    Claire Saulou-Bérion

    Full Text Available For a better understanding of the systemic effect of sub-lethal micromolar concentrations of ionic silver on Escherichia coli, we performed a multi-level characterization of cells under Ag+-mediated stress using an integrative biology approach combining physiological, biochemical and transcriptomic data. Physiological parameters, namely bacterial growth and survival after Ag+ exposure, were first quantified and related to the accumulation of intracellular silver, probed for the first time by nano secondary ion mass spectroscopy at sub-micrometer lateral resolution. Modifications in E. coli biochemical composition were evaluated under Ag+-mediated stress by in situ synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and a comprehensive transcriptome response was also determined. Using multivariate statistics, correlations between the physiological parameters, the extracellular concentration of AgNO3 and the intracellular silver content, gene expression profiles and micro-spectroscopic data were investigated. We identified Ag+-dependent regulation of gene expression required for growth (e.g. transporter genes, transcriptional regulators, ribosomal proteins, for ionic silver transport and detoxification (e.g. copA, cueO, mgtA, nhaR and for coping with various types of stress (dnaK, pspA, metA,R, oxidoreductase genes. The silver-induced shortening of the acyl chain of fatty acids, mostly encountered in cell membrane, was highlighted by microspectroscopy and correlated with the down-regulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport (fadL and synthesis/modification of lipid A (lpxA and arnA. The increase in the disordered secondary structure of proteins in the presence of Ag+ was assessed through the conformational shift shown for amides I and II, and further correlated with the up-regulated expression of peptidase (hfq and chaperone (dnaJ, and regulation of transpeptidase expression (ycfS and ycbB. Interestingly, as these

  7. Physiological and biochemical responses of Salix integra Thunb. under copper stress as affected by soil flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yini; Ma, Chuanxin; Chen, Guangcai; Zhang, Jianfeng; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-06-01

    To explore the joint effect of copper (Cu) and flooding on Salix integra Thunb. (S. integra), the physiological and biochemical parameters of the seedlings grown in Cu amended soil (50, 150, 450 mg kg -1 ) with or without the flooding for 60 days were evaluated. The results suggested that the flooding significantly inhibited the root growth in terms of root length and root tips. The Cu exposures of 50 and 150 mg kg -1 notably enhanced the root growth as compared to the control. Majority of Cu was accumulated in S. integra roots, while flooding significantly reduced the Cu content, except the 150 mg kg -1 Cu treatment, but the iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) content on the root surface were both markedly increased relative to non-flooded control. The malonaldehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) contents in leaves showed a dose-response upon Cu exposure. Soil flooding enhanced the GSH level, which displayed 4.50-49.59% increases compared to its respective non-flooded treatment, while no difference was evident on MDA contents between the flooding and the non-flooded treatments. Both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were boosted while the catalase (CAT) was suppressed with increasing Cu exposure dose, and soil flooding reduced the POD and CAT activities. The elevated Cu level caused the evident increases of root calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and sulfur (S) concentrations and decreases of root phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Soil flooding increased the concentrations of Fe, S, Na, Ca, and magnesium (Mg) in S. integra root. Taken together, our results suggested S. integra has high tolerance to the joint stress from Cu and flooding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Insights into thermal stress in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix): dynamics of immunoendocrine and biochemical responses during and after chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Franco Nicolas; Videla, Emiliano Ariel; Fernandez, Maria Emilia; Labaque, Maria Carla; Marin, Raul Hector

    2018-05-01

    Avian require comfortable temperatures for optimal development and heat stress is a high concern in warm weather countries. We aimed to assess the dynamics of immunoendocrine and biochemical variables responses of birds exposed to a heat stressor applied during daylight hours, during the chronic stress and the recovery periods. We hypothesize that variables involved in the birds response will be differentially and gradually modified during those periods. Female quail (n = 210) were housed in six rearing boxes. At 29 days of age, the temperature in three boxes was increased from 24 to 34 °C during the light period throughout the nine days (Stress Treatment). The other three boxes remained at 24 °C and were used as controls. The subsequent 12 days were considered as recovery period. Different sets of 12 birds/treatment were blood-sampled at 29 (basal), 32, 35, 38 (stress), 41, 44, 47, and 50 (recovery) days of age, respectively. Immunoendocrine (corticosterone, lymphoproliferation, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L), and antibody response) and biochemical (glucose, total proteins, globulins, and albumin) variables were assessed. During stress, progressive corticosterone and H/L increments, and antibody titers and lymphoproliferation decreases were detected. No clear pattern of changes was found in biochemical variables. During recovery, while corticosterone and lymphoproliferation had recovered three days after the stressor ended, H/L and antibody responses required respectively nine and 12 days to recover to their basal levels, respectively. Findings suggest that immunity is already threatened when heat stress is sustained for three or more days. However, the system appears resilient, needing six to 12 days to recover to their basal responses.

  9. Germination and Biochemical Responses to Alkalinity Stress in Two Sesame Cultivars

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    Mahdavi Batool

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of different alkaline concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 mM on germination and biochemical characteristics of the two sesame (Sesamum indicum L. cultivares (Dashtestan and GL-13 which are registered cultivars of Iran were investigated. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replications. Results showed that, germination percentage, germination rate, shoot length and dry weight, root length and dry weight and K+ content decreased, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA, proline, total soluble sugars and Na+ contents increased with increasing alkalinity stress. GL-13 cultivar had the least root and shoot length, proline and K+ content than Dashtestan.

  10. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Two Ornamental Shrubs to Drought Stress.

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    Toscano, Stefania; Farieri, Elisa; Ferrante, Antonio; Romano, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stress limiting the plant survival and growth in the Mediterranean environment. In this work, two species typically grown in Mediterranean areas with different drought responses were used. Two shrubs, with slow (Photinia × fraseri Dress 'Red Robin') or fast (Eugenia uniflora L. 'Etna Fire') adaptation ability to drought, were subjected to three water regimes: well-watered (WW), moderate (MD), and severe (SD) drought stress conditions for 30 days. Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were measured. Results showed that RWC and proline were higher in Eugenia than in Photinia, demonstrating the greater tolerance of the latter to the water stress. The drought stress levels applied did not compromise photosynthetic efficiency through stomatal regulation, while a reduction of Fv/Fm ratio was observed at the end of the experimental period. MDA significantly increased after 30 days in both species. The antioxidant enzyme activities showed different responses to water stress conditions. In both species, the water stress scores showed positive, while proline content showed negative correlations with all physiological parameters.

  11. Behavioural and biochemical stress responses of Palinurus elephas after exposure to boat noise pollution in tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiciotto, Francesco; Vazzana, Mirella; Celi, Monica; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Ceraulo, Maria; Buffa, Gaspare; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2014-07-15

    This study examined the effects of boat noise on the behavioural and biochemical parameters of the Mediterranean spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas). The experiment was conducted in a tank equipped with a video and audio recording system. 18 experimental trials, assigned to boat noise and control conditions, were performed using lobsters in single and group of 4 specimens. After a 1h habituation period, we audio- and video-recorded the lobsters for 1h. During the experimental phase, the animals assigned to the boat groups were exposed to boat noise pollution (a random sequence of boat noises). Exposure to the noise produced significant variations in locomotor behaviours and haemolymphatic parameters. Our results indicate that the lobsters exposed to boat noises increased significantly their locomotor activities and haemolymphatic bioindicator of stressful conditions such as glucose, total proteins, Hsp70 expression and THC when tested both singly and in groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biochemical response of hybrid black poplar tissue culture (Populus × canadensis) on water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, B M; Štajner, D; Ždero-Pavlović, R; Tari, I; Csiszár, J; Gallé, Á; Poór, P; Galović, V; Trudić, B; Orlović, S

    2017-05-01

    In this study, poplar tissue culture (hybrid black poplar, M1 genotype) was subjected to water stress influenced by polyethyleneglycol 6000 (100 and 200 mOsm PEG 6000). The aim of the research was to investigate the biochemical response of poplar tissue culture on water deficit regime. Antioxidant status was analyzed including antioxidant enzymes, superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guiacol-peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-reductase, reduced glutathione, total phenol content, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH radical antioxidant power. Polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine-ammonium-lyase were determined as enzymatic markers of polyphenol metabolism. Among oxidative stress parameters lipid peroxidation, carbonyl-proteins, hydrogen-peroxide, reactive oxygen species, nitric-oxide and peroxynitrite were determined. Proline, proline-dehydrogenase and glycinebetaine were measured also as parameters of water stress. Cell viability is finally determined as a biological indicator of osmotic stress. It was found that water stress induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and lipid peroxidation in leaves of hybrid black poplar and reduced cell viability. Antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GPx, CAT and GSH-Px were induced but total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were reduced by PEG 6000 mediated osmotic stress. The highest biochemical response and adaptive reaction was the increase of proline and GB especially by 200 mOsm PEG. While long term molecular analysis will be necessary to fully address the poplar potentials for water stress adaptation, our results on hybrid black poplar suggest that glycine-betaine, proline and PDH enzyme might be the most important markers of poplar on water stress and that future efforts should be focused on these markers and strategies to enhance their concentration in poplar.

  13. Biochemical and molecular changes in response to aluminium-stress in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Aquea, Felipe; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alberdi, Miren; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) stress is an important factor limiting crop yields in acid soils. Despite this, very little is known about the mechanisms of resistance to this stress in woody plants. To understand the mechanisms of Al-toxicity and response in blueberries, we compared the impact of Al-stress in Al-resistant and Al-sensitive genotypes using Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) as a plant model. We investigated the effect of Al-stress on the physiological performance, oxidative metabolism and expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes in two V. corymbosum cultivars maintained hydroponically with AlCl(3) (0 and 100 μM). Microscopic analyses of Al-treated root tips suggested a higher degree of Al-induced morphological injury in Bluegold (sensitive genotype) compared to Brigitta (resistant genotype). Furthermore, the results indicated that Brigitta had a greater ability to control oxidative stress under Al-toxicity, as reflected by enhancement of several antioxidative and physiological properties (radical scavenging activity: RSA, superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase: CAT; maximum quantum yield: Fv/Fm, effective quantum yield: ФPSII, electron transport rate: ETR and non-photochemical quenching: NPQ). Finally, we analyzed the expression of genes homologous to GST and ALDH, which were identified in a global expression analysis. In the resistant genotype, the expression of these genes in response to Al-stress was greater in leaves than in roots. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Salt Stress Responses of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) on Growth, Yield and Some Biochemical Attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyab, A.; Azeem, M.; Ahmad, N; Ahmad, R.; Qasim, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growth responses of leguminous plants to salinity vary considerably among species. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is a sub-tropical crop, grown worldwide particularly in South Asia for edible and fodder purposes, while little is known about its salinity tolerance. In order to investigate the effect of salinity, plants were established at six different levels of sea salt concentrations i.e. 0.5, 1.6, 2.8, 3.5, 3.8 and 4.3 (EC/sub e/ dS.m/sup -1/). Plant growth was measured using vegetative (height, fresh and dry biomass, moisture, relative growth rate (RGR) and specific shoot length (SSL)), reproductive (number of flowers, pods, seeds and seed weight) and some biochemical parameters (chlorophylls, carotenoids, sugars and proteins). Pigeon pea showed a salt sensitive growth response, however, it survived up to 3.5 (EC/sub e/ dS.m/sup -1/) sea salt salinity. Plant height, biomass, SSL and RGR linearly decreased under saline conditions. Leaf pigments increased (chlorophylls) or maintained (carotenoids) at 1.6 dS.m/sup -1/ and subsequently decreased in higher salinity. Low moisture content and succulence along with more accumulation of soluble sugars and proteins may be attributed to leaf osmotic adjustments at low salinity. Salinity adversely affect reproductive growth of C. cajan where production of flowers, pods, number of seeds and seed weight were significantly reduced. Present study provides basic information related to plant growth, seed yield and some biochemical attributes, which suggest C. cajan as a salt sensitive leguminous crop. However, detailed information is required to understand the eco-physiological responses of this plant under field and green house conditions. (author)

  15. Agro-physiological and biochemical responses of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. 'minor' genotypes to water deficit stress

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    Abid, G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Drought is one of the major abiotic factors affecting growth and productivity of plants by imposing certain morphological, physiological and biochemical changes at different growth stages. Objectives. The objective of this work is to study key morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. 'minor' to soil water deficit stress and to assess the contribution of genetic factors in improving faba bean tolerance to water deficit. Method. Plants of 11 faba bean cultivars were grown in the greenhouse and subjected to three levels of water deficit (90, 50 and 30% of field capacity [FC] in a simple randomized design for 20 days. Water deficit effects on plant growth, relative water content (RWC, gas exchange, chlorophyll a (Chla and chlorophyll b (Chlb content, osmoprotectant accumulations (such as proline and soluble sugars, antioxidant enzyme activities and grain yield were determined. Results. Soil water deficit stress reduced growth and affected physiological parameters, especially antioxidant enzyme activities. Water deficit also increased proline, soluble sugars and protein contents. The studied cultivars significantly differed in their responses to water deficit stress. Photosynthetic parameters were less affected in the 'Hara' cultivar. Furthermore, this cultivar produced the highest value of grain yield at 30% FC, and showed higher antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, GPX and APX, osmoprotectant accumulations, Chlb and RWC. The 'Hara' cultivar was found to be more tolerant to water deficit stress than the other cultivars. Conclusions. Our methodology can be used for assessing the response of faba bean genetic resources to soil water deficit. The identified tolerant cultivar can be utilized as a source for water stress tolerance in faba bean breeding programs aimed at improving drought tolerance.

  16. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scebba, Francesca [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Canaccini, Francesca [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Castagna, Antonella [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bender, Juergen [Institute of Agroecology, FAL, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Weigel, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Agroecology, FAL, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Ranieri, Annamaria [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: aranieri@agr.unipi.it

    2006-08-15

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l{sup -1} O{sub 3} (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l{sup -1} O{sub 3}. Significant O{sub 3} effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O{sub 3} induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O{sub 3}-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O{sub 3} depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O{sub 3} when in mixture with Achillea. - The competition between species modulates the ozone effect in a short-term.

  17. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scebba, Francesca; Canaccini, Francesca; Castagna, Antonella; Bender, Juergen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2006-01-01

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l -1 O 3 (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l -1 O 3 . Significant O 3 effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O 3 induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O 3 -induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O 3 depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O 3 when in mixture with Achillea. - The competition between species modulates the ozone effect in a short-term

  18. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scebba, Francesca; Canaccini, Francesca; Castagna, Antonella; Bender, Jürgen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2006-08-01

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l(-1) O3 (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l(-1) O3. Significant O3 effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O3 induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O3-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O3 depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O3 when in mixture with Achillea.

  19. Climate-related environmental stress in intertidal grazers: scaling-up biochemical responses to assemblage-level processes

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    Elena Maggi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Organisms are facing increasing levels of environmental stress under climate change that may severely affect the functioning of biological systems at different levels of organization. Growing evidence suggests that reduction in body size is a universal response of organisms to global warming. However, a clear understanding of whether extreme climate events will impose selection directly on phenotypic plastic responses and how these responses affect ecological interactions has remained elusive. Methods We experimentally investigated the effects of extreme desiccation events on antioxidant defense mechanisms of a rocky intertidal gastropod (Patella ulyssiponensis, and evaluated how these effects scaled-up at the population and assemblage levels. Results With increasing levels of desiccation stress, limpets showed significant lower levels of total glutathione, tended to grow less and had reduced per capita interaction strength on their resources. Discussion Results suggested that phenotypic plasticity (i.e., reduction in adults’ body size allowed buffering biochemical responses to stress to scale-up at the assemblage level. Unveiling the linkages among different levels of biological organization is key to develop indicators that can anticipate large-scale ecological impacts of climate change.

  20. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of camellia oleifera to low-temperature stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.; Shu, Q.; Fu, S.; Wu, W.

    2016-01-01

    Camellia oleifera Abel originates from China and is high healthy effect food oil species. It is also a high additional plant in southern China and can help to keep some people of mountain area out of poverty. In recent years, climate change has been abnormal frequently. Abnormal low temperature in winter and late spring coldness may cause the hard hit to C. oleifera farmers. Freezing injury can be caused by sudden decreases in temperature in winter. However, C. oleifera varieties differ in their hardiness to low temperatures. The paper investigated cold-resistance mechanisms by determining and analyzing the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of C. oleifera from eastern, western and southern Anhui, respectively. Sensitivity to low temperature was assessed via the number of leaves in spring shoots, leaf thickness, the activities of protective enzymes such as CAT, POD and SOD, and the inclusion contents of WSS, FPro, MDA, benzene-alcohol extracts and lignin. The results showed that C. oleifera varieties had different physiological and biochemical, and morphological responses to low winter temperatures. In different regions, the number of leaves, leaf thickness, WSS content, FPro content and MDA content varied from 5.2-7.8, 398.79 micro m-465.27 micro m, 23.41 mg/g-24.74 mg/g, 41.86 micro g/g-44.18 micro g/g and 10.08 micro mol/g-14.51 micro mol/g, respectively. The varieties from eastern Anhui, the leaf thickness were thicker. Meanwhile, the protective enzyme activities and inclusion contents were relatively higher. The protective enzyme activities and chemical components contents such as benzene-alcohol extract and lignin represented significantly difference (p<0.05) among three regions. In the future, for the abnormal low temperature in winter, a serious of cultivation measures such as improving the contents of WSS, FPro, benzene-alcohol extract and lignin, were taken to enhance the cold resistance of C. oleifera. The result broadens the

  1. Physio-biochemical and morphological characters of halophyte legume shrub, Acacia ampliceps seedlings in response to salt stress under greenhouse

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    Cattarin eTheerawitaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle, a leguminous shrub, has been introduced in salt-affected areas in northeast of Thailand for remediation of saline soils. However, the defense mechanisms underlying salt tolerance A. ampliceps are unknown. We investigated various physio-biochemical and morphological attributes of A. ampliceps in response to varying levels of salt treatment (200 to 600 mM NaCl. Seedlings of A. ampliceps (252 cm in plant height raised from seeds were treated with 200 mM (mild stress, 400 and 600 mM (extreme stress of salt treatment (NaCl under greenhouse conditions. Na+ and Ca2+ contents in the leaf tissues increased significantly under salt treatment, whereas K+ content declined in salt-stressed plants. Free proline and soluble sugar contents in plant grown under extreme salt stress (600 mM NaCl for 9 days significantly increased by 28.7 (53.33 mol g1 FW and 3.2 (42.11 mg g1 DW folds, respectively over the control, thereby playing a major role as osmotic adjustment. Na+ enrichment in the phyllode tissues of salt-stressed seedlings positively related to total chlorophyll degradation (R2=0.72. Photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in salt-stressed plants increased under mild salt stress (200 mM NaCl. However, these declined under high level of salinity (400-600 mM NaCl, consequently resulting in reduced net photosynthetic rate (R2=0.81 and plant dry weight (R2= 0.91. The study concludes that A. ampliceps has an osmotic adjustment and Na+ compartmentation as effective salt defense mechanisms, and thus it could be an excellent species to grow in salt-affected soils.

  2. Response And Recovery Of Sulfate-Reducing Biochemical Reactors From Aerobic Stress Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-mediated treatment of mining-influenced water (MIW) through the implementation of sulfate-reducing biochemical reactors (BCRs) is an attractive option for passive, in situ remediation with low operating costs and reduced maintenance requirements. However, BCRs can be...

  3. Response And Recovery Of Sulfate-Reducing Biochemical Reactors From Aerobic Stress Events (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-mediated treatment of mining-influenced water (MIW) through the implementation of sulfate-reducing biochemical reactors (BCR) is an attractive option for passive, in situ remediation with low operating costs and reduced maintenance requirements. However, BCRs can be ...

  4. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of biofuel plant Euphorbia lathyris to salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Cao, Yan; Yang, Ziyi; Lu, Changmei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal Univ., Nanjing (China)], E-mail: 08134@njnu.edu.cn); Zhang, Weiming; Sun, Lijun [Nanjing Inst. for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild plants, Nanjing (China)

    2013-05-15

    Saline lands are characterized by salinity and nutrient deficiency and there is an ever increasing need for economical, adaptable plant species to rejuvenate these lands. In this study, we determined the suitability and tolerance of Euphorbia lathyris L. (Caper spurge), a well-known biofuel plant, as a sustainable candidate to colonize saline lands. We investigated the germination rate, seedling growth, solute change and anti-oxidative enzyme activities etc. under salt stress conditions. Our results showed that Caper spurge seeds prefer to germinate under nonsaline environments and high salt stress induced temporary dormancy during germination, but did not completely hamper the viability of the seeds. The seedling biomass increased without any visible distress symptoms in the presence of NaCl not over 171 mM. Further increase in NaCl concentration had a negative impact on the seedling growth. These demonstrate that Caper spurge seedlings have the potential to grow in saline lands. The salinity tolerance of Caper spurge seedlings was closely associated with the regional distribution of Na{sup + }in roots, stable absorption of Ca{sup 2{sup +,}} K{sup + }and Mg{sup 2{sup +,}} accumulation of organic solutes, and increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes. However, excessive accumulation of Na{sup +,} sharp increase of superoxide (O{sub 2}), H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, malonaldehyde (MDA) and cell membrane leakage, reduction of osmoprotectants, and decreased activities of CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) etc. under high salinity might be the reasons for the restrained seedling growth.

  5. Serum biochemical responses under oxidative stress of aspartame in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study whether the oral administration of aspartame (40 mg/kg body weight for 15 d, 30 d and 90 d have any effect on marker enzymes, some selective liver and kidney function parameter, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in serum. To mimic human methanol metabolism, folate deficient animals were used. Method: Animal weight, complete hemogram, marker enzyme in serum, some selected serum profile reflect liver and kidney function, plasma corticosterone level, and in serum, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant level was measured . Result: After 15 d of aspartame administration animals showed a significant change in marker enzymes, and antioxidant level. However, after repeated long term administration (30 d and 90 d showed a significant change in some selected serum profile reflects liver and kidney function, along with marker enzymes, and antioxidant level. Conclusions: This study concludes that oral administration of aspartame (40 mg/kg body weight causes oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats by altering their oxidant/antioxidant balance.

  6. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of a Medicinal Halophyte Limonium Bicolor (Bag.) Kuntze to Salt-Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Li, W.; Yang, H.; Wu, W.; Ma, L.; Huang, T.; Wang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Limonium bicolor (Bag.) Kuntze is a perennial herb belonging to the Plumbaginaceae family. It is a typical recretohalophyte as well as a medicinal plant, distributing at saline soil areas in coastal areas and grasslands. In this paper,physiological mechanisms of L. bicolor to defend salt stress and effects of salinity on medicinal ingredients were investigated. The effects of different NaCl concentrations on the number of salt glands, Na/sup +/ content, dry weight and water content in tissues, gas exchange parameters involving net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration and transpiration rate, malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase and accumulations of secondary metabolites such as total phenolic, total flavonoid, gallic acid and myricetrin of leaves were determined. The results show that 100 and 200 mM NaCl induced facilitated effects in L. bicolor reflected in the increase in dry weight, tissue water content, net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate, the number of salt glands, activity of superoxide dismutase, and content of gallic acid and myricetrin. The 300 mM NaCl treatment resulted in obviously decline in gas exchange parameters, and significant increases in Na/sup +/ levels, malondialdehyde level and electrolyte leakage. It was suggested that increased salt tolerance of L. bicolor was due to the corresponding resistance mechanisms involving an increased number of salt glands, enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, and an accelerated accumulation of secondary metabolites. What's more, the results on effects of salinity on medicinal ingredients in L. bicolor under different salt concentrations could provide theoretical basis for the standardization cultivation technique of L. bicolor. (author)

  7. Physiological and Biochemical Responses to Aluminum Stress in the Root of a Biodiesel Plant Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADITE TISTAMA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated J. curcas responses to aluminum stress, histochemically and biochemically. Histochemical stainings were observed to analysis aluminum accumulation, lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity on the surface and tissue of the root apex. Enzymatic analysis was conducted to measure malate content in leaf, root and malate efflux in the medium. We used M. malabathricum as a comparison for Al-tolerance plant. J. curcas root elongation was inhibited by 0.4 mM AlCl3, while M. malabathricum root elongation was inhibited by 0.8 mM AlCl3 treatment. Inhibition of root elongation has high correlation with Al accumulation in the root apex, which caused lipid degradation and cell death. Generally, malate content in J. curcas leaf and root was higher than that in M. malabathricum. In the contrary malate efflux from the root into the medium was lower. J. curcas root has a different pattern compared to M. malabathricum in malate synthesis and malate secretion when treated with a different Al concentration. We categorized J. curcas acc IP3 as more sensitive to aluminum than M. malabathricum.

  8. The dtudy of physiological and biochemical responses of Agrostis stolonifera and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Alibiglouei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a main limiting factor of turfgrass growth in arid and semi-arid regions. Therefore, in this study, the physiological and biochemical changes in two turfgrass species Agrostis stolonifera and Festuca arundinacea schreb during drought stress (70-75 centibar in a 40-day period and recovery were investigated. Control plants during drought stress were regularly irrigated at soil field capacity (20-25 centibar. The results showed that leaf relative water content and leaf chlorophyll content with long-term stress decreased. Electrolyte leakage and proline during drought stress significantly increased and in recovery stage, the level of electrolyte leakage and proline reached to the control. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in two turfgrass significantly increased after 30 days and then significantly reduced. In F. arundinacea schreb the activity of ascorbat peroxidase after 20 days significantly increased and then significantly reduced. Also, in F. arundinacea schreb species the activity of catalase increased during drought stress and in recovery stage the activity of catalase reduced. In studied species during drought stress and recovery stage, the activity of ascorbat peroxidase and catalase significantly increased compared to the control. These results suggested that the resistant species F. arundinacea schreb, under drought stress had a low level of electrolyte leakage, higher level of relative water content and chlorophyll destruction was less than A. stolonifera.

  9. Simulating carbon dioxide exchange rates of deciduous tree species: evidence for a general pattern in biochemical changes and water stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Robert F; Bauerle, William L; Wang, Ying

    2009-09-01

    Deciduous trees have a seasonal carbon dioxide exchange pattern that is attributed to changes in leaf biochemical properties. However, it is not known if the pattern in leaf biochemical properties - maximum Rubisco carboxylation (V(cmax)) and electron transport (J(max)) - differ between species. This study explored whether a general pattern of changes in V(cmax), J(max), and a standardized soil moisture response accounted for carbon dioxide exchange of deciduous trees throughout the growing season. The model MAESTRA was used to examine V(cmax) and J(max) of leaves of five deciduous trees, Acer rubrum 'Summer Red', Betula nigra, Quercus nuttallii, Quercus phellos and Paulownia elongata, and their response to soil moisture. MAESTRA was parameterized using data from in situ measurements on organs. Linking the changes in biochemical properties of leaves to the whole tree, MAESTRA integrated the general pattern in V(cmax) and J(max) from gas exchange parameters of leaves with a standardized soil moisture response to describe carbon dioxide exchange throughout the growing season. The model estimates were tested against measurements made on the five species under both irrigated and water-stressed conditions. Measurements and modelling demonstrate that the seasonal pattern of biochemical activity in leaves and soil moisture response can be parameterized with straightforward general relationships. Over the course of the season, differences in carbon exchange between measured and modelled values were within 6-12 % under well-watered conditions and 2-25 % under water stress conditions. Hence, a generalized seasonal pattern in the leaf-level physiological change of V(cmax) and J(max), and a standardized response to soil moisture was sufficient to parameterize carbon dioxide exchange for large-scale evaluations. Simplification in parameterization of the seasonal pattern of leaf biochemical activity and soil moisture response of deciduous forest species is demonstrated. This

  10. Adaptive capability as indicated by endocrine and biochemical responses of Malpura ewes subjected to combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) in a semi-arid tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Sayeed M. K.

    2010-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI ( n = 7; control), GII ( n = 7; thermal stress), GIII ( n = 7; nutritional stress) and GIV ( n = 7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 1000 hours and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were Hb, PCV, glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, ACP, ALP, cortisol, T4, T3, and insulin. Combined stress significantly ( P ewes. It can be concluded from this study that two stressors occurring simultaneously may impact severely on the biological functions necessary to maintain homeostasis in sheep.

  11. Effects of time-of-day on oxidative stress, cardiovascular parameters, biochemical markers, and hormonal response following level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, K; Abedelmalek, S; Chtourou, H; Wong, D P; Boussetta, N; Souissi, N

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of time-of-day on oxidative stress, cardiovascular parameters, muscle damage parameters, and hormonal responses following the level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT). A total of 11 healthy subjects performed an intermittent test (YYIRT) at two times-of-day (i.e., 07:00 h and 17:00 h), with a recovery period of ≥36 h in-between, in a randomized order. Blood samples were taken at the rest (baseline) and immediately (post-YYIRT) after the YYIRT for measuring oxidative stress, biochemical markers, and hormonal response. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way and two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni test at p creatine kinase (p  0.05) were similar for the morning and evening test. In conclusion, our findings suggest that aerobic performance presents diurnal variation with great result observed in the evening accompanied by an improvement of hormonal, metabolic, and oxidative responses. These data may help to guide athletes and coaches and contribute to public health recommendations on exercise and muscle damage particularly in the competitive periods.

  12. The physiological and biochemical responses of a medicinal plant (Salvia miltiorrhiza L. to stress caused by various concentrations of NaCl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Gengmao

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is commonly known as Danshen, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. To illustrate its physiological and biochemical responses to salt stress and to evaluate the feasibility of cultivating this plant in saline coastal soils, a factorial experiment under hydroponic conditions was arranged on the basis of a completely randomised design with three replications. Five salinity treatments (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl were employed in this experiment. The results showed that salinity treatments of <100 mM NaCl did not affect the growth of Salvia miltiorrhiza in a morphological sense, but significantly inhibit the accumulation of dry matter. Salinity treatments significantly decreased the Chl-b content but caused a negligible change in the Chl-a content, leading to a conspicuous overall decrease in the T-Chl content. The Na(+ content significantly increased with increasing hydroponic salinity but the K(+ and Ca(2+ contents were reversed, indicating that a high level of external Na(+ resulted in a decrease in both K(+ and Ca(2+ concentrations in the organs of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Salt stress significantly decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves in comparison with that of the control. On the contrary, the catalase (CAT activity in the leaves markedly increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. Moreover, the soluble sugar and protein contents in Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves dramatically increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. These results suggested that antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes are partially involved in the adaptive response to salt stress in Salvia miltiorrhiza, thereby maintaining better plant growth under saline conditions.

  13. Molecular Cloning and Biochemical Characterization of the Iron Superoxide Dismutase from the Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 and Its Response to Methyl Viologen-Induced Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirangthem, Lakshmipyari Devi; Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Vanlalsangi, Rebecca; Stensjö, Karin; Lindblad, Peter; Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy

    2015-12-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) detoxifies cell-toxic superoxide radicals and constitutes an important component of antioxidant machinery in aerobic organisms, including cyanobacteria. The iron-containing SOD (SodB) is one of the most abundant soluble proteins in the cytosol of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133, and therefore, we investigated its biochemical properties and response to oxidative stress. The putative SodB-encoding open reading frame Npun_R6491 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a C-terminally hexahistidine-tagged protein. The purified recombinant protein had a SodB specific activity of 2560 ± 48 U/mg protein at pH 7.8 and was highly thermostable. The presence of a characteristic iron absorption peak at 350 nm, and its sensitivity to H2O2 and azide, confirmed that the SodB is an iron-containing SOD. Transcript level of SodB in nitrogen-fixing cultures of N. punctiforme decreased considerably (threefold) after exposure to an oxidative stress-generating herbicide methyl viologen for 4 h. Furthermore, in-gel SOD activity analysis of such cultures grown at increasing concentrations of methyl viologen also showed a loss of SodB activity. These results suggest that SodB is not the primary scavenger of superoxide radicals induced by methyl viologen in N. punctiforme.

  14. Effect of graphene oxide on copper stress in Lemna minor L.: evaluating growth, biochemical responses, and nutrient uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changwei; Liu, Lei; Li, Xiuling; Xu, Yundi; Ge, Zhigang; Zhao, Yongjun

    2018-01-05

    The wide application and unique properties of graphene oxide (GO) make it to interact with other pollutants and subsequently alter their behavior and toxicity. We evaluated the influences of GO at different concentrations (1 and 5mg/L) on copper (Cu) stress in duckweed (Lemna minor L.) GO below a concentration of 5mg/L showed no adverse effects on L. minor. The addition of Cu above 10μM represented a stress condition, which was evidenced by various parameters such as frond number, percent inhibition of growth rate (I r ), total chlorophyll content, dry weight, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD). When L. minor was simultaneously exposed to GO and Cu, especially at a GO concentration of 5mg/L and a Cu level above 10μM, the increase of I r and decrease of chlorophyll content were inhibited, suggesting that the Cu stress was diminished in the presence of GO. The addition of Cu alone, ranging between 5 and 20μM, increased Cu, B, Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn uptake, but decreased P uptake. Our results suggest that GO can lessen Cu stress in L. minor via Cu adsorption, thereby protecting the plants from the damaging effects of high Cu concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil Selenium (Se) Biofortification Changes the Physiological, Biochemical and Epigenetic Responses to Water Stress in Zea mays L. by Inducing a Higher Drought Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchini, Marika; D’Amato, Roberto; Ciancaleoni, Simona; Fontanella, Maria C.; Palmerini, Carlo A.; Beone, Gian M.; Onofri, Andrea; Negri, Valeria; Marconi, Gianpiero; Albertini, Emidio; Businelli, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Requiring water and minerals to grow and to develop its organs, Maize (Zea mays L.) production and distribution is highly rainfall-dependent. Current global climatic changes reveal irregular rainfall patterns and this could represent for maize a stressing condition resulting in yield and productivity loss around the world. It is well known that low water availability leads the plant to adopt a number of metabolic alterations to overcome stress or reduce its effects. In this regard, selenium (Se), a trace element, can help reduce water damage caused by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we report the effects of exogenous Se supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence yield and quality of maize under drought stress conditions. Plants were grown in soil fertilized by adding 150 mg of Se (sodium selenite). We verified the effects of drought stress and Se treatment. Selenium biofortification proved more beneficial for maize plants when supplied at higher Se concentrations. The increase in proline, K concentrations and nitrogen metabolism in aerial parts of plants grown in Se-rich substrates, seems to prove that Se-biofortification increased plant resistance to water shortage conditions. Moreover, the increase of SeMeSeCys and SeCys2 forms in roots and aerial parts of Se-treated plants suggest resistance strategies to Se similar to those existing in Se-hyperaccumulator species. In addition, epigenetic changes in DNA methylation due to water stress and Se treatment were also investigated using methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP). Results suggest that Se may be an activator of particular classes of genes that are involved in tolerance to abiotic stresses. In particular, PSY (phytoene synthase) gene, essential for maintaining leaf carotenoid contents, SDH (sorbitol dehydrogenase), whose activity regulates the level of important osmolytes during drought stress and ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase), whose activity

  16. Soil Selenium (Se) Biofortification Changes the Physiological, Biochemical and Epigenetic Responses to Water Stress in Zea mays L. by Inducing a Higher Drought Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchini, Marika; D'Amato, Roberto; Ciancaleoni, Simona; Fontanella, Maria C; Palmerini, Carlo A; Beone, Gian M; Onofri, Andrea; Negri, Valeria; Marconi, Gianpiero; Albertini, Emidio; Businelli, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Requiring water and minerals to grow and to develop its organs, Maize ( Zea mays L.) production and distribution is highly rainfall-dependent. Current global climatic changes reveal irregular rainfall patterns and this could represent for maize a stressing condition resulting in yield and productivity loss around the world. It is well known that low water availability leads the plant to adopt a number of metabolic alterations to overcome stress or reduce its effects. In this regard, selenium (Se), a trace element, can help reduce water damage caused by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we report the effects of exogenous Se supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence yield and quality of maize under drought stress conditions. Plants were grown in soil fertilized by adding 150 mg of Se (sodium selenite). We verified the effects of drought stress and Se treatment. Selenium biofortification proved more beneficial for maize plants when supplied at higher Se concentrations. The increase in proline, K concentrations and nitrogen metabolism in aerial parts of plants grown in Se-rich substrates, seems to prove that Se-biofortification increased plant resistance to water shortage conditions. Moreover, the increase of SeMeSeCys and SeCys2 forms in roots and aerial parts of Se-treated plants suggest resistance strategies to Se similar to those existing in Se-hyperaccumulator species. In addition, epigenetic changes in DNA methylation due to water stress and Se treatment were also investigated using methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP). Results suggest that Se may be an activator of particular classes of genes that are involved in tolerance to abiotic stresses. In particular, PSY (phytoene synthase) gene, essential for maintaining leaf carotenoid contents, SDH (sorbitol dehydrogenase), whose activity regulates the level of important osmolytes during drought stress and ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase), whose activity

  17. Soil Selenium (Se Biofortification Changes the Physiological, Biochemical and Epigenetic Responses to Water Stress in Zea mays L. by Inducing a Higher Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Bocchini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Requiring water and minerals to grow and to develop its organs, Maize (Zea mays L. production and distribution is highly rainfall-dependent. Current global climatic changes reveal irregular rainfall patterns and this could represent for maize a stressing condition resulting in yield and productivity loss around the world. It is well known that low water availability leads the plant to adopt a number of metabolic alterations to overcome stress or reduce its effects. In this regard, selenium (Se, a trace element, can help reduce water damage caused by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Here we report the effects of exogenous Se supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence yield and quality of maize under drought stress conditions. Plants were grown in soil fertilized by adding 150 mg of Se (sodium selenite. We verified the effects of drought stress and Se treatment. Selenium biofortification proved more beneficial for maize plants when supplied at higher Se concentrations. The increase in proline, K concentrations and nitrogen metabolism in aerial parts of plants grown in Se-rich substrates, seems to prove that Se-biofortification increased plant resistance to water shortage conditions. Moreover, the increase of SeMeSeCys and SeCys2 forms in roots and aerial parts of Se-treated plants suggest resistance strategies to Se similar to those existing in Se-hyperaccumulator species. In addition, epigenetic changes in DNA methylation due to water stress and Se treatment were also investigated using methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP. Results suggest that Se may be an activator of particular classes of genes that are involved in tolerance to abiotic stresses. In particular, PSY (phytoene synthase gene, essential for maintaining leaf carotenoid contents, SDH (sorbitol dehydrogenase, whose activity regulates the level of important osmolytes during drought stress and ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase, whose

  18. Haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler chickens fed copper and probiotics supplemented diets. A total of 180-day old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six treatment groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were divided into three replicates of ten ...

  19. Integration of physio-biochemical processes at different phenological stages of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) plants in response to heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, N.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the influence of heat stress imposed at different growth stages of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants. Four wheat cultivars namely S-24, Saher-2006, Lasani and AARI-10 were subjected to high temperature (HT) stress at tillering and booting phenological phases. Under stress conditions, root and shoot fresh weights, membrane thermostability (MTS) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were significantly perturbed in all four wheat cultivars at both developmental stages. However, HT stress did not influence all the other attributes significantly including shoot fresh weight, chlorophyll a and b pigments, photosynthetic rate (A), leaf water (w), internal CO/sub 2/ (Ci), osmotic (s) and turgor (p) potentials, transpiration rate (E), water-use-efficiency (A/E), stomatal conductance (gs) as well as Fv/Fm ratio. Among all wheat cultivars, cv. Lasani performed better in shoot and root fresh weight, and chlorophyll a contents at the tillering stage, while in MTS at the booting phase, cv. S-24 in shoot fresh weight, E, and gs at the boot stage and highest MTS and WUE at the tillering stage. However, cv. AARI-10 performed well in root fresh weight, w, s, p,,WUE and NPQ when stress was applied at the boot stage, while E and Fv/Fm in this cultivar on exposure to stress at the tillering stage. Cultivar Saher-2006 performed better in gs, leaf s and p at the tillering stage, while Fv/Fm was recorded better at the boot stage and A in the same cultivar at all growth stages. Overall, HT stress applied at different growth stages was only effective in altering root fresh weight, MTS and NPQ in all four wheat cultivars. Of all wheat cultivars, cv. AARI-10 performed better in growth and physiological attributes examined in the present study under HT stress applied at different phenological stages. (author)

  20. Novel biochemical markers of psychosocial stress in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Asberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged psychosocial stress is a condition assessed through self-reports. Here we aimed to identify biochemical markers for screening and early intervention in women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL 1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, epidermal growth factor (EGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total tri-iodothyronine (TT3, total thyroxine (TT4, prolactin, and testosterone were measured in: 195 women on long-term sick-leave for a stress-related affective disorder, 45 women at risk for professional burnout, and 84 healthy women. RESULTS: We found significantly increased levels of MCP-1, VEGF and EGF in women exposed to prolonged psychosocial stress. Statistical analysis indicates that they independently associate with a significant risk for being classified as ill. CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1, EGF, and VEGF are potential markers for screening and early intervention in women under prolonged psychosocial stress.

  1. Growth, haematological and biochemical responses of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. Physiological and productive responses to recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) injection and calcium soap of fatty acids (CSFA) supplementation were studied in post-weaning male Rahmani lambs. Male lambs (n = 20) of similar initial body weight (27.9 kg) and age (162 d) were divided randomly into four.

  2. Sucralose induces biochemical responses in Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kristin Eriksson Wiklund

    Full Text Available The intense artificial sweetener sucralose has no bioconcentration properties, and no adverse acute toxic effects have been observed in standard ecotoxicity tests, suggesting negligible environmental risk. However, significant feeding and behavioural alterations have been reported in non-standard tests using aquatic crustaceans, indicating possible sublethal effects. We hypothesized that these effects are related to alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE and oxidative status in the exposed animals and investigated changes in AChE and oxidative biomarkers (oxygen radical absorbing capacity, ORAC, and lipid peroxidation, TBARS in the crustacean Daphnia magna exposed to sucralose (0.0001-5 mg L(-1. The sucralose concentration was a significant positive predictor for ORAC, TBARS and AChE in the daphnids. Moreover, the AChE response was linked to both oxidative biomarkers, with positive and negative relationships for TBARS and ORAC, respectively. These joint responses support our hypothesis and suggest that exposure to sucralose may induce neurological and oxidative mechanisms with potentially important consequences for animal behaviour and physiology.

  3. Variable Levels of Tolerance to Water Stress (Drought and Associated Biochemical Markers in Tunisian Barley Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Dbira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high tolerance to abiotic stress, barley (Hordeum vulgare is cultivated in many arid areas of the world. In the present study, we evaluate the tolerance to water stress (drought in nine accessions of “Ardhaoui” barley landraces from different regions of Tunisia. The genetic diversity of the accessions is evaluated with six SSR markers. Seedlings from the nine accessions are subjected to water stress by completely stopping irrigation for three weeks. A high genetic diversity is detected among the nine accessions, with no relationships between genetic distance and geographical or ecogeographical zone. The analysis of growth parameters and biochemical markers in the water stress-treated plants in comparison to their respective controls indicated great variability among the studied accessions. Accession 2, from El May Island, displayed high tolerance to drought. Increased amounts of proline in water-stressed plants could not be correlated with a better response to drought, as the most tolerant accessions contained lower levels of this osmolyte. A good correlation was established between the reduction of growth and degradation of chlorophylls and increased levels of malondialdehyde and total phenolics. These biochemical markers may be useful for identifying drought tolerant materials in barley.

  4. Some physiological and biochemical methods for acute and chronic stress evaluation in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress factors are so numerous and so diverse in their strength and duration that the consequences on animal welfare can be quite varied. The first important distinction concerns the characterization of acute and chronic stress conditions. Acute stress is a short-lived negative situation that allows a quick and quite complete recovery of the physiological balance (adaptation, while chronic stress is a long lasting condition from which the subject cannot fully recover (maladaptation. In the latter case, the direct effects of the stress factors (heat, low energy, anxiety, suffering etc., as well as the indirect ones (changes occurring at endocrinological, immune system or function level can be responsible for pre-pathological or pathological consequences which reduce animal welfare. To evaluate the possible chronic stress conditions in single animals or on a farm (in particular a farm of dairy cows, some parameters of the direct or indirect effects can be utilised. They are physiological (mainly hormone changes: cortisol, β-endorphin, behavioural (depression, biochemical (metabolites, acute phase proteins, glycated proteins etc., as well as performance parameters (growing rate, milk yield, fertility, etc.. Special attention has been paid to the interpretation of cortisol levels and to its changes after an ACTH challenge. Despite fervent efforts, well established and accepted indices of chronic stress (distress are currently lacking; but without this objective evaluation, the assessment of animal welfare and, therefore, the optimization of the livestock production, could prove more difficult.

  5. Bruxism affects stress responses in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Chikatoshi; Sato, Sadao; Takashina, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hidenori; Onozuka, Minoru; Sasaguri, Kenichi

    2010-04-01

    It has been proposed that suppression of stress-related emotional responses leads to the simultaneous activation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and that the expression of these emotional states has a protective effect against ulcerogenesis. In the present study, we investigated whether stress-induced bruxism activity (SBA) has a physiological effect of on the stress-induced changes of the stomach, thymus, and spleen as well as blood leukocytes, cortisol, and adrenaline. This study demonstrated that SBA attenuated the stress-induced ulcer genesis as well as degenerative changes of thymus and spleen. SBA also attenuated increases of adrenaline, cortisol, and neutrophils in the blood. In conclusion, expression of aggression through SBA during stress exposure attenuates both stress-induced ANS response, including gastric ulcer formation.

  6. Cellular stress responses for monitoring and modulating ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirovic, Dino; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Nizard, Carine

    2013-01-01

    biochemical methods, detecting one or more proteins exclusively involved in the specific stress response pathways. The results indicate that the ageing phenotype is a result of an ineffective probability for cells to respond to stress. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.08.023...

  7. Stress Responses in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Ingmer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    stress responses allowing it to sense and adapt to its very different niches. The stress responses often involve dramatic cellular reprogramming, and the technological advances provided by the access to whole genome sequences have let to an unprecedented insight into the global reorganization of gene...... and protein expression following stress-exposure. Characterization of global gene responses has been very helpful both in identifying regulators sensing specific environmental stress signals and overlaps between different stress responses. In this chapter we review the recent progress in our understanding...... of the specific and general S. aureusstress responses, with a special emphasis on how stress responses contribute to virulence and antibiotic resistance in this important human pathogen....

  8. Intraspecific variation in cellular and biochemical heat response strategies of Mediterranean Xeropicta derbentina [Pulmonata, Hygromiidae].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Troschinski

    Full Text Available Dry and hot environments challenge the survival of terrestrial snails. To minimize overheating and desiccation, physiological and biochemical adaptations are of high importance for these animals. In the present study, seven populations of the Mediterranean land snail species Xeropicta derbentina were sampled from their natural habitat in order to investigate the intraspecific variation of cellular and biochemical mechanisms, which are assigned to contribute to heat resistance. Furthermore, we tested whether genetic parameters are correlated with these physiological heat stress response patterns. Specimens of each population were individually exposed to elevated temperatures (25 to 52°C for 8 h in the laboratory. After exposure, the health condition of the snails' hepatopancreas was examined by means of qualitative description and semi-quantitative assessment of histopathological effects. In addition, the heat-shock protein 70 level (Hsp70 was determined. Generally, calcium cells of the hepatopancreas were more heat resistant than digestive cells - this phenomenon was associated with elevated Hsp70 levels at 40°C.We observed considerable variation in the snails' heat response strategy: Individuals from three populations invested much energy in producing a highly elevated Hsp70 level, whereas three other populations invested energy in moderate stress protein levels - both strategies were in association with cellular functionality. Furthermore, one population kept cellular condition stable despite a low Hsp70 level until 40°C exposure, whereas prominent cellular reactions were observed above this thermal limit. Genetic diversity (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene within populations was low. Nevertheless, when using genetic indices as explanatory variables in a multivariate regression tree (MRT analysis, population structure explained mean differences in cellular and biochemical heat stress responses, especially in the group

  9. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmarie eGaupp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria’s interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host.

  10. Dosimetric response of some biochemicals used as lyoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettinger, K.V.; Rowe, R.W.; Mallard, J.R.; Takavar, A.; Sephton, J.

    1977-01-01

    It has been found recently that a whole variety of biochemicals exhibit lyoluminescent response to ionizing and UV radiation, which can be used for the purpose of dosimetry. Among the amino acids, glutamine, glutamic acid and valine are showing good response and satisfactory stability of the stored energy i.e. stability of 'frozen' free radicals. Actually, all amino acids involved in naturally occuring proteins, which were investigated (20 compounds) show lyoluminescence to smaller or greater extent. The response is proportional to the dose in the region of 50 rad to 100 kilorad. The mechanism of lyoluminescence in amino acids is probably the same as in the saccharides; formation of free radicals in the solid, conversion to peroxy radicals and, finally generation of excited oxygen dimers on dissolution. Other categories of biochemicals which exhibit lyoluminescence (LL) are DNA, RNA and their salts, as well as some antibiotics like streptomycin, gentamycin and oxytetracycline. Those of proteins that are easily soluble in water, show a good LL response. The half-life of free radicals responsible for LL in albumins (egg, horse and human) is of an order of 24 h. However, in salmine (protamine sulphate) the decay is very slow, of an order of few month, so this material can be used as a 'protein equivalent' dosemeter. In all experiments a 60 Co source was used for irradiations. Proteins, RNA and DNA show a considerable response to UV. In experiments with UV radiation, mostly 2547 A wavelength, the response to radiation in terms of energy deposited in gramme of material was almost twice that for gamma rays of 1.33 and 1.17MeV

  11. Biochemical basis of the high resistance to oxidative stress in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    581. Keywords. Apoptosis; D. discoideum; oxidative stress; antioxidant enzymes; lipid peroxidation ..... multiple toxic effects of oxidative stress that is related to several pathological conditions ... culture. This work was supported by a grant to RB.

  12. Biochemical basis of the high resistance to oxidative stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aerobic organisms experience oxidative stress due to generation of reactive oxygen species during normal aerobic metabolism. In addition, several chemicals also generate reactive oxygen species which induce oxidative stress. Thus oxidative stress constitutes a major threat to organisms living in aerobic environments.

  13. Water stress and recovery in the performance of two Eucalyptus globulus clones: physiological and biochemical profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Barbara; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Neves, Lucinda; Brossa, Ricard; Dias, Maria Celeste; Costa, Armando; Castro, Bruno B; Araújo, Clara; Santos, Conceição; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Pinto, Glória

    2014-04-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are among the most productive forest stands in Portugal and Spain, being mostly used for pulp production and, more recently, as an energy crop. However, the region's Mediterranean climate, with characteristic severe summer drought, negatively affects eucalypt growth and increases mortality. Although the physiological response to water shortage is well characterized for this species, evidence about the plants' recovery ability remains scarce. In order to assess the physiological and biochemical response of Eucalyptus globulus during the recovery phase, two genotypes (AL-18 and AL-10) were submitted to a 3-week water stress period at two different intensities (18 and 25% of field capacity), followed by 1 week of rewatering. Recovery was assessed 1 day and 1 week after rehydration. Drought reduced height, biomass, water potential, NPQ and gas exchange in both genotypes. Contrarily, the levels of pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F(v) /F(m) and (φPSII)), MDA and ABA increased. During recovery, the physiological and biochemical profile of stressed plants showed a similar trend: they experienced reversion of altered traits (MDA, ABA, E, g(s), pigments), while other parameters did not recover ((φPSII), NPQ). Furthermore, an overcompensation of CO(2) assimilation was achieved 1 week after rehydration, which was accompanied by greater growth and re-establishment of oxidative balance. Both genotypes were tolerant to the tested conditions, although clonal differences were found. AL-10 was more productive and showed a more rapid and dynamic response to rehydration (namely in carotenoid content, (φPSII) and NPQ) compared to clone AL-18. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Behavioural and biochemical responses of juvenile catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behavioural and serum liver enzyme responses of juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were evaluated for 72 hours. Thirty-six (36) healthy fishes with standard weight, 20 ± 1.52 g and standard length, 18.25 ± 0.50 cm were used for the experiment in non-renewable bioassay system. The test fish exhibited stressful ...

  15. Trematode infection modulates cockles biochemical response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Luísa; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2018-05-06

    Resulting mainly from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) build-up, seawater temperature rise is among the most important climate change related factors affecting costal marine ecosystems. Global warming will have implications on the water cycle, increasing the risk of heavy rainfalls and consequent freshwater input into the oceans but also increasing the frequency of extreme drought periods with consequent salinity increase. For Europe, by the end of the century, projections describe an increase of CO 2 concentration up to 1120 ppm (corresponding to 0.5 pH unit decrease), an increase in the water temperature up to 4 °C and a higher frequency of heavy precipitation. These changes are likely to impact many biotic interactions, including host-parasite relationships which are particularly dependent on abiotic conditions. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the edible cockle, Cerastoderma edule, exposed to different salinity, temperature and pH levels as proxy for climate change, modify the infection success of the trematode parasite Himasthla elongata, with consequences to cockles biochemical performance. The results showed that the cercariae infection success increased with acidification but higher biochemical alterations were observed in infected cockles exposed to all abiotic experimental stressful conditions tested. The present study suggested that changes forecasted by many models may promote the proliferation of the parasites infective stages in many ecosystems leading to enhanced transmission, especially on temperate regions, that will influence the geographical distribution of some diseases and, probably, the survival capacity of infected bivalves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Time Course Changes in Selected Biochemical Stress Indices in Broilers Exposed to Short-term Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Bedáňová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Time course changes in selected biochemical stress indices (corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, cholesterol following short-term noise exposure at 100 dB for 28 min were studied in broilers aged 42 days. Corticosterone concentrations were found to increase during the first 10 min of noise exposure and to differ significantly from the control (background sound – 50 dB at Time 10 min and 14 min, then decreased continually and at 28 min returned to the initial prestress value. Triglyceride concentrations increased in broilers exposed to 100 dB noise during the first 12 min with a significant difference from the control at 12 min and 14 min. Glucose concentrations were higher due to 100 dB noise exposure for almost the entire period monitored, with significant differences between 100 dB and control broilers at 6 min and from 10 min to 14 min. Similarly as for the corticosterone concentration, a drop in triglycerides and glucose concentrations was seen approximately from Time 14 min and a return to the pre-stress value at 28 min. The cholesterol concentrations showed various temporal patterns with no significant difference between 100 dB and control broilers in this experiment. The pattern of response found in the study indicates that 100 dB noise represents a stress factor in broilers, however, there is the ability of broilers to adapt to an increased level of noise at this intensity after the first 14 min of exposure. The findings obtained in the study may contribute to expanding detailed knowledge of physiological stress responses to this specific noise stimulus in poultry, and could thereby be used to improve the welfare of broilers in intensive housing systems.

  17. Biochemical analysis of force-sensitive responses using a large-scale cell stretch device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Derrick J; Ewald, Makena L; Kim, Timothy; Yamada, Soichiro

    2017-09-03

    Physical force has emerged as a key regulator of tissue homeostasis, and plays an important role in embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and disease progression. Currently, the details of protein interactions under elevated physical stress are largely missing, therefore, preventing the fundamental, molecular understanding of mechano-transduction. This is in part due to the difficulty isolating large quantities of cell lysates exposed to force-bearing conditions for biochemical analysis. We designed a simple, easy-to-fabricate, large-scale cell stretch device for the analysis of force-sensitive cell responses. Using proximal biotinylation (BioID) analysis or phospho-specific antibodies, we detected force-sensitive biochemical changes in cells exposed to prolonged cyclic substrate stretch. For example, using promiscuous biotin ligase BirA* tagged α-catenin, the biotinylation of myosin IIA increased with stretch, suggesting the close proximity of myosin IIA to α-catenin under a force bearing condition. Furthermore, using phospho-specific antibodies, Akt phosphorylation was reduced upon stretch while Src phosphorylation was unchanged. Interestingly, phosphorylation of GSK3β, a downstream effector of Akt pathway, was also reduced with stretch, while the phosphorylation of other Akt effectors was unchanged. These data suggest that the Akt-GSK3β pathway is force-sensitive. This simple cell stretch device enables biochemical analysis of force-sensitive responses and has potential to uncover molecules underlying mechano-transduction.

  18. Biochemical mechanisms of signaling: perspectives in plants under arsenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ejazul; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Irem, Samra

    2015-04-01

    Plants are the ultimate food source for humans, either directly or indirectly. Being sessile in nature, they are exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses because of changing climate that adversely effects their growth and development. Contamination of heavy metals is one of the major abiotic stresses because of anthropogenic as well as natural factors which lead to increased toxicity and accumulation in plants. Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid toxin present in the earth crust. Due to its presence in terrestrial and aquatic environments, it effects the growth of plants. Plants can tolerate arsenic using several mechanisms like phytochelation, vacuole sequestration and activation of antioxidant defense systems. Several signaling mechanisms have evolved in plants that involve the use of proteins, calcium ions, hormones, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide as signaling molecules to cope with arsenic toxicity. These mechanisms facilitate plants to survive under metal stress by activating their defense systems. The pathways by which these stress signals are perceived and responded is an unexplored area of research and there are lots of gaps still to be filled. A good understanding of these signaling pathways can help in raising the plants which can perform better in arsenic contaminated soil and water. In order to increase the survival of plants in contaminated areas there is a strong need to identify suitable gene targets that can be modified according to needs of the stakeholders using various biotechnological techniques. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of plants grown under arsenic stress and will give an insight of the different sensory systems in plants. Furthermore, it provides the knowledge about several pathways that can be exploited to develop plant cultivars which are resistant to arsenic stress or can reduce its uptake to minimize the risk of arsenic toxicity through food chain thus ensuring food security. Copyright © 2015

  19. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses......Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged...... by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner...

  20. Plant responses to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Rup Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial plants most often encounter drought stress because of erratic rainfall which has become compounded due to present climatic changes.Responses of plants to water stress may be assigned as either injurious change or tolerance index. One of the primary and cardinal changes in response to drought stress is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is being considered as the cause of cellular damage. However, recently a signaling role of such ROS in triggering the ROS scavenging system that may confer protection or tolerance against stress is emerging. Such scavenging system consists of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, catalase and peroxidases, and antioxidant compounds like ascorbate, reduced glutathione; a balance between ROS generation and scavenging ultimately determines the oxidative load. As revealed in case of defence against pathogen, signaling via ROS is initiated by NADPH oxidase-catalyzed superoxide generation in the apoplastic space (cell wall) followed by conversion to hydrogen peroxide by the activity of cell wall-localized SOD. Wall peroxidase may also play role in ROS generation for signaling. Hydrogen peroxide may use Ca2+ and MAPK pathway as downstream signaling cascade. Plant hormones associated with stress responses like ABA and ethylene play their role possibly via a cross talk with ROS towards stress tolerance, thus projecting a dual role of ROS under drought stress. PMID:22057331

  1. Individual heat stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.

    1997-01-01

    In 5 experiments, heterogeneous subject groups (large variations in _VO2 max, regular daily activity level, mass, body surface area (AD), % body fat, and AD/mass ratio) were tested for their physiological response while exercising on a cycle ergometer at a relative (45% _VO2 max; REL) or an absolute

  2. Biochemical indicators of root damage in rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes under zinc deficiency stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Sung; Wissuwa, Matthias; Zamora, Oscar B; Ismail, Abdelbagi M

    2017-11-01

    Zn deficiency is one of the major soil constraints currently limiting rice production. Although recent studies demonstrated that higher antioxidant activity in leaf tissue effectively protects against Zn deficiency stress, little is known about whether similar tolerance mechanisms operate in root tissue. In this study we explored root-specific responses of different rice genotypes to Zn deficiency. Root solute leakage and biomass reduction, antioxidant activity, and metabolic changes were measured using plants grown in Zn-deficient soil and hydroponics. Solute leakage from roots was higher in sensitive genotypes and linked to membrane damage caused by Zn deficiency-induced oxidative stress. However, total root antioxidant activity was four-fold lower than in leaves and did not differ between sensitive and tolerant genotypes. Root metabolite analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography indicated that Zn deficiency triggered the accumulation of glycerol-3-phosphate and acetate in sensitive genotypes, while less or no accumulation was seen in tolerant genotypes. We suggest that these metabolites may serve as biochemical indicators of root damage under Zn deficiency.

  3. Joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium on wheat Triticum aestivum at biochemical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.-E; Zhou, Q.-X.

    2006-01-01

    Biochemical responses to joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium (Cd) in wheat Triticum aestivum were examined. The joint action of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd weakened the inhibition of Cd or chlorimuron-ethyl on the formation of chlorophyll. It was deduced that wheat plants had the capability to protect themselves by increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD) with the exposure time. The joint effect of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in leaves was additive, while the joint effect on the SOD activity in roots was determined by the interaction of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd in wheat. It was also concluded that the change of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in wheat might not be a good biomarker in the oxidative damage by chlorimuron-ethyl, while a decrease in the soluble protein content and POD activity in roots could be considered as a biomarker in the damage of wheat by chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd. - Soluble protein content and peroxidase activity in seedlings were the biomarkers indicating joint stress of chemicals

  4. Cuminum cyminum extract attenuates scopolamine-induced memory loss and stress-induced urinary biochemical changes in rats: a noninvasive biochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppula, Sushruta; Choi, Dong Kug

    2011-07-01

    Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae), cumin, is a popular spice with a long history of medicinal use to treat various symptoms such as diarrhea, flatulence, gynecological, and respiratory diseases. To date, no scientific investigation was reported regarding memory-enhancing and antistress activity of cumin fruits. The present study deals with the memory-enhancing and antistress activities and further the antioxidant status via lipid peroxidation inhibition. Antistress activity was evaluated by inducing stress via forced swimming and the urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were estimated as biomarkers. Memory-enhancing activity was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus in normal and scopolamine-induced amnestic rats. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was used to evaluate the lipid peroxidation. Daily administration of cumin at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight 1 h prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress-induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose-dependent manner without altering the levels in normal control groups. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention, and recovery in rats, was observed to be dose-dependent. The extract also produced significant lipid peroxidation inhibition in comparison with known antioxidant ascorbic acid in both rat liver and brain. This study provides scientific support for the antistress, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing activities of cumin extract and substantiates that its traditional use as a culinary spice in foods is beneficial and scientific in combating stress and related disorders.

  5. Sub-acute deltamethrin and fluoride toxicity induced hepatic oxidative stress and biochemical alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Nitin; Khan, Adil Mehraj; Raina, Rajinder

    2013-09-01

    The current study investigated the effects of deltamethrin, fluoride (F(-)) and their combination on the hepatic oxidative stress and consequent alterations in blood biochemical markers of hepatic damage in rats. Significant hepatic oxidative stress and hepatic damage were observed in the toxicant exposed groups. These changes were higher in the deltamethrin-F(-) co-exposure treatment group, depicting a positive interaction between the two chemicals.

  6. Acute social stress increases biochemical and self report markers of stress without altering spatial learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, Christine; Garcia, Carlos; Schulman, Allan H; Ward, Christopher P; Tartar, Jaime L

    2012-01-01

    Spatial learning is shown to be influenced by acute stress in both human and other animals. However, the intricacies of this relationship are unclear. Based on prior findings we hypothesized that compared to a control condition, a social stress condition would not affect spatial learning performance despite elevated biochemical markers of stress. The present study tested the effects of social stress in human males and females on a subsequent spatial learning task. Social stress induction consisted of evaluative stress (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) compared to a placebo social stress. Compared to the placebo condition, the TSST resulted in significantly elevated cortisol and alpha amylase levels at multiple time points following stress induction. In accord, cognitive appraisal measures also showed that participants in the TSST group experienced greater perceived stress compared to the placebo group. However, there were no group differences in performance on a spatial learning task. Our findings suggest that unlike physiological stress, social stress does not result in alterations in spatial learning in humans. It is possible that moderate social evaluative stress in humans works to prevent acute stress-mediated alterations in hippocampal learning processes..

  7. Abiotic stressors and stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we...... review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact...... life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental...

  8. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALWA A. ORABI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orabi SA, Talaat IM, Balbaa LK. 2014. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 118-125. Two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tryptophan, nicotinamide and α-tocopherol (each at 50 and 100 mg/L on plant growth, essential oil yield and its main constituents. All treatments significantly promoted plant height, and increased fresh and dry mass (g/plant of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.. The treatment with 100 mg/L nicotinamide showed increasing in total potassium mainly in the first cut. Total soluble sugars, oil percentage and oil yield and protein recorded increments with tryptophan treatments. Treatment of Thymus plants with 100 mg/L nicotinamide observed the highest percentage of thymol (67.61%. Oxygenated compounds recorded the highest value with 50 mg/L α-tocopherol treatment, while the maximum non-oxygenated ones resulted from the application of 100 mg/L nicotinamide. All treatments under study significantly affected the activity of oxidoreductase enzymes (POX and PPO. Nicotinamide at the concentration of 100 mg/L recorded the highest increments in APX and GR and the lowest values in oxidoreductase enzyme activities added to the lowest values of lipid peroxidation to enhance the best protection of thyme plants.

  9. Proteomic Assessment of Biochemical Pathways That Are Critical to Nickel-Induced Toxicity Responses in Human Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue; Bruno, Maribel; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Wallace, Kathleen; Andrews, Debora; Swank, Adam; Winnik, Witold; Ross, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying toxicity initiated by nickel, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known human carcinogen is necessary for proper assessment of its risks to human and environment. Among a variety of toxic mechanisms, disruption of protein responses and protein response-based biochemical pathways represents a key mechanism through which nickel induces cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis. To identify protein responses and biochemical pathways that are critical to nickel-induced toxicity responses, we measured cytotoxicity and changes in expression and phosphorylation status of 14 critical biochemical pathway regulators in human BEAS-2B cells exposed to four concentrations of nickel using an integrated proteomic approach. A subset of the pathway regulators, including interleukin-6, and JNK, were found to be linearly correlated with cell viability, and may function as molecular determinants of cytotoxic responses of BEAS-2B cells to nickel exposures. In addition, 128 differentially expressed proteins were identified by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analyses, and ingenuity signaling pathway analysis (IPA) identified putative nickel toxicity pathways. Some of the proteins and pathways identified have not previously been linked to nickel toxicity. Based on the consistent results obtained from both ELISA and 2-DE proteomic analysis, we propose a core signaling pathway regulating cytotoxic responses of human BEAS-2B cells to nickel exposures, which integrates a small set of proteins involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways, apoptosis, protein degradation, and stress responses including inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:27626938

  10. Oxidative stress response after laparoscopic versus conventional sigmoid resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Kücükakin, Bülent; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is accompanied by a surgical stress response, which results in increased morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress is a part of the surgical stress response. Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery may result in reduced oxidative stress compared with open surgery. Nineteen patients...... scheduled for sigmoid resection were randomly allocated to open or laparoscopic sigmoid resection in a double-blind, prospective clinical trial. Three biochemical markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, and dehydroascorbic acid) were measured at 6 different time points (preoperatively......, 1 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h postoperatively). There were no statistical significant differences between laparoscopic and open surgery for any of the 3 oxidative stress parameters. Malondialdehyde was reduced 1 hour postoperatively (P...

  11. Characterizing gene responses to drought stress in fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh.) Nutt.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Adair; David L. Andrews; John Cairney; Edward A. Funkhouser; Ronald J. Newton; Earl F. Aldon

    1992-01-01

    New techniques in molecular biology can be used to characterize genes whose expression is induced by drought stress. These techniques can be used to understand responses of range plants to environmental stresses at the biochemical and molecular level. For example, they can be used to characterize genes that respond to drought stress conditions in the native shrub

  12. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahed Hossain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress.

  13. Sex differences in chronic stress responses and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Dominguez, Sky; Fisher, Daniel W; Dong, Hongxin

    2018-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate that Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects women in both disease prevalence and severity, but the mechanisms underlying this sex divergence are unknown. Though some have suggested this difference in risk is a reflection of known differences in longevity between men and women, mounting clinical and preclinical evidence supports women also having intrinsic susceptibilities towards the disease. While a number of potential risk factors have been hypothesized to affect these differences in risks, none have been definitively verified. In this review, we discuss a novel hypothesis whereby women's susceptibility to chronic stress also mediates increased risk for AD. As stress is a risk factor for AD, and women are twice as likely to develop mood disorders where stress is a major etiology, it is possible that sex dimorphisms in stress responses contribute to the increase in women with AD. In line with this, sex divergence in biochemical responses to stress have been noted along the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and among known molecular effectors of AD, with crosstalk between these processes also being likely. In addition, activation of the cortical corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) signaling pathway leads to distinct female-biased increases in molecules associated with AD pathogenesis. Therefore, the different biochemical responses to stress between women and men may represent an intrinsic, sex-dependent risk factor for AD.

  14. Biochemical response of ouda sheep to water contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, biochemical examinations of fasting blood glucose(FBGL), total serum protein(TSP), serum albumin(S.ALB), blood urea nitrogen(BUN), serum creatinine(S.CREAT.), serum phosphate(S.PO4), aspartate ... hours of the experiment following standard procedures. The result showed that all the parameters measured were ...

  15. Biochemical response of normal albino rats to the addition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the biochemical effect of Hibiscus cannabinus and Murraya koenigii extracts on normal albino rats using standard methods. Analyses carried out indicated that the aqueous leaf extract of H. cannabinus and M. koenigii exhibited significant hypolipideamic activity in normal rats.

  16. Differential response of biochemical parameters to EMS and MMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1964) and biochemical estimations from the liver was done by the method of Sinha (1972) for catalase, Van der Vies (1954) for glycogen and Uchiyama and Mihara (1978) for MDA. Results: The study has revealed that EMS and MMS induced a dose dependent increase in chromosomal aberrations of chromatid type in the ...

  17. Effects of Housing Conditions on Stress Responses, Feeding, and Drinking in Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-07

    and biochemical changes indicative of a stress response (Singh, D’Souza, & Singh, 1991 ; Peng, Lang, Drozdowicz, & Ohlsson-Wilhelm, 1989; Armario ...immunological, and biochemical changes indicative of stress (Peng et aI., 1989; Armario et aI. , 1987; Gamallo et aI. , 1986; Armario , Ortiz...et aI. , 19~9; Armario et aI. , 1987; Gamallo et aI. , 1986; Calhoun, 1962). Hypothesis 2. It was hypothesized that male rats would decrease food

  18. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Hyacinthe Le; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions. PMID:27135320

  19. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  20. Some physiological and biochemical responses to copper of detached cucumber (cucumis sativus l.) cotyledons pre-floated in salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulengul, S.C.; Yildiz, T.; Deveci, D.

    2017-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a growth regulator that promotes growth of plants under stress and non-stress conditions. In the present investigation we studied the role of salicylic acid in copper induced physiological and biochemical changes and the possible induction of oxidative stress in detached cucumber cotyledons. Detached cotyledons of young cucumber seedlings were floated in 150 ppm SA. Then, the responses of these cotyledons to different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ve 50 mM) of copper (CuCl2. H2O) were investigated. In detached cucumber cotyledons exposed to increasing Cu concentrations, the fresh weight accumulation and the photosynthetic pigment content were decreased. Furthermore, the levels of some important parameters regarding oxidative stress in the cotyledons, namely lipid peroxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and proline were increased. In the detached cucumber cotyledons pre-floation process with SA alleviated the negative effect of Cu ( 20 mM and 50 mM Cu) on growth parameters. (author)

  1. Physilogical and Biochemical Responses of Avena species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mk

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... Seven species of oat (Avena) were evaluated for their relative drought tolerance under soil moisture stress. The plant height, leaf area production and biomass yield reduced under soil moisture stress. Among the species tested, minimum reduction in height was recorded in Avena vaviloviana, Avena.

  2. Responses of physiological and biochemical components in Gossypium hirsutum L. to mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthusamy, A.; Vasanth, K.; Jayabalan, N.

    2003-01-01

    The two tetraploid varieties of cotton were exposed to gamma rays, EMS and SA. Chlorophyll, carotenoids, sugar, starch, free amino acids, protein, lipids, DNA and RNA were estimated quantitatively. All the physiological and biochemical components were increased in lower dose/concentration of the mutagenic treatments and they were decreased in higher dose/concentrations. The stimulation of the biochemical contents was a dose/concentration dependent response. Among the two varieties, MCU 11 was found to be responsive to mutagens than MCU 5. Based on the study the lower dose/concentration of the mutagenic treatments could enhance the biochemical components which is used for improved economic characters of cotton. (author)

  3. Biochemical responses of filamentous algae in different aquatic ecosystems in South East Turkey and associated water quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelekli, Abuzer; Arslanargun, Hamdullah; Soysal, Çiğdem; Gültekin, Emine; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2016-11-01

    To the best of our knowledge, any study about biochemical response of filamentous algae in the complex freshwater ecosystems has not been found in the literature. This study was designed to explore biochemical response of filamentous algae in different water bodies from May 2013 to October 2014, using multivariate approach in the South East of Turkey. Environmental variables were measured in situ: water temperature, oxygen concentration, saturation, conductivity, salinity, pH, redox potential, and total dissolved solid. Chemical variables of aqueous samples and biochemical compounds of filamentous algae were also measured. It was found that geographic position and anthropogenic activities had strong effect on physico-chemical variables of water bodies. Variation in environmental conditions caused change in algal biomass composition due to the different response of filamentous species, also indicated by FTIR analysis. Biochemical responses not only changed from species to species, but also varied for the same species at different sampling time and sampling stations. Multivariate analyses showed that heavy metals, nutrients, and water hardness were found as the important variables governing the temporal and spatial succession and biochemical compounds. Nutrients, especially nitrate, could stimulate pigment and total protein production, whereas high metal content had adverse effects. Amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, total thiol groups, total phenolic compounds, proline, total carbohydrate, and metal bioaccumulation by filamentous algae could be closely related with heavy metals in the ecosystems. Significant increase in MDA, H2O2, total thiol group, total phenolic compounds, and proline productions by filamentous algae and chlorosis phenomenon seemed to be an important strategy for alleviating environmental factors-induced oxidative stress as biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochemical components and dry matter of lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. da S. Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to study the biochemical changes and dry matter content in lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress during rootstock formation. For this, a study was conducted in randomized complete block, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with two salinity levels (0.3 and 4.0 dS m-1 applied in five citrus rootstock genotypes (1. TSKC x CTARG - 019; 2. LRF; 3. TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040; 4. LCRSTC and 5. LVK, with three replicates and four plants per plot. At 90 days after sowing, saline treatments started to be applied and continued until 120 days after sowing, the moment in which the plants were collected for evaluation of biochemical characteristics and phytomass accumulation. The increase in water salinity negatively affected the biochemical components and dry matter accumulation of citrus genotypes. The genotypes TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040, LCRSTC and LVK were the least affected by salt stress, standing out as the materials most tolerant to salinity.

  5. Time course of physiological, biochemical, and gene expression changes under short-term salt stress in Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Pandey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity-imposed limitations on plant growth are manifested through osmotic and ionic imbalances. However, because salinity-induced responses vary considerably among crop plants, monitoring of such responses at an early stage has relevance. In this study, physiological (seed germination, seed vigor index, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight and biochemical attributes (osmoprotectants, K+/Na+ ratio were analyzed for a time-course assessment of salt responses in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. with an emphasis on early monitoring. The results showed strong correlations for total soluble sugars at germination phase (24 h, proline content in the seedling establishment phase (48 h and various physiological parameters including seed vigor index (R2 = 0.901, shoot length (R2 = 0.982, and fresh weight (R2 = 0.980 at 72 h (adaptation under stress. In addition, transcriptional changes were observed under NaCl treatment for key genes belonging to the family of selective ion transporters (NHX, HKT and abscisic acid synthesis (AAO-3. The status of mitochondrial respiration was also examined as a probe for salinity tolerance at an early stage. The results suggested that although all the analyzed parameters showed correlations (negative or positive with salt stress magnitude, their critical response times differed, with most of the studied biochemical, physiological, or molecular markers providing valuable information only after radicle emergence, whereas mitochondrial respiration via alternative oxidase was useful for the early detection of salt responses.

  6. Fruit response to water-scarcity and biochemical changes : Water relations and biochemical changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, P.; Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Collado-González, J.; Medina, S.; Corell, M.; Memmi, H.; Girón, I.F.; Centeno, A.; Martín-Palomo, M.J.; Cruz, Z.N.; Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A.; Hernandez, F.; Torrecillas, A.; Moriana, A.; Pérez-López, D.; Garcia Tejero, Ivan Francisco; Duran Zuazo, Victor Hugo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to give a general idea of the fruit response to water-scarcity conditions, paying special attention to fruit water relations modification and fruit composition changes, which are key for fruit quality. The strengths and weaknesses of fruit water relations measurement

  7. Biochemical and immunological responses to low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.H.; Sayed, Z.S.; Mahdy, E.M.; El-Gawish, M.A.; Shosha, W.

    2006-01-01

    Malondialdehyde, lactate dehydrogenase, iron concentration, IL-6 and IL-1b concentration, hemoglobin content, red cells, white cells and platelet counts were determined in seventy-two male albino rats divided into two main groups. The first one was subdivided into 7 subgroups; control and 6 irradiated subgroups with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 Gy single dose of gamma radiation. The other was subdivided into 4 subgroups irradiated with fractionated doses of gamma radiation; three groups were irradiated with 0.3, 0.7 and 1 Gy (0.1 Gy/day) and the last subgroup with 1 Gy (0.2 Gy/day). All animals were sacrificed after three days of the last irradiation dose. The results revealed that all biochemical parameters were increased in rats exposed to fractionated doses more than the single doses. Hematological parameters were decreased in rats exposed to single doses more than the fractionated ones. In conclusion, the data of this study highlights the stimulatory effect of low ionizing radiation doses (= 1 Gy), whether single or fractionated, on some biochemical and immunological parameters

  8. Profile of mood states and stress-related biochemical indices in long-term yoga practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Nobuyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown the short-term or intermediate-term practice of yoga to be useful for ameliorating several mental disorders and psychosomatic disorders. However, little is known about the long-term influences of yoga on the mental state or stress-related biochemical indices. If yoga training has a stress-reduction effect and also improves an individual's mental states for a long time, long-term yoga practitioners may have a better mental state and lower stress-related biochemical indices in comparison to non-experienced participants. This study simultaneously examined the differences in mental states and urinary stress-related biochemical indices between long-term yoga practitioners and non-experienced participants. Methods The participants were 38 healthy females with more than 2 years of experience with yoga (long-term yoga group and 37 age-matched healthy females who had not participated in yoga (control group. Their mental states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. The level of cortisol, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and biopyrrin in urine were used as stress-related biochemical indices. Results The average self-rated mental disturbance, tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, and fatigue scores of the long-term yoga group were lower than those of the control group. There was a trend toward a higher vigor score in the long-term yoga group than that in the control group. There were no significant differences in the scores for depression and confusion in the POMS between the two groups. The urine 8-OHdG concentration showed a trend toward to being lower in the long-term yoga group in comparison to the control group. There were no significant differences in the levels of urine biopyrrin or cortisol. Conclusions The present findings suggest that long-term yoga training can reduce the scores related to mental health indicators such as self-rated anxiety, anger, and fatigue.

  9. Longevity and the stress response in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    briefly review the state of the art of research on ageing and longevity in the model organism Drosophila, with focus on the role of the general stress response. We will conclude by contemplating some of the implications of the findings in this research and will suggest several directions for future...... research. Keywords: Ageing; Stress response; Hsp; Drosophila; Stress......The concept that lifespan is a function of the capacity to withstand extrinsic stress is very old. In concordance with this, long-lived individuals often have increased resistance against a variety of stresses throughout life. Genes underlying the stress response may therefore have the ability...

  10. Effect of ascorbic acid on morphological and biochemical parameters in tomato seedling exposure to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa-Małkiewicz Marcelina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of both NaCl and KCl alone and in comparison to AsA on the morphological and some biochemical parameters of Oxheart and Vilma cultivars of tomato under laboratory and field conditions. A combination of salt applied in the laboratory experiment caused a significant effect on seed germination and root and shoot length and a significant reduction of Chl a, Chl b and Car contents in 14-day-old tomato seedlings. However, seedlings of cultivar Vilma were characterised by higher tolerance to applied salt stress.

  11. Biochemical responses during the pathogenesis of Sclerotium rolfsii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subhadfip Nandi

    a variety of novel proteins and secondary metabolites. This study aimed to examine the induction of different stress related enzymes like phenyl alanineammonia lyase (PAL), chitinase, β-1,3 glucanase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidases (POD), poly phenol oxidases (PPO) and phenolics after inoculation of Sclerotium ...

  12. Low-salinity stress in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, after chronic sublethal exposure to cadmium: Biochemical effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, E

    1980-01-01

    Lobsters (Homarus americanus) were exposed to cadmium (6 ..mu..g 1sup(-1), 30 days) in flowing seawater, then held for 7 days in aerated 'clean' seawater at either ambient (27 per mill) or low (17 per mill) salinity. Cadmium exposure alone (ambient salinity) induced a general elevation of enzyme activity (heart, antennal gland, and muscle MDH; heart LDH and GPI), despite the probability of some clearance of cadmium from body tissues during the 'clean' seawater holding period. Low-salinity alone (non-exposed lobsters) caused a decrease of enzyme activity (AAT, LDH, GPI, PK) in most tissues examined, except for tail muscle IDH, the activity of which was increased, and MDH, which was significantly elevated above ambient controls in all tissues except heart. Most low-salinity effects were observed in tail muscle, and most cadmium effects, in heart; low-salinity effects outnumbered cadmium stress by nine to four. In heart and tail muscle of cadmium-exposed lobsters held at low salinity, each of the two stresses apparently operated to nullify the other's effects. The most prominent single biochemical response to these sublethal stresses was the elevation of MDH activity. The ratio MDH:LDH gave the clearest indication of overall relative stress.

  13. Effects of ocean acidification on the swimming ability, development and biochemical responses of sand smelt larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cátia S.E.; Novais, Sara C.; Lemos, Marco F.L.; Mendes, Susana; Oliveira, Ana P.; Gonçalves, Emanuel J.; Faria, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification, recognized as a major threat to marine ecosystems, has developed into one of the fastest growing fields of research in marine sciences. Several studies on fish larval stages point to abnormal behaviours, malformations and increased mortality rates as a result of exposure to increased levels of CO_2. However, other studies fail to recognize any consequence, suggesting species-specific sensitivity to increased levels of CO_2, highlighting the need of further research. In this study we investigated the effects of exposure to elevated pCO_2 on behaviour, development, oxidative stress and energy metabolism of sand smelt larvae, Atherina presbyter. Larvae were caught at Arrábida Marine Park (Portugal) and exposed to different pCO_2 levels (control: ~ 600 μatm, pH = 8.03; medium: ~ 1000 μatm, pH = 7.85; high: ~ 1800 μatm, pH = 7.64) up to 15 days, after which critical swimming speed (U_c_r_i_t), morphometric traits and biochemical biomarkers were determined. Measured biomarkers were related with: 1) oxidative stress — superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities, levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and levels of superoxide anion production; 2) energy metabolism — total carbohydrate levels, electron transport system activity, lactate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Swimming speed was not affected by treatment, but exposure to increasing levels of pCO_2 leads to higher energetic costs and morphometric changes, with larger larvae in high pCO_2 treatment and smaller larvae in medium pCO_2 treatment. The efficient antioxidant response capacity and increase in energetic metabolism only registered at the medium pCO_2 treatment may indicate that at higher pCO_2 levels the capacity of larvae to restore their internal balance can be impaired. Our findings illustrate the need of using multiple approaches to explore the consequences of future pCO_2 levels on organisms. - Highlights: • Exposure to high pCO_2

  14. Effects of ocean acidification on the swimming ability, development and biochemical responses of sand smelt larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cátia S.E. [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ISPA − Instituto Universitário (Portugal); MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ESTM, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria (Portugal); Novais, Sara C.; Lemos, Marco F.L.; Mendes, Susana [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ESTM, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria (Portugal); Oliveira, Ana P. [IPMA — Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Algés (Portugal); Gonçalves, Emanuel J. [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ISPA − Instituto Universitário (Portugal); Faria, Ana M., E-mail: afaria@ispa.pt [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ISPA − Instituto Universitário (Portugal)

    2016-09-01

    Ocean acidification, recognized as a major threat to marine ecosystems, has developed into one of the fastest growing fields of research in marine sciences. Several studies on fish larval stages point to abnormal behaviours, malformations and increased mortality rates as a result of exposure to increased levels of CO{sub 2}. However, other studies fail to recognize any consequence, suggesting species-specific sensitivity to increased levels of CO{sub 2}, highlighting the need of further research. In this study we investigated the effects of exposure to elevated pCO{sub 2} on behaviour, development, oxidative stress and energy metabolism of sand smelt larvae, Atherina presbyter. Larvae were caught at Arrábida Marine Park (Portugal) and exposed to different pCO{sub 2} levels (control: ~ 600 μatm, pH = 8.03; medium: ~ 1000 μatm, pH = 7.85; high: ~ 1800 μatm, pH = 7.64) up to 15 days, after which critical swimming speed (U{sub crit}), morphometric traits and biochemical biomarkers were determined. Measured biomarkers were related with: 1) oxidative stress — superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities, levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and levels of superoxide anion production; 2) energy metabolism — total carbohydrate levels, electron transport system activity, lactate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Swimming speed was not affected by treatment, but exposure to increasing levels of pCO{sub 2} leads to higher energetic costs and morphometric changes, with larger larvae in high pCO{sub 2} treatment and smaller larvae in medium pCO{sub 2} treatment. The efficient antioxidant response capacity and increase in energetic metabolism only registered at the medium pCO{sub 2} treatment may indicate that at higher pCO{sub 2} levels the capacity of larvae to restore their internal balance can be impaired. Our findings illustrate the need of using multiple approaches to explore the consequences of future pCO{sub 2} levels on

  15. Physiological and biochemical responses involved in water deficit tolerance of nitrogen-fixing Vicia faba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbadj, Ablaa; Makoudi, Bouchra; Mouradi, Mohammed; Frendo, Pierre; Ghoulam, Cherki

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly impacting the water deficit over the world. Because of drought and the high pressure of the rising human population, water is becoming a scarce and expensive commodity, especially in developing countries. The identification of crops presenting a higher acclimation to drought stress is thus an important objective in agriculture. The present investigation aimed to assess the adaptation of three Vicia faba genotypes, Aguadulce (AD), Luz d’Otonio (LO) and Reina Mora (RM) to water deficit. Multiple physiological and biochemical parameters were used to analyse the response of the three genotypes to two soil water contents (80% and 40% of field capacity). A significant lower decrease in shoot, root and nodule dry weight was observed for AD compared to LO and RM. The better growth performance of AD was correlated to higher carbon and nitrogen content than in LO and RM under water deficit. Leaf parameters such as relative water content, mass area, efficiency of photosystem II and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were significantly less affected in AD than in LO and RM. Significantly higher accumulation of proline was correlated to the higher performance of AD compared to LO and RM. Additionally, the better growth of AD genotype was related to an important mobilisation of antioxidant enzyme activities such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. Taken together, these results allow us to suggest that AD is a water deficit tolerant genotype compared to LO and RM. Our multiple physiological and biochemical analyses show that nitrogen content, leaf proline accumulation, reduced leaf hydrogen peroxide accumulation and leaf antioxidant enzymatic activities (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase) are potential biological markers useful to screen for water deficit resistant Vicia faba genotypes. PMID:29281721

  16. Physiological and biochemical responses involved in water deficit tolerance of nitrogen-fixing Vicia faba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ablaa Kabbadj

    Full Text Available Climate change is increasingly impacting the water deficit over the world. Because of drought and the high pressure of the rising human population, water is becoming a scarce and expensive commodity, especially in developing countries. The identification of crops presenting a higher acclimation to drought stress is thus an important objective in agriculture. The present investigation aimed to assess the adaptation of three Vicia faba genotypes, Aguadulce (AD, Luz d'Otonio (LO and Reina Mora (RM to water deficit. Multiple physiological and biochemical parameters were used to analyse the response of the three genotypes to two soil water contents (80% and 40% of field capacity. A significant lower decrease in shoot, root and nodule dry weight was observed for AD compared to LO and RM. The better growth performance of AD was correlated to higher carbon and nitrogen content than in LO and RM under water deficit. Leaf parameters such as relative water content, mass area, efficiency of photosystem II and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were significantly less affected in AD than in LO and RM. Significantly higher accumulation of proline was correlated to the higher performance of AD compared to LO and RM. Additionally, the better growth of AD genotype was related to an important mobilisation of antioxidant enzyme activities such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. Taken together, these results allow us to suggest that AD is a water deficit tolerant genotype compared to LO and RM. Our multiple physiological and biochemical analyses show that nitrogen content, leaf proline accumulation, reduced leaf hydrogen peroxide accumulation and leaf antioxidant enzymatic activities (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase are potential biological markers useful to screen for water deficit resistant Vicia faba genotypes.

  17. Biochemical responses to cadmium exposure in Oncorhynchus mykiss erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Patrick; Silvestri, Sonia; Ferlizza, Enea; Andreani, Giulia; Carpenè, Emilio; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Tiano, Luca; Isani, Gloria

    2017-11-01

    Cd is known for its carcinogenic effects, however its mechanism of toxicity and in particular its ability to promote oxidative stress is debated. In fact, although it is considered a redox-inactive metal, at high concentration Cd was shown to promote indirectly oxidative stress. In this study we investigated metal accumulation in ex vivo exposed trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) erythrocytes and Cd dose-dependent effect in terms of RBC viability, cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS levels as well as its effects on mitochondrial membrane depolarization, hemoglobin stability and precipitation. In the concentration range used, Cd did not affect cell viability. However, metal accumulation was associated with an increase in all oxidative indexes evaluated, except mitochondrial superoxide anion production that, on the contrary, was significantly decreased, probably due to a lowered respiration rate associated with interference of Cd with complex I, II and III, as suggested by the observed Cd-dependent mitochondrial membrane depolarization. On the other hand, hemoglobin destabilisation seems to be the major trigger of oxidative stress in this cell type. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Effect of aspartame on biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in rat blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokić Marko D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame (ASP is one of the most widely used nonnutritive sweeteners. This study investigates the chronic effects of ASP on hematological and biochemical parameters, and its effects on the oxidative/antioxidative status in the red blood cells of Wistar albino rats. Rats were provided with ASP (40 mg/kg/daily for six weeks in drinking water. Increased food and fluid intake was observed in the ASP-treated rats. Total body mass was significantly decreased in the ASP-treated rats. Treatment with ASP caused an increase in the concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and in the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, as well as a decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol in the serum. A significant decline in the number of white blood cells (WBC was observed after ASP uptake. Based on the results we conclude that ASP induces oxidative stress, observed as an alteration of the glutathione redox status, which leads to increased concentrations of nitric oxide (NO and lipid peroxides (LPO in the red blood cells. Changes in biochemical parameters, lipid metabolism, as well as changes in the levels of oxidative stress markers and the appearance of signs of liver damage indicate that chronic use of ASP can lead to the development of hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and associated diseases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173041

  19. Biophysical and biochemical constraints imposed by salt stress:Learning from halophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo eDuarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinization is one of the most important factors impacting plant productivity. About 3.6 billion of the world’s 5.2 billion ha of agricultural dryland have already suffered erosion, degradation and salinization. Halophytes typically are considered as plants able to complete their life cycle in environments where the salt concentration is 200 mM NaCl or higher. Different strategies are known to overcome salt stress, as adaptation mechanisms from this type of plants. Salinity adjustment is a complex phenomenon characterized by both biochemical and biophysical adaptations. As photosynthesis is a prerequisite for biomass production, halophytes adapted their electronic transduction pathways and the entire energetic metabolism to overcome the salt excess. The maintenance of ionic homeostasis is in the basis of all cellular stress in particular in terms of redox potential and energy transduction. In the present work the biophysical mechanisms underlying energy capture and transduction in halophytes are discussed alongside with their relation to biochemical mechanisms, integrating data from photosystem light harvesting complexes, electronic transport chains to the quinone pools, carbon harvesting and energy dissipation metabolism.

  20. Physiological and biochemical responses to low temperature stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... Levels of electrolyte leak and MDA were lower than in UD189 or UD191. Poplar hybrid clones ... humidity, exposure, and water status and health conditions of ... consecutive low temperature treatment; and to detect variation ...

  1. Agreeableness, Extraversion, Stressor and Physiological Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyuan Chu; Zhentao Ma; Yuan Li; Jing Han

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, this study explored the relationship between agreeableness, extraversion, stressor and stress response and figured out interactive effect of agreeableness, extraversion, and stressor on stress response. We draw on the following conclusions: (1) the interaction term of stressor (work) and agreeableness can negatively predict physiological stress response; (2) the interaction term of stresso...

  2. Evaluation of physiological and biochemical responses in different seasons in Surti buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya S. Chaudhary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of hot dry, hot humid and comfortable season on physiological, hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters in Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Ten lactating Surti buffaloes of similar physiological status were selected. Based on the temperature-humidity index (THI, their natural exposure to the environment was categorized as hot dry (THI1, hot humid (THI2 and moderate winter/comfort season (THI3. Blood/serum samples were collected and analyzed for physiological, hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters. The results were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Results: With increase in THI, significant rise in physiological parameters such as respiration rate (RR, hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC, hematocrit, hemoglobin (Hb and mean cell Hb concentration (MCHC, biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Na, K, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Mn, Cu and Zn, hormones such as cortisol and oxidative stress parameters such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxide (LPO and total antioxidant status (TAS and significant decline in glucose, cholesterol and triiodothyronine (T3 was observed. Conclusion: It was concluded that THI is a sensitive indicator of heat stress and is impacted by ambient temperature more than the relative humidity in buffaloes. Higher THI is associated with significantly increased RR, total RBC count, Hb, hematocrit, MCHC, ALT, urea, sodium, creatinine, triiodothyronine, SOD, GPx, LPO and TAS and with significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol and triiodothyronine (T3.

  3. Effect of plant-derived smoke solutions on physiological and biochemical attributes of maize (Zea mays L.) under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, M.A.; Shakir, S.K.; Rehman, S.U.; Khan, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Among abiotic stresses, salinity is an important factor reducing crop yield. Plant-derived smoke solutions have been used as growth promoters since last two decades. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Cymbopogon jwaracusa smoke extracts (1:100 and 1:400) on physiological and biochemical aspects of maize (Zea mays L.) under salt stress (100, 150, 200 and 250 mM). Results showed that seed germination percentage was improved up to 93% with smoke as compared to control (70%), while seedling vigor in term of root and shoot fresh weights and dry weights were also significantly increased in seeds primed with smoke extracts. Similarly, in case of alleviating solutions, there occurred a significant alleviation in the adverse effects of salt solutions when mixed smoke in all studied end points. Application of smoke solution has also increased the level of K+ and Ca+2 while reduced the level of Na+ content in maize. In addition, the levels of photosynthetic pigments, total nitrogen and protein contents were also alleviated with the application of smoke as compared to salt. There occurred an increase in the activities of Anti-oxidant in response of salt stress but overcome with the smoke application. It can be concluded that plant-derived smoke solution has the potential to alleviate the phytotoxic effects of saline condition and can increased the productivity in plants. (author)

  4. Chromatin changes in response to drought, salinity, heat, and cold stresses in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myong eKim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin regulation is essential to regulate genes and genome activities. In plants, the alteration of histone modification and DNA methylation are coordinated with changes in the expression of stress-responsive genes to adapt to environmental changes. Several chromatin regulators have been shown to be involved in the regulation of stress-responsive gene networks under abiotic stress conditions. Specific histone modification sites and the histone modifiers that regulate key stress-responsive genes have been identified by genetic and biochemical approaches, revealing the importance of chromatin regulation in plant stress responses. Recent studies have also suggested that histone modification plays an important role in plant stress memory. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the regulation and alteration of histone modification (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and SUMOylation in response to the abiotic stresses, drought, high-salinity, heat, and cold in plants.

  5. Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragkaki, I; Stins, J.F.; Roelofs, K.; Jongedijk, R.A.; Hagenaars, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a

  6. Meta-analysis of the effect of overexpression of C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding family genes on temperature stress tolerance and related responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding proteins are transcription factors that play a critical role in plant response to temperature stress. Over-expression of CBF/DREB genes has been demonstrated to enhance temperature stress tolerance. A series of physiological and biochemical modificat...

  7. Effect of Short Term NaCl Stress on Cultivars of S. lycopersicum: A Comparative Biochemical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Roy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a crop plant with high fruit nutritive value and other useful properties. The cultivation of this species is dependent on many environmental factors, e.g. temperature, salinity, nutrients etc, affecting the yield and reproductive potential of the plant. Salinity in soil or water is of increasing importance to agriculture because it causes stress to crop plants. Plants exposed to an excess amount of salts such as NaCl undergo osmotic stress, water deficit and ionic imbalances and can increase production of reactive oxygen species(ROS. Higher plants possess very efficient enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defense mechanisms that allow the scavenging of ROS and protection of cellular components from oxidative damage. Studies were conducted to investigate the effect of short term salinity stress on some physiological alterations in three tomato cultivars Pusa Ruby(PR, Punjab Keshari (PK and Ailsa Craig(AC. Some biochemical parameters (anthocyanin and carotenoeid content, polyamines, proline, cysteine, peroxidase and malondialdehyde were set and applied at two month old stage of tomato plants. Three tomato cultivars were grown in 0.5xMS for 2 months and at this stage, they were treated with 0 and 200mM NaCl for a short period of six hours in hydroponic conditions. The genotypes exhibited different responses in terms of different osmoprotectant, antioxidant, and pigment level. The relationships among the salinity and accumulation of these compounds in leaf were then determined. It was concluded that, tomato cultivars under study responded differently showing their sensitivity or tolerance to salinity stress. Among three cultivars PK appeared to be more tolerant genotype than the other two cultivars PR and AC. PK could rapidly evolve physiological and antioxidant mechanisms to adapt to salt and manage the oxidative stress. The research was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications.

  8. Plant responses to UV and blue light: biochemical and genetic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, G.I.; Christie, J.M.; Fuglevand, G.; Long, J.C.; Jackson, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    UV and blue light control many aspects of plant growth and development. It is evident that several different photoreceptors mediate responses to UV and blue light, and there are reports of the functional and biochemical characterisation of a putative photoreceptor for phototropism and of the functional and molecular characterisation of the CRY1 photoreceptor, encoded by the Arabidopsis HY4 gene. The CRY1 photoreceptor mediates extension growth and gene expression responses to UV-A/blue light presumably through different or branching signal transduction pathways. Progress has been made in cell physiological and biochemical studies of UV/blue light signal transduction, but much remains to be done to relate candidate UV/blue signal transduction events to particular photoreceptors and responses. The application of a genetic approach in Arabidopsis has been responsible for many advances in understanding UV/blue responses, but further UV-B, UV-A and blue light response mutants need to be isolated. (author)

  9. Drought Stress Responses of Sunflower Germplasm Developed after Wide Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumiana Dimova Vassilevska-Ivanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Response of sunflower germplasms viz. cultivated sunflower H. annuus and two breeding lines H. annuus x T. rotundifolia and H. annuus x V. encelioides developed after wide hybridization were used for identification of drought tolerant sunflower genotypes at the seedling growth stage. Three water stress levels of zero (control, -0.4, and -0.8 MPa were developed using polyethyleneglycol-6000 (PEG-6000. Physiological and biochemical stress determining parameters such as root and shoots length, fresh weight, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (GPO, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and antioxidant metabolite content (total antioxidant capacity, total phenols and total flavonoids content were compared between seedlings of all three genotypes. Results revealed that sunflower genotypes have similar responses at two osmotic potentials for shoot and root length and fresh weight. The data also showed that drought stresss could induce oxidative stress, as indicated by the increase level of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase at -04 MPa in H. annuus cv 1114. Although the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase was differentially influenced by drought, the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase subjected to drought stress follow a similar pattern in both breeding lines, indicating that similar defense systems might be involved in the oxidative stress injury in sunflowers. Increase in content of phenols and flavonoids were detected for all three genotypes under stress, which showed that these were major antioxidant metabolites in scavenging cellular H2O2.

  10. Nitrogen stress triggered biochemical and morphological changes in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; George, Basil; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2014-03-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of nitrogen limitation as well as sequential nitrogen starvation on morphological and biochemical changes in Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. The results revealed that the nitrogen limitation and sequential nitrogen starvation conditions significantly decreases the photosynthetic activity as well as crude protein content in the organism, while dry cell weight and biomass productivity are largely unaffected up to nitrate concentration of about 30.87mg/L and 3 days nitrate limitation condition. Nitrate stress was found to have a significant effect on cell morphology of Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. Total removal of nitrate from the growth medium resulted in highest lipid (27.93%) and carbohydrate content (45.74%), making it a potential feed stock for biodiesel and bio-ethanol production. This is a unique approach to understand morphological and biochemical changes in freshwater microalgae under nitrate limitation as well as sequential nitrate removal conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïla Even

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine, neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone. Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop. We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress.

  12. Biochemical response and host-pathogen relation of stalk rot fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stalk rot is a destructive disease in maize caused by Fusarium and Macrophomina species. A study was carried out to understand the mode of infection, host biochemical response and comparison of inoculation techniques in Fusarium verticillioides and Macrophomina phaseolina in maize. In seed inoculation experiment, ...

  13. Biochemical response and host-pathogen relation of stalk rot fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. nirupma

    photosynthesis, which are the vital processes taking place inside the plant, leading to wide fluctuations in sugars (Klement ... The suspension spray was prepared by taking. 200 ml of ..... biochemical factors due to cell response that is, defence .... by Fusarium moniliforme on corn growth and cellular morphology. Plant Dis.

  14. How the concept of biochemical response influenced the management of primary biliary cholangitis over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, W. J.; Leeman, M.; Ponsioen, C. I. J.; Boonstra, K.; van Erpecum, K. J.; Wolfhagen, F. H. J.; Kuyvenhoven, J. Ph; Vrolijk, J. M.; Drenth, J. P. H.; Witteman, E. M.; van Nieuwkerk, C. M. J.; van der Spek, B. W.; Witteman, B. J. M.; Erkelens, G. W.; Verhagen, M. A. M. T.; van Tuyl, S. A. C.; Poen, A. C.; Brouwer, J. T.; ter Borg, F.; Koek, G. H.; van Ditzhuijsen, T. J. M.; Hansen, B. E.; van Buuren, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Criteria assessing biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are established risk stratification tools in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We aimed to evaluate to what extent liver tests influenced patient management during a three decade period, and whether this changed over time. 851

  15. Alternative Splicing Control of Abiotic Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloum, Tom; Martín, Guiomar; Duque, Paula

    2018-02-01

    Alternative splicing, which generates multiple transcripts from the same gene, is an important modulator of gene expression that can increase proteome diversity and regulate mRNA levels. In plants, this post-transcriptional mechanism is markedly induced in response to environmental stress, and recent studies have identified alternative splicing events that allow rapid adjustment of the abundance and function of key stress-response components. In agreement, plant mutants defective in splicing factors are severely impaired in their response to abiotic stress. Notably, mounting evidence indicates that alternative splicing regulates stress responses largely by targeting the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway. We review here current understanding of post-transcriptional control of plant stress tolerance via alternative splicing and discuss research challenges for the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multivariate patterns of biochemical responses of Pinus ponderosa trees at field plots in the San Bernardino Mountains, southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausz, M; Bytnerowicz, A; Arbaugh, M J; Wonisch, A; Grill, D

    2001-03-01

    Most environmental stress conditions promote the production of potentially toxic active oxygen species in plant cells. Plants respond with changes in their antioxidant and photoprotective systems. Antioxidants and pigments have been widely used to measure these responses. Because trees are exposed to multiple man-made and natural stresses, their responses are not reflected by changes in single stress markers, but by complex biochemical changes. To evaluate such response patterns, explorative multivariate statistics have been used. In the present study, 12 biochemical variables (chloroplast pigments, state of the xanthophyll cycle, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, glutathione and oxidized glutathione) were measured in previous-year needles of field-grown Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. The trees were sampled in two consecutive years in the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California, where a pollution gradient is overlaid by gradients in natural stresses (drought, altitude). To explore irradiance effects, needle samples were taken directly in the field (sun exposed) and from detached, dark-adapted branches. A principal component analysis on this data set (n = 80) resulted in four components (Components 1-4) that explained 67% of the variance in the original data. Component 1 was positively loaded by concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, total ascorbate and xanthophyll cycle pools, as well as by the proportion of de-epoxides in the xanthophyll cycle. It was negatively loaded by the proportion of dehydroascorbate in the ascorbate pool. Component 2 was negatively loaded by chlorophyll concentrations, and positively loaded by the ratios of lutein and beta-carotene to chlorophyll and by the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle. Component 3 was negatively loaded by GSH concentrations and positively loaded by the proportions of GSSG and tocopherol concentrations. Component 4 was positively loaded by neoxanthin and negatively loaded by beta

  17. Evaluation of Two Biochemical Markers for Salt Stress in Three Pistachio Rootstocks Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshiri M.H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of the methylglyoxal and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of three pistachio rootstocks, cv. Sarakha, Abareqi and Bane baghi, pre-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae in response to salt stress was studied during a greenhouse experiment in 2013. Six months old pistachio seedlings were exposed to four salinity levels of irrigation water (EC of 0.5 as control, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 for 70 days. Methylglyoxal and proline of the roots and leaves were increased by increasing salt stress. The highest concentrations of proline in leaves and roots were recorded in Abareqi rootstock while the lowest concentration was observed in Sarakhs. In general, a negative relationship was obtained between proline and methylglyoxal concentrations in both tissues especially at two highest levels of salinity. A very strong relationship between salinity and measured biochemical markers were found. The level of both biomarkers were reduced in both tissues and in all rootstocks as the effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis. Root colonization percentage was declined as the effect of salinity in Abareqi and Bane baghi and not in Sarakhs.

  18. To Analyze the Amelioration of Phenobarbital Induced Oxidative Stress by Erucin, as Indicated by Biochemical and Histological Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rohit; Bhushan, Sakshi; Kumar, Rakesh; Mannan, Rahul; Kaur, Pardeep; Singh, Bikram; Sharma, Ritika; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Singh, Balbir; Singh, Amrit Pal; Arora, Saroj

    2016-01-01

    Phenobarbital is a commonly employed antidepressant and anti-epileptic drug. The cancer promoting activity of this genotoxic xenobiotic is often ignored. It is responsible for oxidative stress leading to modulation in xenobiotic and antioxidative enzymes. Glucosinolates and more specifically their hydrolytic products are known for their antioxidative and anticancer activities. The present study involves the analysis of hepatoprotective effect of erucin (isolated from Eruca sativa (Mill.) Thell.) against phenobarbital mediated hepatic damage in male wistar rats. The liver homogenate was analyzed for oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and lactate dehydrogenase), other oxidative parameters (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, conjugated dienes and lipid hydroperoxide), phase I enzymes (NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochrome P420, cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5), phase II enzymes (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, DT-diaphorase and glutathione-S-transferase), serum parameters (alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin) and certain histological parameters. Erucin accorded protection from phenobarbital induced hepatic damage by normalizing antioxidative enzymes, other oxidative parameters, phase I, II, and serum parameters. Erucin, an analogue of sulforaphane has the potential to act as an anticancer agent by regulating various biochemical parameters.

  19. The effect of water stress on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success on apple and quince rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Ibrahim; Dikilitas, Murat; Ercisli, Sezai; Ikinci, Ali; Tonkaz, Tahsin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe) on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67%) and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33%) combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present.

  20. The Effect of Water Stress on Some Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Characteristics and Bud Success on Apple and Quince Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bolat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67% and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33% combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present.

  1. Interactive effects of salinity stress and nicotinamide on physiological and biochemical parameters of Faba bean plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, Magdi T; Sadak, Mervat Sh; Schmidhalter, Urs; El Saady, Abdel Kareem M.

    2013-01-01

    solutes concentrations in seeds of salinity treated plants. Nicotinamide not only neutralized the effect of salinity stress but resulted in a significant improvement in physiological and biochemical parameters as well as the concentrations of soluble sugars, proline, amino acids, and total N and other mineral contents.

  2. The effect of triazole induced photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize) under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, Mahalingam; Rabert, Gabriel Amalan; Manivannan, Paramasivam

    2016-06-01

    In this investigation, pot culture experiment was carried out to estimate the ameliorating effect of triazole compounds, namely Triadimefon (TDM), Tebuconazole (TBZ), and Propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stress, photosynthetic pigments, and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize). From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 4 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought with TDM at 15 mg l-1, TBZ at 10 mg l-1, and PCZ at 15 mg l-1. Irrigation at 1-day interval was kept as control. Irrigation performed on alternative day. The plant samples were collected on 40, 50, and 60 DAS and separated into root, stem, and leaf for estimating the photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents. Drought and drought with triazole compounds treatment increased the biochemical glycine betaine content, whereas the protein and the pigments contents chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin decreased when compared to control. The triazole treatment mitigated the adverse effects of drought stress by increasing the biochemical potentials and paved the way to overcome drought stress in corn plant.

  3. Adrenal cortical response to stress at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, M A; Baum, A

    1984-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between biochemical, psychologic, and behavioral components of chronic stress associated with living near the damaged nuclear power plant at Three Mile Island (TMI). Relative to control subjects, TMI subjects had higher levels of urinary cortisol, which correlated significantly with urinary catecholamines, self-report of physical and mental symptoms, and decrements in task performance. Further, it was found that males had higher urinary cortisol levels than females at TMI, while at the control sites, levels of cortisol were comparable between males and females. Finally, no significant relationship between coping style and urinary cortisol was detected. Levels of stress response among TMI are residents, though significantly greater than control subjects, were within normal ranges and thus should be considered subclinical in intensity. Their persistence over 17 months, however, suggests some cause for concern.

  4. Adrenal cortical response to stress at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, M.A.; Baum, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between biochemical, psychologic, and behavioral components of chronic stress associated with living near the damaged nuclear power plant at Three Mile Island (TMI). Relative to control subjects, TMI subjects had higher levels of urinary cortisol, which correlated significantly with urinary catecholamines, self-report of physical and mental symptoms, and decrements in task performance. Further, it was found that males had higher urinary cortisol levels than females at TMI, while at the control sites, levels of cortisol were comparable between males and females. Finally, no significant relationship between coping style and urinary cortisol was detected. Levels of stress response among TMI are residents, though significantly greater than control subjects, were within normal ranges and thus should be considered subclinical in intensity. Their persistence over 17 months, however, suggests some cause for concern

  5. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rafael Vincent M. Manalo

    2017-07-12

    Jul 12, 2017 ... Review. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in disease pathogenesis and pathophysiology .... This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ... chain binding protein (BIP); however, ER stress permits the release, .... drugs designed to alleviate it often cause more harm long-term.

  6. Biochemical biomarker responses of green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to acute and subchronic waterborne cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Biochemical biomarkers were measured to assess effects of Cd on Perna canaliculus. •Biochemical responses varied between acute and subchronic exposure to Cd. •MTLP induction correlated strongly with Cd accumulation. •Alkaline phosphatase and glycogen levels decreased during subchronic Cd exposure. •Duration of Cd exposure influenced biochemical biomarker responses in mussels. -- Abstract: The biochemical responses of the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to waterborne cadmium (Cd) were investigated in order to delineate toxic mechanisms, and the impacts of exposure dose and duration, of this important toxicant in a potential sentinel species. Mussels were exposed for either 96 h (acute: 0, 2000, 4000 μg L{sup −1} Cd) or for 28 d (subchronic: 0, 200, 2000 μg L{sup −1} Cd), and the digestive gland, gill and haemolymph were examined for impacts. Biochemical responses measured included those associated with metal detoxification (metallothionein-like protein; MTLP), oxidative stress (catalase, lipid peroxidation), cellular homeostasis (alkaline phosphatase, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase; NKA), and energy utilisation (glycogen, haemolymph protein). Following acute exposure, digestive gland glycogen and gill NKA activity were significantly altered by Cd exposure relative to levels in mussels exposed to Cd-free seawater. Subchronic Cd exposure resulted in a significant increase in MTLP levels in both the gill and the digestive gland. This increase was correlated strongly with the levels of Cd accumulation measured in these tissues (R = 0.957 for gill, 0.964 for digestive gland). Catalase activity followed a similar pattern, although the correlation with tissue Cd accumulation was not as strong (R = 0.907 for gill, 0.708 for digestive gland) as that for MTLP. Lipid peroxidation increased in the digestive gland at Days 7 and 14 at both subchronic Cd levels tested, but this effect had largely dissipated by Days 21 and 28 (with the exception of

  7. Stress proteins and the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, P

    2000-07-25

    The heat shock or stress response is one of the most highly conserved adaptive responses in nature. In single cell organisms, the stress response confers tolerance to a variety of stresses including hyperthermia, hyperoxia, hypoxia, and other perturbations, which alter protein synthesis. This tolerance phenomenon is also extremely important in the multicellular organism, resulting in not only thermal tolerance, but also resistance to stresses of the whole organism such as ischemia-reperfusion injury. Moreover, recent data indicates that these stress proteins have the ability to modulate the cellular immune response. Although the terms heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress proteins are often used interchangeably, the term stress proteins includes the HSPs, the glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) and ubiquitin. The stress proteins may be grouped by molecular weight ranging from the large 110 kDa HSP110 to ubiquitin at 8 kDa. These proteins serve as cellular chaperones, participating in protein synthesis and transport through the various cellular compartments. Because these proteins have unique cellular localizations, the chaperone function of the stress proteins often involves a transfer of peptides between stress proteins as the peptide is moved between cellular compartments. For example, HSP70 is a cytosolic and nuclear chaperone, which is critical for the transfer of cellular peptides in the mitochondrion through a hand-off that involves mitochondrial HSP60 at the inner mitochondrial membrane. Similarly, cytosolic proteins are transferred from HSP70 to gp96 as they move into the endoplasmic reticulum. The central role of the stress proteins in the transfer of peptides through the cell may be responsible for the recently recognized importance of the stress proteins in the modulation of the immune system [Feder, M.E., Hofmann, G.E., 1999. Heat-shock proteins, molecular chaperones, and the stress response: evolutionary and ecological physiology. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 61

  8. Polydatin administration improves serum biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers during chronic alcoholism: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Maria Caterina; Passavanti, Maria Beatrice; Aurilio, Caterina; Sansone, Pasquale; Aurilio, Rossella; DE Maria, Salvatore; Lama, Stefania; Federico, Alessandro; Ravagnan, Gianpietro; Caraglia, Michele; Stiuso, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Polydatin, a hydroxystilbene derived from the rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum, elicits hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects through its anti-oxidant properties. The present study aimed to determine the effects of oral administration of polydatin in alcoholic patients in order to improve liver biochemical parameters, serum oxidative stress and mental state. We enrolled 20 chronic alcoholic patients hospitalized for rehabilitative therapy. The patients were divided into two groups receiving the following treatment regimes for two weeks: administration of an anti-oxidant nutritional supplement containing glutathione and vitamin C (group 1), or glutathione, vitamin C and polydatin (group 2). The results of the present study show that elevated plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in patients after two weeks of alcohol withdrawal were significantly reduced by polydatin (group 2), when compared to group 1. Polydatin also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation levels. Finally, our preliminary data resulting from the analysis of the Mini-Mental Status suggest that polydatin improves cognitive performance. Daily dietary administration of polydatin should be considered for prevention and treatment of liver disease and cognitive impairment in alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Physiological and biochemical responses of two keystone polychaete species: Diopatra neapolitana and Hediste diversicolor to Multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marchi, Lucia [Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Center for Mechanical Technology and Automation (TEMA), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Neto, Victor [Center for Mechanical Technology and Automation (TEMA), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Pretti, Carlo [Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, San Piero a Grado, PI 56122 (Italy); Figueira, Etelvina [Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Chiellini, Federica [Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Pisa 56126 (Italy); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Freitas, Rosa, E-mail: rosafreitas@ua.pt [Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal)

    2017-04-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are one of the most important carbon Nanomaterials (NMs). The production and use of these carbon NMs is increasing rapidly and, therefore, the need to assess their presence in the environment and associated risks has become increasingly important. However, limited literature is available regarding the impacts induced in aquatic organisms by this pollutant, namely in invertebrate species. Diopatra neapolitana and Hediste diversicolor are keystone polychaete species inhabiting estuaries and shallow water bodies intertidal mudflats, frequently used to evaluate the impact of environmental disturbances in these systems. To our knowledge, no information is available on physiological and biochemical alterations on these two species due to MWCNTs exposure. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of different MWCNTs concentrations (0.01; 0.10 and 1.00 mg/L) in both species physiological (regenerative capacity and respiration rate) and biochemical (energy reserves, metabolic activities, oxidative stress related biomarkers and neurotoxicity markers) performance, after 28 days of exposure. The results obtained revealed that exposure to MWCNTs induced negative effects on the regenerative capacity of D. neapolitana. Additionally, higher MWCNTs concentrations induced increased respiration rates in D. neapolitana. MWCNTs altered energy-related responses, with higher values of electron transport system activity, glycogen and protein concentrations in both polychaetes exposed to this contaminant. Furthermore, when exposed to MWCNTs both species showed oxidative stress with higher lipid peroxidation, lower ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione, and higher activity of antioxidant (catalase and superoxide dismutase) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferases) enzymes in exposed organisms. - Highlights: • MWCNTs induced negative effects on the regenerative capacity of Diopatra neapolitana. • Diopatra

  10. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  11. Adaptive Responses to Thermal Stress in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Lenis Sanin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The environment animals have to cope with is a combination of natural factors such as temperature. Extreme changes in these factors can alter homeostasis, which can lead to thermal stress. This stress can be due to either high temperatures or low temperatures. Energy transference for thermoregulation in homoeothermic animals occurs through several mechanisms: conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. When animals are subjected to thermal stress, physiological mechanisms are activated which may include endocrine, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses. Activation of the neuroendocrine system affects the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters which act collectively as response mechanisms that allow them to adapt to stress. Mechanisms which have developed through evolution to allow animals to adapt to high environmental temperatures and to achieve thermo tolerance include physiological and physical changes in order to reduce food intake and metabolic heat production, to increase surface area of skin to dissipate heat, to increase blood flow to take heat from the body core to the skin and extremities to dissipate the heat, to increase numbers and activity of sweat glands, panting, water intake and color adaptation of integument system to reflect heat. Chronic exposure to thermal stress can cause disease, reduce growth, decrease productive and reproductive performance and, in extreme cases, lead to death. This paper aims to briefly explain the physical and physiological responses of mammals to thermal stress, like a tool for biological environment adaptation, emphasizing knowledge gaps and offering some recommendations to stress control for the animal production system.

  12. Clinical, haematological and biochemical responses of sheep undergoing autologous blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Rejane

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, haematological and biochemical responses to autologous blood transfusion and the feasibility of this practice in sheep. Thus, we used eight male, 8 months old sheep, weighing on average 30 kg, from which 15 mL/kg of whole blood was collected and stored in CPDA-1 bags. Blood samples were refrigerated for 8 days and subsequently re-infused. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before blood collection and reinfusion, after 10 minutes of collection and reinfusion, after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours after collection and reinfusion. Results With respect to clinical parameters, we observed a decrease in heart rate after 24, 48 and 196 hours from reinfusion compared to basal values (p p p p  Conclusion Autologous transfusion in sheep slightly altered the physiological, biochemical and haematological responses of sheep, indicating that the technique proposed is safe and can be applied in the clinical practice of this species. The 8 d period was not sufficient for complete recovery of the haematological parameters after blood collection.

  13. Effects of pulsed magnetic field treatment of soybean seeds on calli growth, cell damage, and biochemical changes under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Leelapriya, Thasari; Kumari, Bollipo Diana Ranjitha

    2012-12-01

    The effects of magnetic field (MF) treatments of soybean seeds on calli growth, cell damage, and biochemical changes under salt stress were investigated under controlled conditions. Soybean seeds were exposed to a 1.0 Hz sinusoidal uniform pulsed magnetic field (PMF) of 1.5 µT for 5 h/day for 20 days. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. For callus regeneration, the embryonic axis explants were taken from seeds and inoculated in a saline medium with a concentration of 10 mM NaCl for calli growth analysis and biochemical changes. The combined treatment of MF and salt stress was found to significantly increase calli fresh weight, total soluble sugar, total protein, and total phenol contents, but it decreased the ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation, and catalase activity of calli from magnetically exposed seeds compared to the control calli. PMF treatment significantly improved calli tolerance to salt stress in terms of an increase in flavonoid, flavone, flavonole, alkaloid, saponin, total polyphenol, genistein, and daidzein contents under salt stress. The results suggest that PMF treatment of soybean seeds has the potential to counteract the adverse effects of salt stress on calli growth by improving primary and secondary metabolites under salt stress conditions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, Iro; Stins, John; Roelofs, Karin; Jongedijk, Ruud A; Hagenaars, Muriel A

    2016-11-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a stabilometric platform. This study made a first step in exploring this as well as differences in body sway responses between PTSD patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that PTSD would be related to increased body sway under stress, whereas TI would be related to decreased body sway under stress. Eye closure was selected as a PTSD-relevant stress induction procedure. Body sway and heart rate (HR) were measured in 12 PTSD patients and 12 healthy controls in four conditions: (1) maintaining a stable stance with eyes open, (2) with eyes closed, (3) during a mental arithmetic task with eyes open, and (4) with eyes closed. As predicted, PTSD patients showed increased body sway from eyes open to eyes closed compared to controls and this effect was eliminated by executing the arithmetic task. Most importantly, retrospective self-reported TI was associated with lower body sway increases in PTSD and higher body sway decreases in controls from eyes-open to eyes-closed conditions. These preliminary findings suggest that eye closure has a different effect on PTSD patients than controls and that high self-reported TI might indicate a distinct stress response pattern, i.e., a proneness for immobility. It may be relevant to take such individual differences in stress-response into account in PTSD treatment.

  15. The War Fighter's Stress Response: Telemetric and Noninvasive Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Donnell, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    ... and biological responses to stress. Specifically, stress-hardy individuals retain mental focus and clarity of memory under stress, commit fewer errors during stress, experience less burnout, demonstrate better navigational skills...

  16. Effect of ubiquinol supplementation on biochemical and oxidative stress indexes after intense exercise in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Patrick; Silvestri, Sonia; Galeazzi, Roberta; Antonicelli, Roberto; Marcheggiani, Fabio; Cirilli, Ilenia; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Tiano, Luca

    2018-12-01

    Physical exercise significantly impacts the biochemistry of the organism. Ubiquinone is a key component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and ubiquinol, its reduced and active form, is an emerging molecule in sport nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ubiquinol supplementation on biochemical and oxidative stress indexes after an intense bout of exercise. 21 male young athletes (26 + 5 years of age) were randomized in two groups according to a double blind cross-over study, either supplemented with ubiquinol (200 mg/day) or placebo for 1 month. Blood was withdrawn before and after a single bout of intense exercise (40 min run at 85% maxHR). Physical performance, hematochemical parameters, ubiquinone/ubiquinol plasma content, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, paraoxonase activity and oxidative DNA damage were analyzed. A single bout of intense exercise produced a significant increase in most hematochemical indexes, in particular CK and Mb while, on the contrary, normalized coenzyme Q 10 plasma content decreased significantly in all subjects. Ubiquinol supplementation prevented exercise-induced CoQ deprivation and decrease in paraoxonase activity. Moreover at a cellular level, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ubiquinol supplementation was associated with a significant decrease in cytosolic ROS while mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative DNA damage remained unchanged. Data highlights a very rapid dynamic of CoQ depletion following intense exercise underlying an increased demand by the organism. Ubiquinol supplementation minimized exercise-induced depletion and enhanced plasma and cellular antioxidant levels but it was not able to improve physical performance indexes or markers of muscular damage.

  17. Histopathologic and biochemical responses in Arctic marine bivalve molluscs exposed to experimentally spilled oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, J.M.; Hillman, R.E.; Carr, R.S.; Buhl, R.L.; Lahey, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Following two experimental spills of chemically dispersed and undispersed crude oil in shallow bays on the northwest coast of Baffin Island bivalve molluscs accumulated significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons in bay receiving dispersed oil and in those receiving crude oil alone. Specimens of Mya truncata and Macoma calcarea for histopathologic examination were collected immediately before, immediately after and one year after the experimental oil spills. Immediately after there was increased gill and digestive tract necrosis in Mya from the chemically dispersed oil. After one year a few clams had granulocytomas throughout the tissues. Three clams receiving oil alone collected one year after the spill had invasive neoplasias. There were few lesions in Macoma immediatelly after or one year after the spill; animals had a high incidence of vacuolization of the digestive tubule epithelium. The incidence of parasitism and hemocytic infiltration also was higher in Maccoma. Clams Mya truncata were collected for biochemical analysis before, after and two weeks after the simulated oil spills. Concentations in the clam tissues of glucose, glycogen, trehalose, total lipid, and free amino acids were measured; free amino acids in adductor muscles were the most useful indices of pollutant stress. The results of the biochemical analyses indicate that Mya were not severely stressed by either dispersed oil or oil alone. After two weeks, clams from the dispersed oil bays were nearly normal, while those from the bay receiving oil alone appeared stressed. These results seem to corroborate results that the acute effects of dispersed oil are greater than those of undispersed oil, but effects of undispersed oil on infaunal molluscs develop more slowly and persist longer than those from dispersed oil. 43 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Lifelong Aerobic Exercise Reduces the Stress Response in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrelli, A; Di Nardo, M; Masucci, A; Brusco, A; Basso, N; Matkovic, L

    2018-04-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of lifelong aerobic exercise (AE) on the adaptive response of the stress system in rats. It is well known that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity differs when triggered by voluntary or forced exercise models. Male Wistar rats belonging to exercise (E) or control (C) groups were subjected to chronic AE, and two cutoff points were established at 8 (middle age) and 18 months (old age). Behavioral, biochemical and histopathological studies were performed on the main components/targets of the stress system. AE increased adrenal sensitivity (AS), brain corticosterone (CORT) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), but had no effect on the thymus, adrenal glands (AGs) weight or plasma CORT. In addition, AE exerted no effect on the sympathetic tone, but significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior and emotionality. Aging decreased AS and deregulated neuroendocrine feedback, leading to an anxiogenic state which was mitigated by AE. Histopathological and morphometric analysis of AGs showed no alterations in middle-aged rats but adrenal vacuolization in approximately 20% old rats. In conclusion, lifelong AE did not produce adverse effects related to a chronic stress state. On the contrary, while AE upregulated some components of the HPA axis, it generated an adaptive response to cumulative changes, possibly through different compensatory and/or super compensatory mechanisms, modulated by age. The long-term practice of AE had a strong positive impact on stress resilience so that it could be recommended as a complementary therapy in stress and depression disease. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dysfunctional stress responses in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Alain; Picard, Pascale; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Many dysfunctional and chronic pain conditions overlap. This review describes the different modes of chronic deregulation of the adaptive response to stress which may be a common factor for these conditions. Several types of dysfunction can be identified within the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: basal hypercortisolism, hyper-reactivity, basal hypocortisolism and hypo-reactivity. Neuroactive steroid synthesis is another component of the adaptive response to stress. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form DHEA-S, and progesterone and its derivatives are synthetized in cutaneous, nervous, and adipose cells. They are neuroactive factors that act locally. They may have a role in the localization of the symptoms and their levels can vary both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Persistent changes in neuroactive steroid levels or precursors can induce localized neurodegeneration. The autonomic nervous system is another component of the stress response. Its dysfunction in chronic stress responses can be expressed by decreased basal parasympathethic activity, increased basal sympathetic activity or sympathetic hyporeactivity to a stressful stimulus. The immune and genetic systems also participate. The helper-T cells Th1 secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, whereas Th2 secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, IGF-10, IL-13. Chronic deregulation of the Th1/Th2 balance can occur in favor of anti- or pro-inflammatory direction, locally or systemically. Individual vulnerability to stress can be due to environmental factors but can also be genetically influenced. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics are the main keys to understanding the influence of genetics on the response of individuals to constraints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stress response in medically important Mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj; Paul, Saikat; Shivaprakash, M Rudramurthy; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Ghosh, Anup K

    2016-10-01

    Mucorales are saprobes, ubiquitously distributed and able to infect a heterogeneous population of human hosts. The fungi require robust stress responses to survive in human host. We tested the growth of Mucorales in the presence of different abiotic stress. Eight pathogenic species of Mucorales, including Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Apophysomyces elegans, Licthemia corymbifera, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Mucor racemosus, were exposed to different stress inducers: osmotic (sodium chloride and d-sorbitol), oxidative (hydrogen peroxide and menadione), pH, cell wall and metal ions (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg). Wide variation in stress responses was noted: R. arrhizus showed maximum resistance to both osmotic and oxidative stresses, whereas R. pusillus and M. indicus were relatively sensitive. Rhizopus arrhizus and R. microsporus showed maximum resistance to alkaline pH, whereas C. bertholletiae, L. corymbifera, M. racemosus and A. elegans were resistant to acidic pH. Maximum tolerance was noted in R. microsporus to Cu, R. microsporus and R. arrhizus to Fe and C. bertholletiae to Zn. In contrast, L. corymbifera, A. elegans and M. indicus were sensitive to Cu, Zn and Fe respectively. In conclusion, R. arrhizus showed high stress tolerance in comparison to other species of Mucorales, and this could be the possible reason for high pathogenic potential of this fungi. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Exogenous ascorbic acid improves defence responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) exposed to multiple stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Armagan

    2017-09-01

    Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant that plays role both on growth and development and also stress response of the plant. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ascorbate on physiological and biochemical changes of sunflower that was exposed to multiple stresses. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased and glutathione, ascorbate and malondialdehyde contents as well as antioxidant enzyme activities increased for sunflower plant that was exposed to 50 mM NaCl and pendimethalin at different concentrations. These changes were found to be more significant in groups simultaneously exposed to both stress factors. While malondialdehyde content decreased, chlorophyll, carotenoid, ascorbate, glutathione contents and antioxidant enzyme activities increased in plants treated exogenously with ascorbate, compared to the untreated samples. According to the findings of our study; compared to individual stress, the effect of stress is more pronounced in sunflower exposed to multiple stresses, and treatment with exogenous ascorbate reduces the negative effects of stress.

  2. Sympathoneural and Adrenomedullary Responses to Mental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Goldstein, David S.

    2017-01-01

    This concept-based review provides historical perspectives and updates about sympathetic noradrenergic and sympathetic adrenergic responses to mental stress. The topic of this review has incited perennial debate, because of disagreements over definitions, controversial inferences, and limited availability of relevant measurement tools. The discussion begins appropriately with Cannon's "homeostasis" and his pioneering work in the area. This is followed by mental stress as a scientific idea and the relatively new notions of allostasis and allostatic load. Experimental models of mental stress in rodents and humans are discussed, with particular attention to ethical constraints in humans. Sections follow on sympathoneural to mental stress, reactivity of catecholamine systems, clinical pathophysiologic states, and the cardiovascular reactivity hypothesis. Future advancement of the field will require integrative approaches and coordinated efforts between physiologists and psychologists on this interdisciplinary topic. PMID:25589266

  3. Anion channels: master switches of stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, M Rob G; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2012-04-01

    During stress, plant cells activate anion channels and trigger the release of anions across the plasma membrane. Recently, two new gene families have been identified that encode major groups of anion channels. The SLAC/SLAH channels are characterized by slow voltage-dependent activation (S-type), whereas ALMT genes encode rapid-activating channels (R-type). Both S- and R-type channels are stimulated in guard cells by the stress hormone ABA, which leads to stomatal closure. Besides their role in ABA-dependent stomatal movement, anion channels are also activated by biotic stress factors such as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Given that anion channels occur throughout the plant kingdom, they are likely to serve a general function as master switches of stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plant Nucleolar Stress Response, a New Face in the NAC-Dependent Cellular Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Iwai; Sugiyama, Munetaka

    2017-01-01

    The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized pathway of this stress response involves p53 and MDM2 as key players. p53 is a crucial transcription factor that functions in response to not only nucleolar stress but also other cellular stresses such as DNA damage stress. These cellular stresses release p53 from the inhibition by MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting p53, in various ways, which leads to p53-dependent activation of a set of genes. In plants, genetic impairments of ribosome biogenesis factors or ribosome components have been shown to cause characteristic phenotypes, including a narrow and pointed leaf shape, implying a common signaling pathway connecting ribosomal perturbations and certain aspects of growth and development. Unlike animals, however, plants have neither p53 nor MDM2 family proteins. Then the question arises whether plant cells have a nucleolar stress response pathway. In recent years, it has been reported that several members of the plant-specific transcription factor family NAC play critical roles in the pathways responsive to various cellular stresses. In this mini review, we outline the plant cellular stress response pathways involving NAC transcription factors with reference to the p53-MDM2-dependent pathways of animal cells, and discuss the possible involvement of a plant-unique, NAC-mediated pathway in the nucleolar stress response in plants.

  5. Plant Nucleolar Stress Response, a New Face in the NAC-Dependent Cellular Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwai Ohbayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized pathway of this stress response involves p53 and MDM2 as key players. p53 is a crucial transcription factor that functions in response to not only nucleolar stress but also other cellular stresses such as DNA damage stress. These cellular stresses release p53 from the inhibition by MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting p53, in various ways, which leads to p53-dependent activation of a set of genes. In plants, genetic impairments of ribosome biogenesis factors or ribosome components have been shown to cause characteristic phenotypes, including a narrow and pointed leaf shape, implying a common signaling pathway connecting ribosomal perturbations and certain aspects of growth and development. Unlike animals, however, plants have neither p53 nor MDM2 family proteins. Then the question arises whether plant cells have a nucleolar stress response pathway. In recent years, it has been reported that several members of the plant-specific transcription factor family NAC play critical roles in the pathways responsive to various cellular stresses. In this mini review, we outline the plant cellular stress response pathways involving NAC transcription factors with reference to the p53-MDM2-dependent pathways of animal cells, and discuss the possible involvement of a plant-unique, NAC-mediated pathway in the nucleolar stress response in plants.

  6. Transcriptional and biochemical markers in transplanted Perca flavescens to characterize cadmium- and copper-induced oxidative stress in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defo, Michel A.; Bernatchez, Louis; Campbell, Peter G.C.; Couture, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four-weeks exposure is sufficient to increase kidney metal levels in wild perch. • Cd and Cu affected indicators of retinoid metabolism and oxidative stress in fish. • Multi-level biological approaches are needed when assessing fish metal toxicology. • Changes at molecular level do not always mean changes at the functional level. • Wild juvenile perch may partly adjust to metal contamination by plastic responses. - Abstract: Despite recent progress achieved in elucidating the mechanisms underlying local adaptation to pollution, little is known about the evolutionary change that may be occurring at the molecular level. The goal of this study was to examine patterns of gene transcription and biochemical responses induced by metal accumulation in clean yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and metal depuration in contaminated fish in a mining and smelting region of Canada. Fish were collected from a reference lake (lake Opasatica) and a Cd, Cu and Zn contaminated lake (lake Dufault) located in the Rouyn-Noranda region (Qc, Canada) and caged for one or four weeks in their own lake or transplanted in the other lake. Free-ranging fish from the same lakes were also collected. Kidney Cd and Cu concentrations in clean fish caged in the contaminated lake increased with the time of exposure, but metal depuration did not occur in contaminated fish caged in the clean lake. After 4 weeks, the major retinoid metabolites analysed, the percentage of free dehydroretinol (dROH) and the retinol dehydrogenase-2 (rdh-2) transcription level in liver decreased in clean fish transplanted into the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that metal exposure negatively impacted retinoid metabolism. However, we observed an increase in almost all of the retinoid parameters analysed in fish from the metal-impacted lake caged in the same lake, which we interpret as an adaptation response to higher ambient metal concentration. In support of this hypothesis, liver transcription levels

  7. Transcriptional and biochemical markers in transplanted Perca flavescens to characterize cadmium- and copper-induced oxidative stress in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defo, Michel A. [Institut National De La Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 De La Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bernatchez, Louis [Institut De Biologie Intégrative Et Des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C.; Couture, Patrice [Institut National De La Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 De La Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Four-weeks exposure is sufficient to increase kidney metal levels in wild perch. • Cd and Cu affected indicators of retinoid metabolism and oxidative stress in fish. • Multi-level biological approaches are needed when assessing fish metal toxicology. • Changes at molecular level do not always mean changes at the functional level. • Wild juvenile perch may partly adjust to metal contamination by plastic responses. - Abstract: Despite recent progress achieved in elucidating the mechanisms underlying local adaptation to pollution, little is known about the evolutionary change that may be occurring at the molecular level. The goal of this study was to examine patterns of gene transcription and biochemical responses induced by metal accumulation in clean yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and metal depuration in contaminated fish in a mining and smelting region of Canada. Fish were collected from a reference lake (lake Opasatica) and a Cd, Cu and Zn contaminated lake (lake Dufault) located in the Rouyn-Noranda region (Qc, Canada) and caged for one or four weeks in their own lake or transplanted in the other lake. Free-ranging fish from the same lakes were also collected. Kidney Cd and Cu concentrations in clean fish caged in the contaminated lake increased with the time of exposure, but metal depuration did not occur in contaminated fish caged in the clean lake. After 4 weeks, the major retinoid metabolites analysed, the percentage of free dehydroretinol (dROH) and the retinol dehydrogenase-2 (rdh-2) transcription level in liver decreased in clean fish transplanted into the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that metal exposure negatively impacted retinoid metabolism. However, we observed an increase in almost all of the retinoid parameters analysed in fish from the metal-impacted lake caged in the same lake, which we interpret as an adaptation response to higher ambient metal concentration. In support of this hypothesis, liver transcription levels

  8. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These proteins are essential for cell survival, and intuitively the ER must activate stress responses to evade immediate cell dysfunction as the cell processes lag behind. This review will discuss mainly the ER and its role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of epidemiologically-relevant diseases, as well as updates on ...

  9. Mercury Induced Biochemical Alterations As Oxidative Stress In Mugil Cephalus In Short Term Toxicity Test

    OpenAIRE

    J.S.I Rajkumar; Samuel Tennyson

    2013-01-01

    Mugil cephalus juveniles of size 2.5 ±0.6cm were exposed to mercury in short term chronic toxicity test through static renewal bioassay to detect the possible biochemical agent as biomarkers in aquatic pollution and in estuarine contamination as specific. Lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione S -transferase, catalase, reduced glutathione and acetylcholinesterase were studied as biochemical parameters. Increased thio-barbituric acid reactive substances levels were observed under exposur...

  10. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Lavandula angustifolia to Salinity Under Mineral Foliar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysargyris, Antonios; Michailidi, Evgenia; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2018-01-01

    Saline water has been proposed as a solution to partially cover plant water demands due to scarcity of irrigation water in hot arid areas. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) plants were grown hydroponically under salinity (0–25–50–100 mM NaCl). The overcome of salinity stress was examined by K, Zn, and Si foliar application for the plant physiological and biochemical characteristics. The present study indicated that high (100 mM NaCl) salinity decreased plant growth, content of phenolics and antioxidant status and essential oil (EO) yield, while low-moderate salinity levels maintained the volatile oil profile in lavender. The integrated foliar application of K and Zn lighten the presumable detrimental effects of salinity in terms of fresh biomass, antioxidant capacity, and EO yield. Moderate salinity stress along with balanced concentration of K though foliar application changed the primary metabolites pathways in favor of major volatile oil constituents biosynthesis and therefore lavender plant has the potential for cultivation under prevalent semi-saline conditions. Zn and Si application, had lesser effects on the content of EO constituents, even though altered salinity induced changings. Our results have demonstrated that lavender growth/development and EO production may be affected by saline levels, whereas mechanisms for alteration of induced stress are of great significance considering the importance of the oil composition, as well. PMID:29731759

  11. Integrated physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis identifies important traits and mechanisms associated with differential response of rice genotypes to elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghireddy eSailaja

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In changing climate, heat stress caused by high temperature poses a serious threat to rice cultivation. A multiple organizational analysis at physiological, biochemical and molecular level is required to fully understand the impact of elevated temperature in rice. This study was aimed at deciphering the elevated temperature response in eleven popular and mega rice cultivars widely grown in India. Physiological and biochemical traits specifically membrane thermostability (MTS, antioxidants, and photosynthesis were studied at vegetative and reproductive phases which were used to establish a correlation with grain yield under stress. Several useful traits in different genotypes were identified which will be important resource to develop high temperature tolerant rice cultivars. Interestingly, Nagina22 emerged as best performer in terms of yield as well as expression of physiological and biochemical traits at elevated temperature. It showed lesser relative injury, lesser reduction in chlorophyll content, increased super oxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity, lesser reduction in net photosynthetic rate (PN, high transpiration rate (E and other photosynthetic/ fluorescence parameters contributing to least reduction in spikelet fertility and grain yield at elevated temperature. Further, expression of 14 genes including heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins was analyzed in Nagina22 (tolerant and Vandana (susceptible at flowering phase, strengthening the fact that N22 performs better at molecular level also during elevated temperature. This study shows that elevated temperature response is complex and involves multiple biological processes which are needed to be characterized to address the challenges of future climate extreme conditions.

  12. Ethylenediurea as a potential tool in evaluating ozone phytotoxicity: a review study on physiological, biochemical and morphological responses of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Supriya

    2017-06-01

    Present-day climate change scenario has intensified the problem of continuously increasing ground-level ozone (O 3 ), which is responsible for causing deleterious effects on growth and development of plants. Studies involving use of ethylenediurea (EDU), a chemical with antiozonant properties, have given some promising results in evaluating O 3 injury in plants. The use of EDU is especially advantageous in developing countries which face a more severe problem of ground-level O 3 , and technical O 3 -induced yield loss assessment techniques like open-top chambers cannot be used. Recent studies have detected a hormetic response of EDU on plants; i.e. treatment with higher EDU concentrations may or may not show any adverse effect on plants depending upon the experimental conditions. Although the mode of action of EDU is still debated, it is confirmed that EDU remains confined in the apoplastic regions. Certain studies indicate that EDU significantly affects the electron transport chain and has positive impact on the antioxidant defence machinery of the plants. However, the mechanism of protecting the yield of plants without significantly affecting photosynthesis is still questionable. This review discusses in details the probable mode of action of EDU on the basis of available data along with the impact of EDU on physiological, biochemical, growth and yield response of plants under O 3 stress. Data regarding the effect of EDU on plant 'omics' is highly insufficient and can form an important aspect of future EDU research.

  13. Work stress and innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, P; Di Gioacchino, M; Reale, M; Muraro, R; Di Giampaolo, L

    2011-01-01

    Several reports highlight the relationship between blood NK cytotoxic activity and life style. Easy life style, including physical activity, healthy dietary habits as well as good mental health are characterized by an efficient immune response. Life style is related to the type of occupational activity since work has a central part in life either as source of income or contributing to represent the social identity. Not only occupational stress, but also job loss or insecurity are thus considered serious stressful situations, inducing emotional disorders which may affect both neuroendocrine and immune systems; reduced reactivity to mitogens and/or decreased blood NK cytotoxic activity was reported in unemployed workers or in those with a high perception of job insecurity and/or job stress. Although genetic factors have a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders, occupational stress (as in night shifts) was reported associated to an increased incidence of autoimmune disorders. Monitoring blood NK response may thus be included in the health programs as an indirect index of stressful job and/or poor lifestyle.

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of Watermelon Root in Response to Short-Term Osmotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Mo, Yanling; Yang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Haifei; Wang, Yongqi; Li, Hao; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Osmotic stress adversely affects the growth, fruit quality and yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai). Increasing the tolerance of watermelon to osmotic stress caused by factors such as high salt and water deficit is an effective way to improve crop survival in osmotic stress environments. Roots are important organs in water absorption and are involved in the initial response to osmosis stress; however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanism of tolerance to osmotic stress in watermelon roots. For better understanding of this mechanism, the inbred watermelon accession M08, which exhibits relatively high tolerance to water deficits, was treated with 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. The root samples were harvested at 6 h after PEG treatment and untreated samples were used as controls. Transcriptome analyses were carried out by Illumina RNA sequencing. A total of 5246 differentially expressed genes were identified. Gene ontology enrichment and biochemical pathway analyses of these 5246 genes showed that short-term osmotic stress affected osmotic adjustment, signal transduction, hormone responses, cell division, cell cycle and ribosome, and M08 may repress root growth to adapt osmotic stress. The results of this study describe the watermelon root transcriptome under osmotic stress and propose new insight into watermelon root responses to osmotic stress at the transcriptome level. Accordingly, these results allow us to better understand the molecular mechanisms of watermelon in response to drought stress and will facilitate watermelon breeding projects to improve drought tolerance.

  15. Integrated Stress Response Mediates Epithelial Injury in Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinay, Tamas; Himes, Blanca E; Shumyatcher, Maya; Lawrence, Gladys Gray; Margulies, Susan S

    2017-08-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is a severe complication of mechanical ventilation that can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome. VILI is characterized by damage to the epithelial barrier with subsequent pulmonary edema and profound hypoxia. Available lung-protective ventilator strategies offer only a modest benefit in preventing VILI because they cannot impede alveolar overdistension and concomitant epithelial barrier dysfunction in the inflamed lung regions. There are currently no effective biochemical therapies to mitigate injury to the alveolar epithelium. We hypothesize that alveolar stretch activates the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway and that the chemical inhibition of this pathway mitigates alveolar barrier disruption during stretch and mechanical ventilation. Using our established rat primary type I-like alveolar epithelial cell monolayer stretch model and in vivo rat mechanical ventilation that mimics the alveolar overdistension seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome, we studied epithelial responses to mechanical stress. Our studies revealed that the ISR signaling pathway is a key modulator of epithelial permeability. We show that prolonged epithelial stretch and injurious mechanical ventilation activate the ISR, leading to increased alveolar permeability, cell death, and proinflammatory signaling. Chemical inhibition of protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, an upstream regulator of the pathway, resulted in decreased injury signaling and improved barrier function after prolonged cyclic stretch and injurious mechanical ventilation. Our results provide new evidence that therapeutic targeting of the ISR can mitigate VILI.

  16. Physiological and biochemical responses of Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 to Irgarol 1051 and diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiangyuan; Gao, Kun; Sun, Junlong

    2012-10-15

    Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic algae found in oceans and freshwaters worldwide. These organisms are important primary producers in aquatic ecosystems because they can provide essential food for grazers and herbivores. In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 to two organic booster biocides Irgarol 1051 and diuron were compared and evaluated using 96 h growth tests in a batch-culture system. The 96 h median effective concentrations (EC(50)) were 0.019 and 0.097 μmol L(-1) for Irgarol 1051 and diuron, respectively, which indicate that Irgarol 1051 is about 5 times more toxic than diuron to cyanobacteria. Moreover, remarkable physiological and biochemical responses occurred in the Irgarol 1051 and diuron treatments. Irgarol 1051 and diuron stimulated cyanobacterial growth, increased the soluble protein content, and enhanced the catalase (CAT) activity at low concentrations, but inhibited them at high concentrations. However, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and polysaccharide content of the cyanobacteria were only significantly affected by Irgarol 1051. These observations suggest that Irgarol 1051 and diuron are toxic to Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, and their use should be restricted in maritime industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dose response relationship in anti-stress gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E

    2007-03-02

    To maintain a stable intracellular environment, cells utilize complex and specialized defense systems against a variety of external perturbations, such as electrophilic stress, heat shock, and hypoxia, etc. Irrespective of the type of stress, many adaptive mechanisms contributing to cellular homeostasis appear to operate through gene regulatory networks that are organized into negative feedback loops. In general, the degree of deviation of the controlled variables, such as electrophiles, misfolded proteins, and O2, is first detected by specialized sensor molecules, then the signal is transduced to specific transcription factors. Transcription factors can regulate the expression of a suite of anti-stress genes, many of which encode enzymes functioning to counteract the perturbed variables. The objective of this study was to explore, using control theory and computational approaches, the theoretical basis that underlies the steady-state dose response relationship between cellular stressors and intracellular biochemical species (controlled variables, transcription factors, and gene products) in these gene regulatory networks. Our work indicated that the shape of dose response curves (linear, superlinear, or sublinear) depends on changes in the specific values of local response coefficients (gains) distributed in the feedback loop. Multimerization of anti-stress enzymes and transcription factors into homodimers, homotrimers, or even higher-order multimers, play a significant role in maintaining robust homeostasis. Moreover, our simulation noted that dose response curves for the controlled variables can transition sequentially through four distinct phases as stressor level increases: initial superlinear with lesser control, superlinear more highly controlled, linear uncontrolled, and sublinear catastrophic. Each phase relies on specific gain-changing events that come into play as stressor level increases. The low-dose region is intrinsically nonlinear, and depending on

  18. Dose response relationship in anti-stress gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To maintain a stable intracellular environment, cells utilize complex and specialized defense systems against a variety of external perturbations, such as electrophilic stress, heat shock, and hypoxia, etc. Irrespective of the type of stress, many adaptive mechanisms contributing to cellular homeostasis appear to operate through gene regulatory networks that are organized into negative feedback loops. In general, the degree of deviation of the controlled variables, such as electrophiles, misfolded proteins, and O2, is first detected by specialized sensor molecules, then the signal is transduced to specific transcription factors. Transcription factors can regulate the expression of a suite of anti-stress genes, many of which encode enzymes functioning to counteract the perturbed variables. The objective of this study was to explore, using control theory and computational approaches, the theoretical basis that underlies the steady-state dose response relationship between cellular stressors and intracellular biochemical species (controlled variables, transcription factors, and gene products in these gene regulatory networks. Our work indicated that the shape of dose response curves (linear, superlinear, or sublinear depends on changes in the specific values of local response coefficients (gains distributed in the feedback loop. Multimerization of anti-stress enzymes and transcription factors into homodimers, homotrimers, or even higher-order multimers, play a significant role in maintaining robust homeostasis. Moreover, our simulation noted that dose response curves for the controlled variables can transition sequentially through four distinct phases as stressor level increases: initial superlinear with lesser control, superlinear more highly controlled, linear uncontrolled, and sublinear catastrophic. Each phase relies on specific gain-changing events that come into play as stressor level increases. The low-dose region is intrinsically nonlinear

  19. Effect of foliar application of α-tocopherol on vegetative growth and some biochemical constituents of two soybean genotypes under salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, N.; Damanik, R. I. M.

    2018-02-01

    Foliar spray of plant growth regulating compounds including antioxidants is an effective strategy to overcome the adverse effects of environmental constraints on different plants. A field experiment was conducted on May - July 2017 at the experimental farm in Paluh Merbau Village Deli Serdang (EC 6 - 7 dS/m). The aim was to study the effects of foliar spray of α-tocopherol (0, 250, 500, 500 ppm) on vegetative growth and some chemical constituents of 2 soybean genotypes (Grobogan x Grobogan and Grobogan x Anjasmoro) under salt stress (EC 6 - 7 dS/m). Most of morphological and biochemical parameters were significantly affected by application of α-tocopherol. The α-tocopherol at 500 ppm recorded the best value of root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, number of leaves, chlorophyll b, and soluble protein content. There was significant difference found between plants treated with α-tocopherol in terms of number of branch, shoot fresh weight, and chlorophyll a. Soybean genotypes showed diverse morphology and physiological responses to salt stress. Grobogan x Anjasmoro genotype was salt-sensitive based on all variable, while Grobogan x Grobogan genotype was more tolerant based on morphological and biochemical characters.

  20. Adaptive stress response to menadione-induced oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Sup; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Jin, Ingnyol

    2011-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the ability of yeast cells to adapt and respond to oxidative stress are of great interest to the pharmaceutical, medical, food, and fermentation industries. In this study, we investigated the time-dependent, cellular redox homeostasis ability to adapt to menadione-induced oxidative stress, using biochemical and proteomic approaches in Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377. Time-dependent cell viability was inversely proportional to endogenous amounts of ROS measured by a fluorescence assay with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFHDA), and was hypersensitive when cells were exposed to the compound for 60 min. Morphological changes, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation were also observed. To overcome the unfavorable conditions due to the presence of menadione, yeast cells activated a variety of cell rescue proteins including antioxidant enzymes, molecular chaperones, energy-generating metabolic enzymes, and antioxidant molecules such as trehalose. Thus, these results show that menadione causes ROS generation and high accumulation of cellular ROS levels, which affects cell viability and cell morphology and there is a correlation between resistance to menadione and the high induction of cell rescue proteins after cells enter into this physiological state, which provides a clue about the complex and dynamic stress response in yeast cells.

  1. Physiological Responses to Thermal Stress and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyota, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Akira; Yamagata, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takashi

    The simple and noninvasive measuring methods of bioinstrumentation in humans is required for optimization of air conditioning and management of thermal environments, taking into consideration the individual specificity of the human body as well as the stress conditions affecting each. Changes in human blood circulation were induced with environmental factors such as heat, cold, exercise, mental stress, and so on. In this study, the physiological responses of human body to heat stress and exercise were investigated in the initial phase of the developmental research. We measured the body core and skin temperatures, skin blood flow, and pulse wave as the indices of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system. A laser Doppler skin blood flowmetry using an optical-sensor with a small portable data logger was employed for the measurement. These results reveal the heat-stress and exercise-induced circulatory responses, which are under the control of the sympathetic nerve system. Furthermore, it was suggested that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system could be evaluated from the signals of the pulse wave included in the signals derived from skin blood flow by means of heart rate variability assessments and detecting peak heights of velocity-plethysmogram.

  2. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Fernandez, Luzimar Gonzaga; de Castro, Renato Delmondez; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2014-08-12

    Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing environments. In this context, we analysed the effect of temperature on growth of young R. communis seedlings and we measured primary and secondary metabolites in roots and cotyledons. Three genotypes, recommended to small family farms as cash crop, were used in this study. Seedling biomass was strongly affected by the temperature, with the lowest total biomass observed at 20°C. The response in terms of biomass production for the genotype MPA11 was clearly different from the other two genotypes: genotype MPA11 produced heavier seedlings at all temperatures but the root biomass of this genotype decreased with increasing temperature, reaching the lowest value at 35°C. In contrast, root biomass of genotypes MPB01 and IAC80 was not affected by temperature, suggesting that the roots of these genotypes are less sensitive to changes in temperature. In addition, an increasing temperature decreased the root to shoot ratio, which suggests that biomass allocation between below- and above ground parts of the plants was strongly affected by the temperature. Carbohydrate contents were reduced in response to increasing temperature in both roots and cotyledons, whereas amino acids accumulated to higher contents. Our results show that a specific balance between amino acids, carbohydrates and organic acids in the cotyledons and roots seems to be an important trait for faster and more efficient growth of genotype MPA11. An increase in temperature triggers the mobilization of carbohydrates to support the preferred growth of the aerial parts, at the expense of the roots. A shift in the carbon-nitrogen metabolism towards the accumulation of nitrogen-containing compounds seems to be the main biochemical

  3. Everyday stress response targets in the science of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M; Sliwinski, Martin J; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Scott, Stacey B; Conroy, David E; Lanza, Stephanie T; Marcusson-Clavertz, David; Kim, Jinhyuk; Stawski, Robert S; Stoney, Catherine M; Buxton, Orfeu M; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Green, Paige M; Almeida, David M

    2018-02-01

    Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i.e., stress reactivity, stress recovery, and stress pile-up) as indexed by two key response indicators (negative affect and perseverative cognition). Our everyday stress response assay thus measures multiple malleable stress response targets that putatively shape daily health behaviors (physical activity and sleep). We hypothesize that larger reactivity, incomplete recovery, and more frequent stress responses (pile-up) will negatively impact health behavior enactment in daily life. We will identify stress-related reactivity, recovery, and response in the indicators using coordinated analyses across multiple naturalistic studies. These results are the basis for developing a new stress assay and replicating the initial findings in a new sample. This approach will advance our understanding of how specific aspects of everyday stress responses influence health behaviors, and can be used to develop and test an innovative ambulatory intervention for stress reduction in daily life to enhance health behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Individual physical performance capacity with physiological and biochemical indicators of stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergert, K D; Nestler, K; Böttger, H; Schettler, R

    1989-09-01

    22 health male subjects were exposed by a combination of physical exercises and heat. Strain related physiological and biochemical parameters were measured. Different individual reactions were obtained under controlled conditions. In dependence on the individual performance an increased mobilisation of lactat, free fatty acids and catecholamines were found. The determination of aerob physical performance can be applied for the evaluation of working capacity.

  5. Biochemical Responses of Peach Leaves Infected with Taphrina Deformans Berk/Tul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubka Koleva-Valkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic fungus Taphrina deformans causing the so called “leaf curl disease” in peach trees leads to severe yield losses due to the development of leaf hypertrophy and subsequent necrosis and scission. Because of its economic importance, the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of the disease are of considerable interest to the agricultural science. In this study various biochemical parameters, including the activities of the antioxidant enzymes guaiacol peroxidase, syringaldazine peroxidase and catalase, total polyphenols and anthocyanin content, concentration of free proline, antiradical activity and quantity of plastid pigments, were characterized. All these were measured in both leaves with clear symptoms and distally situated leaves from the same plant that show no signs of the infection. The results demonstrate that the pathogen induces considerable biochemical changes concerning enzymatic and non‑enzymatic elements of the plant defense and antioxidant systems. Moreover, it seems that the fungus provokes a systemic response detectable even in the tissues without observable symptoms.

  6. Physio-Biochemical Composition and Untargeted Metabolomics of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. Make It Promising Functional Food and Help in Mitigating Salinity Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonika Pandey

    Full Text Available Cumin is an annual, aromatic, herbaceous, medicinal, spice plant, most widely used as a food additive and flavoring agent in different cuisines. The study is intended to comprehensively analyse physiological parameters, biochemical composition and metabolites under salinity stress. Seed germination index, rate of seed emergence, rate of seed germination, mean germination time, plant biomass, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased concomitantly with salinity. In contrast, total antioxidant activity, H2O2, proline and MDA contents increased concurrently with stress treatments. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were decreased initially about 1.4-fold at 50 mM, and thereafter increased about 1.2-fold at 100 mM NaCl stress. Relative water content remained unchanged up to 50 mM NaCl stress, and thereafter decreased significantly. About 2.8-fold electrolyte leakage was found in 50 mM, which increases further 4-fold at 100 mM NaCl stress. Saturated fatty acids (FAs increased gradually with salinity, whereas unsaturation index and degree of unsaturation change arbitrarily along with the percent quantity of unsaturated FAs. Total lipid and fatty acid composition were significantly influenced by salinity stress. A total of 45 differentially expressed metabolites were identified, including luteolin, salvianolic acid, kaempferol and quercetin, which are phenolic, flavonoid or alkaloids in nature and contain antioxidant activities. Additionally, metabolites with bioactivity such as anticancerous (docetaxel and antimicrobial (megalomicin properties were also identified. The study evidenced that plant shoots are a rich source of metabolites, essential amino acids, phenolic compounds and fatty acids, which unveil the medicinal potential of this plant, and also provide useful insight about metabolic responses under salinity stress.

  7. Physio-Biochemical Composition and Untargeted Metabolomics of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Make It Promising Functional Food and Help in Mitigating Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sonika; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    Cumin is an annual, aromatic, herbaceous, medicinal, spice plant, most widely used as a food additive and flavoring agent in different cuisines. The study is intended to comprehensively analyse physiological parameters, biochemical composition and metabolites under salinity stress. Seed germination index, rate of seed emergence, rate of seed germination, mean germination time, plant biomass, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased concomitantly with salinity. In contrast, total antioxidant activity, H2O2, proline and MDA contents increased concurrently with stress treatments. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were decreased initially about 1.4-fold at 50 mM, and thereafter increased about 1.2-fold at 100 mM NaCl stress. Relative water content remained unchanged up to 50 mM NaCl stress, and thereafter decreased significantly. About 2.8-fold electrolyte leakage was found in 50 mM, which increases further 4-fold at 100 mM NaCl stress. Saturated fatty acids (FAs) increased gradually with salinity, whereas unsaturation index and degree of unsaturation change arbitrarily along with the percent quantity of unsaturated FAs. Total lipid and fatty acid composition were significantly influenced by salinity stress. A total of 45 differentially expressed metabolites were identified, including luteolin, salvianolic acid, kaempferol and quercetin, which are phenolic, flavonoid or alkaloids in nature and contain antioxidant activities. Additionally, metabolites with bioactivity such as anticancerous (docetaxel) and antimicrobial (megalomicin) properties were also identified. The study evidenced that plant shoots are a rich source of metabolites, essential amino acids, phenolic compounds and fatty acids, which unveil the medicinal potential of this plant, and also provide useful insight about metabolic responses under salinity stress.

  8. Reproduction and biochemical responses in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) to zinc or cadmium exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novais, Sara C.; Gomes, Susana I.L.; Gravato, Carlos; Guilhermino, Lucia; De Coen, Wim; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Amorim, Monica J.B.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand chemical modes of action, emphasis has been given to stress responses at lower levels of biological organization. Cholinesterases and antioxidant defenses are among the most used biomarkers due to their crucial role in the neurocholinergic transmission and in cell homeostasis preventing DNA damage, enzymatic inactivation and lipid peroxidation. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc and cadmium on survival and reproduction of E. albidus and to assess metals oxidative stress potential and neurotoxic effects at concentrations that affected reproduction. Both metals affected the enchytraeids' survival and reproduction and induced significant changes in the antioxidant defenses as well as increased lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative damage. This study demonstrates that determining effects at different levels of biological organization can give better information on the physiological responses of enchytraeids in metal contamination events and further unravel the mechanistic processes dealing with metal stress. - Highlights: → Zinc and cadmium influence the survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus albidus. → Oxidative stress and membrane damage occur at reproduction effect concentrations. → Glutathione seems to be important in the antioxidant defense against metals. → Time intervals (2, 4, 8 days) allowed following the evolution of oxidative events. - Zinc and cadmium cause oxidative stress and membrane damage in Enchytraeus albidus at reproduction effect concentrations.

  9. Reproduction and biochemical responses in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) to zinc or cadmium exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, Sara C., E-mail: sara.novais@ua.pt [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gomes, Susana I.L. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gravato, Carlos [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS-Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); De Coen, Wim [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology - E.B.T., Groenenborgerlaan 171 - U.7., B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Amorim, Monica J.B. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-07-15

    To better understand chemical modes of action, emphasis has been given to stress responses at lower levels of biological organization. Cholinesterases and antioxidant defenses are among the most used biomarkers due to their crucial role in the neurocholinergic transmission and in cell homeostasis preventing DNA damage, enzymatic inactivation and lipid peroxidation. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc and cadmium on survival and reproduction of E. albidus and to assess metals oxidative stress potential and neurotoxic effects at concentrations that affected reproduction. Both metals affected the enchytraeids' survival and reproduction and induced significant changes in the antioxidant defenses as well as increased lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative damage. This study demonstrates that determining effects at different levels of biological organization can give better information on the physiological responses of enchytraeids in metal contamination events and further unravel the mechanistic processes dealing with metal stress. - Highlights: > Zinc and cadmium influence the survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus albidus. > Oxidative stress and membrane damage occur at reproduction effect concentrations. > Glutathione seems to be important in the antioxidant defense against metals. > Time intervals (2, 4, 8 days) allowed following the evolution of oxidative events. - Zinc and cadmium cause oxidative stress and membrane damage in Enchytraeus albidus at reproduction effect concentrations.

  10. Albumin Antioxidant Response to Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Navarro, Rafael; Corona-Candelas, Itzia; Barajas-González, Saúl; Díaz-Flores, Margarita; Durán-Reyes, Genoveva

    2014-01-01

    Background A new component of the protein antioxidant capacity, designated Response Surplus (RS), was recently described. A major feature of this component is the close relationship between protein antioxidant capacity and molecular structure. Oxidative stress is associated with renal dysfunction in patients with renal failure, and plasma albumin is the target of massive oxidation in nephrotic syndrome and diabetic nephropathy. The aim of the present study was to explore the albumin redox state and the RS component of human albumin isolated from diabetic patients with progressive renal damage. Methods/Principal Findings Serum aliquots were collected and albumin isolated from 125 diabetic patients divided into 5 groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In addition to clinical and biochemical variables, the albumin redox state, including antioxidant capacity, thiol group content, and RS component, were evaluated. The albumin antioxidant capacity and thiol group content were reciprocally related to the RS component in association with GFR reduction. The GFR decline and RS component were significantly negatively correlated (R = –0.83, palbumin to stress in relation to the progression of diabetic renal disease was evaluated. The findings confirm that the albumin molecular structure is closely related to its redox state, and is a key factor in the progression of diabetes nephropathy. PMID:25187963

  11. Temporal specificity of training: intra-day effects on biochemical responses and Olympic-Weightlifting performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Achraf; Chtourou, Hamdi; Trabelsi, Khaled; Padulo, Johnny; Turki, Mouna; El Abed, Kais; Hoekelmann, Anitta; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Olympic-Weightlifting session training at three times of the day on the performance related to biochemical responses. Nine weightlifters (21 ± 0.5 years) performed, in randomised order, on three Olympic-Weightlifting training (snatch, clean and jerk) sessions (08:00 a.m., 02:00 p. m., 06:00 p. m.). Blood samples were collected: before, 3 min and 48 h after each training session. Haematological parameters and markers of muscle injury were assessed. Resting oral temperature and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also assessed during each session. ANOVA showed that the performance was better (P weightlifters. Therefore, coaches and weightlifters should be advised to schedule their training session in the afternoon hour.

  12. Interactions of Low-Frequency, Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields with Living Tissue: Biochemical Responses and Clinical Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Ulrik L.; Tritsaris, Katerina; Dissing, Steen

    2005-01-01

    In recent years many studies have demonstrated stimulatory effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on biological tissue. However, controversies have also surrounded the research often due to the lack of knowledge of the different physical consequences of static versus pulsed electromagnetic......, are still lacking. Despite the apparent success of the PEMF technology very little is known regarding the coupling between pulsed electrical fields and biochemical events leading to cellular responses. Insight into this research area is therefore of great importance. In this review we describe the physical...... properties of PEMF-induced electrical fields and explain the typical set up for coils and pulse patterns. Furthermore, we discuss possible models that can account for mechanisms by which induced electric fields are able to enhance cellular signaling. We have emphasized the currently well-documented effects...

  13. Effect of the combination of metformin hydrochloride and melatonin on oxidative stress before and during pregnancy, and biochemical and histopathological analysis of the livers of rats after treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Ana Janaina Jeanine M.; Peixoto, Christina A.; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar C.; Luna, Rayana Leal A.; Rocha, Sura Wanessa S.; Santos, Hilda Michelly P.; Silva, Amanda Karolina S.; Nunes, Ana Karolina S.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a combination of metformin hydrochloride and melatonin on oxidative stress together with a biochemical and histopathological analysis of the livers of Wistar rats induced with PCOS. The results indicated that a combination of the drugs was more effective in the reduction of plasmatic levels of liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase, nitric oxide and total glutathione, and decreased the inflammatory response and histopathological damage, producing results that were significantly similar to animals from the control group. A mixture of the drugs produced more effective results against liver toxicity caused by PCOS, encouraging the normalization of biochemical parameters. During pregnancy, there was reduced oxidative stress compared to monotherapeutic use of these drugs. Interestingly, the combination of the drugs caused a physiological reaction similar to responses identified in healthy rats without induction of the PCOS control group. However, the clinical and physiological effectiveness of the combination should be further explored, especially with respect to the possible side effects on offspring. - Highlights: • Studies have documented increased oxidative stress in patients with PCOS. • It has been noted that women with PCOS have a high prevalence of liver alterations. • Liver disease in pregnancy may be pre-existing increasing the newborn mortality. • Metformin/melatonin associated reduced oxidative stress in liver in pregnant rats. • Association of metformin/melatonin normalizes hepatic biochemical parameters

  14. Effect of the combination of metformin hydrochloride and melatonin on oxidative stress before and during pregnancy, and biochemical and histopathological analysis of the livers of rats after treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Ana Janaina Jeanine M. [Department of Animal Morphology and Physiology, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Unit of Medical and Health Sciences, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (Brazil); Peixoto, Christina A. [Centro de Pesquisa Aggeu Magalhães-Fiocruz Recife (Brazil); Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar C. [Department of Animal Morphology and Physiology, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Luna, Rayana Leal A.; Rocha, Sura Wanessa S. [Centro de Pesquisa Aggeu Magalhães-Fiocruz Recife (Brazil); Santos, Hilda Michelly P. [Department of Animal Morphology and Physiology, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Silva, Amanda Karolina S.; Nunes, Ana Karolina S. [Centro de Pesquisa Aggeu Magalhães-Fiocruz Recife (Brazil); Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria, E-mail: valeria@dmfa.ufrpe.br [Department of Animal Morphology and Physiology, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a combination of metformin hydrochloride and melatonin on oxidative stress together with a biochemical and histopathological analysis of the livers of Wistar rats induced with PCOS. The results indicated that a combination of the drugs was more effective in the reduction of plasmatic levels of liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase, nitric oxide and total glutathione, and decreased the inflammatory response and histopathological damage, producing results that were significantly similar to animals from the control group. A mixture of the drugs produced more effective results against liver toxicity caused by PCOS, encouraging the normalization of biochemical parameters. During pregnancy, there was reduced oxidative stress compared to monotherapeutic use of these drugs. Interestingly, the combination of the drugs caused a physiological reaction similar to responses identified in healthy rats without induction of the PCOS control group. However, the clinical and physiological effectiveness of the combination should be further explored, especially with respect to the possible side effects on offspring. - Highlights: • Studies have documented increased oxidative stress in patients with PCOS. • It has been noted that women with PCOS have a high prevalence of liver alterations. • Liver disease in pregnancy may be pre-existing increasing the newborn mortality. • Metformin/melatonin associated reduced oxidative stress in liver in pregnant rats. • Association of metformin/melatonin normalizes hepatic biochemical parameters.

  15. Biochemical and behavioural responses of the endobenthic bivalve Scrobicularia plana to silver nanoparticles in seawater and microalgal food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Pan, Jin-Fen; Poirier, Laurence; Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Gaudin, Pierre; Risso-de Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Gilliland, Douglas; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    Because of their bactericidal effects, Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have promising industrial development but could lead to potential ecological risks. The aim of this study was to examine the uptake and effect of silver (soluble or as lactate Ag NPs of 40 nm) at low concentrations (10 μg L(-1)) in the endobenthic bivalve Scrobicularia plana exposed, for 14 days, directly (water) or via the diet (microalgae). The stability of Ag NPs in seawater was examined using dynamic light scattering. Release of soluble Ag from Ag NPs in the experimental media was quantified by using diffusive gradient in thin film. Bioaccumulation of Ag in bivalves was measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Behavioural and biochemical biomarkers were determined in bivalves. Aggregation of Ag NPs and the release of soluble Ag from Ag NPs were observed in the experimental media. For both forms of Ag, bioaccumulation was much more important for waterborne than for dietary exposure. The response of oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, glutathion S-transferase, superoxide dismutase) was more important after dietary than waterborne exposure to Ag (soluble and NPs). These defences were relatively efficient since they led to a lack of response of damage biomarkers. Burrowing was not affected for bivalves exposed directly or through the diet to both Ag forms but feeding behaviour was impaired after 10 days of dietary exposure. Since no differences of responses to Ag either soluble or nanoparticulate were observed, it seems that labile Ag released from Ag NPs was mainly responsible for toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identifying salt stress-responsive transcripts from Roselle ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Identifying the potentially novel transcripts responsible for salt stress tolerance in roselle will increase knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress responses. In this study, differential display reverse ...

  17. Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in oil palm. ... changes in growth, physiology and nutrient concentration in response to two watering regimes (well-watered and water-stress conditions) and ... from 32 Countries:.

  18. Physiological and Biochemical Changes in Brassica juncea Plants under Cd-Induced Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhriti Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Brassica juncea L. var. RLC-1 were exposed for 30 days to different concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mM of cadmium (Cd to analyze the Cd uptake, H2O2 content, hormonal profiling, level of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, and flavonoid, gaseous exchange parameters (photosynthetic rate, vapour pressure deficit, intercellular CO2 concentration, and intrinsic mesophyll rate, antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, glutathione-S transferase, and glutathione peroxidase, antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS, and total phenolic content, and polyphenols. Results of the present study revealed the increased H2O2 content and Cd uptake with increasing metal doses. UPLC analysis of plants showed the presence of various polyphenols. Gaseous exchange measurements were done by infrared gas analyzer (IRGA, which was negatively affected by metal treatment. In addition, LC/MS study showed the variation in the expression of plant hormones. Level of photosynthetic pigments and activities of antioxidative enzymes were altered significantly in response to metal treatment. In conclusion, the antioxidative defence system of plants got activated due to heavy metal stress, which protects the plants by scavenging free radicals.

  19. Morphological and biochemical mechanisms of changes in buccal epithelocytes and erythrocytes in children suffering psycho-emotional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Z. Gan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article provides experimental data on the impact of psychoemotional stress on cytological, morphometric, immunological and biochemical indicators in 7–11 year old children. We examined 100 children of primary school age, who were divided into the main group (50 children who had been resettled from the war zone in Eastern Ukraine and the control group (50 children, who live in Ivano-Frankivs’k. We used morphological (light-optical and electromicroscopic and mor phometric analysis of buccal epithelium and peripheral blood erythrocytes, biochemical methods for identifying the products of peroxidation of lipids, ceruloplasmin and ferritin according to widely used methods. Morphological methods revealed that under psychoemotional stress, the size of the nuclei and buccal epithelial cells significantly decreases, and their nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio changes towards increase in the share of cytoplasm, and the indicators of coefficient of buccal epithelial cell shape indicate significant deformation of those cells. Similar changes were observed in the erythrocytes of peripheral blood. In the blood, we observed an increase in the CD95+ concentration of lymphocytes. Clearly manifested changes in morphological and morphometric indicators of buccal epithelium and erythrocytes when there is an increase in the CD95+ level of lymphocytes indicate the development of a systematic apoptosis reaction of the studied cells in the condition of psychoemotional stress. Also we observed clearly manifested changes in the coefficient of erythrocytes’ shape, their size and perimeter, increase in the number of reversibly and irreversibly changed cells, which with increase in free radical oxidation, indicates disorders in the organism’s antioxidant protection system in general and requires a pathogenically grounded programme of treating complications related to psychoemotional stress among 7–11 year old children who were resettled fom the combat zone in Eastern

  20. Effect of Salicylic acid on some Growth and Biochemical Parameters of Wheat and Maize Plants under Salt Stress in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Dashagha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the difference between the resistance of wheat plants (c3 and maize (c4 the salinity was investigated. Research on environmental stresses (Hakimi, 2008 show thatstresses are considered as Limiting factors in crop production.and some phenolic compounds such as salicylic acid are used to improve or alleviate the negative effects of stress. In this study, plants were grown in plastic pots and the plants treated with salicylic acid, after two weeks and seven days later salinity was exerted.The effect of salinity treatmenton both plants, for some morphological and biochemical characteristics were studied. In biochemical tests, lipid peroxidation under salinity and salicylic acid treatments has increased for weat which represents the effect of salinity on the plant and the activetion of the defense mechanism, Howweverthese factors have reduced formaize. Moreover, the increase in total chlorophyll and flavonoids in wheatchlorophyll in wheat and maize shows the role of these pigments in quenching hydrogen peroxide and other active Oxygen types. This increases has not been concideralle in maize. The effect of treatment on the weight of … and root of both plants differed under the investigated concentration.

  1. Plant Nucleolar Stress Response, a New Face in the NAC-Dependent Cellular Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai Ohbayashi; Munetaka Sugiyama

    2018-01-01

    The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized p...

  2. Molecular and biochemical responses of hypoxia exposure in Atlantic croaker collected from hypoxic regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Thomas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A major impact of global climate change has been the marked increase worldwide in the incidence of coastal hypoxia (dissolved oxygen, DOhypoxic waters as well as their molecular and physiological responses to environmental hypoxia exposure are largely unknown. A suite of potential hypoxia exposure biomarkers was evaluated in Atlantic croaker collected from hypoxic and normoxic regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), and in croaker after laboratory exposure to hypoxia (DO: 1.7 mg l-1). Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-α, hif-α; neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nNOS; and insulin-like growth factor binding protein, igfbp mRNAs and protein carbonyl (PC, an oxidative stress indicator) content were elevated several-fold in brain and liver tissues of croaker collected from nGOM hypoxic sites. All of these molecular and biochemical biomarkers were also upregulated ~3-10-fold in croaker brain and liver tissues within 1-2 days of hypoxia exposure in controlled laboratory experiments. These results suggest that hif-αs, nNOS and igfbp-1 transcripts and PC contents are useful biomarkers of environmental hypoxia exposure and some of its physiological effects, making them important components for improved assessments of long-term impacts of environmental hypoxia on fish populations.

  3. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage. PMID:27053445

  4. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dues, Dylan J; Andrews, Emily K; Schaar, Claire E; Bergsma, Alexis L; Senchuk, Megan M; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage.

  5. Response patterns in adult forest trees to chronic ozone stress: identification of variations and consistencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, Angela J.; Reiter, Ilja M.; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Langebartels, Christian; Bahnweg, Guenther; Pretzsch, Hans; Sandermann, Heinrich; Matyssek, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    The responsiveness of adult beech and spruce trees to chronic O 3 stress was studied at a free-air O 3 exposure experiment in Freising/Germany. Over three growing seasons, gas exchange characteristics, biochemical parameters, macroscopic O 3 injury and the phenology of leaf organs were investigated, along with assessments of branch and stem growth as indications of tree performance. To assess response pattern to chronic O 3 stress in adult forest trees, we introduce a new evaluation approach, which provides a comprehensive, readily accomplishable overview across several tree-internal scaling levels, different canopy regions and growing seasons. This new approach, based on a three-grade colour coding, combines statistical analysis and the proficient ability of the 'human eye' in pattern recognition. - Responses of adult forest trees to chronic O 3 stress can be visualized in a survey table applying a three-grade colour coding to each investigated parameter

  6. Monitoring environmental stress in forest trees using biochemical and physiological markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Minocha; S.C. Minocha; S. Long

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the usefulness of polyamines, particularly putrescine, and amino acids such as arginine, as foliar indicators of abiotic stress in visually asymptomatic trees. An evaluation of apparently healthy trees is essential in developing risk assessment and stress remediation strategies for forest trees prior to the onset of obvious decline....

  7. Immunological and biochemical parameters of patients with metabolic syndrome and the participation of oxidative and nitroactive stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N.C. Simão

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is a multifactorial disease involving inflammatory activity and endothelial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the changes in lipoperoxidation, in immunological and biochemical parameters and nitric oxide metabolite (NOx levels in MS patients. Fifty patients with MS (4 males/46 females and 50 controls (3 males/47 females were studied. Compared to control (Mann-Whitney test, MS patients presented higher serum levels (P < 0.05 of fibrinogen: 314 (185-489 vs 262 (188-314 mg/dL, C-reactive protein (CRP: 7.80 (1.10-46.50 vs 0.70 (0.16-5.20 mg/dL, interleukin-6: 3.96 (3.04-28.18 vs 3.33 (2.55-9.63 pg/mL, uric acid: 5.45 (3.15-9.65 vs 3.81 (2.70-5.90 mg/dL, and hydroperoxides: 20,689 (19,076-67,182 vs 18,636 (15,926-19,731 cpm. In contrast, they presented lower (P < 0.05 adiponectin: 7.11 (3.19-18.22 vs 12.31 (9.11-27.27 µg/mL, and NOx levels: 5.69 (2.36-8.18 vs 6.72 (5.14-12.43 µM. NOx was inversely associated (Spearman’s rank correlation with body mass index (r = -0.2858, P = 0.0191, insulin resistance determined by the homeostasis model assessment (r = -0.2530, P = 0.0315, CRP (r = -0.2843, P = 0.0171 and fibrinogen (r = -0.2464, P = 0.0413, and positively correlated with hydroperoxides (r = 0.2506, P = 0.0408. In conclusion, NOx levels are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers. The high uric acid levels together with reactive oxygen species generation may be responsible for the reduced NO levels, which in turn lead to endothelial dysfunction. The elevated plasma chemiluminescence reflecting both increased plasma oxidation and reduced antioxidant capacity may play a role in the MS mechanism.

  8. Opposite Effects of Stress on Pain Modulation Depend on the Magnitude of Individual Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Nirit; Defrin, Ruth

    2018-04-01

    The effect of acute stress on pain threshold and intolerance threshold are reported as producing either hypoalgesia or hyperalgesia. Yet, the contribution of individual stress reactivity in this respect has not been established. The aim was to test 2 pain modulation paradigms under acute stress manipulation, to our knowledge, for the first time, to study whether stress differentially affects pain modulation, and whether the effect is related to individual stress response. Participants were 31 healthy subjects. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and pain adaptation were measured before and after inducing an acute stress response using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task. Subjects' stress response was evaluated according to salivary cortisol, autonomic function, and perceived stress and anxiety. The Montreal Imaging Stress Task induced a validated stress response. On a group level, stress induced reduction in CPM magnitude and increase in pain adaptation compared with baseline. These responses correlated with stress reactivity. When the group was subdivided according to stress reactivity, only high stress responders exhibited reduced CPM whereas only low stress responders exhibited increased pain adaptation. The results suggest that acute stress may induce opposite effects on pain modulation, depending on individual stress reactivity magnitude, with an advantage to low stress responders. This study evaluated the effect of acute stress on pain modulation. Pain modulation under stress is affected by individual stress responsiveness; decreased CPM occurs in high stress responders whereas increased pain adaptation occurs in low stress responders. Identification of high stress responders may promote better pain management. Copyright © 2017 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biochemical response and the effects of bariatric surgeries on type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Roland; Hughes, Tyler; Lerd Ng, Jia; Ortiz, Roberto; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Bouhali, Othmane; Arredouani, Abdelilah

    2013-03-01

    A general method is introduced for calculating the biochemical response to pharmaceuticals, surgeries, or other medical interventions. This method is then applied in a simple model of the response to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in obese diabetic patients. We specifically address the amazing fact that glycemia correction is usually achieved immediately after RYGB surgery, long before there is any appreciable weight loss. Many studies indicate that this result is not due merely to caloric restriction, and it is usually attributed to an increase in glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels observed after the surgery. However, our model indicates that this mechanism alone is not sufficient to explain either the largest declines in glucose levels or the measured declines in the homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The most robust additional mechanism would be production of a factor which opens an insulin-independent pathway for glucose transport into cells, perhaps related to the well-established insulin-independent pathway associated with exercise. Potential candidates include bradykinin, a 9 amino acid peptide. If such a substance were found to exist, it would offer hope for medications which mimic the immediate beneficial effect of RYGB surgery. Supported by Qatar Biomedical Research Institute and Science Program at Texas A&M University at Qatar

  10. Leaf Proteome Analysis Reveals Prospective Drought and Heat Stress Response Mechanisms in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aayudh Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought and heat are among the major abiotic stresses that affect soybean crops worldwide. During the current investigation, the effect of drought, heat, and drought plus heat stresses was compared in the leaves of two soybean varieties, Surge and Davison, combining 2D-DIGE proteomic data with physiology and biochemical analyses. We demonstrated how 25 differentially expressed photosynthesis-related proteins affect RuBisCO regulation, electron transport, Calvin cycle, and carbon fixation during drought and heat stress. We also observed higher abundance of heat stress-induced EF-Tu protein in Surge. It is possible that EF-Tu might have activated heat tolerance mechanisms in the soybean. Higher level expressions of heat shock-related protein seem to be regulating the heat tolerance mechanisms. This study identifies the differential expression of various abiotic stress-responsive proteins that regulate various molecular processes and signaling cascades. One inevitable outcome from the biochemical and proteomics assays of this study is that increase of ROS levels during drought stress does not show significant changes at the phenotypic level in Davison and this seems to be due to a higher amount of carbonic anhydrase accumulation in the cell which aids the cell to become more resistant to cytotoxic concentrations of H2O2.

  11. Understanding abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms in soybean: a comparative evaluation of soybean response to drought and flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutava, Raymond N; Prince, Silvas Jebakumar K; Syed, Naeem Hasan; Song, Li; Valliyodan, Babu; Chen, Wei; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    Many sources of drought and flooding tolerance have been identified in soybean, however underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, it is important to illuminate different plant responses to these abiotic stresses and understand the mechanisms that confer tolerance. Towards this goal we used four contrasting soybean (Glycine max) genotypes (PI 567690--drought tolerant, Pana--drought susceptible, PI 408105A--flooding tolerant, S99-2281--flooding susceptible) grown under greenhouse conditions and compared genotypic responses to drought and flooding at the physiological, biochemical, and cellular level. We also quantified these variations and tried to infer their role in drought and flooding tolerance in soybean. Our results revealed that different mechanisms contribute to reduction in net photosynthesis under drought and flooding stress. Under drought stress, ABA and stomatal conductance are responsible for reduced photosynthetic rate; while under flooding stress, accumulation of starch granules played a major role. Drought tolerant genotypes PI 567690 and PI 408105A had higher plastoglobule numbers than the susceptible Pana and S99-2281. Drought stress increased the number and size of plastoglobules in most of the genotypes pointing to a possible role in stress tolerance. Interestingly, there were seven fibrillin proteins localized within the plastoglobules that were up-regulated in the drought and flooding tolerant genotypes PI 567690 and PI 408105A, respectively, but down-regulated in the drought susceptible genotype Pana. These results suggest a potential role of Fibrillin proteins, FBN1a, 1b and 7a in soybean response to drought and flooding stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Saltmarsh Plant Spartina alterniflora to Long-term Wave Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, ecosystem-based flood defence, i.e., eco-shoreline or living shoreline, that is more sustainable and cost-effective than conventional coastal engineering structures has been brought into large-scale practice. Numerous laboratory experiments have been performed to explore the wave-attenuation effects of saltmarsh plants that are widely used in eco-shoreline, and yet no study has ever been conducted on the physiological and biochemical responses of saltmarsh plants to long-term wave exposure, presumably due to the constraint that traditional wave generator fails to provide long-term stable wave conditions necessary for physiological experiments. In this study, a long-term shallow water wave environment simulator using crank-yoke mechanism was built in the laboratory to address this gap. Experiments using the wave simulator were conducted for 8 weeks in a greenhouse and the temperature was maintained at 24-30°C. 5‰ artificial sea water was filled in the test tank, and the water was changed every week. After being acclimatized, nine S. alterniflora individual plants (initial height 30 cm) were planted in each of the three streamlined cuboid containers (12cm×12cm×20cm), which were partially submerged in a test tank, and undertook horizontal sinusoidal motion imposed by the crank-yoke mechanism to mimic plants exposed to shallow water waves. The substrate filled in the containers were soils collected from the Yellow River Delta, so were the S. alterniflora plants. A realistic stem density of 400 stems/m2 was tested, which corresponded to a grid spacing of 5.0 cm. Shallow water waves with six wave heights (H: 0.041, 0.055, 0.069, 0.033, 0.044 and 0.056m), one plants submerged depth (0.1m) and two wave periods (2s and 3s) were simulated in the experiments. A no wave condition was also tested as control. Key physiological and biochemical parameters, such as stem length, peroxidase activity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, etc

  13. Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    by Paulo Roberto Ribeiro de Jesus

    The main objective of this thesis was to provide a detailed

  14. Partial response to biotin therapy in a patient with holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency: clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santer, R.; Muhle, H.; Suormala, T.; Baumgartner, E. R.; Duran, M.; Yang, X.; Aoki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Stephani, U.

    2003-01-01

    We report the clinical course and biochemical findings of a 10-year-old, mentally retarded girl with late-onset holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS, gene symbol HLCS) deficiency and only partial response to biotin. On treatment, even with an unusually high dose of 200mg/day, activities of the

  15. Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Effect of dose and time on biochemical disturbance, oxidative stress and genotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Maha Z; Ali, Sanaa A; Hamed, Manal A; El-Rigal, Nagy Saba; Aly, Hanan F; Salah, Heba H

    2017-06-01

    The toxic impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) on human health is of prime importance owing to their wide uses in many commercial industries. In the present study, the effect of different doses and exposure time durations of TiO 2 NPs (21nm) inducing oxidative stress, biochemical disturbance, histological alteration and cytogenetic aberration in mice liver and bone marrow was investigated. Different doses of (TiO 2 NPs) (50, 250 and 500mg/kg body weight) were each daily intrapertioneally injected to mice for 7, 14 and 45days. Aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST &ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total protein, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured. The work was extended to evaluate the liver histopathological pattern and the chromosomal aberration in mice spinal cord bone marrow. The results revealed severe TiO 2 NPs toxicity in a dose and time dependent manner with positive correlation (r=0.98) for most investigated biochemical parameters. The same observation was noticed for the histological analysis. In case of cytogenetic study, chromosomal aberrations were demonstrated after injection of TiO 2 NPs with 500mg/kg b. wt. for 45days. In conclusion, the selected biochemical parameters and the liver architectures were influenced with dose and time of TiO 2 NPs toxicity, while the genetic disturbance started at the high dose of exposure and for long duration. Further studies are needed to fulfil the effect of TiO 2 NPs on pharmaceutical and nutritional applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-09-01

    An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.

  17. Biochemical and biological responses in V79 cells grown in different background radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amicarelli, F.; Colafarina, S.; Ara, C.; Antonelli, F.; Balata, M.; Belli, M.; Simone, G.; Satta, L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In order to investigate the influence of a low background radiation environment on the biochemical and biological responses of mammalian cells cultured in vitro, a cell culture laboratory has been set up at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), located under the Gran Sasso d'Italia mountain, where cosmic rays are reduced by a factor of 10 6 and neutrons by a factor of 10 3 respect to the outside environment. Chinese hamster V79 cells were grown in parallel for up to nine months at LNGS and at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS). At the LNGS the exposure due to radon was reduced by a factor of about 25 with respect to the ISS. The biological end points addressed concerned cells proliferation, the expression of enzymes specific for the reduction of superoxydes, mutation induction by gamma-rays at the hprt locus and apoptotic sensitivity. After 9 months of culture, the cells grown at the LNGS, compared to the cells grown at the ISS, exhibit: i) a significant increase of the cell density at confluence; ii) a significantly higher capacity to scavenge organic and inorganic hydroperoxydes but a reduced scavenging capacity towards superoxide anions; iii) an increase in both the basal hprt mutation frequency and the sensitivity to the mutagenic effect of gamma-rays. The cells grown at the LNGS also show greater apoptotic sensitivity at the third month of culture that is no longer detected after nine months. Overall, these data suggest that cell response to ionizing radiation may be more complex than that predicted by a linear relationship with the dose and are consistent with the occurrence of an adaptive response related to the background radiation. However, other possibilities cannot be excluded such as the selection, in the two cultures, of clones having different characteristics, independently of the different radiation background. Work is in progress to better elucidate this point

  18. Physiological and proteome studies of responses to heat stress during grain filling in contrasting wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Vignjevic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    compared to sensitive cultivars under heat stress. The tolerant cv. '810' and the sensitive cv. '1039' were selected for further proteome analysis of leaves. Proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress defence, heat shock and ATP production were differently expressed in leaves of the tolerant...... and sensitive cultivar under heat stress in relation to the corresponding control. The abundance of proteins related to signal transduction, heat shock, photosynthesis, and antioxidants increased, while the abundance of proteins related to nitrogen metabolism decreased in the tolerant cv. '810' under heat......Experiments to explore physiological and biochemical differences of the effects of heat stress in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars have been performed. Based on the response of photosynthesis rates, cell membrane lipid peroxide concentrations and grain yield to heat, six cultivars were...

  19. Neurobehavioral, neuropathological and biochemical profiles in a novel mouse model of co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder and mild traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Joseph O.; Greenberg, M. Banks; Leary, Paige; Mouzon, Benoit; Bachmeier, Corbin; Mullan, Michael; Diamond, David M.; Crawford, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Co-morbid mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has become the signature disorder for returning combat veterans. The clinical heterogeneity and overlapping symptomatology of mTBI and PTSD underscore the need to develop a preclinical model that will enable the characterization of unique and overlapping features and allow discrimination between both disorders. This study details the development and implementation of a novel experimental paradigm for PTSD and combined PTSD-mTBI. The PTSD paradigm involved exposure to a danger-related predator odor under repeated restraint over a 21 day period and a physical trauma (inescapable footshock). We administered this paradigm alone, or in combination with a previously established mTBI model. We report outcomes of behavioral, pathological and biochemical profiles at an acute timepoint. PTSD animals demonstrated recall of traumatic memories, anxiety and an impaired social behavior. In both mTBI and combination groups there was a pattern of disinhibitory like behavior. mTBI abrogated both contextual fear and impairments in social behavior seen in PTSD animals. No major impairment in spatial memory was observed in any group. Examination of neuroendocrine and neuroimmune responses in plasma revealed a trend toward increase in corticosterone in PTSD and combination groups, and an apparent increase in Th1 and Th17 proinflammatory cytokine(s) in the PTSD only and mTBI only groups respectively. In the brain there were no gross neuropathological changes in any groups. We observed that mTBI on a background of repeated trauma exposure resulted in an augmentation of axonal injury and inflammatory markers, neurofilament L and ICAM-1 respectively. Our observations thus far suggest that this novel stress-trauma-related paradigm may be a useful model for investigating further the overlapping and distinct spatio-temporal and behavioral/biochemical relationship between mTBI and PTSD experienced by combat

  20. The Role of Compost in Stabilizing the Microbiological and Biochemical Properties of Zinc-Stressed Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachel, Rafał; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Baćmaga, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The progressive development of civilization and intensive industrialization has contributed to the global pollution of the natural environment by heavy metals, especially the soil. Degraded soils generally contain less organic matter, and thus, their homeostasis is more often disturbed, which in turn manifests in changes in biological and physicochemical properties of the soil. Therefore, new possibilities and solutions for possible neutralization of these contaminations are sought, inter alia, through reclamation of degraded land. At present, the use of additives supporting the reclamation process that exhibit heavy metal-sorbing properties is becoming increasingly important in soil recovery. Research was conducted to determine the role of compost in stabilizing the microbial and biochemical balance of the soil due to the significant problem of heavy metal-contaminated areas. The study was conducted on loamy sand, to which zinc was applied at the following doses: 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 1250 mg Zn 2+  kg -1 DM of soil. Compost was introduced to the appropriate objects calculated on the basis of organic carbon content in the amount of 0, 10, and 20 g C org  kg -1 DM of soil. The study was conducted over a period of 20 weeks, maintaining soil moisture at 50% capillary water capacity. Zinc significantly modified soil microbiome status. The abundance of microorganisms and their biological diversity and the enzymatic activity of the soil were affected. The negative effects of contaminating zinc doses were alleviated by the introduction of compost into the soil. Organic fertilization led to microbial growth intensification and increased biochemical activity of the soil already 2 weeks after compost application. These effects persisted throughout the experiment. Therefore, it can be stated that the use of compost is an appropriate method for restoring normal functions of soil ecosystems contaminated with zinc.

  1. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Curcuma Longa on the Biochemical Profile and Meat Characteristics of Broiler Rabbits under Summer Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen four week’s old weaned broiler rabbits of comparable body weights were allotted to three dietary treatment groups of six rabbits in each group namely T0 (basal control diet, T1 (basal diet added with turmeric rhizome powder, TRP, at the ratio of 150mgand T2 (basal diet added with TRP at the ratio of 300mg/100g diet. Different hematological and serum biochemical parameters such as packed cell volume, Hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count and serum total protein, albumin, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase due to the dietary inclusion of turmeric powder rhizome supplementation at 0, 0.15 and 0.30 percent did not show significant difference between the treatment groups. Carcass parameters and chemical composition of meat were closer to the standard values. The results of the study indicated no beneficial effect of dietary inclusion of turmeric (Curcuma longa rhizome powder at 0, 0.15 and 0.30 per cent on blood biochemical and meat characteristics of broiler rabbits reared under summer stress [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 15-18

  2. Molt-associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values and stress hormone levels in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Meegan, Jenny; Sarran, Delphine; Romano, Tracy A; Bonato, Vinicius; Deng, Shibing; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Handling, including blood collection, has often been discouraged in molting penguins because it is considered an additional stress imposed on birds already experiencing major physiologic stress associated with molting. To evaluate the degree of physiologic stress posed by molting, we compared the hematologic and plasma biochemical values and hormone levels of molting and nonmolting African penguins, Spheniscus demersus. Five male and 5 female penguins randomly chosen were given complete physical examinations, were weighed, and blood samples were taken at 7 time points before, during, and after the molt. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Throughout the study, behavior and appetite remained normal. Catecholamine levels were highly variable within and among subjects, whereas mean corticosterone levels were significantly different between baseline, molt, and postmolt values. Significant differences from baseline values were observed in many of the hematologic analytes; however, only decreases in hematocrit and red blood cell count values were considered clinically significant. Anemia due to experimentally induced blood loss as a possible cause of the significant hematologic changes was ruled out based on results of a follow-up control study during the nonmolt season, which showed no significant changes in hematocrit level or total red blood cell counts when using similar sampling protocols, which indicates that these changes were associated with molt.

  3. Effects of progressive soil water deficit on growth, and physiological and biochemical responses of populus euphratica in arid area: a case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Li, W.; Zhu, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of Populus euphratica seedlings under a short-term soil water deficit. To mimic natural conditions in which drought stress develops gradually, stress was imposed by subjecting plants to a gradual decrease of soil water content for a period of 21 d. We studied growth, physiological and biochemical responses to progressive soil water deficit of potted Populus euphratica seedlings at outdoors. Results showed that, in 6 d of water withholding, the soil moisture content decreased to a slight drought stress level, and it reached a severe drought stress level after 15 d of water withholding in July. In the process of soil water declining from saturated to severe drought levels, the increasing soil water deficit resulted in decreases in the height, stem base diameter, number of lateral branches. Leaf predawn water potential decreased after 15 d of withholding irrigation. After 21 d of withholding irrigation, actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in light-adapted leaves and photochemical quenching coefficient decreased, respectively; the peroxidase activity, the content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b decreased. There were no significant changes in proline, malondialdehyde content, chlorophyll a/b value and superoxide dismutase activity. (author)

  4. [Clinical, functional and biochemical characteristics of arterial hypertension in military men under chronic stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpagina, L A; Ermakova, M A; Volkova, E A; Iakovleva, S A

    2008-01-01

    Peculiarities of military occupational activities are repeated stress and high degree of psychoemotional strain. The article deals with results of momentary study covering a select from military men cohort, with thyroid tests, renal functional tests, diurnal monitoring of blood pressure and psychologic state assessment. Course of arterial hypertension in military men subjected to chronic stress presents prevailing systolic-diastolic and diastolic variants with excessive decrease of blood pressure at night, with high values of albuminuria. Psychologic state of the military men examined, whe were subjects to chronic stress, was mostly mixed reactivity type with general overstrain and somatization of inner conflict (psychosomatic variant of dysadaptation). The authors demonstrated close correlation between intrinsic emotional strain degree with arterial hypertension type according to "hyper-dipper" variant and free T3 level.

  5. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Dues, Dylan J.; Andrews, Emily K.; Schaar, Claire E.; Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxi...

  6. Stress responses in probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Nezhad, Marzieh; Hussain, Malik Altaf; Britz, Margaret Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Survival in harsh environments is critical to both the industrial performance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their competitiveness in complex microbial ecologies. Among the LAB, members of the Lactobacillus casei group have industrial applications as acid-producing starter cultures for milk fermentations and as specialty cultures for the intensification and acceleration of flavor development in certain bacterial-ripened cheese varieties. They are amongst the most common organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals, and have the potential to function as probiotics. Whether used in industrial or probiotic applications, environmental stresses will affect the physiological status and properties of cells, including altering their functionality and biochemistry. Understanding the mechanisms of how LAB cope with different environments is of great biotechnological importance, from both a fundamental and applied perspective: hence, interaction between these strains and their environment has gained increased interest in recent years. This paper presents an overview of the important features of stress responses in Lb. casei, and related proteomic or gene expression patterns that may improve their use as starter cultures and probiotics.

  7. Leaf biochemical responses and fruit oil quality parameters in olive plants subjected to airborne metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourati, Radhia; Scopa, Antonio; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Terzano, Roberto; Gattullo, Concetta Eliana; Allegretta, Ignazio; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Sofo, Adriano

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out in two olive orchards (Olea europaea L., cv. Chemlali) located in a polluted area near a fertilizers factory and in a control unpolluted site, managed with similar cultivation techniques. The aim was to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of polluted plants (PP), exposed to atmospheric metal contamination (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb) as compared to control plants (CP). Leaves, roots and fruits of PP showed a depression of their non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defences and a disruption of their hormonal homeostasis. The anomalous physiological status of PP was also demonstrated by the lower values of pigments in leaves and fruits, as compared to CP. Atmospheric metals negatively affected olive oil chemical and sensory quality. However, despite metal deposition on fruit surfaces, the accumulation of potentially toxic metals in olive oil was negligible. Considering that olive oil is an important food product worldwide and that many productive olive orchards are exposed to several sources of pollution, this work could contribute to clarify the effects of atmospheric metal pollution on olive oil quality and its potential toxicity for humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. INFLUENCE OF 1-METHYLCYCLOPROPENE ON THE BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE AND RIPENING OF ‘SOLO’ PAPAYAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS LURI OHASHI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The market demand for tropical fruits has been growing steadily over the past two decades and global papaya production has grown significantly over the last few years. This sector, however, suffers greatly from postharvest losses due to reduced quantity and quality of fruits between harvest and consumption. The use of ethylene inhibitors after harvest could improve the final quality of the fruit to satisfy the consumer and also minimize waste. The physiological and biochemical responses of ‘Solo’ papayas treated with the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP to extend storage shelf life and maintain quality during long-term storage are deeply discussed in this study. Papaya fruits arrived at Cranfield University (CU and received a 24 h 1-MCP, being stored at 20 ºC for 10 days. The ethylene inhibitor 1-MCP application significantly delayed ‘Solo’ papaya ripeness on fruit storage by reducing respiration rate and ethylene production. There was a delay from 7 days in fruit firmness loss and the retention of green peel colour was increased. Inhibition of ethylene perception by 1-MCP did not prevent the accumulation of sugars and the mean values were similar and higher than those found for control fruits, which are possibly due to the lower reaction speed, leading to a higher accumulation.

  9. Antifungal Activity and Biochemical Response of Cuminic Acid against Phytophthora capsici Leonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xing; Feng, Juntao

    2016-06-11

    Phytophthora blight of pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian is a destructive disease throughout the world. Cuminic acid, extracted from the seed of Cuminum cyminum L., belongs to the benzoic acid chemical class. In this study, the sensitivity and biochemical response of P. capsici to cuminic acid was determined. The mean EC50 (50% effective concentration) values for cuminic acid in inhibiting mycelial growth and zoospore germination of the 54 studied P. capsici isolates were 14.54 ± 5.23 μg/mL and 6.97 ± 2.82 μg/mL, respectively. After treatment with cuminic acid, mycelial morphology, sporangium formation and mycelial respiration were significantly influenced; cell membrane permeability and DNA content increased markedly, but pyruvic acid content, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, and ATPase activity decreased compared with the untreated control. In pot experiments, cuminic acid exhibited both protective and curative activity. Importantly, POD and PAL activity of the pepper leaves increased after being treated with cuminic acid. These indicated that cuminic acid not only showed antifungal activity, but also could improve the defense capacity of the plants. All the results suggested that cuminic acid exhibits the potential to be developed as a new phytochemical fungicide, and this information increases our understanding of the mechanism of action of cuminic acid against Phytophthora capsici.

  10. BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES AND ENDOCRINE RESPONSES IN PRE-COMPETITION TRAINING IN ELITE SWIMMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe biochemical changes and endocrine responses to low-volume pre-competition swimming training for elite swimmers. Twelve sprint swimmers (6 males and 6 females participated in 3-week pre-competition training. Measures of velocity anaerobic threshold (VAT, creatine kinase (CK, blood urea (BU, haemoglobin (Hb and testosterone/cortisol ratio (TC were obtained before and after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd week of training. The training load decreased from 27.3 to 13.7 km per week within 3 weeks. The VAT tested the load with an increased training protocol of 200 m×4 freestyle swimming and initial loads were 85, 90, 95, and 100 percent of the individual load. There were changes in the values of VAT, CK, BU, Hb and TC ratio during the training, and the changes corresponded to the changes of the training stimuli in time. There were also differences between the male and female swimmers. The most significant finding in this study was that such training stimulated the enginery of the swimmers and helped the swimmers recover enginery and indicated improved velocity in the competition with the following adjusting exercise after pre-competition training.

  11. Balneotherapy, Immune System, and Stress Response: A Hormetic Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gálvez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Balneotherapy is a clinically effective complementary approach in the treatment of low-grade inflammation- and stress-related pathologies. The biological mechanisms by which immersion in mineral-medicinal water and the application of mud alleviate symptoms of several pathologies are still not completely understood, but it is known that neuroendocrine and immunological responses—including both humoral and cell-mediated immunity—to balneotherapy are involved in these mechanisms of effectiveness; leading to anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, chondroprotective, and anabolic effects together with neuroendocrine-immune regulation in different conditions. Hormesis can play a critical role in all these biological effects and mechanisms of effectiveness. The hormetic effects of balneotherapy can be related to non-specific factors such as heat—which induces the heat shock response, and therefore the synthesis and release of heat shock proteins—and also to specific biochemical components such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S in sulfurous water and radon in radioactive water. Results from several investigations suggest that the beneficial effects of balneotherapy and hydrotherapy are consistent with the concept of hormesis, and thus support a role for hormesis in hydrothermal treatments.

  12. Physiological and biochemical changes in Matricaria chamomilla induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens and water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid MOHAMMADI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses and rhizosphere microorganisms affect growth parameters and accumulation of active ingredients especially in plants with medicinal properties. The present study examined the effects of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. seedling inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens PF-135 strain on its growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content, and essential oil concentration at both regular watering and water deficit experiments. Based on the obtained results, water deficit stress reduced root dry mass, and flower fresh and dry mass as well. However, amount of H2O2 and MDA in root and shoot tissues were considerably lower in inoculated plants compared to non-inoculated ones under both normal watering and water deficit regimes. It indicates that lipid peroxidation and production of reactive oxygen species has been diminished in inoculated plants. Also, essential oil content in inoculated plants significantly increased compared with that of non-inoculated ones under water deficit stress condition. It can be concluded that P. fluorescens PF-135 strain has an outstanding potential to alleviate adverse effects of water deficit on plant growth, and hence can be used as an excellent PGPR in order to boost chamomile productivity especially under water deficit stress condition.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal responses to abiotic stresses: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Ingrid; Fontaine, Joël; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2016-03-01

    The majority of plants live in close collaboration with a diversity of soil organisms among which arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an essential role. Mycorrhizal symbioses contribute to plant growth and plant protection against various environmental stresses. Whereas the resistance mechanisms induced in mycorrhizal plants after exposure to abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity and pollution, are well documented, the knowledge about the stress tolerance mechanisms implemented by the AMF themselves is limited. This review provides an overview of the impacts of various abiotic stresses (pollution, salinity, drought, extreme temperatures, CO2, calcareous, acidity) on biodiversity, abundance and development of AMF and examines the morphological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms implemented by AMF to survive in the presence of these stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Anna E; de Bruin, Robertus A M

    2017-03-02

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage.

  15. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Anna E.; de Bruin, Robertus A.M.

    2017-01-01

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage. PMID:28257104

  16. Functional and biochemical responses of cultured heart cells to angiotensin II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, I.; Gaa, S.; Rogers, T.B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have utilized a cultured neonatal rat heart myocyte system to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the stimulation of heart cells by angiotensin II (AII). The intact cultured cells, and membranes from these cells, have specific, high affinity receptors for 125 I-AII and for an AII antagonist, 125 I-Sar 1 ,Leu 8 -AII. Binding affinity was in the nanomolar range and was inhibited by guanine nucleotides. Functional studies on intact, beating cells revealed a maximal increase in contractile frequency of 50%, observed at 5 nM AII, with half maximal effects noted at around 1 nM. These responses were reversible and specific as the antagonist, Sar 1 , Ala 8 -AII, inhibited AII-induced chronotropic stimulation. AII (100 nM) had no effect on basal adenylate cyclase activity (20 pmoles cAMP/mg prot/min at 2.5mM Mg 2+ ) in cell membranes. Further, in membranes where cyclase activity was stimulated with isoproterenol (290 pmoles cAMP/mg prot/min at 2.5mM Mg 2+ ), addition of AII had no effect. The cyclase-inhibitory muscarinic agonist, carbachol, also failed to reduce isoproterenol-stimulated activity. In preliminary work with the intact cells, AII again did not alter basal cAMP levels (3-10 pmoles cAMP/mg prot). However, the hormone increased isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP levels by almost 50%. These cells are an excellent system for correlating AII receptor binding with functional and biochemical responses

  17. How age, sex and genotype shape the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Ashley; Monteiro, Susana; Roque, Susana; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to chronic stress is a leading pre-disposing factor for several neuropsychiatric disorders as it often leads to maladaptive responses. The response to stressful events is heterogeneous, underpinning a wide spectrum of distinct changes amongst stress-exposed individuals'. Several factors can underlie a different perception to stressors and the setting of distinct coping strategies that will lead to individual differences on the susceptibility/resistance to stress. Beyond the factors related to the stressor itself, such as intensity, duration or predictability, there are factors intrinsic to the individuals that are relevant to shape the stress response, such as age, sex and genetics. In this review, we examine the contribution of such intrinsic factors to the modulation of the stress response based on experimental rodent models of response to stress and discuss to what extent that knowledge can be potentially translated to humans.

  18. Stress reaction in freshwater fih in response to extreme impacts and during the reproduction period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivamovich Martemyanov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The original and published data on the physiological and biochemical reactions in fish in response to stress impact and during the reproduction period are presented. It is shown that at the initial period of stress and before spawning the protective functions in fish are enhanced which relates to the adaptation syndrome. However, during the initial period of stress the damaging effects prevail over the adaptive processes resulting in the decrease in the level of resistance (“alarm reaction” according to Selye. In contrary, during pre-spawning period protective systems dominate along with enhancement of general adaptation syndromes. This facilitates the increase in the level of resistance in the parental fish (“resistance stage” according to Selye. Before the spawning the alarm stage is not manifested. The state comparable to strong stress occurs in the parental fish only during the spawning. This state is accompanied by decrease in the resistance of organism in spawner evidencing exhaustion of protective functions (“exhaustion stage” according to Selye. With time, both at stress and after spawning, within two to three weeks period, the physiological-biochemical parameters recover and stabilize with the normal limits.

  19. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Bachmann, Kenneth A.; Bailer, A. John; Bolger, P. Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M. George; Chiueh, Chuang C.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Cook, Ralph R.; Diamond, David M.; Doolittle, David J.; Dorato, Michael A.; Duke, Stephen O.; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E.; Hart, Ronald W.; Hastings, Kenneth L.; Hayes, A. Wallace; Hoffmann, George R.; Ives, John A.; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E.; Jonas, Wayne B.; Kaminski, Norbert E.; Keller, John G.; Klaunig, James E.; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Kozumbo, Walter J.; Lettieri, Teresa; Liu, Shu-Zheng; Maisseu, Andre; Maynard, Kenneth I.; Masoro, Edward J.; McClellan, Roger O.; Mehendale, Harihara M.; Mothersill, Carmel; Newlin, David B.; Nigg, Herbert N.; Oehme, Frederick W.; Phalen, Robert F.; Philbert, Martin A.; Rattan, Suresh I.S.; Riviere, Jim E.; Rodricks, Joseph; Sapolsky, Robert M.; Scott, Bobby R.; Seymour, Colin; Sinclair, David A.; Smith-Sonneborn, Joan; Snow, Elizabeth T.; Spear, Linda; Stevenson, Donald E.; Thomas, Yolene; Tubiana, Maurice; Williams, Gary M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines

  20. Psychophysiological responses to stress after stress management training in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, S.J.M. de; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Sweep, F.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Eijsbouts, A.; Koulil, S. van; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress management interventions may prove useful in preventing the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study assessed the effects of a stress management intervention on the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Seventy-four

  1. The Role of Sex and Strain in Behavioral and Biologic Stress Responses of Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faraday, Martha

    2000-01-01

    .... The experiment assessed the effects of mild, repeated daily stress on multiple behaviors and biochemical indices within the same subjects to construct a detailed model of potential markers of stress vulnerability vs. resilience...

  2. Training Load, Physical Performance, Biochemical Markers, and Psychological Stress During A Short Preparatory Period in Brazilian Elite Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Thiago A G; Bara Filho, Maurício G; Coimbra, Danilo R; Miranda, R; Werneck, Francisco Z

    2017-12-11

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between training load (TL) and physical performance, biochemical markers, and psychological stress during a short preparatory period (PP) in Brazilian elite male volleyball players. Twelve volleyball players from a team competing in the Brazilian Men's Volleyball Super League were enrolled (26.9 ± 4.6 years). Countermovement Jump (CMJ), Creatine Kinase (CK), Testosterone (T), Cortisol (Cr), T/Cr ratio, and Recovery and Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) were collected at baseline, after 2, 4, and 6 week. TL was quantified daily using the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE). Differences were noted between Total Weekly TL (TWTL) (F3,33 = 50.907; p = 0.0001), CK (F3,33 = 16.157; p = 0.0001), and T (F3,33 = 3.283; p = 0.03). No differences were seen in CMJ (F3,33 = 1.821; p = 0.16), Cr (F3,33 = 2.409; p = 0.08), or T/Cr ratio (F3,33 = 1.527; p = 0.23). The RESTQ-Sport demonstrated differences between moments in Social Stress (F3,33 = 2.297; p = 0.04; Eta = 0.25), Success (F3,33 = 4.350; p = 0.01; Eta = 0.19), General Well-being (F3,33 = 4.465; p = 0.01; Eta = 0.36), and Injury (F3,33 = 2.792; p = 0.05; Eta = 0.62). The results showed a significant correlations of small to moderate magnitude between TWTL and CK (r = 0.32; p = 0.05). In conclusion, a short PP in volleyball leads to increased TL, CK level, and psychological stress. TL was related with the increase of CK, suggesting muscle damage without increased of physical performance.

  3. Effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on sperm parameters, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress in men

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    Meng Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental prospective study, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on the male reproductive organs, from the perspective of sperm parameters, semen plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress, to evaluate whether different frequencies of heat exposure cause different degrees of damage to spermatogenesis. Two groups of volunteers (10 per group received testicular warming in a 43°C water bath 10 times, for 30 min each time: group 1: 10 consecutive days; group 2: once every 3 days. Sperm parameters, epididymis and accessory sex gland function, semen plasma oxidative stress and serum sex hormones were tested before treatment and in the 16-week recovery period after treatment. At last, we found an obvious reversible decrease in sperm concentration (P = 0.005 for Group 1 and P= 0.008 for Group 2 when the minimums were compared with baseline levels, the same below, motility (P = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively, the hypoosmotic swelling test score (P = 0.007 and 0.008, respectively, total acrosin activity (P = 0.018 and 0.009, respectively, and an increase in the seminal plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.005 and 0.017, respectively. The decrease of sperm concentration was greater for Group 2 than for Group 1 (P = 0.031. We concluded that transient scrotal hyperthermia seriously, but reversibly, negatively affected the spermatogenesis, oxidative stress may be involved in this process. In addition, intermittent heat exposure more seriously suppresses the spermatogenesis compared to consecutive heat exposure. This may be indicative for clinical infertility etiology analysis and the design of contraceptive methods based on heat stress.

  4. Extraversion and cardiovascular responses to recurrent social stress: Effect of stress intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Wei; Xing, Wanying; Hughes, Brian M; Wang, Zhenhong

    2017-10-28

    The present study sought to establish whether the effects of extraversion on cardiovascular responses to recurrent social stress are contingent on stress intensity. A 2×5×1 mixed-factorial experiment was conducted, with social stress intensity as a between-subject variable, study phase as a within-subject variable, extraversion as a continuous independent variable, and cardiovascular parameter (HR, SBP, DBP, or RSA) as a dependent variable. Extraversion (NEO-FFI), subjective stress, and physiological stress were measured in 166 undergraduate students randomly assigned to undergo moderate (n=82) or high-intensity (n=84) social stress (a public speaking task with different levels of social evaluation). All participants underwent continuous physiological monitoring while facing two consecutive stress exposures distributed across five laboratory phases: baseline, stress exposure 1, post-stress 1, stress exposure 2, post-stress 2. Results indicated that under moderate-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited lesser HR reactivity to stress than participants lower on extraversion, while under high-intensity social stress, they exhibited greater HR, SBP, DBP and RSA reactivity. Under both moderate- and high-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited pronounced SBP and DBP response adaptation to repeated stress, and showed either better degree of HR recovery or greater amount of SBP and DBP recovery after stress. These findings suggest that individuals higher on extraversion exhibit physiological flexibility to cope with social challenges and benefit from adaptive cardiovascular responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic engineering: a promising tool to engender physiological, biochemical and molecular stress resilience in green microalgae

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    Freddy eGuiheneuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As we march into the 21st century, the prevailing scenario of depleting energy resources, global warming and ever increasing issues of human health and food security will quadruple. In this context, genetic and metabolic engineering of green microalgae complete the quest towards a continuum of environmentally clean fuel and food production. Evolutionarily related, but unlike land plants, microalgae need nominal land or water, and are best described as unicellular autotrophs using light energy to fix atmospheric CO2 into algal biomass, mitigating fossil CO2 pollution in the process. Remarkably, a feature innate to most microalgae is synthesis and accumulation of lipids (60–65% of dry weight, carbohydrates and secondary metabolites like pigments and vitamins, especially when grown under abiotic stress conditions. Particularly fruitful, such an application of abiotic stress factors like nitrogen starvation , salinity, heat shock etc. can be used in a biorefinery concept for production of multiple valuable products. The focus of this mini-review underlies metabolic reorientation practices and tolerance mechanisms as applied to green microalgae under specific stress stimuli for a sustainable pollution-free future. Moreover, we entail current progress on genetic engineering as a promising tool to grasp adaptive processes for improving strains with potential biotechnological interests.

  6. Hemato-biochemical responses to packing in donkeys administered ascorbic acid during the harmattan season

    OpenAIRE

    OLAIFA, Folashade; AYO, Joseph Olusegun; AMBALI, Suleiman Folorunsho; REKWOT, Peter Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) in reducing hemato-biochemical changes in pack donkeys during the cold-dry (harmattan) season. Six experimental donkeys administered orally AA (200 mg/kg) and six control donkeys not administered ascorbic acid were subjected to packing. Blood samples were collected from all donkeys for hematological and biochemical analyses. In the control donkeys, packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentratio...

  7. Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress: Unsafe Environments and Conditions, and the Default Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos F. Brosschot

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged physiological stress responses form an important risk factor for disease. According to neurobiological and evolution-theoretical insights the stress response is a default response that is always “on” but inhibited by the prefrontal cortex when safety is perceived. Based on these insights the Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS states that prolonged stress responses are due to generalized and largely unconsciously perceived unsafety rather than stressors. This novel perspective necessitates a reconstruction of current stress theory, which we address in this paper. We discuss a variety of very common situations without stressors but with prolonged stress responses, that are not, or not likely to be caused by stressors, including loneliness, low social status, adult life after prenatal or early life adversity, lack of a natural environment, and less fit bodily states such as obesity or fatigue. We argue that in these situations the default stress response may be chronically disinhibited due to unconsciously perceived generalized unsafety. Also, in chronic stress situations such as work stress, the prolonged stress response may be mainly caused by perceived unsafety in stressor-free contexts. Thus, GUTS identifies and explains far more stress-related physiological activity that is responsible for disease and mortality than current stress theories.

  8. Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress: Unsafe Environments and Conditions, and the Default Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosschot, Jos F; Verkuil, Bart; Thayer, Julian F

    2018-03-07

    Prolonged physiological stress responses form an important risk factor for disease. According to neurobiological and evolution-theoretical insights the stress response is a default response that is always "on" but inhibited by the prefrontal cortex when safety is perceived. Based on these insights the Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS) states that prolonged stress responses are due to generalized and largely unconsciously perceived unsafety rather than stressors. This novel perspective necessitates a reconstruction of current stress theory, which we address in this paper. We discuss a variety of very common situations without stressors but with prolonged stress responses, that are not, or not likely to be caused by stressors, including loneliness, low social status, adult life after prenatal or early life adversity, lack of a natural environment, and less fit bodily states such as obesity or fatigue. We argue that in these situations the default stress response may be chronically disinhibited due to unconsciously perceived generalized unsafety. Also, in chronic stress situations such as work stress, the prolonged stress response may be mainly caused by perceived unsafety in stressor-free contexts. Thus, GUTS identifies and explains far more stress-related physiological activity that is responsible for disease and mortality than current stress theories.

  9. Ecophysiological and biochemical strategies of response to ozone in Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nali, C.; Paoletti, E.; Marabottini, R.; Della Rocca, G.; Lorenzini, G.; Paolacci, A. R.; Ciaffi, M.; Badiani, M.

    Three Mediterranean shrubs, Phillyrea latifolia L. (phillyrea), Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree), and Laurus nobilis L. (laurel), differing in their morphological and ecological response to water shortage, were exposed for 90 days to 0 or 110 ppb of ozone (O 3), 5 h each day. This yielded an accumulated exposure over of a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) of 31.5 ppm h over the 3 months experiment. These species showed differing responses to O 3: laurel and phillyrea developed foliar chlorotic mottles on the adaxial surface of leaves, whereas strawberry tree leaves showed reddish interveinal stipple-like necrotic lesions. In all cases, however, foliar injury did not exceed 8% of the sampled leaf area. At the end of the exposure period, O 3-induced stomatal limitation caused significant decreases of net photosynthesis in strawberry tree and laurel, but not in phillyrea. The relative water content of the leaves was significantly decreased by O 3, especially in laurel and strawberry tree, suggesting the occurrence of drought stress. Electrical conductivity of leachates from foliar discs increased in response to the treatment, much more strongly in laurel and in strawberry tree than in phillyrea, suggesting an O 3-dependent alteration of the membrane retention capacity. At the end of the experimental period, the activity of superoxide dismutase and the content of reduced glutathione, but not that of reduced ascorbate, were significantly increased in the ozonated leaves of strawberry tree and phillyrea, but not in laurel. The evergreen broadleaves studied here maybe relatively tolerant to realistic O 3 levels, at least in terms of visible injury and gas exchange. Such tolerance might overlap with their level of tolerance to drought stress. High constitutive levels, and/or O 3-induced increases in antioxidants, might contribute to O 3 tolerance in these Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf species.

  10. Biochemical and morphological changes in endothelial cells in response to hypoxic interstitial edema

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    Miserocchi Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    decrease of caveolin-1 and AQP1 (markers of caveolae, and an increase in CD55 (marker of lipid rafts. Morphometry showed a significant decrease in endothelial cell volume, a marked increase in the cell surface/volume ratio and a decrease in caveolar density; epithelial cells did not show morphological changes. Conclusion The biochemical, signaling and morphological changes observed in lung endothelial cell exposed to hypoxia are opposite to those previously described in cardiogenic edema, suggesting a differential cellular response to either type of edema.

  11. Mineral Content and Biochemical Variables of Aloe vera L. under Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

  12. A Biochemical Approach to Detect Oxidative Stress in Infertile Women Undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becatti, Matteo; Fucci, Rossella; Mannucci, Amanda; Barygina, Victoria; Mugnaini, Marco; Criscuoli, Luciana; Giachini, Claudia; Bertocci, Francesco; Picone, Rita; Emmi, Giacomo; Evangelisti, Paolo; Rizzello, Francesca; Cozzi, Cinzia; Taddei, Niccolò; Coccia, Maria Elisabetta

    2018-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in critical biological processes in human reproduction. However, a reliable and biologically accurate indicator of this condition does not yet exist. On these bases, the aim of this study was to assess and compare the blood and follicular fluid (FF) redox status of 45 infertile subjects (and 45 age-matched controls) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), and explore possible relationships between the assessed redox parameters and IVF outcomes. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production, assessed by flow cytometry analysis in blood leukocytes and granulosa cells, significantly increased (p assisted reproductive techniques and infertility management is recommended. PMID:29462946

  13. Anatomical, biochemical, and photosynthetic responses to recent allopolyploidy in Glycine dolichocarpa (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Jeremy E; Luciano, Amelia K; Seralathan, Vasu; Minchew, Kevin J; Owens, Tom G; Doyle, Jeff J

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyploidy has pronounced effects on photosynthesis. Most of these studies have focused on synthetic or recently formed autopolyploids, and comparatively little is known about the integrated effects of natural allopolyploidy, which involves hybridity and genome doubling and often incorporates multiple genotypes through recurrent origins and lineage recombination. Glycine dolichocarpa (designated T2) is a natural allotetraploid with multiple origins. We quantified 21 anatomical, biochemical, and physiological phenotypes relating to photosynthesis in T2 and its diploid progenitors, G. tomentella (D3) and G. syndetika (D4). To assess how direction of cross affects these phenotypes, we included three T2 accessions having D3-like plastids (T2(D3)) and two accessions having D4-like plastids (T2(D4)). T2 accessions were transgressive (more extreme than any diploid accession) for 17 of 21 phenotypes, and species means differed significantly in T2 vs. both progenitors for four of 21 phenotypes (higher for guard cell length, electron transport capacity [J(max)] per palisade cell, and J(max) per mesophyll cell; lower for palisade cells per unit leaf area). Within T2, four of 21 parameters differed significantly between T2(D3) and T2(D4) (palisade cell volume; chloroplast number and volume per unit leaf area; and J(max) per unit leaf area). T2 is characterized by transgressive photosynthesis-related phenotypes (including an ca. 2-fold increase in J(max) per cell), as well as by significant intraspecies variation correlating with plastid type. These data indicate prominent roles for both nucleotypic effects and cytoplasmic factors in photosynthetic responses to allopolyploidy.

  14. Tularemia induces different biochemical responses in BALB/c mice and common voles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitula Frantisek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both BALB/c mice and common voles (Microtus arvalis are considered highly susceptible to tularemia. However, the common vole is reported to harbour Francisella tularensis in European habitats as well as to survive longer with chronic shedding of the bacterium. The purpose of the present study was to compare the response of these two rodents to a wild Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strain infection. Methods Rodents were evaluated for differences in the total antioxidant capacity derived from low-molecular-weight antioxidants, biochemistry including lipid metabolism, tissue bacterial burdens and histopathology following experimental intraperitoneal infection with 160 colony forming units (CFU pro toto. Results Bacterial burdens in common voles started to develop later post-exposure and amounted to lower levels than in BALB/c mice. Elevation of liver function enzymes was more pronounced in mice than common voles and there were marked differences in lipid metabolism in the course of tularemia in these two species. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia developed in mice, while physiologically higher levels of triglycerides and cholesterol showed a decreasing tendency in common voles. On the other hand, the total plasma antioxidant capacity gradually dropped to 81.5% in mice on day 5 post-infection, while it increased to 130% on day 6 post-infection in common voles. Significant correlations between tissue bacterial burdens and several biochemical parameters were found. Conclusion As differences in lipid metabolism and the total antioxidant capacity of highly susceptible rodent species were demonstrated, the role of triglycerides, cholesterol and antioxidants in tularemic sepsis should be further investigated.

  15. The relationship between beginning teachers' stress causes, stress responses, teaching behaviour and attrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Ruth; Lorenz, Michelle; Maulana, Ridwan; van Veen, Klaas

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the relationships between beginning teachers’ perceived stress causes, stress responses, observed teaching behaviour and attrition is investigated employing structural equation modelling (SEM). A total of 143 BTs were surveyed using the Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation

  16. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  17. Stress responses in lambs castrated with three different methods

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    Paola Sandra Nicolussi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to evaluate the animal response to stress in lambs caused by three different castration techniques. Forty-six male lambs aged 4-5 months were randomly allocated to one of four groups including Burdizzo (B, scrotal ablation (SA, orchiectomy (OR and control handling (H. Local anaesthesia (lidocaine 2% was administered in both spermatic cords and the scrotal neck of lambs before each treatment. Blood samples were collected at -30, -10, +1, +20, +40, +60, +120, and +180 minutes. Serum cortisol concentrations were determined using a competitive immunoassay and the area under the curve (AUC was calculated for each lamb. The following biochemical parameters were assayed for each animal at each time point: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and glucose (GLU. The time needed for total lesion resolution and weight gain of each animal was recorded. Orchiectomy elicits the greatest cortisol response, significantly greater than that seen in similarly handled controls (P≤0.01, Burdizzo and scrotal ablation groups (P≤0.05. The serum cortisol AUC was higher in the scrotal ablation group (P≤0.05 than controls, but lower than in the orchiectomy group (P≤0.05. The Burdizzo group didn’t differ from controls. Serum glucose levels of the castrated lambs differed significantly from the control group, following a trend similar to cortisol. No change was seen in ALT, AST, LDH or CK. No difference in weight gain was seen among the groups. Our results suggest that use of the Burdizzo is the preferable castration technique for adult lambs, while scrotal ablation is a valid surgical alternative to orchiectomy and permits more rapid wound healing that is ideal for extensive management where flocks are not under close observation.

  18. The Critical Role of Potassium in Plant Stress Response

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    Min Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production continues to be constrained by a number of biotic and abiotic factors that can reduce crop yield quantity and quality. Potassium (K is an essential nutrient that affects most of the biochemical and physiological processes that influence plant growth and metabolism. It also contributes to the survival of plants exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses. The following review focuses on the emerging role of K in defending against a number of biotic and abiotic stresses, including diseases, pests, drought, salinity, cold and frost and waterlogging. The availability of K and its effects on plant growth, anatomy, morphology and plant metabolism are discussed. The physiological and molecular mechanisms of K function in plant stress resistance are reviewed. This article also evaluates the potential for improving plant stress resistance by modifying K fertilizer inputs and highlights the future needs for research about the role of K in agriculture.

  19. Biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid predicts survival in a North American cohort of primary biliary cirrhosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Craig; Juran, Brian D; Schlicht, Erik; Chan, Landon L; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; de Andrade, Mariza; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N

    2014-10-01

    Biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid among patients with primary biliary cirrhosis remains variable, and there is no agreement of an ideal model. Novel assessment of response coupled to histologic progression was recently defined by the Toronto criteria. We retrospectively assessed transplant-free survival and clinical outcomes associated with ursodeoxycholic acid response to evaluate the Toronto criteria using a large North American cohort of PBC patients. Three hundred and ninety-eight PBC patients from the Mayo Clinic PBC Genetic Epidemiology Registry were assessed for ursodeoxycholic acid treatment and biochemical response per the Toronto criteria. Responders were defined by reduction in alkaline phosphatase to less than or equal to 1.67 times the upper normal limit by 2 years of treatment, whereas non-responders had alkaline phosphatase values greater than 1.67 times the upper normal limit. Probability of survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Three hundred and two (76 %) patients were responders and 96 (24 %) were non-responders. Significantly more non-responders developed adverse events related to chronic liver disease compared to responders (hazard ratio (HR) 2.77, P = 0.001). Biochemical responders and early-stage disease at treatment start was associated with improved overall transplant-free survival compared to non-responders (HR 1.9) and patients with late-stage disease (HR 2.7) after age and sex adjustment. The Toronto criteria are capable of identifying ursodeoxycholic acid-treated primary biliary cirrhosis patients at risk of poor transplant-free survival and adverse clinical outcomes. Our data reveal that despite advanced disease at diagnosis, biochemical response per the Toronto criteria associates with improved overall transplant-free survival.

  20. Effect of maltose and trehalose on growth, yield and some biochemical components of wheat plant under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmat A. Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the greenhouse experiment, wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Giza 168 were treated with 10 mM of maltose and trehalose as foliar spray using Tween 20 as wetting agent at 15, 30 and 45 days post sowing with two times of irrigation at 10 and 20 days intervals. Two samples were taken after 45 and 120 days from planting. At the first sample date, plant height, shoot fresh and dry weights and leaf area were recorded. At harvesting time (the second sample no. of spikes/plant, no. of spikelets/plant and weight of 1000 grains were taken. Chemical analyses were conducted in leaves at the first sample date for determination of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, amino acids, reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, protein, proline, PAL, POD, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, PPO and MDA. The obtained results indicated that maltose and trehalose had significant and positive effect on most growth parameters. Opposite trend was found in plant height, no. of spike/plant and weight of 1000 grains by drought treatment. Maltose and trehalose treatments enhanced in the most biochemical components whereas they decreased PAL and catalase activity. Variable trends in amino acids and ascorbate peroxidase were observed by drought. However, the drought has more stimulative effect in most cases than the first time period of irrigation. The results concluded that foliar applications with maltose or trehalose induced water stress tolerance in wheat plants. Maltose treatment gave the best results in most morphological parameters, grains yield and biochemical components than trehalose treatment.

  1. Effect of Foliar Application of Chitosan on Growth and Biochemical Characteristics of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. under Water Deficit Stress

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    batool mahdavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water deficit stress and foliar application of chitosan in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., a pot experiment was conducted in 2009. Experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial arrangement with three replications. Experimental factors were water deficit levels (unstressed (control and 70% available water depletion from soil (water deficit stress, chitosan concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1%, all dissolved in 1% acetic acid along with an additional treatment of distilled water and foliar application times (before and during stem elongation. The results showed that water deficit stress reduced plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry weight, root height and volume. Whereas, foliar application of chitosan increased mentioned traits. In addition, water deficit stress decreased chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll concentration and relative water content. Carotenoid, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA content were increased in response to stress. Foliar application of chitosan increased chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content (68.77% and chlorophyll b in the water deficit stressed plants, whereas decreased MDA content. The results of the present study indicate that application of chitosan can reduce the harmful effects of water deficit and improve plant growth.

  2. A Biochemical Approach to Detect Oxidative Stress in Infertile Women Undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Becatti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a major role in critical biological processes in human reproduction. However, a reliable and biologically accurate indicator of this condition does not yet exist. On these bases, the aim of this study was to assess and compare the blood and follicular fluid (FF redox status of 45 infertile subjects (and 45 age-matched controls undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF, and explore possible relationships between the assessed redox parameters and IVF outcomes. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production, assessed by flow cytometry analysis in blood leukocytes and granulosa cells, significantly increased (p < 0.05 in infertile patients. Also, oxidative stress markers—ThioBarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances (TBARS as an index of lipid peroxidation, and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC to account for total antioxidant capacity, both assayed by fluorometric procedures—in blood and FF were significantly (p < 0.001 modified in infertile patients compared to the control group. Moreover, a significant correlation between blood redox markers and FF redox markers was evident. An ORAC/TBARS ratio, defined as the redox index (RI, was obtained in the plasma and FF of the patients and controls. In the patients, the plasma RI was about 3.4-fold (p < 0.0001 lower than the control, and the FF RI was about six-fold (p < 0.0001 lower than the control. Interestingly, both the plasma RI and FF RI results were significantly correlated (p < 0.05 to the considered outcome parameters (metaphase II, fertilization rate, and ongoing pregnancies. Given the reported findings, a strict monitoring of redox parameters in assisted reproductive techniques and infertility management is recommended.

  3. Proteomic analysis of cold stress responses in tobacco seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting the productivity and the geographical distribution of many important crops. To gain a better understanding of cold stress responses in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we carried out a comparative proteomic analysis. Five-week-old tobacco seedlings were treated at 4°C ...

  4. gender and school types as factors responsible for job stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    public Universities should be looked into so that all factors responsible for stress might be .... universities in Malaysia, university academic staffs faced more problems .... adjustment with different coping styles. .... in college students: The role of rumination and stress. ... International Journal of Stress Management, 8, 285–29.

  5. Effect of Silicic Acid on some Anatomical and Biochemical Characteristics of Pelargonium graveolens under Salinity Stress

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    fateme hasanvand

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens is a perennial plant of the family Geranium (Geraniaceae. Although CaCl2 at higher concentrations than NaCl in the soils and ground water in many areas of the word, most studies have been based on experiments that NaCl is the predominant salt. Relatively few studies have focused on the effects of CaCl2 on plant growth and physiology. Silicon (Si is considered as an essential element in several crops enhancing growth and alleviating different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the role of Si in alleviation the deleterious effects of salinity on geranium have been studied. Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted in spring-summer 2014 in research greenhouse situated on the Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran. The greenhouse temperature was 16.5–37.5 ◦C and relative humidity of greenhouse was 30–80%. Terminal stem cuttings with five nodes were obtained from mother plants in the same greenhouse and placed in a sand substrate for rooting in April. Uniform rooted cuttings were then transplanted into plastic pots (22 cm diameter and height filled with sand substrates and grown hydroponically. Transplanting was done in May and one plant per pot was cultivated. Cultivated plants were irrigated with Hoagland’s medium electrical conductivity (EC 1.8 dS/m, (pH 5.8 twice a day. Experiment was arranged as factorial based on a completely randomized design with five replications. Factors consisted of daily application of 1.8, 4 and 6 ds/m CaCl2 and weekly application of 0, 0.5 and 1 mM silicic acid in nutrient solution. Plants were harvested in November. In this research some characteristics include the number of leaf, leaf area, photosynthetic pigments (chla, chlb. Total chl, carotenoids, MDA, EL, RWC, proline, number of stomata in surface unit of leaf, density of stomata and stomata index and antioxidant enzyme include CAT and POD measured. Results

  6. The Effect of Drought Stress and Plant Density on Biochemical and Physiological Characteristics of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Akbari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought stress is the most important growth limiting factor for crop production. Sugar accumulation under drought stress strengthens and stabilizes cell membranes and maintains the water absorption and turgid property. Under stress conditions, proline will also maintain the turgor pressure and decreased the damages caused to plant membrane. Although proline concentrations may have undesirable effects on plant growth, because of deflecting photosynthetic resources to the processes that are not involved in plant growth. Chloroplasts and its pigments are also affected by drought stress. Density is one of the factors that has a significant impact on plant growth. Garlic is one of the edible plants which has generated considerable interest throughout human history because of its pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to determine the effects of drought stress and plant density on some biochemical and physiological treats of two garlic ecotypes and determining the more resistant ecotype. Materials and Methods The study was carried out in 2011-2012 in a farm land at the south east of Semnan city. The experimental layout was a split-plot factorial with a randomized complete block design in three replications. The treatments were comprised of three factors: irrigation regimes (60%, 80% and 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETC that were assigned as the main plot and the factorial combination of 3 levels of planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants. m-2 and two ecotypes (Tabas and Toroud made up the sub-plots. The water requirement was calculated based on FAO-56 crop water requirements instruction. FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation was used to calculate evapotranspiration. To calculate the content of soluble sugar, proline and leaves pigment, the samples were collected in a random way from the youngest fully expended leaves one month before the final harvest. Relative water content was estimated by measuring dry weight, fresh weight

  7. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with cortisol stress responses in 6-year-old children. To this end, 149 normally developing children (M age  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an innovative social evaluative stress test that effectively provoked increases in cortisol. To determine the cortisol stress response, six cortisol saliva samples were collected and two cortisol stress response indices were calculated: total stress cortisol and cortisol stress reactivity. To determine children's cortisol circadian rhythm eight cortisol circadian samples were collected during two days. Total diurnal cortisol and diurnal cortisol decline scores were calculated as indices of the cortisol circadian rhythm. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that higher total diurnal cortisol as well as a smaller diurnal cortisol decline, were both uniquely associated with higher total stress cortisol. No associations were found between the cortisol circadian rhythm indices and cortisol stress reactivity. Possible explanations for the patterns found are links with children's self-regulatory capacities and parenting quality.

  8. Influence of PEG induced drought stress on molecular and biochemical constituents and seedling growth of Egyptian barley cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Hellal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of drought stress on germination components of barley cultivars, a laboratory experiment was conducted in a factorial randomized complete design with four replications. The controlled experiment included ten of Egyptian barley cultivars namely; (Giza 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130, 134, 135 and 2000 as first factor. The second factor included 4 levels of drought stress inducer by applying 0, 5, 10 and 20% of polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG which is equivalent to four osmotic potential levels including −0.001, −0.27, −0.54 and −1.09 MPa, respectively. The results showed that, the highest reduction was related to the drought level of 20% PEG among the barley cultivars. The best cultivars in terms of germination traits were Giza 134, Giza 127, and Giza 126 this indicate their tolerance to drought stress and Giza 130, 135, 2000 cultivars was moderately tolerance and remaining is less tolerance. The protein band 27 kDa and 78 kDa showed high intensity after stress in almost all cultivars. Those two protein bands their exciting was very clear in treated barley leaf tissue. It could be related to dehydrine and oxygen evolving enhancer protein 2 (OEE2 which involved in drought stress tolerance response. Cultivars Giza 127, 130 and 134 showed highest tolerance response under drought stress. The antioxidant enzymes PAGE pattern of Peroxidase (POX, Sodium dismutase (SOD and Ascorbate peroxidase (APX for Barley cultivars under drought stress revealed a high activities for Giza 126, 127, 134, 136 and 2000 under −0.5 MPa osmotic stress by PEG in most of their isoforms. Based on similarity coefficient values the highest values were 1.0 with 100% similarly between tolerant cultivars Giza 130 and Giza 127. Similarly between the susceptible cultivars 125 and Giza 129 was 60%.These data confirmed by the growth parameters which we ranked as tolerant to drought stress. Keywords: Barley, Drought stress, Seed germination

  9. Approaches to modeling the development of physiological stress responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Philbrook, Lauren E; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2018-05-01

    Influential biopsychosocial theories have proposed that some developmental periods in the lifespan are potential pivot points or opportunities for recalibration of stress response systems. To date, however, there have been few longitudinal studies of physiological stress responsivity and no studies comparing change in physiological stress responsivity across developmental periods. Our goals were to (a) address conceptual and methodological issues in studying the development of physiological stress responsivity within and between individuals, and (b) provide an exemplar for evaluating development of responsivity to stress in the parasympathetic nervous system, comparing respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responsivity from middle to late childhood with middle to late adolescence. We propose the use of latent growth modeling of stress responsivity that includes time-varying covariates to account for conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of physiological stress responsivity. Such models allow researchers to address key aspects of developmental sensitivity including within-individual variability, mean level change over time, and between-individual variability over time. In an empirical example, we found significant between-individual variability over time in RSA responsivity to stress during middle to late childhood but not during middle to late adolescence, suggesting that childhood may be a period of greater developmental sensitivity at the between-individual level. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Variation in the biochemical response to l-thyroxine therapy and relationship with peripheral thyroid hormone conversion efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Midgley, John E M; Larisch, Rolf; Dietrich, Johannes W; Hoermann, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Several influences modulate biochemical responses to a weight-adjusted levothyroxine (l-T4) replacement dose. We conducted a secondary analysis of the relationship of l-T4 dose to TSH and free T3 (FT3), using a prospective observational study examining the interacting equilibria between thyroid parameters. We studied 353 patients on steady-state l-T4 replacement for autoimmune thyroiditis or after surgery for malignant or benign thyroid disease. Peripheral deiodinase activity was calculated a...

  11. Spatial variability of biochemical responses in resident fish after the M/V Hebei Spirit Oil Spill (Taean, Korea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Chae, Young Sun; Kim, Ha Na; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Han, Gi Myung; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Eunsic; Shim, Won Joon

    2012-09-01

    This study describes the spatial variation and the duration of the impacts from the Hebei Spirit oil spill using specific biochemical indices in resident benthic fish. Enzymatic activities and biliary PAHs metabolites were higher at the site closer to the spill area in four months after spill incident. Regarding our results of detoxification response, markers of Phase I followed a similar trend in accordance with levels of biliary metabolites, while markers of phase II and GST appeared relatively unchanged.

  12. The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goochee, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

  13. Adaptive Responses to Thermal Stress in Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Lenis Sanin; Angélica María Zuluaga Cabrera; Ariel Marcel Tarazona Morales

    2015-01-01

    The environment animals have to cope with is a combination of natural factors such as temperature. Extreme changes in these factors can alter homeostasis, which can lead to thermal stress. This stress can be due to either high temperatures or low temperatures. Energy transference for thermoregulation in homoeothermic animals occurs through several mechanisms: conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. When animals are subjected to thermal stress, physiological mechanisms are activated...

  14. Proteomic studies of drought stress response in Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja ZADRAŽNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a serious threat to crop production that influences plant growth and development and subsequently causes reduced quantity and quality of the yield. Plant stress induces changes in cell metabolism, which includes differential expression of proteins. Proteomics offer a powerful approach to analyse proteins involved in drought stress response of plants. Analyses of changes in protein abundance of legumes under drought stress are very important, as legumes play an important role in human and animal diet and are often exposed to drought. The presented results of proteomic studies of selected legumes enable better understanding of molecular mechanisms of drought stress response. The study of drought stress response of plants with proteomic approach may contribute to the development of potential drought-response markers and to the development of drought-tolerant cultivars of different legume crop species.

  15. Biochemical Changes under Chromium Stress on Germinating Seedlings of Vigna radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavin SUTHAR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalant chromium is considered the most toxic form because of its high solubility in water. Cr is known to induce production of elevated concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS resulted in macromolecule damage. Plants are having unique mechanisms to overcome ROS induced damage by accumulation of proline, ascorbate and glutathione and increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, and ascorbate peroxidaes (APX, peroxidise (POX. In the present investigation effects of chromium on seed germination of Mung bean (Vigna radiata 'Gujarat Mung-4’ were studied. Seeds were treated with different Cr concentrations (50, 100, 150 and 200 4M for seven days. On 7th day root and shoot length was measured and activities of antioxidant enzyme SOD, APX, POX, CAT and GR were checked along with protein, proline and lipid peroxidation. It was observed that there is gradual decrease in shoot and root length with respect to the increase in Cr concentration. Level of lipid peroxidation significantly increased along with proline and antioxidant enzyme activity at higher Cr concentration. Lipid peroxidation is an indication of membrane damage due to elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. To combat oxidative damage by ROS antioxidant enzyme activity increased significantly, which indicates that antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR play a crucial role during Cr stress during germination of V. radiata.

  16. Oxidative stress induced damage in benign and malignant breast diseases: histopathological and biochemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Khanna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidences indicate involvement of free radicals in the pathogenesis of benign and malignant breast diseases. Free radicals are highly reactive molecules and react with non–radicals in chain reaction leading to formation of new free radicals. If the defense mechanism of body fails to combat them, these free radicals pose a threat of injuring tissues by reacting with cell lipids. Lipids in the cell membrane undergo degradation to form hydroperoxides, which decompose to form a variety of products including malondialdehyde (MDA. MDA therefore was used as a marker to assess oxidative damage of cells and tissues. The aim of the present study was to assess the status of oxidative stress in the patients of benign and malignant breast diseases. Study has been made on the blood samples of 25 cases of benign breast disease and on an equal number of breast carcinoma patients. 20 healthy subjects were taken as the control cases.Mean MDA levels were significantly raised with depletion of antioxidant activity in all the patients in comparison to their control group suggesting the role of oxidative damage in the aetiopathogenesis of disease.

  17. Psychophysiological responses to stress after stress management training in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine J M de Brouwer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress management interventions may prove useful in preventing the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study assessed the effects of a stress management intervention on the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. METHODS: Seventy-four patients with RA, who were randomly assigned to either a control group or a group that received short-term stress management training, performed a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST 1 week after the stress management training and at a 9-week follow-up. Psychological and physical functioning, and the acute psychophysiological response to the stress test were assessed. RESULTS: Patients in the intervention group showed significantly lower psychological distress levels of anxiety after the training than did the controls. While there were no between-group differences in stress-induced tension levels, and autonomic (α-amylase or endocrine (cortisol responses to the stress test 1 week after the intervention, levels of stress-induced tension and cortisol were significantly lower in the intervention group at the 9-week follow-up. Overall, the response to the intervention was particularly evident in a subgroup of patients with a psychological risk profile. CONCLUSION: A relatively short stress management intervention can improve psychological functioning and influences the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with RA, particularly those psychologically at risk. These findings might help understand how stress can affect health and the role of individual differences in stress responsiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: TrialRegister.nl NTR1193.

  18. Transcriptome Responses to Combinations of Stresses in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Barah, Pankaj; Suarez-Rodriguez, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the response of the majority of the genes cannot be predicted from single stress experiments and only a small fraction of the genes have potential antagonistic responses, indicating that plants have evolved to cope with combinations of stresses and therefore may be bred to endure...

  19. Perceived stress at work is associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been suggested to play a protective role during acute psychosocial stress, because they act as antagonists to the effects of the stress hormone cortisol. This study aims to investigate whether prolonged psychosocial stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, is related to the capacity to produce DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. It also aims to investigate whether prolonged perceived stress affects the balance between production of cortisol and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. Thirty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 17 women, mean age 37 years, SD 5 years), were included. Perceived stress at work during the past week was measured by using the Stress-Energy (SE) Questionnaire. The participants were divided into three groups based on their mean scores; Low stress, Medium stress and High stress. The participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. General Linear Models were used to investigate if the Medium stress group and the High stress group differ regarding stress response compared to the Low stress group. Higher perceived stress at work was associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Furthermore, the ratio between the cortisol production and the DHEA-S production during the acute stress test were higher in individuals reporting higher perceived stress at work compared to individuals reporting low perceived stress at work. There was no statistical difference in DHEA response between the groups. This study shows that prolonged stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, seems to negatively affect the capacity to produce DHEA-S during acute stress. Given the protective functions of DHEA-S, attenuated DHEA-S production during acute stress may lead to higher risk for adverse

  20. The temporal dynamics of the stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Meerlo, P; de Boer, S.F.; Strubbe, J.H.; Bohus, B.G J

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarises the available evidence that failure of defense mechanisms in (semi)-natural social groups of animals may lead to serious forms of stress pathology. Hence the study of social stress may provide animal models with a high face validity. However, most of the animal models of human

  1. Biomonitoring of aquatic pollution with feral eel (Anguilla anguilla). II. Biomarkers: pollution-induced biochemical responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oost, R.; Goksøyr, A.; Celander, M.; Heida, H.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to select a set of relevant biomarkers in feral eel for the biological assessment of inland water pollution. A suite of biochemical parameters in eel (hepatic biotransformation enzymes and cofactors, antioxidant enzymes, PAH metabolites, DNA adducts, serum

  2. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Fernandez, L.G.; Delmondez de Castro, R.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing

  3. Rapid Weight Loss Elicits Harmful Biochemical and Hormonal Responses in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coswig, Victor Silveira; Fukuda, David Hideyoshi; Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare biochemical and hormonal responses between mixed martial arts (MMA) competitors with minimal prefight weight loss and those undergoing rapid weight loss (RWL). Blood samples were taken from 17 MMA athletes (Mean± SD; age: 27.4 ±5.3yr; body mass: 76.2 ± 12.4kg; height: 1.71 ± 0.05m and training experience: 39.4 ± 25 months) before and after each match, according to the official events rules. The no rapid weight loss (NWL, n = 12) group weighed in on the day of the event (~30 min prior fight) and athletes declared not having used RWL strategies, while the RWL group (n = 5) weighed in 24 hr before the event and the athletes claimed to have lost 7.4 ± 1.1kg, approximately 10% of their body mass in the week preceding the event. Results showed significant (p < .05) increases following fights, regardless of group, in lactate, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, and cortisol for all athletes. With regard to group differences, NWL had significantly (p < .05) greater creatinine levels (Mean± SD; pre to post) (NWL= 101.6 ± 15-142.3 ± 22.9μmol/L and RWL= 68.9 ± 10.6-79.5 ± 15.9μmol/L), while RWL had higher LDH (median [interquartile range]; pre to post) (NWL= 211.5[183-236] to 231[203-258]U/L and RWL= 390[370.5-443.5] to 488[463.5-540.5]U/L) and AST (NWL= 30[22-37] to 32[22-41]U/L and 39[32.5-76.5] to 72[38.5-112.5] U/L) values (NWL versus RWL, p < .05). Post hoc analysis showed that AST significantly increased in only the RWL group, while creatinine increased in only the NWL group. The practice of rapid weight loss showed a negative impact on energy availability and increased both muscle damage markers and catabolic expression in MMA fighters.

  4. Effect of Fluoride and Bentonite on Biochemical Aspects of Oxidative Stress in Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Śnioszek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is regarded as one of the strongest oxidants, which causes oxidative changes in cells of living organisms. It may both increase the content of reactive oxygen species and inhibit the activity of antioxidative enzyme. In recent years, many researchers successfully used the properties of clay minerals in the sorption of fluoride ion from water. This raises the question of the possibility of limiting the effect of fluorine on the negative changes in plants by adding bentonite to soil. A two-year pot experiment was carried out in the Greenhouse of West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, on loamy sand and sandy loam. Each sample of soil was mixed with three different concentrations of bentonite – 1, 5, 10% of dry weight (DW of the soil and then treated with 30 mmol of F- per 1 kg of dry weight of the soil in a form of NaF solution. A control series was prepared for each soil, to which no additives were added. The medium prepared in such way was transferred to plastic pots (3 kg each and seeded with 16 pea seeds of Pisum sativum. In three phases of pea development (4 leaves unfolded, flowering and development of fruit, fresh leaf samples were collected and the concentrations of ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, total flavonoids and total polyphenols were measured. Sodium fluoride introduced to the soil changed the level of antioxidant parameters in the plant, which may suggest that fluoride is involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative stress. Bentonite in a dosage of 10% reduced the toxic effects of fluoride on the oxidative balance and morphological changes in the plant, which was observed especially for loamy sand, naturally poor in clay minerals.

  5. The role of biochemical variations and genotype testing in determining the virological response of patients infected with hepatitis C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Shoukat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hepatitis C virus (HCV, infection viral and IL28B genotype along with many clinical and biochemical factors can influence response rates to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (Peg-IFN-a/R therapy and progression to chronic hepatitis C (CHC. Aims: The present study was conducted to determine the effect of biochemical and risk factors on treatment outcome in CHC patients in relation to their viral and host genotype. Settings and Design: The present study was a prospective Pe- IFN efficacy study consisting of Peg-IFN-a/R therapy for 24–48 weeks including 250 HCV infected patients. Materials and Methods: Biochemical parameters were determined by Beckman Coulter AU680 automated analyzer. HCV and Interleukin 28B (IL28B genotyping were carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and viral load was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Wild outnumbered the variant genotypes in rs 12979860, rs 12980275, and rs 8099917 SNP of IL28B gene. Sustained virological response (SVR SVR and viral genotype were significantly associated with age, hepatic steatosis, low-grade varices, and serum aspartate transaminase levels (at the end of treatment (P < 0.05. In addition, SVR was significantly influenced by body mass index (BMI, insulin resistance, serum low-density lipoprotein , and ferritin levels (P < 0.05. Viral genotype 1 infected patients had higher serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Although the IL28B sequence variation is the major factor that can influence response rates to antiviral therapy, viral and biochemical factors also have a definite role to play in the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment outcome in HCV-infected patients.

  6. Salvage Radiation Therapy Dose Response for Biochemical Failure of Prostate Cancer After Prostatectomy—A Multi-Institutional Observational Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisansky, Thomas M., E-mail: pisansky.thomas@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Agrawal, Shree [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Koontz, Bridget F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Liauw, Stanley L. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Abramowitz, Matthew C.; Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Moghanaki, Drew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Hunter Holmes McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Den, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kattan, Michael W. [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a dose-response relationship exists for salvage radiation therapy (RT) of biochemical failure after prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Individual data from 1108 patients who underwent salvage RT at 10 academic centers were pooled. The cohort was enriched for selection criteria more likely associated with tumor recurrence in the prostate bed (margin positive and pre-RT prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of ≤2.0 ng/mL) and without the confounding of planned androgen suppression. The cumulative incidence of biochemical failure and distant metastasis over time was computed, and competing risks hazard regression models were used to investigate the association between potential predictors and these outcomes. The association of radiation dose with outcomes was the primary focus. Results: With a 65.2-month follow-up duration, the 5- and 10-year estimates of freedom from post-RT biochemical failure (PSA level >0.2 ng/mL and rising) was 63.5% and 49.8%, respectively, and the cumulative incidence of distant metastasis was 12.4% by 10 years. A Gleason score of ≥7, higher pre-RT PSA level, extraprostatic tumor extension, and seminal vesicle invasion were associated with worse biochemical failure and distant metastasis outcomes. A salvage radiation dose of ≥66.0 Gy was associated with a reduced cumulative incidence of biochemical failure, but not of distant metastasis. Conclusions: The use of salvage radiation doses of ≥66.0 Gy are supported by evidence presented in the present multicenter pooled analysis of individual patient data. The observational reporting method, limited sample size, few distant metastasis events, modest follow-up duration, and elective use of salvage therapy might have diminished the opportunity to identify an association between the radiation dose and this endpoint.

  7. Salvage Radiation Therapy Dose Response for Biochemical Failure of Prostate Cancer After Prostatectomy—A Multi-Institutional Observational Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisansky, Thomas M.; Agrawal, Shree; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Koontz, Bridget F.; Liauw, Stanley L.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Feng, Felix Y.; Abramowitz, Matthew C.; Pollack, Alan; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Moghanaki, Drew; Den, Robert B.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Lee, W. Robert; Kattan, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a dose-response relationship exists for salvage radiation therapy (RT) of biochemical failure after prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Individual data from 1108 patients who underwent salvage RT at 10 academic centers were pooled. The cohort was enriched for selection criteria more likely associated with tumor recurrence in the prostate bed (margin positive and pre-RT prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of ≤2.0 ng/mL) and without the confounding of planned androgen suppression. The cumulative incidence of biochemical failure and distant metastasis over time was computed, and competing risks hazard regression models were used to investigate the association between potential predictors and these outcomes. The association of radiation dose with outcomes was the primary focus. Results: With a 65.2-month follow-up duration, the 5- and 10-year estimates of freedom from post-RT biochemical failure (PSA level >0.2 ng/mL and rising) was 63.5% and 49.8%, respectively, and the cumulative incidence of distant metastasis was 12.4% by 10 years. A Gleason score of ≥7, higher pre-RT PSA level, extraprostatic tumor extension, and seminal vesicle invasion were associated with worse biochemical failure and distant metastasis outcomes. A salvage radiation dose of ≥66.0 Gy was associated with a reduced cumulative incidence of biochemical failure, but not of distant metastasis. Conclusions: The use of salvage radiation doses of ≥66.0 Gy are supported by evidence presented in the present multicenter pooled analysis of individual patient data. The observational reporting method, limited sample size, few distant metastasis events, modest follow-up duration, and elective use of salvage therapy might have diminished the opportunity to identify an association between the radiation dose and this endpoint.

  8. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Merz, E-M; de Kort, W L A M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-11-01

    Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal stress during the course of a blood donation, and whether responses differed between men and women, first-time and experienced donors and donors with high or low non-acute stress. In 363 donors, psychological (donation-stress and arousal) and hormonal (cortisol) stress were measured by questionnaire and salivary sample at seven key moments during a routine donation. Non-acute stress was assessed by a questionnaire. Repeated measurement analyses were performed, using the last measurement (leaving the donation center) as reference value. Levels of donation-stress, arousal and cortisol were significantly higher during donation than when leaving the donation center. When compared with men, women reported higher levels of donation-stress and cortisol in the first part of the visit. When compared with first-time donors, experienced donors reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and higher levels of arousal but less reactivity throughout the visit. When compared to donors high on non-acute stress, donors low on non-acute stress reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and showed less cortisol reactivity throughout the visit. Donating blood influences psychological and hormonal stress response patterns. The response patterns differ between women and men, first-time and experienced donors and between donors high and low on non-acute stress. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kawa, Dorota; Julkowska, Magdalena; Montero Sommerfeld, Hector; Horst, Anneliek ter; Haring, Michel A; Testerink, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Col-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75mM) on all measured RSA components. At higher NaCl concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid (ABA) signaling compared to the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By Genome Wide Association Mapping (GWAS) 13 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses.

  10. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kawa, Dorota

    2016-05-20

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Col-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75mM) on all measured RSA components. At higher NaCl concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid (ABA) signaling compared to the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By Genome Wide Association Mapping (GWAS) 13 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses.

  11. N-acetylcysteine possesses antidepressant-like activity through reduction of oxidative stress: behavioral and biochemical analyses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaga, Irena; Pomierny, Bartosz; Krzyżanowska, Weronika; Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Miszkiel, Joanna; Niedzielska, Ewa; Ogórka, Agata; Filip, Małgorzata

    2012-12-03

    The growing body of evidence implicates the significance of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of depression. The aim of this paper was to examine N-acetylcysteine (NAC) - a putative precursor of the most important tissue antioxidant glutathione - in an animal model of depression and in ex vivo assays to detect oxidative stress parameters. Imipramine (IMI), a classical and clinically-approved antidepressant drug was also under investigation. Male Wistar rats which underwent either bulbectomy (BULB; removal of the olfactory bulbs) or sham surgery (SHAM; olfactory bulbs were left undestroyed) were treated acutely or repeatedly with NAC (50-100mg/kg, ip) or IMI (10mg/kg, ip). Following 10-daily injections with NAC or IMI or their solvents, or 9-daily injections with a corresponding solvent plus acute NAC or acute IMI forced swimming test on day 10, and locomotor activity were performed; immediately after behavioral tests animals were decapitated. Biochemical tests (the total antioxidant capacity - TAC and the superoxide dismutase activity - SOD) were performed on homogenates in several brain structures. In behavioral studies, chronic (but not acute) administration of NAC resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the immobility time seen only in BULB rats while chronic IMI produced a significant decrease in this parameter in both SHAM and BULB animals. On the other hand, chronic administration of NAC and IMI resulted in a significant increase in cellular antioxidant mechanisms (SOD activity) that reversed the effects of BULB in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Our study further supports the antidepressant-like activity of NAC and links its effect as well as IMI actions with the enhancement of brain SOD activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of seasonal thermal stress on physiological and blood biochemical parameters in pigs under different dietary energy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, P K; Roychoudhury, R; Saharia, J; Borah, M C; Dutta, D J; Bhuyan, R; Kalita, D

    2018-06-01

    The present study was formulated to find out the status of important season related thermal stress biomarkers of pure-bred (Hampshire) and crossbred (50% Hampshire × 50% local) pigs under the agro-climatic condition of Assam State, India. The experiment was also aimed to study the role of different level of energy ration (110, 100, and 90% energy of NRC feeding standard for pig) in variation of physiological and biochemical parameters in two genetic groups of pigs in different seasons. The metabolizable energy value were 3260, 2936.5, and 3585.8 kcal/kg in grower ration and 3260.2, 2936.6, and 3587 kcal/kg in finisher ration for normal energy (NE), low energy (LE) and high energy (HE), respectively. Both the genetic group of animals were housed separately under intensive system of management. Each pen was measuring 10' × 12' along with an outer enclosure. Six weaned piglets (almost similar body weight of average 10.55 kg) of each group were kept in a separate pen. However, after attainment of 35 kg body weight, the animals of a group were divided in two pens of three animals each. The present experiment indicated that average ambient temperature during summer months (27.33-29.51 °C) was above the comfort zone for pigs (22 °C). The significantly (P energy (HE) ration during summer season. Serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) concentrations were significantly (P energy level of the ration might be helpful to minimize the effects of thermal stress during summer.

  13. Performance of weed Extracts on Growth Characteristics and Biochemical Activities in Salt Stressed Soybean Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The changes induced in the growth parameters and certain metabolic activities in response to both salt (NaCI) shock treatments and foliar spray of weed extracts (jungle rice, cocklebur and purslane) plus salinity were studied, using soybean seedlings grown in Hoagland's nutrient solution supplemented with various concentrations of NaCI. When seedlings were subjected to high salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCI), their growth criteria, the photosynthetic capacity, pigment contents and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly decreased. Under salinized conditions and weed extract treatments, the growth pattern,''1''4CO 2 -fixation rate, pigment as well as carbohydrate contents of soybean plants were significantly increased comparable to NaCI-treated samples. It was suggested that weed extract and in particular jungle rice might oppose the harsh effect of salinity in soybean plants

  14. Response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Abass; Bakhshian, Fereshteh; Narimani, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals. This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder.

  15. Response Inhibition and Cognitive Appraisal in Clients with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass Abolghasemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals .Method:This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results:Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms .Conclusion:The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder

  16. Osteoblastic differentiation and stress response of human mesenchymal stem cells exposed to alternating current electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan David L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electric fields are integral to many biological events, from maintaining cellular homeostasis to embryonic development to healing. The application of electric fields offers substantial therapeutic potential, while optimal dosing regimens and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the positive clinical impact are poorly understood. Methods The purpose of this study was to track the differentiation profile and stress response of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation during exposure to a 20 mV/cm, 60 kHz electric field. Morphological and biochemical changes were imaged using endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF and quantitatively assessed through eccentricity calculations and extraction of the redox ratio from NADH, FAD and lipofuscin contributions. Real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR were used to track osteogenic differentiation markers, namely alkaline phosphatase (ALP and collagen type 1 (col1, and stress response markers, such as heat shock protein 27 (hsp27 and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70. Comparisons of collagen deposition between the stimulated hMSCs and controls were examined through second harmonic generation (SHG imaging. Results Quantitative differences in cell morphology, as described through an eccentricity ratio, were found on days 2 and days 5 (p Conclusions Electrical stimulation is a useful tool to improve hMSC osteogenic differentiation, while heat shock proteins may reveal underlying mechanisms, and optical non-invasive imaging may be used to monitor the induced morphological and biochemical changes.

  17. Associations of biochemical changes and maternal traits with mutation 1843 (C>T in the RYR1 gene as a common cause for porcine stress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovski ZT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress syndrome is usually caused by a mutation in the ryanodine receptor gene (ryr1 and it is widely studied in humans and swine populations. The protein product of this gene plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium transport in muscle cells. A G>T mutation in the human ryr1 gene, which results in the replacement of a conserved arginine at position 614 where a leucine occurs at the same position as the previously identified Arg→Cys mutation reported in all cases of porcine stress syndrome (PSS. Porcine stress syndrome affects biochemical pathways in stress-susceptible individuals during a stress episode and some biochemical parameters that were used as markers for diagnostic purposes. Also, PSS has remarkable influence on the maternal characteristics of sows. This study dealt with different genotypes for PSS and its association with possible biochemical changes and maternal traits of sows. Seventy-three reproductive sows genotyped for PSS by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP were included in this survey. Sixty of them were stress-free (NN, 11 were heterozygous carriers (Nn and two animals were homozygous (nn for the 1843 (C>T mutation. Significant differences in non stress induced animals with different PSS genotypes were found in the values of creatine phoshokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (AP and aspartate aminotransferase (AST. Regarding the maternal traits, our study showed that stress susceptible animals (nn have an increased number of stillborn piglets and a reduced number of newborn piglets compared with heterozygous and normal animals.

  18. Transcriptional 'memory' of a stress: transient chromatin and memory (epigenetic) marks at stress-response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramova, Zoya

    2015-07-01

    Drought, salinity, extreme temperature variations, pathogen and herbivory attacks are recurring environmental stresses experienced by plants throughout their life. To survive repeated stresses, plants provide responses that may be different from their response during the first encounter with the stress. A different response to a similar stress represents the concept of 'stress memory'. A coordinated reaction at the organismal, cellular and gene/genome levels is thought to increase survival chances by improving the plant's tolerance/avoidance abilities. Ultimately, stress memory may provide a mechanism for acclimation and adaptation. At the molecular level, the concept of stress memory indicates that the mechanisms responsible for memory-type transcription during repeated stresses are not based on repetitive activation of the same response pathways activated by the first stress. Some recent advances in the search for transcription 'memory factors' are discussed with an emphasis on super-induced dehydration stress memory response genes in Arabidopsis. © 2015 The Author The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Stretching the Stress Boundary: Linking Air Pollution Health Effects to a Neurohormonal Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred here as a systemic response produced by activation ...

  20. Response of rocks to large stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    To predict the dimensions and characteristics of impact- and explosion-induced craters, one must know the equation of state of the rocks in which the crater is formed. Recent experimental data shed light upon inelastic processes that influence the stress/strain behavior of rocks. We examine these data with a view to developing models that could be used in predicting cratering phenomena. New data is presented on the volume behavior of two dissimilar rocks subjected to tensile stresses

  1. Toxicological and biochemical response of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana after exposure to deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, Lucas; Juárez, M Patricia; Lavarías, Sabrina; Pedrini, Nicolás

    2014-05-01

    The chemical control of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans is endangered by the emergence of pyrethroid resistance. An effective alternative control tool is the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. The effect of deltamethrin on fungal growth, gene expression and enzyme activity in relation to detoxification, antioxidant response and oxidative stress levels was studied to evaluate fungal tolerance to deltamethrin. The mean inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) was 50 µg deltamethrin/cm(2). Cytochrome P450 genes were differentially expressed; cyp52X1 and cyp617N1 transcripts were > 2-fold induced, followed by cyp655C1 (1.8-fold). Minor effects were observed on genes encoding for other P450s, epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes showed induction levels ≤ 2, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase genes were also induced ∼ 2-3-fold and < 2-fold, respectively. The activities of enzymes participating in the antioxidant defense system and phase II detoxification were also evaluated; SOD, CAT and GST activity showed significant differences with deltamethrin concentration. Lipid peroxidation levels and free proline content were also altered. Beauveria bassiana GHA can be used combined with deltamethrin without significant metabolic detrimental effects. This combination will help optimizing the benefits and increasing the efficacy of vector control tools. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Some physiological and biochemical responses to nickel in salicylic acid applied chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakci, Songül; Dursun, Bahar

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effects of salicylic acid pre-application on the responses of seven-day-old chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seedlings to nickel. For this purpose, the plants were treated with 1 mM salicylic acid solution for 6 and 10 hours and then treated with 0.75, 1.5 and 3 mM nickel solutions for 48 hours hydroponically. Following the treatment, changes in seedling length, seedling fresh weight and leaf dry weight (after 10 hours), as well as MDA, proline, protein and pigment contents (after 6 and 10 hours) were examined. Salicylic acid pre-application was found to significantly alleviate the typical harmful effects caused by nickel and 3 mM nickel concentration in particular, on the parameters associated with toxic stress. However, pre-application of salicylic acid for 6 and 10 hours without nickel treatment did not produce any stimulatory or inhibitory effect on the seedlings as compared to the controls.

  3. The significance of translation regulation in the stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Flora; Loubière, Pascal; Girbal, Laurence; Bousquet, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The stress response in bacteria involves the multistage control of gene expression but is not entirely understood. To identify the translational response of bacteria in stress conditions and assess its contribution to the regulation of gene expression, the translational states of all mRNAs were compared under optimal growth condition and during nutrient (isoleucine) starvation. Results: A genome-scale study of the translational response to nutritional limitation was performed in t...

  4. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the ...

  5. Predictors of responses to stress among families coping with poverty-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Etter, Erica Moran; Wadsworth, Martha E; Raviv, Tali

    2012-05-01

    This study tested how poverty-related stress (PRS), psychological distress, and responses to stress predicted future effortful coping and involuntary stress responses one year later. In addition, we explored age, sex, ethnicity, and parental influences on responses to stress over time. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses conducted with 98 low-income families (300 family members: 136 adults, 82 school-aged children, 82 adolescents) revealed that primary control coping, secondary control coping, disengagement, involuntary engagement, and involuntary disengagement each significantly predicted future use of that response. Primary and secondary control coping also predicted less maladaptive future responses to stress, while involuntary responses to stress undermined the development of adaptive responding. Age, sex, and interactions among PRS and prior coping were also found to predict certain responses to stress. In addition, child subgroup analyses demonstrate the importance of parental modeling of coping and involuntary stress responses, and warmth/nurturance and monitoring practices. Results are discussed with regard to the implications for preventive interventions with families in poverty.

  6. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  7. [Biochemical basis of tolerance to osmotic stress in phytopathogenic fungus: The case of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Villarreal, Rodolfo; Garza-Romero, Tamar S; Moreno-Medina, Víctor R; Hernández-Delgado, Sanjuana; Mayek-Pérez, Netzahualcoyotl

    Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is the causative agent of charcoal rot disease which causes significant yield losses in major crops such as maize, sorghum, soybean and common beans in Mexico. This fungus is a facultative parasite which shows broad ability to adapt itself to stressed environments where water deficits and/or high temperature stresses commonly occur. These environmental conditions are common for most cultivable lands throughout Mexico. Here we describe some basic facts related to the etiology and epidemiology of the fungus as well as to the importance of responses to stressed environments, particularly to water deficits, based on morphology and growth traits, as well as on physiology, biochemistry and pathogenicity of fungus M. phaseolina. To conclude, we show some perspectives related to future research into the genus, which emphasize the increasing need to improve the knowledge based on the application of both traditional and biotechnological tools in order to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance to environmental stress which can be extrapolated to other useful organisms to man. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Hormonal modulation of the heat shock response: insights from fish with divergent cortisol stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout....... We found that HR fish have significantly higher increases in both catecholamines and cortisol compared with LR fish, and LR fish had no appreciable stress hormone response to heat shock. This unexpected finding prevented further interpretation of the hormonal modulation of the heat shock response...

  9. Plant Core Environmental Stress Response Genes Are Systemically Coordinated during Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Berendzen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR, e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner.

  10. EFFECTS OF L-ASCORBIC ACID AND ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF SWIMMING-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN SERUM OF GUINEA PIGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać-Mitrović, Marija; Milovanović, Dragan R; Mitić, Radoslav; Jovanović, Danijela; Sovrlić, Miroslav; Vasiljević, Perica; Tomović, Jovica; Manojlović, Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol as well as combination of these vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise on intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and activity of catalase in the serum of guinea pigs. The experimental measurements of intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and activity of catalase were done in the serum of guinea pigs. The animals were exposed to the test load to achieve exhaustion and the test was terminated when the animal for the third time to sink into the water. The results of this study demonstrated that endurance exercise of guinea pigs induced oxidative stress response in terms of increased lipid peroxidation and activity of xanthine oxidase in the serum of experimental animals. Our study investigated the antioxidant activity of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol also measuring three protective markers in the serum: total antioxidant activity, content of glutathione and activity of catalase. The results obtained show that the vitamins influence the concentrations of above mentioned biochemical parameters, which points out their protective effect of swimming-induced oxidative stress. Single or combined administration of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol caused significant inhibition of these markers indicating the important antioxidant activity of the vitamins. Results lead to conclude that the combined treatments with vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise showed the clear synergistic effect..

  11. Stress Generation and Adolescent Depression: Contribution of Interpersonal Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the proposal that ineffective responses to common interpersonal problems disrupt youths' relationships, which, in turn, contributes to depression during adolescence. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their primary female caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Youth completed a…

  12. TRANSCRIPTOMIC CHANGES DRIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO PROGRESSIVE DROUGHT STRESS AND REHYDRATION IN TOMATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eIovieno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a major crop in the Mediterranean basin, where the cultivation in the open field is often vulnerable to drought. In order to adapt and survive to naturally occurring cycles of drought stress and recovery, plants employ a coordinated array of physiological, biochemical and molecular responses. Transcriptomic studies on tomato responses to drought and subsequent recovery are few in number. As the search for novel traits to improve the genetic tolerance to drought increases, a better understanding of these responses is required. To address this need we designed a study in which we induced two cycles of prolonged drought stress and a single recovery by rewatering in tomato. In order to dissect the complexity of plant responses to drought, we analyzed the physiological responses (stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence, abscisic acid (ABA and proline contents. In addition to the physiological and metabolite assays, we generated transcriptomes for multiple points during the stress and recovery cycles. Cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes between the conditions has revealed potential novel components in stress response. The observed reduction in leaf gas exchanges and efficiency of the photosystem PSII was concomitant with a general down-regulation of genes belonging to the photosynthesis, light harvesting and photosystem I and II category induced by drought stress. Gene ontology (GO categories such as cell proliferation and cell cycle were also significantly enriched in the down-regulated fraction of genes upon drought stress, which may contribute to explain the observed growth reduction. Several histone variants were also repressed during drought stress, indicating that chromatin associated processes are also affected by drought. As expected, ABA accumulated after prolonged water deficit, driving the observed enrichment of stress related GOs in the up-regulated gene fractions, which included

  13. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atta-ur-Rehman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12 Campus, Islamabad 25000, Pakistan; Stress Physiology Lab Department of Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, India; Centre for Environmental Research, Near East University, 33010, Lefkosha, Turkish Republic ...

  14. Physio-Biochemical Composition and Untargeted Metabolomics of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Make It Promising Functional Food and Help in Mitigating Salinity Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Sonika; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    Cumin is an annual, aromatic, herbaceous, medicinal, spice plant, most widely used as a food additive and flavoring agent in different cuisines. The study is intended to comprehensively analyse physiological parameters, biochemical composition and metabolites under salinity stress. Seed germination index, rate of seed emergence, rate of seed germination, mean germination time, plant biomass, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased concomitantly with salinity. In contrast, total an...

  15. Changes in biochemical proxy indicators for nutritional stress resilience from Boran and Nguni cows reared in dry arid rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapfumo, Lizwell; Muchenje, Voster; Mupangwa, John F; Scholtz, Michiel M

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the changes in biochemical indicators for nutritional stress from a herd of Boran and Nguni cows. A total of 40 cows (20 from each herd) were randomly selected for the study. The animals were identified according to their parities as follows: parity 1 (n = 8), parity 2 (n = 16), parity 3 (n = 8) and parity 4 (n = 8). Serum chemistry levels of glucose, total cholesterol, urea, creatinine, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutylaminotransferase (GGT), leukocytes, erythrocytes, haemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV) and platelet counts were determined for 12 consecutive months spanning across the wet and dry seasons. The Boran cows had different creatinine concentration levels at different parities. The Boran cows in parity 1 had the highest (P cows in different parities within the herd. There were significant differences in enzymes such as AST, ALP and ALT among the herd and parities. Boran cows in parity 3 had the lowest (P cows in parity 4 had the highest concentration of ALP of 161.3 ± 8.10 U/L while Nguni cows in parity 1 had the highest concentration level of ALT 55.1 ± 1.56 U/L than all the cows within the same herd. The Nguni herd had significantly higher (P Cows from the Nguni herd maintained significantly higher amount of urea, creatinine, albumin and total protein in both the wet and dry seasons as compared with cows from the Boran herd. Cows from the Nguni herd maintained significantly higher amount of urea, creatinine, albumin and total protein in both the wet and dry seasons as compared with those from the Boran herd.

  16. The relationship between personality and the response to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, Andre; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular

  17. Review of Signal Crosstalk in Plant Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book was prepared to summarize the current understanding of the dynamics of plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The preface of the book sets the stage for the contents of the different chapters by outlining that plants defend themselves from various environmental stresses through a v...

  18. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  19. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, M. D.; Veldhuizen, I. J. T.; Merz, E.-M.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesDonating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  20. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, V.; Efanov, S.I.; Duchesne, A.; Vogel, S.; Corbo, V.; Pruessner, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no

  1. Plant responsiveness to root-root communication of stress cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falik, Omer; Mordoch, Yonat; Ben-Natan, Daniel; Vanunu, Miriam; Goldstein, Oron; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2012-07-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is based on the organism's ability to perceive, integrate and respond to multiple signals and cues informative of environmental opportunities and perils. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that plants are able to adapt to imminent threats by perceiving cues emitted from their damaged neighbours. Here, the hypothesis was tested that unstressed plants are able to perceive and respond to stress cues emitted from their drought- and osmotically stressed neighbours and to induce stress responses in additional unstressed plants. Split-root Pisum sativum, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stenotaphrum secundatum plants were subjected to osmotic stress or drought while sharing one of their rooting volumes with an unstressed neighbour, which in turn shared its other rooting volume with additional unstressed neighbours. Following the kinetics of stomatal aperture allowed testing for stress responses in both the stressed plants and their unstressed neighbours. In both P. sativum plants and the three wild clonal grasses, infliction of osmotic stress or drought caused stomatal closure in both the stressed plants and in their unstressed neighbours. While both continuous osmotic stress and drought induced prolonged stomatal closure and limited acclimation in stressed plants, their unstressed neighbours habituated to the stress cues and opened their stomata 3-24 h after the beginning of stress induction. The results demonstrate a novel type of plant communication, by which plants might be able to increase their readiness to probable future osmotic and drought stresses. Further work is underway to decipher the identity and mode of operation of the involved communication vectors and to assess the potential ecological costs and benefits of emitting and perceiving drought and osmotic stress cues under various ecological scenarios.

  2. Evaluation of Two Biochemical Markers for Salt Stress in Three Pistachio Rootstocks Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shamshiri M.H.; Fattahi. M.

    2014-01-01

    The possible involvement of the methylglyoxal and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of three pistachio rootstocks, cv. Sarakha, Abareqi and Bane baghi, pre-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus ( Glomus mosseae ) in response to salt stress was studied during a greenhouse experiment in 2013. Six months old pistachio seedlings were exposed to four salinity levels of irrigation water (EC of 0.5 as control, 5, 10 and 15 dS m -1) for 70 days. Methylglyoxal and proline of the roots a...

  3. Effects of selected metal oxide nanoparticles on Artemia salina larvae: evaluation of mortality and behavioural and biochemical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambardella, Chiara; Mesarič, Tina; Milivojević, Tamara; Sepčić, Kristina; Gallus, Lorenzo; Carbone, Serena; Ferrando, Sara; Faimali, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the toxicity of selected metal oxide nanoparticles (MO-NPs) on the brine shrimp Artemia salina, by evaluating mortality and behavioural and biochemical responses. Larvae were exposed to tin(IV) oxide (stannic oxide (SnO2)), cerium(IV) oxide (CeO2) and iron(II, III) oxide (Fe3O4) NPs for 48 h in seawater, with MO-NP suspensions from 0.01 to 1.0 mg/mL. Mortality and behavioural responses (swimming speed alteration) and enzymatic activities of cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase were evaluated. Although the MO-NPs did not induce any mortality of the larvae, they caused changes in behavioural and biochemical responses. Swimming speed significantly decreased in larvae exposed to CeO2 NPs. Cholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were significantly inhibited in larvae exposed to SnO2 NPs, whereas cholinesterase activity significantly increased after CeO2 NP and Fe3O4 NP exposure. Catalase activity significantly increased in larvae exposed to Fe3O4 NPs. In conclusion, swimming alteration and cholinesterase activity represent valid endpoints for MO-NP exposure, while glutathione-S-transferase and catalase activities appear to be NP-specific.

  4. Canonical Modeling of the Multi-Scale Regulation of the Heat Stress Response in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis L. Fonseca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat is one of the most fundamental and ancient environmental stresses, and response mechanisms are found in prokaryotes and shared among most eukaryotes. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the heat stress response involves coordinated changes at all biological levels, from gene expression to protein and metabolite abundances, and to temporary adjustments in physiology. Due to its integrative multi-level-multi-scale nature, heat adaptation constitutes a complex dynamic process, which has forced most experimental and modeling analyses in the past to focus on just one or a few of its aspects. Here we review the basic components of the heat stress response in yeast and outline what has been done, and what needs to be done, to merge the available information into computational structures that permit comprehensive diagnostics, interrogation, and interpretation. We illustrate the process in particular with the coordination of two metabolic responses, namely the dramatic accumulation of the protective disaccharide trehalose and the substantial change in the profile of sphingolipids, which in turn affect gene expression. The proposed methods primarily use differential equations in the canonical modeling framework of Biochemical Systems Theory (BST, which permits the relatively easy construction of coarse, initial models even in systems that are incompletely characterized.

  5. Understanding the Posttranscriptional Regulation of Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Sahar

    2017-01-01

    Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stresses

  6. Psychological distress, cortisol stress response and subclinical coronary calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, A.; Hamer, M.; Lahiri, A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Steptoe, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Poor mental health has been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). One hypothesized underlying mechanism is hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction. We examined the associations between psychological distress, cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress and

  7. Plant natriuretic peptides are apoplastic and paracrine stress response molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuhua; Gehring, Christoph A; Irving, Helen R.

    2011-01-01

    plant stress responses and that, much like in animals, peptide signaling molecules can create diverse and modular signals essential for growth, development and defense under rapidly changing environmental conditions. © 2011 The Author.

  8. Stress responses during ageing: molecular pathways regulating protein homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakakis, Emmanouil; Princz, Andrea; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    The ageing process is characterized by deterioration of physiological function accompanied by frailty and ageing-associated diseases. The most broadly and well-studied pathways influencing ageing are the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling pathway and the dietary restriction pathway. Recent studies in diverse organisms have also delineated emerging pathways, which collectively or independently contribute to ageing. Among them the proteostatic-stress-response networks, inextricably affect normal ageing by maintaining or restoring protein homeostasis to preserve proper cellular and organismal function. In this chapter, we survey the involvement of heat stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the regulation of longevity, placing emphasis on the cross talk between different response mechanisms and their systemic effects. We further discuss novel insights relevant to the molecular pathways mediating these stress responses that may facilitate the development of innovative interventions targeting age-related pathologies such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Herboxidiene triggers splicing repression and abiotic stress responses in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Sahar; Ling, Yu; Butt, Haroon; Mariappan, Kiruthiga G.; Benhamed, Moussa; Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2017-01-01

    Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and stresses. Small

  10. ABA signaling in stress-response and seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2013-07-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We review the recent progress on ABA signaling, especially ABA signaling for ABA-dependent gene expression, including the AREB/ABF regulon, SnRK2 protein kinase, 2C-type protein phosphatases and ABA receptors. Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops. Drought causes osmotic stress to organisms, and the osmotic stress causes dehydration in plant cells. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced under osmotic stress conditions, and it plays an important role in the stress response and tolerance of plants. ABA regulates many genes under osmotic stress conditions. It also regulates gene expression during seed development and germination. The ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB)/ABRE-binding factor (ABF) transcription factors (TFs) regulate ABRE-dependent gene expression. Other TFs are also involved in ABA-responsive gene expression. SNF1-related protein kinases 2 are the key regulators of ABA signaling including the AREB/ABF regulon. Recently, ABA receptors and group A 2C-type protein phosphatases were shown to govern the ABA signaling pathway. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress-response and seed development. The control of the expression of ABA signaling factors may improve tolerance to environmental stresses.

  11. Biochemical responses to dietary α-linolenic acid restriction proceed differently among brain regions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Daisuke; Yasui, Yuko; Yamada, Kazuyo; Ohara, Naoki; Okuyama, Harumi

    2011-08-01

    Previously, we noted that the dietary restriction of α-linolenic acid (ALA, n-3) for 4 weeks after weaning brought about significant decreases in the BDNF content and p38 MAPK activity in the striatum of mice, but not in the other regions of the brain, compared with an ALA- and linoleic acid (LNA, n-6)-adequate diet. In this study, we examined whether a prolonged dietary manipulation induces biochemical changes in other regions of the brain as well. Mice were fed a safflower oil (SAF) diet (ALA-restricted, LNA-adequate) or a perilla oil (PER) diet (containing adequate amounts of ALA and LNA) for 8 weeks from weaning. The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) contents and p38 MAPK activities in the cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus were significantly lower in the SAF group. The BDNF contents and protein kinase C (PKC) activities in the cerebral cortex as well as in the striatum, but not in the hippocampus, were significantly lower in the SAF group. These data indicate that the biochemical changes induced by the dietary restriction of ALA have a time lag in the striatum and cortex, suggesting that the signal is transmitted through decreased p38 MAPK activity and BDNF content and ultimately decreased PKC activity.

  12. Hemato-biochemical responses to packing in donkeys administered ascorbic acid during the harmattan season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaifa, Folashade; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Ambali, Suleiman Folorunsho; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) in reducing hemato-biochemical changes in pack donkeys during the cold-dry (harmattan) season. Six experimental donkeys administered orally AA (200 mg/kg) and six control donkeys not administered ascorbic acid were subjected to packing. Blood samples were collected from all donkeys for hematological and biochemical analyses. In the control donkeys, packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) decreased significantly (Pdonkeys, there was no significant difference between the pre- and post-packing values of PCV, erythrocyte count and Hb. In the control donkeys, the neutrophil and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio increased significantly (Pdonkeys, the pre- and post-packing values were not significantly different. The eosinophil count increased significantly (Pdonkeys post packing. In conclusion, packing exerted significant adverse effects on the hematological parameters ameliorated by AA administration. AA may modulate neutrophilia and induce a considerable alteration of erythroid markers in donkeys subjected to packing during the harmattan season.

  13. Effect of Low-Dose Irradiation on Biochemical and Immunological Responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.H.; Sayed, Z.S.; El-Gawish, M.A.; Mahdy, E.M.E.; Shosha, W.Gh.

    2008-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation (Malondialdehyde), Lactate dehydrogenase, Iron Concentration, IL-6 and IL-1β concentration were determined in Seventy-two male albino rats divided in two main groups. The first one was subdivided into 7 subgroups; control and 6 irradiated subgroups with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1 Gy single dose of gamma radiation. The other was subdivided into 4 irradiated subgroups with fractionated dose .-radiation of 0.3, 0.7 and 1 Gy with 0.1 Gy per day and the last subgroup 1 Gy with 0.2 Gy daily. All animals were sacrificed after three days of the last irradiation dose. The results revealed that all biochemical parameters were increased in rats exposed to fractionated more than single doses. In conclusion, the data of this study highlight on the beneficial and stimulatory effect of low ionizing radiation doses (≥ 1Gy) whether single or fractionated on some biochemical and immunological parameters. These findings may be fruitful for those who undergo radiotherapy as well as the dose-effect relationship

  14. Biochemical assessment of oxidative stress by the use of açai (Euterpe oleracea Martius gel in physically active individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Soares VIANA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relation between oxidative stress and inflammation induced by diseases and exercise has increased the interest in the benefits of antioxidant supplements in the improvement of health and physical and mental performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of açai gel in reducing oxidative stress in individuals engaged in physical activities as well as their acceptance. Sensory evaluation was performed to determine its acceptability and the biochemical parameters related to immune profile and biomarkers of muscle, liver and oxidative stress, with and without the use of gel were evaluated. The appearance, sweetness and overall impression of the açai gel were considered good. It was observed a significant increase in CK enzyme, without the gel as well as the oxidative stress biomarkers, it was observed that the MDA (with and without gel a significant increase (p < 0.05. Through biochemical evaluation, it is concluded that the gel provided protection for some of parameters studied, since it modulated the immunological parameter reducing the lymphocyte activity and muscular stress. However, more studies must be carried out with a larger number of individuals to confirm the gel functionality.

  15. Biochemical assessment of oxidative stress by the use of açai (Euterpe oleracea Martius gel in physically active individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Soares VIANA

    Full Text Available Abstract The relation between oxidative stress and inflammation induced by diseases and exercise has increased the interest in the benefits of antioxidant supplements in the improvement of health and physical and mental performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of açai gel in reducing oxidative stress in individuals engaged in physical activities as well as their acceptance. Sensory evaluation was performed to determine its acceptability and the biochemical parameters related to immune profile and biomarkers of muscle, liver and oxidative stress, with and without the use of gel were evaluated. The appearance, sweetness and overall impression of the açai gel were considered good. It was observed a significant increase in CK enzyme, without the gel as well as the oxidative stress biomarkers, it was observed that the MDA (with and without gel a significant increase (p < 0.05. Through biochemical evaluation, it is concluded that the gel provided protection for some of parameters studied, since it modulated the immunological parameter reducing the lymphocyte activity and muscular stress. However, more studies must be carried out with a larger number of individuals to confirm the gel functionality.

  16. Good and bad protons: genetic aspects of acidity stress responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Hirai, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Physiological aspects of acidity stress in plants (synonymous with H(+) rhizotoxicity or low-pH stress) have long been a focus of research, in particular with respect to acidic soils where aluminium and H(+) rhizotoxicities often co-occur. However, toxic H(+) and Al(3+) elicit different response mechanisms in plants, and it is important to consider their effects separately. The primary aim of this review was to provide the current state of knowledge regarding the genetics of the specific reactions to low-pH stress in growing plants. A comparison of the results gleaned from quantitative trait loci analysis and global transcriptome profiling of plants in response to high proton concentrations revealed a two-stage genetic response: (i) in the short-term, proton pump H(+)-ATPases present the first barrier in root cells, allocating an excess of H(+) into either the apoplast or vacuole; the ensuing defence signaling system involves auxin, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate, which subsequently initiate expression of STOP and DREB transcription factors as well as chaperone ROF; (2) the long-term response includes other genes, such as alternative oxidase and type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, which act to detoxify dangerous reactive oxygen species in mitochondria, and help plants better manage the stress. A range of transporter genes including those for nitrate (NTR1), malate (ALMT1), and heavy metals are often up-regulated by H(+) rhizotoxicity. Expansins, cell-wall-related genes, the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt and biochemical pH-stat genes also reflect changes in cell metabolism and biochemistry in acidic conditions. However, the genetics underlying the acidity stress response of plants is complicated and only fragmentally understood. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress Regulated by Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Luo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, histone acetylation and deacetylation play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Histone acetylation levels are modulated by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs. Recent studies indicate that HDACs play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression in plant response to environmental stress. In this review, we discussed the recent advance regarding the plant HDACs and their functions in the regulation of abiotic stress responses. The role of HDACs in autophagy was also discussed.

  18. Stress Response and Artemisinin Resistance in Malaria Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0241 TITLE: Stress Response and Artemisinin Resistance in Malaria Parasite PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Juan C. Pizarro...SUBTITLE Stress Response and Artemisinin Resistance in Malaria Parasite 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0241 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In malaria , drug resistance is a major treat to disease control efforts. Unfortunately, there is a significant

  19. Biochemical responses and ultrastructural changes in ethylene insensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thialiana subjected to bisphenol A exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Jan, Mehmood; Wakeel, Abdul; Azizullah, Azizullah; Liu, Bohan; Islam, Faisal; Ali, Abid; Daud, M K; Liu, Yihua; Gan, Yinbo

    2017-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an important raw material in plastic industry, has become a serious environmental contaminant due to its wide spread use in different products and increasing release into the environment. BPA is known to cause adverse effects in living organisms including plants. Several studies reported that BPA affects growth and development in plants, mainly through oxidative stress. Plants are known to generally cope with stress mainly through hormonal regulation and adaptation, but little is known about the role of plant hormones in plants under BPA stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of ethylene in BPA induced oxidative stress in plants using Arabidopsis thaliana as a test plant. The response of ethylene insensitive mutants of Arabidopsis (ein2-1 and etr1-3) to BPA exposure was studied in comparison to the wild type Arabidopsis (WT). In all three genotypes, exposure to BPA adversely affected cellular structures, stomata and light-harvesting pigments. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) lipid peroxidation and other oxidative stress markers indicated that BPA induced toxicity through oxidative stress. However, the overall results revealed that WT Arabidopsis had more pronounced BPA induced damages while ein2-1 and etr1-3 mutants withstood the BPA induced stress more efficiently. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and expression of antioxidants related genes revealed that the antioxidant defense system in both mutants was more efficiently activated than in WT against BPA induced oxidative stress, which further evidenced the involvement of ethylene in regulating BPA induced oxidative stress. It is concluded that ethylene perception and signaling may be involved in BPA induced oxidative stress responses in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. When does stress help or harm? The effects of stress controllability and subjective stress response on stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Roselinde K; Snyder, Hannah R; Gupta, Tina; Banich, Marie T

    2012-01-01

    The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual's response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low) responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that (1) learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that (2) this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective) responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n = 109). People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n = 90), we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest Stroop

  1. Context and strain-dependent behavioral response to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baum Amber E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study posed the question whether strain differences in stress-reactivity lead to differential behavioral responses in two different tests of anxiety. Strain differences in anxiety-measures are known, but strain differences in the behavioral responses to acute prior stress are not well characterized. Methods We studied male Fisher 344 (F344 and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats basally and immediately after one hour restraint stress. To distinguish between the effects of novelty and prior stress, we also investigated behavior after repeated exposure to the test chamber. Two behavioral tests were explored; the elevated plus maze (EPM and the open field (OFT, both of which are thought to measure activity, exploration and anxiety-like behaviors. Additionally, rearing, a voluntary behavior, and grooming, a relatively automatic, stress-responsive stereotyped behavior were measured in both tests. Results Prior exposure to the test environment increased anxiety-related measures regardless of prior stress, reflecting context-dependent learning process in both tests and strains. Activity decreased in response to repeated testing in both tests and both strains, but prior stress decreased activity only in the OFT which was reversed by repeated testing. Prior stress decreased anxiety-related measures in the EPM, only in F344s, while in the OFT, stress led to increased freezing mainly in WKYs. Conclusion Data suggest that differences in stressfulness of these tests predict the behavior of the two strains of animals according to their stress-reactivity and coping style, but that repeated testing can overcome some of these differences.

  2. Responses to Fiscal Stress: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    of “a significant decline in market share by the middle of the 20th century as travelers and shippers turned increasingly to airlines, trucks, and...1995). Intercity passenger rail: Financial and operating conditions threaten Amtrak’s long-term viability (GAO-95-71). Washington, DC: U.S...I. (1980). Retrenchment and flexibility in public organizations. Fiscal Stress and Public Policy, 159–178. Scheinberg, P. F. (1998). Intercity

  3. Effect of the combination of metformin hydrochloride and melatonin on oxidative stress before and during pregnancy, and biochemical and histopathological analysis of the livers of rats after treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ana Janaina Jeanine M; Peixoto, Christina A; Teixeira, Alvaro Aguiar C; Luna, Rayana Leal A; Rocha, Sura Wanessa S; Santos, Hilda Michelly P; Silva, Amanda Karolina S; Nunes, Ana Karolina S; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a combination of metformin hydrochloride and melatonin on oxidative stress together with a biochemical and histopathological analysis of the livers of Wistar rats induced with PCOS. The results indicated that a combination of the drugs was more effective in the reduction of plasmatic levels of liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase, nitric oxide and total glutathione, and decreased the inflammatory response and histopathological damage, producing results that were significantly similar to animals from the control group. A mixture of the drugs produced more effective results against liver toxicity caused by PCOS, encouraging the normalization of biochemical parameters. During pregnancy, there was reduced oxidative stress compared to monotherapeutic use of these drugs. Interestingly, the combination of the drugs caused a physiological reaction similar to responses identified in healthy rats without induction of the PCOS control group. However, the clinical and physiological effectiveness of the combination should be further explored, especially with respect to the possible side effects on offspring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stress and Bronchodilator Response in Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, John M; Ramratnam, Sima K; Tse, Sze Man; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Litonjua, Augusto A; Raby, Benjamin A; Boutaoui, Nadia; Han, Yueh-Ying; Chen, Wei; Forno, Erick; Marsland, Anna L; Nugent, Nicole R; Eng, Celeste; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Alvarez, María; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Spear, Melissa L; Martinez, Fernando D; Avila, Lydiana; Weiss, Scott T; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L; Barnes, Kathleen C; Lemanske, Robert F; Strunk, Robert C; Liu, Andrew; London, Stephanie J; Gilliland, Frank; Sleiman, Patrick; March, Michael; Hakonarson, Hakon; Duan, Qing Ling; Kolls, Jay K; Fritz, Gregory K; Hu, Donglei; Fani, Negar; Stevens, Jennifer S; Almli, Lynn M; Burchard, Esteban G; Shin, Jaemin; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Ressler, Kerry; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-07-01

    Stress is associated with asthma morbidity in Puerto Ricans (PRs), who have reduced bronchodilator response (BDR). To examine whether stress and/or a gene regulating anxiety (ADCYAP1R1) is associated with BDR in PR and non-PR children with asthma. This was a cross-sectional study of stress and BDR (percent change in FEV1 after BD) in 234 PRs ages 9-14 years with asthma. We assessed child stress using the Checklist of Children's Distress Symptoms, and maternal stress using the Perceived Stress Scale. Replication analyses were conducted in two cohorts. Polymorphisms in ADCYAP1R1 were genotyped in our study and six replication studies. Multivariable models of stress and BDR were adjusted for age, sex, income, environmental tobacco smoke, and use of inhaled corticosteroids. High child stress was associated with reduced BDR in three cohorts. PR children who were highly stressed (upper quartile, Checklist of Children's Distress Symptoms) and whose mothers had high stress (upper quartile, Perceived Stress Scale) had a BDR that was 10.2% (95% confidence interval, 6.1-14.2%) lower than children who had neither high stress nor a highly stressed mother. A polymorphism in ADCYAP1R1 (rs34548976) was associated with reduced BDR. This single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with reduced expression of the gene for the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in CD4(+) lymphocytes of subjects with asthma, and it affects brain connectivity of the amygdala and the insula (a biomarker of anxiety). High child stress and an ADCYAP1R1 single-nucleotide polymorphism are associated with reduced BDR in children with asthma. This is likely caused by down-regulation of ADRB2 in highly stressed children.

  5. Effects of Pineal Proteins on Biochemical, Enzyme Profile and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Pineal Proteins on Biochemical, Enzyme Profile and Non-Specific Immune Response of Indian Goats under Thermal Stress. ... Total precipitated pineal proteins successfully and significantly relieved the animals from adverse effects of heat stress and metyrapone treatment. There is evidence that most of the ...

  6. Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Batista de Souza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops.

  7. Biochemical changes in response to intensive resistance exercise training in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautmans, Ivan; Njemini, Rose; Vasseur, Sabine; Chabert, Hans; Moens, Lisa; Demanet, Christian; Mets, Tony

    2005-01-01

    It is assumed that low-grade inflammation, characterized by increased circulating IL-6 and TNF-alpha, is related to the development of sarcopenia. Physical exercise, especially high intensity resistance training, has been shown to be effective in restoring the strength deficit in the elderly. Intensive exercise is accompanied by significant release of IL-6 and TNF-alpha into the blood circulation, but does not result in muscle wasting. Exercise-induced changes in heat-shock protein (Hsp), responsible for cellular protection during stressful situations, might interfere with the acute phase reaction and muscle adaptation. To investigate if intensive strength training in elderly persons induces changes in Hsp70 expression, and if these changes are related to changes in the acute phase reaction or muscle adaptation. 31 elderly persons (aged 68.4+/-5.4 years) performed 6 weeks' intensive strength training. At baseline and after 6 weeks, muscle strength, functional performance (physical activity profile, 6-min walk, 30- second chair stand, grip strength, chair sit & reach and back scratch), linear isokinetic leg extension, circulating IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10 and TGF-beta, and Hsp70 in monocytes (M) and lymphocytes (L) immediately after sampling (IAS), after incubation at 37 and 42 degrees C were determined. In 12 participants, cytokines were determined in untrained and trained conditions before and after a single training session. After 6 weeks' training, muscle strength and functional performance improved significantly, together with decreased Hsp70 IAS and Hsp70 37 degrees C and increased Hsp70 42 degrees C (all p42 degrees C in M and L. In an untrained condition, training induced an increase of IL-6 (p<0.05) and a tendency of IL-10 to decrease (p=0.06). In a trained condition the decrease of IL-10 disappeared. Baseline physical activity and 6-min walk distance correlated negatively with circulating IL-6 (p<0.05); except for a negative correlation between TGF-beta and

  8. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV)

  9. Comfort food is comforting to those most stressed: evidence of the chronic stress response network in high stress women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Dallman, Mary F; Epel, Elissa S

    2011-11-01

    Chronically stressed rodents who are allowed to eat calorie-dense "comfort" food develop greater mesenteric fat, which in turn dampens hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We tested whether similar relations exist in humans, at least cross-sectionally. Fifty-nine healthy premenopausal women were exposed to a standard laboratory stressor to examine HPA response to acute stress and underwent diurnal saliva sampling for basal cortisol and response to dexamethasone administration. Based on perceived stress scores, women were divided into extreme quartiles of low versus high stress categories. We found as hypothesized that the high stress group had significantly greater BMI and sagittal diameter, and reported greater emotional eating. In response to acute lab stressor, the high stress group showed a blunted cortisol response, lower diurnal cortisol levels, and greater suppression in response to dexamethasone. These cross-sectional findings support the animal model, which suggests that long-term adaptation to chronic stress in the face of dense calories result in greater visceral fat accumulation (via ingestion of calorie-dense food), which in turn modulates HPA axis response, resulting in lower cortisol levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modulation of immune responses in stress by Yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sarika

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a constant factor in today′s fastpaced life that can jeopardize our health if left unchecked. It is only in the last half century that the role of stress in every ailment from the common cold to AIDS has been emphasized, and the mechanisms involved in this process have been studied. Stress influences the immune response presumably through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal axis, and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Various neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, hormones, and cytokines mediate these complex bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system (CNS and the immune system. The effects of stress on the immune responses result in alterations in the number of immune cells and cytokine dysregulation. Various stress management strategies such as meditation, yoga, hypnosis, and muscle relaxation have been shown to reduce the psychological and physiological effects of stress in cancers and HIV infection. This review aims to discuss the effect of stress on the immune system and examine how relaxation techniques such as Yoga and meditation could regulate the cytokine levels and hence, the immune responses during stress.

  11. Sex differences in the stress response in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Li, Jia; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Juan-Li; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-05-01

    Sex differences play an important role in depression, the basis of which is an excessive stress response. We aimed at revealing the neurobiological sex differences in the same study in acute- and chronically-stressed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), acute foot shock (FS) and controls, animals in all 3 groups were sacrificed in proestrus or diestrus. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: CUMS, FS and controls. Comparisons were made of behavioral changes in CUMS and control rats, plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and of the hypothalamic mRNA-expression of stress-related molecules, i.e. estrogen receptor α and β, androgen receptor, aromatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. CUMS resulted in disordered estrus cycles, more behavioral and hypothalamic stress-related molecules changes and a stronger CORT response in female rats compared with male rats. Female rats also showed decreased E2 and T levels after FS and CUMS, while male FS rats showed increased E2 and male CUMS rats showed decreased T levels. Stress affects the behavioral, endocrine and the molecular response of the stress systems in the hypothalamus of SD rats in a clear sexual dimorphic way, which has parallels in human data on stress and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Tarvainen, M P; Merz, E-M; Huis In 't Veld, E M J; de Kort, W L A M; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2018-03-24

    Donating blood is associated with increased psychological stress. This study investigates whether a blood donation induces physiological stress and if response patterns differ by gender, donation experience and non-acute stress. In 372 donors, physiological stress [blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse rate variability (PRV)] was measured at seven moments during routine donation. PRV was assessed using time domain [root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD)] and frequency domain [high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) power] parameters. Non-acute stress was assessed by questionnaire. Shape and significance of time course patterns were assessed by fitting multilevel models for each stress measure and comparing men and women, first-time and experienced donors, and donors with high and low levels of non-acute stress. Significant response patterns were found for all stress measures, where levels of systolic blood pressure (F(1,1315) = 24·2, P blood pressure (F(1,1326) = 50·9, P blood pressure/pulse rate in women; higher pulse rate in first-time donors; higher RMSSD at arrival and from screening until leaving in first-time donors; and higher LF and HF in first-time donors. This study shows an increase in physiological stress related to needle insertion, followed by a decrease when leaving the donation centre. Some group effects were also found. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  13. When does stress help or harm? The effects of stress controllability and subjective stress response on Stroop performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselinde Kaiser Henderson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing to clinical therapy. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual’s response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that 1 learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that 2 this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n=109. People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n=90, we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress

  14. Critical-like features of stress response in frictional packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, Abdullah; Silbert, Leonardo E

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical response of static, unconfined, overcompressed face centred cubic, granular arrays is studied using large-scale, discrete element method simulations. Specifically, the stress response due to the application of a localised force perturbation—the Green function technique—is obtained in granular packings generated over several orders of magnitude in both the particle friction coefficient and the applied forcing. We observe crossover behaviour in the mechanical state of the system characterised by the changing nature of the resulting stress response. The transition between anisotropic and isotropic stress response exhibits critical-like features through the identification of a diverging length scale that distinguishes the spatial extent of anisotropic regions from those that display isotropic behaviour. A multidimensional phase diagram is constructed that parameterises the response of the system due to changing friction and force perturbations. (paper)

  15. Lipolysis Response to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Adipose Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingna; Liu, Shangxin; Zou, Liangqiang; Xu, Chong; Geng, Bin; Xu, Guoheng

    2012-01-01

    In obesity and diabetes, adipocytes show significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which triggers a series of responses. This study aimed to investigate the lipolysis response to ER stress in rat adipocytes. Thapsigargin, tunicamycin, and brefeldin A, which induce ER stress through different pathways, efficiently activated a time-dependent lipolytic reaction. The lipolytic effect of ER stress occurred with elevated cAMP production and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Inhibition of PKA reduced PKA phosphosubstrates and attenuated the lipolysis. Although both ERK1/2 and JNK are activated during ER stress, lipolysis is partially suppressed by inhibiting ERK1/2 but not JNK and p38 MAPK and PKC. Thus, ER stress induces lipolysis by activating cAMP/PKA and ERK1/2. In the downstream lipolytic cascade, phosphorylation of lipid droplet-associated protein perilipin was significantly promoted during ER stress but attenuated on PKA inhibition. Furthermore, ER stress stimuli did not alter the levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase but caused Ser-563 and Ser-660 phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and moderately elevated its translocation from the cytosol to lipid droplets. Accompanying these changes, total activity of cellular lipases was promoted to confer the lipolysis. These findings suggest a novel pathway of the lipolysis response to ER stress in adipocytes. This lipolytic activation may be an adaptive response that regulates energy homeostasis but with sustained ER stress challenge could contribute to lipotoxicity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance because of persistently accelerated free fatty acid efflux from adipocytes to the bloodstream and other tissues. PMID:22223650

  16. Variation in the biochemical response to l-thyroxine therapy and relationship with peripheral thyroid hormone conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, John E M; Larisch, Rolf; Dietrich, Johannes W; Hoermann, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Several influences modulate biochemical responses to a weight-adjusted levothyroxine (l-T4) replacement dose. We conducted a secondary analysis of the relationship of l-T4 dose to TSH and free T3 (FT3), using a prospective observational study examining the interacting equilibria between thyroid parameters. We studied 353 patients on steady-state l-T4 replacement for autoimmune thyroiditis or after surgery for malignant or benign thyroid disease. Peripheral deiodinase activity was calculated as a measure of T4–T3 conversion efficiency. In euthyroid subjects, the median l-T4 dose was 1.3 μg/kg per day (interquartile range (IQR) 0.94,1.60). The dose was independently associated with gender, age, aetiology and deiodinase activity (all P29 nmol/s revealed an increasing FT3–FT4 dissociation; the poorest converters showed the lowest FT3 levels in spite of the highest dose and circulating FT4 (P<0.001). An l-T4-related FT3–TSH disjoint was also apparent; some patients with fully suppressed TSH failed to raise FT3 above the median level. These findings imply that thyroid hormone conversion efficiency is an important modulator of the biochemical response to l-T4; FT3 measurement may be an additional treatment target; and l-T4 dose escalation may have limited success to raise FT3 appropriately in some cases. PMID:26335522

  17. Hypothalamic oxytocin mediates social buffering of the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam S; Wang, Zuoxin

    2014-08-15

    While stressful life events can enhance the risk of mental disorders, positive social interactions can propagate good mental health and normal behavioral routines. Still, the neural systems that promote these benefits are undetermined. Oxytocin is a hormone involved in social behavior and stress; thus, we focus on the impact that social buffering has on the stress response and the governing effects of oxytocin. Female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) were exposed to 1 hour immobilization stress and then recovered alone or with their male partner to characterize the effect of social contact on the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine stress response. In addition, we treated immobilized female voles recovering alone with oxytocin or vehicle and female voles recovering with their male partner with a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist or vehicle. Group sizes varied from 6 to 8 voles (N = 98 total). We found that 1 hour immobilization increased anxiety-like behaviors and circulating levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone, in female prairie voles recovering alone but not the female prairie voles recovering with their male partner. This social buffering by the male partner on biobehavioral responses to stress was accompanied by increased oxytocin release in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Intra-paraventricular nucleus oxytocin injections reduced behavioral and corticosterone responses to immobilization, whereas injections of an oxytocin receptor antagonist blocked the effects of the social buffering. Together, our data demonstrate that paraventricular nucleus oxytocin mediates the social buffering effects on the stress response and thus may be a target for treatment of stress-related disorders. Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  18. The surgical stress response: should it be prevented?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1991-01-01

    clinical trials have demonstrated a reduction in various aspects of postoperative morbidity by such a nociceptive blockade. Although a causal relationship has still to be demonstrated, these findings strongly argue the concept of "stress-free anesthesia and surgery" as an important instrument in improving......Postoperative complications such as myocardial infarction, pulmonary infection, thromboembolism and fatigue are probably related to increased demands, hypermetabolism, catabolism and other physiologic changes included in the global "surgical stress response." Strategies have been developed...... to suppress the detrimental components of the stress response so as to improve postoperative outcome. Of the various techniques to reduce the surgical stress response, afferent neural blockade with regional anesthesia to relieve pain is the most effective, although not optimal. Data from numerous controlled...

  19. Mini-review: Biofilm responses to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Michela; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms constitute the predominant microbial style of life in natural and engineered ecosystems. Facing harsh environmental conditions, microorganisms accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS), potentially encountering a dangerous condition called oxidative stress. While high levels of oxidative stress are toxic, low levels act as a cue, triggering bacteria to activate effective scavenging mechanisms or to shift metabolic pathways. Although a complex and fragmentary picture results from current knowledge of the pathways activated in response to oxidative stress, three main responses are shown to be central: the existence of common regulators, the production of extracellular polymeric substances, and biofilm heterogeneity. An investigation into the mechanisms activated by biofilms in response to different oxidative stress levels could have important consequences from ecological and economic points of view, and could be exploited to propose alternative strategies to control microbial virulence and deterioration.

  20. The Yeast Environmental Stress Response Regulates Mutagenesis Induced by Proteotoxic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Erika; Fox, Catherine A.; Broach, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Conditions of chronic stress are associated with genetic instability in many organisms, but the roles of stress responses in mutagenesis have so far been elucidated only in bacteria. Here, we present data demonstrating that the environmental stress response (ESR) in yeast functions in mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. We show that the drug canavanine causes proteotoxic stress, activates the ESR, and induces mutagenesis at several loci in an ESR-dependent manner. Canavanine-induced mutagenesis also involves translesion DNA polymerases Rev1 and Polζ and non-homologous end joining factor Ku. Furthermore, under conditions of chronic sub-lethal canavanine stress, deletions of Rev1, Polζ, and Ku-encoding genes exhibit genetic interactions with ESR mutants indicative of ESR regulating these mutagenic DNA repair processes. Analyses of mutagenesis induced by several different stresses showed that the ESR specifically modulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. Together, these results document the first known example of an involvement of a eukaryotic stress response pathway in mutagenesis and have important implications for mechanisms of evolution, carcinogenesis, and emergence of drug-resistant pathogens and chemotherapy-resistant tumors. PMID:23935537

  1. Energetic stress: The reciprocal relationship between energy availability and the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, C S; Gillespie, C F; Neigh, G N

    2016-11-01

    The worldwide epidemic of metabolic syndromes and the recognized burden of mental health disorders have driven increased research into the relationship between the two. A maladaptive stress response is implicated in both mental health disorders and metabolic disorders, implicating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as a key mediator of this relationship. This review explores how an altered energetic state, such as hyper- or hypoglycemia, as may be manifested in obesity or diabetes, affects the stress response and the HPA axis in particular. We propose that changes in energetic state or energetic demands can result in "energetic stress" that can, if prolonged, lead to a dysfunctional stress response. In this review, we summarize the role of the hypothalamus in modulating energy homeostasis and then briefly discuss the relationship between metabolism and stress-induced activation of the HPA axis. Next, we examine seven mechanisms whereby energetic stress interacts with neuroendocrine stress response systems, including by glucocorticoid signaling both within and beyond the HPA axis; by nutrient-induced changes in glucocorticoid signaling; by impacting the sympathetic nervous system; through changes in other neuroendocrine factors; by inducing inflammatory changes; and by altering the gut-brain axis. Recognizing these effects of energetic stress can drive novel therapies and prevention strategies for mental health disorders, including dietary intervention, probiotics, and even fecal transplant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic stress affects immunologic but not cardiovascular responsiveness to acute psychological stress in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, R. J.; Brosschot, J. F.; Godaert, G. L.; de Smet, M. B.; Geenen, R.; Olff, M.; Heijnen, C. J.; Ballieux, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of chronic stress on physiological responsiveness to an acute psychological stressor in male high school teachers. Chronic stress was operationalized as the self-reported number of everyday problems. Twenty-seven subjects reporting extremely low or high numbers of

  3. The membrane stress response buffers lethal effects of lipid disequilibrium by reprogramming the protein homeostasis network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Guillaume; Shui, Guanghou; Kim, Woong; McAlister, Graeme C; Ismail, Nurzian; Gygi, Steven P; Wenk, Markus R; Ng, Davis T W

    2012-10-12

    Lipid composition can differ widely among organelles and even between leaflets of a membrane. Lipid homeostasis is critical because disequilibrium can have disease outcomes. Despite their importance, mechanisms maintaining lipid homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here, we establish a model system to study the global effects of lipid imbalance. Quantitative lipid profiling was integral to monitor changes to lipid composition and for system validation. Applying global transcriptional and proteomic analyses, a dramatically altered biochemical landscape was revealed from adaptive cells. The resulting composite regulation we term the "membrane stress response" (MSR) confers compensation, not through restoration of lipid composition, but by remodeling the protein homeostasis network. To validate its physiological significance, we analyzed the unfolded protein response (UPR), one facet of the MSR and a key regulator of protein homeostasis. We demonstrate that the UPR maintains protein biogenesis, quality control, and membrane integrity-functions otherwise lethally compromised in lipid dysregulated cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonality influence on biochemical and hematological indicators of stress and growth of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), an Amazonian air-breathing fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Rosiely Felix; Soares, Maria do Carmo Figueiredo; Santos, Athiê Jorge Guerra; Carvalho, Elba Verônica Matoso Maciel; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors such as seasonal cycles are the main chronic stress cause in fish increasing incidence of disease and mortality and affecting productive performance. Arapaima gigas (pirarucu) is an Amazonian air-breathing and largest freshwater fish with scales in the world. The captivity development of pirarucu is expanding since it can fatten up over 1 kg per month reaching 10 kg body mass in the first year of fattening. This work was conducted in three periods (April to July 2010, August to November 2010, and December 2010 to March 2011) defined according to rainfall and medium temperatures. Seasonality effect analysis was performed on biochemical (lectin activity, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase activities) and hematological (total count of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and hematimetric Wintrobe indexes) stress indicators, as well as on growth and wellbeing degree expressed by pirarucu condition factor developed in captivity. All biochemical and hematological stress indicators showed seasonal variations. However, the fish growth was allometrically positive; condition factor high values indicated good state of healthiness in cultivation. These results reinforce the robust feature of pirarucu and represent a starting point for understanding stress physiology and environmental changes during cultivation enabling identification and prevention of fish adverse health conditions.

  5. Seasonality Influence on Biochemical and Hematological Indicators of Stress and Growth of Pirarucu (Arapaima gigas, an Amazonian Air-Breathing Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiely Felix Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors such as seasonal cycles are the main chronic stress cause in fish increasing incidence of disease and mortality and affecting productive performance. Arapaima gigas (pirarucu is an Amazonian air-breathing and largest freshwater fish with scales in the world. The captivity development of pirarucu is expanding since it can fatten up over 1 kg per month reaching 10 kg body mass in the first year of fattening. This work was conducted in three periods (April to July 2010, August to November 2010, and December 2010 to March 2011 defined according to rainfall and medium temperatures. Seasonality effect analysis was performed on biochemical (lectin activity, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and hematological (total count of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and hematimetric Wintrobe indexes stress indicators, as well as on growth and wellbeing degree expressed by pirarucu condition factor developed in captivity. All biochemical and hematological stress indicators showed seasonal variations. However, the fish growth was allometrically positive; condition factor high values indicated good state of healthiness in cultivation. These results reinforce the robust feature of pirarucu and represent a starting point for understanding stress physiology and environmental changes during cultivation enabling identification and prevention of fish adverse health conditions.

  6. Stress response and virulence in Vibrio anguillarum

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria use quorum sensing, a cell to cell signaling mechanism mediated by small molecules that are produced by specific signal molecule synthases, to regulate gene expression in response to population density. In Vibrio anguillarum, the quorum-sensing phosphorelay channels information from three hybrid sensor kinases VanN, VanQ, CqsS that sense signal molecules produced by the synthases VanM, VanS and CqsA, onto the phosphotransferase VanU, to regulate activity of the response regulator Van...

  7. Histological and biochemical response of Norway spruce somatic embryos to UV-B irradiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliášová, Kateřina; Vondráková, Zuzana; Malbeck, Jiří; Trávníčková, Alena; Pešek, Bedřich; Vágner, Martin; Cvikrová, Milena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2017), s. 1279-1293 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13050; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13051 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Oxidative stress * Phenolic acids * Phenylpropanoids * Picea abies (L.) Karst * Polyamines * Somatic embryogenesis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Forestry Impact factor: 1.842, year: 2016

  8. WRKY transcription factors in plant responses to stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Ma, Shenghui; Ye, Nenghui; Jiang, Ming; Cao, Jiashu; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-02-01

    The WRKY gene family is among the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in higher plants. By regulating the plant hormone signal transduction pathway, these TFs play critical roles in some plant processes in response to biotic and abiotic stress. Various bodies of research have demonstrated the important biological functions of WRKY TFs in plant response to different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses and working mechanisms. However, very little summarization has been done to review their research progress. Not just important TFs function in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses, WRKY also participates in carbohydrate synthesis, senescence, development, and secondary metabolites synthesis. WRKY proteins can bind to W-box (TGACC (A/T)) in the promoter of its target genes and activate or repress the expression of downstream genes to regulate their stress response. Moreover, WRKY proteins can interact with other TFs to regulate plant defensive responses. In the present review, we focus on the structural characteristics of WRKY TFs and the research progress on their functions in plant responses to a variety of stresses. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Responses of neurons to extreme osmomechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, X; Harris, J A; Morris, C E

    1995-05-01

    Neurons are often regarded as fragile cells, easily destroyed by mechanical and osmotic insult. The results presented here demonstrate that this perception needs revision. Using extreme osmotic swelling, we show that molluscan neurons are astonishingly robust. In distilled water, a heterogeneous population of Lymnaea stagnalis CNS neurons swelled to several times their initial volume, yet had a ST50 (survival time for 50% of cells) > 60 min. Cells that were initially bigger survived longer. On return to normal medium, survivors were able, over the next 24 hr, to rearborize. Reversible membrane capacitance changes corresponding to about 0.7 muF/cm2 of apparent surface area accompanied neuronal swelling and shrinking in hypo- and hyperosmotic solutions; reversible changes in cell surface area evidently contributed to the neurons' ability to accommodate hydrostatic pressures then recover. The reversible membrane area/capacitance changes were not dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Neurons were monitored for potassium currents during direct mechanical inflation and during osmotically driven inflation. The latter but not the former stimulus routinely elicited small potassium currents, suggesting that tension increases activate the currents only if additional disruption of the cortex has occurred. Under stress in distilled water, a third of the neurons displayed a quite unexpected behavior: prolonged writhing of peripheral regions of the soma. This suggested that a plasma membrane-linked contractile machinery (presumably actomyosin) might contribute to the neurons' mechano-osmotic robustness by restricting water influx. Consistent with this possibility, 1 mM N-ethyl-maleimide, which inhibits myosin ATPase, decreased the ST50 to 18 min, rendered the survival time independent of initial size, and abolished writhing activity. For neurons, active mechanical resistance of the submembranous cortex, along with the mechanical compliance supplied by insertion or eversion of membrane

  10. Systems responses to progressive water stress in durum wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimah Z Habash

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1 and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219 showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat's response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum

  11. The Effect of Music on the Human Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Myriam V.; La Marca, Roberto; Brönnimann, Rebecca; Finkel, Linda; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Music listening has been suggested to beneficially impact health via stress-reducing effects. However, the existing literature presents itself with a limited number of investigations and with discrepancies in reported findings that may result from methodological shortcomings (e.g. small sample size, no valid stressor). It was the aim of the current study to address this gap in knowledge and overcome previous shortcomings by thoroughly examining music effects across endocrine, autonomic, cognitive, and emotional domains of the human stress response. Methods Sixty healthy female volunteers (mean age = 25 years) were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stress test after having been randomly assigned to one of three different conditions prior to the stress test: 1) relaxing music (‘Miserere’, Allegri) (RM), 2) sound of rippling water (SW), and 3) rest without acoustic stimulation (R). Salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), subjective stress perception and anxiety were repeatedly assessed in all subjects. We hypothesized that listening to RM prior to the stress test, compared to SW or R would result in a decreased stress response across all measured parameters. Results The three conditions significantly differed regarding cortisol response (p = 0.025) to the stressor, with highest concentrations in the RM and lowest in the SW condition. After the stressor, sAA (p=0.026) baseline values were reached considerably faster in the RM group than in the R group. HR and psychological measures did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusion Our findings indicate that music listening impacted the psychobiological stress system. Listening to music prior to a standardized stressor predominantly affected the autonomic nervous system (in terms of a faster recovery), and to a lesser degree the endocrine and psychological stress response. These findings may help better understanding the

  12. Stress-related cortisol responsivity modulates prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, K; Piefke, M

    2017-12-01

    It is known that there is inter-individual variation in behavioural and physiological stress reactions to the same stressor. The present study aimed to examine the impact of cortisol responsivity on performance in a complex real life-like prospective memory (PM) paradigm by a re-analysis of data published previously, with a focus on the taxonomy of cognitive dimensions of PM. Twenty-one male subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions. Another group of 20 males underwent a control procedure. Salivary cortisol was measured to assess the intensity of the biological stress response. Additionally, participants rated the subjective experience of stress on a 5-point rating scale. Stressed participants were post-hoc differentiated in high (n = 11) and low cortisol responders (n = 10). Cortisol niveau differed significantly between the two groups, whereas subjective stress ratings did not. PM performance of low cortisol responders was stable across time and the PM performance of controls declined. High cortisol responders showed a nominally weaker PM retrieval across the early trails and significantly improved only on the last trial. The data demonstrate for the first time that participants with a low cortisol responsivity may benefit from stress exposure before the planning phase of PM. PM performance of high cortisol responders shows a more inconsistent pattern, which may be interpreted in the sense of a recency effect in PM retrieval. Alternatively, high cortisol responses may have a deteriorating effect on PM retrieval, which disappeared on the last trials of the task as a result of the decrease of cortisol levels across time. Importantly, the data also demonstrate that the intensity of cortisol responses does not necessarily correspond to the intensity of the mental experience of stress. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  13. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Avloniti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.

  14. Oxidative stress impairs the heat stress response and delays unfolded protein recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Adachi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes, air pollution and ozone depletion are increasing oxidative stress, and global warming threatens health by heat stress. We now face a high risk of simultaneous exposure to heat and oxidative stress. However, there have been few studies investigating their combined adverse effects on cell viability.Pretreatment of hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 specifically and highly sensitized cells to heat stress, and enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. H(2O(2 exposure impaired the HSP40/HSP70 induction as heat shock response (HSR and the unfolded protein recovery, and enhanced eIF2alpha phosphorylation and/or XBP1 splicing, land marks of ER stress. These H(2O(2-mediated effects mimicked enhanced heat sensitivity in HSF1 knockdown or knockout cells. Importantly, thermal preconditioning blocked H(2O(2-mediated inhibitory effects on refolding activity and rescued HSF1 +/+ MEFs, but neither blocked the effects nor rescued HSF1 -/- MEFs. These data strongly suggest that inhibition of HSR and refolding activity is crucial for H(2O(2-mediated enhanced heat sensitivity.H(2O(2 blocks HSR and refolding activity under heat stress, thereby leading to insufficient quality control and enhancing ER stress. These uncontrolled stress responses may enhance cell death. Our data thus highlight oxidative stress as a crucial factor affecting heat tolerance.

  15. Hormonal, Biochemical and Haematological Changes in Response to Acute Hyperthermia in Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, N.A.R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Today, hyperthermia plays a significant role in the evidence-based on treatment of cancer patients. Such promising endeavor is due to the fact that neoplastic cells are more heat sensitive than normal cells. the prospect of using hyperthermia alone to treat cancer tumours is appealing because hyperthermia is a physical treatment and so would have fewer side effects than chemotherapy or radiotherapy and, it could be used in combination with these therapeutic approaches. much more consistent evidence has been obtained experimentally, and continuing clinical interest has been encouraged by confirmation that, at relatively low temperature (37-41.5 C), heat enhances cell growth and may well enhance also the growth and proliferation of tumours, while above 45 C heat begins to damage both normal and malignant cells in both animal and human. So, the goal is to achieve a selective temperature elevation between 42-45 C at the tumour site while maintaining healthy tissue temperatures in a physiological save range.This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of acute whole body hyperthermia , (WBH) (rectal temperature 43 c) on biochemical , hormonal and haematological changes in normal healthy local strain (baladi) rabbits.The thermal late effects (recovery) at 24 hr-post whole body hyperthermia was also undertaken , in the attempt to evaluate the degree of safety , when hyperthermia is applied in the clinic for treating cancer and other diseases

  16. Reproduction elevates the corticosterone stress response in common fruit bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Stefan M; Smith, Carolynn L; Denzel, Andrea J; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2006-04-01

    Changes in reproductive state or the environment may affect the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-andrenal (HPA) axis. However, little is known about the dynamics of the resulting corticosteroid stress response, in particular in tropical mammals. In this study, we address the modulation of corticosterone release in response to different reproductive conditions and seasonality in 326 free-living common fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) on Barro Colorado Island in Panama during dry and wet seasons. We present strong evidence that stress sensitivity is primarily modulated by reproductive condition. In reproductively active females, corticosterone increases were more rapid and reached higher levels, but also decreased significantly faster than in inactive females. The corticosterone response was weaker in reproducing males than in females and delayed compared to non-reproductive males. Testes volume in reproductively active males was negatively correlated with corticosterone concentrations. Our findings suggest differentiated dynamics in the corticosterone stress response between sexes, potentially reflecting conflicting ecological demands. In females, a strong acute corticosterone response may represent high stress- and risk-sensitivity that facilitates escape and thus helps to protect reproduction. In males, suppression during reproductive activity could reflect lowered stress sensitivity to avoid chronically elevated corticosterone levels in times of frequent aggressive and therefore costly inter-male encounters.

  17. Biochemical and hematological responses of the banded knife fish Gymnotus carapo (Linnaeus, 1758 exposed to environmental hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAES G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen of tropical freshwater environments fluctuates drastically. Eutrophic lakes and ponds of warm waters frequently reach very low oxygen concentrations. This is the most common habitat of the banded knife fish "tuvira" Gymnotus carapo. This electric fish is reported to present bimodal breathing to cope with low environmental oxygen. Biochemical responses can be also observed in fishes facing hypoxia but none were studied in tuvira. In the present study, haematological and metabolic changes were investigated in two groups of fish exposed to hypoxia for 1 and 3 hours. Haematocrit, red blood cells and haemoglobin concentration indicated erythrocyte release from hematopoietic organs and swelling of red blood cells. Glycogen, glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and amino acids were quantified in liver, kidney and white muscle. The metabolic profile of G. carapo to cope with hypoxia suggested liver gluconeogenesis probably supported by proteolysis. The kidney and liver presented the same biochemical trend suggesting similar metabolic role for both organs. Glucogenolysis followed by glucose fermentation and protein mobilisation was observed in the white muscle. The air breathing behaviour of tuvira works in parallel with metabolism to prevent damages from hypoxia. Metabolic adjustments are observed when the air taking is avoided.

  18. Training signaling pathway maps to biochemical data with constrained fuzzy logic: quantitative analysis of liver cell responses to inflammatory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody K Morris

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Predictive understanding of cell signaling network operation based on general prior knowledge but consistent with empirical data in a specific environmental context is a current challenge in computational biology. Recent work has demonstrated that Boolean logic can be used to create context-specific network models by training proteomic pathway maps to dedicated biochemical data; however, the Boolean formalism is restricted to characterizing protein species as either fully active or inactive. To advance beyond this limitation, we propose a novel form of fuzzy logic sufficiently flexible to model quantitative data but also sufficiently simple to efficiently construct models by training pathway maps on dedicated experimental measurements. Our new approach, termed constrained fuzzy logic (cFL, converts a prior knowledge network (obtained from literature or interactome databases into a computable model that describes graded values of protein activation across multiple pathways. We train a cFL-converted network to experimental data describing hepatocytic protein activation by inflammatory cytokines and demonstrate the application of the resultant trained models for three important purposes: (a generating experimentally testable biological hypotheses concerning pathway crosstalk, (b establishing capability for quantitative prediction of protein activity, and (c prediction and understanding of the cytokine release phenotypic response. Our methodology systematically and quantitatively trains a protein pathway map summarizing curated literature to context-specific biochemical data. This process generates a computable model yielding successful prediction of new test data and offering biological insight into complex datasets that are difficult to fully analyze by intuition alone.

  19. Biochemical and hematological responses of the banded knife fish Gymnotus carapo (Linnaeus, 1758 exposed to environmental hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. MORAES

    Full Text Available Oxygen of tropical freshwater environments fluctuates drastically. Eutrophic lakes and ponds of warm waters frequently reach very low oxygen concentrations. This is the most common habitat of the banded knife fish "tuvira" Gymnotus carapo. This electric fish is reported to present bimodal breathing to cope with low environmental oxygen. Biochemical responses can be also observed in fishes facing hypoxia but none were studied in tuvira. In the present study, haematological and metabolic changes were investigated in two groups of fish exposed to hypoxia for 1 and 3 hours. Haematocrit, red blood cells and haemoglobin concentration indicated erythrocyte release from hematopoietic organs and swelling of red blood cells. Glycogen, glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and amino acids were quantified in liver, kidney and white muscle. The metabolic profile of G. carapo to cope with hypoxia suggested liver gluconeogenesis probably supported by proteolysis. The kidney and liver presented the same biochemical trend suggesting similar metabolic role for both organs. Glucogenolysis followed by glucose fermentation and protein mobilisation was observed in the white muscle. The air breathing behaviour of tuvira works in parallel with metabolism to prevent damages from hypoxia. Metabolic adjustments are observed when the air taking is avoided.

  20. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Alhaija, Rana Abu; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  1. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  2. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Abu Alhaija, Rana; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  3. A role for SR proteins in plant stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Members of the SR (serine/arginine-rich) protein gene family are key players in the regulation of alternative splicing, an important means of generating proteome diversity and regulating gene expression. In plants, marked changes in alternative splicing are induced by a wide variety of abiotic stresses, suggesting a role for this highly versatile gene regulation mechanism in the response to environmental cues. In support of this notion, the expression of plant SR proteins is stress-regulated at multiple levels, with environmental signals controlling their own alternative splicing patterns, phosphorylation status and subcellular distribution. Most importantly, functional links between these RNA-binding proteins and plant stress tolerance are beginning to emerge, including a role in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Future identification of the physiological mRNA targets of plant SR proteins holds much promise for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying their role in the response to abiotic stress.

  4. Proteomics analysis of alfalfa response to heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Li

    Full Text Available The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin seedlings were exposed to 25 °C (control and 40 °C (heat stress in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE, and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS. Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa.

  5. Regulation of cellulose synthesis in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Christopher; Menna, Alexandra; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara

    2017-12-01

    The cell wall is a complex polysaccharide network that provides stability and protection to the plant and is one of the first layers of biotic and abiotic stimuli perception. A controlled remodeling of the primary cell wall is essential for the plant to adapt its growth to environmental stresses. Cellulose, the main component of plant cell walls is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthases moving along cortical microtubule tracks. Recent advancements demonstrate a tight regulation of cellulose synthesis at the primary cell wall by phytohormone networks. Stress-induced perturbations at the cell wall that modify cellulose synthesis and microtubule arrangement activate similar phytohormone-based stress response pathways. The integration of stress perception at the primary cell wall and downstream responses are likely to be tightly regulated by phytohormone signaling pathways in the context of cellulose synthesis and microtubule arrangement. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Stress and fear responses in the teleost pallium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Patricia Isabel da Mota E.; Martins, C.I.M.; Khan, Uniza Wahid

    2015-01-01

    Evolution has resulted in behavioural responses to threat which show extensive similarities between different animal species. The reaction to predator cues is one example of such prevailing responses, and functional homologies to mammalian limbic regions involved in threat-sensitive behaviour hav...... to chemical alarm cues, but this effect did not reach the level of statistical significance. Hence, limbic responses to stress and fear, akin to those seen in extant mammals, are also present in the teleost lineage...

  7. The Neuromuscular, Biochemical, and Endocrine Responses to a Single-Session Vs. Double-Session Training Day in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael J; Cook, Christian J; Drake, David; Costley, Lisa; Johnston, Julie P; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-11-01

    Johnston, MJ, Cook, CJ, Drake, D, Costley, L, Johnston, JP, and Kilduff, LP. The neuromuscular, biochemical, and endocrine responses to a single-session vs. double-session training day in elite athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3098-3106, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare the acute neuromuscular, biochemical, and endocrine responses of a training day consisting of a speed session only with performing a speed-and-weights training session on the same day. Fifteen men who were academy-level rugby players completed 2 protocols in a randomized order. The speed-only protocol involved performing 6 maximal effort repetitions of 50-m running sprints with 5 minutes of recovery between each sprint, whereas the speed-and-weights protocol involved the same sprinting session but was followed 2 hours later by a lower-body weights session consisting of 4 sets of 5 backsquats and Romanian deadlift at 85% one repetition maximum. Testosterone, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate, and perceived muscle soreness were determined immediately before, immediately after, 2 hours after, and 24 hours after both the protocols. Peak power, relative peak power, jump height, and average rate of force development were determined from a countermovement jump (CMJ) at the same time points. After 24-hours, muscle soreness was significantly higher after the speed-and-weights protocol compared with the speed-only protocol (effect size η = 0.253, F = 4.750, p ≤ 0.05). There was no significant difference between any of the CMJ variables at any of the posttraining time points. Likewise, creatine kinase, testosterone, and cortisol were unaffected by the addition of a weight-training session. These data indicate that the addition of a weight-training session 2 hours after a speed session, whereas increasing the perception of fatigue the next day does not result in a difference in endocrine response or in neuromuscular capability.

  8. Hormonal contraception use alters stress responses and emotional memory

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Segal, Sabrina K.; Worden, Ian V.; Yim, Ilona S.; Cahill, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing material is typically better remembered than neutral material. Since norepinephrine and cortisol interact to modulate emotional memory, sex-related influences on stress responses may be related to sex differences in emotional memory. Two groups of healthy women – one naturally cycling (NC women, N = 42) and one using hormonal contraceptives (HC women, N = 36) – viewed emotionally arousing and neutral images. Immediately after, they were assigned to Cold Pressor Stress (CP...

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-responsive transcription factor ATF6α directs recruitment of the Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription and multiple histone acetyltransferase complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Dotan; Chen, Lu; Martin-Brown, Skylar; Washburn, Michael P; Florens, Laurence; Conaway, Joan Weliky; Conaway, Ronald C

    2012-06-29

    The basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF6α functions as a master regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response genes. Previous studies have established that, in response to ER stress, ATF6α translocates to the nucleus and activates transcription of ER stress response genes upon binding sequence specifically to ER stress response enhancer elements in their promoters. In this study, we investigate the biochemical mechanism by which ATF6α activates transcription. By exploiting a combination of biochemical and multidimensional protein identification technology-based mass spectrometry approaches, we have obtained evidence that ATF6α functions at least in part by recruiting to the ER stress response enhancer elements of ER stress response genes a collection of RNA polymerase II coregulatory complexes, including the Mediator and multiple histone acetyltransferase complexes, among which are the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) and Ada-Two-A-containing (ATAC) complexes. Our findings shed new light on the mechanism of action of ATF6α, and they outline a straightforward strategy for applying multidimensional protein identification technology mass spectrometry to determine which RNA polymerase II transcription factors and coregulators are recruited to promoters and other regulatory elements to control transcription.

  10. Photosynthesis and biochemical responses to elevated O3 in Plantago major and Sonchus oleraceus growing in a lowland habitat of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Benying; Zhou, Meihua; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Xiujie; Li, Yonggeng; Su, Hua; Xiang, Bao

    2017-03-01

    A field experiment was carried out to compare the responses to ozone (O 3 ) in two common herbaceous plant species, Plantago major L. and Sonchus oleraceus L., by building open-top growth chambers in situ to simulate O 3 stress (+O 3 , 85±5ppb, 9hr/day for 30days) in a lowland habitat in Inner Mongolia, Northern China. Responses to O 3 of gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf pigment content, antioxidant capability, soluble protein content, membrane lipid peroxidation and dark respiration (R d ) were analyzed. Results showed that elevated O 3 exposure significantly reduced the light-saturated net photosynthesis (P Nsat ), stomatal conductance (g s ) and transpiration rate (E) in both species. Although non-significant interactive effect between species and O 3 on P Nsat was analyzed, the reduction in P Nsat in S. oleraceus might be due primarily to the higher fraction of close PSII reaction centers and impaired activities of plant mesophyll cells as evidences by decreased maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry after dark adapted state (F v /F m ) and unchanged intercellular CO 2 concentration (C i ). Besides, biochemical analysis showed that S. oleraceus had lower antioxidant ability compared to P. major. As a result, S. oleraceus was damaged to the larger extent in terms of lipid peroxidation and visible O 3 injury, indicating that S. oleraceus was more sensitive to O 3 than P. major. Our results indicated that wild herbaceous plant species growing in a lowland habitat in sandy grassland were sensitive to O 3 stress and S. oleraceus can be considered as one of the bio-indicators for high O 3 concentration in semi-arid grassland of northern China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Molecular and biochemical responses in the midgut of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, infected with Nosema bombycis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Wang, Yu; Wang, Linling; Zhou, Zeyang

    2018-03-06

    Microsporidia are a group of eukaryotic intracellular parasites that infect almost all vertebrates and invertebrates. However, there is little information available of how microsporidia obtain nutrients and energy from host cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy and material requirements of Nosema bombycis for the invasion procedure through analyzing the global variation of the gene expression, protein abundance, fatty acids level and ATP flux induced by the microsporidia N. bombycis infection in the midgut of the silkworm Bombyx mori. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis were performed to identify the genes upregulated in the midgut of B. mori 48 h following N. bombycis infection. Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were used to annotate and summarize the differentially expressed genes, according to the categories 'molecular function', 'cellular component' and 'biological process'. To evaluate the nutrition material and energy costs in B.mori infected by N. bombycis, biochemical analysis was performed to determine the variation of protein abundance, fatty acid levels and ATP flux with or without the microsporidia N. bombycis infection in the midgut of the silkworm B. mori. A total of 744 clones were obtained, 288 clones were randomly selected for sequencing, and 110 unigenes were generated. Amongst these, 49.21%, 30.16% and 14.29% genes were involved in 19 molecular functions, 19 biological processes and nine cellular components, respectively. A total of 11 oxidative phosphorylation- and eight proton-coupled ATP synthesis-related genes were upregulated. Seven protein degradation-, three fat degradation-related genes were upregulated, and no genes related to the de novo synthesis of amino acids and fatty acids were significantly upregulated. The data from the biochemical analysis showed the contents of total protein and ATP of B. mori

  12. Insights into some physiological and biochemical responses of Populus alba and Populus nigra to lead contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Etemadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of lead (PbCl2 increment, under hydroponic conditions up to 15, 45 and 90 mg/l in presence of EDTA, on some physiological and biochemical traits of one year old saplings of P. nigra and P. alba, were investigated. Six weeks after establishing in target concentration, the amount of lead, biomass, water, soluble sugars, proline, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, and pigments were assessed in different organs. The results revealed that with increasing lead concentration in culture medium in the studied period, the amount of lead in saplings increased, but no effect was observed on their biomass. In both species the magnitude of lead accumulation in root was higher than leaf. P. nigra had more water and less soluble sugars than P. alba. The concentration of soluble sugars increased up to 1.5 times with lead increment in both species, but proline content increased only in P. nigra up to 2 times and remained constant in P. alba. Elevation of electrolyte leakage in saplings of P. nigra in excess lead treatment was accompanied by no change in malondialdehyde content. Concentrations of pigments were not affected by lead, and only the ratio of chlorophyll a to b in P. nigra increased in high lead concentration. In general both species accumulated high extent of lead in their organs. But it seems that P. nigra, at least with respect of enhancing plasma membrane permeability, increasing proline and the ratio of chlorophyll a to b, was more sensitive to this toxic metal in compare with P. alba.

  13. Epidural analgesia in early labour blocks the stress response but uterine contractions remain unchanged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, T J; Hemmings, G T; Carli, F; Weeks, S K; Mazza, L; Zingg, H H

    1998-07-01

    To determine the effect of epidural analgesia on biochemical markers of stress, plasma oxytocin concentrations and frequency of uterine contractions during the first stage of labour. Nine nulliparous women, in spontaneous labour, with a singleton fetus and cervical dilatation < or = 5 cm were enrolled. Epidural bupivacaine 0.25% (range 10-14 ml) was administered and bilateral sensory blockade to ice (T8-L4) achieved. Blood samples were collected before the epidermal block and every 10 min for one hour after the block was achieved for the measurement of plasma beta-endorphin, cortical, glucose, lactate and oxytocin concentrations. No exogenous oxytocin was given. Intensity of pain was assessed at the time of the blood sampling using a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS). The frequency of uterine contractions was recorded for 60 min before and after the epidural block. There was a decrease in plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol concentrations after epidural block (P < 0.01). There were no changes in plasma glucose and lactate concentrations. The mean VAS for pain decreased 10 min after epidural block was achieved and remained < 2 throughout the study period (P < 0.001). Mean plasma oxytocin concentrations did not change. The frequency of uterine contractions before and after the epidural block was similar. The metabolic stress response to the pain of labour was attenuated by epidural analgesia. In contrast, plasma oxytocin concentration and frequency of uterine contractions were unaffected by the attenuation of metabolic stress response.

  14. Hormonal contraception use alters stress responses and emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Segal, Sabrina K; Worden, Ian V; Yim, Ilona S; Cahill, Larry

    2013-02-01

    Emotionally arousing material is typically better remembered than neutral material. Since norepinephrine and cortisol interact to modulate emotional memory, sex-related influences on stress responses may be related to sex differences in emotional memory. Two groups of healthy women - one naturally cycling (NC women, n=42) and one using hormonal contraceptives (HC women, n=36) - viewed emotionally arousing and neutral images. Immediately after, they were assigned to Cold Pressor Stress (CPS) or a control procedure. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test. Saliva samples were collected and later assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (biomarker for norepinephrine) and cortisol. Compared to NC women, HC women exhibited significantly blunted stress hormone responses to the images and CPS. Recall of emotional images differed between HC and NC women depending on noradrenergic and cortisol responses. These findings may have important implications for understanding the neurobiology of emotional memory disorders, especially those that disproportionately affect women. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Coping as a mediator of the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress response: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Aoki, Shuntaro; Yoneda, Kenichiro; Sawaguchi, Yusuke

    2018-01-01

    Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors). Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts), emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement), cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively), and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem). Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset) or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset). This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1) a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2) a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. The participants were 30 male and 94 female undergraduate and graduate students (mean age =20.4 years). Stress mindset, coping, and psychological stress responses were measured using self-report questionnaires. Six mediation analyses were performed with stress-is-enhancing mindset or stress-is-debilitating mindset as the independent variable, one of the psychological stress responses as the dependent variable, and the four coping strategies as mediators. Emotional expression partially mediated the relationship between a strong stress-is-debilitating mindset and higher irritability

  16. Transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to As (V stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Joshua S

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is toxic to plants and a common environmental pollutant. There is a strong chemical similarity between arsenate [As (V] and phosphate (Pi. Whole genome oligonucleotide microarrays were employed to investigate the transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to As (V stress. Results Antioxidant-related genes (i.e. coding for superoxide dismutases and peroxidases play prominent roles in response to arsenate. The microarray experiment revealed induction of chloroplast Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD (at2g28190, Cu/Zn SOD (at1g08830, as well as an SOD copper chaperone (at1g12520. On the other hand, Fe SODs were strongly repressed in response to As (V stress. Non-parametric rank product statistics were used to detect differentially expressed genes. Arsenate stress resulted in the repression of numerous genes known to be induced by phosphate starvation. These observations were confirmed with qRT-PCR and SOD activity assays. Conclusion Microarray data suggest that As (V induces genes involved in response to oxidative stress and represses transcription of genes induced by phosphate starvation. This study implicates As (V as a phosphate mimic in the cell by repressing genes normally induced when available phosphate is scarce. Most importantly, these data reveal that arsenate stress affects the expression of several genes with little or unknown biological functions, thereby providing new putative gene targets for future research.

  17. Immune and stress responses in oysters with insights on adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ximing; He, Yan; Zhang, Linlin; Lelong, Christophe; Jouaux, Aude

    2015-09-01

    Oysters are representative bivalve molluscs that are widely distributed in world oceans. As successful colonizers of estuaries and intertidal zones, oysters are remarkably resilient against harsh environmental conditions including wide fluctuations in temperature and salinity as well as prolonged air exposure. Oysters have no adaptive immunity but can thrive in microbe-rich estuaries as filter-feeders. These unique adaptations make oysters interesting models to study the evolution of host-defense systems. Recent advances in genomic studies including sequencing of the oyster genome have provided insights into oyster's immune and stress responses underlying their amazing resilience. Studies show that the oyster genomes are highly polymorphic and complex, which may be key to their resilience. The oyster genome has a large gene repertoire that is enriched for immune and stress response genes. Thousands of genes are involved in oyster's immune and stress responses, through complex interactions, with many gene families expanded showing high sequence, structural and functional diversity. The high diversity of immune receptors and effectors may provide oysters with enhanced specificity in immune recognition and response to cope with diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Some members of expanded immune gene families have diverged to function at different temperatures and salinities or assumed new roles in abiotic stress response. Most canonical innate immunity pathways are conserved in oysters and supported by a large number of diverse and often novel genes. The great diversity in immune and stress response genes exhibited by expanded gene families as well as high sequence and structural polymorphisms may be central to oyster's adaptation to highly stressful and widely changing environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of childhood physical abuse on cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda L; Shattuck, Thaddeus T; Tyrka, Audrey R; Geracioti, Thomas D; Price, Lawrence H

    2011-03-01

    Abuse and neglect are highly prevalent in children and have enduring neurobiological effects. Stressful early life environments perturb the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which in turn may predispose to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. However, studies of childhood maltreatment and adult HPA function have not yet rigorously investigated the differential effects of maltreatment subtypes, including physical abuse. In this study, we sought to replicate our previous finding that childhood maltreatment was associated with attenuated cortisol responses to stress and determine whether the type of maltreatment was a determinant of the stress response. Salivary cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was examined in a non-clinical sample of women (n = 110). Subjects had no acute medical problems and were not seeking psychiatric treatment. Effects of five maltreatment types, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, on cortisol response to the TSST were investigated. To further examine the significant (p < 0.005) effect of one maltreatment type, women with childhood physical abuse (PA) (n = 20) were compared to those without past PA (n = 90). Women reporting childhood PA displayed a significantly blunted cortisol response to the TSST compared with subjects without PA, after controlling for estrogen use, age, other forms of maltreatment, and other potential confounds. There were no differences between PA and control groups with regard to physiological arousal during the stress challenge. In a non-clinical sample of women with minimal or no current psychopathology, physical abuse is associated with a blunted cortisol response to a psychosocial stress task.

  19. Growth and biochemical responses of juvenile cod to acute and chronic exposure to production water from the Hibernia oil rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burridge, L.; Lyons, M.; Blair, T.; Haya, K.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted in which the chemical characteristics of production water collected from the Hibernia oil production platform in June, 2006 were determined. Bioassays were also performed on juvenile cod in order to determine acute responses after 48 hour exposure to concentrations of production water ranging from 0.06 to 5 per cent. Of the 70 juvenile cod that were exposed continuously for 45 days to 0.05 per cent Hibernia production water, 8 were sacrificed and liver, gill muscle and plasma was collected for biochemical analysis at day 3, 14, 28 and 45 during the exposure. Length and weight data were also collected to compare growth rates of exposed fish with unexposed fish. Results did not reveal any difference in growth rate in cod exposed for 45 days to Hibernia production water compared to those held in untreated water under the same conditions. Tissues for mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction are undergoing analysis.

  20. Non-host disease resistance response in pea (Pisum sativum) pods: Biochemical function of DRR206 and phytoalexin pathway localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Herana Kamal; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Kim, Kye-Won; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Yang, Hong; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2015-05-01

    Continually exposed to potential pathogens, vascular plants have evolved intricate defense mechanisms to recognize encroaching threats and defend themselves. They do so by inducing a set of defense responses that can help defeat and/or limit effects of invading pathogens, of which the non-host disease resistance response is the most common. In this regard, pea (Pisum sativum) pod tissue, when exposed to Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli spores, undergoes an inducible transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and also produces (+)-pisatin, its major phytoalexin. One of the inducible pathogenesis-related genes is Disease Resistance Response-206 (DRR206), whose role in vivo was unknown. DRR206 is, however, related to the dirigent protein (DP) family. In this study, its biochemical function was investigated in planta, with the metabolite associated with its gene induction being pinoresinol monoglucoside. Interestingly, both pinoresinol monoglucoside and (+)-pisatin were co-localized in pea pod endocarp epidermal cells, as demonstrated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging. In addition, endocarp epidermal cells are also the site for both chalcone synthase and DRR206 gene expression. Taken together, these data indicate that both (+)-pisatin and pinoresinol monoglucoside function in the overall phytoalexin responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social stress response in adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Melynda D; Goldstein, Tina R; Gratzmiller, Sarah M; Franzen, Peter L

    2018-05-01

    Theoretical models posit that stressors contribute to the onset and maintenance of bipolar disorder in adolescence through disruptions in stress physiology, but physiological response to stressors has not been evaluated in adolescents with bipolar illness. The present study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with bipolar disorder will have greater reactivity to a laboratory social stress task than healthy adolescents. Adolescents with bipolar illness (n = 27) and healthy adolescents (n = 28) completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Task. Stress response was assessed using high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), salivary cortisol, and subjective stress. Multilevel models were used to test for group differences in resting-state physiology, and stress reactivity and recovery. Adolescents with bipolar disorder had greater reactivity in HF-HRV (z = 3.32), but blunted reactivity in MAP (z = -3.08) and cortisol (z = -2.60), during the stressor compared to healthy adolescents. They also had lower resting HF-HRV (z = -3.49) and cortisol (z = -2.86), and higher resting HR (z = 3.56), than healthy adolescents. These results indicate that bipolar disorder is associated with disruptions in autonomic and endocrine response to stress during adolescence, including greater HF-HRV reactivity. Further research should evaluate whether these individual differences in stress physiology precede and predict the onset of mood episodes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Eccentric-exercise induced inflammation attenuates the vascular responses to mental stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paine, N.J.; Ring, C.; Aldred, S.; Bosch, J.A.; Wadley, A.J.; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Mental stress has been identified as a trigger of myocardial infarction (MI), with inflammation and vascular responses to mental stress independently implicated as contributing factors. This study examined whether inflammation moderates the vascular responses to mental stress. Eighteen healthy male

  3. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4 h/d for 1 or 2 days. Exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal inflammation in both strains with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also caused metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK > Wistar). Serum total cholesterol (GKs only), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK > Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-chain amino acid or insulin levels. These responses corresponded with a significant increase in corticosterone and modest but insignificant increases in adrenaline in both strains, suggesting activation of the HPA axis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein exposure has a profound effect on nasal and pulmonary inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid metabolis

  4. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Rosa, Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K + and Na + ) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  5. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  6. Tumor localization and biochemical response to cure in tumor-induced osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, William H; Andreopoulou, Panagiota; Chen, Clara C; Reynolds, James; Guthrie, Lori; Kelly, Marilyn; Gafni, Rachel I; Bhattacharyya, Nisan; Boyce, Alison M; El-Maouche, Diala; Crespo, Diana Ovejero; Sherry, Richard; Chang, Richard; Wodajo, Felasfa M; Kletter, Gad B; Dwyer, Andrew; Collins, Michael T

    2013-06-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare disorder of phosphate wasting due to fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23)-secreting tumors that are often difficult to locate. We present a systematic approach to tumor localization and postoperative biochemical changes in 31 subjects with TIO. All had failed either initial localization, or relocalization (in case of recurrence or metastases) at outside institutions. Functional imaging with ¹¹¹Indium-octreotide with single photon emission computed tomography (octreo-SPECT or SPECT/CT), and ¹⁸fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (FDG-PET/CT) were performed, followed by anatomic imaging (CT, MRI). Selective venous sampling (VS) was performed when multiple suspicious lesions were identified or high surgical risk was a concern. Tumors were localized in 20 of 31 subjects (64.5%). Nineteen of 20 subjects underwent octreo-SPECT imaging, and 16 of 20 FDG-PET/CT imaging. Eighteen of 19 (95%) were positive on octreo-SPECT, and 14 of 16 (88%) on FDG-PET/CT. Twelve of 20 subjects underwent VS; 10 of 12 (83%) were positive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were as follows: sensitivity = 0.95, specificity = 0.64, PPV = 0.82, and NPV = 0.88 for octreo-SPECT; sensitivity = 0.88, specificity = 0.36, PPV = 0.62, and NPV = 0.50 for FDG-PET/CT. Fifteen subjects had their tumor resected at our institution, and were disease-free at last follow-up. Serum phosphorus returned to normal in all subjects within 1 to 5 days. In 10 subjects who were followed for at least 7 days postoperatively, intact FGF23 (iFGF23) decreased to near undetectable within hours and returned to the normal range within 5 days. C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) decreased immediately but remained elevated, yielding a markedly elevated cFGF23/iFGF23 ratio. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25D) rose and exceeded the normal range. In this systematic approach to tumor

  7. Psychological stress during exercise: immunoendocrine and oxidative responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Evans, Ronald K; McCleod, Kelly A; Tangsilsat, Supatchara E; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in catecholamines (epinephrine [EPI] and norepinephrine [NE]), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and a biomarker of oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) in healthy individuals who were exposed to a dual challenge (physical and psychological stress). Furthermore, this study also examined the possible relationships between catecholamines (NE and EPI) and 8-isoprostane and between IL-2 and 8-isoprostane following a combined physical and psychological challenge. Seven healthy male subjects completed two experimental conditions. The exercise-alone condition (EAC) consisted of cycling at 60% VO(2max) for 37 min, while the dual-stress condition (DSC) included 20 min of a mental challenge while cycling. DSC showed greater EPI and 8-isoprostane levels (significant condition by time interaction). NE and IL-2 revealed significant change across time in both conditions. In addition, following dual stress, EPI area-under-the-curve (AUC) demonstrated a positive correlation with NE AUC and IL-2 AUC. NE AUC was positively correlated with IL-2 AUC and peak 8-isoprostane, and peak IL-2 was positively correlated with peak 8-isoprostane in response to a dual stress. The potential explanation for elevated oxidative stress during dual stress may be through the effects of the release of catecholamines and IL-2. These findings may further provide the potential explanation that dual stress alters physiological homeostasis in many occupations including firefighting, military operations and law enforcement. A greater understanding of these responses to stress can assist in finding strategies (e.g. exercise training) to overcome the inherent psychobiological challenges associated with physically and mentally demanding professions.

  8. Waterborne cadmium and nickel impact oxidative stress responses and retinoid metabolism in yellow perch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defo, Michel A.; Bernatchez, Louis; Campbell, Peter G.C.; Couture, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd and Ni affected indicators of retinoid metabolism and oxidative stress in fish. • Liver rdh-2 transcription levels increase in fish exposed to waterborne Cd. • Liver REH and LdRAT activities increase with increasing kidney Cd concentration. • Changes at molecular levels do not always mean changes at the functional levels. • Multi-level biological approaches are needed when assessing fish metal toxicology. - Abstract: In this experiment, we studied the transcriptional and functional (enzymatic) responses of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) to metal stress, with a focus on oxidative stress and vitamin A metabolism. Juvenile yellow perch were exposed to two environmentally relevant concentrations of waterborne cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) for a period of 6 weeks. Kidney Cd and Ni bioaccumulation significantly increased with increasing metal exposure. The major retinoid metabolites analyzed in liver and muscle decreased with metal exposure except at high Cd exposure where no variation was reported in liver. A decrease in free plasma dehydroretinol was also observed with metal exposure. In the liver of Cd-exposed fish, both epidermal retinol dehydrogenase 2 transcription level and corresponding enzyme activities retinyl ester hydrolase and lecithin dehydroretinyl acyl transferase increased. In contrast, muscle epidermal retinol dehydrogenase 2 transcription level decreased with Cd exposure. Among antioxidant defences, liver transcription levels of catalase, microsomal glutathione-S-transferase-3 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were generally enhanced in Cd-exposed fish and this up-regulation was accompanied by an increase in the activities of corresponding enzymes, except for microsomal glutathione-S-transferase. No consistent pattern in antioxidant defence responses was observed between molecular and biochemical response when fish were exposed to Ni, suggesting a non-synchronous response of antioxidant defence in fish exposed to

  9. Waterborne cadmium and nickel impact oxidative stress responses and retinoid metabolism in yellow perch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defo, Michel A. [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bernatchez, Louis [Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C. [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Couture, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.couture@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Cd and Ni affected indicators of retinoid metabolism and oxidative stress in fish. • Liver rdh-2 transcription levels increase in fish exposed to waterborne Cd. • Liver REH and LdRAT activities increase with increasing kidney Cd concentration. • Changes at molecular levels do not always mean changes at the functional levels. • Multi-level biological approaches are needed when assessing fish metal toxicology. - Abstract: In this experiment, we studied the transcriptional and functional (enzymatic) responses of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) to metal stress, with a focus on oxidative stress and vitamin A metabolism. Juvenile yellow perch were exposed to two environmentally relevant concentrations of waterborne cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) for a period of 6 weeks. Kidney Cd and Ni bioaccumulation significantly increased with increasing metal exposure. The major retinoid metabolites analyzed in liver and muscle decreased with metal exposure except at high Cd exposure where no variation was reported in liver. A decrease in free plasma dehydroretinol was also observed with metal exposure. In the liver of Cd-exposed fish, both epidermal retinol dehydrogenase 2 transcription level and corresponding enzyme activities retinyl ester hydrolase and lecithin dehydroretinyl acyl transferase increased. In contrast, muscle epidermal retinol dehydrogenase 2 transcription level decreased with Cd exposure. Among antioxidant defences, liver transcription levels of catalase, microsomal glutathione-S-transferase-3 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were generally enhanced in Cd-exposed fish and this up-regulation was accompanied by an increase in the activities of corresponding enzymes, except for microsomal glutathione-S-transferase. No consistent pattern in antioxidant defence responses was observed between molecular and biochemical response when fish were exposed to Ni, suggesting a non-synchronous response of antioxidant defence in fish exposed to

  10. Stretching the stress boundary: Linking air pollution health effects to a neurohormonal stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2016-12-01

    Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred to here as a systemic response produced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis) has been implicated in a variety of psychological and physical stresses, which involves immune and metabolic homeostatic mechanisms affecting all organs in the body. In this review, we provide new evidence for the involvement of this well-characterized neurohormonal stress response in mediating systemic and pulmonary effects of a prototypic air pollutant - ozone. A plethora of systemic metabolic and immune effects are induced in animals exposed to inhaled pollutants, which could result from increased circulating stress hormones. The release of adrenal-derived stress hormones in response to ozone exposure not only mediates systemic immune and metabolic responses, but by doing so, also modulates pulmonary injury and inflammation. With recurring pollutant exposures, these effects can contribute to multi-organ chronic conditions associated with air pollution. This review will cover, 1) the potential mechanisms by which air pollutants can initiate the relay of signals from respiratory tract to brain through trigeminal and vagus nerves, and activate stress responsive regions including hypothalamus; and 2) the contribution of sympathetic and HPA-axis activation in mediating systemic homeostatic metabolic and immune effects of ozone in various organs. The potential contribution of chronic environmental stress in cardiovascular, neurological, reproductive and metabolic diseases, and the knowledge gaps are also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio and Weidong Wu. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Biochemical signatures of in vitro radiation response in human lung, breast and prostate tumour cells observed with Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Q; Jirasek, A; Lum, J J; Brolo, A G

    2011-01-01

    This work applies noninvasive single-cell Raman spectroscopy (RS) and principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze and correlate radiation-induced biochemical changes in a panel of human tumour cell lines that vary by tissue of origin, p53 status and intrinsic radiosensitivity. Six human tumour cell lines, derived from prostate (DU145, PC3 and LNCaP), breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) and lung (H460), were irradiated in vitro with single fractions (15, 30 or 50 Gy) of 6 MV photons. Remaining live cells were harvested for RS analysis at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-irradiation, along with unirradiated controls. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 cells per sample utilizing a 785 nm excitation laser. All spectra (200 per cell line) were individually post-processed using established methods and the total data set for each cell line was analyzed with PCA using standard algorithms. One radiation-induced PCA component was detected for each cell line by identification of statistically significant changes in the PCA score distributions for irradiated samples, as compared to unirradiated samples, in the first 24-72 h post-irradiation. These RS response signatures arise from radiation-induced changes in cellular concentrations of aromatic amino acids, conformational protein structures and certain nucleic acid and lipid functional groups. Correlation analysis between the radiation-induced PCA components separates the cell lines into three distinct RS response categories: R1 (H460 and MCF7), R2 (MDA-MB-231 and PC3) and R3 (DU145 and LNCaP). These RS categories partially segregate according to radiosensitivity, as the R1 and R2 cell lines are radioresistant (SF 2 > 0.6) and the R3 cell lines are radiosensitive (SF 2 < 0.5). The R1 and R2 cell lines further segregate according to p53 gene status, corroborated by cell cycle analysis post-irradiation. Potential radiation-induced biochemical response mechanisms underlying our RS observations are proposed, such as (1) the

  12. Toxicity of Tributyltin in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio): Physiological Responses, Hepatic Gene Expression, and Stress Protein Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Li-Qiao; Mu, Wei-Na; Wu, Yan-Hua

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the effects of tributyltin (TBT) on biochemical parameters (antioxidant responses and Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase) in different tissues were investigated by using juvenile common carp (Cyprinus Carpio) as well as growth and ion regulation-related genes expression and stress-related proteins profiling in fish liver. Oxidative stress indices and Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase showed tissues-specific responses in fish exposed to different TBT concentrations. All tested genes related to GH/IGF-I axis and ion-regulation were significantly induced in the TBT group with lower concentrations (except for the igfbp3 in 10 μg/L) and were inhibited in 20 μg/L. In addition, the profiling of two proteins Hsp 70 and MT were increasing in a dose-dependent manner under TBT stress. In short, TBT-induced biochemical and molecular responses in different tissues were reflected in the measured parameters in the test. On the basis of TBT residue levels in the natural environment, more long-term experiments at lower concentrations will be necessary in the future. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Response to stress in Drosophila is mediated by gender, age and stress paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckameyer, Wendi S; Nieto-Romero, Andres R

    2015-01-01

    All living organisms must maintain equilibrium in response to internal and external challenges within their environment. Changes in neural plasticity (alterations in neuronal populations, dendritic remodeling, and synaptic turnover) are critical components of the homeostatic response to stress, which has been strongly implicated in the onset of affective disorders. However, stress is differentially perceived depending on the type of stress and its context, as well as genetic background, age and sex; therefore, an individual's maintenance of neuronal homeostasis must differ depending upon these variables. We established Drosophila as a model to analyze homeostatic responses to stress. Sexually immature and mature females and males from an isogenic wild-type strain raised under controlled environmental conditions were exposed to four reproducible and high-throughput translatable stressors to facilitate the analysis of a large number of animals for direct comparisons. These animals were assessed in an open-field arena, in a light-dark box, and in a forced swim test, as well as for sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. These studies establish that immature and mature females and males represent behaviorally distinct populations under control conditions as well as after exposure to different stressors. Therefore, the neural substrates mediating the stress response must be differentially expressed depending upon the hormonal status of the brain. In addition, an adaptive response to a given stressor in one paradigm was not predictive for outcomes in other paradigms.

  14. Stress effects on mood, HPA axis, and autonomic response: comparison of three psychosocial stress paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E Giles

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental psychology research has attempted to parse the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, mood, cognitive performance, and physiological changes. To do so, it is necessary to have effective, validated methods to experimentally induce psychosocial stress. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST is the most commonly used method of experimentally inducing psychosocial stress, but it is resource intensive. Less resource intense psychosocial stress tasks include the Socially Evaluative Cold Pressor Task (SECPT and a computerized mental arithmetic task (MAT. These tasks effectively produce a physiological and psychological stress response and have the benefits of requiring fewer experimenters and affording data collection from multiple participants simultaneously. The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of these three experimental psychosocial stress induction paradigms. On each of four separate days, participants completed either a control non-stressful task or one of the three experimental stressors: the TSST, SECPT, or MAT. We measured mood, working memory performance, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA, and heart rate. The TSST and SECPT exerted the most robust effects on mood and physiological measures. TSST effects were generally evident immediately post-stress as well as 10- and 20-minutes after stress cessation, whereas SECPT effects were generally limited to the duration of the stressor. The stress duration is a key determinant when planning a study that utilizes an experimental stressor, as researchers may be interested in collecting dependent measures prior to stress cessation. In this way, the TSST would allow the investigator a longer window to administer tasks of interest.

  15. Physiological responses of genotypes soybean to simulated drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonóra Krivosudská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate possible genetic variation in the sensitivity of soybean cultivars for nitrogen fixation rates in response to soil drying. The work confirmed that the selected physiological characteristics (RWC, osmotic potential, stress index and created nodules on roots are good evaluating parameters for the determination of water stress in plant. In the floricultural year 2014 an experiment with four genetic resources of soybean was launched. Sowing of Maverick (USA, Drina (HRV, Nigra (SVK and Polanka (CZK genotypes was carried out in the containers of 15 l capacity. This stress had a negative impact on the physiological parameters. By comparing the RWC values, the decrease was more significant at the end of dehydration, which was monitored in Maverick and Drina genotypes using the Nitrazon inoculants and water stress effect. Inoculated stressed Nigra and Polanka genotypes have kept higher water content till the end of dehydration period. Also the proline accumulation was monitored during the water stress, whilst higher content of free proline reached of Maverick. More remarkable decrease of osmotic potential was again registered in a foreign Drina and Maverick genotypes in the inoculated variations. Nigra and Polanka genotypes responses not so significant in the given conditions.

  16. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on maize physiology and biochemical response under variable nitrogen levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are known for colonizing plant roots, transporting water and nutrients from the soil to the plant. Therefore, environmental conditions set mainly by soil water and nutrient levels are important determinants of AM function and host plant response. Mechanisms of nitro...

  17. Cortisol stress response in post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Böhme, Carsten; Petrowski, Katja

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has focussed extensively on the distinction of HPA-axis functioning between patient groups and healthy volunteers, with relatively little emphasis on a direct comparison of patient groups. The current study's aim was to analyse differences in the cortisol stress response as a function of primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of n=30 PD (mean age±SD: 36.07±12.56), n=23 PTSD (41.22±10.17), n=18 MDD patients (39.00±14.93) and n=47 healthy control (HC) individuals (35.51±13.15) participated in this study. All the study participants were female. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used for reliable laboratory stress induction. Blood sampling accompanied the TSST for cortisol and ACTH assessment. Panic-related, PTSD-specific questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory II were handed out for the characterisation of the study groups. Repeated measure ANCOVAs were conducted to test for main effects of time or group and for interaction effects. Regression analyses were conducted to take comorbid depression into account. 26.7% of the PD patients, 43.5% of the PTSD patients, 72.2% of the MDD patients and 80.6% of the HC participants showed a cortisol stress response upon the TSST. ANCOVA revealed a cortisol hypo-responsiveness both in PD and PTSD patients, while no significant group differences were seen in the ACTH concentrations. Additional analyses showed no impact of comorbid depressiveness on the cortisol stress response. MDD patients did not differ in the hormonal stress response neither compared to the HC participants nor to the PD and PTSD patients. Our main findings provide evidence of a dissociation between the cortisol and ACTH concentrations in response to the TSST in PTSD and in PD patients, independent of comorbid depression. Our results further support overall research findings of a cortisol hypo-responsiveness in PD patients. A hypo-response

  18. Silver nanoparticles induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Capelle, Martinus [Crucell, P.O. Box 2048, NL-2301 Leiden (Netherlands); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Department of Environmental Systems Science, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) find increasing applications, and therefore humans and the environment are increasingly exposed to them. However, potential toxicological implications are not sufficiently known. Here we investigate effects of AgNPs (average size 120 nm) on zebrafish in vitro and in vivo, and compare them to human hepatoma cells (Huh7). AgNPs are incorporated in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and Huh7, and in zebrafish embryos. In ZFL cells AgNPs lead to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress response, and TNF-α. Transcriptional alterations also occur in pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The transcriptional profile differed in ZFL and Huh7 cells. In ZFL cells, the ER stress marker BiP is induced, concomitant with the ER stress marker ATF-6 and spliced XBP-1 after 6 h and 24 h exposure to 0.5 g/L and 0.05 g/L AgNPs, respectively. This indicates the induction of different pathways of the ER stress response. Moreover, AgNPs induce TNF-α. In zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs hatching was affected and morphological defects occurred at high concentrations. ER stress related gene transcripts BiP and Synv are significantly up-regulated after 24 h at 0.1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs. Furthermore, transcriptional alterations occurred in the pro-apoptotic genes Noxa and p21. The ER stress response was strong in ZFL cells and occurred in zebrafish embryos as well. Our data demonstrate for the first time that AgNPs lead to induction of ER stress in zebrafish. The induction of ER stress can have several consequences including the activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. - Highlights: • Effects of silver nanoparticles (120 nm AgNPs) are investigated in zebrafish. • AgNPs induce all ER stress reponses in vitro in zebrafish liver cells. • AgNPs induce weak ER stress in zebrafish embryos. • AgNPs induce oxidative stress and transcripts of pro-apoptosis genes.

  19. Silver nanoparticles induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, Verena; Capelle, Martinus; Fent, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) find increasing applications, and therefore humans and the environment are increasingly exposed to them. However, potential toxicological implications are not sufficiently known. Here we investigate effects of AgNPs (average size 120 nm) on zebrafish in vitro and in vivo, and compare them to human hepatoma cells (Huh7). AgNPs are incorporated in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and Huh7, and in zebrafish embryos. In ZFL cells AgNPs lead to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress response, and TNF-α. Transcriptional alterations also occur in pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The transcriptional profile differed in ZFL and Huh7 cells. In ZFL cells, the ER stress marker BiP is induced, concomitant with the ER stress marker ATF-6 and spliced XBP-1 after 6 h and 24 h exposure to 0.5 g/L and 0.05 g/L AgNPs, respectively. This indicates the induction of different pathways of the ER stress response. Moreover, AgNPs induce TNF-α. In zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs hatching was affected and morphological defects occurred at high concentrations. ER stress related gene transcripts BiP and Synv are significantly up-regulated after 24 h at 0.1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs. Furthermore, transcriptional alterations occurred in the pro-apoptotic genes Noxa and p21. The ER stress response was strong in ZFL cells and occurred in zebrafish embryos as well. Our data demonstrate for the first time that AgNPs lead to induction of ER stress in zebrafish. The induction of ER stress can have several consequences including the activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. - Highlights: • Effects of silver nanoparticles (120 nm AgNPs) are investigated in zebrafish. • AgNPs induce all ER stress reponses in vitro in zebrafish liver cells. • AgNPs induce weak ER stress in zebrafish embryos. • AgNPs induce oxidative stress and transcripts of pro-apoptosis genes

  20. Erythropoietin Action in Stress Response, Tissue Maintenance and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO regulation of red blood cell production and its induction at reduced oxygen tension provides for the important erythropoietic response to ischemic stress. The cloning and production of recombinant human EPO has led to its clinical use in patients with anemia for two and half decades and has facilitated studies of EPO action. Reports of animal and cell models of ischemic stress in vitro and injury suggest potential EPO benefit beyond red blood cell production including vascular endothelial response to increase nitric oxide production, which facilitates oxygen delivery to brain, heart and other non-hematopoietic tissues. This review discusses these and other reports of EPO action beyond red blood cell production, including EPO response affecting metabolism and obesity in animal models. Observations of EPO activity in cell and animal model systems, including mice with tissue specific deletion of EPO receptor (EpoR, suggest the potential for EPO response in metabolism and disease.

  1. Patterns of Sympathetic Responses Induced by Different Stress Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechir, M; Schlereth, T; Purat, T; Kritzmann, S; Geber, C; Eberle, T; Gamer, M; Birklein, F

    2008-01-01

    Stress tasks are used to induce sympathetic nervous system (SNS) arousal. However, the efficacy and the patterns of SNS activation have not been systematically compared between different tasks. Therefore, we analyzed SNS activation during the following stress tasks: Presentation of negative, positive, and – as a control – neutral affective pictures, Color-Word interference test (CWT), mental arithmetic under time limit, singing a song aloud, and giving a spontaneous talk. We examined 11 healthy subjects and recorded the following SNS parameters: Activation of emotional sweating by quantitative sudometry, skin vasoconstriction by laser-Doppler flowmetry, heart rate by ECG, blood pressure by determination of pulse wave transit time (PWTT), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius muscle. Moreover, subjective stress ratings were acquired for each task using a visual analog scale. All tasks were felt significantly stressful when compared to viewing neutral pictures. However, SNS activation was not reliable: Affective pictures did not induce a significant SNS response; singing, giving a talk and mental arithmetic selectively increased heart rate and emotional sweating. Only the CWT globally activated the SNS. Regarding all tasks, induction of emotional sweating, increase of heart rate and blood pressure significantly correlated with subjective stress ratings, in contrast to EMG and skin vasoconstriction. Our results show that the activation of the SNS widely varies depending on the stress task. Different stress tasks differently activate the SNS, which is an important finding when considering sympathetic reactions - in clinical situations and in research. PMID:19018304

  2. Enterovirus Control of Translation and RNA Granule Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Richard E

    2016-03-30

    Enteroviruses such as poliovirus (PV) and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) have evolved several parallel strategies to regulate cellular gene expression and stress responses to ensure efficient expression of the viral genome. Enteroviruses utilize their encoded proteinases to take over the cellular translation apparatus and direct ribosomes to viral mRNAs. In addition, viral proteinases are used to control and repress the two main types of cytoplasmic RNA granules, stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (P-bodies, PBs), which are stress-responsive dynamic structures involved in repression of gene expression. This review discusses these processes and the current understanding of the underlying mechanisms with respect to enterovirus infections. In addition, the review discusses accumulating data suggesting linkage exists between RNA granule formation and innate immune sensing and activation.

  3. Eye surface temperature detects stress response in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkatai, Yuko; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-08-05

    Previous studies have suggested that stressors not only increase body core temperature but also body surface temperature in many animals. However, it remains unclear whether surface temperature could be used as an alternative to directly measure body core temperature, particularly in birds. We investigated whether surface temperature is perceived as a stress response in budgerigars. Budgerigars have been used as popular animal models to investigate various neural mechanisms such as visual perception, vocal learning, and imitation. Developing a new technique to understand the basic physiological mechanism would help neuroscience researchers. First, we found that cloacal temperature correlated with eye surface temperature. Second, eye surface temperature increased after handling stress. Our findings suggest that eye surface temperature is closely related to cloacal temperature and that the stress response can be measured by eye surface temperature in budgerigars.

  4. [Regulation of heat shock gene expression in response to stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuz, D G

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock (HS) genes, or stress genes, code for a number of proteins that collectively form the most ancient and universal stress defense system. The system determines the cell capability of adaptation to various adverse factors and performs a variety of auxiliary functions in normal physiological conditions. Common stress factors, such as higher temperatures, hypoxia, heavy metals, and others, suppress transcription and translation for the majority of genes, while HS genes are upregulated. Transcription of HS genes is controlled by transcription factors of the HS factor (HSF) family. Certain HSFs are activated on exposure to higher temperatures or other adverse factors to ensure stress-induced HS gene expression, while other HSFs are specifically activated at particular developmental stages. The regulation of the main mammalian stress-inducible factor HSF1 and Drosophila melanogaster HSF includes many components, such as a variety of early warning signals indicative of abnormal cell activity (e.g., increases in intracellular ceramide, cytosolic calcium ions, or partly denatured proteins); protein kinases, which phosphorylate HSFs at various Ser residues; acetyltransferases; and regulatory proteins, such as SUMO and HSBP1. Transcription factors other than HSFs are also involved in activating HS gene transcription; the set includes D. melanogaster GAF, mammalian Sp1 and NF-Y, and other factors. Transcription of several stress genes coding for molecular chaperones of the glucose-regulated protein (GRP) family is predominantly regulated by another stress-detecting system, which is known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) system and is activated in response to massive protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial matrix. A translational fine tuning of HS protein expression occurs via changing the phosphorylation status of several proteins involved in translation initiation. In addition, specific signal sequences in the 5'-UTRs of some HS

  5. The physiological stress response and oxidative stress biomarkers in rainbow trout and brook trout from selenium-impacted streams in a coal mining region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.L.; Rasmussen, J.B.; Palace, V.P.; Hontela, A. [University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Science

    2009-11-15

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element that can be toxic at concentrations slightly greater than those required for homeostasis. The main chronic toxic effects of Se in fish are teratogenic deformities, but Se can also activate the physiological stress response and redox cycle with reduced glutathione causing oxidative damage. Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, appear to be more sensitive to Se than brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. The objective of this study was to compare the physiological stress response (plasma cortisol, glucose, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, gill Na+/K+ ATPase, cortisol secretory capacity, K and liver somatic index) and oxidative stress biomarkers (liver GSH, GPx, lipid peroxidation, vitamin A and vitamin E) in rainbow trout (RNTR) and brook trout (BKTR) collected from reference and Se-exposed streams. The physiological stress response was not impaired (cortisol secretory capacity unchanged); although there were species differences in plasma cortisol and plasma glucose levels. Liver GSH, GPx and vitamin levels were higher in RNTR than BKTR, but lipid peroxidation levels were not different. The elevated GSH reserves may make RNTR more sensitive to Se-induced lipid peroxidation, but this may be offset by the RNTR's higher antioxidant (GPx and vitamin) levels. Species-specific biochemical differences may mediate differences in Se sensitivity and be used in aquatic Se risk assessments.

  6. Investigation of arsenic accumulation and biochemical response of in vitro developed Vetiveria zizanoides plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shraddha; Sounderajan, Suvarna; Kumar, Kiran; Fulzele, D P

    2017-11-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides L. Nash) is found to be a suitable candidate for the phytoremediation of heavy metals. An investigation of arsenic (As) accumulation, translocation and tolerance was conducted in V. zizanoides plantlets upon exposure to different concentrations of arsenic (10, 50, 100 and 200µM) for 7 and 14 d. V. zizanoides plants were found effective in remediation of As, maximum being at 200µM after 14 d of exposure. The results of TBARS and photosynthetic pigments demonstrated that plants did not experience significant toxicity at all the concentrations of As after 7 days, however an increase in their level was found after 14 d. The up-regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) in a coordinated and complementary manner enhanced tolerance to plants against arsenic induced oxidative stress. Taken together, the results indicated that in vitro developed plants of V. zizanoides have the potential to remediate and tolerate varying levels of As. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Physiological, biochemical and defense system responses of parthenium hysterophorus to vehicular exhaust pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Hussain, M.; Hameed, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by vehicular exhaust emissions detrimentally affect plants and other living beings. This investigation was carried out to evaluate the effects of vehicular exhaust pollutants on Parthenium hysterophorus at various sites along two major roads [Pindi Bhattian to Lillah (M-2) and Faisalabad to Sargodha (FSR)]in the Punjab, Pakistan. Control samples of P. hysterophorus were also collected from 100m away from the roads. Chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, substomatal CO/sub 2/ concentration, water use efficiency, total free amino acids and total antioxidant activity of P. hysterophorus were measured. The results depicted significant reductions in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of P. hysterophorus. Likewise, reduction in stomatal conductance was also recorded which resulted in lowered photosynthetic and transpiration rates. The overall reduction in photosynthetic rate of P. hysterophorus was 30.92% and 35.38% along M-2 and FSR roads, respectively. The limited photosynthesis resulted in increased levels of sub stomatal /sub 2/ concentration and water use efficiency. The elevated levels of free amino acids and total antioxidant activity were noted and could be attributed to activation of plant's defense system to cope with the deleterious effects of vehicular air pollutants. The significant correlations between various attributes of P. hysterophorus with traffic density signifies the stress caused by vehicular emissions. (author)

  8. CENTRAL AMYGDALOID INVOLVEMENT IN NEUROENDOCRINE CORRELATES OF CONDITIONED STRESS RESPONSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROOZENDAAL, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; BOHUS, B

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in comparison with sham lesions on neuroendocrine responses during conditioned emotional stress in male Wistar rats. Lesions in the CEA, made either before or after the

  9. Physiological response of heat stressed broiler chickens to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of supplementing the drinking water of broilers reared under natural heat stress with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and ascorbic acid (AA) on physiological response was investigated. A 200, one-day Arbor acre chicks were randomly allotted to five treatments in ...

  10. Oxidative stress response pathways: Fission yeast as archetype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Manos A.; Workman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a popular model eukaryotic organism to study diverse aspects of mammalian biology, including responses to cellular stress triggered by redox imbalances within its compartments. The review considers the current knowledge on the signaling pathways that govern the transc...

  11. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... transportation are numerous and the responses of the animal to them are complex, non-specific and ..... at 3 h after a 6 h journey in male Japanese goats. During ..... animals are subjected to concomitant action of transport- tation and heat stress .... those measured in moving vehicles (Warriss et al., 1993).

  12. Variability salt stress response analysis of Tunisian natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the responses to salt stress of 106 Medicago truncatula lines from 11 Tunisian natural populations collected from areas that varied in soil composition, salinity and water availability. Five references lines were also included in this study. Plants were cultivated in two treatments (0 and 50 mM of NaCl) during a ...

  13. Long-term salt stress responsive growth, carbohydrate metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the long-term responses of tobacco tissues to salt stress, with a particular interest for growth parameters, proline (Pro) accumulation, and carbohydrate metabolism. Exposure of 17-day-old tobacco plants to 0.2 M NaCl was followed by a higher decrease in dry matter in roots than shoots with a decrease of ...

  14. Differential response to water deficit stress in alfalfa ( Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was fixed as objective to compare the response to water deficit (33% of field capacity, FC) stress of eight cultivars of Medicago sativa, originating from the Mediterranean basin. Comparison was performed on some key parameters such as growth, relative water content, leaf water potential, MDA tissue ...

  15. Modulation of the immune response by emotional stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croiset, G; Heijnen, C J; Veldhuis, H D; de Wied, D; Ballieux, R E

    1987-01-01

    The influence of mild, emotional stress was investigated for its effect on the immune system by subjecting rats to the one-trial-learning passive avoidance test. The reactivity of the immune system was tested by determining the proliferative response after mitogenic stimulation in vitro as well as

  16. Association between neuroticism and amygdala responsivity emerges under stressful conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaerd, Daphne; Klumpers, Floris; van Wingen, Guido; Tendolkar, Indira; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-01-01

    Increased amygdala reactivity in response to salient stimuli is seen in patients with affective disorders, in healthy subjects at risk for these disorders, and in stressed individuals, making it a prime target for mechanistic studies into the pathophysiology of affective disorders. However, whereas

  17. Carica Papaya Seed Extract Enhances Cellular Response to Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the role of Carica papaya seed (CPS) extract that contains, Benzyl Isothiocyanates, one of the inducers of phase II enzymes in the regulation of cellular stress. The cellular responses were observed in U937 cells (human monocyte/macrophage cell line) at the ...

  18. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the exercise-induced stress response

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) naproxen, and of the coxib, rofecoxib, on the exercise-induced stress response. Design. Eight subjects (age 20.9 ± 1.1 years, weight 70.4 ± 3.9 kg, height 170.9 ± 6.7 cm, body surface area 1.82 ± 0.09 m2, ...

  19. Flow stress asymmetry and cyclic stress--strain response in a BCC Ti--V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koss, D.A.; Wojcik, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    The cyclic stress-strain response of relatively stable bcc β-phase Ti--40 percent V alloy single crystals was studied. Flow stress asymmetry found in the alloy is attributed to the fact that screw dislocations, when gliding on a (211) plane, are more mobile in the twinning direction than in the antitwinning direction. Thus the flow stress of the crystal is greater when it is sheared in the antitwinning direction than in the twinning direction (the latter case results when crystals of the 100 orientation are stressed in tension and those of the 110 orientation are stressed in compression). Such behavior can be a result of the core of a screw dislocation being asymmetric under stress which causes the flow stress asymmetry observed. It should be noted that screw dislocations dominate the low temperature deformation structure of Ti-40V, which strongly suggests deformation is controlled by screw dislocation motion. The observation in Mo that the microyield stress is independent of crystal orientation could be a result of edge dislocation motion controlling microyield in that instance and this observation would not be inconsistent with screw dislocation motion controlling the macroscopic (epsilon/sub p/ greater than 0.05 percent) deformation measured here

  20. Moving through the Stressed Genome: Emerging Regulatory Roles for Transposons in Plant Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Pooja; Rai, Archana N; Suprasanna, Penna

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original 'Controlling Element' hypothesis. This regulatory aspect of TEs is also garnering support in light of the recent evidences, which project TEs as "distributed genomic control modules." According to this view, TEs are capable of actively reprogramming host genes circuits and ultimately fine-tuning the host response to specific environmental stimuli. Moreover, the stress-induced changes in epigenetic status of TE activity may allow TEs to propagate their stress responsive elements to host genes; the resulting genome fluidity can permit phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to stress. Given their predominating presence in the plant genomes, nested organization in the genic regions and potential regulatory role in stress response, TEs hold unexplored potential for crop improvement programs. This review intends to present the current information about the roles played by TEs in plant genome organization, evolution, and function and highlight the regulatory mechanisms in plant stress responses. We will also briefly discuss the connection between TE activity, host epigenetic response and phenotypic plasticity as a critical link for traversing the translational bridge from a purely basic study of TEs, to the applied field of stress adaptation and crop improvement.

  1. Moving through the Stressed Genome: Emerging Regulatory Roles for Transposons in Plant Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Pooja; Rai, Archana N.; Suprasanna, Penna

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original ‘Controlling Element’ hypothesis. This regulatory aspect of TEs is also garnering support in light of the recent evidences, which project TEs as “distributed genomic control modules.” According to this view, TEs are capable of actively reprogramming host genes circuits and ultimately fine-tuning the host response to specific environmental stimuli. Moreover, the stress-induced changes in epigenetic status of TE activity may allow TEs to propagate their stress responsive elements to host genes; the resulting genome fluidity can permit phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to stress. Given their predominating presence in the plant genomes, nested organization in the genic regions and potential regulatory role in stress response, TEs hold unexplored potential for crop improvement programs. This review intends to present the current information about the roles played by TEs in plant genome organization, evolution, and function and highlight the regulatory mechanisms in plant stress responses. We will also briefly discuss the connection between TE activity, host epigenetic response and phenotypic plasticity as a critical link for traversing the translational bridge from a purely basic study of TEs, to the applied field of stress adaptation and crop improvement. PMID:27777577

  2. Improvement of fetus growth restriction diagnostics in pregnant women by means of biochemical markers that characterize the disorder of stress-adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kolokot

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Object of the work. Regulatory and adaptive processes of the system “mother –placenta – fetus” state determination and detection of pregnant women adaptive capabilities specific features in case of fetus growth restriction based on a number of the blood plasma biochemical indicators. Materials and methods. Markers of oxidative stress were detected spectrophotometrically in the blood plasma according to generally accepted methods: oxidative modification of proteins, stable metabolites of nitrogen oxide, L-arginine, malondialdehyde, thiol compounds and reduced glutathione. Statistical processing of data was made by methods of variational statistics with Microsoft Office Excel 2010, Statistica 6.0. Results. The use applicability of the number of biochemical markers which are predictors of perinatal complications has been scientifically substantiated. Using biochemical diagnostic technique it has been shown that fetus growth restriction syndrome is accompanied by disorders of regulatory and adaptive processes of the system “mother –placenta – fetus”. In particular, the level of proteins and lipids oxidative modification increases, nitric oxide synthase activity decreases and reserves of L-arginine and thiol compounds decrease in the blood plasma. Conclusions. Comparative analysis of a number of biochemical markers determination results of stress-realizing system activity in pregnant women with fetus growth restriction and in women with a physiological pregnancy has revealed a significant (P ≤ 0.05 increase in markers of protein oxidative modification blood levels (the level of dinitrophenylhydrazones of aliphatic aldehyd of basic amino acid residues and dinitrophenylhydrazones of carbonyl compounds of basic amino acid residues in the spontaneous sample increased by 14.2 % and 16.3 %, respectively, and in the stimulated sample by 46.6 % and 43.0 %, the level of malondialdehyde increased by 42.9 %. Reduction of the stress

  3. Associations Between Paternal Responsiveness and Stress Responsiveness in the Biparental California Mouse, Peromyscus californicus

    OpenAIRE

    Chauke, Miyetani

    2012-01-01

    The mechanistic basis of paternal behavior in mammals is poorly understood. Assuming there are parallels between the factors mediating maternal and paternal behavior, it can be expected that the onset of paternal behavior is facilitated by reductions in stress responsiveness, as occurs in females of several mammalian species. This dissertation describes studies investigating the role of stress responsiveness in the expression of paternal behavior in biparental, monogamous California mice (Per...

  4. Molecular, physiological and biochemical responses of Theobroma cacao L. genotypes to soil water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ivanildes C Dos; Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado de; Anhert, Dário; Conceição, Alessandro S da; Pirovani, Carlos P; Pires, José L; Valle, Raúl René; Baligar, Virupax C

    2014-01-01

    Six months-old seminal plants of 36 cacao genotypes grown under greenhouse conditions were subjected to two soil water regimes (control and drought) to assess, the effects of water deficit on growth, chemical composition and oxidative stress. In the control, soil moisture was maintained near field capacity with leaf water potentials (ΨWL) ranging from -0.1 to -0.5 MPa. In the drought treatment, the soil moisture was reduced gradually by withholding additional water until ΨWL reached values of between -2.0 to -2.5 MPa. The tolerant genotypes PS-1319, MO-20 and MA-15 recorded significant increases in guaiacol peroxidase activity reflecting a more efficient antioxidant metabolism. In relation to drought tolerance, the most important variables in the distinguishing contrasting groups were: total leaf area per plant; leaf, stem and total dry biomass; relative growth rate; plant shoot biomass and leaf content of N, Ca, and Mg. From the results of these analyses, six genotypes were selected with contrasting characteristics for tolerance to soil water deficit [CC-40, C. SUL-4 and SIC-2 (non-tolerant) and MA-15, MO-20, and PA-13 (tolerant)] for further assessment of the expression of genes NCED5, PP2C, psbA and psbO to water deficit. Increased expression of NCED5, PP2C, psbA and psbO genes were found for non-tolerant genotypes, while in the majority of tolerant genotypes there was repression of these genes, with the exception of PA-13 that showed an increased expression of psbA. Mutivariate analysis showed that growth variables, leaf and total dry biomass, relative growth rate as well as Mg content of the leaves were the most important factor in the classification of the genotypes as tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive to water deficit. Therefore these variables are reliable plant traits in the selection of plants tolerant to drought.

  5. Biochemical and locomotor responses of Carcinus maenas exposed to the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Sofia Raquel; Guilhermino, Lúcia; Guimarães, Laura

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the widely used anti-depressant fluoxetine on behaviour (locomotion), moulting, neuromuscular transmission, energy production and anti-oxidant defences' efficiency of the epibenthic crab Carcinus maenas. Crabs were individually exposed to fluoxetine concentrations for 7d. Effects on locomotion were assessed at the end of the exposure using an open field test adapted to C. maenas in the present study. Tissue samples were later collected to evaluate fluoxetine effects on physiological functions using the activity of key enzymes and other parameters as biomarkers, namely: N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAGase) in the epidermis (moulting) and the hepatopancreas; cholinesterases (ChE) in muscle (neuromuscular cholinergic transmission); NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and lactate dehydrogenease (LDH) in muscle (energy production); glutathione S-transferases (GST) in hepatopancreas (biotransformation and oxidative stress system); glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidade (GPx), total glutathione levels (TG) and lipid peroxidation levels in the hepatopancreas (anti-oxidant defences and oxidative damage). Because no information on C. maenas NAGase activity was previously available, its variation during the moult cycle was also investigated. The results showed that locomotion was significantly increased at fluoxetine concentrations equal or above 120 μg L⁻¹, with animals spending more time moving, walking longer distances than controls. Levels of NAGase activity were found to vary in relation to C. maenas moult cycle, but no alterations were observed after exposure to fluoxetine. Significant increases in the activity of ChE, GST and GR enzymes, and the levels of TG were found, with a lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) of 120 μg L⁻¹. Effects on locomotion were significantly and positively correlated to those induced on ChE activity. The results raise concern when hypothesising

  6. Developmental variation during seed germination and biochemical responses of Brassica rapa exposed to various colored lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Tausif; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Shahid; Khan, Maaz; Fazal, Hina; Khalil, Shahid Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Light acting as elicitor or stress inducer, it plays a pivotal role in all developmental processes of plant providing necessary building blocks for growth and primary and secondary metabolites production. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the individual effect of colored lights on developmental processes and production of polyphenolics contents in Brassica rapa. In this study, the red and white lights (control) were found to be the most effective sources for seed germination (91%) in Brassica rapa. Similarly, red light enhanced radicle growth (102 mm), while green light suppressed radicle growth (60 mm) as compared to control (67 mm). The red light also promoted the plumule growth (50 mm) as compared to control (37 mm). The maximum biomass gain (67 mg) was observed under red light as compared to control (55 mg). Currently, the maximum total phenolics content (9.49 mg/g-DW) and phenolics production (379.616 mg/L) was observed under the influence of blue lights as compared to control (0.23 mg/g-DW and 8.91 mg/L). Similarly, the blue lights also enhanced the biosynthesis of total flavonoids content (2.2611 mg/g-DW) and flavonoids production (90.44 mg/L) as compared to control (0.0318 md/g-DW and 0.8268 mg/L). The current results represents that red and blue lights are the most effective sources for plantlets development and production of polyphenolics content in Brassica rapa. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes aggravated biochemical and subcellular damages in leaves of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings under combined stress of lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chengrun; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Jinyun; Tian, Yuan; Shi, Jian; Li, Dongdong; Guo, Chen; Ma, Qingping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MWCNTs-COOH disturb mineral elements and cause oxidative damages in the leaves. • Cd and Pb combination result in reduction of mineral elements and enrichment of Na, involving in toxicity mechanisms. • MWCNTs-COOH facilitate Cd and Pb uptake, and aggravate biochemical and subcellular damages. - Abstract: Increasing industrialization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would inevitably lead to their release into the environment and combination with heavy metals. However, studies concerning the combined effects of MWCNTs and heavy metals on agricultural crops are limited. Herein, effects and mechanisms of carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L) and their combination with 20 μM Pb and 5 μM Cd (shortened as Pb + Cd) on Vicia faba L. seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the MWCNTs-COOH disturbed the imbalance of nutrient elements, and caused oxidative stress and damages in the leaves. Additionally, the combination of MWCNTs-COOH with Pb + Cd resulted in enrichment of Pb and Cd, and deterioration of oxidative damages compared with the treatments of MWCNTs-COOH or Pb + Cd alone in the leaves. As the results, the concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH not only caused oxidative stress, but also exacerbated the biochemical and subcellular damages due to the treatment of Pb + Cd in the leaves. It also suggests that persistent release of MWCNTs-COOH into the environment may cause phytotoxicity and aggravate ecological risks due to combination of heavy metals

  8. Effect Of Dried Whey Milk Supplement On Some Blood Biochemical And Immunological Indices In Relation To Growth Performance Of Heat Stressed Bovine baladi Calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDALLA, E.B.; EL-MASRY, K.A.; TEAMA, F.E.; EMARA, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was carried out under hot environmental conditions, where temperature-humidity index was equivalent to 86 - 90 and 78 - 80 during day and night, respectively. Twelve bovine Baladi calves of 8 - 10 months old and 112 kg average initial live body weight were used in this study. The calves were divided into two groups of 6 animals each to study the effect of supplementation of dried whey milk on some blood biochemical and immunological indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions of Egypt. The results showed that supplementation of dried whey milk to the diet of heat-stressed calves at the level of 150 g / calf / day reduced significantly each of respiration rate and rectal temperature as well as serum lipid concentrations and their fractions e.g. total cholesterol and phospholipids. Also, dried whey milk supplement caused a significant decline in both AST and ALT activities and reduced significantly alpha globulin concentration, while non-significant changes were observed in each of beta globulin, gamma globulin and immunoglobulin G. However, supplementing dried whey milk to growing calves increased significantly serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorous, T 3 and T 4 . Moreover, dried whey milk improved significantly both feed efficiency and daily gain of growing calves. It could be concluded that addition of dried whey milk to the diet reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate and induced an improvement in most blood biochemical parameters and growth performance of heat-stressed bovine Baladi calves.

  9. Early life adversity influences stress response association with smoking relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al'Absi, Mustafa; Lemieux, Andrine; Westra, Ruth; Allen, Sharon

    2017-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that stress-related blunting of cortisol in smokers is particularly pronounced in those with a history of severe life adversity. The two aims of this study were first to examine hormonal, craving, and withdrawal symptoms during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence in smokers who experienced high or low levels of adversity. Second, we sought to examine the relationship between adversity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones to predict relapse during the first month of a smoking cessation attempt. Hormonal and self-report measures were collected from 103 smokers (49 women) during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence. HPA hormones were measured during baseline rest and in response to acute stress in both conditions. All smokers were interested in smoking cessation, and we prospectively used stress response measures to predict relapse during the first 4 weeks of the smoking cessation attempt. The results showed that high adversity was associated with higher distress and smoking withdrawal symptoms. High level of early life adversity was associated with elevated HPA activity, which was found in both salivary and plasma cortisol. Enhanced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stress response was evident in high-adversity but not in low-adversity relapsers. This study demonstrated that early life adversity is associated with stress-related HPA responses. The study also demonstrated that, among smokers who experienced a high level of life adversity, heightened ACTH and cortisol responses were linked with increased risk for smoking relapse.

  10. Stress, Roles and Responsibilities of Single Mothers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hashim Intan Hashimah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Life as a single mother is often associated with great demands and many challenges. This study examines how a group of single mothers in Malaysia views sources of stress and challenges in their lives. It also investigates perceived roles and responsibilities of single mothers. Three hundred single mothers from all over Malaysia were interviewed in this study. Single mothers reported relatively low level of stress that was mostly related to financial (insufficient pay and day-to-day living. They had fairly low stress on issues related to romantic partner and romantic relationships. They however reported extensive roles and responsibilities. Single mothers reported feeling responsible across various domains of life including for their own health and well-being and also for the health and wellbeing of their family and friends. They reported high level of coping and particularly oriented towards solving the problems. They also reported general satisfaction over life. Correlation analysis indicated significant positive relationships between roles and responsibilities and life satisfaction and coping in which coping was associated with higher level of roles and responsibilities and life satisfaction. There was also a negative correlation between stress and life satisfaction in which more stress was associated with lower life satisfaction. Findings indicated a substantial nurturing role of single mothers and provided important policy and practice implications that highlights the important to study and continuously improve quality of life for these women. Finally, this study highlights the important to continuously study and support, important but marginalized groups in society such as single mothers.

  11. Stress Response to Long Distance Transportation of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dobšíková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress responses and changes in biochemical and haematological indices were investigated in three-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. during a long-distance transportation in special truck tanks. Twelve-hour transportation caused a significant increase in ammonia (p < 0.01, mean corpuscular volume MCV (p < 0.01, metamyelocytes ( p < 0.05 and band neutrophils (p < 0.01, and a significant decrease in Cl- (p < 0.05, lactate (p < 0.05, ALT (p < 0.05 and ALP (p < 0.01 levels. The values of LDH (p < 0.01, AST (p < 0.05, CK (p < 0.01 and haematocrit PCV (p < 0.05 were also significantly influenced by the transportation, but no time-dependent relation was found. On the contrary, the levels of cortisol, glucose and total protein in the biochemical profile, and the values of erythrocyte count (RBC, haemoglobin (Hb, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte counts (WBC and leukogram (except for metamyelocytes and band neutrophils in the haematological profile were not significantly influenced by the transportation. Results showed that pre-transport fish manipulation (hauling, netting, handling, loading was found to be an important stressor for fish. Long-distance transportation itself was relatively considerate for the common carp tested.

  12. Occupational Styrene Exposure Induces Stress-Responsive Genes Involved in Cytoprotective and Cytotoxic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strafella, Elisabetta; Bracci, Massimo; Staffolani, Sara; Manzella, Nicola; Giantomasi, Daniele; Valentino, Matteo; Amati, Monica; Tomasetti, Marco; Santarelli, Lory

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of a panel of genes involved in toxicology in response to styrene exposure at levels below the occupational standard setting. Methods Workers in a fiber glass boat industry were evaluated for a panel of stress- and toxicity-related genes and associated with biochemical parameters related to hepatic injury. Urinary styrene metabolites (MA+PGA) of subjects and environmental sampling data collected for air at workplace were used to estimate styrene exposure. Results Expression array analysis revealed massive upregulation of genes encoding stress-responsive proteins (HSPA1L, EGR1, IL-6, IL-1β, TNSF10 and TNFα) in the styrene-exposed group; the levels of cytokines released were further confirmed in serum. The exposed workers were then stratified by styrene exposure levels. EGR1 gene upregulation paralleled the expression and transcriptional protein levels of IL-6, TNSF10 and TNFα in styrene exposed workers, even at low level. The activation of the EGR1 pathway observed at low-styrene exposure was associated with a slight increase of hepatic markers found in highly exposed subjects, even though they were within normal range. The ALT and AST levels were not affected by alcohol consumption, and positively correlated with urinary styrene metabolites as evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Conclusion The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα are the primary mediators of processes involved in the hepatic injury response and regeneration. Here, we show that styrene induced stress responsive genes involved in cytoprotection and cytotoxicity at low-exposure, that proceed to a mild subclinical hepatic toxicity at high-styrene exposure. PMID:24086524

  13. Prioritization of Candidate Genes in QTL Regions for Physiological and Biochemical Traits Underlying Drought Response in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelia Gudys

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most adverse abiotic factors limiting growth and productivity of crops. Among them is barley, ranked fourth cereal worldwide in terms of harvested acreage and production. Plants have evolved various mechanisms to cope with water deficit at different biological levels, but there is an enormous challenge to decipher genes responsible for particular complex phenotypic traits, in order to develop drought tolerant crops. This work presents a comprehensive approach for elucidation of molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in barley at the seedling stage of development. The study includes mapping of QTLs for physiological and biochemical traits associated with drought tolerance on a high-density function map, projection of QTL confidence intervals on barley physical map, and the retrievement of positional candidate genes (CGs, followed by their prioritization based on Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis. A total of 64 QTLs for 25 physiological and biochemical traits that describe plant water status, photosynthetic efficiency, osmoprotectant and hormone content, as well as antioxidant activity, were positioned on a consensus map, constructed using RIL populations developed from the crosses between European and Syrian genotypes. The map contained a total of 875 SNP, SSR and CGs, spanning 941.86 cM with resolution of 1.1 cM. For the first time, QTLs for ethylene, glucose, sucrose, maltose, raffinose, α-tocopherol, γ-tocotrienol content, and catalase activity, have been mapped in barley. Based on overlapping confidence intervals of QTLs, 11 hotspots were identified that enclosed more than 60% of mapped QTLs. Genetic and physical map integration allowed the identification of 1,101 positional CGs within the confidence intervals of drought response-specific QTLs. Prioritization resulted in the designation of 143 CGs, among them were genes encoding antioxidants, carboxylic acid biosynthesis enzymes, heat shock proteins, small auxin

  14. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikner, Aminah [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Shiozaki, Kazuhiro [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: kshiozaki@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-06

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed.

  15. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikner, Aminah; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed

  16. Understanding the Posttranscriptional Regulation of Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    KAUST Repository

    AlShareef, Sahar A.

    2017-06-01

    Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent work showed that AS is pervasive across plant species, with more than 60% of intron-containing genes producing different isoforms. Mammalian cell-based assays have discovered various AS small-molecule inhibitors that perturb splicing and thereby provide invaluable tools for use as chemical probes to uncover the molecular underpinnings of splicing regulation and as potential anticancer compounds. Here, I show that the macrolide Pladienolide B (PB) and herboxidiene (GEX1A) inhibits both constitutive and alternative splicing, mimics an abiotic stress signal, and activates the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway in plants. Moreover, PB and GEX1A activate genome-wide transcriptional patterns involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. PB and GEX1A treatment triggered the ABA signaling pathway, activated ABA-inducible promoters, and led to stomatal closure. Interestingly, PB and GEX1A elicited similar cellular changes, including alterations in the patterns of transcription and splicing, suggesting that these compounds might target the same spliceosome complex in plant cells. This work establishes PB and GEX1A as potent splicing inhibitors in plants that can be used to probe the assembly, dynamics, and molecular functions of the spliceosome and to study the interplay between splicing stress and abiotic stresses, as well as having potential biotechnological applications.

  17. Transactional Associations between Youths' Responses to Peer Stress and Depression: The Moderating Roles of Sex and Stress Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined transactional associations between responses to peer stress and depression in youth. Specifically, it tested the hypotheses that (a) depression would predict fewer effortful responses and more involuntary, dysregulated responses to peer stress over time; and (b) fewer adaptive and more maladaptive responses would predict…

  18. Effects of BCAA, arginine and carbohydrate combined drink on post-exercise biochemical response and psychological condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Chich; Chien, Kuei-Yu; Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Chung, Chia-Jung; Chan, Kuei-Hui; Su, Borcherng

    2011-04-30

    This study investigated the effects of BCAA, arginine and carbohydrate combined beverage (BCAA Drink) on biochemical responses and psychological conditions during recovery after a single bout of exhaustive exercise. Fourteen healthy males were assigned to drink either BCAA Drink (BA trial) or placebo (PL trial) on two sessions separated by 2 weeks. Blood samples of each subject were collected before exercise, 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 120 min and 24 h after exercise. No significant differences in the levels of lactate, ammonia, creatine kinase and glycerol between the two groups were observed at any of the time points. However, the levels of glucose and insulin were significantly higher in the BA trial as compared to those in the PL trial at the 40 and 60 min recovery points. Furthermore, the testosterone-to-cortisol ratio at the 120 min recovery point was significantly higher in the BA trial as compared to that in the PL trial. The results indicate the occurrence of anabolic response during the recovery period. The benefit of BCAA Drink was also performed by Profile of Mood States to assess the psychological condition. Fatigue score increased immediately at exhaustion in both groups, but the decrease in the fatigue score at 120 min recovery point was significant only in BA trial. These data indicate that a single bout of exhaustive exercise enhanced the feeling of fatigue. The detrimental consequence was reduced by an ingestion of BCAA Drink.

  19. Iron oxide nanoparticles induced alterations in haematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory responses of an Indian major carp Labeo rohita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, M.; Suganya, R.; Ramesh, M., E-mail: mathanramesh@yahoo.com; Poopal, R. K. [Bharathiar University, Unit of Toxicology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences (India); Gopalan, N. [Bharathiar University, DRDO-BU (India); Ponpandian, N. [Bharathiar University, Department of Nanoscience and Technology (India)

    2015-06-15

    The wide use of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs) in various applications has raised great concerns worldwide. In this work, we measured the potential harmful effects of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NP (<50 nm) at concentrations of 1 and 25 mg/L on haematological, biochemical, and ionoregulatory responses in an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for a short-term period of 96 h. The results revealed significant (P < 0.05) decreases in haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin, protein, sodium (Na{sup +}), potassium (K{sup +}), chloride (Cl{sup −}) and gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase levels in both the concentrations. White blood cell, mean cellular haemoglobin concentration and glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in response to both concentrations during the study period. However, no significant changes in red blood cell count and gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (25 mg/L) activity were noticed compared to those of the respective control groups. Based on this study, it was found that the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs do have prominent effects on freshwater fish L. rohita. Our data suggest that the alterations of these parameters can be used as nonspecific biomarkers to monitor the environmental risks arising from nanoparticles in aquatic ecosystem and also regulate the use, production and release of nanoparticles.

  20. Aging augments renal vasoconstrictor response to orthostatic stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christine M; Monahan, Kevin D; Drew, Rachel C

    2015-12-15

    The ability of the human body to maintain arterial blood pressure (BP) during orthostatic stress is determined by several reflex neural mechanisms. Renal vasoconstriction progressively increases during graded elevations in lower body negative pressure (LBNP). This sympathetically mediated response redistributes blood flow to the systemic circulation to maintain BP. However, how healthy aging affects the renal vasoconstrictor response to LBNP is unknown. Therefore, 10 young (25 ± 1 yr; means ± SE) and 10 older (66 ± 2 yr) subjects underwent graded LBNP (-15 and -30 mmHg) while beat-to-beat renal blood flow velocity (RBFV; Doppler ultrasound), arterial BP (Finometer), and heart rate (HR; electrocardiogram) were recorded. Renal vascular resistance (RVR), an index of renal vasoconstriction, was calculated as mean BP/RBFV. All baseline cardiovascular variables were similar between groups, except diastolic BP was higher in older subjects (P aging augments the renal vasoconstrictor response to orthostatic stress in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Transgenerational stress memory is not a general response in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pecinka

    Full Text Available Adverse conditions can trigger DNA damage as well as DNA repair responses in plants. A variety of stress factors are known to stimulate homologous recombination, the most accurate repair pathway, by increasing the concentration of necessary enzymatic components and the frequency of events. This effect has been reported to last into subsequent generations not exposed to the stress. To establish a basis for a genetic analysis of this transgenerational stress memory, a broad range of treatments was tested for quantitative effects on homologous recombination in the progeny. Several Arabidopsis lines, transgenic for well-established recombination traps, were exposed to 10 different physical and chemical stress treatments, and scored for the number of somatic homologous recombination (SHR events in the treated generation as well as in the two subsequent generations that were not treated. These numbers were related to the expression level of genes involved in homologous recombination and repair. SHR was enhanced after the majority of treatments, confirming previous data and adding new effective stress types, especially interference with chromatin. Compounds that directly modify DNA stimulated SHR to values exceeding previously described induction rates, concomitant with an induction of genes involved in SHR. In spite of the significant stimulation in the stressed generations, the two subsequent non-treated generations only showed a low and stochastic increase in SHR that did not correlate with the degree of stimulation in the parental plants. Transcripts coding for SHR enzymes generally returned to pre-treatment levels in the progeny. Thus, transgenerational effects on SHR frequency are not a general response to abiotic stress in Arabidopsis and may require special conditions.

  2. The relationship between personality and the response to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, André; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-12-04

    The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular reactivity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity, and subjective affect (including positive affect, negative affect and subjective controllability) in healthy individuals. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approach was applied to account for the relationship between personality traits and stress responses. Results suggested that higher neuroticism predicted lower heart rate stress reactivity, lower cortisol stress response, more decline of positive affect and lower subjective controllability. Individuals higher in extraversion showed smaller cortisol activation to stress and less increase of negative affect. In addition, higher openness score was associated with lower cortisol stress response. These findings elucidate that neuroticism, extraversion and openness are important variables associated with the stress response and different dimensions of personality trait are associated with different aspects of the stress response.

  3. Differential physiological and biochemical responses of two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum against oxyfluorfen and UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba; Pratap Singh, Vijay; Kumar Srivastava, Prabhat; Mohan Prasad, Sheo

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, degree of tolerance and tolerance strategies of two paddy field cyanobacteria viz. Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum against oxyfluorfen (10 and 20 μg ml(-1)) and UV-B (7.2 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) stress were investigated. Oxyfluorfen and UV-B decreased growth, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, nitrate reductase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, which accompanied with the increase in the level of oxidative stress. However, growth was more affected in N. muscorum than P. foveolarum. Antioxidants exhibited differential responses against oxyfluorfen and UV-B stress. Ascorbate and proline levels were higher in P. foveolarum. A protein of 66 kDa was expressed in N. muscorum, however, it was absent in P. foveolarum than those of N. muscorum. Besides this, a protein of 29 kDa appeared in P. foveolarum under all the treatments, but it was present only in control cells of N. muscorum cells. Overall results indicated resistant nature of P. foveolarum against oxyfluorfen and UV-B stress in comparison to N. muscorum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Transcriptomic Responses of Pinus massoniana to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Du

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Masson pine (Pinus massoniana is a major fast-growing timber species planted in southern China, a region of seasonal drought. Using a drought-tolerance genotype of Masson pine, we conducted large-scale transcriptome sequencing using Illumina technology. This work aimed to evaluate the transcriptomic responses of Masson pine to different levels of drought stress. First, 3397, 1695 and 1550 unigenes with differential expression were identified by comparing plants subjected to light, moderate or severe drought with control plants. Second, several gene ontology (GO categories (oxidation-reduction and metabolism and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways (plant hormone signal transduction and metabolic pathways were enriched, indicating that the expression levels of some genes in these enriched GO terms and pathways were altered under drought stress. Third, several transcription factors (TFs associated with circadian rhythms (HY5 and LHY, signal transduction (ERF, and defense responses (WRKY were identified, and these TFs may play key roles in adapting to drought stress. Drought also caused significant changes in the expression of certain functional genes linked to osmotic adjustment (P5CS, abscisic acid (ABA responses (NCED, PYL, PP2C and SnRK, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging (GPX, GST and GSR. These transcriptomic results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of drought stress adaptation in Masson pine.

  5. Cytokinin Cross-talking During Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio O'Brien

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As sessile organisms, plants have to be able to adapt to a continuously changing environment. Plants that perceive some of these changes as stress signals activate signaling pathways to modulate their development and to enable them to survive. The complex responses to environmental cues are to a large extent mediated by plant hormones that together orchestrate the final plant response. The phytohormone cytokinin is involved in many plant developmental processes. Recently, it has been established that cytokinin plays an important role in stress responses, but does not act alone. Indeed, the hormonal control of plant development and stress adaptation is the outcome of a complex network of multiple synergistic and antagonistic interactions between various hormones. Here, we review the recent findings on the cytokinin function as part of this hormonal network. We focus on the importance of the crosstalk between cytokinin and other hormones, such as abscisic acid, jasmonate, salicylic acid, ethylene, and auxin in the modulation of plant development and stress adaptation. Finally, the impact of the current research in the biotechnological industry will be discussed.

  6. Psychological stress during exercise: cardiorespiratory and hormonal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Heather E; Weldy, Michael L; Fabianke-Kadue, Emily C; Orndorff, G R; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiorespiratory (CR) and stress hormone responses to a combined physical and mental stress. Eight participants (VO2(max) = 41.24 +/- 6.20 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed two experimental conditions, a treatment condition including a 37 min ride at 60% of VO2(max) with participants responding to a computerized mental challenge dual stress condition (DSC) and a control condition of the same duration and intensity without the mental challenge exercise alone condition (EAC). Significant interactions across time were found for CR responses, with heart rate, ventilation, and respiration rate demonstrating higher increases in the DSC. Additionally, norepinephrine was significantly greater in the DSC at the end of the combined challenge. Furthermore, cortisol area-under-the-curve (AUC) was also significantly elevated during the DSC. These results demonstrate that a mental challenge during exercise can exacerbate the stress response, including the release of hormones that have been linked to negative health consequences (cardiovascular, metabolic, autoimmune illnesses).

  7. Molecular Responses of Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L. to Zinc Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. John De Britto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are important environmental pollutants and their toxicity is a problem of increasing significance for ecological, evolutionary and environmental reasons. The interference of germination related proteins by heavy metals has not been well documented at the proteomic and genomic level. In the current study, molecular responses of germinating groundnut seeds were investigated under Zinc stress. The SDS-PAGE showed the preliminary changes in the polypeptides patterns under Zinc stress. Restriction digestion banding pattern of EcoRI and Hind III enzymes showed distinct banding pattern in the treated plants.

  8. Electrical response of relaxing dielectrics compressed by arbitrary stress pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysne, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical problem of the electric response of biased dielectrics and piezoelectrics subjected to planar stress pulse loading is considered. The materials are taken to exhibit dielectric relaxation in the sense that changes in the polarization induced by electric fields do not occur instantaneously with changes in the fields. While this paper considers arbitrary stress pulse loading of the specimen, examples that are amenable to projectile impact techniques are considered in detail. They are shock reverberation, thin pulse, and ramp loading experiments. It is anticipated that these experiments will play a role in investigations of dielectric relaxation caused by shock induced damage in insulators

  9. Surgical stress response: does endoscopic surgery confer an advantage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    of postoperative pulmonary function and less hypoxemia with endoscopic operation. The slight modification of surgical stress responses by endoscopic surgery is in contrast to the common, though not universal, demonstration of less pain, shorter hospital stay, and less morbidity after endoscopic surgery...... operations where differences are more likely to be found. The clinical consequences of these findings in relation to all over surgical outcome remain to be defined, but effective pain treatment, stress reduction by other techniques, and provision of an active rehabilitation program with early mobilization...

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of salt stress responsive genes in Rhazya stricta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid H Hajrah

    Full Text Available Rhazya stricta is an evergreen shrub that is widely distributed across Western and South Asia, and like many other members of the Apocynaceae produces monoterpene indole alkaloids that have anti-cancer properties. This species is adapted to very harsh desert conditions making it an excellent system for studying tolerance to high temperatures and salinity. RNA-Seq analysis was performed on R. stricta exposed to severe salt stress (500 mM NaCl across four time intervals (0, 2, 12 and 24 h to examine mechanisms of salt tolerance. A large number of transcripts including genes encoding tetrapyrroles and pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins were regulated only after 12 h of stress of seedlings grown in controlled greenhouse conditions. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in R. stricta may involve the upregulation of genes encoding chaperone protein Dnaj6, UDP-glucosyl transferase 85a2, protein transparent testa 12 and respiratory burst oxidase homolog protein b. Many of the highly-expressed genes act on protecting protein folding during salt stress and the production of flavonoids, key secondary metabolites in stress tolerance. Other regulated genes encode enzymes in the porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolic pathway with important roles during plant growth, photosynthesis, hormone signaling and abiotic responses. Heme biosynthesis in R. stricta leaves might add to the level of salt stress tolerance by maintaining appropriate levels of photosynthesis and normal plant growth as well as by the participation in reactive oxygen species (ROS production under stress. We speculate that the high expression levels of PPR genes may be dependent on expression levels of their targeted editing genes. Although the results of PPR gene family indicated regulation of a large number of transcripts under salt stress, PPR actions were independent of the salt stress because their RNA editing patterns were unchanged.

  11. Physiological and biochemical responses of small fish exposed to Athabasca oil sands sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetrault, G.R.; Environment Canada, Burlington, ON; McMaster, M.E.; Dixon, D.G.; Parrott, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of naturally occurring oil sands related compounds on the reproductive function and hepatic responses of fish. Wild fish, both exposed and unexposed to the compounds in question, were collected along with sediments for laboratory testing. The study showed that in vitro gonadal incubation levels of steroid production were lower at the tributary sites within the oil sands deposits. One indicator of exposure to oil sands related compounds (hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity) was shown to be 5 times higher at the same sites. In addition, slimy sculpin were exposed to sediment samples from the Steepbank River site for 4 to 8 days to evaluate the absorption of the indicator. The indicator in exposed fish was found to be comparable to that measured in fish native to the oil sands area. The study was not capable of predicting an altered ability of gonadal tissue of exposed fish to produce steroid hormones in vitro. It was concluded that future development could compromise the reproductive health of fish in the area

  12. Biochemical response of Anticarsia gemmatalis fed with soybean plants pulverized with the synthetic trypsin inhibitor benzamidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.G.A.; Pilon, A.M.; Pilon, F.M.; Ribeiro, F.R.; Silva, F.C.; Ribon, A.O.B.; Reis, A.P.; Visotto, L.E.; Guedes, R.N.C.; Oliveira, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Insects are responsible for severe crop losses. New alternatives for pest control other than agrochemicals have been investigated. Protease inhibitors are one of the prime candidates effective against insect pests. In this work we studied the effect of the synthetic trypsin inhibitor benzamidine on the development of Anticarsia gemmatalis, an important pest of the soybean culture. Larvae were reared on soybean plants containing 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% (w/w) of benzamidine. After 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of feeding midgut extracts were prepared and assayed for enzymatic activity (proteolytic, amidasic and stearic). Benzamidine altered the activity patterns but was not able to totally abolish enzyme activity. The proteolytic, amidasic and stearic activity showed the higher time of inhibition in 48 h in concentration of 0,75%, the inhibition was the around 93%, 63.1% and 36.6%, respectively. We suggest that the presence of inhibitor has made insects to adapt and produce proteases which are insensitive to the action of benzamidine. (author)

  13. Biochemical changes in male rat serumin response to treatment with the organochlorine insecticide endrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayez, V.

    2003-01-01

    Administrations to rats of oral single doses of endrin at levels 1.1, 3.3 and 5.5 mg/kg representing 10, 30 and 50% of the LD 5 0 has been attempted to determine it;s effect on serum levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, creatinine, blood urea, protein, albumin, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and cancer embryonic antigen. Endrin induced significant elevation of serum aminotransferases at the mid-and high-doses. Blood urea was altered significantly at the three dose levels. serum creatinine was not appreciably altered. Serum albumin was lowered significantly on day 4 at the level of 1.1 mg/kg. Total cholesterol was substantially elevated on day 1, while HDL-cholesterol was lowered significantly on day 6 at the level of 5.5 mg/kg.Triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol were sporadically elevated throughout the experimental period. Cancer embryonic antigen was elevated insignificantly on day 6 and 8 at the level of 3.3 mg/kg and on day 1 and 4 at the level of 5.5 mg/kg, approaching normal values thereafter. Comparing the toxic effect of the three dose levels evidence of a strict dose-response relationship was apparent

  14. Biochemical response of Anticarsia gemmatalis fed with soybean plants pulverized with the synthetic trypsin inhibitor benzamidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.G.A.; Pilon, A.M.; Pilon, F.M.; Ribeiro, F.R.; Silva, F.C.; Ribon, A.O.B.; Reis, A.P.; Visotto, L.E. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular; Guedes, R.N.C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; Oliveira, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Insects are responsible for severe crop losses. New alternatives for pest control other than agrochemicals have been investigated. Protease inhibitors are one of the prime candidates effective against insect pests. In this work we studied the effect of the synthetic trypsin inhibitor benzamidine on the development of Anticarsia gemmatalis, an important pest of the soybean culture. Larvae were reared on soybean plants containing 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% (w/w) of benzamidine. After 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of feeding midgut extracts were prepared and assayed for enzymatic activity (proteolytic, amidasic and stearic). Benzamidine altered the activity patterns but was not able to totally abolish enzyme activity. The proteolytic, amidasic and stearic activity showed the higher time of inhibition in 48 h in concentration of 0,75%, the inhibition was the around 93%, 63.1% and 36.6%, respectively. We suggest that the presence of inhibitor has made insects to adapt and produce proteases which are insensitive to the action of benzamidine. (author)

  15. Growth, Physiological, Biochemical, and Ionic Responses of Morus alba L. Seedlings to Various Salinity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry (Morus alba L., a moderately salt-tolerant tree species, is considered to be economically important. In this study, 1-year-old mulberry seedlings cultivated in soil under greenhouse conditions were treated with five concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl; 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.5% for 3 and 21 days. Plant growth parameters were not affected by 0.1% NaCl, but significant reductions were observed after treatment with 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.5% NaCl. The malondialdehyde content and cell membrane stability of mulberry seedlings exposed to 0.1% NaCl did not change, indicating that mulberry is not significantly affected by low-salinity conditions. The Na contents of various organs did not increase significantly in response to 0.1% NaCl, but the K:Na, Mg:Na, and Ca:Na ratios of various organs were affected by NaCl. Marked changes in the levels of major compatible solutes (proline, soluble sugars, and soluble proteins occurred in both the leaves and roots of NaCl-treated seedlings relative to control seedlings. Under severe saline conditions (0.5% NaCl, the ability of mulberry to synthesize enzymatic antioxidants may be impaired.

  16. Growth, physiological and biochemical responses of Camptotheca acuminata seedlings to different light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua eMa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity critically affects plant growth. Camptotheca acuminata is a light-demanding species, but its optimum light intensity is not known. To investigate the response of C. acuminata seedlings to different light intensities, specifically 100% irradiance (PAR, 1500±30 μmol m-2 s-1, 75% irradiance, 50% irradiance, and 25% irradiance, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal structure and density, chloroplast ultrastructure, ROS concentrations, and antioxidant activities. Plants grown under 75% irradiance had significantly higher total biomass, seedling height, ground diameter, photosynthetic capacity, photochemical efficiency and photochemical quenching than those grown under 100%, 25%, and 50% irradiance. Malondialdehyde (MDA content, relative electrolyte conductivity (REC, superoxide anion (O2.- production, and peroxide (H2O2 content were lower under 75% irradiance. The less pronounced plant growth under 100% and 25% irradiance was associated with a decline in photosynthetic capacity and photochemical efficiency, with increases in the activity of specific antioxidants (i.e., superoxidase dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and with increases in MDA content and REC. Lower levels of irradiance were associated with significantly higher concentrations of chlorophyll (Chl a and b and lower Chla/b ratios. Stomatal development was most pronounced under 75% irradiance. Modification of chloroplast development was found to be an important mechanism of responding to different light intensities in C. acuminata. The results indicated that 75% irradiance is optimal for the growth of C. acuminata seedlings. The improvement in C. acuminata growth under 75% irradiance was attributable to increased photosynthesis, less accumulation of ROS, and the maintenance of the stomatal and chloroplast structure.

  17. Coping as a mediator of the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress response: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiuchi S

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Horiuchi,1 Akira Tsuda,2 Shuntaro Aoki,3,4 Kenichiro Yoneda,5 Yusuke Sawaguchi6 1Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 2Department of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 3Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 4Graduate School of Psychological Science, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Hokkaido, 5Graduate School of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 6Graduate School of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, Japan Background: Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors. Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts, emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement, cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively, and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem. Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset. This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1 a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2 a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. Materials and methods: The participants were 30 male and

  18. Involvement of Calmodulin and Calmodulin-like Proteins in Plant Responses to Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B W Poovaiah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration have been well recognized to act as cell signals coupling various environmental stimuli to appropriate physiological responses with accuracy and specificity in plants. Calmodulin (CaM and calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs are major Ca2+ sensors, playing critical roles in interpreting encrypted Ca2+ signals. Ca2+-loaded CaM/CMLs interact and regulate a broad spectrum of target proteins such as channels/pumps/antiporters for various ions, transcription factors, protein kinases, protein phosphatases, metabolic enzymes and proteins with unknown biochemical functions. Many of the target proteins of CaM/CMLs directly or indirectly regulate plant responses to environmental stresses. Basic information about stimulus-induced Ca2+ signal and overview of Ca2+ signal perception and transduction are briefly discussed in the beginning of this review. How CaM/CMLs are involved in regulating plant responses to abiotic stresses are emphasized in this review. Exciting progress has been made in the past several years, such as the elucidation of Ca2+/CaM-mediated regulation of AtSR1/CAMTA3 and plant responses to chilling and freezing stresses, Ca2+/CaM-mediated regulation of CAT3, MAPK8 and MKP1 in homeostasis control of ROS signals, discovery of CaM7 as a DNA-binding transcription factor regulating plant response to light signals. However, many key questions in Ca2+/CaM-mediated signaling warrant further investigation. Ca2+/CaM-mediated regulation of most of the known target proteins is presumed based on their interaction. The downstream targets of CMLs are mostly unknown, and how specificity of Ca2+ signaling could be realized through the actions of CaM/CMLs and their target proteins is largely unknown. Future breakthroughs in Ca2+/CaM-mediated signaling will not only improve our understanding of how plants respond to environmental stresses, but also provide the knowledge base to improve stress-tolerance of crops.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Spartina pectinata in Response to Freezing Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyoungju Nah

    Full Text Available Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata, a perennial C4 grass native to the North American prairie, has several distinctive characteristics that potentially make it a model crop for production in stressful environments. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass despite its unique freezing stress tolerance. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to explore the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass in response to freezing stress at -5°C for 5 min and 30 min. We used a RNA-sequencing method to assemble the S. pectinata leaf transcriptome and performed gene-expression profiling of the transcripts under freezing treatment. Six differentially expressed gene (DEG groups were categorized from the profiling. In addition, two major consecutive orders of gene expression were observed in response to freezing; the first being the acute up-regulation of genes involved in plasma membrane modification, calcium-mediated signaling, proteasome-related proteins, and transcription regulators (e.g., MYB and WRKY. The follow-up and second response was of genes involved in encoding the putative anti-freezing protein and the previously known DNA and cell-damage-repair proteins. Moreover, we identified the genes involved in epigenetic regulation and circadian-clock expression. Our results indicate that freezing response in S. pectinata reflects dynamic changes in rapid-time duration, as well as in metabolic, transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic regulation.

  20. Allelopathic Responses of Rice Seedlings under Some Different Stresses

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    Tran Dang Khanh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic responses of rice seedlings under submergence stress at different temperatures (10, 25, 32, and 37 °C. The results showed that a wide range of allelopathic responses of rice seedlings depended on varieties and stress conditions, with temperature was being a key factor. It showed that the extracts of rice seedlings induced significant suppression on lettuce and radish seedling germination, but had negligible allelopathic effects on growth of barnyardgrass, whilst the emergence and growth of natural weeds was stimulated. In contrast, the root exudates of Koshihikari rice seedlings (K32 at 32 °C reduced the number of total weeds by ≈60.0% and the total dry weight of weeds by 93.0%; i.e., to a greater extent than other root exudates. Among the 13 identified phenolic acids, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, sinapic and benzoic acids—at concentrations of 0.360, 0.045, 3.052, 1.309 and 5.543 μg/mL might be involved in allelopathic responses of K32, inhibiting the growth of barnyardgrass and natural weeds. Findings of the present study may provide useful information on allelopathic responses of rice under environmental stresses and thus further understand of the competitive relationships between rice and weeds under natural conditions.

  1. Biochemical and morphological responses to abiotc elicitor chitin in suspension-cultured sugarcane cells

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    Maria Izabel Gallão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cells of Saccharum officinarum submitted to hydrolyzated chitin for 1 to 8h produced phenolic compounds. These alterations were observed through cytochemical methods using Toluidine Blue and Phloroglucinol/HCl. After 4 h, besides cell wall change, there was a change in nuclear pattern of chitin treated cells. There was a 96% increase in nuclear area in 6 h chitin treated material, as observed by Feulgen reaction. The treated cells showed chromatin compacted regions and a degeneration process of nucleoli. In the outer areas of cell wall, there was a polysaccharide desagregation, confirming results obtained for different plants with the use of other elicitors. Peroxidase activity was maximal after 4 h and decreased progressively. PAL activity started to increase at 4 h of incubation. These results showed that chitin hydrolyzate stimulated a defense response in sugarcane cells.Células de Saccharum officinarum quando submetidas a quitina hidrolisada por 1 a 8h produziram material fenólico. Essas alterações foram observadas por meio de métodos citoquímicos como o Azul de Toluidina e Floroglucinol/HCl. Após 4 h, além das mudanças nas paredes celulares houve uma mudança no padrão nuclear das células tratadas com quitina. Por observação da reação de Feulgen, houve um aumento de 96% na área nuclear no material em 6h. Para as células tratadas foram observadas regiões de cromatina compactada e um processo de degeneração do nucléolo. Nas áreas externas da parede celular existia uma desagregação dos polisacarídios confirmando os resultados obtidos para diferentes plantas com o uso de outros elicitores. A atividade da peroxidase foi maxima após 4 h e então decresceu progressivamente. A atividade da PAL aumentou a partir de 4 h de incubação. Estes resultados mostram que o hidrolisado de quitina estimula as respostas de defesa em células de cana.

  2. Deciphering hepatocellular responses to metabolic and oncogenic stress

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    Kathrina L. Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Each cell type responds uniquely to stress and fractionally contributes to global and tissue-specific stress responses. Hepatocytes, liver macrophages (MΦ, and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC play functionally important and interdependent roles in adaptive processes such as obesity and tumor growth. Although these cell types demonstrate significant phenotypic and functional heterogeneity, their distinctions enabling disease-specific responses remain understudied. We developed a strategy for the simultaneous isolation and quantification of these liver cell types based on antigenic cell surface marker expression. To demonstrate the utility and applicability of this technique, we quantified liver cell-specific responses to high-fat diet (HFD or diethylnitrosamine (DEN, a liver-specific carcinogen, and found that while there was only a marginal increase in hepatocyte number, MΦ and SEC populations were quantitatively increased. Global gene expression profiling of hepatocytes, MΦ and SEC identified characteristic gene signatures that define each cell type in their distinct physiological or pathological states. Integration of hepatic gene signatures with available human obesity and liver cancer microarray data provides further insight into the cell-specific responses to metabolic or oncogenic stress. Our data reveal unique gene expression patterns that serve as molecular “fingerprints” for the cell-centric responses to pathologic stimuli in the distinct microenvironment of the liver. The technical advance highlighted in this study provides an essential resource for assessing hepatic cell-specific contributions to metabolic and oncogenic stress, information that could unveil previously unappreciated molecular mechanisms for the cellular crosstalk that underlies the continuum from metabolic disruption to obesity and ultimately hepatic cancer.

  3. Evasion of Apoptosis as a Cellular Stress Response in Cancer

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    Simone Fulda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of human cancers is the intrinsic or acquired resistance to apoptosis. Evasion of apoptosis can be part of a cellular stress response to ensure the cell's survival upon exposure to stressful stimuli. Apoptosis resistance may contribute to carcinogenesis, tumor progression, and also treatment resistance, since most current anticancer therapies including chemotherapy as well as radio- and immunotherapies primarily act by activating cell death pathways including apoptosis in cancer cells. Hence, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding how cellular stress stimuli trigger antiapoptotic mechanisms and how this contributes to tumor resistance to apoptotic cell death is expected to provide the basis for a rational approach to overcome apoptosis resistance mechanisms in cancers.