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Sample records for biochemical polymorphism

  1. Association of CD36 expression and polymorphism with serum biochemical indices in Cherry Valley duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D D; Li, W G; Zhang, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) plays a crucial role in lipid sensing, innate immunity, atherogenesis, and glycolipid metabolism. This aims of this study were to delineate the CD36 mRNA expression profile in 16 duck tissues using relative quantitative real-time PCR and to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the duck CD36 gene by PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA direct sequencing. In addition, this study investigated CD36 gene expression, genetic variation, and their effect on serum biochemical indices in duck. The results showed that CD36 mRNA was expressed in all tissues, and was highly specific to the pituitary and large intestine, and to subcutaneous and abdominal fat. Furthermore, three genotypes of the SNP g.476593 T > C in exon 9 of the duck CD36 gene were identified: MM, MN, and NN. The dominant genotype and allele were MM and M, with frequencies of 0.453 and 0.643, respectively. The genotype distributions deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05) and achieved moderate levels of polymorphism in ducks. Correlation results showed that CD36 mRNA was significantly negatively correlated with triglycerides (P < 0.05), and significantly positively correlated with total protein, globulin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol (P < 0.01). All serum biochemical indices measured, with the exception of triglycerides, in birds with the NN genotype were significantly higher than those in birds with the MM genotype. These findings demonstrated that CD36 might be an important genetic marker for the selection of lipid metabolism and meat quality traits in ducks. PMID:27323079

  2. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analysis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Narbona, Eduardo; Buide, M L; Del Valle, José C; Whittall, Justen B

    2016-01-01

    Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogs for the 15 candidate genes in the ABP. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogs, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink) from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x). This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin). The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused by downregulation of Myb1a. PMID:26973662

  3. Association of Apo-E gene polymorphism with biochemical and lipid metabolism parameters in patients with diabetic nephropathy of Hui and Han populations in Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭茜

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the association of apolipoprotein (Apo) E gene polymorphism with difference in biochemical metabolism of diabetic nephropathy of Hui and Han populations. Methods ApoE genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP in diabetic patients with or without diabetic nephropathy (DN) and normal peoples in Hui and Han peoples, the related biochemical parameters were simultaneously detected. Results (1) Huis had 3 genotypes, i. e. E2/E3, E3/E3 and E3/E4, and their fre-

  4. Do Biochemical Markers and Apa I Polymorphism in IGF-II Gene Play a Role in the Association of Birth Weight and Later BMI?

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    Unqing Wu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to explore the mechanisms underlying the association of birth weight with later body mass index (BMI from the biochemical markers related to metabolism and the Apa I polymorphism in IGF-II gene.Methods: A total of 300 children were selected randomly from the Macrosomia Birth Cohort in Wuxi, China. The height and weight were measured and blood samples were collected. Plasma concentrations of 8 biochemical markers were detected. Apa I polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymor­phism (PCR-RFLP.Results: Biochemical markers were detected for 296 subjects and 271 subjects were genotyped for the Apa I polymorphism. No association was found between birth weight and 8 biochemical markers. In boys, the BMIs of AA, AG and GG genotypes were 16.10 ± 2.24 kg/m2, 17.40 ± 3.20 kg/m2, 17.65 ± 2.66 kg/m2. And there was statistical difference among the three genotypes. But in girls, there was no statistical difference. The birth weights of AA, AG and GG genotypes were 3751.13 ± 492.43 g, 3734.00 ± 456.88 g, 3782.00 ± 461.78 g. And there was no statis­tical difference among the three genotypes.Conclusion: Biochemical markers are not associated with birth weight. Apa I polymorphism may be related to child­hood BMI, but it may be not associated with birth weight. Therefore, biochemical markers and Apa I polymorphism might not play a role in the association of birth weight and BMI.

  5. Impact of glutathione-S-transferases (GST polymorphisms and hypermethylation of relevant genes on risk of prostate cancer biochemical recurrence: a meta-analysis.

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    Rui Chen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Accurate prediction of the biochemical recurrence (BCR is critical for patients after intended curative therapy like radical prostatectomy (RP or definitive radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Glutathione-S-transferases polymorphisms as well as hypermethylation of GSTP1 and functional genes in carcinogenesis, including tumor suppression gene (APC, hormone receptor that regulates cell growth and differentiation gene (RARbeta were reported to be associated with BCR. Nevertheless, the reported results are inconsistent. To evaluate the relationship between glutathione-S-transferases polymorphisms and hypermethylation of these genes and the risk of prostate cancer BCR, we carried out a meta-analysis of the published studies. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed a search in Medline, Embase and CNKI database with GST, APC, RARbeta in combination with single nucleotide polymorphism, hypermethylation, prostate cancer and recurrence. Languages were restricted to English and Chinese. RESULTS: Our study included 4 case-control studies and 7 cohort studies including 12 data sets and 3,037 prostate cancer patients. We confirmed that APC hypermethylation is associated with a modest hazard for biochemical recurrence after RP (HR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.12-3.06. We also suggest GSTP1 polymorphism and CpG hypermethylation tested in serum are associated with BCR (HR = 1.94, 95%CI = 1.13-3.34. We also identified a possible association between GSTM1 null polymorphism and prostate cancer biochemical recurrence risk with borderline significance (HR = 1.29, 95%CI = 0.97-1.71. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis evaluating the relationship of polymorphisms and hypermethylation in GSTs and biochemical recurrence. GSTM1, GSTP1 polymorphisms and hypermethylation of GSTP1, APC may be potential biomarkers for the evaluation of the probability of BCR. Further studies are warranted to validate these findings in larger cohorts with longer follow-up.

  6. BIOCHEMICAL POLYMORPHISMS IN SHEEP AND THEIR POTENTIAL USE FOR PATERNITY TESTS

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    Luiz Ernani Henkes

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of 22 protein loci was investigated in two sheep flocks: 22 females Romney Marsh and 124 animals derived from crossbreeding between Romney Marsh and Merino Booroola, reared by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária -EMBRAPA, Bagé, RS, Brazil. Eight loci were polymorphic; the others showed no variation. The usefulness of the eight plymorphic systems (Cat, DIA I, EP-1, EsA, HbB, ME, Tf, and X Prot. in parentage tests was analyzed. The probability to find two random identical animals in each breed was estimated as 1:1000. The efficiency of these proteins for exclusion of one of two possible sires in parentage tests was about 77% both for Romney Marsh and Romney/ Booroola flocks. Although parentage tests in sheep have not been enforced in Brazil up to now, the establishment of this technique is important for the prevention of non-paternity on the excellent rams.

  7. Association between type 2 diabetes mellitus, biochemical factors and UCSNP-43 polymorphisms of CALPIN-10 gene in patients with atherosclerosis of coronary artery disease in Southern Iran population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senemar, Sara; Edraki, Mohammad Reza; Toosi, Samane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Genetic variations in the calpain 10 gene (CALPIN-10), single nucleotide polymorphisms-43 (SNP-43), have increased the risk of type 2 diabete mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: We studied the control and CAD groups for association of association of SNP-43 in the CALPIN-10 gene with T2DM and other risk factors of its complications. Overall, we examined 452 individuals, 224 patients with CAD and 228 healthy subjects for CAD in Iranian population. All the subjects were genotyped for the CALPIN-10, SNP-43 by polymorphism chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods, using biochemical methods to detect fasting glucose and other biochemical factors in the blood sample. We assessed frequencies of SNP-43 alleles between CAD and normal population groups. Results: In CAD patients, the GG allele was significantly associated with T2DM and GG allele was causing high level of glucose. But in control group, there was no relationship between them. Between clinical and biochemical risk factors with different genotypes there was no significant difference in the compared group. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest no significant association between SNP-43 and the risk of T2DM. In other words, CALPIN-10 did not show a major diabetes gene pool capacity in normal southern Iranian population. PMID:27069562

  8. G22A Polymorphism of Adenosine Deaminase and its Association with Biochemical Characteristics of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in an Iranian Population

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    Mohammad Ali Takhshid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine deaminase (ADA is an important regulator of insulin action. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP G22A in the ADA gene decreases enzymatic activity of ADA. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SNP G22A and blood glycemic control, insulin resistance, and obesity of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM patients in an Iranian population. SNP G22A was determined in women with GDM (N=70 and healthy pregnant women (control, N=70 using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c, plasma insulin levels and plasma lipids were measured using commercial kits. Homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. The distribution of genotypes and alleles among GDM patients was similar to that of the control group. FPG and HbA1c were significantly higher in GDM patients with GG genotype compared with GDM patients with GA+AA genotype and non-GDM patients. The frequency of GG genotype was significantly higher in obese GDM patients compared to lean GDM patients. The SNP G22A in the ADA gene was not associated with the risk of GDM in our population. GG genotype was associated with poor glycemic control and obesity in GDM patients.

  9. Receptor de estrógenos: variantes genéticas del ESR1 y parámetros bioquímicos de riesgo cardiovascular Estrogen Receptor: Polymorphisms of ESR1 and Biochemical Markers of Cardiovascular Risk

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    MB Rauschemberger

    2012-06-01

    certain diseases, has been proposed to assess whether genetic determinations would be useful as risk predictors. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in postmenopausal women in the Western world, fact attributed to the decline in circulating estrogen levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of associations between polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor ESR1 (PvuII and XbaI and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk, in a local population healthy childbearing potential and postme-nopausal women. Both populations were classified into subgroups according to the presence of specific genetic markers as follows: 1 (P / p, 2 (p / p, 3 (P / P, A (X / x, B (x / x, C (X / X, where P/ X = no cut site, and p / x = presence of cut site to restriction enzymes PvuII and XbaI respectively. In a peripheral blood sample biochemical markers of lipid profile, hemostasis and inflammation were determined, and comparisons were performed between fertile and postmenopausal women, grouped according to each genotype. Postmeno-pausal women with genotype A showed a significant increase in total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglycerides when compared women of childbearing potential with genotype A. In the subgroup 1, statistical changes in CT, C-LDL were detected. When haplotype analysis was performed, only one biochemical marker exhibited changes. In postmenopausal women positive to 1A haplotype, total cholesterol was slightly increased as compared to 1A haplotype women of childbearing potential. Hemostasis and inflammation markers did not show significant changes between women of childbearing potential and postmenopausal women grouped according to the polymorphism present. The results suggest that genotype A identifies the population of postmenopausal women population with a less favourable lipid profile compared to women of childbearing potential subtype. No financial conflicts of interest exist.

  10. Family Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    safety and flexibility at the level of multi-object systems. We are granted the flexibility of using different families of kinds of objects, and we are guaranteed the safety of the combination. This paper highlights the inability of traditional polymorphism to handle multiple objects, and presents family...... polymorphism as a way to overcome this problem. Family polymorphism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta, a generalized version of Beta, and the source code of this implementation is available under GPL....

  11. Recent abstracts in biochemical technology

    OpenAIRE

    R R Siva Kiran; Brijesh P

    2008-01-01

    “Recent abstracts in biochemical technology” is a collection of interesting research articles published in “List of biochemical technology journals” (Table 1). The abstracts are most likely to report significant results in biochemical technology.

  12. Haemoglobin polymorphism in selected farm animals: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Egena S.S.A.; Alao R.O.

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical diversity or polymorphism is the occurrence of varieties attributed to biochemical differences which are under genetic control. It has created a leeway for the genetic improvement of farm animals. This is because it can be used as a useful tool for the characterization of livestock breeds and population. This way, the degree of similarity or differences within and between breeds can be ascertained and this differences or similarity are important...

  13. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  14. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  15. Effects of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms on HIV-1 susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAMHD1 is a human restriction factor that prevents efficient infection of macrophages, dendritic cells and resting CD4+ T cells by HIV-1. Here we explored the antiviral activity and biochemical properties of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms. Our studies focused on human SAMHD1 polymorphisms that were previously identified as evolving under positive selection for rapid amino acid replacement during primate speciation. The different human SAMHD1 polymorphisms were tested for their ability to block HIV-1, HIV-2 and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). All studied SAMHD1 variants block HIV-1, HIV-2 and EIAV infection when compared to wild type. We found that these variants did not lose their ability to oligomerize or to bind RNA. Furthermore, all tested variants were susceptible to degradation by Vpx, and localized to the nuclear compartment. We tested the ability of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms to decrease the dNTP cellular levels. In agreement, none of the different SAMHD1 variants lost their ability to reduce cellular levels of dNTPs. Finally, we found that none of the tested human SAMHD1 polymorphisms affected the ability of the protein to block LINE-1 retrotransposition. - Highlights: • Human SAMHD1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms block HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. • SAMHD1 polymorphisms do not affect its ability to block LINE-1 retrotransposition. • SAMHD1 polymorphisms decrease the cellular levels of dNTPs

  16. Effects of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms on HIV-1 susceptibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tommy E.; Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, 1301 Morris Park – Price Center 501, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Knowlton, Caitlin; Kim, Baek [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Sawyer, Sara L. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Diaz-Griffero, Felipe, E-mail: Felipe.Diaz-Griffero@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, 1301 Morris Park – Price Center 501, New York, NY 10461 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    SAMHD1 is a human restriction factor that prevents efficient infection of macrophages, dendritic cells and resting CD4+ T cells by HIV-1. Here we explored the antiviral activity and biochemical properties of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms. Our studies focused on human SAMHD1 polymorphisms that were previously identified as evolving under positive selection for rapid amino acid replacement during primate speciation. The different human SAMHD1 polymorphisms were tested for their ability to block HIV-1, HIV-2 and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). All studied SAMHD1 variants block HIV-1, HIV-2 and EIAV infection when compared to wild type. We found that these variants did not lose their ability to oligomerize or to bind RNA. Furthermore, all tested variants were susceptible to degradation by Vpx, and localized to the nuclear compartment. We tested the ability of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms to decrease the dNTP cellular levels. In agreement, none of the different SAMHD1 variants lost their ability to reduce cellular levels of dNTPs. Finally, we found that none of the tested human SAMHD1 polymorphisms affected the ability of the protein to block LINE-1 retrotransposition. - Highlights: • Human SAMHD1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms block HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. • SAMHD1 polymorphisms do not affect its ability to block LINE-1 retrotransposition. • SAMHD1 polymorphisms decrease the cellular levels of dNTPs.

  17. Genetic characterization of a brangus-ibage cattle population: biochemical polymorphisms and reproductive efficiency Caracterização genética de uma população de bovinos brangus-ibagé: polimorfismos bioquímicos e eficiência reprodutiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernani Henkes

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical techniques were used to investigate the genetic variability in a Brangus-Ibage population by determining allele frequencies of 18 blood protein systems: Hemogloin beta-Chain (Hb, Albumin (Alb, Amylase (Am, Transferrin (Tf, Carbonic Anhydrase (CA, Ceruloplasmin (Cp, Malic Enzyme (ME, Diaphorase I and II (Dia I and Dia II, Slow Alpha 2 Macroglobulin (Ap, Acid Phosphatase (ACP, Esterase B and D (EstB and EstD, Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase (PGD, Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PD, Glucose-Phosphate-Isomerase (GPI, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD and Glyoxalase I (GLO. The percentage of polymorphic loci were estimated at 0.27, the mean number of alleles was 1.33 and the mean heterozygosity was 0.07. There was a good agreement between expected and observed heterozygosity values. The population was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in all systems. Reproductive records allowed to estimate three parameters of reproductive efficiency: mean age at first calving (1152.15 ± 166.60 days, mean calving interval (539.23 ± 124.10 days and mean weight at first calving (391.02 ± 37.59kg. No relationship was found between reproductive efficiency and genetic systems.Técnicas bioquímicas foram utilizadas para determinar a variabilidade genética numa população de bovinos da raça Brangus-Ibagé com relação a 18 sistemas protéicos sangüíneos: Hemoglobina - Cadeia beta (Hb, Albumina (Alb, Amilase (Am, Transferrina (Tf, Anidrase Carbônica (CA, Ceruloplasmina (Cp, Enzima Málica (ME, Diaforase I and II (Dia I and Dia II, Macroglobulina alfa2 lenta (Ap, Fosfatase Ácida (ACP, Esterase B and D (EstB and EstD, Fosfogliconato Desidrogenase (PGD, Glicose-6-Fosfato Desidrogenase (G-6-PD, Glicose-Fosfato-Isomerase (GPI, Superóxido Dismutase (SOD e Glioxalase I (GLO. O percentual de locos polimórficos foi estimado em 0,27, o número médio de alelos foi 1,33 e a heterozigosidade média foi de 0,07. Houve boa concordância entre a

  18. Multiplexing oscillatory biochemical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, Wiet; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2014-04-01

    In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that biochemical signals are not necessarily constant in time and that the temporal dynamics of a signal can be the information carrier. Moreover, it is now well established that the protein signaling network of living cells has a bow-tie structure and that components are often shared between different signaling pathways. Here we show by mathematical modeling that living cells can multiplex a constant and an oscillatory signal: they can transmit these two signals simultaneously through a common signaling pathway, and yet respond to them specifically and reliably. We find that information transmission is reduced not only by noise arising from the intrinsic stochasticity of biochemical reactions, but also by crosstalk between the different channels. Yet, under biologically relevant conditions more than 2 bits of information can be transmitted per channel, even when the two signals are transmitted simultaneously. These observations suggest that oscillatory signals are ideal for multiplexing signals. PMID:24685537

  19. Intensional Effect Polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Yuheng; Liu, Yu David; Rajan, Hridesh

    2015-01-01

    Type-and-effect systems are a powerful tool for program construction and verification. We describe intensional effect polymorphism, a new foundation for effect systems that integrates static and dynamic effect checking. Our system allows the effect of polymorphic code to be intensionally inspected through a lightweight notion of dynamic typing. When coupled with parametric polymorphism, the powerful system utilizes runtime information to enable precise effect reasoning, while at the same time...

  20. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw; Gokhale, Maya B.; McCabe, Kevin Peter

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  1. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

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    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  2. Biochemical synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descriptions of the biochemical synthesis of glucose-13C6 from Agmenellum quadruplication; the biochemical labelling of [13C, 15N] Chlorella and [13C] E. coli, [15N] E. coli, and the production of lactic-13C3 acid utilizing Lactobacillus casei are discussed

  3. EVALUATING BIOCHEMICAL INTERNET RESOURCES

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    R.M. Lima

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Many people fail to properly evaluate INTERNET information. This is often due to alack of understanding of the issues, by responsible authorities, and, morespecifically, a lack of understanding of the structure and modis operandi of theINTERNET tool. The aim of this project was to analyze biochemical issuesavailable in WEB pages, evaluating contents quality, coverage, accuracy, authorityand currency. Twenty three sites were analyzed for their contents, presence ofbibliographical references, authorship, titles responsibility and adequacy to targetpublic. The great majority (95% did not mention bibliographic references andtarget public. Less than half divulged names and/or graduation status ofresponsibles. Some sites contained critical conceptual errors, such as: oxygen isessential for anaerobic respiration; presence of H2O in photosynthesis dark phase;yeast is a pluricellular fungal; the overall equation of photosynthesis with errors;NADH2 instead NAD+; etc. None of the analyzed sites was thus consideredexcellent. Although the use of the internet is expanding rapidly on collegecampuses, little is known about students usage; how they perceive the reality ofinternet information and how successful they are in searching through it. Our datastrenghthen the need for rigorous evaluation concerning to educational research ofbiochemical themes on the WEB.

  4. Association of uricemia with biochemical and dietary factors in human adults with metabolic syndrome genotyped to C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene Asociación de la uricemia con factores bioquímicos y dietéticos en humanos adultos con síndrome metabólico genotipados para el polimorfismo C677T en el gen metilenotetrahidrofolato reductasa

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kimi Uehara; Rosa, G.

    2011-01-01

    It is suggested that hyperuricemia is a marker of cardiovascular risk in human adults with metabolic syndrome (MS). The C677T polymorphism in the gene encoding the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with hyperuricemia. Data on factors associated with uricemia in human adults with MS genotyped for this polymorphism are lacking. We aimed to investigate the factors associated with uricemia in human adults with MS genotyped for the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gen...

  5. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena;

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  6. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

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    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  7. Polymorphic ecthymatoid dermosporidiosis

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    Ghorpade A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a young Chhattisgarhi male with polymorphic dermosporidiosis (cutaneous rhinosporidiosis. He had multiple subcutaneous nodules and an ecthymatoid skin lesion along with nasal rhinosporidiosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of sporangia with endospores in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC, histopathology, and imprint smear from the skin lesions. Treatment was by surgical excision, electrocoagulation, and dapsone. There was no recurrence. Dermatologists should be aware of the diverse cutaneous manifestations of this primarily nasal disease. This is the second published report of polymorphic dermosporidiosis, and the first one reporting an ecthymatoid lesion.

  8. Polymorphs of Pridopidine Hydrochloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, A.; Frostrup, B.; Bond, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Pridopidine hydrochloride (Huntexil, Neuro-Search A/S, Ballerup, Denmark) is a dopaminergic stabilizer, currently in development for the treatment of motor symptoms associated with Huntington's disease. In this study, two polymorphic forms are characterized, forms I and II. The crystal structures...... crystallization to form II is observed. The polymorphs are enantiotropically related, form I being stable at ambient conditions and form II being stable above 127 degrees C. At around 180 degrees C, the differential scanning calorimetry thermogram of a mixture of forms land II shows a solid-state transition from...

  9. Vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Hassager, C; Heegaard, Anne-Marie;

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and estrogen receptor (ER) genes in relation to biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum osteocalcin and urinary collagen type I degradation products (CrossLaps), and to study ER genotypes in relation to serum lipoproteins, blood...

  10. Using PCR-RFLP Technology to Teach Single Nucleotide Polymorphism for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xiaofeng; Guan, Xingying; Bai, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicated that the aberrant gene expression of peroxiredoxin-6 (prdx6) was found in various kinds of cancers. Because of its biochemical function and gene expression pattern in cancer cells, the association between genetic polymorphism of Prdx6 and cancer onset is interesting. In this report, we have developed and implemented a…

  11. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants an...

  12. Enzyme polymorphisms in Canarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifty-two accessions of Canarium involving seven species, C. ovatum, C. album, C. megalanthum, C. harveyi, C. indicum, C. mehenbethene, and C. odontophyllum were studied for isozyme polymorphisms. Starch gel electrophoresis with a histidine-citrate buffer system (pH 6.5) was employed to assay six en...

  13. Investigation of Uranium Polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Lucas E.; Henager, Charles H.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Meier, David E.; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-08-01

    The UO3-water system is complex and has not been fully characterized, even though these species are common throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. As an example, most production schemes for UO3 result in a mixture of up to six or more different polymorphic phases, and small differences in these conditions will affect phase genesis that ultimately result in measureable changes to the end product. As a result, this feature of the UO3-water system may be useful as a means for determining process history. This research effort attempts to better characterize the UO3-water system with a variety of optical techniques for the purpose of developing some predictive capability for estimating process history in polymorphic phases of unknown origin. Three commercially relevant preparation methods for the production of UO3 were explored. Previously unreported low temperature routes to β- and γ-UO3 were discovered. Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic libraries were established for pure and mixed polymorphic forms of UO3 in addition to the common hydrolysis products of UO3. An advantage of the sensitivity of optical fluorescence microscopy over XRD has been demonstrated. Preliminary aging studies of the α and γ forms of UO3 have been conducted. In addition, development of a 3-D phase field model used to predict phase genesis of the system was initiated. Thermodynamic and structural constants that will feed the model have been gathered from the literature for most of the UO3 polymorphic phases.

  14. Clinical evaluation, biochemistry and genetic polymorphism analysis for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in a population from northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto Lins Ponte; Pedro Henrique Quintela Soares de Medeiros; Alexandre Havt; Joselany Afio Caetano; Cid, David A C; Mara de Moura Gondim Prata; Alberto Melo Soares; Richard L. Guerrant; Josyf Mychaleckyj; Aldo Ângelo Moreira Lima

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to evaluate and correlate symptoms, biochemical blood test results and single nucleotide polymorphisms for lactose intolerance diagnosis. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with a total of 119 patients, 54 of whom were lactose intolerant. Clinical evaluation and biochemical blood tests were conducted after lactose ingestion and blood samples were collected for genotyping evaluation. In particular, the single nucleotide polymo...

  15. Tiled Polymorphic Temporal Media

    OpenAIRE

    Hudak, Paul; Janin, David

    2014-01-01

    International audience Tiled Polymorphic Temporal Media (Tiled PTM) is an algebraic approach to specifying the composition of multimedia values having an inherent temporal quality --- for example sound clips, musical scores, computer animations, and video clips. Mathematically, one can think of a tiled PTM as a tiling in the one dimension of time. A tiled PTM value has two synchronization marks that specify, via an effective notion of tiled product, how the tiled PTMs are positioned in tim...

  16. Polymorphism of Atorvastatin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Martina; Brus, Jiří; Šeděnková, Ivana; Kobera, Libor; Kratochvíl, B.; Maixner, J.

    Zagreb : Ruder Boškovic Institute, 2008 - (Smreč, V.). s. 20 ISBN 978-953-6690-77-0. [Central European NMR Symposium and Bruker NMR Users Meeting CEUM 2008 /10./. 29.09.2008-30.09.2008, Zagreb] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymorphism * atorvastatin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  17. Polymorphisms of the ELANE Gene Promoter Region in End-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rafael; Freitas, Bruno; Miranda, Vasco; Costa, Elísio; Santos-Silva, Alice; Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have a high mortality rate that exceeds that of non-ESRD population. The hemodialysis procedure induces neutrophil activation and elastase release, which might have a role in the inflammatory process and in the development of oxidative stress. The ELANE gene encodes the neutrophil elastase. We analyzed the effect of ELANE promoter region polymorphisms and its relation with the circulating levels of elastase, as well as several clinical, biochemical and inflammatory markers in 123 ESRD patients. We found two duplications in heterozygosity in the promoter region and a new polymorphism, the c.-801G>A. ESRD patients heterozygous for the c.-903T>G polymorphism had no changes in the circulating levels of elastase or other evaluated variables, and those homozygous for the c.-741G>A polymorphism showed significant effects on neutrophils count, as well as in neutrophils/lymphocytes ratio, which might be associated with an increased inflammatory process. PMID:27136588

  18. Unlike twins: an NMR comparison of two α-synuclein polymorphs featuring different toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gath

    Full Text Available We structurally compare, using solid-state NMR, two different polymorphs of α-synuclein which, as established recently, display contrasting biochemical properties, toxicity, and tropism for cells. We show that both forms, which can each be produced as a pure polymorph, are greatly different in secondary structure. While β-sheets are the dominating secondary structure elements for both polymorphs, they are markedly divergent in terms of number of elements, as well as their distribution. We demonstrate that all identified β-sheets feature an in-register parallel stacking for both polymorphs. The two forms show a different molecular arrangement in the unit cell and distinct dynamic features, while sharing a highly flexible C-terminal domain. The use of reproducible, well-identified conditions for sample preparation and the recording of identical NMR experiments allows for a direct comparison of the results.

  19. Polymorphisms of mitochondrially encoded proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Spinner, N B; King, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Polymorphisms of mitochondrially encoded proteins can be detected in human lymphocytes by sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Using an SDS-polyacrylamide 8 M urea system, 17 mitochondrially encoded proteins are distinguishable. Three of these (ME-6, ME-8, and ME-17) were polymorphic among 92 individuals screened, and these polymorphisms are reported here for the first time. With SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis without urea, 18 mitochondrial proteins are de...

  20. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg;

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification and...... briefly describe the methods that are preferred for SNP typing in forensic genetics. In addition, we will illustrate how SNPs can be used as investigative leads in the police investigation by discussing the use of ancestry informative markers and forensic DNA phenotyping. Modern DNA sequencing...

  1. Hyponatraemia: biochemical and clinical perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G; Leese, G

    1998-01-01

    Hyponatraemia is a common bio-chemical abnormality, occurring in about 15% of hospital inpatients. It is often associated with severe illness and relatively poor outcome. Pathophysiologically, hyponatraemia may be spurious, dilutional, depletional or redistributional. Particularly difficult causes and concepts of hyponatraemia are the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis and the sick cell syndrome, which are discussed here in detail. Therapy should always be targeted at the underlying disea...

  2. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  3. Correlational studies on insulin resistance and leptin gene polymorphisms in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liou Cao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance (IR and leptin (LEP gene polymorphisms in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. Materials and Methods: From July 1, 2011 to August 1, 2011, patients who received chronic PD were chosen and divided into three groups (DM, high HOMR-IR, and low HOMR-IR. Two PCR products of LEP were sequenced and aligned and the distribution of polymorphisms was analyzed using χ2 analysis. In addition, serum leptin level, PD conditions, and biochemical parameters according to different genotype of G-2548A and A19G were statistically analyzed (P-value

  4. The Cytochrome P450 Engineering Database: integration of biochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisitsa Andrey

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs form a vast and diverse enzyme class of particular interest in drug development and a high biotechnological potential. Although very diverse in sequence, they share a common structural fold. For the comprehensive and systematic comparison of protein sequences and structures the Cytochrome P450 Engineering Database (CYPED was established. It was built up based on an extensible data model that enables its functions readily enhanced. Description The new version of the CYPED contains information on sequences and structures of 8613 and 47 proteins, respectively, which strictly follow Nelson's classification rules for homologous families and superfamilies. To gain biochemical information on substrates and inhibitors, the CYPED was linked to the Cytochrome P450 Knowledgebase (CPK. To overcome differences in the data model and inconsistencies in the content of CYPED and CPK, a metric was established based on sequence similarity to link protein sequences as primary keys. In addition, the annotation of structurally and functionally relevant residues was extended by a reliable prediction of conserved secondary structure elements and by information on the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Conclusion The online accessible version of the CYPED at http://www.cyped.uni-stuttgart.de provides a valuable tool for the analysis of sequences, structures and their relationships to biochemical properties.

  5. Investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism in Ogaden cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Pal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The Ogaden cattle is one among the tropical cattle breeds (Bos indicus widely distributed in eastern and south eastern part of Ethiopia. The breed has been evolved in arid and semi arid agro-ecological setup, but later on distributed and adapted to the wide agro-ecological zones. Because of its multi-purpose role, the Ogaden cattle have been used for milk, beef, and income generation. Information on the inherent genetic diversity is important in the design of breeding improvement programmes, making rational decisions on sustainable utilization and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Limited information is available about genetic variation of Ogaden breed at molecular level. The present investigation was aimed to study the biochemical polymorphism at the Hemoglobin (Hb locus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples collected from 105 Ogaden cattle maintained at Haramaya beef farm by jugular vein puncture were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis [pH range 8.4-8.5] to study the polymorphic activities of haemoglobin. Results: Three types of phenotypes were detected i.e. a slow moving (AA band, fast moving (BB band and a combination of slow + fast moving bands (AB. The frequency of the fast moving band was less [13 (12.3%] than the slow moving band [57 (54.2%]. Both slow & fast moving phenotype was observed in 35 (33.3% animals. The gene frequency of HBA allele was 0.709 and that of HBB allele 0.291. Conclusion: The distribution of phenotypes was in agreement with codominant single gene inheritance. The Chi-square (χ2 test revealed that the population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  6. Low biochemical variability in European fallow deer (Dama dama L.): natural bottlenecks and the effects of domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randi, E; Apollonio, M

    1988-12-01

    Tissue and blood samples from 180 fallow deer (Dama dama L.) belonging to an Italian free-ranging population were studied for biochemical variability by means of cellulose acetate and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The 51 putative genetic loci successfully resolved showed a very low level of variability (P = 0.020, H = 0.006) in accordance with previously reported data on British and West German populations. That low biochemical polymorphism in European fallow deer populations is discussed taking into account the effects of natural bottlenecks and of domestication. PMID:3230030

  7. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. PMID:27016340

  8. Polymorphisms at the Ligand Binding Site of the Vitamin D Receptor Gene and Osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Gezen Ak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D receptor (VDR gene polymorphisms have been suggested as possible determinants of bone mineral density (BMD and calcium metabolism. In this study, our aim was to determine whether there is an association between VDR gene polymorphism and osteomalacia or not. We determined ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene in 24 patients with osteomalacia and 25 age-matched healthy controls. Serum calcium, phosphorus, ALP, PTH, 25OHD levels were also examined. We used PCR and RFLP methods to test for an association between osteomalacia and polymorphisms within, intron 8 and exon 9 of the VDR gene. When the control and patients were compared for their ApaI and TaqI genotypes there was no relationship between VDR gene allelic polymorphisms and osteomalacia. Whereas a nearly significant difference for A allele was found in the allellic distribution of the patients (p = 0.08. Also no association between biochemical data and VDR gene polymorphisms was observed.

  9. Comparative hydrodynamics of bacterial polymorphism

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolie, Saverio E

    2011-01-01

    Most bacteria swim through fluids by rotating helical flagella which can take one of twelve distinct polymorphic shapes. The most common helical waveform is the "normal" form, used during forward swimming runs. To shed light on the prevalence of the normal form in locomotion, we gather all available experimental measurements of the various polymorphic forms and compute their intrinsic hydrodynamic efficiencies. The normal helical form is found to be the most hydrodynamically efficient of the twelve polymorphic forms by a significant margin - a conclusion valid for both the peritrichous and polar flagellar families, and robust to a change in the effective flagellum diameter or length. The hydrodynamic optimality of the normal polymorph suggests that, although energetic costs of locomotion are small for bacteria, fluid mechanical forces may have played a significant role in the evolution of the flagellum.

  10. A monoclinic polymorph of theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A monoclinic polymorph of theophylline, C7H8N4O2, has been obtained from a chloroform/methanol mixture by evaporation under ambient conditions. The new polymorph crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure features intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in the formation of dimers between two crystallographically different molecules; each molecule acts as both donor and acceptor.

  11. Blood protein polymorphism in three sheep breeds from the south of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldi Zahrane,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical polymorphism was studied in the native ovine Barbarine (BAR and Queue Fine de l’Ouest (QF breeds as well as in the exotic D’man (DMN breed in the South of Tunisia using a panel of six protein coding loci: Haemoglobin (Hb, Carbonic anhydrase (Ca, Albumin (Al, Transferrin (Tf, X-protein (X-p and Arylesterase A (EsA. Polymorphic loci were detected by means of horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. All tested loci were polymorphic. The Tf locus exhibited the highest number of alleles while the other loci showed two alleles in all sampled breeds. Estimates of expected heterozygosity were almost twice those of observed heterosigositiy in all sheep populations and the high level of heterozygosity was observed in DMN breed. Genetic distances observed between BAR-DMN and between QF-DMN were larger than those found between BAR-QF breeds.

  12. [Genetically determined enzyme polymorphism in soy varieties (Glycine max) and in wild soy (Glycine soja)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazko, V I

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of 22 genetic-biochemical systems (42 loci) in 18 varieties of domestic soybean (G. max) and in 3 population of wild soybean (G. soja) was carried out. The part of polymorphous loci (P), intraspecies genetic differentiation (genetic distances--DN) were higher in domestic plants in comparison with wild ones (P = 45%, 17%: DN = 0.038-0.269, 0.059-0129). The preferable polymorphism of loci, coding the enzymes of glycolysis and Kreb's cycle was revealed in wild species. Domestic soybean had more polymorphous enzyme loci, which did not participate in glucose metabolism in comparison with wild species. The presence of the specific part of the gene pool in ancestor species, which was involved in soybean domestication and forming of varieties was discussed. PMID:10857206

  13. Biochemical Analysis of Microbial Rhodopsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, Julia A; Keffer, Jessica L; Miller, Kelsey J

    2016-01-01

    Ion-pumping rhodopsins transfer ions across the microbial cell membrane in a light-dependent fashion. As the rate of biochemical characterization of microbial rhodopsins begins to catch up to the rate of microbial rhodopsin identification in environmental and genomic sequence data sets, in vitro analysis of their light-absorbing properties and in vivo analysis of ion pumping will remain critical to characterizing these proteins. As we learn more about the variety of physiological roles performed by microbial rhodopsins in different cell types and environments, observing the localization patterns of the rhodopsins and/or quantifying the number of rhodopsin-bearing cells in natural environments will become more important. Here, we provide protocols for purification of rhodopsin-containing membranes, detection of ion pumping, and observation of functional rhodopsins in laboratory and environmental samples using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27153387

  14. New polymorphous computing fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

  15. Polymorphism of lead oxoborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyulyupa, A.G. [Middle School, Sablinskoe, Stavropol region, 356322 (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Fedorov, P.P., E-mail: ppfedorov@yandex.ru [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-20

    Highlights: • Pb{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} melt undergoes statistical undercooling. • Orthorhombic nonlinear optical crystal Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is the metastable γ-polymorph. • Temperature of metastable melting of γ-Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is equal to 530 °C. - Abstract: The study of lead borate melt crystallization by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that, for Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (or 4PbO·B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) stoichiometric compound, its well-known orthorhombic modification (non-centrosymmetric Aba2 space symmetry group (SSG), a = 15.472(1), b = 10.802(1), c = 9.9486(6) Å unit cell parameters) is metastable. It forms from the undercooled melt and has a melting point of 530 ± 5 °C.

  16. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A.

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  17. Biochemical bases of mineral waters genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Zhernosekov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This work directs data about mineral water genesis. The accent on balneological sense is done. We suggest the criteria of biochemical processes estimation which take part in mineral water compounds creation. These criteria can be used for illustration of dependence between waters medical properties and biochemical processes of their genesis.

  18. Combined molecular and biochemical approach identifies Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus as two species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parenicova, L.; Skouboe, P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.; Rossen, L.; Hoor-Suykerbuyk, M.; Visser, J.

    2001-01-01

    We examined nine Aspergillus japonicus isolates and 10 Aspergillus aculeatus isolates by using molecular and biochemical markers, including DNA sequences of the ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 region, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), and secondary-metabolite profiles. The DNA sequence of...... the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene could not be used to distinguish between A. japonicus and A. aculeatus but did show that these two taxa are more closely related to each other than to other species of black aspergilli. Aspergillus niger pyruvate kinase (pkiA) and...

  19. Clinical evaluation, biochemistry and genetic polymorphism analysis for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in a population from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Lins Ponte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to evaluate and correlate symptoms, biochemical blood test results and single nucleotide polymorphisms for lactose intolerance diagnosis. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with a total of 119 patients, 54 of whom were lactose intolerant. Clinical evaluation and biochemical blood tests were conducted after lactose ingestion and blood samples were collected for genotyping evaluation. In particular, the single nucleotide polymorphisms C>T-13910 and G>A-22018 were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism/polymerase chain reaction and validated by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Lactose-intolerant patients presented with more symptoms of flatulence (81.4%, bloating (68.5%, borborygmus (59.3% and diarrhea (46.3% compared with non-lactose-intolerant patients (pT-13910 and G>A-22018 with lactose tolerance in this population and suggest clinical management for patients with lactose intolerance that considers single nucleotide polymorphism detection and a change in the biochemical blood test cutoff from <25 mg/dL to <15 mg/dL.

  20. Association of uricemia with biochemical and dietary factors in human adults with metabolic syndrome genotyped to C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene Asociación de la uricemia con factores bioquímicos y dietéticos en humanos adultos con síndrome metabólico genotipados para el polimorfismo C677T en el gen metilenotetrahidrofolato reductasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kimi Uehara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested that hyperuricemia is a marker of cardiovascular risk in human adults with metabolic syndrome (MS. The C677T polymorphism in the gene encoding the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is associated with hyperuricemia. Data on factors associated with uricemia in human adults with MS genotyped for this polymorphism are lacking. We aimed to investigate the factors associated with uricemia in human adults with MS genotyped for the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene. Cross-sectional study was conducted with 63 human adults (24 men and 39 women with MS. Body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body fat, glycemia, lipid profile, uricemia, insulinemia, homocysteinemia, plasma folate, erythrocyte folate, blood pressure, smoking, diuretics use, usual dietary alcohol and protein intakes, MTHFR and the presence of the C677T polymorphism in the gene were assessed. Hyperuricemia was observed in 16 (25.4% human adults (10 men and 6 women. In the group, 33% (n = 21 showed the C677T polymorphism, being 19 heterozygous and 2 mutant homozygous. A significant association between hyperuricemia and C677T polymorphism was not verified. Uricemia was positively associated with homocys-teinemia (r = 0.43, p Sugérese que la hiperuricema sea un factor de riesgo cardiovascular en humanos adultos con síndrome meta-bólico (SM El polimorfismo C677T en el gen metilenote-trahidrofolato reductasa (MTHFR ha sido asociado com la hiperuricemia. Datos sobre los factores asociados con la uricemia en humanos adultos con SM genotipados para el polimorfismo C677T en el gen MTHFR son inexistentes. Se objetivó investigar los factores asociados con la uricemia en individuos con SM genotipados para el polimorfismo C677T.Se ha realizado un estudio transversal con 63 humanos adultos (24 hombres y 39 mujeres. Fueron evaluados peso, altura, índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, grasa corporal total, glucemia, uricemia, insulinemia

  1. Adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisdi, Éva; Geritz, Stefan A H

    2016-03-01

    We study the joint adaptive dynamics of n scalar-valued strategies in ecosystems where n is the maximum number of coexisting strategies permitted by the (generalized) competitive exclusion principle. The adaptive dynamics of such saturated systems exhibits special characteristics, which we first demonstrate in a simple example of a host-pathogen-predator model. The main part of the paper characterizes the adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms in general. In order to investigate convergence stability, we give a new sufficient condition for absolute stability of an arbitrary (not necessarily saturated) polymorphic singularity and show that saturated evolutionarily stable polymorphisms satisfy it. For the case [Formula: see text], we also introduce a method to construct different pairwise invasibility plots of the monomorphic population without changing the selection gradients of the saturated dimorphism. PMID:26676357

  2. Tribenzoatobismuth(III: a new polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Boldyreva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A new polymorph (β was obtained for an active pharmaceutical ingredient, bismuth tribenzoate, [Bi(C6H5CO23]. The new β-polymorph is 1.05 times denser than the previously known polymorph [Rae et al. (1998. Acta Cryst. B54, 438–442]. In the β-polymorph, the Bi atom is linked with three benzoate anions, each of them acting as a bidentate ligand, and these assemblies with C3 point symmetry can be considered as `molecules'. The structure of the β-polymorph has no polymeric chains, in contrast to the previously known polymorph. The `molecules' in the β-polymorph are stacked along [001], so that the phenyl rings of the neighbouring molecules are parallel to each other. Based on the pronounced difference in the crystal structures, one can suppose that two polymorphs should differ in the dissolution kinetics and bioavailability.

  3. The evolution of polymorphic compatibility molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de

    1995-01-01

    Several primitive colonial organisms distinguish self from nonself by means of polymorphic compatibility molecules bearing similarity to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The evolution of such polymorphisms is generally explained in terms of resistance to parasites. Ignoring parasites, I d

  4. Biochemical polymorphism of Dreyssena polimorpha populations living in a cooler reservoir of an atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of three Dr.polimorpha populations, residing in a NPP cooling pond, comprising hot and cold parts, from where samples of two populations are taken, is presentes. Samples of the third population are taken from the river to the basin of which the cooling pond belongs. It is shown that the studied Dr. polimorpha population differentiation by LAP-2 and EST-D loci is linked with the temperature factor effect. Continuous (over 10 years) effect of increased temperature has led to a sufficient shift of allelic frequencies by the loci indicated, while the radiation factor effect during 2 years has not led to the population effects revealed. Populatiion differentiation is observed by the loci, demonstrating a divergence with theoretical frequenncies according to Hardy-Weiberg in all the investigated localities

  5. Glutathione S-transferase and Catalase gene polymorphisms with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpank Vats

    2013-06-01

    Materials and Methods: Polymorphic GST gene isoforms, GSTM1, T1 and P1 were investigated in 201 healthy control subjects and 204 T2DM cases while CAT -21A/T polymorphism in 186 controls and 189 T2DM cases. Genotypes were analyzed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Genotype distribution and allelic frequencies were compared between patients and controls. Mean values and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated using SPSS software (version 15.0. Results: Biochemical parameters showed highly significant association with T2DM (P<0.001. The genotype distribution, allele frequencies and multiple combinations of GSTM1 and T1 polymorphisms did not differ significantly between patients and controls. However, GSTP1 showed significant association (P<0.001. In case of CAT (-21A/T, only genotype frequencies showed significant association with T2DM (P=0.002. Discussion: Our data suggest that Val105Val of GSTP1 and and lsquo;AT' genotype of CAT gene may increase the risk of T2DM in north Indians. Genetic polymorphism studies of antioxidant genes may provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of oxidative stress pathways and provide prognostic markers for T2DM. [Dis Mol Med 2013; 1(3.000: 46-53

  6. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and transcobalamin genetic polymorphisms in human spontaneous abortion: biological and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetterberg Henrik

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion involves a complex interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. The firm association between increased homocysteine concentration and neural tube defects (NTD has led to the hypothesis that high concentrations of homocysteine might be embryotoxic and lead to decreased fetal viability. There are several genetic polymorphisms that are associated with defects in folate- and vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine metabolism. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms cause elevated homocysteine concentration and are associated with an increased risk of NTD. Additionally, low concentration of vitamin B12 (cobalamin or transcobalamin that delivers vitamin B12 to the cells of the body leads to hyperhomocysteinemia and is associated with NTD. This effect involves the transcobalamin (TC 776C>G polymorphism. Importantly, the biochemical consequences of these polymorphisms can be modified by folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. In this review, I focus on recent studies on the role of hyperhomocysteinemia-associated polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion and discuss the possibility that periconceptional supplementation with folate and vitamin B12 might lower the incidence of miscarriage in women planning a pregnancy.

  7. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and virulence polymorphism in Puccinia hordei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinia hordei is the causal agent of barley leaf rust. To study the genetic diversity in P. hordei, 45 isolates with diverse virulence patterns and geographical origins were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Two pathotypes of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici and one is...

  8. BIOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by the following- Persistent albuminuria (>300mg/d or >200μg/min, that is confirmed on at least 2 occasions 3-6 months apart diabetic, progressive decline in the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR, elevated arterial blood pressure. The earliest biochemical criteria for the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is the presence of micro-albumin in the urine, which if left untreated will eventually lead to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD. Micro-albuminuria refers to the excretion of albumin in the urine at a rate that exceeds normal limits. The current study was conducted to establish the prevalence of micro-albuminuria in a sequential sample of diabetic patients attending hospital and OPD Clinic to determine its relationship with known and putative risk factors to identify micro- and normo-albuminuric patients in their sample for subsequent comparison in different age, sex, weight and creatinine clearance of the micro- and normo-albuminuric patients. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in one hundred patients at Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences, Anwarpur, Hapur, U. P. Patients having diabetes mellitus in different age group ranging from 30 to 70 years were selected. Data was analysed by SPSS software. Micro-albuminuria was observed in 35% in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was observed that 65% patients were free from any type of albuminuria. Also micro-albuminuria was present in 10% of the patients less than 50 yrs. of age, while 15% of the patients more than 50 yrs. of age were having micro-albuminuria. There was a statistically significant correlation of micro-albuminuria with duration of diabetes. Incidence of micro-albuminuria increases with age as well as increased duration of diabetes mellitus. Our study shows that only 5% patients developed macro-albuminuria. Glycosylated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose was significantly raised among all these

  9. Biochemical genetics of some Indian fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Qasim, S.Z.

    Studies on biochemical genetics of fishes, using electrophoretic methods, are relatively of recent origin. Earlier serum and eye lens protein were used to identify marine populations. This technique showed that closely related species have...

  10. Physics and Electro-Biochemical Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad P Pritscher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Not Available Keywords: Biochemical technology, physics Received: 22 October 2008 / Received in revised form: 23 October 2008, Accepted: 24 October 2008 Published online: 07 January 2009

  11. Free energy simulations of important biochemical processes

    OpenAIRE

    Yang LIU; 刘洋

    2013-01-01

    Free energy simulations have been widely employed to compute the thermodynamic properties of many important biochemical processes. In the first part of this dissertation, two important biochemical processes, protonation/deprotonation of acid in solution and solvation of small organic molecules, are investigated using free energy simulations. Accurate computation of the pKa value of a compound in solution is important and challenging. To efficiently simulate the free energy change associat...

  12. Genetic and biochemical diversity of Paenibacillus larvae isolated from Tunisian infected honey bee broods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Chadlia; Essanaa, Jihène; Sansonno, Luigi; Crotti, Elena; Abdi, Khaoula; Barbouche, Naima; Balloi, Annalisa; Gonella, Elena; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur

    2013-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), a virulent disease of honeybee (Apis mellifera) larvae. In Tunisia, AFB has been detected in many beekeeping areas, where it causes important economic losses, but nothing is known about the diversity of the causing agent. Seventy-five isolates of P. larvae, identified by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were obtained from fifteen contaminated broods showing typical AFB symptoms, collected in different locations in the northern part of the country. Using BOX-PCR, a distinct profile of P. larvae with respect to related Paenibacillus species was detected which may be useful for its identification. Some P. larvae-specific bands represented novel potential molecular markers for the species. BOX-PCR fingerprints indicated a relatively high intraspecific diversity among the isolates not described previously with several molecular polymorphisms identifying six genotypes on polyacrylamide gel. Polymorphisms were also detected in several biochemical characters (indol production, nitrate reduction, and methyl red and oxidase tests). Contrary to the relatively high intraspecies molecular and phenotypic diversity, the in vivo virulence of three selected P. larvae genotypes did not differ significantly, suggesting that the genotypic/phenotypic differences are neutral or related to ecological aspects other than virulence. PMID:24073406

  13. RMBNToolbox: random models for biochemical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Jari

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing interest to model biochemical and cell biological networks, as well as to the computational analysis of these models. The development of analysis methodologies and related software is rapid in the field. However, the number of available models is still relatively small and the model sizes remain limited. The lack of kinetic information is usually the limiting factor for the construction of detailed simulation models. Results We present a computational toolbox for generating random biochemical network models which mimic real biochemical networks. The toolbox is called Random Models for Biochemical Networks. The toolbox works in the Matlab environment, and it makes it possible to generate various network structures, stoichiometries, kinetic laws for reactions, and parameters therein. The generation can be based on statistical rules and distributions, and more detailed information of real biochemical networks can be used in situations where it is known. The toolbox can be easily extended. The resulting network models can be exported in the format of Systems Biology Markup Language. Conclusion While more information is accumulating on biochemical networks, random networks can be used as an intermediate step towards their better understanding. Random networks make it possible to study the effects of various network characteristics to the overall behavior of the network. Moreover, the construction of artificial network models provides the ground truth data needed in the validation of various computational methods in the fields of parameter estimation and data analysis.

  14. Association among growth, food consumption-related traits and amylase gene polymorphism in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

    OpenAIRE

    Huvet, Arnaud; Jeffroy, F; Fabioux, C; Daniel, Jean-Yves; Quillien, Virgile; Van Wormhoudt, A; Moal, Jeanne; Samain, Jean-francois; Boudry, Pierre; Pouvreau, Stephane

    2008-01-01

    To examine further a previously reported association between amylase gene polymorphism and growth in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, ecophysiological parameters and biochemical and molecular expression levels of alpha-amylase were studied in Pacific oysters of different amylase genotypes. Genotypes that previously displayed significantly different growth were found to be significantly different for ingestion and absorption efficiency. These estimated parameters, used in a dynamic energy...

  15. [Formation of genetic polymorphism in connection with phylogenesis and microevolution of the domestic dog Canis familiaris L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazev, S P; Tikhonov, V N; Tanabe, Y; Morozov, P S

    1998-11-01

    The analysis of genetic relationships between numerous breeds and populations of domestic dogs of Asian and European origin was performed by studying their polymorphism for 14 loci of biochemical markers. Phylogenetic positions of different breed groups, related to one another and to ancestral forms from the center of domestication, were elucidated. Directions of gene flow in the formation of breed as well as dynamics and vectors of the forming genetic structure in microevolution of this extremely polytypic species, were established. PMID:10096028

  16. SDS-PAGE of Whole-Cell Proteins and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Analyses of Leptotrichia Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Eribe, Emenike Ribs K.; Olsen, Ingar

    2011-01-01

    In a polyphasic approach to improve the taxonomy of Leptotrichia we have recently demonstrated heterogeneity in the enzymatic/biochemical reactions and cellular fatty acid content of Leptotrichia isolates. In the present study, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses were used to further characterize and distinguish these isolates of which 57 had been assigned as Leptotrichia buccalis and two as ‘Leptotrichia pseudobuccalis’. The phylog...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides... required to support registration of biochemical pesticides. Sections 158.2080 through 158.2084 identify...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  19. IPD: the Immuno Polymorphism Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James; Marsh, Steven G E

    2007-01-01

    The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/) is a set of specialist databases related to the study of polymorphic genes in the immune system. IPD currently consists of four databases: IPD-KIR, contains the allelic sequences of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs); IPD-MHC, a database of sequences of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of different species; IPD-HPA, alloantigens expressed only on platelets; and IPD-ESTAB, which provides access to the European Searchable Tumour Cell Line Database, a cell bank of immunologically characterized melanoma cell lines. The IPD project works with specialist groups or nomenclature committees who provide and curate individual sections before they are submitted to IPD for online publication. The IPD project stores all the data in a set of related databases. Those sections with similar data, such as IPD-KIR and IPD-MHC, share the same database structure. PMID:18449992

  20. Aggression and 5HTT polymorphism in females: study of synchronized swimming and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoeva, Olga V; Maluchenko, Natalia V; Timofeeva, Marina A; Portnova, Galina V; Kulikova, Maria A; Tonevitsky, Alexandr G; Ivanitsky, Alexey M

    2009-05-01

    Aggression is a heterogeneous heritable psychological trait, also influenced by environmental factors. Previous studies, mostly conducted on male population, have found some associations of the aggression with the polymorphisms of genes, regulating the activity of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. However, psychological as well as biochemical manifestations of the aggression are different in males and females. Our study aimed to investigate the association of 5-HTT gene polymorphism with different facets of aggression (BDHI) in females. Two groups: the synchronized swimming and non-athlete control, - were examined to study the possible modulation effect of sport on the association between 5-HTT gene polymorphism and aggression. It was found that in both groups the low-active 5-HTT polymorphism (SS) was associated with increased scores on Indirect Hostility scale and decreased scores on Negativism scale, compared to LL genotype. No interaction effect between sport and 5-HTT polymorphism was found. The higher percentage of LL-carriers and lower of LS-carriers in the synchronized swimming group compared to the control one was observed. This may be the sign of the importance of LL polymorphism of 5-HTT gene, previously associated with higher resistance to stress factors, for being an athlete, although this result has to be taken cautiously keeping in mind the stratification problem. Synchronized swimmers had lower scores on Assault, Negativism, Irritability and Verbal Hostility compared to age-matched control girls (in general and for each 5-HTT genotype separately), suggesting that they may have more matured emotional system (older control group has also lower scores on these scales). PMID:19121342

  1. Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with polycystic ovary syndrome among Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Dasgupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The Vitamin-D receptor (VDR regulates vitamin D levels and calcium metabolism in the body and these are known to be associated with endocrine dysfunctions, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Studies on VDR polymorphisms among PCOS women are sparse. We undertook this study to investigate the association pattern of VDR polymorphisms (Cdx2, Fok1, Apa1 and Taq1 with PCOS among Indian women. Methods: For the present study, 250 women with PCOS and 250 normal healthy control women were selected from Hyderabad city, Telangana, India. The four VDR polymorphisms were genotyped and analysed using ASM-PCR (allele specific multiple PCR and PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: The genotype and allele frequency distributions of only Cdx2 showed significant difference between the PCOS cases and control women, indicating protective role of this SNP against PCOS phenotype. However, significant association was observed between VDR genotypes and some of the PCOS specific clinical/biochemical traits. For example, Fok1 showed a significant genotypic difference for the presence of infertility and Cdx2 genotpes showed association with testosterone levels. Further, the two haplotypes, ACCA and ACTA, were found to be significantly associated with PCOS indicating haplotype specific risk. Interpretation & conclusions: Although VDR polymorphisms have not shown significant association with PCOS, in view of functional significance of the SNPs considered, one cannot yet rule out the possibility of their association with PCOS. Further, specifically designed studies on large cohorts are required to conclusively establish the role of VDR polymorphisms in PCOS, particularly including data on vitamin D levels.

  2. Reconfigurable neuromorphic computation in biochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hui-Ju Katherine; Jiang, Jie-Hong R; Fages, Francois

    2015-08-01

    Implementing application-specific computation and control tasks within a biochemical system has been an important pursuit in synthetic biology. Most synthetic designs to date have focused on realizing systems of fixed functions using specifically engineered components, thus lacking flexibility to adapt to uncertain and dynamically-changing environments. To remedy this limitation, an analog and modularized approach to realize reconfigurable neuromorphic computation with biochemical reactions is presented. We propose a biochemical neural network consisting of neuronal modules and interconnects that are both reconfigurable through external or internal control over the concentrations of certain molecular species. Case studies on classification and machine learning applications using the DNA strain displacement technology demonstrate the effectiveness of our design in both reconfiguration and autonomous adaptation. PMID:26736417

  3. Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism in Two Iranian Native Fowls (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari A

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical polymorphism study is a method of determination of genetic variation. This variability could be a basis for selection and subsequent genetic improvement in farm animals. The polymorphism in the intron 1 of chicken growth hormone (cGH gene was investigated in the Iranian native fowls by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method. The genomic DNA was extracted from 217 samples (129 samples from the native fowls of Isfahan province and 88 samples from the native fowls of Mazandaran province by using modified salting out technique. The DNA fragment of the growth hormone gene with 776 bp was amplified by PCR using specific primers. Then the PCR products were digested with MspI restriction enzyme and analyzed on 2.5% agarose gel. The allelic frequency of intron 1 locus for A1, A2 and A3 alleles in  Isfahan native fowls were 0.60, 0.21 and 0.19 and those in Mazandaran native  fowls were 0.28, 0.05 and 0.67, respectively. The results of current study indicated that the intron 1 of cGH is polymorphic in Iranian native fowls and could be exploited as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection for growth-related traits.

  4. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    -oriented programming (AOP). In AOP, pieces of crosscutting behavior are extracted from the base code and localized in aspects, losing as a result their polymorphic capabilities while introducing new and unexplored issues. In this paper, we explore what kinds of polymorphism AOP languages should support, using Aspect......J as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  5. Preparation and Crystallographic Analysis of Gliclazide Polymorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Rajamma, A. J.; S B Sateesha; Narode, M. K.; V R S S Prashanth; A M Karthik

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of gliclazide in the pharmaceutical industry, a large number of research groups have been engaged in various investigations aiming to enhance its biomedical application. But, very limited efforts have been made to study polymorphism of gliclazide. Therefore, this study focuses on solvent-induced polymorphism of gliclazide and its characterization by thermal methods. Three polymorphs namely, Form-I, II and III and an amorphous powder were produced from different solvents...

  6. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Polymorphism and Endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wieser, Fritz; Wenzl, Rene; Tempfer, Clemens; Worda, Christoph; Huber, Johannes; Schneeberger, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates the estradiol metabolites, 2-hydroxy and 4-hydroxy catechols, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. A COMT valine to methionine polymorphism (G-to-A) in exon 4 of the COMT gene is polymorphic in the human population, with 25% of Caucasians being homozygous for the low-activity allele (COMT-L) of the enzyme. In a case-control study we investigated whether this COMT polymorphism is associated with endometriosis.

  7. Two point mutations are responsible for G6PD polymorphism in Sardinia.

    OpenAIRE

    VITA, G.; Alcalay, M; Sampietro, M.; Cappelini, M D; Fiorelli, G; Toniolo, D.

    1989-01-01

    The human X-linked gene encoding glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is highly polymorphic; more than 300 G6PD variants have been identified. G6PD deficiency in different geographical areas appears to have arisen through independent mutational events, but within the same population it may also be heterogeneous. One example is the island of Sardinia, where careful clinical and biochemical studies have identified four different G6PD variants. We cloned and sequenced the four G6PD variants ...

  8. Predictive biochemical assays for late radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, P.; Finkelstein, J.N.; Siemann, D.W.; Shapiro, D.L.; Van Houtte, P.; Penney, D.P.

    1986-04-01

    Surfactant precursors or other products of Type II pneumocytes have the potential to be the first biochemical marker for late radiation effects. This is particularly clinically important in the combined modality era because of the frequent occurrence of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Accordingly, correlative studies have been pursued with the Type II pneumocyte as a beginning point to understand the complex pathophysiology of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. From our ultrastructural and biochemical studies, it is evident that Type II pneumocytes are an early target of radiation and the release of surfactant into the alveolus shortly after exposure persists for days and weeks. Through the use of lavaging techniques, alveolar surfactant has been elevated after pulmonary irradiation. In three murine strains and in the rabbit, there is a strong correlation with surfactant release at 7 and/or 28 days in vivo with later lethality in months. In vitro studies using cultures of type II pneumocytes also demonstrate dose response and tolerance factors that are comparable to the in vivo small and large animal diagnostic models. New markers are being developed to serve as a predictive index for later lethal pneumonopathies. With the development of these techniques, the search for early biochemical markers in man has been undertaken. Through the use of biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural techniques, a causal relationship between radiation effects on type II pneumocytes, pulmonary cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and their roles in the production of pneumonitis and fibrosis will evolve.

  9. Biochemical Applications in the Analytical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Cynthia; Ruttencutter, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An HPLC and a UV-visible spectrophotometer are identified as instruments that helps to incorporate more biologically-relevant experiments into the course, in order to increase the students understanding of selected biochemistry topics and enhances their ability to apply an analytical approach to biochemical problems. The experiment teaches…

  10. Survey of Biochemical Education in Japanese Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Yasuo

    1995-01-01

    Reports findings of questionnaires sent to faculty in charge of biochemical education in medical schools and other programs from dentistry to agriculture. Total class hours have declined since 1984. New trends include bioethics and computer-assisted learning. Tables show trends in lecture hours, lecture content, laboratory hours, core subject…

  11. Predictive biochemical assays for late radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surfactant precursors or other products of Type II pneumocytes have the potential to be the first biochemical marker for late radiation effects. This is particularly clinically important in the combined modality era because of the frequent occurrence of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Accordingly, correlative studies have been pursued with the Type II pneumocyte as a beginning point to understand the complex pathophysiology of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. From our ultrastructural and biochemical studies, it is evident that Type II pneumocytes are an early target of radiation and the release of surfactant into the alveolus shortly after exposure persists for days and weeks. Through the use of lavaging techniques, alveolar surfactant has been elevated after pulmonary irradiation. In three murine strains and in the rabbit, there is a strong correlation with surfactant release at 7 and/or 28 days in vivo with later lethality in months. In vitro studies using cultures of type II pneumocytes also demonstrate dose response and tolerance factors that are comparable to the in vivo small and large animal diagnostic models. New markers are being developed to serve as a predictive index for later lethal pneumonopathies. With the development of these techniques, the search for early biochemical markers in man has been undertaken. Through the use of biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural techniques, a causal relationship between radiation effects on type II pneumocytes, pulmonary cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and their roles in the production of pneumonitis and fibrosis will evolve

  12. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  13. Biochemical Thermodynamics under near Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The recommendations for nomenclature and tables in Biochemical Thermodynamics approved by IUBMB and IUPAC in 1994 can be easily introduced after the chemical thermodynamic formalism. Substitution of the usual standard thermodynamic properties by the transformed ones in the thermodynamic equations, and the use of appropriate thermodynamic tables…

  14. Haemoglobin Polymorphism in Malabari Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Bindu and K. C. Raghavan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Malabari Goat populations of Tanur, Thalassery and Badagara were studied for haemoglobin polymorphism. Two variants were observed for haemoglobin, Hb A and Hb B with a frequency of 0.987 and 0.012, respectively, suggestive of three phenotypes, viz. Hb AA, Hb AB and Hb BB, and indicating the predominance of Hb A in the pooled population. Hb B variant was observed only in the Thalassery population (gene frequency 0.038. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 74-75

  15. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-01

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  16. Dynamic analysis of biochemical network using complex network method

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Shuqiang; Shen Yanyan; Hu Jinxing; Li Ning; Zeng Dewei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the stochastic biochemical reaction model is proposed based on the law of mass action and complex network theory. The dynamics of biochemical reaction system is presented as a set of non-linear differential equations and analyzed at the molecular-scale. Given the initial state and the evolution rules of the biochemical reaction system, the system can achieve homeostasis. Compared with random graph, the biochemical reaction network has larger ...

  17. Biochemical considerations in the design of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of radiopharmaceutical chemistry is to design and develop radiotracers targeted to an organ or function whose activity kinetics in tissue can be detected externally by a gamma or a positron device. Radiopharmaceuticals are divided into the general categories of specific and non-specific agents. The specific radiopharmaceuticals are the tracers that follow a biochemical pathway or are involved in a particular interaction, for example metabolic substrates, drugs or analogs, and antibodies. This paper will focus on trends in the design of specific agents. The best radionuclides for the development of specific tracers are the positron emitting nuclides: carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18. First the design of radiopharmaceuticals are considered in general (labeling strategies, stereochemical effects, specific activity). Next, a brief summary of the use of several radiopharmaceuticals is presented on the basis of their biochemical rationale. (orig./G.J.P.)

  18. Cytologic-Biochemical Radiation Dosimeters in Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of radiation interacting with living tissue is the deposition of energy therein. This energy triggers numerous chemical reactions within the molecules of the target tissues. We have measured in man the results of some of these reactions at doses up to 300 rads: chromosome aberrations; alterations in the kinetics of specific human cell populations; changes in 37 biochemical constituents of serum and/or urine. The utilization of chromosomes as a biological dosimeter is partially perfected but there are numerous discrepancies in data between different laboratories. Etiocholanolone can be used to evaluate marrow injury before the white-cell count falls below 5000/mm3. Most biochemical dosimeters evaluated gave negative or inconsistent results. However, salivary amylase is a promising indicator of human radiation injury from doses as low as 100 rads. (author)

  19. Reconstructing biochemical pathways from time course data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividhya, Jeyaraman; Crampin, Edmund J; McSharry, Patrick E; Schnell, Santiago

    2007-03-01

    Time series data on biochemical reactions reveal transient behavior, away from chemical equilibrium, and contain information on the dynamic interactions among reacting components. However, this information can be difficult to extract using conventional analysis techniques. We present a new method to infer biochemical pathway mechanisms from time course data using a global nonlinear modeling technique to identify the elementary reaction steps which constitute the pathway. The method involves the generation of a complete dictionary of polynomial basis functions based on the law of mass action. Using these basis functions, there are two approaches to model construction, namely the general to specific and the specific to general approach. We demonstrate that our new methodology reconstructs the chemical reaction steps and connectivity of the glycolytic pathway of Lactococcus lactis from time course experimental data. PMID:17370261

  20. Optical Biochemical Platforms for Nanoparticles Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Campanella, Clarissa Martina

    2014-01-01

    In the biochemical sensing field, a fervent research activity related to the development of real time, low cost, compact and high throughput devices for the detection and characterization of natural or synthetic nanoparticles NPs actually exists. In this research scenario, different platforms for biosensing purposes have been developed according to the huge amount of physical effects involved in the transduction of the biochemical-signal into a measurable output signal. In the present work two different optical platforms for NP detection have been investigated, one based on integrated optics and the other based on microscopy. Both the approaches rely on the study of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with a small particle in the hypothesis of dealing with a Rayleigh scatterer, i.e. a nanoparticle having a size really smaller than the one of the wavelength of the incident light and scattering light elastically.

  1. Biological dosimetry: biochemical and cellular parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early after the beginning of radiobiology studies, biochemistry has led to research of a biological dosimeter. From an extensive literature review, methods were selected that might be suitable for dose assessment via biochemical indicators. By now, research both in laboratory animals and in therapeutic or accidental human exposures, do not allow to retain a biochemical parameter alone for the purpose of diagnosis or prognosis. Several enzymatic activities have been precociously studied after irradiation: from these studies, it seems that analysis of four enzymatic activities in serum (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, amylase, lactic dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase) could be the most useful dosimetry system for mass sorting. Detection of DNA damage or methods for measuring somatic mutations are currently advancing and provide important new opportunities for biological dosimetry of low doses

  2. Advancement in biochemical assays in andrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolf-BernhardSchill; RaftHenkel

    1999-01-01

    Determination of maikers of sperm function, accessory sex gland secretion and silent male genital tract inflammation is of considerable diagnostic value in the evaluation of male infertility. The introduction of biochemical tests into the analysis of male factor has the advantage that standardized assays with a coefficient of variafion characteristic of clinical chemistry are performed, in contrast to biological test systems with a large variability .Biochemical parameters may be used in clinical practice to evaluate the sperm fertitizing capacity (acrosin, aniline blue,ROS), to characterize male accessory sex gland secretinns (fructose, a-glucosidase, PSA), and to identify men with silent genital tract inflammation (elastase, C'3 complement component, coeruloplasmin, IgA, IgG, ROS). (As/an J Androl 1999 Jun; 1: 45-51)

  3. Computational Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Altered Drug Responsiveness in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is one of the most frequent mortality causes in western countries, with rapidly increasing prevalence. Anti-diabetic drugs are the first therapeutic approach, although many patients develop drug resistance. Most drug responsiveness variability can be explained by genetic causes. Inter-individual variability is principally due to single nucleotide polymorphisms, and differential drug responsiveness has been correlated to alteration in genes involved in drug metabolism (CYP2C9 or insulin signaling (IRS1, ABCC8, KCNJ11 and PPARG. However, most genome-wide association studies did not provide clues about the contribution of DNA variations to impaired drug responsiveness. Thus, characterizing T2D drug responsiveness variants is needed to guide clinicians toward tailored therapeutic approaches. Here, we extensively investigated polymorphisms associated with altered drug response in T2D, predicting their effects in silico. Combining different computational approaches, we focused on the expression pattern of genes correlated to drug resistance and inferred evolutionary conservation of polymorphic residues, computationally predicting the biochemical properties of polymorphic proteins. Using RNA-Sequencing followed by targeted validation, we identified and experimentally confirmed that two nucleotide variations in the CAPN10 gene—currently annotated as intronic—fall within two new transcripts in this locus. Additionally, we found that a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP, currently reported as intergenic, maps to the intron of a new transcript, harboring CAPN10 and GPR35 genes, which undergoes non-sense mediated decay. Finally, we analyzed variants that fall into non-coding regulatory regions of yet underestimated functional significance, predicting that some of them can potentially affect gene expression and/or post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs affecting the splicing.

  4. Impact of the PPAR gamma-2 gene polymorphisms on the metabolic state of postmenopausal women

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BOGNA GRYGIEL-GÓRNIAK; MARIA MOSOR; JUSTYNA MARCINKOWSKA; JULIUSZ PRZYSŁAWSKI; JERZY NOWAK

    2016-09-01

    The relationship Pro12Ala (rs1801282) and C1431T (rs3856806) polymorphisms of PPAR gamma-2 with glucose and lipid metabolism is not clear after menopause. We investigated the impact of the Pro12Ala and C1431T silentsubstitution in the 6th exon in PPAR gamma-2 gene on nutritional and metabolic status in 271 postmenopausal women(122 lean and 149 obese). The general linear model (GLM) approach to the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to infer the interactions between the analysed genotypes. The frequency of the Pro-T haplotype was higher in obese than in lean women ($p\\lt 0.0349$). In the analysed GLM models according to obesity status, the C1431C genotypewas related to a lower glucose concentration ($\\beta=-0.2103$) in lean women, and to higher folliculotropic hormone FSH levels ($\\beta=0.1985$) and lower waist circumferences ($\\beta=-0.1511$) in obese women. The influence of C1431C waspresent regardless of the occurrence of the Pro12Ala polymorphism. The co-existence of the C1431C and Pro12Progenotypes was related to lower values for triceps skinfold thickness compared those for the T1241/X and Ala12/X polymorphisms ($\\beta=-0.1425$). The presence of C1431C decreased the differences between triceps values that weredetermined by Pro or Ala allele. In conclusion, C1431T polymorphism seems to have a more essential influence onanthropometric and biochemical parameters than is the case with Pro12Ala polymorphism.

  5. GENOTYPES OF FIVE BLOOD PROTEINS’ POLYMORPHISM IN VARIOUS PRODUCTION AGE OF DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J ŽITNÝ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work were analysed samples of blood from 314 dairy cows Slovak spotted breed by the method of starch gel electrophoresis. The aim was to identify the biochemical polymorphic markers in blood plasma and in extract of erythrocytes. The polymorphism of hemoglobin (AA+AB+BB, amylasa (AA+AB+BB, transferrin (AA+AD1+AD2+AE+D1D1+D1E, albumin (AA+AB+BB and postalbumin (AA+AB+AC+BB+BC+CC were proved. File of dairy cows was divided to fi ve groups by age. The fi rst group create of dairy cows in age 25-48 months, second 49-72 months, third 73-96 months, fourth 97-120 months and the last over 121 months. According to evaluation of heterozygotes genotypes were detect decrease into of AB genotype in polymorphism of hemoglobin from primary 46.8 % (25-48 month to 11.1 % in the last age group of dairy cows up 121-th months. Heterozygotic combinations in transferrin locus (AD1+AD2+AE+D1E genotypes culminated from the beginning 14.2 % to 38.9 % at the fi rst group and last one. The postalbumin polymorphism had the high rate of heterozygotes because of AB+AC+BC genotypes. Rate of heterozygous genotypes AB in the polymorphism system amylasa variance between 15.4 - 23.7 %. Heterozygotic genotypes AB in albumin locus was according to our analyse at dairy cows in the fi rst evaluated of age group 52.9 %, second one only in fi fth groups at intervals 71.8 - 75.0 %. Among tested heterozygotes (AB genotype and homozygotes (AA+BB genotypes we found the signifi cant differences only in albumin locus 2,18+ (+P≤0,05.

  6. Biochemical changes in ginger after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginger (Zingiber officinate) was irradiated with gamma rays (0.1Kgy, 1.0Kgy). Biochemical changes during storage at room temperature (23-28 degree centigrade), in sand (23-28 degree centigrade) and at cold (8 degree centigrade) temperature were observed. Changes in starch, soluble protein, fixed oil and volatile oil contents showed that treatment of ginger at 0.1Kgy radiation level was most appropriate for storage upto 45 days

  7. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic...

  8. The stochastic dynamics of biochemical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Challenger, Joseph Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the stochastic dynamics of biochemical reaction systems. The importance of the intrinsic fluctuations in these systems has become more widely appreciated in recent years, and should be accounted for when modelling such systems mathematically. These models are described as continuous time Markov processes and their dynamics defined by a master equation. Analytical progress is made possible by the use of the van Kampen system-size expansion, which splits the dynamics...

  9. The Biochemical Anatomy of Cortical Inhibitory Synapses

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, E.A.; Zhang, W.; Selimi, F.; Earnheart, J.C.; Slimak, M.A.; Santos-Torres, J.; Ibanez-Tallon, I.; Aoki, C; Chait, B. T.; Heintz, N

    2012-01-01

    Classical electron microscopic studies of the mammalian brain revealed two major classes of synapses, distinguished by the presence of a large postsynaptic density (PSD) exclusively at type 1, excitatory synapses. Biochemical studies of the PSD have established the paradigm of the synapse as a complex signal-processing machine that controls synaptic plasticity. We report here the results of a proteomic analysis of type 2, inhibitory synaptic complexes isolated by affinity purification from th...

  10. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong-Xuan; Dempsey, William P.; Goutsias, John

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems as well as for designing optimal approaches for selective perturbation and intervention. Deterministic sensitivity analysis techniques, using derivatives of the system response, have been extensively used in the literature. However, these techniques suffer from several drawbacks, which must be carefully considered before using them in problems of systems biology. ...

  11. Biochemical and functional characterisation of casein and whey protein hydrolysates.

    OpenAIRE

    Ven, van de, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Whey protein and sodium caseinate were hydrolysed with commercially available enzyme preparations. The resulting hydrolysates were characterised using several analytical characterisation methods and by determination of several functional properties. Subsequently, correlations between the biochemical characteristics themselves and between biochemical and functional properties were studied using multivariate regression analysis.Biochemical characteristics of hydrolysates were determined using u...

  12. [Biochemical antenatal screening for fetal anomalies.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfadóttir, G; Jónsson, J J

    2001-05-01

    Biochemical antenatal screening started 30 years ago. Initially, the goal was to detect neural tube defects by measuring a-fetoprotein in maternal serum (MS-AFP) and amniotic fluid (AF-AFP). The serendipitous discovery of an association between low AFP maternal serum concentration and chromosomal anomalies resulted in increased research interest in biochemical screening in pregnancy. Subsequently double, triple or quadruple tests in 2nd trimester of pregnancy became widely used in combination with fetal chromosome determination in at risk individuals. In Iceland, antenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies has essentially been based on fetal chromosome studies offered to pregnant women 35 years or older. This strategy needs to be revised. Recently first trimester biochemical screening based on maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A (MS-PAPP-A) and free b-human chorionic gonadotropin (MS-free b-hCG) and multivariate risk assessment has been developed. This screening test can be improved if done in conjunction with nuchal translucency measurements in an early sonography scan. PMID:17018982

  13. Electronic modulation of biochemical signal generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordonov, Tanya; Kim, Eunkyoung; Cheng, Yi; Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Ghodssi, Reza; Rubloff, Gary; Yin, Jun-Jie; Payne, Gregory F.; Bentley, William E.

    2014-08-01

    Microelectronic devices that contain biological components are typically used to interrogate biology rather than control biological function. Patterned assemblies of proteins and cells have, however, been used for in vitro metabolic engineering, where coordinated biochemical pathways allow cell metabolism to be characterized and potentially controlled on a chip. Such devices form part of technologies that attempt to recreate animal and human physiological functions on a chip and could be used to revolutionize drug development. These ambitious goals will, however, require new biofabrication methodologies that help connect microelectronics and biological systems and yield new approaches to device assembly and communication. Here, we report the electrically mediated assembly, interrogation and control of a multi-domain fusion protein that produces a bacterial signalling molecule. The biological system can be electrically tuned using a natural redox molecule, and its biochemical response is shown to provide the signalling cues to drive bacterial population behaviour. We show that the biochemical output of the system correlates with the electrical input charge, which suggests that electrical inputs could be used to control complex on-chip biological processes.

  14. Hydrogel-based piezoresistive biochemical microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Margarita; Schulz, Volker; Gerlach, Gerald; Wallmersperger, Thomas; Solzbacher, Florian; Magda, Jules J.; Tathireddy, Prashant; Lin, Genyao; Orthner, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This work is motivated by a demand for inexpensive, robust and reliable biochemical sensors with high signal reproducibility and long-term-stable sensitivity, especially for medical applications. Micro-fabricated sensors can provide continuous monitoring and on-line control of analyte concentrations in ambient aqueous solutions. The piezoresistive biochemical sensor containing a special biocompatible polymer (hydrogel) with a sharp volume phase transition in the neutral physiological pH range near 7.4 can detect a specific analyte, for example glucose. Thereby the hydrogel-based biochemical sensors are useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes. The response of the glucosesensitive hydrogel was studied at different regimes of the glucose concentration change and of the solution supply. Sensor response time and accuracy with which a sensor can track gradual changes in glucose was estimated. Additionally, the influence of various recommended sterilization methods on the gel swelling properties and on the mechano-electrical transducer of the pH-sensors has been evaluated in order to choose the most optimal sterilization method for the implantable sensors. It has been shown that there is no negative effect of gamma irradiation with a dose of 25.7 kGy on the hydrogel sensitivity. In order to achieve an optimum between sensor signal amplitude and sensor response time, corresponding calibration and measurement procedures have been proposed and evaluated for the chemical sensors.

  15. On polymorphism of dysprosium trichloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Khokhlov, Vladimir A.; Salyulev, Alexander B.; Korzun, Iraida V. [RAS Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2015-07-01

    For the first time, the structure of crystalline DyCl{sub 3} over a wide temperature range from room temperature to melting point was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The phonon modes (cm{sup -1}) of dysprosium trichloride (monoclinic crystal lattice of AlCl{sub 3} type, Z = 4, CN = 6) at room temperature are 257 (A{sub 1g}), 201 (E{sub g}), 112 (E{sub g}), 88 (A{sub 1g}), and 63 (E{sub g}). The monoclinic structure of the crystalline DyCl{sub 3} C{sub 2h}{sup 3} symmetry was found to remain constant over the studied temperature range. No polymorphic transformation in the solid state was detected. Gravimetry, calorimetry, and mass spectrometry have been used in addition to support the conclusions made on the basis of Raman spectroscopic data.

  16. On polymorphism of dysprosium trichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, the structure of crystalline DyCl3 over a wide temperature range from room temperature to melting point was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The phonon modes (cm-1) of dysprosium trichloride (monoclinic crystal lattice of AlCl3 type, Z = 4, CN = 6) at room temperature are 257 (A1g), 201 (Eg), 112 (Eg), 88 (A1g), and 63 (Eg). The monoclinic structure of the crystalline DyCl3 C2h3 symmetry was found to remain constant over the studied temperature range. No polymorphic transformation in the solid state was detected. Gravimetry, calorimetry, and mass spectrometry have been used in addition to support the conclusions made on the basis of Raman spectroscopic data.

  17. Clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ disease.Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 18 cases with clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland increase were analyzed and compared with data retrieved from 50 patients without increasing of lacrimal gland.Results: the characteristics of clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy with lacrimal gland increase were presented. this form differs, as the organ of the target, along with orbital fat and/or eye muscles becomes the glandula lacrimalis. A correlation between fact involving, on the one hand, and the intensity and severity of the autoimmune process in orbit, on the other hand were identified.Conclusion: Involvement of this secretion organ in the autoimmune process makes the clinical course of endocrine ophthalmopa-thy more complicated, and leads to eye dry syndrome creation.

  18. Crystallization and Polymorphism of Felodipine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surov, A. O.; Solanko, K. A.; Bond, A. D.;

    2012-01-01

    . The crystal structures of the new forms III and IV were determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Forms I, II, and III were obtained in bulk form and characterized by a variety of analytical methods, including thermal analysis, solution calorimetry, intrinsic dissolution rate measurement...... and the effective pH value in the presence of the cocrystal former, and it was possible subsequently to produce the four polymorphs by pH adjustment using H2SO4(aq) or NaOH(aq). This suggests that there is no distinct "structure-directing" role for the molecular additives present during the cocrystallization trials...... the new form III is practically isoenergetic. Form II shows the highest solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate, consistent with the lowest thermodynamic stability. Forms I, II, and III are all monotropically related....

  19. Identification of trends in scientific publications related to genetic polymorphisms in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J S; Minasi, L B; da Cruz, A D; Rodrigues, F M

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes is a genetic multifactorial systemic disease that has been extensively studied. Consequently, there is a large volume of scientific literature pertaining to genes associated with gestational diabetes. The aim of this study was to characterize the main trends in scientific publications focusing on the associations between genetic polymorphisms and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The related articles were extracted from Scopus using the key words "genetic polymorphism" and "gestational diabetes mellitus"; the collected data focused on various fields (medical, biochemical, etc.) and included papers published within December 2013. One hundred and eighty-three relevant articles published between 1987 and 2013 were identified; we observed a significantly increasing trend in the number of publications pertaining to GDM. A majority of the articles focused on the medical (59.9%), biochemical, and genetics and molecular biological (29.6%) aspects of the disease. The genes coding for transcription factor 7-like 2 and glucokinase (TCF7L2, 29% and GCK, 28%) were predominantly studied and reported. This study helped quantify the growth in research pertaining to GDM; researchers from the USA have published a majority of the publications related to GDM. Several candidate genes have been linked to diabetes; however, the specific gene locus responsible for GDM has not yet been identified. The results of this study could help determine the orientation of future research on genetic factors associated with GDM. PMID:27173344

  20. Leptin receptor and ghrelin genes polymorphisms in relation to the metabolism of lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trakovická

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding leptin receptor (LEPR and ghrelin (GHR as genetic markers of metabolic disorders in human nutrition. Genomic DNA was obtained from in total 84 human blood samples. Effect of analysed genetic markers was evaluated for three biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol. The PCR-RFLP method was used for identification of SNPs in LEPR (Gln223Arg and GHR (171T/C genes. In analysed population prevalence of heterozygous LEPRAG (47.62% and GHRCT (40.48% genotypes was observed. Frequency of LEPRA and LEPRB alleles were 0.55 and 0.45, respectively. Similar the GHRC allele had only slight predominance than GHRT allele (0.54/0.46. In population was found higher level of observed heterozygosity across loci (0.44. For both SNPs was found high effective allele number (1.98 which was also transferred to the median level of polymorphic information content (0.37. Association analysis of LEPR and GHR genotypes effect on selected biochemical parameters was performed using GLM procedure. Significant association was found only for levels of LDL cholesterol (P<0.01. Our study shows that both genes are involved in nutritional status and therefore can be considered as candidate genes of lipids metabolism disorders and obesity.

  1. Vibrational study of tamoxifen citrate polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, M. C.; Baraldi, C.; Tinti, A.; Palazzoli, F.; Ferioli, V.

    2007-09-01

    The trans isomer of ( Z)-2-[ p-(1,2-diphenyl-butenyl)phenoxy]- N, N-dimethyletylamine (tamoxifen) is well known for its endocrine activity as an antiestrogenic agent. Its citrate salt, a widely used pharmaceutical agent, appears in three main polymorphic forms, two of which are well known (I and II) and another form not yet well evidenced. A vibrational study has been conducted for identifying the two known polymorphic forms of tamoxifen citrate (I and II) and for characterising the other form (form III) examined in this study. Other techniques for the characterization of the different polymorphs, such as XRDP, have been used.

  2. Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS: software for stochastic modeling of biochemical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston Timothy C

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrinsic fluctuations due to the stochastic nature of biochemical reactions can have large effects on the response of biochemical networks. This is particularly true for pathways that involve transcriptional regulation, where generally there are two copies of each gene and the number of messenger RNA (mRNA molecules can be small. Therefore, there is a need for computational tools for developing and investigating stochastic models of biochemical networks. Results We have developed the software package Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS for efficientlyand accurately simulating stochastic models of biochemical networks. BioNetS has a graphical user interface that allows models to be entered in a straightforward manner, and allows the user to specify the type of random variable (discrete or continuous for each chemical species in the network. The discrete variables are simulated using an efficient implementation of the Gillespie algorithm. For the continuous random variables, BioNetS constructs and numerically solvesthe appropriate chemical Langevin equations. The software package has been developed to scale efficiently with network size, thereby allowing large systems to be studied. BioNetS runs as a BioSpice agent and can be downloaded from http://www.biospice.org. BioNetS also can be run as a stand alone package. All the required files are accessible from http://x.amath.unc.edu/BioNetS. Conclusions We have developed BioNetS to be a reliable tool for studying the stochastic dynamics of large biochemical networks. Important features of BioNetS are its ability to handle hybrid models that consist of both continuous and discrete random variables and its ability to model cell growth and division. We have verified the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods by considering several test systems.

  3. Relationships between plasma leptin levels, leptin G2548A, leptin receptor Gln223Arg polymorphisms and gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Yang; Songxu Peng; Wei Li; Zhihua Wan; Linlin Fan; Yukai Du

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine concentrations of leptin and biochemical parameters in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) individuals, and also to explore the links of leptin (LEP) G2548A and leptin receptor (LEPR) Gln223Arg polymorphisms with leptin levels and GDM risk among Chinese. Our study included 357 GDM and 355 NGT individuals who were at 24~30 gestational weeks. Plasma leptin and insulin levels were analyzed by ELISA. Gene polym...

  4. Rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate polymorphs: Solid-state characterisation of transition and polymorphic conversion via milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Maria Inês; Simon, Alice; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; de Sousa, Valéria Pereira; Healy, Anne Marie

    2015-11-01

    Rivastigmine (RHT) is an active pharmaceutical ingredient that is used for the treatment of mild to moderately severe dementia in Alzheimer's disease, and is known to present two polymorphic forms and to amorphise upon granulation. To date there is no information in the scientific or patent literature on polymorphic transition and stability. Hence, the aim of the current study was to gain a fundamental understanding of the polymorphic forms by (1) evaluating RHT thermodynamic stability (monotropy or enantiotropy) and (2) investigating the potential for polymorphic transformation upon milling. The two polymorphic and amorphous forms were characterised using X-ray powder diffractometry, thermal analyses, infra-red spectroscopy and water sorption analysis. The polymorphic transition was found to be spontaneous (ΔG0 < 0) and exothermic (ΔH0 < 0), indicative of a monotropic polymorph pair. The kinetic studies showed a fast initial polymorphic transition characterised by a heterogeneous nucleation, followed by a slow crystal growth. Ball milling can be used to promote the polymorphic transition and for the production of RHT amorphous form.

  5. Induced protein polymorphisms and nutritional quality of gamma irradiation mutants of sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We analyse kafirin protein polymorphisms induced by gamma irradiation in sorghum. • One mutant with suppressed kafirins in the endosperm accumulated them in the germ. • Kafirin polymorphisms were associated with high levels of free amino acids. • Nutritional value of sorghum can be improved significantly by induced mutations. - Abstract: Physical and biochemical analysis of protein polymorphisms in seed storage proteins of a mutant population of sorghum revealed a mutant with redirected accumulation of kafirin proteins in the germ. The change in storage proteins was accompanied by an unusually high level accumulation of free lysine and other essential amino acids in the endosperm. This mutant further displayed a significant suppression in the synthesis and accumulation of the 27 kDa γ-, 24 kDa α-A1 and the 22 kDa α-A2 kafirins in the endosperm. The suppression of kafirins was counteracted by an upsurge in the synthesis and accumulation of albumins, globulins and other proteins. The data collectively suggest that sorghum has huge genetic potential for nutritional biofortification and that induced mutations can be used as an effective tool in achieving premium nutrition in staple cereals

  6. Induced protein polymorphisms and nutritional quality of gamma irradiation mutants of sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlo, Luke, E-mail: LMehlo@csir.co.za [CSIR Biosciences, Meiring Naude Road, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Mbambo, Zodwa [CSIR Biosciences, Meiring Naude Road, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Microbiology Discipline, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Bado, Souleymane [Plant Breeding and Genetics Laboratory – Joint FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Lin, Johnson [Microbiology Discipline, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Moagi, Sydwell M.; Buthelezi, Sindisiwe; Stoychev, Stoyan; Chikwamba, Rachel [CSIR Biosciences, Meiring Naude Road, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We analyse kafirin protein polymorphisms induced by gamma irradiation in sorghum. • One mutant with suppressed kafirins in the endosperm accumulated them in the germ. • Kafirin polymorphisms were associated with high levels of free amino acids. • Nutritional value of sorghum can be improved significantly by induced mutations. - Abstract: Physical and biochemical analysis of protein polymorphisms in seed storage proteins of a mutant population of sorghum revealed a mutant with redirected accumulation of kafirin proteins in the germ. The change in storage proteins was accompanied by an unusually high level accumulation of free lysine and other essential amino acids in the endosperm. This mutant further displayed a significant suppression in the synthesis and accumulation of the 27 kDa γ-, 24 kDa α-A1 and the 22 kDa α-A2 kafirins in the endosperm. The suppression of kafirins was counteracted by an upsurge in the synthesis and accumulation of albumins, globulins and other proteins. The data collectively suggest that sorghum has huge genetic potential for nutritional biofortification and that induced mutations can be used as an effective tool in achieving premium nutrition in staple cereals.

  7. Polymorphous light eruption - some interesting aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) is Latin America is reported. The clinical lesions, the course, histopathology, differential diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment and systemic photoprotection are discussed. Treatment with ultraviolet radiation is included. (C.F.)

  8. BNDB – The Biochemical Network Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmann Michael

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technological advances in high-throughput techniques and efficient data acquisition methods have resulted in a massive amount of life science data. The data is stored in numerous databases that have been established over the last decades and are essential resources for scientists nowadays. However, the diversity of the databases and the underlying data models make it difficult to combine this information for solving complex problems in systems biology. Currently, researchers typically have to browse several, often highly focused, databases to obtain the required information. Hence, there is a pressing need for more efficient systems for integrating, analyzing, and interpreting these data. The standardization and virtual consolidation of the databases is a major challenge resulting in a unified access to a variety of data sources. Description We present the Biochemical Network Database (BNDB, a powerful relational database platform, allowing a complete semantic integration of an extensive collection of external databases. BNDB is built upon a comprehensive and extensible object model called BioCore, which is powerful enough to model most known biochemical processes and at the same time easily extensible to be adapted to new biological concepts. Besides a web interface for the search and curation of the data, a Java-based viewer (BiNA provides a powerful platform-independent visualization and navigation of the data. BiNA uses sophisticated graph layout algorithms for an interactive visualization and navigation of BNDB. Conclusion BNDB allows a simple, unified access to a variety of external data sources. Its tight integration with the biochemical network library BN++ offers the possibility for import, integration, analysis, and visualization of the data. BNDB is freely accessible at http://www.bndb.org.

  9. Biochemical changes in blood under Cr6+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzenko E.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. For the manufacture of dentures many different alloys containing chromium are used. Interaction with oral fluid, organic acids and food, results in formation of Cr3+, Cr6+ ions, but their influence on the whole organism is poorly investigated. Objective. To analyze the biochemical changes in blood plasma during the influence of Cr6+ ions. Methods. 15 animals of experimental group were receiving drinking water with potassium dichromate in a dose of 0,2 mol/l. Rats of control group (5 individuals drank usual drinking water. Animals were led out of experiment on the 20th, 40th and 60th days after the beginning of introduction of potassium dichromate. Results. It was established that at the beginning of experiment the blood biochemical indicators of control and the 1st experimental groups differed by its content. Increase of urea concentration led to suspicion about violation of a glomerular filtration, damage of a kidney parenchyma and tissue disintegration. On the 20th and 40th days of experiment the symptoms of acidosis and increase of potassium ions concentration in blood plasma were defined. Continuous and dynamic increase of creatin-phosphokinase was observed during 60 days of experiment. Conclusion. Biochemical changes in blood under the influence of Cr6+ ions evidence their toxic action on an organism. Especial concern is caused by changes of ionic composition and increase of the atherogenic index of blood plasma on the 40th day of experiment. Substantial increase of the creatin-phosphokinase level indicates general somatic influence of chromium ions.

  10. Fluctuation preserving coarse graining for biochemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Altaner, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Finite stochastic Markov models play a major role for modelling biochemical pathways. Such models are a coarse-grained description of the underlying microscopic dynamics and can be considered mesoscopic. The level of coarse-graining is to a certain extend arbitrary since it depends on the resolution of accomodating measurements. Here, we present a way to simplify such stochastic descriptions, which preserves both the meso-micro and the meso-macro connection. The former is achieved by demanding locality, the latter by considering cycles on the network of states. Using single- and multicycle examples we demonstrate how our new method preserves fluctuations of observables much better than na\\"ive approaches.

  11. Radiation treatment of drugs, biochemicals and vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concise and tabulated review reports experimental results on the effects of radiation treatment on drugs, vaccines, biochemicals and adjuvants including enzymes as well. Irradiation was mostly performed by γ-radiation using 60Co and to a lesser extent by 137Cs, 182Ta, X-rays and accelerators. Ionizing radiation proved to be a useful tool for sterilization and inactivation in producing drugs, vaccines, and bioactive agents and will contribute to realize procedures difficultly solvable as to engineering and economy, respectively. 124 refs

  12. Induced biochemical conversions of heavy crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Products formed during multiple interactions of microorganisms with oils fall into two major categories: those formed due to the action of indigenous microorganisms under reservoir conditions over geological periods of time and those products which are generated by the action of introduced organisms. The extreme end product of the first category is the production of heavy 'biodegraded' crudes. The extreme end product of the second category is the production of reduced sulfates due to the introduction of sulfate-reducing bacteria which may lead to the souring of a field. There is, however, a select group of microorganisms whose action on the crudes is beneficial. The interactions between such microorganisms and different crude oils occur through complex biochemical and chemical reactions. These reactions depend on multiple variables within and at the interface of a multicomponent system consisting of organic, aqueous, and inorganic components. Studies, carried out in this laboratory (BNL) of biochemical and chemical reactions in crude oils which involve extremophilic organisms (organisms which thrive in extreme environments), have shown that the reactions are not random and follow distinct trends. These trends can be categorized. The use of a group of characteristic chemical markers, such as mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of light and heavy hydrocarbons, heterocyclic and organometallic compounds, as well as total trace metal and heteroatom contents of crude oils before and after the biochemical treatment allows to follow the type and the extent of chemical changes which occur during the biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils by microorganisms. The bioconversion involves multiple, simultaneous, and/or concurrent chemical reactions in which the microorganisms serve as biocatalysts. In this sense, the biocatalysts are active in a reaction medium which depends on the chemical composition of the crude and the selectivity of the biocatalyst. Thus, the

  13. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  14. MHC polymorphism under host-pathogen coevolution

    OpenAIRE

    Borghans, J.A.M.; J.B. Beltman; de Boer, R J

    2004-01-01

    The genes encoding major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules are among the most polymorphic genes known for vertebrates. Since MHC molecules play an important role in the induction of immune responses, the evolution of MHC polymorphism is often explained in terms of increased protection of hosts against pathogens. Two selective pressures that are thought to be involved are (1) selection favoring MHC heterozygous hosts, and (2) selection for rare MHC alleles by host-pathogen coevolution. We hav...

  15. Glycidamide genotoxicity modulated by Caspases genes polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, João Pereira; Silva, Susana N; Rueff, José; Pingarilho, Marta

    2016-08-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is amongst acknowledged carcinogenic dietary factors. Its DNA-reactive metabolite is glycidamide (GA). The present study intended to correlate the role of key polymorphic genes of apoptosis (CASP7, CASP8, CASP9, CASP10, LTA and TNFRSF1B) with biomarkers of effect of DNA damage, namely the sister chromatid exchange assay (SCE) and the comet assay in whole blood cells exposed to GA. The aim was to assess as a proof of concept the role that pro-apoptotic effector proteins might have in the yields of genotoxic effects when those effector proteins are coded by polymorphic genes. Whole blood from a small group of volunteers was exposed to GA to assess DNA damage and the volunteers were genotyped for polymorphic genes related to apoptosis pathways. A relation between the induction of SCE and several variants of the polymorphism CASP8 rs1035142 G>T was observed. Also, a relation between the % tail DNA and the CASP10 I522L polymorphism was found. Furthermore, associations between % tail DNA and several SNP-SNP interactions of CASP8 and CASP10 were found. A possible correlation between DNA damage and the genetic susceptibility, bestowed by polymorphic genes in the apoptosis inducing pathways was verified. PMID:27062911

  16. Association of IFNL3 rs12979860 and rs8099917 with biochemical predictors of interferon responsiveness in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janett Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genetic variations near the interferon lambda 3 gene (IFNL3, IL28B are the most powerful predictors for sustained virologic response (SVR in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, compared to other biochemical or histological baseline parameters. We evaluated whether the interplay of both IFNL3 polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs8099917 together with non-genetic clinical factors contributes to the predictive role of these genetic variants. METHODS: The cohort comprised 1,402 patients of European descent with chronic HCV type 1 infection. 1,298 patients received interferon-based antiviral therapy, and 719 (55% achieved SVR. The IFNL3 polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and melting curve analysis. RESULTS: A significant correlation was found between the IFNL3 polymorphisms and biochemical as well as virologic predictors of treatment outcome such as ALT, GGT, cholesterol, and HCV RNA levels. In multivariate regression analysis, IFLN3 SNPs, HCV RNA levels, and the GGT/ALT ratio were independent predictors of SVR. Dependent on the GGT/ALT ratio and on the HCV RNA concentration, significant variations in the likelihood for achieving SVR were observed in both, carriers of the responder as well as non-responder alleles. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support a clear association between IFNL3 genotypes and baseline parameters known to impact interferon responsiveness. Improved treatment outcome prediction was achieved when these predictors were considered in combination with the IFNL3 genotype.

  17. Biochemical research elucidating metabolic pathways in Pneumocystis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneshiro E.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing the Pneumocystis carinii genome have helped identify potential metabolic pathways operative in the organism. Also, data from characterizing the biochemical and physiological nature of these organisms now allow elucidation of metabolic pathways as well as pose new challenges and questions that require additional experiments. These experiments are being performed despite the difficulty in doing experiments directly on this pathogen that has yet to be subcultured indefinitely and produce mass numbers of cells in vitro. This article reviews biochemical approaches that have provided insights into several Pneumocystis metabolic pathways. It focuses on 1 S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet; SAM, which is a ubiquitous participant in numerous cellular reactions; 2 sterols: focusing on oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol in P. carinii; SAM:sterol C-24 methyltransferase that adds methyl groups at the C-24 position of the sterol side chain; and sterol 14α-demethylase that removes a methyl group at the C-14 position of the sterol nucleus; and 3 synthesis of ubiquinone homologs, which play a pivotal role in mitochondrial inner membrane and other cellular membrane electron transport.

  18. Biochemical mechanisms of laser vascular tissue fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, C R; Murray, L W; Kopchok, G E; Rosenbaum, D; White, R A

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the biochemical changes that occur in argon laser-fused canine veins compared with control segments of vein. Laser fusions were formed using 0.5 W argon laser energy (1100-1500 J/cm2). Immediately following tissue fusion, blood flow was reestablished to test the integrity of the welds. 1-mm3 sections of the anastomoses and control sections were minced and protein extraction was performed by solubilizing the tissue in hot SDS Laemmli gel sample buffer. The proteins were separated electrophoretically on 5 and 10% polyacylamide SDS gels and silver stained. The analysis demonstrated significant biochemical differences between control and lased veins. We noted increases in several proteins after laser welding: the putative beta chain of type V collagen (5/5 gels), the putative gamma chain of type I collagen (4/5 gels), a 156-kDa protein (based on collagen molecular weight standards) 7/7 gels), an 82-kDa protein (8/9 gels), and several proteins of lower molecular weight (3/8 gels). The increases may be due to crosslinking of lower molecular weight proteins, degradation of higher molecular weight proteins, or increased solubility of certain proteins. These findings suggest that laser welding may occur by formation of crosslinks or by denaturation and reannealment of structural proteins. PMID:1863584

  19. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; ZHOU,W.; SHELENKOVA,L.; WILKE,R.

    1998-09-20

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL's Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  20. Biochemical processes for geothermal brine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Zhou, W.; Shelenkova, L.; Wilke, R.

    1998-08-01

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL`s Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines, (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  1. Serum biochemical markers in carcinoma breast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the extensive research for many years throughout the world, the etiopathogenesis of cancer still remains obscure. For the early detection of carcinoma of various origins, a number of biochemical markers have been studied to evaluate the malignancy. AIM: To analyse serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD in carcinoma breast patients. SETTINGS & DESIGN: The serum biochemical markers were estimated in twenty five histopathologically confirmed patients with carcinoma breast and equal number of healthy age- matched individuals served as control. MATERIAL & METHODS: Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD were estimated and their sensitivity determined. Statistics: Data was analysed with student′s ′t′-test and sensitivity score of these markers was determined. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The mean serum GGTP, LDH and SOD activities in patients with carcinoma breast were tremendously increased as compared to controls, and a steady increase was observed in their activities from stage I through stage IV as well as following distant metastasis. Serum GGTP, LDH and SOD might prove to be most sensitive biomarkers in carcinoma breast in early detection of the disease.

  2. New polymorphs of an old drug: conformational and synthon polymorphism of 5-nitrofurazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoda, Dorota; Janczak, Jan; Videnova-Adrabinska, Veneta

    2016-04-01

    Two new polymorphic forms of 5-nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction methods, vibrational spectroscopy (FT-IR and temperature Raman), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Hirshfeld surface analysis. The compound crystallizes in three different polymorphic forms P21/a (polymorph α), P21 (polymorph β) and P21/c (polymorph γ), the crystal structures of two of which (polymorphs β and γ) represent new structure determinations. The solid-state molecular organization in the three crystal forms is analyzed and discussed in terms of molecular conformation, crystal packing and hydrogen-bonded networks. All three crystals are formed from trans geometrical isomers, but the molecular conformation of the α-polymorph is syn-anti-anti-anti, while that of β- and γ-polymorphs is syn-anti-syn-syn. As a consequence of this the hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor sites of the molecules are oriented differently, which in turn results in different hydrogen-bond connectivity and packing patterns. PMID:27048728

  3. Random amplified polymorphic DNA profiles as a tool for the characterization of Brazilian keratitis isolates of the genus Acanthamoeba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves J.M.P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Acanthamoeba comprises free-living amebae identified as opportunistic pathogens of humans and other animal species. Morphological, biochemical and molecular approaches have shown wide genetic diversity within the genus. In an attempt to determine the genetic relatedness among isolates of Acanthamoeba we analyzed randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD profiles of 11 Brazilian isolates from cases of human keratitis and 8 American type culture collection (ATCC reference strains. We found that ATCC strains belonging to the same species present polymorphic RAPD profiles whereas strains of different species show very similar profiles. Although most Brazilian isolates could not be assigned with certainty to any of the reference species, they could be clustered according to pattern similarities. The results show that RAPD analysis is a useful tool for the rapid characterization of new isolates and the assessment of genetic relatedness of Acanthamoeba spp. A comparison between RAPD analyses and morphological characteristics of cyst stages is also discussed.

  4. Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. A family study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a cytokine involved in inflammatory process, as well as in glucose and lipid metabolism. Several studies of the biological relevance of IL-6 gene polymorphisms have indicated a relationship with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the –174 G/C and –572 G/C of IL-6 gene polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican families. Ninety members of 30 Mexican families, in which an index case (proband had obesity, were included in the study. We evaluated the body composition by bioelectrical impedance. Peripheral blood samples were collected to determine biochemical and hematological parameters. High sensitivity C- reactive protein levels were measurement for nephelometric analysis. Screening for both polymorphisms studied was performed by PCR-RFLP. In the parents, both polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. The genotypes –174 GC/CC were associated with T2D (OR = 1.23, IC95% 1.01–1.5 and highest levels of hsCRP (p = 0.02, whereas genotype –572 GG was associated with T2D (OR = 1.24, IC95% 1.04–1.47 with an inflammatory state determined by the increase in the leukocyte count (OR = 1.24, IC95% 1.02–1.51. The genotypes –174 GC/CC and –572 GG may confer susceptibility for the development of subclinical inflammation and type 2 diabetes in Mexican families.

  5. Hydroxymethylbilane synthase: Complete genomic sequence and amplifiable polymorphisms in the human gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hanwook; Warner, C.A.; Chen, Chiahsiang; Desnick, R.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an autosomal dominant inborn error of heme biosynthesis, results from the half-normal activity of the heme biosynthetic enzyme hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMB-synthase). Heterozygous individuals are prone to life-threatening acute neurologic attacks, which are precipitated by certain drugs and other metabolic, hormonal, and nutritional factors. Since the biochemical diagnosis of heterozygous individuals has been problematic, recent efforts have focused on the identification of mutations and diagnostically useful restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPS) in the HMB-synthase gene. To facilitate these endeavors, the human HMB-synthase gene, including 1.1 kb of the 5[prime] flanking region, was isolated and completely sequenced in both orientations. The 10,024-bp gene contained 15 exons ranging in size from 39 to 438 bp and 14 introns ranging from 87 to 2913 bp. All intron/exon boundaries conformed to the GT/AG consensus rule. There were six Alu repetitive elements, one of the J and five of the Sa subfamilies. Analysis of the 1. I -kb 5[prime]flanking region revealed putative regulatory elements for the housekeeping promoter including AP1, AP4, SP1, TRE, ENH, and CAC. This region contained 10 HpaII sites and had an overall GC content of 54%. Three new polymorphic sites were identified by the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique, a common BsmAI site in intron 3 (3581 A/G), a common HinfI RFLP in intron 10 (7064 C/A), and a rare MnlI site in intron 14 (7998G/A). The allele frequencies of five previously known and the new polymorphic sites in a normal Caucasian population indicated that the intron 1 and intron 3 RFLPs were in linkage disequilibrium; however, the Hint I site segregated independently. 54 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Mutual information in time-varying biochemical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tostevin, Filipe; Wolde, Pieter Rein ten

    2010-01-01

    Cells must continuously sense and respond to time-varying environmental stimuli. These signals are transmitted and processed by biochemical signalling networks. However, the biochemical reactions making up these networks are intrinsically noisy, which limits the reliability of intracellular signalling. Here we use information theory to characterise the reliability of transmission of time-varying signals through elementary biochemical reactions in the presence of noise. We calculate the mutual...

  7. Possibilities and methods for biochemical assessment of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensitive review (77 references) is made of the application of biochemical diagnostic methods for assessment of radiation diseases. A brief characteristics of several biochemical indicators is given: deoxycytidine, thymidine, ρ-aminoisocarboxylic acid, DNA-ase, nucleic acids. Influence of such factors as age, sex, season etc. is studied by means of functional biochemical indicators as: creatine, triptophanic metabolites, 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid, biogenic amines, serum proteins, enzymes, etc

  8. Conceptual Aspects of Theory Appraisal: Some Biochemical Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Michael Akeroyd

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers papers on conceptual analysis by Laudan (1981 and Whitt (1989 and relates them to three biochemical episodes: (1 the modern 'biochemical explanation' of acupuncture; (2 the chemio-osmotic hypothesis of oxidative phosphorylation; (3 the theory of the complete digestion of proteins in the gut. The advantages of including philosophical debate in chemical/biochemical undergraduate courses is then discussed.

  9. Dynamic analysis of biochemical network using complex network method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the stochastic biochemical reaction model is proposed based on the law of mass action and complex network theory. The dynamics of biochemical reaction system is presented as a set of non-linear differential equations and analyzed at the molecular-scale. Given the initial state and the evolution rules of the biochemical reaction system, the system can achieve homeostasis. Compared with random graph, the biochemical reaction network has larger information capacity and is more efficient in information transmission. This is consistent with theory of evolution.

  10. Category analysis: from biochemical mechanics to astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the main goals of this report is to bridge the gap between computer modelling and group analysis of nonlinear partial differential equations. But we can work with a category of groups rather than a Lie group. In view of the experience of the past development of the relation between mathematics, mechanics and physics, the categorical extension may be justified that one day categoric structures will be as important as groups are today. Also our aim is the application of the same category-theoretic methods in biochemical mechanics and astrophysics. As examples we consider the category analysis of material models for concrete, wood and reinforcing or prestressing steel, on the one hand, and process of the linear and circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation due to the quantum effects of electromagnetic field in anisotropic Bianchi-type cosmological models, on the other hand. (author)

  11. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  12. Robust simplifications of multiscale biochemical networks

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    Zinovyev Andrei

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular processes such as metabolism, decision making in development and differentiation, signalling, etc., can be modeled as large networks of biochemical reactions. In order to understand the functioning of these systems, there is a strong need for general model reduction techniques allowing to simplify models without loosing their main properties. In systems biology we also need to compare models or to couple them as parts of larger models. In these situations reduction to a common level of complexity is needed. Results We propose a systematic treatment of model reduction of multiscale biochemical networks. First, we consider linear kinetic models, which appear as "pseudo-monomolecular" subsystems of multiscale nonlinear reaction networks. For such linear models, we propose a reduction algorithm which is based on a generalized theory of the limiting step that we have developed in 1. Second, for non-linear systems we develop an algorithm based on dominant solutions of quasi-stationarity equations. For oscillating systems, quasi-stationarity and averaging are combined to eliminate time scales much faster and much slower than the period of the oscillations. In all cases, we obtain robust simplifications and also identify the critical parameters of the model. The methods are demonstrated for simple examples and for a more complex model of NF-κB pathway. Conclusion Our approach allows critical parameter identification and produces hierarchies of models. Hierarchical modeling is important in "middle-out" approaches when there is need to zoom in and out several levels of complexity. Critical parameter identification is an important issue in systems biology with potential applications to biological control and therapeutics. Our approach also deals naturally with the presence of multiple time scales, which is a general property of systems biology models.

  13. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  14. Biochemical Pharmacology of the Sigma-1 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Uyen B; Ruoho, Arnold E

    2016-01-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a 223 amino acid two transmembrane (TM) pass protein. It is a non-ATP-binding nonglycosylated ligand-regulated molecular chaperone of unknown three-dimensional structure. The S1R is resident to eukaryotic mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes with broad functions that regulate cellular calcium homeostasis and reduce oxidative stress. Several multitasking functions of the S1R are underwritten by chaperone-mediated direct (and indirect) interactions with ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and cell-signaling molecules involved in the regulation of cell growth. The S1R is a promising drug target for the treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases related to cellular stress. In vitro and in vivo functional and molecular characteristics of the S1R and its interactions with endogenous and synthetic small molecules have been discovered by the use of pharmacologic, biochemical, biophysical, and molecular biology approaches. The S1R exists in monomer, dimer, tetramer, hexamer/octamer, and higher oligomeric forms that may be important determinants in defining the pharmacology and mechanism(s) of action of the S1R. A canonical GXXXG in putative TM2 is important for S1R oligomerization. The ligand-binding regions of S1R have been identified and include portions of TM2 and the TM proximal regions of the C terminus. Some client protein chaperone functions and interactions with the cochaperone 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (binding immunoglobulin protein) involve the C terminus. Based on its biochemical features and mechanisms of chaperone action the possibility that the S1R is a member of the small heat shock protein family is discussed. PMID:26560551

  15. The pattern of polymorphism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We resequenced 876 short fragments in a sample of 96 individuals of Arabidopsis thaliana that included stock center accessions as well as a hierarchical sample from natural populations. Although A. thaliana is a selfing weed, the pattern of polymorphism in general agrees with what is expected for a widely distributed, sexually reproducing species. Linkage disequilibrium decays rapidly, within 50 kb. Variation is shared worldwide, although population structure and isolation by distance are evident. The data fail to fit standard neutral models in several ways. There is a genome-wide excess of rare alleles, at least partially due to selection. There is too much variation between genomic regions in the level of polymorphism. The local level of polymorphism is negatively correlated with gene density and positively correlated with segmental duplications. Because the data do not fit theoretical null distributions, attempts to infer natural selection from polymorphism data will require genome-wide surveys of polymorphism in order to identify anomalous regions. Despite this, our data support the utility of A. thaliana as a model for evolutionary functional genomics.

  16. DNA Polymorphisms in River Buffalo Leptin Gene

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    B. Moioli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a protein involved in the regulation of feed intake, fat metabolism, whole body energy balance, reproduction and hematopoiesis. In cattle Leptin gene has been considered a potential QTL influencing several production traits like meat production, milk performance and reproduction. Several studies on bovine leptin gene have found association between polymorphisms and traits like milk yield, feed intake, fat content, carcass and meat quality. With the aim to assess the presence of sequences polymorphisms in the Buffalo leptin gene, we sequenced the entire coding region and part of the introns on a panel of Italian River Buffalos. In this study we identified a new set of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism useful for association studies.

  17. NQR frequencies of anhydrous carbamazepine polymorphic phases

    CERN Document Server

    Bonin, C J; Pusiol, D J

    2010-01-01

    In this work we propose the Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) technique as an analytical method suitable for polymorphism detection in active parts (or active principles) of pharmaceuticals with high pharmacological risk. Samples of powder carbamazepine (5H-dibenz(b,f)-azepine-5-carboxamide) are studied. In its anhydrous state, this compound presents at least three different polymorphic forms: form III, the commercial one, form II, and form I. Of these, only form III possesses desirable therapeutic effects. By using the NQR technique, it was possible to characterize two of the three polymorphic phases (I and III) for anhydrous carbamazepine in few minutes at room temperature, detecting the characteristic frequencies of 14N nuclei (I=1) present in their chemical composition and in the frequency range 2.820-3.935 MHz. For form II, characteristic lines were not detected within this range of frequencies. The lines detected for form III are centered at the frequencies \

  18. Formation of Piroxicam Polymorphism in Solution Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Thomas; Qu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, new insights into crystallization prior to actual nucleation have shown interesting results for drugs showing differences in hydrogen bonding or orientation in various polymorphic forms. On the basis of this concept, piroxicam was chosen as a model compound because the two common forms, I...... and II, show hydrogen bonding between different parts of the molecules and differences in the orientation of molecules in the crystal lattice. The goal of this work is to explore how various methods of controlling polymorphism during production could be employed. The mechanisms behind the nucleation...... were also explored, and new insights into polymorphic control are documented and discussed. The crystal landscape was mapped for cooling crystallization of piroxicam from acetone/water mixtures (0.5 K/min) and for antisolvent crystallization from acetone with water as the antisolvent. Varying cooling...

  19. Investigation of drug polymorphism: Case of artemisinin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Artemisinin dimorphic system was found to be enantiotropic. • The Orthorhombic modification is the form stable at low-temperatures and the triclinic modification the form stable at high-temperatures. • The polymorphic phase transition occurs at ∼130 °C. - Abstract: The polymorphism of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin was examined. The phase behavior of solid artemisinin has experimentally been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and temperature-resolved X-Ray powder diffraction. In addition, complementary solution studies and suspension experiments were performed. The results clearly confirm the existence of two modifications of artemisinin, which are related enantiotropically. The orthorhombic modification is the thermodynamically stable form at low temperatures, while the triclinic form is the stable one at higher temperatures with a transition temperature of ∼130 °C. Problems associated with analysis of the polymorphic phase behavior are comprehensively addressed

  20. 2-(4-Fluorobenzylidenepropanedinitrile: monoclinic polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. El-Agrody

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H5FN2, is a monoclinic (P21/c polymorph of the previously reported triclinic (P-1 form [Antipin et al. (2003. J. Mol. Struct. 650, 1–20]. The 13 non-H atoms in the title polymorph are almost coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.020 Å; a small twist between the fluorobenzene and dinitrile groups [C—C—C—C torsion angle = 175.49 (16°] is evident in the triclinic polymorph. In the crystal, C—H...N interactions lead to supramolecular layers parallel to (-101; these are connected by C—F...π interactions.

  1. Intermolecular Repulsion through Interfacial Attraction : Toward Engineering of Polymorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudernac, Tibor; Sändig, Nadja; Fernández Landaluce, Tatiana; Wees, Bart J. van; Rudolf, Petra; Katsonis, Nathalie; Zerbetto, Francesco; Feringa, Ben L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the formation of crystalline polymorphs is of importance for various applications of materials science. Polymorphism of Schiff base derivatives has recently attracted considerable attention because of its influence on photochromic and thermochromic properties of their 3D crystals. The

  2. Local biochemical and morphological differences in human Achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J, Pingel; Fredberg, Ulrich; K, Qvortrup;

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy. The...

  3. β2-Adrenoreceptor Polymorphisms in Asthmatic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Binaei, Saeed; Rashed, Sahar M.; Christensen, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    β2-adrenergic receptors (β2AR) are GTP-binding protein (G-protein) coupled receptors widely distributed in human tissue. Inhaled β2-agonist drugs exert their primary effect on the β2AR of bronchial smooth muscles, causing relaxation and bronchial dilatation. Polymorphisms in the β2AR gene have been identified, which may affect responsiveness to β2-agonists and disease severity in asthmatics. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the coding region and eight SNPs within in the 5′ u...

  4. Polymorphs calcium carbonate on temperature reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has three different crystal polymorphs, which are calcite, aragonite and vaterite. In this study, effect of reaction temperature on polymorphs and crystallite structure of CaCO3 was investigated. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VPSEM) were used to characterize the obtained CaCO3 particles. The obtained results showed that CaCO3 with different crystal and particle structures can be formed by controlling the temperature during the synthesis process

  5. The monoclinic polymorph of dimethylarsinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Betz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C2H7AsO2 or [As(CH32O(OH], is an organic derivative of arsinic acid, and is also known by its trivial name cacodylic acid. In contrast to the first polymorph (triclinic, space group Poverline{1}, Z = 2, the current study revealed monoclinic symmetry (space group C2/c, Z = 8 for the second polymorph. The configuration of the tetrahedral molecule shows approximate Cs symmetry. Strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds connect the molecules to infinite zigzag chains along [010], which are further connected by weak intermolecular C—H...O contacts into a three-dimensional network.

  6. Chemokine polymorphisms and lymphoma: a pooled analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bracci, Paige M.; Skibola, Christine F; Conde, Lucia; Halperin, Eran; Lightfoot, T; Smith, A.; Paynter, Randi A.; Skibola, Danica R.; Agana, Luz; Roman, E.; Kane, Eleanor; Wiencke, John K

    2010-01-01

    Polymorphisms in chemokine genes have been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) but are understudied in non-HIV-related NHL. Associations of NHL and NHL subtypes with polymorphisms and haplotypes in CCR5, CCR2, CCL5, CXCL12 and CX3CR1 were explored in a pooled analysis of three case-control studies (San Francisco Bay Area, California; United Kingdom; total: cases N=1610, controls N=1992). Adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to e...

  7. Clinical applications of Genome Polymorphism Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber James L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Applications of Genome Polymorphism Scans range from the relatively simple such as gender determination and confirmation of biological relationships, to the relatively complex such as determination of autozygosity and propagation of genetic information throughout pedigrees. Unlike nearly all other clinical DNA tests, the Scan is a universal test – it covers all people and all genes. In balance, I argue that the Genome Polymorphism Scan is the most powerful, affordable clinical DNA test available today. Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Scott Weiss (nominated by Neil Smalheiser, Roberta Pagon (nominated by Jerzy Jurka and Val Sheffield (nominated by Neil Smalheiser.

  8. Model-Based Design of Biochemical Microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbinger, Tobias; Gahn, Markus; Neuss-Radu, Maria; Hante, Falk M; Voll, Lars M; Leugering, Günter; Knabner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of biochemical pathways is an important resource in Synthetic Biology, as the predictive power of simulating synthetic pathways represents an important step in the design of synthetic metabolons. In this paper, we are concerned with the mathematical modeling, simulation, and optimization of metabolic processes in biochemical microreactors able to carry out enzymatic reactions and to exchange metabolites with their surrounding medium. The results of the reported modeling approach are incorporated in the design of the first microreactor prototypes that are under construction. These microreactors consist of compartments separated by membranes carrying specific transporters for the input of substrates and export of products. Inside the compartments of the reactor multienzyme complexes assembled on nano-beads by peptide adapters are used to carry out metabolic reactions. The spatially resolved mathematical model describing the ongoing processes consists of a system of diffusion equations together with boundary and initial conditions. The boundary conditions model the exchange of metabolites with the neighboring compartments and the reactions at the surface of the nano-beads carrying the multienzyme complexes. Efficient and accurate approaches for numerical simulation of the mathematical model and for optimal design of the microreactor are developed. As a proof-of-concept scenario, a synthetic pathway for the conversion of sucrose to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) was chosen. In this context, the mathematical model is employed to compute the spatio-temporal distributions of the metabolite concentrations, as well as application relevant quantities like the outflow rate of G6P. These computations are performed for different scenarios, where the number of beads as well as their loading capacity are varied. The computed metabolite distributions show spatial patterns, which differ for different experimental arrangements. Furthermore, the total output of G6P

  9. Definitions of biochemical failure in prostate cancer following radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) published a consensus panel definition of biochemical failure following radiation therapy for prostate cancer. In this paper, we develop a series of alternative definitions of biochemical failure. Using data from 688 patients, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the various definitions, with respect to a defined 'clinically meaningful' outcome. Methods and Materials: The ASTRO definition of biochemical failure requires 3 consecutive rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA). We considered several modifications to the standard definition: to require PSA rises of a certain magnitude, to consider 2 instead of 3 rises, to require the final PSA value to be greater than a fixed cutoff level, and to define biochemical failure based on the slope of PSA over 1, 1.5, or 2 years. A clinically meaningful failure is defined as local recurrence, distant metastases, initiation of unplanned hormonal therapy, unplanned radical prostatectomy, or a PSA>25 later than 6 months after radiation. Results: Requiring the final PSA in a series of consecutive rises to be larger than 1.5 ng/mL increased the specificity of biochemical failure. For a fixed specificity, defining biochemical failure based on 2 consecutive rises, or the slope over the last year, could increase the sensitivity by up to approximately 20%, compared to the ASTRO definition. Using a rule based on the slope over the previous year or 2 rises leads to a slightly earlier detection of biochemical failure than does the ASTRO definition. Even with the best rule, only approximately 20% of true failures are biochemically detected more than 1 year before the clinically meaningful event time. Conclusion: There is potential for improvement in the ASTRO consensus definition of biochemical failure. Further research is needed, in studies with long follow-up times, to evaluate the relationship between various definitions of biochemical failure and

  10. Defending Polymorphic Worms in Computer Network using Honeypot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Goswamia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphic worms are a major threat to internet infrastructure security. In this mechanism we are using gate-translator, double honeypot, sticky honeypot, internal translator and antivirus of Cloud AV,which attracts polymorphic worms. We are proposing an algorithm to detect and remove polymorphic worms and innocuous traffic related packets.

  11. Defending Polymorphic Worms in Computer Network using Honeypot

    OpenAIRE

    R. T. Goswamia

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphic worms are a major threat to internet infrastructure security. In this mechanism we are using gate-translator, double honeypot, sticky honeypot, internal translator and antivirus of Cloud AV,which attracts polymorphic worms. We are proposing an algorithm to detect and remove polymorphic worms and innocuous traffic related packets.

  12. Investigation of the Association between rs4977574 A > G Polymorphism in ANRIL Gene and Coronary Artery Disease in Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Sepahvand Hossein Beigi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is an important disease where the arteries and vessels supplying oxygen and nutrients to the heart are narrowed or blocked. Early diagnosis and recognition of CAD leads to its complete treatment. Drug therapy, angiography, coronary angioplasty, and in advanced cases, coronary artery bypass surgery restore the normal flow of blood to the heart muscle. Objectives: The present study aimed to identify the association between rs4977574 polymorphism in ANRIL gene and CAD in Iranian patients. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 100 subjects with positive angiography (case group and 93 ones with negative angiography (control group. Using Taq Man Real Time PCR, the extracted DNAs from the patients and controls were genotyped for rs4977574 polymorphism in ANRIL gene (applied biosystem, USA. Then, the genotypes and clinical parameters were compared by the SPSS statistical software, version 18 (Chicago, USA. The results were compared by one-way ANOVA, simple T-test, and Chi-square test and were presented as mean ± Standard Deviation (SD. P values < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The results showed a significant relationship between CAD and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP, Body Mass Index (BMI, uric acid, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL, cholesterol, and triglyceride. However, no significant association was observed between rs4977574 polymorphism and biochemical characteristics in the two groups. Allele frequency was AA = 22%, AG = 44%, and GG = 34% in the case group and AA = 17%, AG = 44%, and GG = 32% in the control group. Conclusions: The present study examined the association between rs4977574 polymorphism in ANRIL gene and CAD in a population of Iranian patients. The study findings revealed no direct relationship between rs4977574 polymorphism and the disease in Iranian population.

  13. [The Trp64Arg polymorphism of beta3-adrenoreceptor gene study in persons with overweight and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturin, A K; Pogozheva, A V; Sorokina, E Iu; Makurina, O N; Tutel'ian, V A

    2012-01-01

    The development of obesity is determined by lifestyle and genetic mechanisms. In particular, the polymorphisms in the adrenergic receptor genes (ADRB) have been extensively studied for association with obesity-related phenotypes. ADRB3 is an obvious candidate gene given its involvement in the regulation of lipolysis and thermogenesis. ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism, a missense mutation in the first transmembrane domain of the R3-adrenergic receptor is associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance in the Pima Indian, French, and Finnish populations. The recent meta-analysis that combined data of 6582 individuals from Japanese populations showed significant association the Arg64 allele with increased BMI. There are tested the polymorphisms in the beta3-Adrenoreceptor (ADRB3) gene in associated with body mass index (BMI), fat mass and biochemical parameters.We have been examined 91 persons from Moscow region with BMI >25 kg/m2. The Trp64Arg polymorphism of ADRB3 genes were genotyped with the use of an allelic discrimination assay. The TaqMan-based real-time PCR method was applied. There have been estimated of anthropometric and biochemicalparameters. The frequencies of the Trp64Trp and Trp64Arggenotypes of ADRB3 gene were 82% and 12%, respectively, the frequencies of mutant allele was 6%. Trp64Arg genotypes of ADRB3 compared to Trp64Trp genotypes had significantly higher body fat percentage (respectively 48,6 +/- 0,96% and 43,8 +/- 1,72%, pADRB3 gene polymorphisms can be used for the personalization of diet in persons with obesity. PMID:22774474

  14. Biochemical genetic studies on genotype strains of medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four genotypes of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), i.e. two laboratory strains (dark and yellow pupae), genetic sexing line and wild strain were examined biochemically in larvae, pupae and adult stages by means of isoelectrophoresis to determine further genetic variations. Isozymes of alkaline phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase and esterase enzymes were chosen for study. The medfly genotypes exhibited variations in the strains, as well as the genetic sexing line according to the biological characters. In order to identify some markers to distinguish individuals of different strains it should prove necessary to compare the electrophoretic pattern mobilities of isozyme numbers and activities of the three tested enzymes. The isoenzymes were genetically different from one genotype to another and from one stage to another. These results appear to be consistent over polymorphic loci. The functional genes of alkaline phosphatase larvae were higher in band numbers and activities than those of pupae and adult extractions in all materials. No variations were found between the adult males and females of all materials except the males of the genetic sexing line, which were more active. Electrophoresis and spectrophotometer enzymatic analysis of polyphenol oxidase indicated that the larval stage was more active than the other stages. In addition, the larval polyphenol oxidase activity of the yellow pupae strain and the genetic sexing line were more active than the others. Concerning the esterases, the genes controlling the activity of isozymes were different from one strain to another according to the stages of development. The esterases band numbers were low in larvae, but a high number was found in adult males of the genetic sexing line and the females of the yellow pupae strain. The results of this work were supported by previous results of Sabrah et al., where the genic polymorphism and ontogenic variation of esterase isoenzymes in medfly collected from different geographical

  15. BALL - biochemical algorithms library 1.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöckel Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL is a comprehensive rapid application development framework for structural bioinformatics. It provides an extensive C++ class library of data structures and algorithms for molecular modeling and structural bioinformatics. Using BALL as a programming toolbox does not only allow to greatly reduce application development times but also helps in ensuring stability and correctness by avoiding the error-prone reimplementation of complex algorithms and replacing them with calls into the library that has been well-tested by a large number of developers. In the ten years since its original publication, BALL has seen a substantial increase in functionality and numerous other improvements. Results Here, we discuss BALL's current functionality and highlight the key additions and improvements: support for additional file formats, molecular edit-functionality, new molecular mechanics force fields, novel energy minimization techniques, docking algorithms, and support for cheminformatics. Conclusions BALL is available for all major operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and MacOS X. It is available free of charge under the Lesser GNU Public License (LPGL. Parts of the code are distributed under the GNU Public License (GPL. BALL is available as source code and binary packages from the project web site at http://www.ball-project.org. Recently, it has been accepted into the debian project; integration into further distributions is currently pursued.

  16. PHA bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somleva, Maria N; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2013-02-01

    Large scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in plants can provide a sustainable supply of bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from sunlight and atmospheric CO(2). PHAs are a class of polymers with various chain lengths that are naturally produced by some microorganisms as storage materials. The properties of these polyesters make them functionally equivalent to many of the petroleum-based plastics that are currently in the market place. However, unlike most petroleum-derived plastics, PHAs can be produced from renewable feedstocks and easily degrade in most biologically active environments. This review highlights research efforts over the last 20 years to engineer the production of PHAs in plants with a focus on polyhydroxybutryrate (PHB) production in bioenergy crops with C(4) photosynthesis. PHB has the potential to be a high volume commercial product with uses not only in the plastics and materials markets, but also in renewable chemicals and feed. The major challenges of improving product yield and plant fitness in high biomass yielding C(4) crops are discussed in detail. PMID:23294864

  17. NUTRITION AND SPORTS: A BIOCHEMICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.G. Bianco

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a course dedicated to the pedagogical instruction of graduate students (Ensino deBioqumica - QBQ 5711 in which they have to plan and teach a 30 hour-discipline for undergraduatestudents. The graduate students have to choose a subject for the discipline and, in 2003, the cho-sen subject was Nutrition and Sports: a Biochemical Approach, which is not specically broached inregular disciplines. The discipline was structured in the basis of collaborative learning, thus, the 75 en-rolled undergraduate students (from dierent courses as Nutrition, Sports, Pharmacy, Chemistry andBiology were organized in small working groups. The students were given a study guide produced bythe graduate teachers (available in Portuguese at http://www.sbbq.org.br/revista/mtdidaticos.php,in which the following contents were covered: muscle contraction, O2 up-take, oxidative stress andanti-oxidant response, cramp, hydration, doping and nutritional supplies. In the nal activity thestudents had to evaluate critically myths and true facts in 80 statements usually associated to physi-cal activities and sports. The discipline was evaluated through questionnaires. From the analysis ofthe answers of both undergraduate and graduate/teachers students it is possible to conclude that thediscipline was well conduced and succeeded. These results emphasize the relevance and contribution ofthis kind of discipline to the pedagogical instruction of the graduate students and also to the increaseof undergraduate students interests in Biochemistry.

  18. Biochemical and proteomic characterization of alkaptonuric chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconi, Daniela; Bernardini, Giulia; Bianchini, Claretta; Laschi, Marcella; Millucci, Lia; Amato, Loredana; Tinti, Laura; Serchi, Tommaso; Chellini, Federico; Spreafico, Adriano; Santucci, Annalisa

    2012-09-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare genetic disease associated with the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA) and its oxidized/polymerized products which leads to the deposition of melanin-like pigments (ochronosis) in connective tissues. Although numerous case reports have described ochronosis in joints, little is known on the molecular mechanisms leading to such a phenomenon. For this reason, we characterized biochemically chondrocytes isolated from the ochronotic cartilage of AKU patients. Based on the macroscopic appearance of the ochronotic cartilage, two sub-populations were identified: cells coming from the black portion of the cartilage were referred to as "black" AKU chondrocytes, while those coming from the white portion were referred to as "white" AKU chondrocytes. Notably, both AKU chondrocytic types were characterized by increased apoptosis, NO release, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Transmission electron microscopy also revealed that intracellular ochronotic pigment deposition was common to both "white" and "black" AKU cells. We then undertook a proteomic and redox-proteomic analysis of AKU chondrocytes which revealed profound alterations in the levels of proteins involved in cell defence, protein folding, and cell organization. An increased post-translational oxidation of proteins, which also involved high molecular weight protein aggregates, was found to be particularly relevant in "black" AKU chondrocytes. PMID:22213341

  19. Skin biochemical composition analysis by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Patricia Karen; Tosato, Maira Gaspar; Alves, Rani de Souza; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro, E-mail: amartin@univap.br [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomedica, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento - IP e D, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UniVap, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Skin aging is characterized by cellular and molecular alterations. In this context, Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used in vivo to measure these biochemical changes as function of the skin depth. In this study we have tried to correlate spectra from pure amino acids to in vivo spectra from volunteers with different ages. This study was performed on 32 volunteers: 11 from Group A (20-23 years), 11 from Group B (39-42 years) and 10 from Group C (59-62 years). For each group, the Raman spectra were measured on the surface (0 mm), 30 +- 3 mm and 60 +- 3 {mu}m below the surface. The results from intergroup comparisons showed that the oldest group had a prevalence of the tyrosine band, but it also presented a decrease in the band centered at 875 cm{sup -1} of pyrrolidone acid. The amide I band centered at 1637 cm{sup -1} that is attributed to collagen, as well as other proteins and lipid, showed a smaller amount of these biomolecules for Group C, which can be explained by the decrease in collagen concentration as a function of age. (author)

  20. Polymorphism of a polymer precursor: metastable glycolide polymorph recovered via large scale high-pressure experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchison, Ian B.; Delori, Amit; Wang, Xiao; Kamenev, Konstantin V.; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2015-01-01

    Using a large volume high-pressure press a new polymorph of an important precursor for biomedical polymers was isolated in gram quantities and used to seed crystallisation experiments at ambient pressure....

  1. Gliadin and glutenin polymorphism in durum wheat landraces and breeding varieties of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadigov-Baykishi Hamlet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat genotypes including 7 landraces and 17 breeding varieties were studied. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under acidic conditions of pH 3.1 was used to study gliadin and glutenin polymorphisms. In total, 32 gliadin and 8 high molecular weight glutenin alleles were identified. The contribution of B genome (58.5% to the allelic variation of durum wheat varieties was higher than of A genome. The cluster analysis delineated genotypes into four main clusters. According to cluster analysis, legitimacy identifying the distribution of botanical varieties through the tree was observed. The study confirms the suitability of biochemical markers for cultivar identification and genetic relation study in durum wheat genotypes.

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in caprine calpastatin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R; Maitra, A; Pandey, A K; Singh, L V; Mishra, B P

    2013-04-01

    The calpains and calpastatin (CAST) make up a major cytosolic proteolytic system, the calpain-calpastatin system, found in mammalian tissues. The relative levels of the components of the calpain-calpastatin system determine the extent of meat tenderization during postmortem storage. Calpastatin (CAST) is a protein inhibitor of the ubiquitous calcium-dependent proteases-micro-calpain and m-calpain. Polymorphisms in the bovine, ovine and pig CAST gene have been associated with meat tenderness but little is known about how caprine CAST gene may affect goat meat quality traits. In this study we selected different parts of the CAST gene: 1) that have been previously reported to be polymorphic, intron 5 and 12 and 3'UTR; 2) first time explored (exon 3, 7 and 8 and part of intron 7 and 8) to investigate polymorphic status of caprine CAST gene. Using comparative sequencing ten novel SN Ps located in exon 3 and intron 5, 7 and 8 were identified. Previously reported SNPs in intron 5, 3'UTR and intron 12 were absent. Sequence analysis revealed a non synonymous amino acid variation in exon 3, which would result in Lys/Arg substitution in the corresponding protein sequence. Considerable variation was detected in intronic regions. Twenty-four InDel were also recognized in intronic regions (15) and 3'UTR (9). All the sequences shared high homology with published bovine and ovine sequences. Three PCR-RFLP loci have been established for further analyzing genetic polymorphism in indigenous goats. PMID:23866627

  3. Circadian polymorphisms associated with affective disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kripke, Daniel F; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Joo, EJ; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Kelsoe, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinical symptoms of affective disorders, their response to light treatment, and sensitivity to other circadian interventions indicate that the circadian system has a role in mood disorders. Possibly the mechanisms involve circadian seasonal and photoperiodic mechanisms. Since genetic susceptibilities contribute a strong component to affective disorders, we explored whether circadian gene polymorphisms were associated with affective disorders in four complementary studies.Methods:...

  4. A smectic A polymorphism at low temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Sigaud, G.; Achard, M. F.; Hardouin, F.; Gasparoux, H.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence is given for the first time at low temperature of an example of a polymorphism of smectic A phases, in mixtures of cyanocyclohexylcyclohexane with aminopyrene. We briefly discuss the conditions required to stabilize bilayered fluid smectics in such new cyano-amino associated systems.

  5. Allograft renal rejection and chemokine polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Gorgi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines play a major role in the process by which leukocytes are recruited from the bloodstream into the sites of inflammation. Genes for the chemokine receptors CCR5, CCR2 and MCP-1 are characterized by functional polymorphisms implicated in transplant rejection. To investigate this association, we analyzed polymorphisms of CCR5-∆32, CCR5-59029-A/G, CCR2-V64I and MCP-1 G/A (-2518 in 173 renal transplant recipients and 169 healthy blood donors. The patients were classified in two groups: Group-1 (G-1 included 33 HLA-identical recipients and Group-2 (G-2 included 140 (one or more mismatched graft recipients. Forty-two patients had developed acute rejection episodes (ARs: seven in G-1 and 35 in G-2. Thirteen G-2 patients developed chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of all polymorphisms studied did not reveal significant differences between patients and controls and among G-1 and G-2 recipients. However, a significant risk of acute renal transplant rejection was found in G-1 patients who possessed the CCR2-64I allele (odds ratio 0.24, 95% confidence inter-val [CI], 0.05-1.06; P = 0.035. There was no significant association of this polymorphism and CAD. In conclusion, the observed association of CCR2-64I with AR should be added to the spectrum of immunogenetic factors known to be involved in allograft renal loss.

  6. Blood pressure in patients with primary aldosteronism is influenced by bradykinin B(2) receptor and alpha-adducin gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulatero, Paolo; Williams, Tracy A; Milan, Alberto; Paglieri, Cristina; Rabbia, Franco; Fallo, Francesco; Veglio, Franco

    2002-07-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension. PA is most frequently presented as moderate to severe hypertension, but the clinical and biochemical features vary widely. The aim of our study was to identify genetic variants that influence the phenotype of patients with PA. We hypothesized that genetic variants potentially affecting aldosterone production (aldosterone synthase, CYP11B2), renal proximal tubule reabsorption (alpha-adducin), or the mechanisms of counterbalance leading to vasodilatation and sodium excretion (bradykinin B(2)-receptor, B(2)R) could influence the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with PA. We studied three polymorphisms of these genes (C-344T of CYP11B2, G460W of alpha-adducin, and C-58T of B(2)R) in 167 primary aldosteronism patients (56 with aldosterone-producing adenoma and 111 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism). B(2)R and alpha-adducin genotypes were strong independent predictors of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels; plasma renin activity and aldosterone also play a marginal role on BP levels. Body mass index, age, sex, and CYP11B2 genotype displayed no significant effect on the clinical parameters of our population. In particular, alpha-adducin and B(2)R polymorphisms accounted for 13.2% and 11.0% of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure variance, respectively. These data suggest that genetic variants of alpha-adducin and the bradykinin B(2)-R influence the blood pressure levels in patients with primary aldosteronism. PMID:12107246

  7. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  8. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene polymorphism is associated with Alzheimer's disease and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šerý, Omar; Hlinecká, Lýdia; Povová, Jana; Bonczek, Ondřej; Zeman, Tomáš; Janout, Vladimír; Ambroz, Petr; Khan, Naim A; Balcar, Vladimir J

    2016-03-15

    Dementias of old age, in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD), pose a growing threat to the longevity and quality of life of individuals as well as whole societies world-wide. The risk factors are both genetic and environmental (life-style) and there is an overlap with similar factors predisposing to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Using a case-control genetic approach, we have identified a SNP (rs10507391) in ALOX5 gene, previously associated with an increased risk of stroke, as a novel genetic risk factor for AD. ALOX5 gene encodes a 5'-lipoxygenase (5'-LO) activating protein (FLAP), a crucial component of the arachidonic acid/leukotriene inflammatory cascade. A-allele of rs4769874 polymorphism increases the risk of AD 1.41-fold (p<0.0001), while AA genotype does so 1.79-fold (p<0.0001). In addition, GG genotype of rs4769874 polymorphism is associated with a modest increase in body mass index (BMI). We discuss potential biochemical mechanisms linking the SNP to AD and suggest possible preventive pharmacotherapies some of which are based on commonly available natural products. Finally, we set the newly identified AD risk factors into a broader context of similar CVD risk factors to generate a more comprehensive picture of interacting genetics and life-style habits potentially leading to the deteriorating mental health in the old age. PMID:26944113

  9. Association of a miRNA-137 Polymorphism with Schizophrenia in a Southern Chinese Han Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoda Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both genome wide association study (GWAS and biochemical studies of Caucasian populations indicate a robust association between the miR-137 genetic variant rs1625579 and schizophrenia, but inconsistent results have been reported. To assay the association between this variant and schizophrenia, we genotyped 611 schizophrenic patients from Southern Chinese Han population for the risk single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1625579 using the SNaPshot technique and compared the clinical profiles of different genotypes. Additionally, a meta-analysis was performed using the combined sample groups from five case-control publications and the present study. Both the genotype and allele distributions of the rs1625579 SNP were significantly different between patients and controls (P=0.036 and 0.026, SNP. TT genotype carriers showed slightly lower Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia- (BACS- derived working memory performance than G carriers (15.58 ± 9.56 versus 19.71 ± 8.18, P=0.045. In the meta-analysis, we observed a significant association between rs1625579 and schizophrenia under different genetic models (all P<0.05. The results of our study and meta-analysis provide convincing evidence that rs1625579 is significantly associated with schizophrenia. Furthermore, the miR-137 polymorphism influences the working memory performance of schizophrenic patients in a Chinese Han population.

  10. Toxicological implications of polymorphisms in receptors for xenobiotic chemicals: The case of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanistic toxicology has predominantly been focused on adverse effects that are caused by reactive metabolites or by reactive oxygen species. However, many important xenobiotics exert their toxicity, not by generating reactive products, but rather by altering expression of specific genes. In particular, some environmental contaminants target nuclear receptors that function as regulators of transcription. For example, binding of xenobiotic chemicals to steroid receptors is a principle mechanism of endocrine disruption. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates toxicity of dioxin-like compounds. In mice, a polymorphism in the AHR ligand-binding domain reduces binding affinity by about 10-fold in the DBA/2 strain compared with the C57BL/6 strain; consequently, dose-response curves for numerous biochemical and toxic effects are shifted about one log to the right in DBA/2 mice. In the Han/Wistar (Kuopio) (H/W) rat strain, a polymorphism causes a deletion of 38 or 43 amino acids from the AHR transactivation domain. This deletion is associated with a greater than 1000-fold resistance to lethality from 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Genes in the conventional AH gene battery (e.g. CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, ALDH3A1, NQO1 and UGT1A1) remain responsive to TCDD in H/W rats despite the large deletion. However, the deletion may selectively alter the receptor's ability to dysregulate specific genes that are key to dioxin toxicity. We are identifying these genes using an expression array approach in dioxin-sensitive vs. dioxin-resistant rat strains and lines. Polymorphisms exist in the human AH receptor, but thus far they have not been shown to have any substantial effect on human responses to AHR-ligands

  11. Gene Polymorphism Studies in a Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Jeffry

    2009-01-01

    I present a laboratory procedure for illustrating transcription, post-transcriptional modification, gene conservation, and comparative genetics for use in undergraduate biology education. Students are individually assigned genes in a targeted biochemical pathway, for which they design and test polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. In this…

  12. Relationship between target organ damage and blood pressure, retinal vessel calibre, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in patients with hypertension: a case–control study protocol (LOD-Hipertensión)

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Recio-Rodríguez, José I.; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Perretta-Tejedor, Nuria; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Target organ damage (TOD) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The study objectives were to analyse the relationship of TOD to blood pressure, size of retinal arteries and veins, oxidative stress and different polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in participants with hypertension. Methods and analysis A case–control study to analyse the relationship between clinical, biochemical and genetic parameters and presence of cardiac, vascular and renal TOD in 486 patie...

  13. Assessment of biochemical concentrations of vegetation using remote sensing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The main biochemicals (such as lignin, protein, cellulose, sugar, starch, chlorophyll and water) of vegetation are directly or indirectly involved in major ecological processes, such as the functions of terrestrial ecosystems (i.e., nutrient-cycling processes, primary production, and decomposition). Remote sensing techniques provide a very convenient way of data acquisition capable of covering a large area several times during one season, so it can play a unique and essential role provided that we can relate remote sensing measurements to the biochemical characteristics of the Earth surface in a reliable and operational way. The application of remote sensing techniques for the estimation of canopy biochemicals was reviewed. Three methods of estimating biochemical concentrations of vegetation were included in this paper: index, stepwise multiple linear regression, and stepwise multiple linear regression based on a model of the forest crown. In addition, the vitality and potential applying value are stressed.

  14. Biochemical Aspects of Acclimatization of Man to High Altitude Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Srivastava

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the biochemical aspects of acclimatization of human body to high altitude with particular reference to the adaptive changes in Skeletal muscles, hepatic function, adrenal function and carbohydrate metabolism.

  15. NERVOUS-SYSTEM SPECIFIC PROTEINS AS BIOCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF NEUROTOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in neuroimmunology and protein purification methodology have led to the identification of nervous-system specific proteins. Their intimate relationship to the cellular and functional heterogeneity of the nervous system, makes these proteins ideal biochemical marke...

  16. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzullo, Leslie [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  17. PCOSKB: A KnowledgeBase on genes, diseases, ontology terms and biochemical pathways associated with PolyCystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shaini; Barai, Ram Shankar; Bhujbalrao, Rasika; Idicula-Thomas, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the major causes of female subfertility worldwide and ≈ 7-10% of women in reproductive age are affected by it. The affected individuals exhibit varying types and levels of comorbid conditions, along with the classical PCOS symptoms. Extensive studies on PCOS across diverse ethnic populations have resulted in a plethora of information on dysregulated genes, gene polymorphisms and diseases linked to PCOS. However, efforts have not been taken to collate and link these data. Our group, for the first time, has compiled PCOS-related information available through scientific literature; cross-linked it with molecular, biochemical and clinical databases and presented it as a user-friendly, web-based online knowledgebase for the benefit of the scientific and clinical community. Manually curated information on associated genes, single nucleotide polymorphisms, diseases, gene ontology terms and pathways along with supporting reference literature has been collated and included in PCOSKB (http://pcoskb.bicnirrh.res.in). PMID:26578565

  18. Association of IL-6 and CRP gene polymorphisms with obesity and metabolic disorders in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela F. Todendi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Activation of adipose tissue inflammation is associated with obesity caused by lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Through this activation, proinflammatory cytokines, such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP seem to influence metabolic disorders. The present study evaluated whether polymorphisms in the CRP (rs1205 and IL-6 (rs1800795, rs2069845 genes are associated with the development of metabolic disorders in children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed, consisting of 470 students from the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil, aged 7-17 years. Body mass index (BMI was classified according to overweight and obesity. Genotyping was performed by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR. Anthropometric characteristics, biochemical markers, immunological markers and blood pressure were assessed. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and logistic regression were used for the analyses. No association was detected between the rs1800795 polymorphism and the assessed variables. Individuals with the risk genotype in the rs1205 gene were associated with the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia (OR 2.79; CI 1.40, 5.57; p = 0.003. Carriers of the risk genotype in the rs2069845 gene are associated with the risk of developing obesity (OR 3.07; CI 1.08, 8.72; p = 0.03. The polymorphism rs2069845 was associated with obesity and rs1205 was associated with the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia in Brazilian schoolchildren.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of familial dysautonomia by analysis of linked CA-repeat polymorphisms on chromosome 9q31-q33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, C.M.; Desnick, R.J. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Slaugenhaupt, S.A.; Gusella, J.F. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-20

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is an autosomal recessive sensory neuropathy that affects about 1 in 3,700 individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. The underlying biochemical and genetic defects are unknown, thereby precluding prenatal diagnosis in at-risk families. Recently, the FD gene (DYS) was mapped with strong linkage disequilibrium to polymorphic markers in the chromosome 9 region q31-q33. In this report, the use of these markers for the prenatal diagnosis of FD by linkage analysis in families with a previously affected child was evaluated. Genomic DNA from appropriate family members was analyzed to construct haplotypes using informative CA repeat polymorphisms closely linked to and flanking the FD locus. The calculation of risk for the prenatal diagnoses was performed by linkage analysis. All seven FD families were informative for the closely linked polymorphic markers and fetal diagnoses were made in eight pregnancies. Six fetal diagnoses were predicted with >98% accuracy, while two with recombinations were predicted with at least 88% and 92% accuracy. Use of these closely linked markers permitted the reliable prenatal diagnosis of FD in families with a previously affected child. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  20. A laboratory investigation of cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS) in influencing CaCO 3 polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, T.; Decho, A. W.

    2002-04-01

    Bahamian stromatolites are well-laminated structures, consisting of lithified layers alternating between unlithified layers containing fine-grained carbonate ooids. The lithified layers consist of abundant aragonite needles embedded within a matrix of extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS) by cyanobacteria, Schizothrix sp. Laboratory investigations were conducted using EPS extracted from natural stromatolites and laboratory isolates of Schizothrix sp., to chemically characterize EPS, and determine in vitro how EPS may influence CaCO 3 polymorphism. EPS mainly consisted of acidic polysaccharides and proteins. Biochemical analyses indicated that contents of uronic acids and carbohydrates in EPS from lithified layers decreased when compared with unlithified layer EPS, while the protein content remained relatively constant. CaCO 3 nucleation experiments demonstrated that EPS from the lithified layer, induced aragonite crystal formation in vitro, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In contrast, EPS from the unlithified layer or laboratory-cultured Schizothrix sp. induced calcite crystal formation. These laboratory results suggest the possibility that the biochemical composition, specifically small proteins, of EPS influences the resulting mineralogy of CaCO 3.

  1. A germline polymorphism of DNA polymerase beta induces genomic instability and cellular transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yamtich

    Full Text Available Several germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been identified in the POLB gene, but little is known about their cellular and biochemical impact. DNA Polymerase β (Pol β, encoded by the POLB gene, is the main gap-filling polymerase involved in base excision repair (BER, a pathway that protects the genome from the consequences of oxidative DNA damage. In this study we tested the hypothesis that expression of the POLB germline coding SNP (rs3136797 in mammalian cells could induce a cancerous phenotype. Expression of this SNP in both human and mouse cells induced double-strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and cellular transformation. Following treatment with an alkylating agent, cells expressing this coding SNP accumulated BER intermediate substrates, including single-strand and double-strand breaks. The rs3136797 SNP encodes the P242R variant Pol β protein and biochemical analysis showed that P242R protein had a slower catalytic rate than WT, although P242R binds DNA similarly to WT. Our results suggest that people who carry the rs3136797 germline SNP may be at an increased risk for cancer susceptibility.

  2. Anatomical and biochemical investigation of primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancerous transformation entails major biochemical changes including modifications of the energy metabolism of the cell, e.g. utilisation of glucose and other substrates, protein synthesis, and expression of receptors and antigens. Tumour growth also leads to heterogeneity in blood flow owing to focal necrosis, angiogenesis and metabolic demands, as well as disruption of transport mechanisms of substrates across cell membranes and other physiological boundaries such as the blood-brain barrier. All these biochemical, histological and anatomical changes can be assessed with emission tomography, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whereas anatomical imaging is aimed at the diagnosis of brain tumours, biochemical imaging is better suited for tissue characterisation. The identification of a tumoural mass and the assessment of its size and vascularisation are best achieved with X-ray CT and MRI, while biochemical imaging can provide additional information that is crucial for tumour classification, differential diagnosis and follow-up. As the assessment of variables such as water content, appearance of cystic lesions and location of the tumour are largely irrelevant for tissue characterisation, a number of probes have been employed for the assessment of the biochemical features of tumours. Since biochemical changes may be related to the growth rate of cancer cells, they can be thought of as markers of tumour cell proliferation. Biochemical imaging with radionuclides of processes that occur at a cellular level provides information that complements findings obtained by anatomical imaging aimed at depicting structural, vascular and histological changes. This review focusses on the clinical application of anatomical brain imaging and biochemical assessment with positron emission tomography, single-photon emission tomography and MRS in the diagnosis of primary brain tumours, as well as in follow-up. (orig.)

  3. Click Chemistry-Mediated Nanosensors for Biochemical Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wu, Jing; Yin, Binfeng; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry combined with functional nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in biochemical assays because they are promising in developing biosensors with effective signal transformation/amplification and straightforward signal readout for clinical diagnostic assays. In this review, we focus on the latest advances of biochemical assays based on Cu (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC)-mediated nanosensors, as well as the functionalization of nanopro...

  4. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae): a morphological and biochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    W. Lobato Paraense; Pointier, J.P.; Delay, B.; A. F. Pernot; Incani, R N; C. Balzan; P. Chrosciechowski

    1992-01-01

    Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873) from Lake Valencia (type locality) and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system) and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis). In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacust...

  5. Correlations between female breast density and biochemical markers

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Park, Hyong-Keun; Yang, Han-Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify biochemical markers related to breast density. The study was performed with 200 patients who received mammography and biochemical marker testing between March 1, 2014 to October 1, 2014. [Subjects and Methods] Following the American College of Radiology, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR BI-RADS), breast parenchymal pattern density from mammography was categorized into four grades: grade 1, almost entirely fat; grade 2, fibroglandula...

  6. Serum Biochemical Profile of Post Partum Metritic Cow

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus P. K.; Lali F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Present study was conducted to find out the relationship between serum biochemical profile and postpartum metritis. Mainly serum glucose, total protein, albumin, albumin globulin ratio, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and calcium were studied. Colorimetric method was used for quantitative estimation of biochemical profile. Twenty-seven animals with recent history of calving and subsequent metritis were included in the study. On analysis, serum glucose was found to be 22.3 ± 2.1...

  7. Murine interleukin 2 receptor. IV. Biochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IL 2 receptor isolated from the IL 2-dependent CTL-L cell line was subjected to biochemical analysis. Pulse-chase and tunicamycin studies, as well as digestion with the endoglycosidases, Endo-F and Endo-H, of 35S-methionine-labeled IL 2 receptors suggested a single protein pecursor of 32,000 (p32) daltons. The p32 precursor was rapidly processed by addition of high-mannose-containing core N-linked sugars to intracytoplasmic precursor intermediates of 38,000 (p38) and 40,000 (p40) daltons, which undergo further processing to yield a mature surface receptor with heterogeneous apparent m.w. of 52,000 to 65,000 (p58). Two-dimensional gel studies indicated that p58 exhibited broad charge heterogeneity between pH 4.6 and 6.3. Endo-F digestions of p58 shifted the isoelectric focus point to a more basic 5.5 to 7.4. This considerable charge heterogeneity is consistent with the possibility that other post-translational modifications to the mouse IL 2 receptor occur besides addition of complex N-linked glycans. Immunoprecipitations of the IL 2 receptor from surface iodinated cells also revealed an additional band at 110,000 (p110) daltons. IEF vs SDS-PAGE two-dimensional gel studies demonstrated that p110 also had an isoelectric focus point identical to p58. Western blot studies with an anti-IL 2 receptor monoclonal antibody (7D4) demonstrates that p38, p40, p58, and p110 each expressed the epitope recognized by this antibody. Thus, it is likely that p110 is not a unique molecule that coprecipitates with IL 2 receptor. Western blot analysis of mitogen-stimulated T and B lymphocytes also revealed bands similar to p58 and p110, although these bands had an average apparent m.w. 3000 and 6000 less than those seen for CTL-L cells

  8. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism in zebra species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Ito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor genes (AR have been found to have associations with reproductive development, behavioral traits, and disorders in humans. However, the influence of similar genetic effects on the behavior of other animals is scarce. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ in 44 Grevy's zebras, 23 plains zebras, and three mountain zebras, and compared them with those of domesticated horses. We observed polymorphism among zebra species and between zebra and horse. As androgens such as testosterone influence aggressiveness, AR polymorphism among equid species may be associated with differences in levels of aggression and tameness. Our findings indicate that it would be useful to conduct further studies focusing on the potential association between AR and personality traits, and to understand domestication of equid species.

  9. Kinetics versus Thermodynamics in Virus Capsid Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, Pepijn; van der Schoot, Paul; Kegel, Willem

    2016-07-01

    Virus coat proteins spontaneously self-assemble into empty shells in aqueous solution under the appropriate physicochemical conditions, driven by an interaction free energy per bond on the order of 2-5 times the thermal energy kBT. For this seemingly modest interaction strength, each protein building block nonetheless gains a very large binding free energy, between 10 and 20 kBT. Because of this, there is debate about whether the assembly process is reversible or irreversible. Here we discuss capsid polymorphism observed in in vitro experiments from the perspective of nucleation theory and of the thermodynamics of mass action. We specifically consider the potential contribution of a curvature free energy term to the effective interaction potential between the proteins. From these models, we propose experiments that may conclusively reveal whether virus capsid assembly into a mixture of polymorphs is a reversible or an irreversible process. PMID:27027925

  10. Raman Identification of Polymorphs in Pentacene Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Girlando

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We use Raman spectroscopy to characterize thin films of pentacene grown on Si/SiO x by Supersonic Molecular Beam Deposition (SuMBD. We find that films up to a thickness of about 781 Å (∼ 52 monolayers all belong to the so-called thin-film (TF phase. The appearance with strong intensity of some lattice phonons suggests that the films are characterized by good intra-layer order. A comparison of the Raman spectra in the lattice and CH bending spectral regions of the TF polymorph with the corresponding ones of the high-temperature (HT and low-temperature (LT bulk pentacene polymorphs provides a quick and nondestructive method to identify the different phases.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms and idiopathic generalized epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Nazzareno; Verrotti, Alberto; Napolioni, Valerio; Bosco, Guido; Curatolo, Paolo

    2007-09-01

    In recent years, progress in understanding the genetic basis of idiopathic generalized epilepsies has proven challenging because of their complex inheritance patterns and genetic heterogeneity. Genetic polymorphisms offer a convenient avenue for a better understanding of the genetic basis of idiopathic generalized epilepsy by providing evidence for the involvement of a given gene in these disorders, and by clarifying its pathogenetic mechanisms. Many of these genes encode for some important central nervous system ion channels (KCNJ10, KCNJ3, KCNQ2/KCNQ3, CLCN2, GABRG2, GABRA1, SCN1B, and SCN1A), while many others encode for ubiquitary enzymes that play crucial roles in various metabolic pathways (HP, ACP1, ME2, LGI4, OPRM1, GRIK1, BRD2, EFHC1, and EFHC2). We review the main genetic polymorphisms reported in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, and discusses their possible functional significance in the pathogenesis of seizures. PMID:17765802

  12. Hyphenated spectroscopy as a polymorph screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, Jaakko; Strachan, Clare J; Pöllänen, Kati; Yliruusi, Jouko; Rantanen, Jukka

    2007-06-28

    Polymorph screening of a model compound (nitrofurantoin) was performed. Nitrofurantoin was crystallized from acetone-water mixtures with varying process parameters. Two anhydrate forms (alpha and beta) and one monohydrate form (II) were crystallized in the polymorph screen. The solid forms were analyzed with three complementary spectroscopic techniques: near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS), and the results of the solid phase analysis were verified with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). NIR and Raman spectroscopy were coupled to achieve a rapid and comprehensive method of solid phase analysis. The hyphenated NIR/Raman spectroscopic data were analyzed with a multivariate method, principal component analysis (PCA). The combination was found effective in screening solid forms due to the complementary characteristics of the methods. NIR spectroscopy is powerful in differentiating between anhydrate and hydrate forms and intermolecular features, whereas Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to intramolecular alterations in the molecular backbone. PMID:17367979

  13. Distribution of Polymorphic and Non-Polymorphic Microsatellite Repeats in Xenopus tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K. Sater

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of our bioinformatics analysis have found over 91,000 di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide microsatellites in our survey of 25% of the X. tropicalis genome, suggesting there may be over 360,000 within the entire genome. Within the X. tropicalis genome, dinucleotide (78.7% microsatellites vastly out numbered tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellites. Similarly, AT-rich repeats are overwhelmingly dominant. The four AT-only motifs (AT, AAT, AAAT, and AATT account for 51,858 out of 91,304 microsatellites found. Individually, AT microsatellites were the most common repeat found, representing over half of all di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide microsatellites. This contrasts with data from other studies, which show that AC is the most frequent microsatellite in vertebrate genomes (Toth et al. 2000. In addition, we have determined the rate of polymorphism for 5,128 non-redundant microsatellites, embedded in unique sequences. Interestingly, this subgroup of microsatellites was determined to have significantly longer repeats than genomic microsatellites as a whole. In addition, microsatellite loci with tandem repeat lengths more than 30 bp exhibited a significantly higher degree of polymorphism than other loci. Pairwise comparisons show that tetranucleotide microsatellites have the highest polymorphic rates. In addition, AAT and ATC showed significant higher polymorphism than other trinucleotide microsatellites, while AGAT and AAAG were significantly more polymorphic than other tetranucleotide microsatellites.

  14. Study of phenotypic polymorphism and detection of genotypic polymorphism in M. sexmaculatus using rapd pcr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menochilus sexmaculatus commonly known as six spotted zig zag ladybird, is an aphidophagus and the most misidentified Coccinellids due to the occurrence of numerous color variants. The correct identification of Menochilus sexmaculatus and its strains is necessary to implement the use of biological control. In the present study phenotypic and genotypic polymorphism was investigated in Menochilus sexmaculatus collected from Punjab, NWFP and Sindh provinces of Pakistan. Six different morphs of the species were distinguished by analyzing its Elytral color and spot pattern and then Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to generate random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) from six different types of Menochilus sexmaculatus. Forty primers (OPA and OPC Kit) were used to perform RAPD PCR on six different types of Menochilus sexmaculatus of which, seven primers revealed different patterns related to the Menochilus sexmaculatus types. These seven primers (OPA-04, OPA-09, OPA-18, OPC-04, OPC-12, OPC-15 and OPC-18) produced 111 clear polymorphic bands and 6 scorable strain specific markers. The cluster analysis applied to RAPD data showed high polymorphism among six types and it can be concluded that these six types are six polymorphic strains of the same species, which has implications for natural and biological control of aphids. (author)

  15. A novel multiplex analysis of filaggrin polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Michael; Szecsi, Pal B; Carlsen, Berit C; Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil; Stender, Steen

    The filaggrin protein is expressed as profilaggrin mainly in stratum granulosum cells of the epidermis. The profilaggrin gene codes for 10-12 filaggrin repeats. The filaggrin protein is important for skin barrier function. Filaggrin deficiency due to functional null-polymorphisms affects 8-10% of...... the people in Northern Europe and is a strong risk factor for several diseases. Here, we describe a novel method for efficient, multiplexed genotyping of variations in the profilaggrin gene....

  16. Polymorphic Worms Collection in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf A. Shahin

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, computer worms are seen as one of significant challenges of cloud computing. Worms are rapidly changing and getting more sophisticated to evade detection. One major issue to defend against computer worms is collecting worms' payloads to generate their signature and study their behavior. To collect worms' payloads, we identified challenges for detecting and collecting worms' payloads and proposed high-interactive honeypot to collect payloads of zero-day polymorphic worms...

  17. Complex foraging polymorphism in bluegill sunfish

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlinger, Timothy John; Wilson, David Sloan

    1988-01-01

    The bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) is considered a generalist predator, adept at feeding in both the littoral and open-water habitats of North American freshwater lakes. We demonstrate adaptive intraspecific variation in morphology and foraging behaviors within single lakes. This variation appears to make individual fish specialized for feeding in either the littoral or open-water habitat. Discovery of a complex polymorphism in such a well-studied species suggests that adaptive variat...

  18. Highly polymorphic RFLP probes as diagnostic tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we describe the identification of highly polymorphic RFLP loci and their application to genotyping in humans and to mapping the CF gene to chromosome 7. We also report the construction of a high-resolution genetic map of chromosome 7 and summarize progress toward the development of a presymptomatic diagnostic test for CF that should be useful in virtually every case. 25 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  19. Preparation and crystallographic analysis of gliclazide polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamma, A J; Sateesha, S B; Narode, M K; Prashanth, V R S S; Karthik, A M

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of gliclazide in the pharmaceutical industry, a large number of research groups have been engaged in various investigations aiming to enhance its biomedical application. But, very limited efforts have been made to study polymorphism of gliclazide. Therefore, this study focuses on solvent-induced polymorphism of gliclazide and its characterization by thermal methods. Three polymorphs namely, Form-I, II and III and an amorphous powder were produced from different solvents and solvent mixtures. Crystals were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and single crystal x-ray diffraction. Polymorph Form-I is found to exist in centro-symmetric triclinic P-1 space group and has endothermic peak at 162.93°. Form-II has endothermic peak from 171.2° to 172.35° and exists in centro-symmetric monoclinic P21/a space group while Form-III has endothermic peak from 168.93° to 169.86° and exists in centro-symmetric monoclinic P21/n space group. The equilibrium solubility values of Form-I, II, III and the amorphous form were 0.4825±0.025, 0.2341±0.042, 0.2581±0.038 and 0.5213±0.072 mg/ml, respectively. The Form-I has relatively higher solubility and similar to that of amorphous gliclazide. Form-II and Form-III are relatively most stable and least soluble. However, there was no remarkable difference in their aqueous solubility under the conditions in which study was conducted. PMID:25767316

  20. The polymorphic, multilayered and networked urbanised territory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The discussion of the network city has in recent years been supplemented by an increasing interest in reconsidering the notion of territory. Looking into both geographical and urban design theories, we find examples of a focus on how the networks of the city not only connect them irreversibly wit...... theory. The concept of The Polymorphic, Multilayered and Networked Urbanised Territory is introduced to grasp the reality experienced in European regions outside the largest and most potent versions of contemporary cities....

  1. Preparation and crystallographic analysis of gliclazide polymorphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A J Rajamma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of gliclazide in the pharmaceutical industry, a large number of research groups have been engaged in various investigations aiming to enhance its biomedical application. But, very limited efforts have been made to study polymorphism of gliclazide. Therefore, this study focuses on solvent-induced polymorphism of gliclazide and its characterization by thermal methods. Three polymorphs namely, Form-I, II and III and an amorphous powder were produced from different solvents and solvent mixtures. Crystals were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and single crystal x-ray diffraction. Polymorph Form-I is found to exist in centro-symmetric triclinic P-1 space group and has endothermic peak at 162.93°. Form-II has endothermic peak from 171.2° to 172.35° and exists in centro-symmetric monoclinic P2 1 /a space group while Form-III has endothermic peak from 168.93° to 169.86° and exists in centro-symmetric monoclinic P2 1 /n space group. The equilibrium solubility values of Form-I, II, III and the amorphous form were 0.4825±0.025, 0.2341±0.042, 0.2581±0.038 and 0.5213±0.072 mg/ml, respectively. The Form-I has relatively higher solubility and similar to that of amorphous gliclazide. Form-II and Form-III are relatively most stable and least soluble. However, there was no remarkable difference in their aqueous solubility under the conditions in which study was conducted.

  2. Colonial and Cellular Polymorphism in Xenorhabdus luminescens

    OpenAIRE

    Hurlbert, Ronald E.; Xu, Jimin; SMALL, CHRISTOPHER L.

    1989-01-01

    A highly polymorphic Xenorhabdus luminescens strain was isolated. The primary form of X. luminescens was luminescent and nonswarming and produced a yellow pigment and antimicrobial substances. The primary form generated a secondary form that had a distinct orange pigmentation, was weakly luminescent, and did not produce antimicrobial substances. Both the primary and secondary forms generated a set of colony variants at frequencies that exceeded normal rates for spontaneous mutation. The varia...

  3. Androgen receptor polymorphism (CAG repeats) and androgenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, D; Caglieresi, C; Moschini, C; Liberati, C D; Macchia, E; Pinchera, A; Martino, E

    2005-09-01

    Objective Polymorphism of the androgen receptor (AR) has been related to various pathophysiological conditions, such as osteoporosis and infertility. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the frequency of distribution in a normal Italian population and to assess CAG repeats (CAGr) in other conditions, such as hypoandrogenism, potentially influenced by AR polymorphism. Patients and measurements CAGr polymorphism was determined in a group of 91 healthy normoandrogenized subjects, 29 hypoandrogenized patients (hypoplasia of prostate and seminal vesicles, reduced beard or body hair, etc.) and 29 infertile patients by direct sequencing. Results The mean (+/- SD) number of CAG repeats [(CAGr)n] was 21.5 (+/- 1.7) in the control group, 21.4 (+/- 2.0) in the infertile patients and 24.0 (+/- 2.9) in the hypoandrogenic males. The difference was statistically significant between this last group and the other two (P CAGr repeats was 38% among hypoandrogenized patients, 7% among infertile patients and 5% among the control group. In hypoandrogenized subjects (CAGr)n correlated slightly with testis and prostate volume. The number of CAG repeats was not associated with any of the hormonal parameters, including testosterone, evaluated in the three groups. Conclusions Our normal population, representing subjects from Central Italy, is superimposable on other European populations with regard to (CAGr)n distribution. Hypoandrogenic males have a shift in the frequency distribution towards longer (CAGr)n. Infertile patients are not statistically different from the control group. These findings suggest that, given the same amount of circulating testosterone, as in our hypoandrogenized and control group, the final net androgenic phenotypical effect is due to AR polymorphism. PMID:16117826

  4. IL-10 gene polymorphism and herpesvirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurme, M; Haanpää, M; Nurmikko, T; Wang, X-Y; Virta, M; Pessi, T; Kilpinen, S; Hulkkonen, J; Helminen, M

    2003-01-01

    Genetics has an important role in resistance to various infections and it also may modify the clinical picture of an infectious disease. Here, we briefly review our recent data demonstrating that the polymorphism of the IL-10 gene is associated with resistance to some common herpesviruses and, additionally, that this same gene is involved in the regulation of the severity of the infection and in the reactivation process. PMID:12627487

  5. Biochemical and molecular study of genetic stability in tomatoes plants rom seeds treated with low doses of X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the extensive agricultural exploitation of vegetable radio stimulation, it is indispensable to study the genetic stability of treated varieties, having in mind X ray potentialities of inducing not only physiological but genetic changes as well. Therefore, biochemical and molecular markers were employed in tomato plants derived from irradiated seeds at low doses of X rays. For the biochemical analysis, peroxidases, polyphenoloxidases and dismutase superoxide isoenzymes were determined whereas the Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method based on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used for the molecular analysis. When comparing the electrophoretic patterns from the control and irradiated treatments applied to the three enzymatic systems, there were not appreciable variations on the number of bands and their intensities, indicating the little variability induced in these systems by the low X ray doses. Also, from the molecular viewpoint, electrophoretic patterns showed a clear amplification of DNA by generating a total of 155 bands in all varieties studied. This molecular marker showed a high monomorphism independently of the treatments applied, with values ranging between 86 and 97 %, indicating that irradiation at low doses did not induce an important genetic variability and confirming its possible practical usefulness for stimulating some physiological processes without causing. (Author)

  6. Genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crain Karen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Susceptibility to infection by bacterium such as Bacillus anthracis has a genetic basis in mice and may also have a genetic basis in humans. In the limited human cases of inhalation anthrax, studies suggest that not all individuals exposed to anthrax spores were infected, but rather, individuals with underlying lung disease, particularly asthma, sarcoidosis and tuberculosis, might be more susceptible. In this study, we determined if polymorphisms in genes important in innate immunity are associated with increased susceptibility to infectious and non-infectious lung diseases, particularly tuberculosis and sarcoidosis, respectively, and therefore might be a risk factor for inhalation anthrax. Examination of 45 non-synonymous polymorphisms in ten genes: p47phox (NCF1, p67phox (NCF2, p40phox (NCF4, p22phox (CYBA, gp91phox (CYBB, DUOX1, DUOX2, TLR2, TLR9 and alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT in a cohort of 95 lung disease individuals and 95 control individuals did not show an association of these polymorphisms with increased susceptibility to lung disease.

  7. Microsatellite polymorphisms of Sichuan golden monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Deng; LI Ying; HU Hongxing; MENG Shijie; MEN Zhengrning; FU Yunxin; ZHANG Yaping

    2005-01-01

    Previous study using protein electrophoresis shows no polymorphism in 44 nuclear loci of Sichuan golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), which limits our understandings of its population genetic patterns in the nuclear genome. In order to obtain sufficient information, we scanned 14 microsatellite loci in a sample of 32 individuals from its three major habitats (Minshan, Qinling and Shennongjia). A considerable amount of polymorphisms were detected. The average heterozygosities in the local populations were all above 0.5. The differentiations among local populations were significant. There was evidence of geneflow among subpopulations, but geneflow between Qinling and Shennongjia local populations was the weakest. Minshan and Qinling populations might have gone through recent bottlenecks. The estimation of the ratio of the effective population sizes among local populations was close to that from census sizes. Comparisons to available mitochondria data suggested that R. roxellana's social structures played an important role in shaping its population genetic patterns. Our study showed that the polymorphism level of R. roxellana was no higher than other endangered species; therefore, measures should be taken to preserve genetic diversity of this species.

  8. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON NIGERIAN MONODORA TENUIFOLIA SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekeanyanwu Raphael Chukwuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive constituents of the seeds of Monodora tenuifolia were analyzed to augment the available information on Monodora tenuifolia research. Blood glucose and lipid profile were investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of M. tenuifolia in rats. The composition (gkg-1 of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, tannins and flavonoids were 13.3±0.1, 21.2×10-2±0.6, 1.3±0.1, 1.7±0.1 and 11.7±1.1 respectively. The proximate composition (gkg-1 of M. tenuifolia seed were crude fibre (262.3±1.2, crude protein (82.6±1.0, crude fat (349.9±1.9, ash (49.9±0.6, moisture (190.0±0.00 and carbohydrate (65.5±4.7. Analysis of the minerals content (gkg-1 yielded calcium (864.0±29.38, sodium (2752.0±140.35, iron (3.34±0.06, zinc (5.26±0.08, potassium (326.4±13.06, magnesium (342.9±13.71 and phosphorus (9.52±0.17, while vitamin analysis yielded vitamin A (10.05±0.17 iu/100 g, C (56.40±0.14 gkg-1 and E (11.71±0.87 iu /100 g, thiamine (0.11±0.01 gkg-1, niacin (0.46±0.32 gkg-1 and riboflavin (0.04±0.01 gkg-1. The results of amino acid analysis showed the total amino acid of M. tenuifolia seed was 71.78 of crude protein. The total essential amino acid with Histidine was calculated to be 29.24 of the crude protein. The antinutrient analysis of M. tenuifolia shows it contained total phenol (0.8±0.0 gkg-1, oxalates (4.09±1.17 gkg-1, phytates (0.012±0.42 gkg-1 and trypsin inhibitor (0.230±0.42 iu/g. The main fatty acids of the seed oil are linoleic acid (401.7 g kg-1, oleic acid (346.1 g kg-1 and palmitic acid (122.61 g kg-1. The LD50 of the flavonoid-rich fraction was found to be above 5000 mg kg-1 b.w. After the day 14 study, biochemical markers such as triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein increased significantly (p0.05 effect was observed on the blood glucose and lipid profile of wistar albino rats compared with the control. The result shows that M. tenuifolia seed is rich

  9. Biochemical and histological characterization of tomato mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C. Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical responses inherent to antioxidant systems as well morphological and anatomical properties of photomorphogenic, hormonal and developmental tomato mutants were investigated. Compared to the non-mutant Micro-Tom (MT, we observed that the malondialdehyde (MDA content was enhanced in the diageotropica (dgt and lutescent (l mutants, whilst the highest levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were observed in high pigment 1 (hp1 and aurea (au mutants. The analyses of antioxidant enzymes revealed that all mutants exhibited reduced catalase (CAT activity when compared to MT. Guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX was enhanced in both sitiens (sit and notabilis (not mutants, whereas in not mutant there was an increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX. Based on PAGE analysis, the activities of glutathione reductase (GR isoforms III, IV, V and VI were increased in l leaves, while the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD isoform III was reduced in leaves of sit, epi, Never ripe (Nr and green flesh (gf mutants. Microscopic analyses revealed that hp1 and au showed an increase in leaf intercellular spaces, whereas sit exhibited a decrease. The au and hp1 mutants also exhibited a decreased in the number of leaf trichomes. The characterization of these mutants is essential for their future use in plant development and ecophysiology studies, such as abiotic and biotic stresses on the oxidative metabolism.Neste trabalho, analisamos as respostas bioquímicas inerentes ao sistema antioxidante, assim como propriedades morfológicas e anatômicas de mutantes fotomorfogenéticos e hormonais de tomateiro. Comparados ao não mutante Micro-Tom (MT, observamos que o conteúdo de malondialdeído (MDA aumentou nos mutantes diageotropica (dgt e lutescent (l, enquanto os maiores níveis de H2O2 foram encontrados nos mutantes high pigment 1 (hp1 e aurea (au. Análises de enzimas antioxidantes mostraram que todos os mutantes reduziram a atividade de catalase (CAT quando comparado a MT. A

  10. Impact of lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms on ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihito Kosaka; Taizou Shiraishi; Masatoshi Watanabe; Takayuki Yamamoto; Ai Nakahara; Takahiko Katoh; Junji Yoshino; Kazuo Inui; Takao Wakabayashi; Kazumu Okushima; Takashi Kobayashi; Hironao Miyoshi; Yuta Nakamura; Shigekazu Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the influence of lipoprotein lipase (LPL)gene polymorphism in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients.METHODS: Peripheral blood was obtained from 131 patients with UC and 106 healthy controls for DNA extraction. We determined LPL gene polymorphisms affecting the enzyme at Ser447stop, as well as Hind Ⅲ and Pvu Ⅱ polymorphisms using PCR techniques. PCR products were characterized by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing.Polymorphisms were examined for association with clinical features in UC patients. Genotype frequencies for LPL polymorphisms were also compared between UC patients and controls.RESULTS: In patients with onset at age 20 years or younger, C/G and G/G genotypes for Ser447stop polymorphism were more prevalent than C/C genotype (OR= 3.13, 95% CI = 0.95-10.33). Patients with H+/- or H-/-genotype for HindⅢ polymorphism also were more numerous than those with H+/+ genotype (OR = 2.51, 95%CI = 0.85-7.45). In the group with H+/+ genotype for HindⅢ polymorphism, more patients had serum triglyceride concentrations over 150 mg/dL than patients with H+/- or H-/- genotype (P < 0.01, OR = 6.46, 95% CI =1.39-30.12). Hypertriglycemia was also more prevalent in patients with P+/+ genotypes for Pvu Ⅱ polymorphism (P< 0.05, OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.06-8.50). Genotype frequency for LPL polymorphism did not differ significantly between UC patients and controls.CONCLUSION: Ser447stop and HindⅢ LPL polymorphisms may influence age of onset of UC, while HindⅢand PvuⅡ polymorphisms influence serum triglyceride in UC patients.

  11. The association between IGF-1 polymorphisms and high myopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Xingtao; Qu, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Background: The potential association between IGF-1 polymorphisms and high myopia has been investigated in previous studies, but the actual relationship remains controversial. Accordingly, we conducted a meta-analysisincludingcase-control and cohort studies to assess the existing relationship between high myopia and IGF-1 polymorphisms. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in...

  12. A quantitative study of eosinophil polymorphs in Hodgkin's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuggle, W J; Crocker, J; Smith, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Eosinophil polymorphonuclear leucocytes (polymorphs) were counted in 45 specimens from patients with Hodgkin's disease and five specimens from patients with reactive follicular hyperplasia. The use of chlorazol fast pink BK, a little known stain for eosinophil polymorphs, combined with image analysis facilitated rapid and reliable counting. Significant differences were found between the mean percentages of eosinophil polymorphs in the Rye subtypes of Hodgkin's disease. The numbers of eosinoph...

  13. Sympatric ecological divergence associated with a color polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Kusche, Henrik; Elmer, Kathryn R.; Meyer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background Color polymorphisms are a conspicuous feature of many species and a way to address broad ecological and evolutionary questions. Three potential major evolutionary fates of color polymorphisms are conceivable over time: maintenance, loss, or speciation. However, the understanding of color polymorphisms and their evolutionary implications is frequently impaired by sex-linkage of coloration, unknown inheritance patterns, difficulties in phenotypic characterization, and a lack of evolu...

  14. Physical and Molecular Properties of Lipid Polymorphs - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, K

    1987-01-01

    The physical and molecular properties of the polymorphism of stearic acid, oleic acid and SOS (1.3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol) are comparatively discussed. Temperature dependence of Gibbs energy (G-T relation) of three polymorphs of stearic acid; A, B and C, revealed close relationships to each other. The molecular structures subtly differed in these polymorphs. In contrast, three plymorphs of oleic acid, b , and y exhibited remarkably different characteristics. G-T relation showed more d...

  15. Count on dopamine: influences of COMT polymorphisms on numerical cognition

    OpenAIRE

    AnneliseJúlio-Costa; BárbaraCecíliaMoreira; GabrielleSouzaVianna; GuilhermeWood; Maria RaquelSantosCarvalho

    2013-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that is particularly important for the metabolism of dopamine. Functional polymorphisms of COMT have been implicated in working memory and numerical cognition. This is an exploratory study that aims at investigating associations between COMT polymorphisms, working memory, and numerical cognition. Elementary school children from 2th to 6th grades were divided into two groups according to their COMT val158met polymorphism [homozygous for valine a...

  16. COMT val158met Polymorphism and Neural Pain Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Schmahl, Christian; Ludäscher, Petra; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Kraus, Anja; Valerius, Gabriele; Schulze, Thomas G.; Treutlein, Jens; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Bohus, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A functional polymorphism (val158met) of the gene coding for Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COM) has been demonstrated to be related to processing of emotional stimuli. Also, this polymorphism has been found to be associated with pain regulation in healthy subjects. Therefore, we investigated a possible influence of this polymorphism on pain processing in healthy persons as well as in subjects with markedly reduced pain sensitivity in the context of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Fifty...

  17. Impact of Candidate Genetic Polymorphisms in Prostate Cancer: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, S; Conteduca, V; Gurioli, G; Calistri, D; Casadio, V; De Giorgi, U

    2016-02-01

    In the last few years, the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been investigated in many tumors as predictor of disease aggressiveness and clinical outcome. We searched for relevant articles from 1998 to 2015 about the impact of SNPs in prostate cancer. Particularly, in this article, we review the pathogenetic, prognostic and predictive significance of gene polymorphisms in prostate tumor, providing a brief overview of studies in which the possible role of genetic variants was investigated in clinical settings. Because conflicting results often emerge about the impact of gene polymorphisms in prostate cancer, further larger studies are warranted in order to introduce gene polymorphism into clinical practice as biomarkers. PMID:26518421

  18. Determining the gross biochemical composition of cells and tissue with Raman spectrosocpy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourant, Judith R.; Dominguez, Jorge; Carpenter, Susan; Powers, Tamara M.; Guerra, Anabel; Short, Kurt W.; Kunapareddy, Nagapratima; Freyer, James P.

    2006-02-01

    The biochemical composition of mammalian cells has been estimated by Raman spectroscopy and the results compared with other biochemical methods. The Raman spectroscopy estimates were performed by fitting measured Raman and infrared spectra of dense cell suspensions to a linear combination of basis components (RNA, DNA, protein, lipid, glycoen). The Raman spectroscopy results are compared to biochemical analyses performed by extraction and quantfication of the biochemical components. Both absolute and relative measurements of biochemical composition are compared. Both the Raman and biochemical results indicate that there are signficant differences in gross biochemical composition dependent on growth stage and tumorigneicity.

  19. Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

    2013-07-01

    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA. PMID:23575803

  20. Microstereolithography and its application to biochemical IC chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Koji; Maruo, Shoji; Hasegawa, Tadahiro; Adachi, Takao

    2001-06-01

    The world's first micro stereo lithography, named IH process, was proposed and developed by the speaker in 1992. By now, several types of micro stereo lithography systems have been developed. Three-dimensional resolution of solidification has reached to 0.2 micron at present. These 3D micro fabrication processes using UV curable polymer gave a big impact on not only MEMS but also optics. The latest version of IH process enables us to make a movable micro mechanism without assemble process or sacrificial layer technique often used in silicon process. It is well known that the IH process is the mother of two-photon micro stereo lithography and its applications. Recently new micro chemical device named Biochemical IC Chip was proposed and developed by the speaker. This chip is based on the module IC chip-set like today's TTL family. IH process enable to make the biochemical IC including real three-dimensional micro fluid channels. Various kinds of Biochemical IC chips such as micro pump, switching valve, reactor, concentrator and detector have already been fabricated successfully. Basic performance of micro chemical devices constructed by the biochemical IC chips were demonstrated. The biochemical IC chips will open new bioscience and medicine based on innovative technology.

  1. Association of β1 and β3 adrenergic receptors gene polymorphisms with insulin resistance and high lipid profiles related to type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Burguete-García, Ana I; Gabriela A. Martínez-Nava; Adán Valladares-Salgado; V. H. Bermúdez; Bárbara Estrada-Velasco; Niels Wacher; Jesús Peralta-Romero; Jaime Garcia-Mena; Esteban Parra; Miguel Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Among the diverse genes associated to type 2 diabetes (T2D), the β-adrenergic receptors are an excellent candidate to study in Mexican population. The objective of this work was to analyze the association of polymorphisms in ADRB1 (rs1801253) (Arg389Gly) and ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) genes with T2D and metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods: We studied 445 MS patients, 502 with T2D and 552 healthy controls. Anthropometric features and complete biochemical profile were evaluated, and Arg389Gly an...

  2. Detecting high-resolution polymorphisms in human coding loci by combining PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduslo, S E; Dean, M; Kolch, U; O'Brien, S J

    1991-07-01

    A strategy is described that allows the development of polymorphic genetic markers to be characterized in individual genes. Segments of the 3' untranslated regions are amplified, and polymorphisms are detected by digestion with frequently cutting enzymes and with the detection of single-stranded conformation polymorphisms. This allows these genes, or DNA segments, to be placed on the linkage maps of human chromosomes. Polymorphisms in two genes have been identified using this approach. A HaeIII polymorphism was detected in the KIT proto-oncogene, physically assigned to chromosome 4q11-12. This polymorphism is linked to other chromosome 4p markers and is in linkage disequilibrium with a HindIII polymorphism previously described at this locus. We have also identified in the insulin-like growth factor1 receptor gene (IGF1R) a 2-bp deletion that is present at a frequency of .25 in the Caucasian population. Pedigree analysis with this insertion/deletion polymorphism placed the IGF1R gene at the end of the current linkage map of chromosome 15q, consistent with the physical assignment of 15q2526. Thus, polymorphisms in specific genes can be used to related the physical, genetic, and comparative maps of mammalian genomes and to simplify the testing of candidate genes for human diseases. PMID:1676559

  3. Polymorphism in silicate-postperovskite reviewed (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschauner, O. D.

    2010-12-01

    Early on in the examination of postperovskite(ppv)-type magnesium metasilicate it had been debated if this potential deep mantle mineral can be subject to further structural transformation as function of composition, pressure, and temperature within the range of conditions in the lower mantle. MgSiO3-perovskite accommodates minor elements through local lattice distortions by tilt of the corner-sharing octahedral framework. The CaIrO3-type ppv structure does not seem to possess a similar mechanism of local relaxation of lattice strain. Instead minor elements may rather be accommodated by periodic kinks in this layered structure (1). This kinking-mechanism allows for generating a plethora of polymorphs similar in structure and free energy (1,2). However, the elastic properties of ppv may be strongly affected by this type of structural modification. While structural analogues of silicate-ppv exhibit this type of polymorphism (3,4) previous attempts to examine polymorphism in silicate-ppv remained suggestive (2,5). This is mostly owed to the severe constraints imposed on powder diffraction studies conducted under the extreme conditions of stability of MgSiO3-ppv. Here I present new results on silicate-ppv based on different experimental strategies which shed more light on this complex yet important issue of structural modifications in minor-element bearing silicate-ppv. (1) Oganov et al. Nature 438, 1142 (2005);(2) Tschauner et al. Am. Min. 93, 533 (2008); (3) Shirako et al. Phys. Chem. Min. 36, 455 (2009); Yakovlev et al. J. Sol. Stat. Chem. 182, 1545 (2009) Work supported through NNSA Cooperative Agreement DOE-FC88-01NV14049

  4. Genetic polymorphisms associated with exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A; Contreras-Sesvold, Carmen L; O'Connor, Francis G; Campbell, William W; Kenney, Kimbra; Capacchione, John F; Landau, Mark E; Muldoon, Sheila M; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Heled, Yuval

    2013-08-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) occurs in young, otherwise healthy, individuals principally during strenuous exercise, athletic, and military training. Although many risk factors have been offered, it is unclear why some individuals develop ER when participating in comparable levels of physical exertion under identical environmental conditions and others do not. This study investigated possible genetic polymorphisms that might help explain ER. DNA samples derived from a laboratory-based study of persons who had never experienced an episode of ER (controls) and clinical ER cases referred for testing over the past several years were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes. These included angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), α-actinin-3 (ACTN3), creatine kinase muscle isoform (CKMM), heat shock protein A1B (HSPA1B), interleukin 6 (IL6), myosin light chain kinase (MYLK), adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 (AMPD1), and sickle cell trait (HbS). Population included 134 controls and 47 ER cases. The majority of ER cases were men (n = 42/47, 89.4 %); the five women with ER were Caucasian. Eighteen African Americans (56.3 %) were ER cases. Three SNPs were associated with ER: CKMM Ncol, ACTN3 R577X, and MYLK C37885A. ER cases were 3.1 times more likely to have the GG genotype of CKMM (odds ratio/OR = 3.1, confidence interval/CI 1.33-7.10), 3.0 times for the XX genotype of ACTN3 SNP (OR = 2.97, CI 1.30-3.37), and 5.7 times for an A allele of MYLK (OR = 21.35, CI 2.60-12.30). All persons with HbS were also ER cases. Three distinct polymorphisms were associated with ER. Further work will be required to replicate these findings and determine the mechanism(s) whereby these variants might confer susceptibility. PMID:23543093

  5. MMP-3 gene polymorphisms and Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiguzel, Mustafa; Horozoglu, Cem; Kilicoglu, Onder; Ozger, Harzem; Acar, Leyla; Ergen, Arzu

    2016-03-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common adolescence cancer among all primary bone tumors next only to multiplemyeloma. It has a substantially worse prognosis and ability to metastasize to lung. MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) are among the major proteases that take part in regulation of ECM (extracellular matrix). MMPs play an active role in the formation of the osteoid tissue, rich in collagens and other ECM proteoglycans. They also take part in pro-osteoclast, osteoclast, osteoblast, and osteoid formation. Many members of the MMP gene family have been linked to human cancers. It has been shown that MMPs particularly play a role in the tumor's acquisition of an invasive and metastatic character. In our study, the E45K and T102T polymorphisms of MMP-3 were studied using the PCR-RFLP method in 135 Turkish subjects (54 subjects with osteosarcoma and 81 healthy controls). We found that frequencies of E45K G allele (p:0,010, χ²:6,710, OR:1,429, 95% Cl: 1,019-1,858) and AG genotype (p:0,001, χ²:14,753, OR:2,32, 95% Cl: 1,491-3,626) were elevated in patients compared to controls. Besides, there was a significant difference in.E45K AA genotype between study groups (p:0,004, χ²:8,182, OR: 2,929, 95% Cl: 1,38-6,19). There were no significant differences between any genotypes or allele in the control and patient groups for MMP-3 T102T polymorphism. Our findings indicate that the G allele and AG genotype of MMP-3 E45K polymorphism is associated with increased risk of osteosarcoma in adolescent population of Turkey. PMID:27145630

  6. Nucleosomes shape DNA polymorphism and divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha A Langley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An estimated 80% of genomic DNA in eukaryotes is packaged as nucleosomes, which, together with the remaining interstitial linker regions, generate higher order chromatin structures [1]. Nucleosome sequences isolated from diverse organisms exhibit ∼10 bp periodic variations in AA, TT and GC dinucleotide frequencies. These sequence elements generate intrinsically curved DNA and help establish the histone-DNA interface. We investigated an important unanswered question concerning the interplay between chromatin organization and genome evolution: do the DNA sequence preferences inherent to the highly conserved histone core exert detectable natural selection on genomic divergence and polymorphism? To address this hypothesis, we isolated nucleosomal DNA sequences from Drosophila melanogaster embryos and examined the underlying genomic variation within and between species. We found that divergence along the D. melanogaster lineage is periodic across nucleosome regions with base changes following preferred nucleotides, providing new evidence for systematic evolutionary forces in the generation and maintenance of nucleosome-associated dinucleotide periodicities. Further, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP frequency spectra show striking periodicities across nucleosomal regions, paralleling divergence patterns. Preferred alleles occur at higher frequencies in natural populations, consistent with a central role for natural selection. These patterns are stronger for nucleosomes in introns than in intergenic regions, suggesting selection is stronger in transcribed regions where nucleosomes undergo more displacement, remodeling and functional modification. In addition, we observe a large-scale (∼180 bp periodic enrichment of AA/TT dinucleotides associated with nucleosome occupancy, while GC dinucleotide frequency peaks in linker regions. Divergence and polymorphism data also support a role for natural selection in the generation and maintenance of these

  7. Carbamates toxicity in farmers and its assesment through biochemical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevalent environmental toxicity of various chemical group of pesticides and their effects leading towards increasing morbidity and mortality in the farmers is of great concerned. In this situation the biochemical biomarkers are regarded as meaningful tools for monitoring toxic end points. This work was aimed to assess the toxic impacts of carbamates through some biochemical parameters and useful validity of these biomarkers was also observed. Present results reveal inhibition of cholinesterase activity by 46% whereas bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels in serum were increased and sugar values was decreased at highly significant level (p<0.001). Urine urobilinogen concentration found raised significantly at high level (p<0.001) while protein, urea creatinine and sugar values in urine of the farmers seen non-significant. This study concluded that the selected biochemical parameters can be used as biomarkers to assess the significant toxic effects in the exposed populations. (author)

  8. Click Chemistry-Mediated Nanosensors for Biochemical Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wu, Jing; Yin, Binfeng; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry combined with functional nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in biochemical assays because they are promising in developing biosensors with effective signal transformation/amplification and straightforward signal readout for clinical diagnostic assays. In this review, we focus on the latest advances of biochemical assays based on Cu (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC)-mediated nanosensors, as well as the functionalization of nanoprobes based on click chemistry. Nanoprobes including gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials are covered. We discuss the advantages of click chemistry-mediated nanosensors for biochemical assays, and give perspectives on the development of click chemistry-mediated approaches for clinical diagnosis and other biomedical applications. PMID:27217831

  9. Hematologic and plasma biochemical values of hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Niemeyer, Claudia; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Nunes, Adauto L V; Rameh-de-Albuquerque, Luciana C; Sant'Anna, Sávio S; Catão-Dias, José L

    2012-09-01

    The hyacinth macaw (Anodorhyncus hyacinthinus), considered the largest psittacine bird species in the world, is an endangered species, with a remaining population of approximately 6500 birds in the wild. To establish hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges and to verify differences related to sex, samples from 29 hyacinth macaws (14 males, 15 females) were obtained from birds apprehended from illegal wildlife trade and subsequently housed at the Sorocaba Zoo, Brazil. No significant differences in hematologic or plasma biochemical values were found between females and males. Compared with published reference values, differences were found in mean concentrations of total red blood cell count, corpuscular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin level, total white blood cell count, aspartate aminotransferase level, creatine kinase concentration, alkaline phosphatase concentration, and phosphorus level. Baseline hematologic and plasma biochemical ranges were established, which may be useful as reference values for clinicians working with this endangered species in captivity or rehabilitation centers. PMID:23156973

  10. Hematologic and plasma biochemical values of Spix's macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldenauer, Ulrike; Borjal, Raffy Jim; Deb, Amrita; Arif, Abdi; Taha, Abid Sharif; Watson, Ryan William; Steinmetz, Hanspeter; Bürkle, Marcellus; Hammer, Sven

    2007-12-01

    The Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) is considered the world's most endangered parrot, with the last wild bird disappearing in 2001 and only 74 birds in captivity. To establish hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges and to look for differences relative to sex, age, and season, we obtained blood samples from 46 captive Spix's macaws (23 male, 23 female) housed in aviaries at the Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation in the State of Qatar. No significant differences in hematologic or plasma biochemical values were found between females and males. Adult and juvenile birds differed in mean concentrations of glucose, total protein, amylase, cholesterol, and phosphorus; in percentages of heterophils and lymphocytes; and in the absolute lymphocyte count. Total protein, cholesterol, and phosphorus concentrations; hematocrit; and heterophil and lymphocyte counts differed significantly by season. Baseline hematologic and plasma biochemical ranges were established, which may be useful as reference values for clinicians working with this highly endangered species. PMID:18351006

  11. What Determines the Ice Polymorph in Clouds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2016-07-20

    Ice crystals in the atmosphere nucleate from supercooled liquid water and grow by vapor uptake. The structure of the ice polymorph grown has strong impact on the morphology and light scattering of the ice crystals, modulates the amount of water vapor in ice clouds, and can impact the molecular uptake and reactivity of atmospheric aerosols. Experiments and molecular simulations indicate that ice nucleated and grown from deeply supercooled liquid water is metastable stacking disordered ice. The ice polymorph grown from vapor has not yet been determined. Here we use large-scale molecular simulations to determine the structure of ice that grows as a result of uptake of water vapor in the temperature range relevant to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds, elucidate the molecular mechanism of the formation of ice at the vapor interface, and compute the free energy difference between cubic and hexagonal ice interfaces with vapor. We find that vapor deposition results in growth of stacking disordered ice only under conditions of extreme supersaturation, for which a nonequilibrium liquid layer completely wets the surface of ice. Such extreme conditions have been used to produce stacking disordered frost ice in experiments and may be plausible in the summer polar mesosphere. Growth of ice from vapor at moderate supersaturations in the temperature range relevant to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds, from 200 to 260 K, produces exclusively the stable hexagonal ice polymorph. Cubic ice is disfavored with respect to hexagonal ice not only by a small penalty in the bulk free energy (3.6 ± 1.5 J mol(-1) at 260 K) but also by a large free energy penalty at the ice-vapor interface (89.7 ± 12.8 J mol(-1) at 260 K). The latter originates in higher vibrational entropy of the hexagonal-terminated ice-vapor interface. We predict that the free energy penalty against the cubic ice interface should decrease strongly with temperature, resulting in some degree of stacking disorder in ice grown from

  12. Occurrence of bacteria and biochemical markers on public surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kelly A; Watt, Pamela M; Boone, Stephanie A; Gerba, Charles P

    2005-06-01

    From 1999-2003, the hygiene of 1061 environmental surfaces from shopping, daycare, and office environments, personal items, and miscellaneous activities (i.e., gymnasiums, airports, movie theaters, restaurants, etc.), in four US cities, was monitored. Samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliform bacteria, protein, and biochemical markers. Biochemical markers, i.e., hemoglobin (blood marker), amylase (mucus, saliva, sweat, and urine marker), and urea (urine and sweat marker) were detected on 3% (26/801); 15% (120/801), and 6% (48/801) of the surfaces, respectively. Protein (general hygiene marker) levels > or = 200 microg/10 cm2 were present on 26% (200/801) of the surfaces tested. Surfaces from children's playground equipment and daycare centers were the most frequently contaminated (biochemical markers on 36%; 15/42 and 46%; 25/54, respectively). Surfaces from the shopping, miscellaneous activities, and office environments were positive for biochemical markers with a frequency of 21% (69/333), 21% (66/308), and 11% (12/105), respectively). Sixty samples were analyzed for biochemical markers and bacteria. Total and fecal coliforms were detected on 20% (12/60) and 7% (4/ 60) of the surfaces, respectively. Half and one-third of the sites positive for biochemical markers were also positive for total and fecal coliforms, respectively. Artificial contamination of public surfaces with an invisible fluorescent tracer showed that contamination from outside surfaces was transferred to 86% (30/ 35) of exposed individual's hands and 82% (29/35) tracked the tracer to their home or personal belongings hours later. Results provide information on the relative hygiene of commonly encountered public surfaces and aid in the identification of priority environments where contaminant occurrence and risk of exposure may be greatest. Children's playground equipment is identified as a priority surface for additional research on the occurrence of and potential exposure to infectious

  13. Esterase polymorphism marking cultivars of Manihot esculenta, Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gazoli Resende

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Esterase isozymes were used to detected substrate-preference polymorphism in twenty cultivars of Manihot esculenta, and to show cultivar-specific variation of this species. A relatively complex extraction solution of proteins from leaves was needed to show a larger number of esterase isozymes. Similarity between cultivars from six groups ranged from 51 to 96%. The cultivars identified by the same name seemed to be biochemically different regarding esterase isozymes. Esterase isozyme electrophoretic patterns could, therefore, be used to discriminate the cultivars identified by the same name, and to monitor the vegetative propagation of cultivars maintained in the germplasm collection. In breeding strategies, isoesterase analysis could be used to avoid intercrossing between the similar genotypes.Isoenzimas esterases foram usadas no presente estudo, para detectar polimorfismos específicos para diferentes substratos em vinte cultivares de Manihot esculenta, e para mostrar variações específicas de cultivares nesta espécie. Os diferentes cultivares de M. esculenta tem sido mantidos na coleção de germoplasma do Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Maringá, PR, e foram provenientes de cultivares tradicionais coletados nas regiões sudoeste e noroeste do Estado. Foi necessário a utilização de uma solução de extração de proteínas relativamente mais complexa, para evidenciar um maior número de isoenzimas esterases. A similaridade entre os cultivares variou de 51 a 96%. Cultivares identificados pelo mesmo nome parecem ser bioquimicamente diferentes para as isoenzimas esterases. Os padrões eletroforéticos das isoesterases podem, portanto, serem usados para discriminar os cultivares que são identificados pelo mesmo nome, e para monitorar a propagação vegetativa dos cultivares mantidos na coleção de germoplasma. A análise das isoesterases pode também ser usada para evitar cruzamentos entre genótipos mais

  14. The Development of a Biochemical Profile of Acacia Honey by Identifying Biochemical Determinants of its Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Alexandru MARGHITAS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Codex Alimentarius Standard, EU Legislation and National Standards state honey authenticity. Authenticity in respect of production (to prevent adulteration and authenticity in respect of geographical and botanical origin are the two main aspects of general honey authenticity. Quality of honey depends on the plant source, the chemical composition of these plants as well, as on the climatic conditions and soil mineral composition. Romanian acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia honey that came from the most important Transylvanian massif (Valea lui Mihai, Bihor County, Romania was evaluated for authenticity by pollen-analysis, several physico-chemical analyses, including sugar profile and mineral content. As polyphenolic content could be also an important factor for botanical authentification, HPLC-DAD-MS analyses were performed to assess the fingerprint of this important secondary plant metabolite. Statistical data were processed in order to develop a biochemical profile of this type of honey and the main quality categories identification. The results of physico-chemical analysis demonstrated that the tested honey samples could be framed into monofloral type of acacia honeys. The analysis of acacia honeys originating from Valea lui Mihai, Romania, showed that polyphenolic profile (phenolic acids and flavonoids could be used as a complementary method for authenticity determination together with pollen analysis and other physico-chemical analysis.

  15. Physiological and biochemical basis of salmon young ifshes migratory behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Martemyanov

    2016-01-01

    The review presents data on structural changes, physiological and biochemical reactions occurring at salmon young fishes during smoltification. It is shown, that young salmon fishes located in fresh water, in the process of smoltification undergo a complex of structural, physiological and biochemical changes directed on preparation of the organism for living in the sea. These changes cause stress reaction which excites young fishes to migrate down the river towards the sea. Measures to improve reproduction of young salmon fishes at fish farms are offered.

  16. From Monomorphic to Polymorphic Well-Typings and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Bruynooghe, Maurice; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2009-01-01

    the automatic inference of a well-typing is worthwhile. Existing inferences are either cheap and inaccurate, or accurate and expensive. By giving up the requirement that all calls to a predicate have types that are instances of a unique polymorphic type but instead allowing multiple polymorphic...

  17. Human lymphocyte polymorphisms detected by quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of 186 soluble lymphocyte proteins for genetic polymorphism was carried out utilizing two-dimensional electrophoresis of 14C-labeled phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human lymphocyte proteins. Nineteen of these proteins exhibited positional variation consistent with independent genetic polymorphism in a primary sample of 28 individuals. Each of these polymorphisms was characterized by quantitative gene-dosage dependence insofar as the heterozygous phenotype expressed approximately 50% of each allelic gene product as was seen in homozygotes. Patterns observed were also identical in monozygotic twins, replicate samples, and replicate gels. The three expected phenotypes (two homozygotes and a heterozygote) were observed in each of 10 of these polymorphisms while the remaining nine had one of the homozygous classes absent. The presence of the three phenotypes, the demonstration of gene-dosage dependence, and our own and previous pedigree analysis of certain of these polymorphisms supports the genetic basis of these variants. Based on this data, the frequency of polymorphic loci for man is: P . 19/186 . .102, and the average heterozygosity is .024. This estimate is approximately 1/3 to 1/2 the rate of polymorphism previously estimated for man in other studies using one-dimensional electrophoresis of isozyme loci. The newly described polymorphisms and others which should be detectable in larger protein surveys with two-dimensional electrophoresis hold promise as genetic markers of the human genome for use in gene mapping and pedigree analyses

  18. Polymorphisms in autophagy genes and susceptibility to tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Songane

    Full Text Available Recent data suggest that autophagy is important for intracellular killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and polymorphisms in the autophagy gene IRGM have been linked with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB among African-Americans, and with TB caused by particular M. tuberculosis genotypes in Ghana. We compared 22 polymorphisms of 14 autophagy genes between 1022 Indonesian TB patients and 952 matched controls, and between patients infected with different M. tuberculosis genotypes, as determined by spoligotyping. The same autophagy polymorphisms were studied in correlation with ex-vivo production of TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ and IL-17 in healthy volunteers. No association was found between TB and polymorphisms in the genes ATG10, ATG16L2, ATG2B, ATG5, ATG9B, IRGM, LAMP1, LAMP3, P2RX7, WIPI1, MTOR and ATG4C. Associations were found between polymorphisms in LAMP1 (p = 0.02 and MTOR (p = 0.02 and infection with the successful M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype. The polymorphisms examined were not associated with M. tuberculosis induced cytokines, except for a polymorphism in ATG10, which was linked with IL-8 production (p = 0.04. All associations found lost statistical significance after correction for multiple testing. This first examination of a broad set of polymorphisms in autophagy genes fails to show a clear association with TB, with M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype infection or with ex-vivo pro-inflammatory cytokine production.

  19. Defending Polymorphic Worms in Computer network using Honeynet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a defense mechanism in computer network using gate-translator, double honeynet, sticky honeypot and antivirus engine of CloudAV, which attracts polymorphic worms. An algorithm is proposed to detect and remove the polymorphic worms and innocuous traffic related packets. Future antivirus is implemented on logically detached unused system.

  20. Fc receptor gamma subunit polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the possible association between Fc receptor gamma polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We have investigated the full FcR gamma gene for polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand confirmational polymorphisms and DNA sequencing .The polymorphisms identified were genotype using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Systemic lupus erythematosus cases and controls were available from 3 ethnic groups: Turkish, Spanish and Caucasian. The study was conducted in the year 2001 at the Arthritis Research Campaign, Epidemiology Unit, Manchester University Medical School, Manchester, United Kingdom. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, 2 in the promoter, one in intron 4 and, 2 in the 3'UTR. Four of the 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were relatively common and investigated in the 3 populations. Allele and genotype frequencies of all 4 investigated SNPs were not statistically different cases and controls. fc receptor gamma gene does not appear to contribute to SLE susceptibility. The identified polymorphisms may be useful in investigating other diseases where receptors containing the FcR gamma subunit contribute to the pathology. (author)

  1. Risk assessment: the importance of genetic polymorphisms in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Knudsen, Lisbeth; Loft, Steffen; Autrup, Herman

    2. Some polymorphisms are effect modifiers, i.e. without exposure they have no consequence and the effect of exposure can appear independent of the genotype. Genetic polymorphisms in metabolism of environmental toxicants plays a significant role in exposures to traffic generated air pollution in...

  2. Association between Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Gene Polymorphism and Completed Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudalej, Sylwia; Ilgen, Mark; Fudalej, Marcin; Kostrzewa, Grazyna; Barry, Kristen; Wojnar, Marcin; Krajewski, Pawel; Blow, Frederic; Ploski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    The association between suicide and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1386483) was examined in the recently identified tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) gene. Blood samples of 143 suicide victims and 162 age- and sex-matched controls were examined. The frequency of the TT genotype in the TPH2 polymorphism was higher in suicide victims than in…

  3. IPD—the Immuno Polymorphism Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James; Halliwell, Jason A.; McWilliam, Hamish; Lopez, Rodrigo; Marsh, Steven G. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD), http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/ is a set of specialist databases related to the study of polymorphic genes in the immune system. The IPD project works with specialist groups or nomenclature committees who provide and curate individual sections before they are submitted to IPD for online publication. The IPD project stores all the data in a set of related databases. IPD currently consists of four databases: IPD-KIR, contains the allelic sequences of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors, IPD-MHC, a database of sequences of the major histocompatibility complex of different species; IPD-HPA, alloantigens expressed only on platelets; and IPD-ESTDAB, which provides access to the European Searchable Tumour Cell-Line Database, a cell bank of immunologically characterized melanoma cell lines. The data is currently available online from the website and FTP directory. This article describes the latest updates and additional tools added to the IPD project. PMID:23180793

  4. IPD--the Immuno Polymorphism Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James; Halliwell, Jason A; McWilliam, Hamish; Lopez, Rodrigo; Marsh, Steven G E

    2013-01-01

    The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD), http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/ is a set of specialist databases related to the study of polymorphic genes in the immune system. The IPD project works with specialist groups or nomenclature committees who provide and curate individual sections before they are submitted to IPD for online publication. The IPD project stores all the data in a set of related databases. IPD currently consists of four databases: IPD-KIR, contains the allelic sequences of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors, IPD-MHC, a database of sequences of the major histocompatibility complex of different species; IPD-HPA, alloantigens expressed only on platelets; and IPD-ESTDAB, which provides access to the European Searchable Tumour Cell-Line Database, a cell bank of immunologically characterized melanoma cell lines. The data is currently available online from the website and FTP directory. This article describes the latest updates and additional tools added to the IPD project. PMID:23180793

  5. Intronic polymorphisms of cytochromes P450

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingelman-Sundberg Magnus

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cytochrome P450 enzymes active in drug metabolism are highly polymorphic. Most allelic variants have been described for enzymes encoded by the cytochrome P450 family 2 (CYP2 gene family, which has 252 different alleles. The intronic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 genes account for only a small number of the important variant alleles; however, the most important ones are CYP2D6*4 and CYP2D6*41, which cause abolished and reduced CYP2D6 activity, respectively, and CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A5*5, common in Caucasian populations, which cause almost null activity. Their discoveries have been based on phenotypic alterations within individuals in a population, and their identification has, in several cases, been difficult and taken a long time. In light of the next-generation sequencing projects, it is anticipated that further alleles with intronic mutations will be identified that can explain the hitherto unidentified genetic basis of inter-individual differences in cytochrome P450-mediated drug and steroid metabolism.

  6. Polymorphic collaboration in the global grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuay, William K.

    2006-05-01

    Next generation collaborative systems must be able to represent the same information in different forms on a broad spectrum of devices and resources from low end personal digital assistants (PDA) to high performance computers (HPC). Users might be on a desktop then switch to a laptop and then to a PDA while accessing the global grid. The user preference profile for a collaboration session should be capable of moving with them as well as be automatically adjusted for the device type. Collaborative systems must be capable of representing the same information in many forms for different domains and on many devices and thus be polymorphic. Polymorphic collaboration will provide an ability for multiple heterogeneous resources (human to human, human to machine and machine to machine) to share information and activities, as well as the ability to regulate collaborative sessions based on client characteristics and needs; reuse user profiles, tool category choices, and settings in future collaboration session by same or different users; use intelligent agents to assist collaborative systems in learning user/resource preferences and behaviors, and autonomously derive optimal information to provide to users and decision makers. This paper discusses ongoing research in next generation collaborative environments with the goal of making electronic collaboration as easy to use as the telephone - collaboration at the touch of the screen.

  7. Kappa Casein Gene Polymorphism in Holstein Chinese Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Hamza1,*, X. L. Wang and Z. P.Yang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Kappa casein gene polymorphism has received a considerable attention because of its correlation with milk quality, composition and technological properties. The polymorphism of kappa casein gene (K-CN was detected in Holstein Chinese cattle. A 218 bp sequence in exon IV of 319 Holstein Chinese cattle blood samples were amplified using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation (PCR-SSCP technique. Sequence analysis revealed one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP T/C SNP in exon 1V at nucleotides (80, moreover; three genotypes TT, TC and CC were also identified with following frequencies: 0.40, 0.34 and 0.26%, respectively. The allele frequency for T and C found to be 0.6 and 0.4 %, respectively. Allele frequencies in the population fitted with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05. Analysis of genetic polymorphism of k-casein at exon 1V exhibited medium polymorphism information content (PIC=0.36.

  8. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA POLYMORPHISM IN CONTROL REGION FROM CHINESE YUGU POPULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新社; 李生斌

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphism sites in Chinese YUGU ethnic group and to provide basic data used in forensic purpose. Methods Genomic DNA was extracted from the hole blood of 100 unrelated individuals of Chinese YUGU ethnic group by standard chelex-100 method. The sequence polymorphism sites was determined by PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Results 54 polymorphic sites were noted in mtDNA np16091-16418 region, and 46 haplotypes were identified. The genetic diversity was calculated to be 0.9691, and the genetic identity was calculated to be 0.0406. Conclusion There are some particular polymorphism sites in Chinese YUGU ethnic group. The results suggest that sequence polymorphism from np16091-16418 in human mitochondrial DNA can be used as a biological marker for forensic identity.

  9. Genome-wide Association Study of Biochemical Traits in Korčula Island, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Lauc, Gordan; Janković, Stipan; Rotim, Krešimir; Vatavuk, Zoran; Benčić, Goran; Đogaš, Zoran; Boraska, Vesna; Torlak, Vesela; Sušac, Jelena; Zobić, Ivana; Rudan, Diana; Pulanić, Dražen; Modun, Darko; Mudnić, Ivana; Gunjača, Grgo; Budimir, Danijela; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Wright, Alan F.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Aim To identify genetic variants underlying biochemical traits – total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, albumin, and fibrinogen, in a genome-wide association study in an isolated population where rare variants of larger effect may be more easily identified. Methods The study included 944 adult inhabitants of the island of Korčula, as a part of a larger DNA-based genetic epidemiological study in 2007. Biochemical measurements were performed in a single laboratory with stringent internal and external quality control procedures. Examinees were genotyped using Human Hap370CNV chip by Illumina, with a genome-wide scan containing 346 027 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Results A total of 31 SNPs were associated with 7 investigated traits at the level of P < 1.00 × 10−5. Nine of SNPs implicated the role of SLC2A9 in uric acid regulation (P = 4.10 × 10−6-2.58 × 10−12), as previously found in other populations. All 22 remaining associations fell into the P = 1.00 × 10−5-1.00 × 10−6 significance range. One of them replicated the association between cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and HDL, and 7 associations were more than 100 kilobases away from the closest known gene. Nearby SNPs, rs4767631 and rs10444502, in gene kinase suppressor of ras 2 (KSR2) on chromosome 12 were associated with LDL cholesterol levels, and rs10444502 in the same gene with total cholesterol levels. Similarly, rs2839619 in gene PBX/knotted 1 homeobox 1 (PKNOX1) on chromosome 21 was associated with total and LDL cholesterol levels. The remaining 9 findings implied possible associations between phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) gene and total cholesterol; USP46, RAP1GDS1, and ZCCHC16 genes and triglycerides; BCAT1 and SLC14A2 genes and albumin; and NR3C2, GRIK2, and PCSK2 genes and fibrinogen. Conclusion Although this study was

  10. The Stereochemistry of Biochemical Molecules: A Subject to Revisit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centelles, Josep J.; Imperial, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    Although Fischer's convention for stereoisomers is useful for simple molecules, the stereochemistry of complex biochemical molecules is often poorly indicated in textbooks. This article reports on errors in stereochemistry of complex hydrosoluble vitamin B12 molecule. Twenty-five popular biochemistry textbooks were examined for their treatment of…

  11. A coupled mechano-biochemical model for bone adaptation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klika, Václav; Pérez, M. A.; García-Aznar, J. M.; Maršík, F.; Doblaré, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, 6-7 (2014), s. 1383-1429. ISSN 0303-6812 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : mechano-biochemical model * bone remodelling * BMU Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00285-013-0736-9

  12. Biochemical Pathways That Are Important for Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The regulatory mechanism that controls the sustained cotton fiber cell elongation is gradually being elucidated by coupling genome-wide transcriptome profiling with systematic biochemical and physiological studies.Very long chain fatty acids(VLCFA),H2O2,and several types of plant hormones

  13. Salvage Brachytherapy for Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer following Primary Brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, John M.; Wilson, William A.; Bole, Raevti; Chen, Li; Meigooni, Ali S.; Rowland, Randall G.; Clair, William H. St.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. In this study, we evaluated our experience with salvage brachytherapy after discovery of biochemical recurrence after a prior brachytherapy procedure. Methods and Materials. From 2001 through 2012 twenty-one patients treated by brachytherapy within University of Kentucky or from outside centers developed biochemical failure and had no evidence of metastases. Computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated; patients who had an underseeded portion of their prostate were considered for reimplantation. Results. The majority of the patients in this study (61.9%) were low risk and median presalvage PSA was 3.49 (range 17.41–1.68). Mean follow-up was 61 months. At last follow-up after reseeding, 11/21 (52.4%) were free of biochemical recurrence. There was a trend towards decreased freedom from biochemical recurrence in low risk patients (p = 0.12). International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) increased at 3-month follow-up visits but decreased and were equivalent to baseline scores at 18 months. Conclusions. Salvage brachytherapy after primary brachytherapy is possible; however, in our experience the side-effect profile after the second brachytherapy procedure was higher than after the first brachytherapy procedure. In this cohort of patients we demonstrate that approximately 50% oncologic control, low risk patients appear to have better outcomes than others. PMID:27092279

  14. BIOCHEMICAL AND NEUROPATHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF TRIPHENYL PHOSPHITE IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The putative neurotoxicity of the organophosphorus compound triphenyl phosphite (TPP) was examined in Long Evans, adult male rats. Animals were exposed to two 1.0 ml/kg (1184 mg/kg) injections (sc) of TPP spaced 1 week apart and sampled for biochemical and neuropathological exami...

  15. Integrating Carbon Nanotubes into Microfluidic Chip for Separating Biochemical Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    We present a new type of device to separate biochemical compounds wherein carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are integrated as chromatographic stationary phase. The CNTs were directly grown on the bottom of microfluidic channels on Si/SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetylene was used as...

  16. A MULTILAYER BIOCHEMICAL DRY DEPOSITION MODEL 2. MODEL EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The multilayer biochemical dry deposition model (MLBC) described in the accompanying paper was tested against half-hourly eddy correlation data from six field sites under a wide range of climate conditions with various plant types. Modeled CO2, O3, SO2<...

  17. A MULTILAYER BIOCHEMICAL DRY DEPOSITION MODEL 1. MODEL FORMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multilayer biochemical dry deposition model has been developed based on the NOAA Multilayer Model (MLM) to study gaseous exchanges between the soil, plants, and the atmosphere. Most of the parameterizations and submodels have been updated or replaced. The numerical integration ...

  18. Advances in Biochemical Screening for Phaeochromocytoma using Biogenic Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Malcolm J; Doogue, Matthew P

    2009-01-01

    Biochemical testing for phaeochromocytoma is performed in diagnostic laboratories using a variety of tests with plasma, serum or 24-hour urine collections. These tests include catecholamines and their methylated metabolites - the metanephrines, either individually or in combination with their sulfated metabolites. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) continues to be the dominant analytical method for biogenic amine quantitation. Chromatographic techniques are changing, with improveme...

  19. USE OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS AS BIOCHEMICAL REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) from the nation is managed predominantly in anitary landfills. ue to the physical, chemical and biological makeup f he aste he landfill acts as a biochemical reactor and degrades the organic matter. urrent practices are to use covers and liners as engi...

  20. Biosensors and bioelectronics on smartphone for portable biochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Diming; Liu, Qingjun

    2016-01-15

    Smartphone has been widely integrated with sensors, such as test strips, sensor chips, and hand-held detectors, for biochemical detections due to its portability and ubiquitous availability. Utilizing built-in function modules, smartphone is often employed as controller, analyzer, and displayer for rapid, real-time, and point-of-care monitoring, which can significantly simplify design and reduce cost of the detecting systems. This paper presents a review of biosensors and bioelectronics on smartphone for portable biochemical detections. The biosensors and bioelectronics based on smartphone can mainly be classified into biosensors using optics, surface plasmon resonance, electrochemistry, and near-field communication. The developments of these biosensors and bioelectronics on smartphone are reviewed along with typical biochemical detecting cases. Sensor strategies, detector attachments, and coupling methods are highlighted to show designs of the compact, lightweight, and low-cost sensor systems. The performances and advantages of these designs are introduced with their applications in healthcare diagnosis, environment monitoring, and food evaluation. With advances in micro-manufacture, sensor technology, and miniaturized electronics, biosensor and bioelectronic devices on smartphone can be used to perform biochemical detections as common and convenient as electronic tag readout in foreseeable future. PMID:26319170

  1. Biochemical correlates in an animal model of depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A valid animal model of depression was used to explore specific adrenergic receptor differences between rats exhibiting aberrant behavior and control groups. Preliminary experiments revealed a distinct upregulation of hippocampal beta-receptors (as compared to other brain regions) in those animals acquiring a response deficit as a result of exposure to inescapable footshock. Concurrent studies using standard receptor binding techniques showed no large changes in the density of alpha-adrenergic, serotonergic, or dopaminergic receptor densities. This led to the hypothesis that the hippocampal beta-receptor in responses deficient animals could be correlated with the behavioral changes seen after exposure to the aversive stimulus. Normalization of the behavior through the administration of antidepressants could be expected to reverse the biochemical changes if these are related to the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. This study makes three important points: (1) there is a relevant biochemical change in the hippocampus of response deficient rats which occurs in parallel to a well-defined behavior, (2) the biochemical and behavioral changes are normalized by antidepressant treatments exhibiting both serotonergic and adrenergic mechanisms of action, and (3) the mode of action of antidepressants in this model is probably a combination of serotonergic and adrenergic influences modulating the hippocampal beta-receptor. These results are discussed in relation to anatomical and biochemical aspects of antidepressant action

  2. Biochemical Characterization of Prion Strains in Bank Voles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romolo Nonno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prions exist as different strains exhibiting distinct disease phenotypes. Currently, the identification of prion strains is still based on biological strain typing in rodents. However, it has been shown that prion strains may be associated with distinct PrPSc biochemical types. Taking advantage of the availability of several prion strains adapted to a novel rodent model, the bank vole, we investigated if any prion strain was actually associated with distinctive PrPSc biochemical characteristics and if it was possible to univocally identify strains through PrPSc biochemical phenotypes. We selected six different vole-adapted strains (three human-derived and three animal-derived and analyzed PrPSc from individual voles by epitope mapping of protease resistant core of PrPSc (PrPres and by conformational stability and solubility assay. Overall, we discriminated five out of six prion strains, while two different scrapie strains showed identical PrPSc types. Our results suggest that the biochemical strain typing approach here proposed was highly discriminative, although by itself it did not allow us to identify all prion strains analyzed.

  3. Biochemical tests for diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma: urinary versus plasma determinations.

    OpenAIRE

    Plouin, P F; Duclos, J M; Menard, J; Comoy, E; Bohuon, C; Alexandre, J M

    1981-01-01

    Fifteen patients with hypertension due to phaeochromocytoma and 35 controls with essential hypertension were studied to assess the diagnostic value of urinary and plasma biochemical determinations in phaeochromocytoma. In every case of phaeochromocytoma the urinary concentration of vanillylmandelate, metanephrines, or adrenaline plus noradrenaline was diagnostic of the disease irrespective of whether the patient was normotensive or hypertensive at the time. Plasma determinations of adrenaline...

  4. Biochemical Importance of Glycosylation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Ann; Pedersen, Katrine Egelund; Skottrup, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    glycosylation sites could be excluded as explanation for the differential reactivity. The latency transition of non-glycosylated, but not of glycosylated PAI-1, was strongly accelerated by a non-ionic detergent. The different biochemical properties of glycosylated and non-glycosylated PAI-1 depended...

  5. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  6. Model Based Monitoring and Control of Chemical and Biochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    This presentation will give an overview of the work performed at the department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering related to process control. A research vision is formulated and related to a number of active projects at the department. In more detail a project describing model estimation and...

  7. [Experiments using rats on Kosmos biosatellites: morphologic and biochemical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, E A; Kaplanskiĭ, A S; Savina, E A

    1989-01-01

    Results of morphological and biochemical investigations of rats flown on Cosmos biosatellites are discussed. It is emphasized that most changes occurring during exposure to microgravity are directly or indirectly related to lower musculoskeletal loads which in turn produce deconditioning of different physiological systems and organism as a whole. It is concluded that this deconditioning is associated with both metabolic and structural changes. PMID:2685464

  8. MATLAB-Based Teaching Modules in Biochemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kilho; Comolli, Noelle K.; Kelly, William J.; Huang, Zuyi

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models play an important role in biochemical engineering. For example, the models developed in the field of systems biology have been used to identify drug targets to treat pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilms. In addition, competitive binding models for chromatography processes have been developed to predict expanded…

  9. Thermodynamically consistent Bayesian analysis of closed biochemical reaction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutsias John

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry from noisy time series measurements of molecular concentrations is an important step for building predictive models of cellular function. Inference techniques currently available in the literature may produce rate constant values that defy necessary constraints imposed by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics. As a result, these techniques may lead to biochemical reaction systems whose concentration dynamics could not possibly occur in nature. Therefore, development of a thermodynamically consistent approach for estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system is highly desirable. Results We introduce a Bayesian analysis approach for computing thermodynamically consistent estimates of the rate constants of a closed biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry given experimental data. Our method employs an appropriately designed prior probability density function that effectively integrates fundamental biophysical and thermodynamic knowledge into the inference problem. Moreover, it takes into account experimental strategies for collecting informative observations of molecular concentrations through perturbations. The proposed method employs a maximization-expectation-maximization algorithm that provides thermodynamically feasible estimates of the rate constant values and computes appropriate measures of estimation accuracy. We demonstrate various aspects of the proposed method on synthetic data obtained by simulating a subset of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling pathway, and examine its robustness under conditions that violate key assumptions. Software, coded in MATLAB®, which implements all Bayesian analysis techniques discussed in this paper, is available free of charge at http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS%20lab/software.html. Conclusions Our approach provides an attractive statistical methodology for

  10. Relationships between endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-zhi LIU; Hong YAN; Wei-kun HOU; Peng XU; Juan TUN; Li-fang TIAN; Bo-feng ZHU; Jie MA; She-min LU

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS) G894T and 27 bp-variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) gene polymorphisms and osteoporosis in the postmenopausal women of Chinese Han nationality. Methods: In the present study, 281 postmenopausal women from Xi'an urban area in West China were recruited, and divided into osteoporosis, osteopenia, and normal groups according to the diagnostic criteria of osteoporosis proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). The bone mineral density (BMD) values of lumbar vertebrae and left hips were determined by QDR-2000 dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood samples were tested for plasma biochemical indicators including testosterone, estradiol, calcitonin, osteocalcin, and procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase by spectrophotometric method, and the content of nitric oxide by Griess method. Genome DNA was extracted from whole blood, and G894T polymorphism of eNOS gene was analyzed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and 27 bp-VNTR polymorphism of eNOS gene was genotyped by PCR method. Then the relationships between genotypes and biochemical indicators, genotypes and osteoporosis, and haplotypes and osteoporosis were analyzed. Results: The average BMD values of the femoral neck, ward's triangle and lumbar vertebrae 1~4 (L1~L4) in the subjects with T/T genotype in eNOS G894T locus were significantly higher than those in the subjects with G/T and G/G genotypes (P<0.05). The average BMD of the femoral neck in the subjects with a/a genotype of eNOS 27 bp-VNTR locus was evidently higher than that in the subjects with b/b genotype (P<0.05). The plasma testosterone and osteocalcin concentrations in the subjects of eNOS G894T G/T genotype were evidently higher than those in the subjects of other genotypes (P<0.05); the plasma estradiol

  11. Association of the HindIII and S447X Polymorphisms in LPL Gene with Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Muñoz-Barrios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (LPL is a key enzyme in lipid metabolismand is associatedwith obesity, dyslipidemias, hypertension (HTN and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. LPL gene polymorphisms can be related with the development of cardiovascular risk factors. The present study was conducted to analyze the relationship of the HindIII and S447X polymorphisms in LPL gene with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican families. The study population comprised ninety members of 30 Mexican families, in which an index case had obesity, were included in the study. We evaluated the body composition by bioelectrical impedance. Peripheral blood samples were collected to determine biochemical parameters. Screening for both polymorphisms was made by PCR-RFLPs. In the parents, both polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg’s equilibrium. We found that the genotype T/T of HindIII was associated with diastolic blood pressure ≧ 85 mmHg (OR = 1.1; p = 0.011, whereas the genotype C/C of S447X was associated with systolic blood pressure ≧ 130 mmHg (OR = 1.2; p < 0.001, diastolic blood pressure ≧ 85 mmHg (OR = 1.3; p < 0.001, T2DM (OR = 1.3; p < 0.001 and with increase of total cholesterol (β = 23.6 mg/mL; p = 0.03. These data suggest that the HindIII and S447X LPL gene polymorphisms can confer susceptibility for the development of hypertension and T2DM in Mexican families.

  12. Analysis of selected glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms in Malaysian type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with and without cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemad, A; Vasudevan, R; Aziz, A F A; Yusof, A K M; Khazaei, S; Fawzi, N; Jamalpour, S; Arkani, M; Mohammad, N A; Ismail, P

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is believed to be associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms result in decreased or absent enzyme activity and altered oxidative stress, and have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The present study assessed the effect of GST polymorphisms on the risk of developing T2DM in individuals of Malaysian Malay ethnicity. A total of 287 subjects, consisting of 87 T2DM and 64 CVD/T2DM patients, as well as 136 healthy gender- and age-matched controls were genotyped for selected polymorphisms to evaluate associations with T2DM susceptibility. Genomic DNA was extracted using commercially available kits, and GSTM1, GSTT1, and α-globin sequences were amplified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Biochemical parameters were measured with a Hitachi autoanalyzer. The Fisher exact test, the chi-square statistic, and means ± standard deviations were calculated using the SPSS software. Overall, we observed no significant differences regarding genotype and allele frequencies between each group (P = 0.224 and 0.199, respectively). However, in the combined analysis of genotypes and blood measurements, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and triglyceride levels, followed by age, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and history of T2DM significantly differed according to GST polymorphism (P ˂ 0.05). Genetically induced absence of the GSTT1 enzyme is an independent and powerful predictor of premature vascular morbidity and death in individuals with T2DM, and might be triggered by cigarette smoking's oxidative effects. These polymorphisms could be screened in other ethnicities within Malaysia to determine further possible risk factors. PMID:27173202

  13. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  14. Investigation of transferrin polymorphism in Garole sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devesh K; Taraphder, Subhash; Sahoo, Ajit K; Dhara, K C

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genetics of polymorph systems of Transferrin in Garole sheep breed. The present study was conducted on 95 adult Garole sheep comprising 52 ewes and 43 rams, maintained at Sheep and Goat Breeding Farm of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, West Bengal, during the period from April-September, 2009. The polymorphism of transferrin was determined through SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique. It was found that the transferrin type was controlled by five codominant alleles (TfA, TfB, TfC TfD and TfE) in Garole sheep. These five alleles, because of co-dominant nature of inheritance, determined the occurrence of nine transferrin genotypes in the analyzed flock. Four (TfAA, TfBB, TfCC and TfDD) of these were homozygous and the remaining five (TfAD, TfBC, TfBD, TfCD and TfDE) heterozygous. It was found that the TfDD genotype (0.263) was predominant while TfDE genotype (0.042) was least common in the analyzed flock. Frequencies of other genotypes were as: TfCD(0.242), TfBD(0.126), TfCC(0.084), TfBB(0.074), TfAA(0.063), TfAD and TfBC (0.053 for each genotype ) in whole population. From the result it was found that in whole population combined, the heterozygotic genotypic frequency (0.516) was more than that of homozygotic genotypic frequency (0.484). Considerable variations were recognized in the frequencies of transferrin alleles. In the whole population frequencies of transferrin alleles were found to be TfA = 0.089, TfB = 0.163, TfC = 0.232, TfD = 0.495 and TfE = 0.021. Transferrin system has shown an absence of genetic equilibrium among the analyzed herd (chi2 value = 51.31). In conclusion, there were polymorphism in Transferrin types and the presence of differences among the frequencies of the five alleles by categories could be a source of genetic variation in Garole sheep. PMID:20349135

  15. Frequency of Polymorphism in Aromatase Enzyme Coding Gene with Prostate Cancer Risk in North Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Onsory

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A series of biochemical reactions are involved in the endogenous production of estrogens. Their final and rate-limiting step is catalyzed by aromatase belonging to the class XIX of cytochrome P450. CYP19 is a key enzyme for estrogen synthesis in males. It catalyzes the irreversible conversion of androstenedione and testosterone to estrone and estradiol-17β, respectively. Aromatase P450 is present in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-reproducing cells in which it is expressed. The effects of the resulting estrogens are mediated through the estrogen receptor. One of the most important polymorphism, is a C to T variation in exon 7 resulting in an Arg264Cys amino acid exchange, has been shown to be very common in Asia. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of CYP19 gene polymorphism with the prostate cancer risk among the studied population. Methods: PCR-RFLP analysis of CYP19 gene was on 100 prostate cancer patients and an equal number of matching controls. The data was analyzed using the computer software SPSS for windows (version 19. Results: The frequency of CT genotype was higher in patients (37% as compared to controls (21.2% and this incidence was statistically significant (OR, 2.10; 95 % CI, 1.02-4.34; P=0.044. Stratification of patients according to the risk factors, resulted in a slightly improved OR in individuals carrying CT compared to CC genotype (OR, 2.35 95% CI, 1.11-4.96; P=0.024. The TT genotype was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.16-2.50; P=0.519. Conclusion: It seems that CT genotype is more associated with cancer prostate compare with other genotypes. It appears to be an increased risk of prostate cancer associated with the Arg264Cys substitution in the CYP19 gene.

  16. Introduction to the polymorphic tracking code Fibre bundles, polymorphic Taylor types and "Exact tracking"

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; McIntosh, E

    2002-01-01

    This is a description of the basic ideas behind the ``Polymorphic Tracking Code'' or PTC. PTC is truly a ``kick code'' or symplectic integrator in the tradition of TRACYII, SixTrack, and TEAPOT. However it separates correctly the mathematical atlas of charts and the magnets at a structural level by implementing a ``restricted fibre bundle.'' The resulting structures allow backward propagation and recirculation, something not possible in standard tracking codes. Also PTC is polymorphic in handling real (single, double and even quadruple precision) and Taylor series. Therefore it has all the tools associated to the TPSA packages: Lie methods, Normal Forms, Cosy-Infinity capabilities, beam envelopes for radiation, etc., as well as parameter dependence on-the-fly. However PTC is an integrator, and as such, one must, generally, adhere to the Talman ``exactness'' view of modelling. Incidentally, it supports exact sector and rectangular bends as well. Of course, one can certainly bypass its integrator and the user i...

  17. Students' Ability to Organize Biochemical and Biochemistry-Related Terms Correlates with Their Performance in a Biochemical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Ryoichi

    2007-01-01

    Organization is believed to be related to understanding and memory. Whether this belief was applicable in biochemical education was examined about two years after students had experienced biochemistry classes in their first year. The ability of organizing information in biochemistry was judged from the number of correct links of 886 biochemical…

  18. H pylori seropositivity and cytokine gene polymorphisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuaki Saijo; Eiji Yoshioka; Tomonori Fukui; Mariko Kawaharada; Fumihiro Sata; Hirokazu Sato; Reiko Kishi

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the pro- and antiinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms, IL1B-511C/T,IL1B-31C/T, IL6-634C/G, TNF-1031T/C, TNF-857C/T, and IL10-1082A/G, interact with smoking and drinking habits to influence infection with H pylori.METHODS: The subjects were 410 Japanese transit company employees. C-reactive protein and conventional cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated. Serum anti-H pylori antibodies were measured. The genotypes of IL1B-511C/T, IL1B-31C/T, IL6-634C/G, TNF-1031T/C,TNF-857C/T, and IL10-1082A/G polymorphisms were determined by allelic discrimination using fluorogenic probes and a 5'nuclease assay.RESULTS: In gender- and age-adjusted logistic analyses,the subjects with TNF-857T/T had a significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for H pylori seropositivity (reference -857C/C; OR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.59, P = 0.007).After stratification according to smoking and drinking status, among never-smokers, the subjects with IL1B-511C/T had a significantly lower OR (reference -511C/C;OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.10-0.90, P = 0.032). Among drinkers in the 1-5 times/wk category, the subjects with IL1B-511T/T had a significantly lower OR (reference C/C; OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.16-0.95, P = 0.039), and the subjects with IL1B-31C/T and T/T had a significantly higher OR (reference C/C; C/T: OR = 2.59, 95% CI, P =0.042: 1.04-6.47; C/C: OR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.23-8.14,P = 0.017). Among current smokers, the subjects with IL6-634C/G had a significantly higher OR (reference C/C;OR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.13-4.58, P = 0.021). However,the interactions terms between the aforementioned genotypes and lifestyles were not statistically significant.CONCLUSION: Contrary to previous findings, the results herein suggest that the TNF-857T/T genotype may be protective against chronic infection with H pylori. Drinking and smoking habits may influence the effect of cytokine gene polymorphisms. Further studies are required to clarify the effects of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine

  19. Metal Ion Controlled Polymorphism of a Peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager; Jancso, Attila; Szunyogh, Daniel; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Christensen, Niels Johan; Gyurcsik, Bela

    2011-01-01

    In this work a metal ion binding model dodecapeptide was investigated in terms of its capacity to adopt different structures depending on the metal ion to peptide stoichiometry. The dodecapeptide is much simpler than real proteins, yet displays sufficient complexity to model the effect of metal...... ions on fully or partially unstructured proteins, or the effect of metal ions on protein aggregation. Metal ions may be employed to fold (or misfold) individual peptides in a controlled manner depending on the potential metal ion coordinating amino acid side chains (Cys, His, Asp, Glu, …) in the...... peptide, and the ligand and structural preferences of the metal ion (in our studies Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Cu+/2+). Simultaneously, new species such as metal ion bridged ternary complexes or even oligomers may be formed. In recent previous studies we have observed similar polymorphism of zinc finger model...

  20. New source of genetic polymorphisms in Lepidoptera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Wink, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The variability level of the ISSR (inter-simple sequences repeat) primer (GACA)4 was examined in the three Lepidoptera families Pyralidae, Sphingidae and Pieridae. Our study shows that the tetra-repeat (GACA)n is evidently present in sufficient numbers in these butterflies to provide informative DNA fingerprints. The variability is mostly rather high, but within a comparable range to other ISSR studies. Although less polymorphisms may be encountered in some butterfly families, this study indicates that high variability of this marker may be a common characteristic of Lepidoptera genomes. An appeal for a minimal level of standardization of ISSR-PCR data analysis is formulated to enable an exact comparison between the groups of organisms studied with this fingerprint technique. PMID:16163839

  1. Genetic polymorphism of immunogenic signaling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Tzygan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The functional studies underline the importance of maintaining structural integrity of the innate immune components of intracellular signaling. The molecular structures for a number of proteins and protein domains in immune signaling have been determined. These structures have assisted us in understanding innate immunity at the molecular level. A polymorphisms modulating innate immunity signal transduction has recently been shown to influence human susceptibility to many different infections, providing one more indication of the potential of host genetics to reveal physiological pathways and mechanisms that influence resistance to infectious diseases. This lection describes recently determined structures involved in TLR signaling.

  2. Theory of polymorphism in bacterial flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella swim using several flagella, each of which consists of a rotary motor, a universal joint known as the hook, and a helical filament which acts a propeller. The filament is normally left-handed in the absence of external stress, but undergoes mechanical phase transitions to other helical states ("polymorphs") in response to external torque. The filament is made of identical flagellin protein subunits which are organized into eleven protofilaments which wind around the filament. We develop an effective theory in which the flagellin subunits and their connections along the protofilaments are modelled with a double-well potential. A helical spring represents the other connections of the subunits, and introduces a twist-stretch coupling and an element of frustration in our model. We solve for the ground states and the phase diagram for filament shapes.

  3. Clinical Challenges in Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberti, Jacopo F; Underwood, Katherine; Mazzanti, Andrea; Priori, Silvia G

    2016-08-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an inheritable cardiac disorder associated with exercise- and stress-induced sudden death in young individuals. Although important steps forward have been made in the comprehension and treatment of this disease, several aspects remain unclear. Firstly, from an epidemiological standpoint the actual prevalence of CPVT is still unknown and possibly underestimated. In addition, the diagnostic process remains very challenging and can be supported by genetic analysis in only about half of the cases. Finally, up to one third of CPVT patients continue to present complex arrhythmias despite beta blocker treatment; the role of newer therapeutic options, such as flecainide and left cardiac sympathetic denervation, needs to be further elucidated. All these points constitute challenges for the cardiologist in the management of CPVT patients and fuel research into new diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:26948768

  4. HLA polymorphism in Sudanese renal donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer M Dafalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to provide a database for renal transplantation in Sudan and to determine the HLA antigens and haplotype frequencies (HFs in the study subjects. HLA typing was performed using the complement-dependant lymphocytotoxicity test in 250 unrelated healthy individuals selected as donors in the Sudanese Renal Transplantation Program. Considerable polymorphism was observed at each locus; A2 (0.28, A30 (0.12, A3 (0.09, A24 (0.09, A1 (0.09, and A68 (0.06 were the most frequent antigens in the A locus, while B51 (0.092, B41 (0.081, B39 (0.078, B57 (0.060, B35 (0.068, B 50 (0.053 and B 52 (0.051 were the most common B locus antigens. DR13 (0.444 and DR15 (0.160 showed the highest antigen frequencies (AFs in the DR locus. In the DQ locus, DQ1 showed the highest gene frequency (0.498, while DQ2 and DQ3 AFs were (0.185 and (0.238, respectively. The most common HLA-A and -B haplotypes in positive linkage disequilibrium were A24, B38; A1, B7; and A3, B52. The common HLA-A and -B HFs in positive linkage disequilibrium in the main three tribe-stocks of the study subjects (Gaalia, Nile Nubian and Johyna were A24, B38 for Gaalia; A24, B38 and A2, B7 for Johyna; and A2, B64 and A3, B53 for Nile Nubian. These results suggest that both class I and class II polymorphisms of the study subjects depict considerable heterogeneity, which reflects recent admixture of this group with neighboring Arabs and African populations.

  5. LIG1 polymorphisms: the Indian scenario

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Kumar Mitra; Ashok Singh; Indian Genome Variation Consortium; Srikanta Kumar Rath

    2014-08-01

    Elucidation of the genetic diversity and relatedness of the subpopulations of India may provide a unique resource for future analysis of genetic association of several critical community-specific complex diseases.We performed a comprehensive exploration of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the gene DNA ligase 1 (LIG1) among a multiethnic panel of Indian subpopulations representative of the ethnic, linguistic and geographical diversity of India using a two-stage design involving DNA resequencing-based SNP discovery followed by SNP validation using sequenom-based genotyping. Thirty SNPs were identified in LIG1 gene using DNA resequencing including three promoter SNPs and one coding SNP. Following SNP validation, the SNPs rs20580/C19008A and rs3730862/C8804T were found to have the most widespread prevalence with noticeable variations in minor allele frequencies both between the Indian subpopulation groups and also from those reported on other major world populations. Subsequently, SNPs found in Indian subpopulations were analysed using bioinformatics-based approaches and compared with SNP data available on major world populations. Further, we also performed genotype–phenotype association analysis of LIG1 SNPs with publicly available data on LIG1 mRNA expression in HapMap samples. Results showed polymorphisms in LIG1 affect its expression and may therefore change its function. Our results stress upon the uniqueness of the Indian population with respect to the worldwide scenario and suggest that any epidemiological study undertaken on the global population should take this distinctiveness in consideration and avoid making generalized conclusions.

  6. Polymorphism and polymerisation of acrylic and methacrylic acid at high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oswald, Iain D. H.; Urquhart, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The polymorphism and polymerisation of two related acids have been investigated under high pressure conditions. Acrylic acid crystallises as a new polymorph at 0.65 GPa whilst methacrylic acid crystallises in a new polymorph at a higher pressure of 1.5 GPa. Both these new polymorphs exhibit similar...

  7. sY116, a human -linked polymorphic STS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Mustafa Saifi; Reiner Veitia; Houssein Khodjet El Khil; Sandrine Barbaux; Preetha Tilak; I. Manorama Thomas; Marc Fellous

    2000-04-01

    During a study of deletions of Y-chromosomal DNA in infertile males, sY116, a Y-linked STS, showed different electrophoretic mobilities in three males, two infertile and one fertile. A study of this STS among 35 other normal males showed that this locus is polymorphic. sY116 has a poly A-rich stretch whose instability appears to be the most likely cause of this polymorphism. The possible usefulness of sY116 polymorphism in the detection of subtle genome-wide instabilities in some types of cancer is discussed.

  8. Polymorph identification studies on cocoa butter from Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this study was to analyzed and examined the cocoa butter samples from Sabah. This work presence the crystal phases present in cocoa butter sample thus proved the existence of polymorph obtained from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cocoa butter samples were extracted using a conventional method by Soxhlet Extraction method. Crystals were formed under controlled static and tempered conditions. Cocoa butter polymorphism demonstrates that it is the actual crystallization temperature, not the cooling rate that determines the polymorph that crystallizes. (author)

  9. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2084 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table. 158.2084 Section 158.2084 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2084 Experimental use permit biochemical...

  11. Association of adenylyl cyclase 6 rs3730070 polymorphism and hemolytic level in patients with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cita, Kizzy-Clara; Ferdinand, Séverine; Connes, Philippe; Brudey, Laura; Tressières, Benoit; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Lemonne, Nathalie; Tarer, Vanessa; Elion, Jacques; Romana, Marc

    2016-05-01

    A recent study suggested that adenosine signaling pathway could promote hemolysis in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA). This signaling pathway involves several gene coding enzymes for which variants have been described. In this study, we analyzed the genotype-phenotype relationships between functional polymorphisms or polymorphisms associated with altered expression of adenosine pathway genes, namely adenosine deaminase (ada; rs73598374), adenosine A2b receptor (adora2b; rs7208480), adenylyl cyclase6 (adcy6; rs3730071, rs3730070, rs7300155), and hemolytic rate in SCA patients. One hundred and fifty SCA patients were genotyped for adcy6, ada, and adora2b variants as well as alpha-globin gene, a genetic factor known to modulate hemolytic rate. Hematological and biochemical data were obtained at steady-state. Lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, reticulocytes and total bilirubin were used to calculate a hemolytic index. Genotype-phenotype relationships were investigated using parametric tests and multivariate analysis. SCA patients carrying at least one allele of adcy6 rs3730070-G exhibited lower hemolytic rate than non-carriers in univariate analysis (p=0.006). The presence of adcy6 rs3730070-G variant was associated with a decreased hemolytic rate in adjusted model for age and alpha-thalassemia (p=0.032). Our results support a protective effect of adcy6 rs3730070-G variant on hemolysis in SCA patients. PMID:27067484

  12. The modulatory influence of the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism on lexical decisions and semantic priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reuter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the prefrontal Cortex (PFC in higher cognitive functions - including working memory, conflict resolution, set shifting and semantic processing - has been demonstrated unequivocally. Despite the great heterogeneity among tasks measuring these phenotypes, due in part to the different cognitive sub-processes implied and the specificity of the stimulus material used, there is agreement that all of these tasks recruit an executive control system located in the PFC. On a biochemical level it is known that the dopaminergic system plays an important role in executive control functions. Evidence comes from molecular genetics relating the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism to working memory and set shifting. In order determine whether this pattern of findings generalises to linguistic and semantic processing, we investigated the effects of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in lexical decision making using masked and unmasked versions of the semantic priming paradigm on N=104 healthy subjects. Although we observed strong priming effects in all conditions (masked priming, unmasked priming with short/long stimulus asynchronies (SOAs, direct and indirect priming, COMT was not significantly related to masked priming, suggesting no reliable influence on semantic processing. However, COMT Val158Met was strongly associated with lexical decision latencies in all priming conditions if considered separately, explaining between 9 to 14.5 % of the variance. Therefore, the findings indicate that COMT mainly influences more general executive control functions in the PFC supporting the speed of lexical decisions.

  13. Relationship of metabolic syndrome and its components with -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Cruz-Mosso Ulises

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several association studies have shown that -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms are related with increase of PAI-1 levels, obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms in PAI-1 gene and its association with metabolic syndrome and its components in a sample of Mexican mestizo children. Methods This study included 100 children with an age range between 6-11 years divided in two groups: a 48 children diagnosed with metabolic syndrome and b 52 children metabolically healthy without any clinical and biochemical alteration. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of the following criteria: fasting glucose levels ≥ 100 mg/dL, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol th percentile, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 95th percentile and insulin resistance HOMA-IR ≥ 2.4. The -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Results For the -844 G/A polymorphism, the G/A genotype (OR = 2.79; 95% CI, 1.11-7.08; p = 0.015 and the A allele (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.10-4.43; p = 0.015 were associated with metabolic syndrome. The -844 G/A and A/A genotypes were associated with increase in plasma triglycerides levels (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.16 to 6.04; p = 0.02, decrease in plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.06 to 5.42; p = 0.03 and obesity (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.17-5.92; p = 0.01. The C/G and G/G genotypes of the HindIII C/G polymorphism contributed to a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol levels (179 vs. 165 mg/dL; p = 0.02 in comparison with C/C genotype. Conclusions The -844 G/A PAI-1 polymorphism is related with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia, and the HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphism was associated with the

  14. Constructive effects of fluctuations in genetic and biochemical regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Ralf; Zhou, Changsong; Kurths, Jürgen

    2003-12-01

    Biochemical and genetic regulatory systems that involve low concentrations of molecules are inherently noisy. This intrinsic stochasticity has received considerable interest recently, leading to new insights about the sources and consequences of noise in complex systems of genetic regulation. However, most prior work was devoted to the reduction of fluctuation and the robustness of cellular function with respect to intrinsic noise. Here, we focus on several scenarios in which the inherent molecular fluctuations are not merely a nuisance, but act constructively and bring about qualitative changes in the dynamics of the system. It will be demonstrated that in many typical situations biochemical and genetic regulatory systems may utilize intrinsic noise to their advantage. PMID:14643492

  15. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Emnova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the intensity of certain soil biochemical processes (e.g. soil organic C mineralization at Organic and mixed Mineral+Organic fertilization of typical chernozem in crop rotation dynamics (for 6 years by use of eco-physiological indicators of biological soil quality: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, as well as, microbial and metabolic quotients. Soil sampling was performed from a long-term field crop experiment, which has been established in 1971 at the Balti steppe (Northern Moldova. The crop types had a more considerable impact on the soil microbial biomass accumulation and community biochemical activity compared to long-term Organic or mixed Mineral + Organic fertilizers amendments. The Org fertilization system doesn’t make it possible to avoid the loss of organic C in arable typical chernozem. The organic fertilizer (cattle manure is able to mitigate the negative consequences of long-term mineral fertilization.

  16. Overview of the DOE/SERI Biochemical Conversion Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J D

    1986-09-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute manages a program of research and development on the biochemical conversion of renewable lignocellulosic materials to liquid fuels for the Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division. The Biochemical Conversion Program is mission oriented so effort is concentrated on technologies which appear to have the greatest potential for being adopted by the private sector to economically convert lignocellulosic materials into high value liquid transportation fuels such as ethanol. The program is structured to supply the technology for such fuels to compete economically first as an octane booster or fuel additive, and, with additional improvements, as a neat fuel. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Electrolyte-Gated Graphene Ambipolar Frequency Multipliers for Biochemical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wangyang; Feng, Lingyan; Mayer, Dirk; Panaitov, Gregory; Kireev, Dmitry; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-13

    In this Letter, the ambipolar properties of an electrolyte-gated graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) have been explored to fabricate frequency-doubling biochemical sensor devices. By biasing the ambipolar GFETs in a common-source configuration, an input sinusoidal voltage at frequency f applied to the electrolyte gate can be rectified to a sinusoidal wave at frequency 2f at the drain electrode. The extraordinary high carrier mobility of graphene and the strong electrolyte gate coupling provide the graphene ambipolar frequency doubler an unprecedented unity gain, as well as a detection limit of ∼4 pM for 11-mer single strand DNA molecules in 1 mM PBS buffer solution. Combined with an improved drift characteristics and an enhanced low-frequency 1/f noise performance by sampling at doubled frequency, this good detection limit suggests the graphene ambipolar frequency doubler a highly promising biochemical sensing platform. PMID:26928906

  18. Development of a biochemical switching device: mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, M

    1990-01-01

    There are many examples of enzymes that share substrates or cofactors in a cyclic manner. Techniques have been developed that use cyclic enzyme systems to assay quantitatively small amounts of biochemical substances (cofactor, substrate), however, only a few studies of the control of these systems have been published. The author previously showed with computer simulations that cyclic enzyme systems have the reliability of ON-OFF types of operation (McCulloch-Pitts' neuronic equation) and the applicability for a switching circuit in a biocomputer. The switching time was inevitably determined in accordance with the difference in amount between two inputs of the system. A unique switching mechanism of cyclic enzyme systems (basic switching element) and the effects of excitatory stimuli on switching properties of the integrated biochemical switching system are demonstrated. PMID:2082931

  19. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  20. The free energy cost of accurate biochemical oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yuansheng; Ouyang, Qi; Tu, Yuhai

    2015-01-01

    Oscillation is an important cellular process that regulates timing of different vital life cycles. However, in the noisy cellular environment, oscillations can be highly inaccurate due to phase fluctuations. It remains poorly understood how biochemical circuits suppress phase fluctuations and what is the incurred thermodynamic cost. Here, we study four different types of biochemical oscillations representing three basic oscillation motifs shared by all known oscillatory systems. We find that the phase diffusion constant follows the same inverse dependence on the free energy dissipation per period for all systems studied. This relationship between the phase diffusion and energy dissipation is shown analytically in a model of noisy oscillation. Microscopically, we find that the oscillation is driven by multiple irreversible cycles that hydrolyze the fuel molecules such as ATP; the number of phase coherent periods is proportional to the free energy consumed per period. Experimental evidence in support of this un...

  1. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae: a morphological and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873 from Lake Valencia (type locality and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis. In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacustrine populations refered to Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 by several authors correspond in shell characters to an extreme variant of B. prona from the Lake and really belong to the last*mentioned species. They may be regarded as the result of a process of directional selection favoring a shell phenotype other than those making up the modal class in the Lake.

  2. Fruit developmental stages effects on biochemical attributes in date palm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some date palm cultivars grown in Pakistan were biochemically characterized and the effect of fruit maturity on radical scavenging capacity (DPPH), total phenolic contents (TPC), specific activity of antioxidant enzymes, sugars profile and soluble protein contents was assessed. Higher range of differences in composition of studied phytochemicals was recorded among different cultivars. Antiradical efficiency (AE), TPC, antioxidant enzymes and soluble protein contents were recorded higher at khalal stage thereafter, declined at rutab then finally at tamar stage. The amount of glucose (11.32-32.50%) and fructose (10.95-32.41%) started accumulation from khalal stage and were in higher composition at tamar stage due to hydrolysis and inversion of sucrose (10.82-3.1%) contents. The results concluded that variation in biochemical attributes primarily influenced by type of cultivars and different fruit developmental stages. (author)

  3. Association of Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis in a Chinese Population: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is a chronic and slowly progressive cholestatic liver disease characterized by destruction of the interlobular bile ducts and a striking female predominance. The aim of this study was to identify associations between estrogen receptor (ESR gene polymorphisms with the risk of developing PBC and abnormal serum liver tests in a Chinese population. Methods: Thirty-six patients with PBC (case group and 35 healthy individuals (control group from the First Hospital of Jilin University were studied. Whole genomic DNA was extracted from all the participants. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2234693, rs2228480, and rs3798577 from ESR1 and two (rs1256030 and rs1048315 from ESR2 were analyzed by a pyrosequencing method. Demographic data and liver biochemical data were collected. Results: Subjects with the T allele at ESR2 rs1256030 had 1.5 times higher risk of developing PBC than those with the C allele (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1277, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1872-4.5517. Haplotypes TGC of ESR1 rs2234693, rs2228480, and rs3798577 were risk factors for having PBC. The C allele at ESR1 rs2234693 was associated with abnormal alkaline phosphatase (OR = 5.2469, 95% CI = 1.3704-20.0895 and gamma-glutamyl transferase (OR = 3.4286, 95% CI = 1.0083-13.6578 levels in PBC patients. Conclusions: ESR2 rs1256030 T allele may be a significant risk factor for the development of PBC. Screening for patients with gene polymorphisms may help to make early diagnoses in patients with PBC.

  4. Biochemical Characterization of Rice Somaclones Resistant to Blast

    OpenAIRE

    Antar N. El-Banna; Ismael A. Khatab

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to produce rice somaclones resistant to P. oryza that could be useful to improve rice plants against blast disease and use them in the future breeding programs. In addition, to detect biochemical changes among somaclones and their original cultivars. Mature embryo-derived calli of the three susceptible rice varieties, Sakha 101, Sakha 104 and Riho were stressed with different concentrations of fungal toxin filtrate. Blast-resistant lines of rice were developed...

  5. Biochemical and antigenic properties of Streptococcus bovis isolated from pigeons.

    OpenAIRE

    De Herdt, P; Haesebrouck, F; DEVRIESE, L.A.; Ducatelle, R.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical and serological properties of 60 strains of Streptococcus bovis isolated from healthy pigeons and from pigeons that died from S. bovis septicemia were determined. On the basis of the hemolysis of bovine erythrocytes, the production of polysaccharides on saccharose-containing media, and the fermentation of mannitol, inulin, trehalose, and L-arabinose, the isolates were classified in five biotypes and two subbiotypes. Slide agglutination and microagglutination tests using monospecif...

  6. Morphologic and biochemical studies of canine mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    OpenAIRE

    Shull, R M; Helman, R. G.; Spellacy, E.; Constantopoulos, G.; Munger, R. J.; Neufeld, E F

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the necropsy and biochemical findings on the first dog to die with alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency (mucopolysaccharidosis I, MPS I). Gross pathologic features, light- and electron-microscopic findings, and tissue enzyme, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and sphingolipid levels are compared with the human disease counterpart and the previously described feline model. Results lend further support for the similarities of the canine disease and human MPS I.

  7. Biochemical Analyses of Sorghum Varieties Reveal Differential Responses to Drought

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwuma C Ogbaga; Piotr Stepien; Dyson, Beth C.; Nicholas J W Rattray; Ellis, David I.; Royston Goodacre; Johnson, Giles N.

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the biochemical responses of two sorghum cultivars of differing drought tolerance, Samsorg 17 (more drought tolerant) and Samsorg 40 (less drought tolerant), to sustained drought. Plants were exposed to different degrees of drought and then maintained at that level for five days. Responses were examined in terms of metabolic changes and the expression of drought induced proteins - Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) and dehydrins (DHNs). Generalised phenotypic changes were studied usi...

  8. Molecular and biochemical studies on bovine ephemeral fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed S. Thabet; Emad W. Ghazy; Mohamed A. Nayel; Mohamed Abo-Elkhair

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF in cattle has been reported to be associated with a range of biochemical changes which are similar to those seen in milk fever. This study aimed to clarify the biochemical alterations that associate infection of cattle with BEF with special references to the mechanisms involved in the development of hypocalcemia. The study was conducted on 30 cases of cattle infected with BEF based on the characteristic clinical signs which were confirmed by isolation of virus and RT-PCR. Another 6 healthy cows were used in the study as control. The evaluated parameters included biochemical variables such as serum values of total protein (TP, albumin (Alb, glucose (Glu, total calcium (tCa, ionized calcium (iCa, inorganic phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chloride (Cl, creatinine (Cr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Hormonal profile included parathyroid hormone (PTH, insulin (Ins, and cortisol (Cor. The results showed that BEF-infected animals demonstrated a significant decrease (P<0.05 in serum concentrations of TP, Glo, iCa, P, Na, K, BUN and ALP while the mean values of serum levels of Glu and Cl were significantly increased (P<0.05. The mean values of serum levels of PTH were significantly decreased (P<0.05 while serum concentrations of Ins and Cor showed a significant increase. It was concluded that the clinical signs of bovine ephemeral fever are related to the hypocalcemia resulting from suppression of parathyroid hormone which seems to be mediated by respiratory alkalosis caused by the disease. This explanation needs future studies to provide a direct link between measurement of blood indicators of acid-base status, blood biochemical parameters and urine analysis. However, this work can provide a good knowledge about the pathogenesis of the disease that can lead to better management and proper treatment.

  9. Optical methods for monitoring physiological and biochemical variables

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, John; Rea, Philip; Dr. Philip Rea

    1986-01-01

    The use of optical methods for performing non-invasive physiological and biochemical monitoring has been investigated, with particular emphasis on the application of near-infrared spectrophotocetry for following changes in the redox state of cytochrome oxidase. Initial studies of the gross optical properties of in vivo tissue were made using an image intensifier. These demonstrated that some light is transmitted through biological tissues and that such material is very hi...

  10. Biochemical assays for the discovery of TDP1 inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, Christophe; Huang, Shar-yin N.; Dexheimer, Thomas S.; Lea, Wendy A.; Mott, Bryan T.; Chergui, Adel; Naumova, Alena; Stephen, Andrew G.; Rosenthal, Andrew S.; Rai, Ganesha; Murai, Junko; Gao, Rui; Maloney, David J.; Jadhav, Ajit; Jorgensen, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Drug screening against novel targets is warranted to generate biochemical probes and new therapeutic drug leads. Tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterases 1 and 2 (TDP1 and TDP2) are two DNA repair enzymes that have yet to be successfully targeted. TDP1 repairs topoisomerase I-, alkylation-, and chain terminator-induced DNA damage, while TDP2 repairs topoisomerase II-induced DNA damage. Here we report the quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Reposit...

  11. Accelerated maximum likelihood parameter estimation for stochastic biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daigle Bernie J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for the mechanistic simulation of a biochemical system is detailed knowledge of its kinetic parameters. Despite recent experimental advances, the estimation of unknown parameter values from observed data is still a bottleneck for obtaining accurate simulation results. Many methods exist for parameter estimation in deterministic biochemical systems; methods for discrete stochastic systems are less well developed. Given the probabilistic nature of stochastic biochemical models, a natural approach is to choose parameter values that maximize the probability of the observed data with respect to the unknown parameters, a.k.a. the maximum likelihood parameter estimates (MLEs. MLE computation for all but the simplest models requires the simulation of many system trajectories that are consistent with experimental data. For models with unknown parameters, this presents a computational challenge, as the generation of consistent trajectories can be an extremely rare occurrence. Results We have developed Monte Carlo Expectation-Maximization with Modified Cross-Entropy Method (MCEM2: an accelerated method for calculating MLEs that combines advances in rare event simulation with a computationally efficient version of the Monte Carlo expectation-maximization (MCEM algorithm. Our method requires no prior knowledge regarding parameter values, and it automatically provides a multivariate parameter uncertainty estimate. We applied the method to five stochastic systems of increasing complexity, progressing from an analytically tractable pure-birth model to a computationally demanding model of yeast-polarization. Our results demonstrate that MCEM2 substantially accelerates MLE computation on all tested models when compared to a stand-alone version of MCEM. Additionally, we show how our method identifies parameter values for certain classes of models more accurately than two recently proposed computationally efficient methods

  12. BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN ZINC DEFICIENT SHEEP ASSOCIATED BY HYPERLACTATEMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hafez El-Far

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples from diseased and clinically healthy Balady sheep of both sexes were collected and subjected for biochemical analysis of serum glucose, fructosamine, lactate, growth hormone, insulin, creatine phosphokinase, Lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase. The obtained results revealed a significant decrease in serum zinc and growth hormone were stated. In contrary, serum glucose and lactate, insulin, CPK, LDH and aldolase were significantly increased statically. While, fructosamine levels w...

  13. Postharvest biochemical and textural characteristics of sh2 sweetcorn cobs

    OpenAIRE

    Smyrniotaki, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The determination of storage conditions leading to optimum quality attributes and extended postharvest life of sweetcorn is essential. The increased consumption and consequently the need for greater consumer satisfaction have resulted in the introduction of supersweet sweetcorn. The present study, aimed to report on the effects of various postharvest factors on biochemical and texture-related characteristics of supersweet sweetcorn cultivars as current knowledge is still incomp...

  14. Supplementation with carnitine for weight loss: a biochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henry Osorio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a molecule involved in transporting activated fatty acids among different cellular compartments, which is mostlikely present in all animal species, and in numerous microorganisms and plants. Recently the trend in the field of weightcontrol is to include carnitine in the diet as an agent responsible for weight loss. In the present review, some findings arediscussed from a biochemical point of view to illustrate if the use of carnitine for weight loss can be considered fiction orreality.

  15. Specialization of Biochemical Oxygen Demand for Surface Water and Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    F.M. Nurul; Z.Z. Abdul Rahman; A.N. Norizan

    2011-01-01

    Pollution of rivers is attributed to point and non-point sources and marine pollution originates mainly from land-based sources. Therefore in order to control the quality of the water a few parameters have been chosen as the index for determining the water pollution. Amongst the parameters, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, (BOD) is one of the most important and frequently used parameters for estimating the level of water pollution. BOD measures the amount of oxygen consumed by microorganism to util...

  16. Novel Biochemical Markers of Psychosocial Stress in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Asberg; Ake Nygren; Rosario Leopardi; Gunnar Rylander; Ulla Peterson; Lukas Wilczek; Håkan Källmén; Mirjam Ekstedt; Torbjörn Akerstedt; Mats Lekander; Rolf Ekman

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prolonged psychosocial stress is a condition assessed through self-reports. Here we aimed to identify biochemical markers for screening and early intervention in women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL) 1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thyroid stimulating hormone (T...

  17. Biological and biochemical properties in evaluation of forest soil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Błońska Ewa; Lasota Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using biological and biochemical parameters in the evaluation of forest soil quality and changes caused by land use. The study attempted to determine a relationship between the enzymatic activity of soil, the number of earthworms and soil physico-chemical properties. The study was carried out in central Poland in adjoining Forest Districts (Przedbórz and Smardzewice). In soil samples taken from 12 research plots, basic physico-chem...

  18. Biochemical Studies in Some Indigenous Dye Yielding Plants of Manipur

    OpenAIRE

    Joylani D. SAIKHOM; Jekendra S. SALAM; Kumar S. POTSHANGBAM; Manabendra D. Choudhury; Haripriya D. MAIBAM

    2013-01-01

    Ten natural dye yielding and two mordant plants were biochemically analyzed. Though natural dyes are widely used, information about the active principles responsible for dyeing is hardly available. In the present experiment, total chlorophyll, carotinoids, tannins, phenolics, flavonoids and curcumin were determined among the dye yielding plants, while K, S, P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu and Co were determined in the case of mordant plants. In Bixa orellana, used for yellow dyeing, the carotinoid ...

  19. Finite time thermodynamic coupling in a biochemical network

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Anjan Kr

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes some thermodynamic constrains and relations in biochemical or metabolic network and provides a basis for entropy enthalpy compensation. Conventional definition of macroscopic forces and fluxes leads to a paradox namely, non-existence of positive efficiency of a chemically driven process. This paradox is resolved by deriving an appropriate definition of macroscopic force using the local balance equations. Entropy enthalpy compensation, whose thermodynamic basis is so far un...

  20. Antibiogram, Biochemical Reactions and Biotyping of Biofield Treated Providencia rettgeri

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Providencia rettgeri (P. rettgeri) is the key organism for gastrointestinal tract infections due to its high virulence properties. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on P. rettgeri in lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, and biotype number. The lyophilized strain of P. rettgeri (ATCC 9250) was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.)...

  1. Biochemical Changes During Seed Germination of Sterculia urens Roxb.

    OpenAIRE

    Botcha SATYANARAYANA; Prattipati Subhashini DEVI; Atluru ARUNDATHI

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes biochemical changes taking place during seed germination of Sterculia urens. The levels of proteins, total amino acids, reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and lipids were studied during various stages of seed germination (0-15 days). Total protein content was decreased in cotyledons during seed germination while free amino acid content increased to its maximum extent by 9th day of germination and reverse trend thereafter. The levels of reducing sugars and total ...

  2. Sensitivity analysis for computational models of biochemical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Maj,

    2014-01-01

    Systems biology is an integrated area of science which aims at the analysis of biochemical systems using an holistic perspective. In this context, sensitivity analysis, a technique studying how the output variation of a computational model can be associated to its input state plays a pivotal role. In the thesis it is described how to properly apply the different sensitivity analysis techniques according to the specific case study (i.e., continuous deterministic rather than discrete stochastic...

  3. Reduction of dynamical biochemical reactions networks in computational biology

    OpenAIRE

    Radulescu, O.; Gorban, A.N.; Zinovyev, A.; Noel, V.

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical networks are used in computational biology, to model mechanistic details of systems involved in cell signaling, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Parametric and structural uncertainty, as well as combinatorial explosion are strong obstacles against analyzing the dynamics of large models of this type. Multiscaleness, an important property of these networks, can be used to get past some of these obstacles. Networks with many well separated time scales, can be reduced to...

  4. The role of configurational entropy in biochemical cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusuf, Sutjano; Loll, Patrick J; Axelsen, Paul H

    2002-04-10

    Cooperativity is a common biochemical phenomenon in which two or more otherwise independent processes are thermodynamically coupled. Because cooperative processes are usually attended by changes in molecular conformation, thermodynamic coupling is usually attributed to an enthalpy-driven mechanism. In the family of glycopeptide antibiotics that includes vancomycin, however, cooperative phenomena occur that cannot be explained by conformational change. In this communication, we demonstrate that cooperativity in these systems can arise solely from changes in vibrational activity. PMID:11929222

  5. Integrating Carbon Nanotubes into Microfluidic Chip for Separating Biochemical Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; BØGGILD, Peter; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a new type of device to separate biochemical compounds wherein carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are integrated as chromatographic stationary phase. The CNTs were directly grown on the bottom of microfluidic channels on Si/SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetylene was used as carbon source and Ni was employed as catalyst. For electrokinetic separations, higher electrical field strength is usually required; therefore, the CNTs were constructed in pillar-array-form by patte...

  6. Clinical laboratory evaluation of the automicrobic system Enterobacteriaceae biochemical card.

    OpenAIRE

    J.R. Davis; Stager, C E; Wende, R D; Qadri, S M

    1981-01-01

    The AutoMicrobic System Enterobacteriaceae Biochemical Card (AMS-EBC; Vitek Systems, Inc.) was evaluated in two clinical microbiology laboratories. A total of 502 consecutive clinical isolates representing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were tested in parallel with the AMS-EBC, API 20E, and Enterotube II systems. Discrepancies between systems were resolved with the conventional methods of Edwards and Ewing (P. R. Edwards and W. H. Ewing [ed.], Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, 1...

  7. Prognostic Significance of Various Biochemical Parameters in Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Sumathi, M. E.; Kumar, S. Harish; Shashidhar, K N; Takkalaki, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are a heterogeneous group of insecticides widely used in agricultural industry. These OP compounds are likely to have more adverse effects in developing countries like India due to its easy availability and less awareness which results in high morbidity and mortality. Aims and objectives: 1. To estimate plasma cholinesterase, amylase, lipase and, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in acute OP poisoning. 2. To correlate these biochemical parameters with pl...

  8. Automatising the analysis of stochastic biochemical time-series

    OpenAIRE

    Caravagna, Giulio; De Sano, Luca; Antoniotti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Mathematical and computational modelling of biochemical systems has seen a lot of effort devoted to the definition and implementation of high-performance mechanistic simulation frameworks. Within these frameworks it is possible to analyse complex models under a variety of configurations, eventually selecting the best setting of, e.g., parameters for a target system. Motivation This operational pipeline relies on the ability to interpret the predictions of a model, often represented...

  9. Biochemical analyses of sorghum varieties reveal differential responses to drought

    OpenAIRE

    Ogbaga, C.C.; Stepien, P.; Dyson, B.C.; Rattray, N.J.W.; Ellis, D.I.; Goodacre, R.; Johnson, G. N.

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the biochemical responses of two sorghum cultivars of differing drought tolerance, Samsorg 17 (more drought tolerant) and Samsorg 40 (less drought tolerant), to sustained drought. Plants were exposed to different degrees of drought and then maintained at that level for five days. Responses were examined in terms of metabolic changes and the expression of drought induced proteins - Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) and dehydrins (DHNs). Generalised phenotypic changes were studied usi...

  10. Biochemical Analyses of Sorghum Varieties Reveal Differential Responses to Drought

    OpenAIRE

    Ogbaga, Chukwuma C.; Stepien, Piotr; Dyson, Beth C.; Nicholas J W Rattray; Ellis, David I.; Goodacre, Royston; Johnson, Giles N.

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the biochemical responses of two sorghum cultivars of differing drought tolerance, Samsorg 17 (more drought tolerant) and Samsorg 40 (less drought tolerant), to sustained drought. Plants were exposed to different degrees of drought and then maintained at that level for five days. Responses were examined in terms of metabolic changes and the expression of drought induced proteins—Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) and dehydrins (DHNs). Generalised phenotypic changes were studied using...

  11. ADVANCES ON BILINEAR MODELING OF BIOCHEMICAL BATCH PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ MARTÍNEZ, JOSÉ MARÍA

    2015-01-01

    [EN] This thesis is aimed to study the implications of the statistical modeling approaches proposed for the bilinear modeling of batch processes, develop new techniques to overcome some of the problems that have not been yet solved and apply them to data of biochemical processes. The study, discussion and development of the new methods revolve around the four steps of the modeling cycle, from the alignment, preprocessing and calibration of batch data to the monitoring of batches trajectories....

  12. Nanoplasmonics: From biochemical sensors to surface enhanced spectroscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Adam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonics is a field connected to optics dealing with the properties and applications of surface plasmons which are modes of metal dielectric interfaces. Nanoplasmonics concerns the excitation, manipulation and detection of the surface plasmons at the nanometric scale. It has highly potential applications for ultrasensitive biochemical sensing. Surface enhanced spectroscopies are the ultimate sensor tools as they can reach single molecule sensitivity. We will present in this paper our results towards the realization of highly controllable and reproducible nanoplasmonics substrates.

  13. Polyphenol oxidase as a biochemical seed defense mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Fuerst, E. Patrick; Okubara, Patricia A.; Anderson, James V.; Morris, Craig F.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), when wild oat (Avena fatua L.) caryopses and seeds...

  14. Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Children and Adolescents Applying Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    O Hendy; M Abou Salem; G Abdel Rasoul; D Rohlman; A. Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Background: The primary agricultural product in Egypt is the cotton crop. Children and adolescents work seasonally in the cotton fields applying pesticides.Objectives: To examine the effect of pesticide exposure on clinical and biochemical parameters in children and adolescents applying pesticides.Methods: Male children currently applying pesticides and aged between 9 and 19 years (n = 50) were recruited for this study. They were asked to complete work, health, and exposure questionnaires; ex...

  15. Axonal tubulin and axonal microtubules: biochemical evidence for cold stability

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Nerve extracts containing tubulin labeled by axonal transport were analyzed by electrophoresis and differential extraction. We found that a substantial fraction of the tubulin in the axons of the retinal ganglion cell of guinea pigs is not solubilized by conventional methods for preparation of microtubules from whole brain. In two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis this cold-insoluble tubulin was biochemically distinct from tubulin obtained from whole brain microtubules prepared b...

  16. Biochemical functionalization of silicon dioxide surfaces for sensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Römhildt, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to functionalize silicon dioxide surfaces with biochemical molecules in such a way that biorecognition of target molecules in solution will be possible. By introducing a tool set of different molecules and characterization methods, a more universal approach towards various biosensor setups is presented. This includes on the one hand preparation of the biosensor surfaces to allow further molecule attachment via their reactive functional groups. Secondly, the select...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2050 - Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides human health... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2050 Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. (a) General....

  18. 40 CFR 158.2040 - Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides residue data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2040 Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to...

  19. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General. (1)...

  1. 40 CFR 158.2060 - Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides nontarget... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2060 Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate...

  2. Discovering Reliable Sources of Biochemical Thermodynamic Data to Aid Students' Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Me´ndez, Eduardo; Cerda´, María F.

    2016-01-01

    Students of physical chemistry in biochemical disciplines need biochemical examples to capture the need, not always understood, of a difficult area in their studies. The use of thermodynamic data in the chemical reference state may lead to incorrect interpretations in the analysis of biochemical examples when the analysis does not include relevant…

  3. Endothelial cells and cathepsins: Biochemical and biomechanical regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Manu O; Shockey, W Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Cathepsins are mechanosensitive proteases that are regulated not only by biochemical factors, but are also responsive to biomechanical forces in the cardiovascular system that regulate their expression and activity to participate in cardiovascular tissue remodeling. Their elastinolytic and collagenolytic activity have been implicated in atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysms, and in heart valve disease, all of which are lined by endothelial cells that are the mechanosensitive monolayer of cells that sense and respond to fluid shear stress as the blood flows across the surfaces of the arteries and valve leaflets. Inflammatory cytokine signaling is integrated with biomechanical signaling pathways by the endothelial cells to transcribe, translate, and activate either the cysteine cathepsins to remodel the tissue or to express their inhibitors to maintain healthy cardiovascular tissue structure. Other cardiovascular diseases should now be included in the study of the cysteine cathepsin activation because of the additional biochemical cues they provide that merges with the already existing hemodynamics driving cardiovascular disease. Sickle cell disease causes a chronic inflammation including elevated TNFα and increased numbers of circulating monocytes that alter the biochemical stimulation while the more viscous red blood cells due to the sickling of hemoglobin alters the hemodynamics and is associated with accelerated elastin remodeling causing pediatric strokes. HIV-mediated cardiovascular disease also occurs earlier in than the broader population and the influence of HIV-proteins and antiretrovirals on endothelial cells must be considered to understand these accelerated mechanisms in order to identify new therapeutic targets for prevention. PMID:26458976

  4. Importance of Biochemical Markers in Postmenopausal and Senile Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Evcik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the biochemical markers are widely used in order to evaluate the bone turnover. This study was planned to investigate the role of biochemical markers and Bone Mineral Density(BMD in postmenopausal (PMO and senile osteoporosis (SO patients. A total of 86 patients( 44 PMO, 42 SO, ages ranged between 39-79 were included in this study. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and osteocalcin levels were determined from blood samples. Urinary deoxypyridinoline(Dpd and creatinine(cr concentration were examined and the ratio of Dpd/cr was calculated. Also BMD of the patients were measured from L1-L4 and proximal femur and t score were determined. There was no statistical difference in ALP levels between two groups. Osteocalcine and Dpd/cr levels were statistically increased in PMO group(p<0.001. According to BMD t score which was measured from proximal femur was significantly higher in SO patients(p<0.05. Our results show that biochemical markers are useful for the assessment of high-turnover osteoporosis.

  5. Biochemical and biomedical applications of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for future medical diagnosis and therapy. Various types of nanoparticles have been extensively studied for numerous biochemical and biomedical applications. Magnetic nanoparticles are well-established nanomaterials that offer controlled size, ability to be manipulated by an external magnetic field, and enhancement of contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, these nanoparticles could have many applications including bacterial detection, protein purification, enzyme immobilization, contamination decorporation, drug delivery, hyperthermia, etc. All these biochemical and biomedical applications require that these nanoparticles should satisfy some prerequisites including high magnetization, good stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Because of the potential benefits of multimodal functionality in biomedical applications, in this account highlights some general strategies to generate magnetic nanoparticle-based multifunctional nanostructures. After these magnetic nanoparticles are conjugated with proper ligands (e.g., nitrilotriacetate), polymers (e.g., polyacrylic acid, chitosan, temperature- and pH-sensitive polymers), antibodies, enzymes, and inorganic metals (e.g., gold), such biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles exhibit many advantages in biomedical applications. In addition, the multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles have been widely applied in biochemical fields including enzyme immobilization and protein purification.

  6. Relationship between cellular response models and biochemical mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most cellular response experiments, survival reflects the kinetics of a variety of damage and repair processes. Unfortunately, biochemical studies of molecular repair deal with mechanisms which cannot be readily correlated with these kinetic observations. The difference in these approaches sometimes leads to confusion over terms such as potentially-lethal and sublethal damage. These terms were introduced with operation definitions, derived from kinetic studies of cell survival, but some researchers have since attempted to associate them with specific biochemical mechanisms. Consequently, the terms are often used in totally different ways be different investigators. The use of carefully constructed models originating either out of assumptions based on mechanisms, or on kinetics, can be used to design experiments to eliminate some alternative kinetic schemes. In turn, some mechanisms may also be eliminated, resulting in a reduction in the number of mechanisms which must be investigated biochemically. One must take advantage of a wide range of specialized radiation procedures in order to accomplish this. Examples of the use of such specialized experimental designs, which have led to a more detailed understanding of the kinetics of both algal and mammalian cell responses, are discussed

  7. Modelling biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuanling; Burrage, Kevin; Chen, Luonan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we gave a new framework for modelling and simulating biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection not in a heuristic way but in a mathematical way. The model is computationally efficient compared with the discrete-state Markov chain approach, and it ensures that both analytic and numerical solutions remain in a biologically plausible region. Specifically, our model mathematically ensures that species numbers lie in the domain D, which is a physical constraint for biochemical reactions, in contrast to the previous models. The domain D is actually obtained according to the structure of the corresponding chemical Langevin equations, i.e., the boundary is inherent in the biochemical reaction system. A variant of projection method was employed to solve the reflected stochastic differential equation model, and it includes three simple steps, i.e., Euler-Maruyama method was applied to the equations first, and then check whether or not the point lies within the domain D, and if not perform an orthogonal projection. It is found that the projection onto the closure D¯ is the solution to a convex quadratic programming problem. Thus, existing methods for the convex quadratic programming problem can be employed for the orthogonal projection map. Numerical tests on several important problems in biological systems confirmed the efficiency and accuracy of this approach. PMID:26920245

  8. BIOCHEMICAL NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF LIVER CIRRHOSIS PATIENTS WITH HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zanatta PORT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Liver cirrhosis patients with hepatocellular carcinoma present nutritional alterations and metabolic disorders that negatively impact the prognosis. Objective The objective is to identify alterations in the metabolism of macro and micronutrients among liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma and their relation to the Child-Turcote-Pugh score and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Methods Analytical transversal study, with 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 48 liver cirrhosis patients. Laboratorial exams were carried out. The existence of an association between the biochemical parameters and the disease severity as well as the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was assessed. Results The metabolic-nutritional profile of liver cirrhosis patients caused by the hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma showed alterations, specifically the lipid (total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, protein (albumin, creatinine and uric acid, iron (transferrin, iron and ferritin saturation, hematocrit and hemoglobin, zinc and B12 vitamin profiles. There is a relation between nutritional biochemical markers and the Child-Turcote-Pugh, as well as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Conclusions Considering the existence of alterations in the metabolism of nutrients in liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma, and also that conventional nutritional assessment methods present limitations for this population, the biochemical laboratorial exams are valid to complement the diagnosis of the nutritional state in a quick and practical manner.

  9. Studies on some biochemical parameters in viral hepatitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation deals with studying liver amino transferases (ALT. AST). Cholesterol and triglycerides. As well as testosterone and protection hormones in blood of Egyptian men infected with hepatitis C virus.hepatitis B virus and mixed B and C viruses. These biochemical parameters were evaluated to be used in diagnosis and prognosis of viral hepatitis. Which considered the most important health problem in Egypt and developing countries. Biochemical analysis were performed using spectrophotometric and radioimmunoassay techniques. All data will be subjected to statistical analysis in order to detect the most suitable biochemical analysis that can be used as specific tests for early diagnosis of viral hepatitis and to detect the parameters that show abnormalities among the different groups of infected patients. The data revealed that AST and ALT levels were increased in all patient groups. Concerning the level of triglycerides, it was increased only in the group of mixed viral hepatitis B and C, while cholesterol showed non-significant changes in all viral hepatitis groups. The sex hormone testosterone was decreased in all infected patients while the prolactin level was increased only in case of patients infected with mixed B and C viruses. However, these abnormal values in such sex hormones play a serious role in male sterility

  10. Effect of Different Psychoactive Substances on Serum Biochemical Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Dilek Beker; Bilici, Rabia; Suner, Ozgur; Citak, Serhat; Kartkaya, Kazim; Mutlu, Fezan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychoactive substances affect mainly central nervous system and brain function causing changes in behavior. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different psychoactive substances on serum biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: The study included 324 drug dependents, and 69 controls. The patient group was determined according to DSM-IV (The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition) criteria. All patients and control subjects were tested for routine biochemical parameters and urine toxicology parameters for psychoactive substance use. Cases and controls with accompanying diseases like diabetes, cancer, metabolic disorders etc. are excluded from the study. Moreover, an association between urine toxicology results and changes in biochemical parameters was evaluated for statistical significance. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), uric acid, creatinine, urea, albumin, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) medians between the dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). We found a statistically significant difference in sodium and albumin levels between the opium-dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). In the benzodiazepin dependent group, we found a significant difference in GGT, urea, glucose, sodium, T protein, and AST levels (P < 0.05). Moreover, a statistically significant difference was observed in triglyceride and GGT levels between the ethyl glucuronide and control groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In psychoactive substance dependents, serum routine biochemistry parameters can be used to predict the need for intensive monitoring and treatment programs. PMID:26405680

  11. Biochemical Characterization of Hypothetical Proteins from Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Pil Choi

    Full Text Available The functional characterization of Open Reading Frames (ORFs from sequenced genomes remains a bottleneck in our effort to understand microbial biology. In particular, the functional characterization of proteins with only remote sequence homology to known proteins can be challenging, as there may be few clues to guide initial experiments. Affinity enrichment of proteins from cell lysates, and a global perspective of protein function as provided by COMBREX, affords an approach to this problem. We present here the biochemical analysis of six proteins from Helicobacter pylori ATCC 26695, a focus organism in COMBREX. Initial hypotheses were based upon affinity capture of proteins from total cellular lysate using derivatized nano-particles, and subsequent identification by mass spectrometry. Candidate genes encoding these proteins were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins were purified and characterized biochemically and their biochemical parameters compared with the native ones. These proteins include a guanosine triphosphate (GTP cyclohydrolase (HP0959, an ATPase (HP1079, an adenosine deaminase (HP0267, a phosphodiesterase (HP1042, an aminopeptidase (HP1037, and new substrates were characterized for a peptidoglycan deacetylase (HP0310. Generally, characterized enzymes were active at acidic to neutral pH (4.0-7.5 with temperature optima ranging from 35 to 55°C, although some exhibited outstanding characteristics.

  12. ASSESMENT OF BIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF PRAECITRULLUS FISTULOSUS TREATED WITH MUTAGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehreen Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are well known to have certain primary and secondary metabolites collectively are known as biochemicals that plays an important role for human health as their medicinal properties. The aim of present study was to enhance and evaluate biochemical profile of Praecitrullus fistulosus by induced mutagenesis to cause genetic variations, plant leaves were treated with different chemical and physical mutagens. Colchicine and Ethidium bromide were used as chemical mutagens. While Ultraviolet (UV rays and X- rays were used as physical mutagens for the treatment of seeds. After the eleventh week of their growth, methanol extracts of dried leaves were prepared and further analyzed for the estimation of biochemicals. It was observed that total carbohydrates, total Proteins, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, reducing power, ascorbic Acid  and Chlorophyll a, were found significantly (p<0.05 higher in Colchicine 0.02% treated plants, while reducing sugars were significantly (p<0.05  increases in Colchicine 0.01% treated plants as compared to control plants. Total flavonoids, total flavonol, Chlorophyll b and Carotenoids were increases significantly (p<0.05 in plants treated with 0.05% Ethidium bromide while tannin content was increased significantly (p<0.05 in 0.10% Ethidium bromide treated plants as compared to the  control plants.

  13. Design of a biochemical circuit motif for learning linear functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Matthew R; Minnich, Amanda; Lane, Terran; Stefanovic, Darko

    2014-12-01

    Learning and adaptive behaviour are fundamental biological processes. A key goal in the field of bioengineering is to develop biochemical circuit architectures with the ability to adapt to dynamic chemical environments. Here, we present a novel design for a biomolecular circuit capable of supervised learning of linear functions, using a model based on chemical reactions catalysed by DNAzymes. To achieve this, we propose a novel mechanism of maintaining and modifying internal state in biochemical systems, thereby advancing the state of the art in biomolecular circuit architecture. We use simulations to demonstrate that the circuit is capable of learning behaviour and assess its asymptotic learning performance, scalability and robustness to noise. Such circuits show great potential for building autonomous in vivo nanomedical devices. While such a biochemical system can tell us a great deal about the fundamentals of learning in living systems and may have broad applications in biomedicine (e.g. autonomous and adaptive drugs), it also offers some intriguing challenges and surprising behaviours from a machine learning perspective. PMID:25401175

  14. Polyphenol Oxidase as a Biochemical Seed Defense Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, when wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea, non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems.

  15. Hematological and Biochemical Responses of the Flowerhorn Fish to Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakanit Kupittayanant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematological and biochemical responses of the flowerhorn fish (Amphilophus trimaculatus x Amphilophus citrinelllus x Vieja synspilum and their surviving strategies to hypoxia were investigated. Male and female flowerhorn fish were divided into five groups. Each group contained tree replications of five groups and was exposed to hypoxia by the substitution of nitrogen for oxygen for 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. Blood sample was collected from the caudal vein and physiological-biochemical blood parameters analyzed. The results showed that hypoxia caused a significant increase in ventilation rate. Hematological parameters including red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration were significantly increased in fish exposed to hypoxia whereas mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration remained the same. In addition, hypoxia caused significant increases in serum glucose, alanine amino-transferase, aspartate amino-transferase, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen. However, cholesterol and creatinine were significantly decreased. The effects of hypoxia on those parameters occurred in a time dependent manner. Changes in hematological parameters fully recovered after 1 week oxygen replenishment whereas biochemical parameters slowly returned to control levels. These suggest that acute hypoxia in the flowerhorn fish up to 48 h can affect physiology functions as indicated by changes in hematological and biological parameters. Alteration of most physiological functions can be restored by repayment of oxygen debt. The results also suggest that the flowerhorn fish coped with hypoxic condition by using both energy saving strategies and by attempting to increase the oxygen extraction capacity.

  16. Considerations on the biochemical composition of some freshwater zooplankton species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta RICCARDI

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The mean elemental (C, H, N and biochemical composition (lipids, carbohydrates and proteins of some abundant crustacean zooplankton species of Italian insubric lakes has been estimated by the analysis of samples collected at different seasons from various environments (Lake Maggiore, Lake Varese, Lake Comabbio, Lake Monate. From each sample an adequate number of specimens of each abundant species was sorted and analyzed by a CHN elemental analyzer. The percentage of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and the calorific content were calculated from the elemental composition according to Gnaiger & Bitterlich (1984. Inter- and intraspecific variability of biochemical composition was quite high, while elemental composition and calorific content were less variable. An estimate of the mean elemental and biochemical composition of each species was obtained by pooling the data. These mean values have been used to estimate the pools of elements and compounds in the crustacean zooplankton of Lake Comabbio to provide an example of the importance of a multiple approach in zooplankton studies.

  17. Relationships between plasma leptin levels, leptin G2548A, leptin receptor Gln223Arg polymorphisms and gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Peng, Songxu; Li, Wei; Wan, Zhihua; Fan, Linlin; Du, Yukai

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine concentrations of leptin and biochemical parameters in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) individuals, and also to explore the links of leptin (LEP) G2548A and leptin receptor (LEPR) Gln223Arg polymorphisms with leptin levels and GDM risk among Chinese. Our study included 357 GDM and 355 NGT individuals who were at 24~30 gestational weeks. Plasma leptin and insulin levels were analyzed by ELISA. Gene polymorphisms were genotyped using TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The results showed that plasma leptin levels were significantly higher in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) group than NGT group (34.35 (26.54, 56.48) ng/mL vs 26.31 (17.99, 37.87) ng/mL, P  0.05). Our findings showed that high leptin level was associated with GDM. And larger and more rigorous researches were needed to further explore the association of LEP and LEPR gene polymorphisms and GDM among Chinese population. PMID:27034205

  18. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (−786T>C) and Endothelin-1 (5665G>T) Gene Polymorphisms as Vascular Dysfunction Risk Factors in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas-Boas, Wendell; Figueiredo, Camylla V. B.; Pitanga, Thassila N.; Carvalho, Magda O. S.; Santiago, Rayra P.; Santana, Sânzio S.; Guarda, Caroline C.; Zanette, Angela M. D.; Cerqueira, Bruno A. V.; Gonçalves, Marilda S.

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients have vascular complications, and polymorphisms in endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genes were associated with ET-1 and nitric oxide disturbance. We investigate the association of ET-1 5665G>T and eNOS −786T>C polymorphisms with soluble adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1), biochemical markers, and medical history. We studied 101 SCA patients; carriers of eNOS minor allele (C) had the highest levels of sVCAM-1, and carriers of ET-1 minor allele had more occurrence of acute chest syndrome (ACS). The multivariate analysis suggested the influence of the ET-1 gene on ACS outcome and an association of the eNOS gene with upper respiratory tract infection. We suggest that eNOS and ET-1 gene polymorphisms can influence SCA pathophysiology and that eNOS variant in SCA patients might be important to nitric oxide activity and vascular alteration. We found an association of the ET-1 minor allele in ACS, showing the importance of genetic screening in SCA. PMID:27486304

  19. Association study of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrera, Noa; Arrojo, Manuel; Sanjuán, Julio;

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies using several hundred thousand anonymous markers present limited statistical power. Alternatively, association studies restricted to common nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) have the advantage of strongly reducing the multiple testing problem...

  20. Polymorphism of exon 3 of the HLA-G gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T V; Meldgaard, Michael; Sørensen, S;

    1997-01-01

    HLA-G is a non-classical MHC class I gene with a limited tissue distribution. The most pronounced expression is detected in the cytotrophoblast of first trimester placenta. It is possible to detect mRNA for HLA-G in preimplantation blastocysts where expression is correlated with a high cleavage...... rate of embryos. HLA-G seems to play an important role in the feto-maternal relationship. The polymorphism of the HLA-G locus is not fully clarified. One study has shown extensive nucleotide sequence variation in the exon 3 (alpha-2 domain) in healthy African Americans. A few studies in other...... populations have only revealed a limited polymorphism. We investigated the polymorphism of the exon 3 of HLA-G by means of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP)- and DNA sequencing analysis in a Danish population. We detected four single-base substitutions in exon 3...

  1. [Study of Chloroplast DNA Polymorphism in the Sunflower (Helianthus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markina, N V; Usatov, A V; Logacheva, M D; Azarin, K V; Gorbachenko, C F; Kornienko, I V; Gavrilova, V A; Tihobaeva, V E

    2015-08-01

    The polymorphism of microsatellite loci of chloroplast genome in six Helianthus species and 46 lines of cultivated sunflower H. annuus (17 CMS lines and 29 Rf-lines) were studied. The differences between species are confined to four SSR loci. Within cultivated forms of the sunflower H. annuus, the polymorphism is absent. A comparative analysis was performed on sequences of the cpDNA inbred line 3629, line 398941 of the wild sunflower, and the American line HA383 H. annuus. As a result, 52 polymorphic loci represented by 27 SSR and 25 SNP were found; they can be used for genotyping of H. annuus samples, including cultural varieties: twelve polymorphic positions, of which eight are SSR and four are SNP. PMID:26601486

  2. Association of Interleukin-4 Receptor Gene Polymorphism with Chronic Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Khoshhal; J. Moradi Haghgoo; Torkzaban, P.; S.R. Arabi; F. Vafaee; M. Hajiloie; B. Pourmoradi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease in which host immune system and genetic factors have an important role in its pathogenesis. Genetic polymorphisms in cytokines and their receptors have been proposed as potential markers for periodontal diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether IL-4R gene polymorphism is associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) or not? Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study ninety non smoker patients (61 wom...

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of complement component 5 and periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    L. Chai; Zee, KY; Song, YQ; Leung, WK

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Polymorphisms of host defence genes might increase one's risks for periodontitis. This study investigated whether tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene encoding complement component 5 (C5) are associated with periodontitis in a Hong Kong Chinese population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven tagging SNPs of 229 patients with at least moderate periodontitis and 207 control subjects without periodontitis were genotyped using an i-plexGOLD MassARRAY mass-...

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease: the role of inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Owen P. Smith; Nasir Mahmud; Weir, Donald G.; Lesley Mynett-Johnson; Judith Conroy; Livingstone, Wendy J; Joanna Balding

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have not been fully elucidated, although the main cause of disease pathology is attributed to up-regulated inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of polymorphisms in genes encoding pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in IBD patients and controls. We determined genotypes of patients with IBD (n= 172) and healthy controls (n= 389) for polymorphisms in genes encoding va...

  5. Association of a transcription factor 21 gene polymorphism with hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    FUJIMAKI, TETSUO; OGURI, MITSUTOSHI; HORIBE, HIDEKI; KATO, KIMIHIKO; MATSUOKA, REIKO; Abe, Shintaro; TOKORO, FUMITAKA; ARAI, MASAZUMI; Noda, Toshiyuki; WATANABE, SACHIRO; YAMADA, YOSHIJI

    2014-01-01

    Various loci and genes that confer susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD) have been identified mainly in Caucasian populations by genome-wide association studies (GWASs). As hypertension is a major risk factor for CAD, certain polymorphisms may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to CAD through affecting the predisposition to hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine a possible association of hypertension with 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously ...

  6. Comprehensive polymorphism survey elucidates population structure of S. cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Schacherer, Joseph; Shapiro, Joshua A.; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive identification of polymorphisms among individuals within a species is essential both for studying the genetic basis of phenotypic differences and for elucidating the evolutionary history of the species. Large-scale polymorphism surveys have recently been reported for human1, mouse2, and Arabidopsis thaliana3. Here we report a nucleotide-level survey of genome variation in a diverse collection of 63 S. cerevisiae strains sampled from different ecological niches (beer, bread, vine...

  7. Sensory Polymorphism and Behavior: When Machine Vision Meets Monkey Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Tajima, Satohiro

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism in the peripheral sensory system (e.g., congenital individual differences in photopigment configuration) is important in diverse research fields, ranging from evolutionary biology to engineering, because of its potential relationship to the cognitive and behavioral variability among individuals. However, there is a gap between the current understanding of sensory polymorphism and the behavioral variability that is an outcome of potentially complex cognitive processes in natural e...

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 polymorphism and outcome after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Rodius

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 is functionally implicated in the process of infarct healing. Several genetic variation of the MMP9 gene have been described, among which the MMP9 Arg668Gln polymorphism. In the present study, we assessed whether this polymorphism influences outcome after acute myocardial infarction (MI. One thousand forty-nine patients undergoing coronary angiography were genotyped for the MMP9 Arg668Gln polymorphism by TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. This population included 154 controls, 161 patients with non ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI, 504 patients with ST-elevation MI (STEMI, and 230 patients with angina. Frequency of the MMP9 Arg668Gln polymorphism in the global population was 25.1%, and was comparable between all groups. STEMI patients had higher creatine phosphokinase (CPK, troponin T (TnT and MMP9 plasma levels and had lower ejection fraction (EF than NSTEMI patients. However, the polymorphism was not associated with infarct severity as determined by peak CPK and TnT levels, nor with LV remodeling and outcome as assessed by 1-month EF and NYHA class, as well as 2- year mortality. In silico molecular modeling simulations predicted that the MMP9 polymorphism may decrease MMP9 activity, but this could not be verified by plasma determinations. This study investigated for the first time the association between the MMP9 Arg668Gln polymorphism and clinical outcome after acute MI. Our results indicate that the polymorphism does not seem to be associated with clinical outcome and in particular with the development of left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure.

  9. Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Panels for Bovine DNA Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are single base-pair variations that exist between individuals. There are approximately a million or more SNPs located throughout the genome of each individual animal. Therefore, by taking advantage of these unique polymorphisms, SNPs can be used to resolve questions of unknown parentage in the livestock industry. Currently a panel of 88 SNPs, obtained from a panel of 121 SNPs originally created by USDA-MARC, is commercially available from Fluidigm®. The...

  10. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes, Marina R. S.; Rogério A. Curi; Chardulo, Luis Artur L.; Antonio C. Silveira; Assumpção, Mayra E. O. D.; José Antonio Visintin; Oliveira, Henrique N.

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belo...

  11. Drug excipient interaction study with polymorphic forms of tibolone.

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Gabriel L. B.; Salvio Neto, Helio; Zaim, Márcio H.; Matos, Jivaldo R.

    2010-01-01

    Powder mixtures (1:1) of tibolone polymorphic forms I (monoclinic) and II (triclinic) and excipients have been prepared and compacted. The samples were stored at 50 °C and 90% RH for one month and subsequently were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicate that during the compaction, the applied pressure reduced the chemical stability of tibolone in both polymorph forms. The triclinic form was more che...

  12. Color plumage polymorphism and predator mimicry in brood parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Trnka, Alfréd; Grim, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Background Plumage polymorphism may evolve during coevolution between brood parasites and their hosts if rare morph(s), by contravening host search image, evade host recognition systems better than common variant(s). Females of the parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) are a classic example of discrete color polymorphism: gray females supposedly mimic the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), while rufous females are believed to mimic the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Despite many studies on host...

  13. A catalog of neutral and deleterious polymorphism in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W Doniger

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and identity of functional variation segregating in natural populations is paramount to dissecting the molecular basis of quantitative traits as well as human genetic diseases. Genome sequencing of multiple organisms of the same species provides an efficient means of cataloging rearrangements, insertion, or deletion polymorphisms (InDels and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. While inbreeding depression and heterosis imply that a substantial amount of polymorphism is deleterious, distinguishing deleterious from neutral polymorphism remains a significant challenge. To identify deleterious and neutral DNA sequence variation within Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we sequenced the genome of a vineyard and oak tree strain and compared them to a reference genome. Among these three strains, 6% of the genome is variable, mostly attributable to variation in genome content that results from large InDels. Out of the 88,000 polymorphisms identified, 93% are SNPs and a small but significant fraction can be attributed to recent interspecific introgression and ectopic gene conversion. In comparison to the reference genome, there is substantial evidence for functional variation in gene content and structure that results from large InDels, frame-shifts, and polymorphic start and stop codons. Comparison of polymorphism to divergence reveals scant evidence for positive selection but an abundance of evidence for deleterious SNPs. We estimate that 12% of coding and 7% of noncoding SNPs are deleterious. Based on divergence among 11 yeast species, we identified 1,666 nonsynonymous SNPs that disrupt conserved amino acids and 1,863 noncoding SNPs that disrupt conserved noncoding motifs. The deleterious coding SNPs include those known to affect quantitative traits, and a subset of the deleterious noncoding SNPs occurs in the promoters of genes that show allele-specific expression, implying that some cis-regulatory SNPs are deleterious. Our results show that

  14. Simulation of Biochemical Pathway Adaptability Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosl, W J

    2005-01-26

    The systems approach to genomics seeks quantitative and predictive descriptions of cells and organisms. However, both the theoretical and experimental methods necessary for such studies still need to be developed. We are far from understanding even the simplest collective behavior of biomolecules, cells or organisms. A key aspect to all biological problems, including environmental microbiology, evolution of infectious diseases, and the adaptation of cancer cells is the evolvability of genomes. This is particularly important for Genomes to Life missions, which tend to focus on the prospect of engineering microorganisms to achieve desired goals in environmental remediation and climate change mitigation, and energy production. All of these will require quantitative tools for understanding the evolvability of organisms. Laboratory biodefense goals will need quantitative tools for predicting complicated host-pathogen interactions and finding counter-measures. In this project, we seek to develop methods to simulate how external and internal signals cause the genetic apparatus to adapt and organize to produce complex biochemical systems to achieve survival. This project is specifically directed toward building a computational methodology for simulating the adaptability of genomes. This project investigated the feasibility of using a novel quantitative approach to studying the adaptability of genomes and biochemical pathways. This effort was intended to be the preliminary part of a larger, long-term effort between key leaders in computational and systems biology at Harvard University and LLNL, with Dr. Bosl as the lead PI. Scientific goals for the long-term project include the development and testing of new hypotheses to explain the observed adaptability of yeast biochemical pathways when the myosin-II gene is deleted and the development of a novel data-driven evolutionary computation as a way to connect exploratory computational simulation with hypothesis

  15. Computational Approach for Epitaxial Polymorph Stabilization through Substrate Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong; Dwaraknath, Shyam S; Garten, Lauren; Ndione, Paul; Ginley, David; Persson, Kristin A

    2016-05-25

    With the ultimate goal of finding new polymorphs through targeted synthesis conditions and techniques, we outline a computational framework to select optimal substrates for epitaxial growth using first principle calculations of formation energies, elastic strain energy, and topological information. To demonstrate the approach, we study the stabilization of metastable VO2 compounds which provides a rich chemical and structural polymorph space. We find that common polymorph statistics, lattice matching, and energy above hull considerations recommends homostructural growth on TiO2 substrates, where the VO2 brookite phase would be preferentially grown on the a-c TiO2 brookite plane while the columbite and anatase structures favor the a-b plane on the respective TiO2 phases. Overall, we find that a model which incorporates a geometric unit cell area matching between the substrate and the target film as well as the resulting strain energy density of the film provide qualitative agreement with experimental observations for the heterostructural growth of known VO2 polymorphs: rutile, A and B phases. The minimal interfacial geometry matching and estimated strain energy criteria provide several suggestions for substrates and substrate-film orientations for the heterostructural growth of the hitherto hypothetical anatase, brookite, and columbite polymorphs. These criteria serve as a preliminary guidance for the experimental efforts stabilizing new materials and/or polymorphs through epitaxy. The current screening algorithm is being integrated within the Materials Project online framework and data and hence publicly available. PMID:27145398

  16. Computational Approach for Epitaxial Polymorph Stabilization through Substrate Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Hong; Dwaraknath, Shyam S.; Garten, Lauren; Ndione, Paul; Ginley, David; Persson, Kristin A.

    2016-05-25

    With the ultimate goal of finding new polymorphs through targeted synthesis conditions and techniques, we outline a computational framework to select optimal substrates for epitaxial growth using first principle calculations of formation energies, elastic strain energy, and topological information. To demonstrate the approach, we study the stabilization of metastable VO2 compounds which provides a rich chemical and structural polymorph space. We find that common polymorph statistics, lattice matching, and energy above hull considerations recommends homostructural growth on TiO2 substrates, where the VO2 brookite phase would be preferentially grown on the a-c TiO2 brookite plane while the columbite and anatase structures favor the a-b plane on the respective TiO2 phases. Overall, we find that a model which incorporates a geometric unit cell area matching between the substrate and the target film as well as the resulting strain energy density of the film provide qualitative agreement with experimental observations for the heterostructural growth of known VO2 polymorphs: rutile, A and B phases. The minimal interfacial geometry matching and estimated strain energy criteria provide several suggestions for substrates and substrate-film orientations for the heterostructural growth of the hitherto hypothetical anatase, brookite, and columbite polymorphs. These criteria serve as a preliminary guidance for the experimental efforts stabilizing new materials and/or polymorphs through epitaxy. The current screening algorithm is being integrated within the Materials Project online framework and data and hence publicly available.

  17. Epitaxial stabilization and phase instability of VO2 polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinbuhm; Ivanov, Ilia N; Keum, Jong K; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2016-01-01

    The VO2 polymorphs, i.e., VO2(A), VO2(B), VO2(M1) and VO2(R), have a wide spectrum of functionalities useful for many potential applications in information and energy technologies. However, synthesis of phase pure materials, especially in thin film forms, has been a challenging task due to the fact that the VO2 polymorphs are closely related to each other in a thermodynamic framework. Here, we report epitaxial stabilization of the VO2 polymorphs to synthesize high quality single crystalline thin films and study the phase stability of these metastable materials. We selectively deposit all the phases on various perovskite substrates with different crystallographic orientations. By investigating the phase instability, phonon modes and transport behaviours, not only do we find distinctively contrasting physical properties of the VO2 polymorphs, but that the polymorphs can be on the verge of phase transitions when heated as low as ~400 °C. Our successful epitaxy of both VO2(A) and VO2(B) phases, which are rarely studied due to the lack of phase pure materials, will open the door to the fundamental studies of VO2 polymorphs for potential applications in advanced electronic and energy devices. PMID:26787259

  18. ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphism: Association with adiponectin and lipoproteins levels restricted to men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Viater Tureck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipokine inversely correlated with obesity, which has beneficial effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Considering its potential as a therapeutic target in the metabolic disorder contexts, and in order to add knowledge in the area, our study evaluated the ADIPOQ 276G > T polymorphism effect on adiponectin levels, and on lipoproteins of clinical interest in a population sample composed of 211 healthy individuals. Significant effects were observed only among men: the carriers of heterozygous genotype (GT showed high levels of adiponectin (p = 0.018, while the rare homozygous genotype (TT gave its carriers a negative phenotype, represented by higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (p = 0.004 and p = 0.005 and total cholesterol (TC (p = 0.010 and p = 0.005 compared to carriers of other genotypes (GG and GT respectively, the independent effect of SNP on LDL-C and TC levels was confirmed by multiple regression analysis (p = 0.008 and p = 0.044. We found no evidence of correlation between circulating adiponectin levels and biochemical markers, which suggests, therefore, an SNP 276G > T independent effect on adiponectin levels and on lipoprotein metabolism in men enrolled in this study.

  19. A germline polymorphism of thymine DNA glycosylase induces genomic instability and cellular transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Sjolund

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG functions in base excision repair, a DNA repair pathway that acts in a lesion-specific manner to correct individual damaged or altered bases. TDG preferentially catalyzes the removal of thymine and uracil paired with guanine, and is also active on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU paired with adenine or guanine. The rs4135113 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of TDG is found in 10% of the global population. This coding SNP results in the alteration of Gly199 to Ser. Gly199 is part of a loop responsible for stabilizing the flipped abasic nucleotide in the active site pocket. Biochemical analyses indicate that G199S exhibits tighter binding to both its substrate and abasic product. The persistent accumulation of abasic sites in cells expressing G199S leads to the induction of double-strand breaks (DSBs. Cells expressing the G199S variant also activate a DNA damage response. When expressed in cells, G199S induces genomic instability and cellular transformation. Together, these results suggest that individuals harboring the G199S variant may have increased risk for developing cancer.

  20. Influence of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR Polymorphism) on the Relation between Brain 5-HT Transporter Binding and Heart Rate Corrected Cardiac Repolarization Interval

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppila, Esa; Vanninen, Esko; Kaurijoki, Salla; Karhunen, Leila; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Rissanen, Aila; Tiihonen, Jari; Pesonen, Ullamari; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    Objective Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR polymorphism) predicts the degree of structural and functional connectivity in the brain, and less consistently the degree of vulnerability for anxiety and depressive disorders. It is less known how 5-HTTLPR polymorphism influences on the coupling between brain and neuronal cardiovascular control. The present study demonstrates the impact of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on the relations between heart rate (HR) corrected cardiac repolarizati...

  1. The Analysis of Genetic Polymorphism. The Relationship between Interleukin – 4 Polymorphisms and Intraepithelial Cervical Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin STAMATIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Interleukin 4 plays a critical role in T helper 2 responses to HPV infection and angiogenesis. The present study aim to study the association between the IL4 promoter polymorphism – 590 C>T, respectively VNTR intron 2 polymorphism and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Material and method: We have realized a prospective case controls study that included 128 cases of intraepithelial neoplasia positive for HPV HR testing and 111 controls negative for intraepithelial lesion and also negative for HPV HR. Clinical examination was performed on each patient; blood and cervical sample were obtained. Cervical probes were analyzed regarding cytology and HPV HR testing. From peripheral blood DNA sample was obtain followed by genotype analysis for IL4 -590 C>T using PCR RFLP, respectively IL4 70 bp VNTR determined by PCR. Results: The absolute frequency of genotypes for IL4 -590 C>T was T/T-5, C/T-42, C/C-81 in the cases group respectively T/T-2, C/T-32, C/C-77 in the control group. The chi-square test had a value of 0.983 (p=0.321 while considering the presence of a minimum one single variant allele as a risk factor for cervical cancer, respectively 0.926 (p=0.336 for homozygous variant genotype. Odds ratio was 0.761 (95%CI [0.443-1.306] while considering C/T+T/T respectively 2R/3R, 2R/2R as a risk factor, and 0.451 (95%CI 95% [0.086-2.374] - TT respectively 2R/2R as a risk factor. Conclusion: No linear statistical significant association has been found between IL4 polymorphism and cervical neoplasia (p = 0.322.

  2. Biochemical genetic analysis of isozymes in Plecoglossus altivelis population in Fuxi%凫溪香鱼群体同工酶的生化遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄福勇; 李明云

    2004-01-01

    30 ayu(Plecoglossus altivelis) samples were collected from the cultural net in Fuxi Town, Ninghai County, Zhejiang Province. Polyarylamide gel electrophoresis was used to detect the expression of isozymes in 8 organs or tissues: eye, liver, kidney, muscle, spleen, heart, gill and pectroral fin. ADH,CAT,POD,ACP,ALP,EST,LDH,MDH,ME,GcDH,SCD,GDH,SDH,SOD,ATP were analyzed and the biochemical genetic results showed that 15 isozymes were coded by 55 gene loci, 12 of which (ADH-1, ADH-4, CAT-2, POD-3,ALP-2, EST-3, EST-4, LDH-5, ME-4, GcDH-4, GDH, SDH-2) were found polymorphic. The population of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) in Fuxi town showed the higher genetic diversity when compared with other freshwater fishes, with 21.8% of the proportion of polymorphic loci and 0.0459 of the average heterozygosity per loci. And we think the expression of CAT, POD and SOD of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) can be used to evaluate the influence to body-protecting system of the fish when environmental factors were changed. The expression of isozymes in pectroral fin can be used as genetic marker in breeding of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis)

  3. Biochemical genetics of glutathione-S-transferase in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Board, P G

    1981-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases from liver and erythrocytes have been separated by starch gel electrophoresis and localized by a specific staining procedure. The data suggest that the most active glutathione-S-transferases in liver are the products of two autosomal loci, GST1 and GST2. Both these loci are polymorphic, and there is evidence that a common null allele exists at the GST1 locus. The glutathione-S-transferase expressed in erythrocytes is the product of a third locus, GST3, and is not po...

  4. Serum protein polymorphism in Bali (Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constans, J; Gouaillard, C; Breguet, G

    1986-01-01

    Serum samples from Bali, obtained in three different ethnic groups and in one isolated village were tested by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis for Gc, Pi, Tf and Hp subtyping. In addition to the three common alleles Gc1F, Gc1S and Gc2, two variants Gc1A1 and Gc1A8 were observed. In the Pi system, five alleles were present: PiM1, PiM2, PiM3, PiM4 and PiX. The Tf variability was exceptional with the presence of eight alleles: TfB1, TfC1, TfC2, TfC3, TfC4, TfC8, TfD1 and TfDchi. For Hp, there were two common alleles Hp1S and Hp1FS and two rare ones: Hp1F and Hp2SS. As expected, the genetic polymorphism is reduced in the isolated community. The anthropological significance of these genetic data is discussed. PMID:3493727

  5. Dopaminergic Polymorphisms, Academic Achievement, and Violent Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ilhong; Lee, Julak; Kim, Seung-Gon

    2015-12-01

    Recent research in the field of educational psychology points to the salience of self-control in accounting for the variance in students' report card grades. At the same time, a novel empirical study from molecular genetics drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data has revealed that polymorphisms in three dopaminergic genes (dopamine transporter [DAT1], dopamine D2 receptor [DRD2], and dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4]) are also linked to adolescents' grade point averages (GPAs). Juxtaposing these two lines of research, the current study reanalyzed the Add Health genetic subsample to assess the relative effects of these dopaminergic genes and self-control on GPAs. The results showed that the effects of the latter were far stronger than those of the former. The interaction effects between the dopaminergic genes and a set of environmental factors on academic performance were also examined, producing findings that are aligned with the "social push hypothesis" in behavioral genetics. Finally, based on the criminological literature on the link between academic performance and delinquency, we tested whether dopaminergic effects on violent delinquency were mediated by GPAs. The results demonstrated that academic performance fully mediated the linkage between these genes and violent delinquency. PMID:25326467

  6. Long, polymorphic microsatellites in simple organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, D; Wills, C

    1996-02-22

    We have examined the phylogenetic distribution of the longest, perfect microsatellites in GenBank. Despite the large contributions of model higher-eukaryotic organisms to GenBank, the selective cloning of long microsatellites from these organisms as genetic markers, and the relative lack of concentration on the microsatellites in lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes, we found that simple organisms, defined here as slime molds, fungi, protists, prokaryotes, viruses, organelles and plasmids, contributed 78 of the 375 examined sequences. These 78 simple-organism microsatellites are characterized predominantly by trinucleotide repeats, nearly half of which lie in exons, and in general show a bias towards A+T rich motifs. Simple-organism microsatellites represented more than once in GenBank displayed length polymorphisms when independent clones were compared. These facts collectively raise speculation as to the role of these 'junk' sequences in such highly economical genomes, especially when precise changes in long microsatellites are known to regulate critical virulence factors in several prokaryotes. Regardless of their biological significance, simple-organism microsatellites may provide a general source of molecular markers to track disease outbreaks and the evolution of microorganisms in unprecedented detail. PMID:8728984

  7. Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism in Tuberculosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserpour Farivar, Taghi; Sharifi Moud, Batool; Sargazi, Mansur; Moeenrezakhanlou, Alireza

    In this study, we aimed to determine the significance of association between Tuberculosis and apolipoprotein E polymorphism. The apolipoprotein E genotypes were assayed in 250 tuberculosis patients by polymerase chain reaction followed by enzymatic digestion with Hha I. The results were compared with the results of the same experiments on 250 sex and age matched control peoples. Present results showed that in studied populations, prevalence of E4 genotype was lower in controls than in patients (8 v. 13.2%; OR = 1.75, pStatistically significant difference was found between patients and controls with respect to ɛ2 allele frequencies, while ɛ2 allele frequency was found to be much less prevalent in controls (6%) than in patients (35.8%; OR = 8.72, p<0.05). Also, our study revealed that there is an association between apolipoprotein E genotypes and amplitude to tuberculosis in studied populations. However, large population-based studies are needed to understand the exact role played by the locus in causing the condition.

  8. Milk protein polymorphisms in Brazilian Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Ivana Tramontina da

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Five bovine milk protein polymorphisms were studied in Zebuine cattle raised in Brazil, through horizontal electrophoresis on starch gel containing urea and 2-mercaptoethanol, using basic and acidic buffer systems. Allelic frequencies for a-La, b-Lg, aS1-Cn, b-Cn and k-Cn loci were estimated in six Gyr herds (N = 283, six Guzerat herds (N = 205, one Nelore herd (N = 17 and one Sindi herd (N = 22, all from São Paulo or Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Genotypic frequencies observed for each locus and breed studied are in accordance with the assumption of genetic equilibrium, demonstrating absence of high inbreeding levels for the breeds tested. The FST value found indicated significant genetic differentiation among breeds; however, the Gyr and Guzerat herds showed significantly different gene frequencies. Genetic distance estimates among zebuine breeds studied and the Holstein breed, taken as a reference for a taurine breed, showed strong differences between these two racial groups

  9. Software for tag single nucleotide polymorphism selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stram Daniel O

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews the theoretical basis for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP tagging and considers the use of current software made freely available for this task. A distinction between haplotype block-based and non-block-based approaches yields two classes of procedures. Analysis of two different sets of SNP genotype data from the HapMap is used to judge the practical aspects of using each of the programs considered, as well as to make some general observations about the performance of the programs in finding optimal sets of tagging SNPs. Pairwise R2 methods, while the simplest of those considered, do tend to pick more tagging SNPs than are strictly needed to predict unmeasured (non-tagging SNPs, since a combination of two or more tagging SNPs can form a prediction of SNPs that have no direct (pairwise surrogate. Block-based methods that exploit the linkage disequilibrium structure within haplotype blocks exploit this sort of redundancy, but run a risk of over-fitting if used without some care. A compromise approach which eliminates the need first to analyse block structure, but which still exploits simple relationships between SNPs, appears promising.

  10. Lactotransferrin Gene Polymorphism Associated with Caries Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetzer, Andrea D; Brancher, João A; Pecharki, Giovana D; Schlipf, Nina; Werneck, Renata; Mira, Marcelo T; Riess, Olaf; Bauer, Peter; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a common multifactorial disease, resulting from the interaction of biofilm, cariogenic diet and host response over time. Lactotransferrin (LTF) is a main salivary glycoprotein, which modulates the host immune-inflammatory and antibacterial response. Although a genetic component for caries outcome has been identified, little is known over the genetic aspects underlying its susceptibility. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between LTF polymorphisms and caries susceptibility. Six hundred seventy seven 12-year-old students were selected: 346 with (DMFT ≥ 1) and 331 without caries experience (DMFT = 0). Also, individuals concentrating higher levels of disease (polarization group, DMFT ≥ 2, n = 253) were tested against those with DMFT ≤ 1 (n = 424). Along with clinical parameters, three representative LTF tag SNPs (rs6441989, rs2073495, rs11716497) were genotyped and the results were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Allele A for tag SNP rs6441989 was found to be significantly less frequent in the polarization group, conferring a protective effect against caries experience [AA + AG × GG (OR: 0.710, 95% CI: 0.514-0.980, p = 0.045)], and remained significantly associated with caries protection in the presence of gingivitis (p = 0.020) and plaque (p = 0.035). These results might contribute to the understanding of the genetic control of caries susceptibility in humans. PMID:25998152

  11. Spectroscopic investigations of polymorphism of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents absorption spectroscopy investigations of polymorphism of four alcohols: cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol, cycloheptanol and t-butanol in the mid infrared range. The study of cyclohexanol is more extended and included some neutron scattering and adiabatic calorimetry results. Multiplet structures of the low frequency skeletal modes (of the CO bending modes in particular) together with the lattice range modes were used to determine the hydrogen bond configurations for the low temperature ordered phases of those alcohols. In the case of cyclopentanol and cycloheptanol it was found also that all their phases are of linear polymer type. The differences between those phases are related to the symmetry of polymers and the stiffness of hydrogen bonding as well as to conformational and orientational order or disorder of molecules. However cyclohexanol and t-butanol both show linear and cyclic polymer phases. The most important finding of this work is that the ordered crystal phases of the studied cyclic alcohols contain two different conformations of the molecules. This new class of molecular crystals is called the conformationally mixed crystals class. A particular multiplet structure of OH (OD) torsion bands of the studied alcohols founds for the ordered linear polymer phases is the other important results of the paper. (author). 181 refs, 26 figs, 15 tab

  12. Evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of Pro12Ala in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and Gly308Ala in tumor necrosis factor-α genes in obese Asian Indians: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Bhagat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Namita Bhagat1,2, Mukta Agrawal1, Kalpana Luthra3, Naval K Vikram4, Anoop Misra4, Rajeev Gupta21Department of Home Science, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Medicine, Fortis Escorts Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; 4Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaBackground: A population-based case control study was performed to determine the associations of Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG and Gly308Ala polymorphism in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFA genes in obese subjects.Patients and methods: Of 1,400 eligible subjects, ≥20 years, we recruited only 1,127. For extreme phenotype case-control design, we evaluated 201 subjects with body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (Group 1 and 143 with BMI <20 kg/m2 (Group 2. Clinical, anthropometric, biochemical, and nutritional details and polymorphisms were estimated.Results: In Group 1, the dietary intake of calories and fats was higher, physical activity was lower, and prevalence of truncal obesity, hypertension, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes was greater than in Group 2. There were no homozygous polymorphisms of either gene. Heterozygous Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPARG was found in 15 (7.5% subjects in Group 1 and 3 (2.1% subjects in Group 2 (P = 0.028, and heterozygous Gly308Ala polymorphism in TNFA was found in 19 (9.5% in Group 1 and 7 (4.9% in Group 2 (P = 0.115. Presence of heterozygous polymorphism in PPARG and TNFA-predicted obesity with univariate odds ratio ([OR], 95% confidence intervals of 2.25 (1.32–3.84, P = 0.003 and 1.48 (1.10–1.99, P = 0.009 and with multivariate OR 1.74 (1.03–2.93, P = 0.038 and 1.46 (1.05–2.03, P = 0.024, respectively. The addition of dietary and physical activity variables did not result in significant change

  13. ASSOCIATION OF CTLA-4 AND PTPN-22 GENES POLYMORPHISMS WITH INCREASED RISK OF AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS IN TATAR POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Biktagirova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aspects of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT remain quite actual, since many issues of etiology, pathogenesis, morphology, classification, diagnostics, therapy and prediction of this disorder are far from final solution. Since disturbances of fine molecular immune mechanisms underlie pathogenesis of either immune disorder, the genes coding its main components, are regarded as potential candidate genes predisposing for AIT, e.g., genes of surface antigen (CTLA-4 and protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN-22. We have performed genotyping of 298 Tatar women in Tatar Republic (Russia with respect to age and biochemical parameters (control group, 137 persons; AIT group, 161 patients. The following gene polymorphisms were tested: +49 А/G, -318 С/Т, -1661 А/G of СТLA-4 gene, and 1858 С/Т polymorphism of PTPN-22 gene. Genotyрing was performed by PCR-RFLP method as described earlier. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test and 95% confidential interval (CI. The frequencies of CTLA-4 -1661 G allele and genotype A/G and +49 G/A G allele and genotype GG carriers were significantly higher in AIT patients than in controls (P = 0.04, OR 1.84, 95% CI 2.31-1.4; P = 0.001, OR 2,0 95% CI 1.62-2.31 respectively, with increased contents of serum antibodies to thyroglobulin (OR, 1.56, 95% CI 2.25-3.6; OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.9-2.75, respectively and to thyroperoxidase (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.5-4.1 for G/G genotype of +49 A/G polymorphism, independently of age (р < 0,05. We showed that the combinations of A/G, T/C and G/G genotypes of -1661 A/G, -318 T/C and +49 G/A polymorphisms is associated with increased risk of genetic predisposition to ITD in Tatar women (OR 7.87, 95% CI 2.03-3.25. A strong association was also observed between the increased level of antibodies to TPO (> 1000 ME/l and GG genotype of +49 G/A polymorphism (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.5-4.1 and antibodies to TG (> 100 ME/l and genotypes A/G and G/G of CTLA-4 -1661 A/G and +49 G/A polymorphisms

  14. Genetic diversity of notary-national uniform rape seed yield trial and brassica napus varieties using raped markers and biochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Pakistan, Brassica is the second most important source of oil after cotton. Seventeen NURYT (National Uniform Rape Seed Yield Trial) lines and 5 Brassica napus varieties were assessed through RAPD primers and biochemical assays. Seven different Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers (RAPD) were employed during the present study. A total of 30 RAPD bands were scored by these primers. Size of the scorable fragments ranged from approximately 250 to 2000 bp. Diversity index was estimated to be 42%. Mean genetic distance estimates ranged between 0.10 and 1.00. For the assessment of various biochemical parameters, Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used. Oil content ranged from 38.30 to 49% and protein content from 19.80 to 29.10% among the 22 genotypes. Maximum protein content was assayed in genotype RBN 3046 while minimum in Hyola 405. Glucosinolates ranged between 2 and 84% for genotype CRH 60/08 and CRH05/08 showing the maximum and minimum values respectively. Oleic acid (52 to 72.5%), linolenic acid (7.07 and 9.90%) and erucic acid content (9.57 to 38.3%) was also recorded during the present study. (author)

  15. Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Patients With Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Type 2 Diabetes (T2D is a chronic metabolic disease associated with increased mortality and morbidity. High levels of glucose can damage organs, such as the kidneys, eyes and nerves. Oxytocin (OXT can regulate feeding behavior, energy balance, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. The OXT Receptor (OXTR mediates the action of OXT on cells. The role of OXTR polymorphism in carbohydrate metabolism disorders, especially in T2D, is not clear. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate the possible associations between OXTR polymorphism and the risk of developing T2D. Patients and Methods To study genetic polymorphisms, 120 patients with T2D and 120 controls were selected. Genotyping of the OXTR rs53576 and rs2254298 variants was performed using allele-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP PCR, respectively. Data were analyzed using Chi-square analysis and logistic regression. Results The logistic regression analysis suggested no significant associations of OXTR Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP rs22542987 in genotypes (OR = 1.054, 95% CI: 0.557 - 1.995, P = 0.871 and alleles of patients with T2D in the study population (OR = 1.004, 95% CI: 0.547 - 1.845, P = 1. The rs53576 polymorphism showed the TT genotype (OR = 0.466, %95CI: 0.22 - 0.94, P = 0.035, as well as T allele (OR = 0.66, %95 CI: (0.46 - 0.95, P = 0.03 in the patients and control group with a significant difference suggesting the protective role this polymorphism plays in T2D. Conclusions Our findings showed that the genotype TT rs53576 OXTR, as well as T allele had significant differences in our population and play a protective role. Therefore, it is suggested to place more interest on these OXTR in large populations and different ethnic groups.

  16. Self-organizing ontology of biochemically relevant small molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chepelev Leonid L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. Results To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed methodology

  17. [Biochemical diagnostics in acute pancreatitis recognition and outcome predicition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczyk, Paweł; Kozma, Ewa M; Olczyk, Krystyna; Komosińska-Vassev, Katarzyna

    2004-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common disease associated with an improper activation of pancreatic zymogens leading to autodigestion of the gland and if excessive--to multiple organ dysfunction. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis manifested by 20% of patients with acute pancreatitis is a life threatening disorder requiring subsequent management in intensive care unit. Unfortunately, none of biochemical tests presently used for laboratory assessment of acute pancreatitis at the early stage of the disease is able to estimate accurately: diagnosis, etiology and severity. At present, diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based on evaluation of serum amylase and lipase activity due to easy availability and simplicity of these enzymatic tests. Low specificity of the mentioned enzymes resulted in studies concerning pancreatic isoamylase, elastase-1, chymotrypsine, procarboxy-peptidase B, trypsinogen-2 and immunoreactive trypsinogen usefulness in the laboratory diagnosis of AP. The prediction of severity in acute pancreatitis using multifactorial scoring systems is cumbersome especially due to their complexity. On the other hand the biochemical method of choice, estimation of serum C reactive protein, is useless in the early phase of disease. Unfortunately, the computed tomography--the most accurate method in severity assessing--is not always available. Recent studies have brought some progress in severity predicting, such as phospholipase A2, cellular immunity markers, cytokines, activation peptides of trypsinogen and carboxypeptidase B, procalcitonine, pancreatitis associated protein and serum amyloid A. All these newly introduced biochemical methods allow to look optimistically into the future of laboratory diagnostics of the acute pancreatitis believing that the problem of diagnosing and predicting the AP severity will be solved. PMID:15850341

  18. Clinico-hemato-biochemical profile of dogs with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Elhiblu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant tools in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in dogs. Material and Methods: A total of 140 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinico-hemato biochemical, urological, ultrasonographic (USG, and USG guided fine-needle biopsy examinations by standard methods. On the basis of these results, 6 dogs out of 140 dogs were found to be suffering from liver cirrhosis. Six clinically healthy dogs constituted the control group. Results: The dogs suffering from liver cirrhosis manifested inappetence, halitosis, abdominal distension, weight loss, melena, icterus, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis with the left shift. Levels of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and platelet count were significantly lower in liver cirrhosis group than control group while total leukocyte count, neutrophils, and MCH concentration were significantly higher. Glucose, total protein, albumin, A/G ratio, and fibrinogen were significantly lower, and creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, prothrombin time, and APTT were significantly higher than the control values. Ultrasound revealed diffuse increase in echogenicity with rounded and irregular liver margins. Cytological examination of the ascitic fluid and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver was not fruitful in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: Liver cirrhosis causes clinical and hemo-biochemical alterations, which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. USG, diffuse increase in echogenicity of liver, rounding and irregularity of liver margins and microhepatica were the consistent findings. It is suggested that USG along with hemo-biochemical alterations may be used as a diagnostic tool for

  19. Biochemical Models for S-Rnase-Based Self-Incompatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hua Hua; Allison Fields; Teh-hui Kao

    2008-01-01

    S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetically determined self/non-self-recognition process employed by many flowering plant species to prevent inbreeding and promote outcrosses.For the Plantaginaceae,Rosa-ceae and Solanaceae,it is now known that S-RNase and S-Iocu F-box(two multiple allelic genes at the S-locus)determine the female and male specificity,respectively,during SI interactions.However,how allelic products of these two genes interact inside pollen tubes to result in specific growth inhibition of self-pollen tubes remains to be investigated.Here,we review all the previously proposed biochemical models and discuss whether their predictions are consistent with all SI phenomena,including competitive jnteraction where SI breaks down in pollen that carries two different pollen 5-alleles.We also discuss these models in Iight of the recent findings of compartmentalization of S-RNases in both incompatible and compatible pollen tubes.Lastly,we summarize the results from our recent biochemical studies of PiSLF(Petunia inflata SLF)and S-RNase.and present a new model for the biochemical mechanism of SI in the Solanaceae.The tenet of this model is that a PiSLF preferentially interacts with its non-self S-RNases in the cytoplasm of a pollen tube to result in the assembly of an E3-like complex,which then mediates ubiquitination and degradation of non-self S-RNases through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway.This model can explain all SI phenomena and,at the same time,has raised new questions for further study.

  20. Radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in mouse kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the kidney of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, adult male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks old) were divided into four groups. Group I (sham-irradiated), Group II (treated with CdCl2 solution 20 ppm), Group III (irradiated with 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 Gy gamma rays), Group IV (both irradiated with 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 Gy gamma rays and treated with CdCl2 solution). The animals were autopsied after 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of treatment. The kidney was taken out and different biochemical parameters, such as total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA were estimated. Results: In irradiated animals, the values of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA increased continuously up to day-7 and decreased thereafter up to day-28. The changes were dose dependent. In CdCl2 treated animals, the values of glycogen and total proteins decreased during the early intervals and increased thereafter whereas the values of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA increased during early Intervals and decreased thereafter, The values of cholesterol and DNA showed decrease in all the experimental groups (except group I) up to day-7 and increase thereafter up to day-28. After combined treatment also, the parameters followed the same pattern of increase and decrease, but the changes were more pronounced indicating their synergistic effect. The biochemical parameters showed highly significant values (P<0.001) as compared to normal ones. Conclusion: These results indicate that combined treatment of cadmium and gamma radiations causes synergistic or additive effect

  1. The clinical and biochemical study of pesticide sprayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A K; Gupta, B N; Mathur, A K; Mathur, N; Mahendra, P N; Bharti, R S

    1991-07-01

    Clinical, haematological and biochemical studies of 34 subjects, occupationally exposed to different types of pesticides, were conducted. The findings have been compared with those observed in 14 control subjects. Inhibition of cholinesterase activity was observed in the exposed group. Serum alkaline phosphatase was also found to be raised. Radiological examination revealed pneumonitic patches in the chest skiagrams of three exposed subjects. Paraesthesia with hyporeflexia was also found in 8.8% of exposed subjects. The findings suggest that exposure to multiple pesticides over many years affects the normal functioning of different organ systems and may produce characteristic clinical effects. PMID:1679651

  2. Biochemical screening for inherited metabolic disorders in the mentally retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, H E; Goodman, R; Schram, J; Diamond, E; Daneel, A

    1981-11-01

    A biochemical screening programme for the detection of inherited metabolic disease was carried out on urine and blood samples from inmates of the Alexandra Institute for the mentally retarded, Cape Town. Of the 1087 patients screened, positive results for phenylketonuria were obtained in 3, for cystinuria in 2 and for Hartnup disease in 1. The overall frequency of metabolic disorders was 0,6%. It is evident that genetic metabolic disease as detected by current screening procedures makes only a small contribution to the overall burden of mental retardation. PMID:6795726

  3. Biochemical, Physiological and Morphological Responses of Sugar Beet to Salinization

    OpenAIRE

    Eisa, Sayed S.; Ali, Safwat H.

    2001-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and morphological responses of sugar beet grown on sandy soil under three levels of NaCl salinity in irrigation water, i.e. control, 3000 & 6000 ppm was studied in pot experiment. Results showed that root fresh weight linearly decreased by increasing NaCl salinity levels up to 6000 ppm, but sucrose percentage in root was significantly increased. On the other hand, increasing NaCl levels resulted in significant increase of Na content in both of shoot and root Meanwhi...

  4. Diurnal changes of biochemical metabolic markers in healthy young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2015-01-01

    .06 mmol/L) did not show significant oscillations. CONCLUSIONS: When diagnosing and monitoring metabolic disorders compensation for the 24-h variation of the biochemical metabolic markers is needed especially C-peptide, triglyceride and glucose. Furthermore, the stable HbA1c level through 24 h makes......BACKGROUND: To examine whether time of the day has an effect on the circulating levels of metabolism parameters. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained under standardized conditions from 24 healthy young men every third hour through 24 hours. The metabolic markers and melatonin were examined...

  5. Stoichiometric estimates of the biochemical conversion efficiencies in tsetse metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Custer Adrian V

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time varying flows of biomass and energy in tsetse (Glossina can be examined through the construction of a dynamic mass-energy budget specific to these flies but such a budget depends on efficiencies of metabolic conversion which are unknown. These efficiencies of conversion determine the overall yields when food or storage tissue is converted into body tissue or into metabolic energy. A biochemical approach to the estimation of these efficiencies uses stoichiometry and a simplified description of tsetse metabolism to derive estimates of the yields, for a given amount of each substrate, of conversion product, by-products, and exchanged gases. This biochemical approach improves on estimates obtained through calorimetry because the stoichiometric calculations explicitly include the inefficiencies and costs of the reactions of conversion. However, the biochemical approach still overestimates the actual conversion efficiency because the approach ignores all the biological inefficiencies and costs such as the inefficiencies of leaky membranes and the costs of molecular transport, enzyme production, and cell growth. Results This paper presents estimates of the net amounts of ATP, fat, or protein obtained by tsetse from a starting milligram of blood, and provides estimates of the net amounts of ATP formed from the catabolism of a milligram of fat along two separate pathways, one used for resting metabolism and one for flight. These estimates are derived from stoichiometric calculations constructed based on a detailed quantification of the composition of food and body tissue and on a description of the major metabolic pathways in tsetse simplified to single reaction sequences between substrates and products. The estimates include the expected amounts of uric acid formed, oxygen required, and carbon dioxide released during each conversion. The calculated estimates of uric acid egestion and of oxygen use compare favorably to

  6. Serological and biochemical identification of hybrid Ia antigens

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Ia specificities 22 and 23 were found to be determinants on hybrid Ia molecules by serological and biochemical studies. Lipopolysaccharide- stimulated splenic lymphocytes from (B10 X B10.D2)F1 expressed Ia.22 although both the parents were negative. Similarly [D2.GD X B10.A(5R)]F1 cells expressed Ia.23, whereas D2.GD and B10.A(5R) lacked it. Ia.22 can be generated by gene complementation of Ak-Ek, Ab-Ed, Ab- Ek, As-Ed, and As-Ek, whereas Ia.23 can be generated by Ad-Ed, Ad-Ek, and Ad-Ep. Othe...

  7. Use of laminar flow patterning for miniaturised biochemical assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Krühne, Ulrich; Beyer, M.;

    2004-01-01

    Laminar flow in microfluidic chambers was used to construct low (one dimensional) density arrays suitable for miniaturized biochemical assays. By varying the ratio of flows of two guiding streams flanking a sample stream, precise focusing and positioning of the latter was achieved, and reactive...... species carried in the sample stream were deposited on functionalized chip surfaces as discrete 50 mm wide lanes. Using different model systems we have confirmed the method's suitability for qualitative screening and quantification tasks in receptor-ligand assays, recording biotin...

  8. Ultraviolet transparent silicon oxynitride waveguides for biochemical microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Friis, Peter; Hübner, Jörg; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Jørgensen, Anders Michael; Telleman, Pieter; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2001-01-01

    , cannot accommodate guidance below 400 nm, owing to the presence of UV-absorbing centers. We show that silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) waveguides exhibit very good UV performance. The propagation loss for 24-mum-wide SiOxNy waveguides was found to be similar to1.0 dB/cm in the wavelength range 220-550 nm. The...... applicability of these waveguides was demonstrated in a biochemical microsystem consisting of multimode buried-channel SiOxNy waveguides that were monolithically integrated with microfluidic channels. Absorption measurements of a beta -blocking agent, propranolol, at 212-215 nm were performed. The detection...

  9. Lignin biodegradation: experimental evidence, molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monties, B.

    1985-01-01

    A critical review is presented of English, French and some German language literature, mainly from 1983 onwards. It examines experimental evidence on the behaviour as barriers to biodegradation of lignins and phenolic polymers such as tannins and suberins. The different molecular mechanisms of lignolysis by fungi (mainly), actinomycetes and bacteria are examined. A new biochemical approach to the physiological mechanism of regulation of lignolytic activities is suggested based on the discoveries of ligniolytic enzymes: effects of nitrogen, oxygen and substrate are discussed. It is concluded that a better knowledge of the structure and reactivity of phenolic barriers is needed in order to control the process of lignolysis.

  10. Hematological and biochemical indexes in blood of HBV transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Feng-jiao ZHENG; Fu, Yong-Hang; Guang-ze LIU; Zhang, Jian; Xiu-mei LI; Chen, Mei-Juan; Kong, Xiang-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of gene integration of HBV on the biochemical and hematological indices in blood of transgenic mice.Methods The venous blood was collected from orbital venous plexus of 28 normal mice born in the same brood(HBsAg negative) and 50 HBV transgenic mice(HBsAg positive),6-8 weeks in age.The blood routine examination was performed,including white blood cells(WBC),red blood cells(RBC),hemoglobin(Hb),platelets(PLT),lymphocyte percentage(L%),intermediate cell percentage(...

  11. Polymorphism of human cytochrome P-450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guengerich, F P; Umbenhauer, D R; Churchill, P F; Beaune, P H; Böcker, R; Knodell, R G; Martin, M V; Lloyd, R S

    1987-03-01

    The cytochrome P-450 forms involved in debrisoquine 4-hydroxylation (P-450DB), phenacetin O-deethylation (P-450PA), S-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation (P-450MP), and nifedipine 1,4-oxidation (P-450NF) have been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from human liver microsomes. All of these reactions show in vivo polymorphism in humans. Evidence for the roles of the purified proteins in these processes comes from in vitro reconstitution and immunoinhibition studies. The rat orthologs of these enzymes are as follows--P-450DB: P-450UT-H; P-450PA: P-450ISF-G; P-450MP: P-450UT-I; P-450NF: P-450PCN-E. Only in the case of P-450UT-H is the primary rat ortholog the same cytochrome P-450 which catalyses the catalytic reaction under consideration. Reconstitution and immunochemical studies establish that the following reactions are catalysed by the individual P-450s--P-450DB: debrisoquine 4-hydroxylation, sparteine delta 5-oxidation, bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation, encainide O-demethylation, and propanolol 4-hydroxylation; P-450PA: phenacetin O-deethylation; P-450MP: S-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation and tolbutamide methyl hydroxylation; P-450NF: oxidation of nifedipine and 16 other substituted dihydropyridines, estradiol 2- and 4-hydroxylation, aldrin epoxidation, benzphetamine N-demethylation and 6 beta-hydroxylation of testosterone, androstenedione and cortisol. A cDNA clone has been isolated that corresponds to rat P-450UT-H, as shown by a number of criteria. Studies with this probe establish that the sex and strain variation in debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase and related activities is related to differences in the levels of a 2.0 kb length mRNA present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3577206

  12. Human enamel thickness and ENAM polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubert, Diane M; Kelley, Joanna L; Udod, Yuriy G; Habor, Carolina; Kleist, Chris G; Furman, Ilona K; Tikonov, Igor N; Swanson, Willie J; Roberts, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    The tooth enamel development gene, enamelin (ENAM), showed evidence of positive selection during a genome-wide scan of human and primate DNA for signs of adaptive evolution. The current study examined the hypothesis that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C14625T (rs7671281) in the ENAM gene identified in the genome-wide scan is associated with a change in enamel phenotype. African Americans were selected as the target population, as they have been reported to have a target SNP frequency of approximately 50%, whereas non-Africans are predicted to have a 96% SNP frequency. Digital radiographs and DNA samples from 244 teeth in 133 subjects were analysed, and enamel thickness was assessed in relation to SNP status, controlling for age, sex, tooth number and crown length. Crown length was found to increase with molar number, and females were found to have thicker enamel. Teeth with larger crowns also had thicker enamel, and older subjects had thinner enamel. Linear regression and generalized estimating equations were used to investigate the relationship between enamel thickness of the mandibular molars and ENAM SNP status; enamel in subjects with the derived allele was significantly thinner (P=0.040) when the results were controlled for sex, age, tooth number and crown length. The derived allele demonstrated a recessive effect on the phenotype. The data indicate that thinner dental enamel is associated with the derived ENAM genotype. This is the first direct evidence of a dental gene implicated in human adaptive evolution as having a phenotypic effect on an oral structure. PMID:27357321

  13. Human enamel thickness and ENAM polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubert, Diane M; Kelley, Joanna L; Udod, Yuriy G; Habor, Carolina; Kleist, Chris G; Furman, Ilona K; Tikonov, Igor N; Swanson, Willie J; Roberts, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    The tooth enamel development gene, enamelin (ENAM), showed evidence of positive selection during a genome-wide scan of human and primate DNA for signs of adaptive evolution. The current study examined the hypothesis that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C14625T (rs7671281) in the ENAM gene identified in the genome-wide scan is associated with a change in enamel phenotype. African Americans were selected as the target population, as they have been reported to have a target SNP frequency of approximately 50%, whereas non-Africans are predicted to have a 96% SNP frequency. Digital radiographs and DNA samples from 244 teeth in 133 subjects were analysed, and enamel thickness was assessed in relation to SNP status, controlling for age, sex, tooth number and crown length. Crown length was found to increase with molar number, and females were found to have thicker enamel. Teeth with larger crowns also had thicker enamel, and older subjects had thinner enamel. Linear regression and generalized estimating equations were used to investigate the relationship between enamel thickness of the mandibular molars and ENAM SNP status; enamel in subjects with the derived allele was significantly thinner (P=0.040) when the results were controlled for sex, age, tooth number and crown length. The derived allele demonstrated a recessive effect on the phenotype. The data indicate that thinner dental enamel is associated with the derived ENAM genotype. This is the first direct evidence of a dental gene implicated in human adaptive evolution as having a phenotypic effect on an oral structure. PMID:27357321

  14. Empirical Bayes analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms

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    Ickstadt Katja

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important goal of whole-genome studies concerned with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is the identification of SNPs associated with a covariate of interest such as the case-control status or the type of cancer. Since these studies often comprise the genotypes of hundreds of thousands of SNPs, methods are required that can cope with the corresponding multiple testing problem. For the analysis of gene expression data, approaches such as the empirical Bayes analysis of microarrays have been developed particularly for the detection of genes associated with the response. However, the empirical Bayes analysis of microarrays has only been suggested for binary responses when considering expression values, i.e. continuous predictors. Results In this paper, we propose a modification of this empirical Bayes analysis that can be used to analyze high-dimensional categorical SNP data. This approach along with a generalized version of the original empirical Bayes method are available in the R package siggenes version 1.10.0 and later that can be downloaded from http://www.bioconductor.org. Conclusion As applications to two subsets of the HapMap data show, the empirical Bayes analysis of microarrays cannot only be used to analyze continuous gene expression data, but also be applied to categorical SNP data, where the response is not restricted to be binary. In association studies in which typically several ten to a few hundred SNPs are considered, our approach can furthermore be employed to test interactions of SNPs. Moreover, the posterior probabilities resulting from the empirical Bayes analysis of (prespecified interactions/genotypes can also be used to quantify the importance of these interactions.

  15. Radiation Therapy Result of Polymorphic Reticulosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Ji; Kim, Gwi Eon; Park, Young Nyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-06-15

    During the period from January, 1975, to June, 1989, one hundred patients with histopathologically proven polymorphic reticulosis in the upper respiratory tract were treated with radiation therapy and the analysis of treatment results was undertaken. One hundred patients (69 males, 31 females) with a mean age of 46 years (range 12-79 years) were presented. Nasal cavity was the most frequent site of involvement(56%), and 44 cases had multifocal sites of involvement. The incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis at initial diagnosis was 24%. Staging was determined by Ann-Arbor classification, retrospectively. The number of patients of stage IE, IIE, IIIE and IVE were 35, 60, 1, and 4, respectively. The overall 5 year actuarial survival rates were 38.4%. The difference in 5 year survival rates between patients with stage IE and IIE, with solitary and multiple, with CR and PR after irradiation were significant statistically. For the analysis of failure patterns, failure sites include the following: local failure alone(30/55=54.6%), systemic failure alone(9/55=16.4%), both local and systemic failure(16/55=29.0%). Retrograde slide review was available in 29 cases of PMR with respect to histopathologic bases, and immunohistochemical studies were performed using MTI and DACO-UCHL-1 as T-cell markers, MB2 as a B-cell marker and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin as a histiocytic markers. All that 29 cases showed characteristic histologic features similar to those of peripheral T-cell lymphoma and showed positive reactio to the T-cell marker. These findings suggest strongly that quite a significant portion of PMR may be in fact T-cell lymphoma.

  16. Association of GST Genes Polymorphisms with Asthma in Tunisian Children

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    Hamzaoui Agnès

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. A positive association between genetic polymorphism and asthma may not be extrapolated from one ethnic group to another based on intra- and interethnic allelic and genotype frequencies differences. Objective. We assessed whether polymorphisms of GST genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 are associated with asthma and atopy among Tunisian children. Methods. 112 unrelated healthy individuals and 105 asthmatic (73 atopic and 32 nonatopic children were studied. Genotyping the polymorphisms in the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes was performed using the multiplex PCR. The GSTP1 ILe105Val polymorphism was determined using PCR-RFLP. Results. GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with the increased risk of asthma (P=.002. Asthmatic children had a higher prevalence of the GSTP1Ile105 allele than the control group (43.8% and 33.5%, respectively; P=.002. Also, the presence of the GSTP1 homozygote Val/Val was less common in subjects with asthma than in control group. We have found that GSTT1 null genotype (GSTT10∗/0∗ was significantly associated with atopy (P=.008. Conclusion. Polymorphisms within genes of the GST superfamily were associated with risk of asthma and atopy in Tunisia.

  17. Indian studies on genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk

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    A Bag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic influences on cancer development have been extensively investigated during the last decade following publication of human genome sequence. The present review summarizes case-control studies on genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk in Indians. It is observed that the most commonly studied genes in the Indian population included members of phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes. Other than these genes, genetic polymorphisms for cell cycle and apoptosis-related factors, DNA repair enzymes, immune response elements, growth factors, folate metabolizing enzymes, vitamin/hormone receptors, etc., were investigated. Several studies also evidenced a stronger risk for combined genotypes rather than a single polymorphism. Gene-environment interaction was also found to be a determining factor for cancer development in some experiments. Data for single polymorphism and single cancer type, however, was insufficient to validate an association. It appears that much more experiments involving larger sample size, cross-tabulating genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors are required in order to identify genetic markers for different cancers in Indian populations.

  18. Association of Interleukin-4 Receptor Gene Polymorphism with Chronic Periodontitis

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    M. Khoshhal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease in which host immune system and genetic factors have an important role in its pathogenesis. Genetic polymorphisms in cytokines and their receptors have been proposed as potential markers for periodontal diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether IL-4R gene polymorphism is associated with chronic periodontitis (CP or not? Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study ninety non smoker patients (61 women and 29 men with chronic periodontitis were selected according to established criteria. They were categorized into three groups according to their clinical attachment level (CAL. Mutation at position 375(alanine/glutamine, 411(leucine/serine, 478(serine/proline, 406 (arginine/ cysteine in the IL-4R gene was detected by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP method.Results: The distribution of mutations for IL-4 polymorphism at amino acids 375 (P=0.41, 411(P=0.22, 478(P=0.17, 406(P=0.77 were not significantly different among mild, moderate and sever chronic periodontitis patients. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is no correlation between IL-4R polymorphism of chronic periodontitis.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(3:63-69

  19. The Possible Association between Constitutive Heterochromatin Polymorphism and Human Leukemias

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    Abolfazl Movafagh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Polymorphism of the size of heterochromatin region of chromosomes has been well documented in human genome and it consists of DNA sequences that are not transcribed. The prime aim of the present study was to evaluate the heterochromatin polymorphism associated with chromosomes in leukemic patients.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 35 consecutive leukemic patients and 34 healthy individuals in Modaress and Taleghani hospitals, Tehran, Iran between 2004-2006. By applying Barium Hydroxide saline Giemsa (BSC method with certain alterations, the variant heterochromatin polymorphism of chromosomes 1, 9 and 16 on bone marrow and peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures were evaluated. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis with SPSS software.Results: Constitutive heterochromatin polymorphism of chromosomes 1 and 9 in leukemic patients revealed statistical significant differences when compared with chromosomes of healthy controls (p=0.0005 and (p=0.006 respectively. The differences were not significant for chromosome 16, it was 11.4% in leukemic patients and 0% in the control group (p=0.05. The frequency of partial and complete inversions did not show any significant differences between the leukemic patients and the control group.Conclusion: The constitutive heterochromatin polymorphism blocks may provide an opportunity to serve as a marker for the detection and characterization of the chromosomes in leukemic patients.

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase gene polymorphisms in patients with coronary artery disease

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    Vanessa L.N. Dalepiane

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the pathology underlying the majority of coronary artery disease (CAD. In this study we tested the hypothesis that polymorphic variation in the MMP genes influences the risk of developing atherosclerosis. We analyzed functional polymorphisms in the promoter of the MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-12 genes in 183 Brazilian Caucasian individuals submitted to coronary angiography, of which 67 (37% had normal coronary arteries (control group and 116 (63% had CAD (CAD patient group. The -1607 1G/2G MMP-1, -1171 5A/6A MMP-3, -1562 C/T MMP-9, -82 A/G MMP-12 polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR followed by restriction digestion. No significant differences were observed in allele frequencies between the CAD patients and controls. Haplotype analysis showed no differences between the CAD patients and controls. There was a significant difference in the severity of CAD, as assessed by the number of diseased vessels, in MMP-1 1G/1G homozygous individuals and in those homozygous for the 6A allele of the MMP-3 polymorphism. However, multivariate analysis showed that diabetes mellitus was the only variable independently associated with CAD severity. Our findings indicated that MMP polymorphisms have no significant impact on the risk and severity of CAD.

  1. Development of novel polymorphic microsatellite markers in Siganus fuscescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X Q; Li, Z B; Ning, Y F; Shangguan, J B; Yuan, Y; Huang, Y S; Li, B B

    2016-01-01

    Rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens, is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific regions and eastern Mediterranean. Its dwelling place includes reef flats, coral reef regions, and seagrass meadows in tropical area and reef areas or shallow waters in locations at high latitudes. In the present study, 10 new polymorphic microsatellite markers were screened from 30 wild S. fuscescens individuals, using a method of fast isolation protocol and amplified fragment length polymorphism of sequences containing repeats. The number of polymorphic alleles per locus was 3 to 5 with a mean of 4.3, while the value of polymorphic information content ranged from 0.283 to 0.680. The values of the observed and expected heterozygosities were in the range 0.3333-0.8462 and 0.3011-0.7424, respectively. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not observed in this study. These polymorphic loci are expected to be effective in evaluating the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow and in determining the paternity in S. fuscescens, as well as for conservation management. PMID:27525874

  2. Crystal structure of 8-hydroxyquinoline: a new monoclinic polymorph

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    Raúl Castañeda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to grow 8-hydroxyquinoline–acetaminophen co-crystals from equimolar amounts of conformers in a chloroform–ethanol solvent mixture at room temperature, the title compound, C9H7NO, was obtained. The molecule is planar, with the hydroxy H atom forming an intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, molecules form centrosymmetric dimers via two O—H...N hydrogen bonds. Thus, the hydroxy H atoms are involved in bifurcated O—H...N hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of a central planar four-membered N2H2 ring. The dimers are bound by intermolecular π–π stacking [the shortest C...C distance is 3.2997 (17 Å] and C—H...π interactions into a three-dimensional framework. The crystal grown represents a new monoclinic polymorph in the space group P21/n. The molecular structure of the present monoclinic polymorph is very similar to that of the orthorhombic polymorph (space group Fdd2 studied previously [Roychowdhury et al. (1978. Acta Cryst. B34, 1047–1048; Banerjee & Saha (1986. Acta Cryst. C42, 1408–1411]. The structures of the two polymorphs are distinguished by the different geometries of the hydrogen-bonded dimers, which in the crystal of the orthorhombic polymorph possess twofold axis symmetry, with the central N2H2 ring adopting a butterfly conformation.

  3. Cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms of Mexican indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Macías, Martha; Llerena, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the genetic polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in Mexican indigenous populations, who are a part of the wide ethnic diversity of this country. These native groups have a particular historical trajectory that is different from the Mexican Mestizos. This variability may be reflected in the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in the CYP genes that encode enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. Therefore, these polymorphisms may affect drug efficacy and safety in indigenous populations in Mexico. The present study aimed to analyze the prevalence of CYP polymorphisms in indigenous Mexicans and to compare the results with studies in Mexican Mestizos. Because the extrapolation of pharmacogenetic data from Mestizos is not applicable to the majority of indigenous groups, pharmacogenetic studies directed at indigenous populations need to be developed. The Amerindians analyzed in this study showed a low phenotypic (CYP2D6) and genotypic (CYP2D6, CYP2C9) diversity, unlike Mexican Mestizos. The frequency of polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 genes was more similar among the Amerindians and Mexican Mestizos, with the exception of the CYP1A2 gene, whose *1F variant frequency in Mexican Amerindians was the highest described to date. PMID:24145057

  4. Turner syndrome and genetic polymorphism: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marqui, Alessandra Bernadete Trovó

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present the main results of the literature on genetic polymorphisms in Turner syndrome and their association with the clinical signs and the etiology of this chromosomal disorder. Data sources: The review was conducted in the PubMed database without any time limit, using the terms Turner syndrome and genetic polymorphism. A total of 116 articles were found, and based on the established inclusion and exclusion criteria 17 were selected for the review. Data synthesis: The polymorphisms investigated in patients with Turner syndrome were associated with growth deficit, causing short stature, low bone mineral density, autoimmunity and cardiac abnormalities, which are frequently found in patients with Turner syndrome. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the etiology of Turner syndrome, i.e., in chromosomal nondisjunction, was also confirmed. Conclusions: Genetic polymorphisms appear to be associated with Turner syndrome. However, in view of the small number of published studies and their contradictory findings, further studies in different populations are needed in order to clarify the role of genetic variants in the clinical signs and etiology of the Turner syndrome. PMID:25765448

  5. Immune sensitization against epidermal antigens in polymorphous light eruption

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    Gonzalez-Amaro, R.; Baranda, L.; Salazar-Gonzalez, J.F.; Abud-Mendoza, C.; Moncada, B. (Univ. of San Luis Potosi (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    To get further insight into the pathogenesis of polymorphous light eruption, we studied nine patients with polymorphous light eruption and six healthy persons. Two skin biopsy specimens were obtained from each person, one from previously ultraviolet light-irradiated skin and another one from unirradiated skin. An epidermal cell suspension, skin homogenate, or both were prepared from each specimen. Autologous cultures were made with peripheral blood mononuclear cells combined with irradiated or unirradiated skin homogenate and peripheral blood mononuclear cells combined with irradiated or unirradiated epidermal cell suspension. Cell proliferation was assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation assay. The response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to unirradiated epidermal cells or unirradiated skin homogenate was similar in both patients and controls. However, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with polymorphous light eruption showed a significantly increased proliferative response to both irradiated epidermal cells and irradiated skin homogenate. Our results indicate that ultraviolet light increases the stimulatory capability of polymorphous light eruption epidermal cells in a unidirectional mixed culture with autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This suggests that an immune sensitization against autologous ultraviolet light-modified skin antigens occurs in polymorphous light eruption.

  6. Immune sensitization against epidermal antigens in polymorphous light eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To get further insight into the pathogenesis of polymorphous light eruption, we studied nine patients with polymorphous light eruption and six healthy persons. Two skin biopsy specimens were obtained from each person, one from previously ultraviolet light-irradiated skin and another one from unirradiated skin. An epidermal cell suspension, skin homogenate, or both were prepared from each specimen. Autologous cultures were made with peripheral blood mononuclear cells combined with irradiated or unirradiated skin homogenate and peripheral blood mononuclear cells combined with irradiated or unirradiated epidermal cell suspension. Cell proliferation was assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation assay. The response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to unirradiated epidermal cells or unirradiated skin homogenate was similar in both patients and controls. However, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with polymorphous light eruption showed a significantly increased proliferative response to both irradiated epidermal cells and irradiated skin homogenate. Our results indicate that ultraviolet light increases the stimulatory capability of polymorphous light eruption epidermal cells in a unidirectional mixed culture with autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This suggests that an immune sensitization against autologous ultraviolet light-modified skin antigens occurs in polymorphous light eruption

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease: the role of inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms

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    Joanna Balding

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available THE mechanisms responsible for development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD have not been fully elucidated, although the main cause of disease pathology is attributed to up-regulated inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of polymorphisms in genes encoding pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in IBD patients and controls. We determined genotypes of patients with IBD (n=172 and healthy controls (n=389 for polymorphisms in genes encoding various cytokines (interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF, IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist. Association of these genotypes to disease incidence and pathophysiology was investigated. No strong association was found with occurrence of IBD. Variation was observed between the ulcerative colitis study group and the control population for the TNF-α-308 polymorphism (p=0.0135. There was also variation in the frequency of IL-6-174 and TNF-α-308 genotypes in the ulcerative colitis group compared with the Crohn's disease group (p=0.01. We concluded that polymorphisms in inflammatory genes are associated with variations in IBD phenotype and disease susceptibility. Whether the polymorphisms are directly involved in regulating cytokine production, and consequently pathophysiology of IBD, or serve merely as markers in linkage disequilibrium with susceptibility genes remains unclear.

  8. Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Demin; Jing, Lei; Zhang, Suzhan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective was to perform a meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence from prospective nested case-control studies on the association of vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer. We searched PubMed, ISI web of science, EMBASE, and reference lists for included articles. Study specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled by using fixed-effect or random-effects models. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were no association between Fok1 gene allele contrast f versus F (OR: 0.859; 95%CI: 0.685–1.079), ff versus FF (OR: 0.893; 95%CI: 0.763–1.045), recessive models ff versus FF+Ff (OR: 0.932; 95%CI: 0.796–1.092), and dominant models ff+Ff versus FF (OR: 0.899; 95%CI: 0.780–1.037). The estimated VDR polymorphism showed no significant association between Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1 polymorphism, and breast cancer risk. In the Caucasian ethnic subgroup, no association was found between allele contrast, recessive models, and dominant models on Fok1, Bsm1 polymorphism, and breast cancer risk. VDR polymorphism (Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, and Apa1) were not associated with the risk of breast cancer in the general population as well as Caucasian population. PMID:27149457

  9. Association of TNF, MBL, and VDR polymorphisms with leprosy phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Bishwa R; Macdonald, Murdo; Berrington, William R; Misch, E Ann; Ranjit, Chaman; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Kaplan, Gilla; Hawn, Thomas R

    2010-10-01

    Although genetic variants in tumor necrosis factor (TNF), mannose binding lectin (MBL), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) have been associated with leprosy clinical outcomes, these findings have not been extensively validated. We used a case-control study design with 933 patients in Nepal, which included 240 patients with type I reversal reaction (RR), and 124 patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) reactions. We compared genotype frequencies in 933 cases and 101 controls of seven polymorphisms, including a promoter region variant in TNF (G -308A), three polymorphisms in MBL (C154T, G161A and G170A), and three variants in VDR (FokI, BsmI, and TaqI). We observed an association between TNF -308A and protection from leprosy with an odds ratio of 0.52 (95% confidence interval = 0.29-0.95, p = 0.016). MBL polymorphism G161A was associated with protection from lepromatous leprosy (odds ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval = 0.12-0.85, p = 0.010). VDR polymorphisms were not associated with leprosy phenotypes. These results confirm previous findings of an association of TNF -308A with protection from leprosy and MBL polymorphisms with protection from lepromatous leprosy. The statistical significance was modest and will require further study for conclusive validation. PMID:20650301

  10. Quasiparticle bands and spectra of Ga2O3 polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furthmüller, J.; Bechstedt, F.

    2016-03-01

    Within the framework of density functional theory and Hedin's G W approximation for single-particle excitations, we present quasiparticle band structures and densities of states for two gallium oxide polymorphs: rhombohedral α -Ga2O3 and monoclinic β -Ga2O3 . The gap problem is attacked. In addition, their electron effective mass tensors are given. Solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation we also calculate excitonic optical spectra of the two polymorphs. The treatment of excitonic effects allows for a trustable prediction of optical properties from the band gap to the ultraviolet region. In addition, for few other polymorphs we also discuss the frequency-dependent dielectric tensor within the independent-particle approximation (random phase approximation) and densities of states on density functional level. We demonstrate that apart from subtle details, the overall densities of states and optical spectra, in particular the isotropically averaged spectra, are rather similar for all polymorphs, while the electronic dielectric constants vary with the structure. For all polymorphs, complete sets of elastic constants are given.

  11. Biochemical changes associated to soybean seeds osmoconditioning during storage

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    BRACCINI ALESSANDRO DE LUCCA E

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A work was carried out with the purpose of verifying the biochemical changes associated to soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill seeds osmoconditioning. Seeds of the UFV 10, IAC 8 and Doko RC cultivars harvested at R8 development stage and submitted to different treatments were used. The biochemical evaluations were performed during seed storage, after the hydration-dehydration process. Initially, seeds were osmoconditioned in a polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 solution, with the osmotic potential of -0.8 MPa and 20ºC, for a period of four days. After that, seeds were dried back until the initial moisture content (10-11% and stored in natural conditions for three and six months. Two controls were used: untreated seeds (dry seeds and water soaked seeds. Seed changes in protein and lipid, hexanal accumulation and fatty acids contents were evaluated. The results showed that seed storage under laboratory natural conditions caused reduction in protein, lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids content and promoted hexanal production. Storage periods reduced protein levels for all treatments, however the PEG 6000 treatment showed lower protein reduction. The soybean seed storage increased hexanal production, but hexanal levels were smaller with osmoconditioning comparing to the other imbibition treatments.

  12. The application of information theory to biochemical signaling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell signaling can be thought of fundamentally as an information transmission problem in which chemical messengers relay information about the external environment to the decision centers within a cell. Due to the biochemical nature of cellular signal transduction networks, molecular noise will inevitably limit the fidelity of any messages received and processed by a cell's signal transduction networks, leaving it with an imperfect impression of its environment. Fortunately, Shannon's information theory provides a mathematical framework independent of network complexity that can quantify the amount of information that can be transmitted despite biochemical noise. In particular, the channel capacity can be used to measure the maximum number of stimuli a cell can distinguish based upon the noisy responses of its signaling systems. Here, we provide a primer for quantitative biologists that covers fundamental concepts of information theory, highlights several key considerations when experimentally measuring channel capacity, and describes successful examples of the application of information theoretic analysis to biological signaling. (paper)

  13. [INVITED] Tilted fiber grating mechanical and biochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    The tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is a new kind of fiber-optic sensor that possesses all the advantages of well-established Bragg grating technology in addition to being able to excite cladding modes resonantly. This device opens up a multitude of opportunities for single-point sensing in hard-to-reach spaces with very controllable cross-sensitivities, absolute and relative measurements of various parameters, and an extreme sensitivity to materials external to the fiber without requiring the fiber to be etched or tapered. Over the past five years, our research group has been developing multimodal fiber-optic sensors based on TFBG in various shapes and forms, always keeping the device itself simple to fabricate and compatible with low-cost manufacturing. This paper presents a brief review of the principle, fabrication, characterization, and implementation of TFBGs, followed by our progress in TFBG sensors for mechanical and biochemical applications, including one-dimensional TFBG vibroscopes, accelerometers and micro-displacement sensors; two-dimensional TFBG vector vibroscopes and vector rotation sensors; reflective TFBG refractometers with in-fiber and fiber-to-fiber configurations; polarimetric and plasmonic TFBG biochemical sensors for in-situ detection of cell, protein and glucose.

  14. Improved methods for the mathematically controlled comparison of biochemical systems

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    Schwacke John H

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The method of mathematically controlled comparison provides a structured approach for the comparison of alternative biochemical pathways with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. Under this approach, alternative implementations of a biochemical pathway are modeled mathematically, forced to be equivalent through the application of selected constraints, and compared with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. While the method has been applied successfully in a variety of studies, we offer recommendations for improvements to the method that (1 relax requirements for definition of constraints sufficient to remove all degrees of freedom in forming the equivalent alternative, (2 facilitate generalization of the results thus avoiding the need to condition those findings on the selected constraints, and (3 provide additional insights into the effect of selected constraints on the functional effectiveness measures. We present improvements to the method and related statistical models, apply the method to a previously conducted comparison of network regulation in the immune system, and compare our results to those previously reported.

  15. Coarse-graining stochastic biochemical networks: adiabaticity and fast simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hengartner, Nick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We propose a universal approach for analysis and fast simulations of stiff stochastic biochemical kinetics networks, which rests on elimination of fast chemical species without a loss of information about mesoscoplc, non-Poissonian fluctuations of the slow ones. Our approach, which is similar to the Born-Oppenhelmer approximation in quantum mechanics, follows from the stochastic path Integral representation of the cumulant generating function of reaction events. In applications with a small number of chemIcal reactions, It produces analytical expressions for cumulants of chemical fluxes between the slow variables. This allows for a low-dimensional, Interpretable representation and can be used for coarse-grained numerical simulation schemes with a small computational complexity and yet high accuracy. As an example, we derive the coarse-grained description for a chain of biochemical reactions, and show that the coarse-grained and the microscopic simulations are in an agreement, but the coarse-gralned simulations are three orders of magnitude faster.

  16. Metabolic and biochemical changes caused by gamma irradiation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications involving radioisotopes and radiations reveal a great promise particularly for the welfare of the society. However, in the event of a nuclear accident, the direct and indirect effect of radionuclide and radiation transfers in soil-plant-air environment are envisaged on almost all the components of the food chain. It also assumes significance as we often overlook the fact that radiations, emitted by any radioisotope although cannot be seen or felt, interacts with matter and could alter its biochemical, biophysical and biological characteristics. The interaction of ionizing radiation with human body and consequent biological effects are well characterized and quantified using data derived from the radiation workers and/or the nuclear accidents around the world. However, radiation impact on agriculture viz a viz economic productivity are not well understood and available data is scanty, scattered and inconclusive. At the plant level the effects could be visualized at morphological, biochemical, physiological and/or biophysical levels, where the magnitude of the effected change depends heavily on the exposure dose, soil, farm management and other environmental variables. This review attempts to collate and critically analyze the available researches on how the ionizing radiation might interact with crops at the whole plant or tissue or cell level to affect economic yield under various edaphic variables where not only the productivity but also the quality of the agri-produce may become vulnerable. (author)

  17. Transient amplification limits noise suppression in biochemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John; Lindemann, Anika; McCoy, Jonathan H.

    2016-01-01

    Cell physiology is orchestrated, on a molecular level, through complex networks of biochemical reactions. The propagation of random fluctuations through these networks can significantly impact cell behavior, raising challenging questions about how network design shapes the cell's ability to suppress or exploit these fluctuations. Here, drawing on insights from statistical physics, fluid dynamics, and systems biology, we explore how transient amplification phenomena arising from network connectivity naturally limit a biochemical system's ability to suppress small fluctuations around steady-state behaviors. We find that even a simple system consisting of two variables linked by a single interaction is capable of amplifying small fluctuations orders of magnitude beyond the levels predicted by linear stability theory. We also find that adding additional interactions can promote further amplification, even when these interactions implement classic design strategies known to suppress fluctuations. These results establish that transient amplification is an essential factor determining baseline noise levels in stable intracellular networks. Significantly, our analysis is not bound to specific systems or interaction mechanisms: we find that noise amplification is an emergent phenomenon found near steady states in any network containing sufficiently strong interactions, regardless of its form or function.

  18. Serum Biochemical Profile of Post Partum Metritic Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus P. K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to find out the relationship between serum biochemical profile and postpartum metritis. Mainly serum glucose, total protein, albumin, albumin globulin ratio, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine and calcium were studied. Colorimetric method was used for quantitative estimation of biochemical profile. Twenty-seven animals with recent history of calving and subsequent metritis were included in the study. On analysis, serum glucose was found to be 22.3 ± 2.18 mg/dl, total protein 6.1 ± 0.51 g/dl, albumin 2.8 ± 0.29 g/dl, BUN 27 ± 0.19 mg/dl, creatinine 1.8 ± 0.13 mg/dl and calcium was 7.0 ± 0.43 mg/dl. On comparison of this result with normal values it was found that glucose and calcium was below the normal level and albumin fraction was less than the globulin. It was concluded that in postpartum metritis, cattle exhibit hypocalcaemia, hypoglycaemia and reduced globulin fraction, whereas total protein, albumin, BUN and creatinine did not exhibit much variation. Ketone bodies were present in urine of 90% of tested animals. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 27-28

  19. CORD SERUM FERRITIN AS BIOCHEMICAL MARKER IN IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is by far the most frequent type of anemia seen in pregnancy, accounting for 90% or more of all cases. Iron deficiency anemia has adverse consequences on infant development. Therefore maternal anemia should be prevented and treated. Serum ferritin is the single best non-invasive test and is a very useful and reliable index of iron stores especially during pregnancy, with low levels indicating iron deficiency. While infants born to anemic mother are themselves not anemic, they do not suffer from low iron stores. The main aim of the study is to establish cord serum ferritin as a biochemical marker in iron deficiency anemia. The specific objectives of this study is to estimate cord and maternal serum ferritin in the last trimester of pregnancy and to correlate it with hematological parameters. Cord serum ferritin levels were normal in the patients under study, even when the maternal serum ferritin levels were decreased. The mean level of cord serum ferritin was 134.06ng/ml and maternal serum ferritin was 41.65ng/ml and was statistically significant. The hematological parameters like hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV and MCHC were also decreased in the patients with low serum ferritin and were found to be statistically significant. Hence estimation of cord serum ferritin can be used as a biochemical marker to assess iron deficiency in the early stages itself and thereby neurodevelopmental complications in children can be prevented.

  20. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  1. Advanced materials and biochemical processes for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E.; van Rooyen, D.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1987-04-01

    Two Geothermal Technology Division (GTD)-sponsored programs: (1) Geothermal Materials Development, and (2) Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines, are described. In the former, work in the following tasks is in progress: (1) high temperature elastomeric materials for dynamic sealing applications, (2) advanced high temperature (300/sup 0/C) lightweight (1.1 g/cc) well cementing materials, (3) thermally conductive composites for heat exchanger tubing, (4) corrosion rates for metals in brine-contaminated binary plant working fluids, and (5) elastomeric liners for well casing. Methods for the utilization and/or the low cost environmentally acceptable disposal of toxic geothermal residues are being developed in the second program. This work is performed in two tasks. In one, microorganisms that can interact with toxic metals found in geothermal residues to convert them into soluble species for subsequent reinjection back into the reservoir or to concentrate them for removal by conventional processes are being identified. In the second task, process conditions are being defined for the encapsulation of untreated or partially biochemically treated residues in Portland cement-based formulations and the subsequent utilization of the waste fractions in building materials. Both processing methods yield materials which appear to meet disposal criteria for non-toxic solid waste, and their technical and economic feasibilities have been established.

  2. Physiological and biochemical performances of menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available The unique mutualism between corals and their photosynthetic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp. is the driving force behind functional assemblages of coral reefs. However, the respective roles of hosts and Symbiodinium in this endosymbiotic association, particularly in response to environmental challenges (e.g., high sea surface temperatures, remain unsettled. One of the key obstacles is to produce and maintain aposymbiotic coral hosts for experimental purposes. In this study, a simple and gentle protocol to generate aposymbiotic coral hosts (Isopora palifera and Stylophora pistillata was developed using repeated incubation in menthol/artificial seawater (ASW medium under light and in ASW in darkness, which depleted more than 99% of Symbiodinium from the host within 4∼8 days. As indicated by the respiration rate, energy metabolism (by malate dehydrogenase activity, and nitrogen metabolism (by glutamate dehydrogenase activity and profiles of free amino acids, the physiological and biochemical performances of the menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals were comparable to their symbiotic counterparts without nutrient supplementation (e.g., for Stylophora or with a nutrient supplement containing glycerol, vitamins, and a host mimic of free amino acid mixture (e.g., for Isopora. Differences in biochemical responses to menthol-induced bleaching between Stylophora and Isopora were attributed to the former digesting Symbiodinium rather than expelling the algae live as found in the latter species. Our studies showed that menthol could successfully bleach corals and provided aposymbiotic corals for further exploration of coral-alga symbioses.

  3. BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE AND ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERN IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Ranjan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To study different biochemical parameters and serum agarose gel electrophoresis patterns of patients consistent with clinical symptoms of multiple myeloma. SETTING : The study was carried out at Apollo Hospitals, Bhubaneswar, the premier tertiary care C ent re in Orissa. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : A total of 1057 referred cases for protein electrophoresis were analysed and reviewed between March 2010 to July 2015. RESULTS : Out of 1057 cases of protein electrophoresis 94 were confirmed cases of Multiple Myeloma. T he mean age of detected cases of Multiple Myeloma was 64.8 years. There was a male prevalence. Anaemia was initially found in 85.0% cases . The mean protein concentration was 9.0gm/dL and albumin was 3.2gm/dL . Hypercalcemia was seen in 28.0% case. Serum Cre atinine level of >2.0mg/dL was seen in cases 38.0% case. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed a localized band in 99% of patients. Immuno fixation electrophoresis showed monoclonal band in 92 cases (98% and a biclonal pattern in 2 cases (2%. Light chain myeloma was detected in 11 cases (19.0%. CONCLUSION : Serum protein electrophoresis should be routinely used in all elderly patients with features of bone pain, anemia and hyperproteinemia . It is still the gold standard for diagnosing Multiple Myeloma and it collaborate well with the clinical, biochemical and radiological findings. The abnormal band can be well characterized by Immunofixation electrophoresis.

  4. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty; Santanu Kar Mahapatra; Somenath Roy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics.Methods:Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 ℃. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, and fermentation of lactose and sucrose. Antibiotic susceptibility were carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration test, minium bactericidal concentration test, disc agar diffusion test and brain heart infusion oxacillin screening agar. Results: From this study, it was observed that 100% S. aureus isolates showed positive results in gelatin, urea and galactose hydrolysis test, 50% isolates were positive in starch hydrolysis test, 35% in protein hydrolysis test, 100% isolates in lactose fermenting test, but no isolate was positive in sucrose fermenting test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing suggested that 20% of isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Conclusions: These findings show that all these isolates have gelatin, urea, galactose hydrolysis and lactose fermenting activity. 20% of these isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study.

  5. Human biochemical response to ozone and vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posin, C.I.; Clark, K.W.; Jones, M.P.; Buckley, R.D.; Hackney, J.D.

    1979-11-01

    To determine whether vitamin E (dl-..cap alpha..-tocopherol) supplementation of the diet provides protection from inhaled oxidants such as ozone (O/sub 3/) in community air pollution, its effects were studied in healthy adult volunteers. Experimental groups received 800 or 1600 IU of vitamin E for 9 weeks or more; control groups received placebos. Double-blind conditions were maintained throughout the study. Biochemical parameters studied included red blood cell fragility; hematocrit and hemoglobin values; red cell glutathione concentration; and the enzymes acetylcholinesterase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid dehydrogenase. No significant differences between the responses of the supplemented and placebo groups to a controlled O/sub 3/ exposure (0.5 ppM for 2 h) were found for any of these parameters. The results indicate that vitamin E supplementation in humans, at the levels employed in this experiment, gives no added protection against blood biochemical effects of O/sub 3/ in intermittently exercising subjects under exposure conditions simulating summer ambient air pollution episodes.

  6. Biochemical analysis of the crude extract of Momordica charantia (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Ume Kalsoom; Owais, Farah; Ahmad, Manzoor; Rizwani, Ghazala H

    2014-11-01

    Momordica charantia (L.) commonly referred as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. The study was conducted to find out the biochemical aspects of crude extract of whole fruit of M. charantia including seeds which includes blood test (Hemoglobin, RBC, Total leukocyte count, platelets count, HbA1C (Glycocylated heamoglobin Type A1C)), Lipid profile test and electrolyte balance. Hemoglobin (7.1±0.14), platelets count (827 ×109±1.95), Cholesterol level (111±2), HDL (high density lipoproteins) (20±1.22) at 10mg shows marked increase in values as compared to control. While 25 mg dose shows insignificant result. Electrolyte balance are found significant at 10mg and 25mg except bicarbonates (Na(+¬)=143±1.87, K-=3.45±0.35, Cl(-) =108±1.48). Another important property of M. charantia is the elevation of platelet counts, heamoglobin and specifically high-density lipoproteins (HDL). It also controls cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL at low dosage (10mg). Further studies can be conducted to find out which phytochemical components acts on specific biochemical activity. PMID:26045386

  7. Impact of flow velocity on biochemical processes - a laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, A.; Roubinet, D.; Aquilina, L.; Bour, O.; Davy, P.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding and predicting hydraulic and chemical properties of natural environments are current crucial challenges. It requires considering hydraulic, chemical and biological processes and evaluating how hydrodynamic properties impact on biochemical reactions. In this context, an original laboratory experiment to study the impact of flow velocity on biochemical reactions along a one-dimensional flow streamline has been developed. Based on the example of nitrate reduction, nitrate-rich water passes through plastic tubes at several flow velocities (from 6.2 to 35 mm min-1), while nitrate concentration at the tube outlet is monitored for more than 500 h. This experimental setup allows assessing the biologically controlled reaction between a mobile electron acceptor (nitrate) and an electron donor (carbon) coming from an immobile phase (tube) that produces carbon during its degradation by microorganisms. It results in observing a dynamic of the nitrate transformation associated with biofilm development which is flow-velocity dependent. It is proposed that the main behaviors of the reaction rates are related to phases of biofilm development through a simple analytical model including assimilation. Experiment results and their interpretation demonstrate a significant impact of flow velocity on reaction performance and stability and highlight the relevance of dynamic experiments over static experiments for understanding biogeochemical processes.

  8. Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the clinical and biochemical characteristics of children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) at a tertiary care centre in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Paediatric Rheumatology Clinic of The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Clinical and laboratory profile and outcome of children less than 15 years of age attending the Paediatric Rheumatology Clinic of the Aga Khan University, Karachi with the diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis according to International League against Rheumatism were studied. These children were classified into different types of JIA; their clinical and laboratory characteristics, response to therapy and outcome was evaluated. Results: Sixty eight patients satisfying the criteria of International League against Rheumatism (ILAR) for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis were enrolled during the study period of four consecutive years, their age ranged from 9 months to 15 years. Mean age at onset was 6.45 +- 4.03 years while mean age at diagnosis was 7.60 +- 3.93 years. Polyarticular was the most predominant subtype with 37 (54%) patients, out of these, 9 (24%) were rheumatoid factor positive. An almost equal gender predisposition was observed. Fever and arthritis were the most common presenting symptoms, with only 2 patients presenting with uveitis. Conclusion: The clinico-biochemical characteristics of JIA at the study centre showed a pattern distinct with early onset of disease, high frequency of polyarticular type and a higher rheumatoid factor (QRA) and ANA positivity in girls. (author)

  9. Introduction to the polymorphic tracking code. Fibre bundles, polymorphic taylor types and ''Exact Tracking''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a description of the basic ideas behind the ''Polymorphic Tracking Code'' or PTC. PTC is truly a ''kick code'' or symplectic integrator in the tradition of TRACYII, SixTrack, and TEAPOT. However it separates correctly the mathematical atlas of charts and the magnets at a structural level by implementing a ''restricted fibre bundle.'' The resulting structures allow backward propagation and recirculation, something not possible in standard tracking codes. Also PTC is polymorphic in handling real (single, double and even quadruple precision) and Taylor series. Therefore it has all the tools associated to the TPSA packages: Lie methods, Normal Forms, Cosy-Infinity capabilities, beam envelopes for radiation, etc., as well as parameter dependence on-the-fly. However PTC is an integrator, and as such, one must, generally, adhere to the Talman ''exactness'' view of modeling. Incidentally, it supports exact sector and rectangular bends as well. Of course, one can certainly bypass its integrator and the user is free to violate Talman's principles on his own; PTC provides the tools to dig one's grave but not the encouragement. The reader will find in Appendix B a PowerPoint presentation of FPP. The presentation is a bit out of data but it gives a good idea of FPP which is essential to PTC. FPP is a stand-alone library and can be used by anyone with a FORTRAN90 compiler. This presentation is also, to be honest, a place where the authors intend to document very incompletely nearly two years of work: the development of FPP and subsequently that of PTC. Our ultimate intention is to morph PTC completely into MAD-X. The code MAD-X is an upgrade of MAD-8 and not of the C++ CLASSIC based code MAD-9. The present document does not address when and how this will be done. It is also our goal to link, if possible, PTC with CAD programs for the design of complex follow-the-terrain beam lines. So far FPP and PTC have been used in the design of beam separators (complex polymorphs

  10. Metabolic correction for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A biochemical-physiological therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikirova NA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective: This investigation was undertaken to determine the reference values of specific biochemical markers that have been have been associated with behavior typical of ADHD in a group of patients before and after metabolic correction.Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD affects approximately two million American children, and this condition has grown to become the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder of childhood. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, the cause of the condition, once called hyperkinesis, is not known.The cause of ADHD is generally acknowledged to be multifactorial, involving both biological and environmental influence. Molecular, genetic, and pharmacological studies suggest the involvement of the neurotransmitter systems in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Polymorphic variants in several genes involved in regulation of dopamine have been identified, and related neurotransmitter pathways alterations are reported to be associated with the disease.Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in fatty acids (EPA, DHA, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Materials/Methods: This study was based on data extracted from our patient history database covering a period of over ten years. We performed laboratory tests in 116 patients 2.7-25 years old with a diagnosis of ADHD. Sixty-six percent (66% of patients were males. Patients were followed from 3 month to 3 years. We compared the distributions of fatty acids, essential metals, and the levels of metabolic stress factors with established reference ranges before and after interventions. In addition, we analyzed the association between toxic metal concentrations and the levels of essential metals.Results: This study was based

  11. Detection of DNA polymorphisms in Dendrobium Sonia White mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendrobium Sonia white mutant lines were obtained through gamma ray induced mutation of purple flower Dendrobium Sonia at dosage 35 Gy. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique was used to compare genomic variations in these mutant lines with the control. Our objectives were to detect polymorphic fragments from these mutants to provide useful information on genes involving in flower colour expression. AFLP is a PCR based DNA fingerprinting technique. It involves digestion of DNA with restriction enzymes, ligation of adapter and selective amplification using primer with one (pre-amplification) and three (selective amplification) arbitrary nucleotides. A total number of 20 primer combinations have been tested and 7 produced clear fingerprint patterns. Of these, 13 polymorphic bands have been successfully isolate and cloned. (Author)

  12. High-pressure polymorphism of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin): Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Ethan L.; Dreger, Zbigniew A.; Gupta, Yogendra M.

    2015-02-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to elucidate the high-pressure polymorphic behavior of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), an important pharmaceutical compound known as aspirin. Using a diamond anvil cell (DAC), single crystals of the two polymorphic phases of aspirin existing at ambient conditions (ASA-I and ASA-II) were compressed to 10 GPa. We found that ASA-I does not transform to ASA-II, but instead transforms to a new phase (ASA-III) above ∼2 GPa. It is demonstrated that this transformation primarily introduces structural changes in the bonding and arrangement of the acetyl groups and is reversible upon the release of pressure. In contrast, a less dense ASA-II shows no transition in the pressure range studied, though it appears to exhibit a disordered structure above 7 GPa. Our results suggest that ASA-III is the most stable polymorph of aspirin at high pressures.

  13. Mu opioid receptor polymorphism, early social adversity, and social traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S; Johnson, Sheri L; Kim, Youngmee

    2016-10-01

    A polymorphism in the mu opioid receptor gene OPRM1 (rs1799971) has been investigated for its role in sensitivity to social contexts. Evidence suggests that the G allele of this polymorphism is associated with higher levels of sensitivity. This study tested for main effects of the polymorphism and its interaction with a self-report measure of childhood adversity as an index of negative environment. Outcomes were several personality measures relevant to social connection. Significant interactions were obtained, such that the negative impact of childhood adversity on personality was greater among G carriers than among A homozygotes on measures of agreeableness, interdependence, anger proneness, hostility, authentic pride, life engagement, and an index of (mostly negative) feelings coloring one's world view. Findings support the role of OPRM1 in sensitivity to negative environments. Limitations are noted, including the lack of a measure of advantageous social environment to assess sensitivity to positive social contexts. PMID:26527429

  14. Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Larsson, Kristina; Vares, Maria;

    2008-01-01

    disorder. In a replication attempt the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs were analyzed in three Scandinavian schizophrenia case-control samples. In addition, Norwegian patients with bipolar disorder were investigated. There were no statistically significant allele or genotype case-control differences. The...... present Scandinavian results do not verify previous associations between the putative functional MTHFR gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, when combined with previous studies in meta-analyses there is still evidence for association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and......Recent meta-analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have suggested association between two of its functional single gene polymorphisms (SNPs; C677T and A1298C) and schizophrenia. Studies have also suggested association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C variation and bipolar...

  15. MMP-1 polymorphism and its relationship to pathological processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P A Arakaki; M R Marques; M C L G Santos

    2009-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc (Zn)-dependent endopeptidases that are collectively capable of cleaving virtually all extracellular matrix (ECM) substrates and play an important role in diverse physiological and pathological processes. The activity of MMPs is regulated at multiple levels. The transcriptional regulation of MMP appears to represent the key step in MMP regulation. There are diverse types of MMPs that differ structural and functionally. MMP-1 is the most ubiquitously expressed interstitial collagenase and has a prominent role in initial cleavage of the ECM. The level of MMP-1 expression can be influenced by different single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region. A functional polymorphism at position –1607 has been shown to alter the transcriptional activity of MMP-1 and was associated with diverse pathological processes. The aim of our review was to discuss some topics related to MMP in physiological and pathological processes, with a focus on MMP-1 polymorphism.

  16. Modeling Polymorphic Molecular Crystals with Electronic Structure Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Gregory J O

    2016-05-11

    Interest in molecular crystals has grown thanks to their relevance to pharmaceuticals, organic semiconductor materials, foods, and many other applications. Electronic structure methods have become an increasingly important tool for modeling molecular crystals and polymorphism. This article reviews electronic structure techniques used to model molecular crystals, including periodic density functional theory, periodic second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, fragment-based electronic structure methods, and diffusion Monte Carlo. It also discusses the use of these models for predicting a variety of crystal properties that are relevant to the study of polymorphism, including lattice energies, structures, crystal structure prediction, polymorphism, phase diagrams, vibrational spectroscopies, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Finally, tools for analyzing crystal structures and intermolecular interactions are briefly discussed. PMID:27008426

  17. Mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region 1 polymorphism in Singapore Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shee, Cheng-Yap; Chong, Michelle S M; Ng, Irene; Chia, Tet-Fatt

    2005-03-01

    Sequence polymorphisms of hypervariable region 1 were analyzed in 100 unrelated Singaporean Chinese. Ninety-five different haplotypes resulting from 113 variable sites were found between nucleotide positions 16045 and 16364. Single nucleotide polymorphism at nucleotide positions 16223, 16045, 16129, 16362 and 16189 was amongst the five highest frequencies observed in the sequences, whilst the most frequent haplotype was 16045-16223. Based on polymorphic sites observed at HV1, haplogroups A, F1a, M7b1, B5a and D4b were the most commonly observed clusters. The haplotype, nucleotide diversity and the average number of nucleotide differences were found to be 0.999, 0.028 and 9.082, respectively. The cytosine-stretch region located around nucleotide position 16189 was observed in 22% of this population sample. Transitions were found to be more predominant than transversions. PMID:15708338

  18. Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Larsson, Kristina; Vares, Maria; Hansen, Thomas; Wang, August G; Djurovic, Srdjan; Rønningen, Kjersti S; Andreassen, Ole A; Agartz, Ingrid; Werge, Thomas; Terenius, Lars; Hall, Håkan

    disorder. In a replication attempt the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs were analyzed in three Scandinavian schizophrenia case-control samples. In addition, Norwegian patients with bipolar disorder were investigated. There were no statistically significant allele or genotype case-control differences. The...... present Scandinavian results do not verify previous associations between the putative functional MTHFR gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, when combined with previous studies in meta-analyses there is still evidence for association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and......Recent meta-analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have suggested association between two of its functional single gene polymorphisms (SNPs; C677T and A1298C) and schizophrenia. Studies have also suggested association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C variation and bipolar...

  19. 1-Nitro-4-(4-nitrophenoxybenzene: a second monoclinic polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nadeem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H8N2O5, the aromatic rings are inclined to one another by 56.14 (7°. The nitro groups are inclined by to the benzene rings to which they are attached by 3.86 (17 and 9.65 (15°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure. The title compound is a new monoclinic polymorph, crystallizing in space group P21/c. The first polymorph crystallized in space group C2/c and the molecule possesses twofold rotation symmetry. Two low-temperature structures of this polymorph (150 K and 100 K, respectively have been reported [Meciarova et al. (2004. Private Communication (refcode IXOGAD. CCDC, Cambridge, England, and Dey & Desiraju (2005. Chem. Commun. pp. 2486–2488].

  20. Profile of biochemical traits influencing tenderness of muscles from the beef round.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M J; Lonergan, S M; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Binning, J M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to define the biochemical differences that govern tenderness and palatability of economically important muscles from the beef round using cuts with known tenderness differences. At 24h postmortem, the longissimus dorsi (LD), gracillus (GR), adductor (AD), semimembranosus (SM), sartorius (SAR), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles were removed from ten market weight beef cattle. Sensory and biochemical characteristics were determined in each cut and compared with the LD. The GR, SAR and VI had sensory traits similar to the LD while the SM, AD and VL differed. The GR, SAR, AD, and SM all had multiple biochemical characteristics similar to the LD, while the VI and AD had numerous biochemical differences. While no one biochemical characteristic can be used to predict tenderness across all muscles, analysis of the biochemical characteristics revealed that in most beef round cuts postmortem proteolysis provided a good indication of the tenderization occurring during aging. PMID:22386323

  1. A case-control study identifying chromosomal polymorphic variations as forms of epigenetic alterations associated with the infertility phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Athalye, Arundhati S; Madon, Prochi F;

    2009-01-01

    To study the association of chromosomal polymorphic variations with infertility and subfertility.......To study the association of chromosomal polymorphic variations with infertility and subfertility....

  2. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in malaria-endemic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Peter A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLR and related downstream signaling pathways of innate immunity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Because of their potential role in malaria pathogenesis, polymorphisms in these genes may be under selective pressure in populations where this infectious disease is endemic. Methods A post-PCR Ligation Detection Reaction-Fluorescent Microsphere Assay (LDR-FMA was developed to determine the frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88-Adaptor Like Protein (MAL single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and TLR2 length polymorphisms in 170 residents of two regions of Kenya where malaria transmission is stable and high (holoendemic or episodic and low, 346 residents of a malaria holoendemic region of Papua New Guinea, and 261 residents of North America of self-identified ethnicity. Results The difference in historical malaria exposure between the two Kenyan sites has significantly increased the frequency of malaria protective alleles glucose-6-phoshpate dehydrogenase (G6PD and Hemoglobin S (HbS in the holoendemic site compared to the episodic transmission site. However, this study detected no such difference in the TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL allele frequencies between the two study sites. All polymorphisms were in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium in the Kenyan and Papua New Guinean populations. TLR9 SNPs and length polymorphisms within the TLR2 5' untranslated region were the only mutant alleles present at a frequency greater than 10% in all populations. Conclusion Similar frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL genetic polymorphisms in populations with different histories of malaria exposure suggest that these innate immune pathways have not been under strong selective pressure by malaria. Genotype frequencies are consistent with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and the Neutral Theory, suggesting that genetic drift has influenced allele frequencies to a greater extent than selective

  3. Combined crystal structure prediction and high-pressure crystallization in rational pharmaceutical polymorph screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, M. A.; van de Streek, J.; Fabbiani, F. P. A.; Hidber, P.; Grassmann, O.

    2015-07-01

    Organic molecules, such as pharmaceuticals, agro-chemicals and pigments, frequently form several crystal polymorphs with different physicochemical properties. Finding polymorphs has long been a purely experimental game of trial-and-error. Here we utilize in silico polymorph screening in combination with rationally planned crystallization experiments to study the polymorphism of the pharmaceutical compound Dalcetrapib, with 10 torsional degrees of freedom one of the most flexible molecules ever studied computationally. The experimental crystal polymorphs are found at the bottom of the calculated lattice energy landscape, and two predicted structures are identified as candidates for a missing, thermodynamically more stable polymorph. Pressure-dependent stability calculations suggested high pressure as a means to bring these polymorphs into existence. Subsequently, one of them could indeed be crystallized in the 0.02 to 0.50 GPa pressure range and was found to be metastable at ambient pressure, effectively derisking the appearance of a more stable polymorph during late-stage development of Dalcetrapib.

  4. Association of Polymorphisms in the Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene Promoter with Keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Burdon, Kathryn P; MacGregor, Stuart; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Javadiyan, Sharhbanou; Li, Xiaohui; Laurie, Kate J.; Muszynska, Dorota; Lindsay, Richard; Lechner, Judith; Haritunians, Talin; Henders, Anjali K.; Dash, Durga; Siscovick, David; Anand, Seema; Aldave, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This is a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies that found evidence of association of keratoconus with polymorphisms in the promoter of the HGF gene. One polymorphism is associated with higher levels of serum HGF.

  5. Signal detection, modularity and the correlation between extrinsic and intrinsic noise in biochemical networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tanase-Nicola, Sorin; Warren, Patrick B.; Wolde, Pieter Rein ten

    2005-01-01

    Understanding cell function requires an accurate description of how noise is transmitted through biochemical networks. We present an analytical result for the power spectrum of the output signal of a biochemical network that takes into account the correlations between the noise in the input signal (the extrinsic noise) and the noise in the reactions that constitute the network (the intrinsic noise). These correlations arise from the fact that the reactions by which biochemical signals are det...

  6. Diel variations in zooplankton and their biochemical composition from Vengurla to Ratnagiri, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; KrishnaKumari, L.; Shrivastava, Y.

    of Marine Sciences Vol. 29, September, 2000, pp 277-280 Short Communication Diel variations in zooplankton and their biochemical composition from Vengurla to Ratnagiri, west coast of India S C Goswami, L.Krishna Kumari & Yashoshri Shrivastava National... population and their biochemical constituents from coastal areas is scanty. The present communication deals with diel variability of common groups including economically important fish and decapod larvae and their biochemical composition in the coastal...

  7. Efficacy of topical honey therapy against silver sulphadiazine treatment in burns: A biochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Nagane, N. S.; Ganu, J. V.; Bhagwat, V. R.; Subramanium, M.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal injury is associated with biochemical changes. The present study was undertaken to investigate relation of oxidative free radical generation and related biochemical parameters in burn trauma. The specific aim was to compare the levels of serum lipid peroxide, Ceruloplasmin and Uric Acid in burn patients during treatment with Silver Sulfadiazine Cream and honey therapy. It is a single blind prospective controlled study involving comparison of biochemical changes after treatment with si...

  8. ACTN3 Polymorphism: Comparison Between Elite Swimmers and Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Zaken, Sigal; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Rabinovich, Moran; Kassem, Eias; Meckel, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Background The human ACTN3 gene encodes α-actinin-3, an actin-binding protein with a pivotal role in muscle structure and metabolism. A common genetic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 577 of the ACTN3 results in the replacement of an arginine (R) with a stop codon (X). The R allele is a normal functional version of the gene, whereas the X allele contains a sequence change that completely stops production of functional α-actinin-3 protein. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism was found to...

  9. Novel polymorphs of the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drug benznidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato, Sara Braga; Mendonça, Jorge Souza; Boechat, Nubia; Oliveira, Alcemira Conceição; Mendes Filho, Josué; Ellena, Javier; Ayala, Alejandro Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Benznidazole (N-benzyl-2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)acetamide), is a nitro-heterocyclic drug used in the treatment of Chagas disease. Despite the fact that this drug was released more than 30 years ago, little information about its solid state properties is available in the literature. In this study, it was verified that this drug exhibits three polymorphs, which were characterized in situ by X-ray powder diffraction, thermal analysis, hot stage microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The thermodynamic relationships among these polymorphs were also discussed.

  10. Polymorphisms and genes associated with puberty in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marina R S; Nguyen, Loan To; Porto Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Moore, Stephen S; Lehnert, Sigrid A; Thomas, Milton G

    2016-07-01

    Puberty onset is a multifactorial process influenced by genetic determinants and environmental conditions, especially nutritional status. Genes, genetic variations, and regulatory networks compose the molecular basis of achieving puberty. In this article, we reviewed the discovery of multiple polymorphisms and genes associated with heifer puberty phenotypes and discuss the opportunities to use this evolving knowledge of genetic determinants for breeding early pubertal Bos indicus-influenced cattle. The discovery of polymorphisms and genes was mainly achieved through candidate gene studies, quantitative trait loci analyses, genome-wide association studies, and recently, global gene expression studies (transcriptome). These studies are recapitulated and summarized in the current review. PMID:27238439

  11. Polymorphism in transmembrane region of MTCA gene and cholelithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-Chuan Shih; Yann-Jinn Lee; Hsin-Fu Liu; Ching-Wen Dang; Shih-Chuan Chang; Shee-Chan Lin; Chin-Roa Kao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the significance of polymorphism of MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) gene in patients with cholelithiasis.METHODS: Subjects included 170 unrelated adults (83males) with cholelithiasis and 245 randomly selected unrelated adults (130 males) as controls. DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes and analyzed for polymorphism of 5 alleles (A4, A5, A5.1, A6 and A9) of the MICA gene.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in phenotype,allele, and genotype frequencies of any of the 5 alleles between cholelithiasis patients and controls.CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that MICA allelesstudied bear no relation to cholelithiasis.

  12. Thermodynamic stability analysis of m-nisoldipine polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Solubility method was used to investigated the thermodynamic properties and phase transition of two new polymorphs A, B of m-nisoldipine, a dihydropyridine calcium ion antagonist. Highlights: ► New enantiotropic polymorphs of m-nisoldipine were presented. ► Solubility method was used to investigate the thermodynamic stability. ► The thermodynamic stability accorded with interaction energies of the two forms. -- Abstract: Two polymorphic crystal forms of m-nisoldipine (1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid methyl 2-methylpropyl ester) were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and IR-spectroscopy. The solubility of the two polymorphs in water at 25, 31, 37, 42, and 49 °C was investigated; the values obtained were used to calculate the thermodynamic parameters of the phase transition. The results show that the two forms A and B are enantiotropic. The temperature of polymorphic phase transition was 47 °C, and the values of ΔGA,Bθ, ΔHA,Bθ, and ΔSA,Bθ at 25 °C were 2.47, 36.01, and 112.48 J · mol−1 · K−1, respectively. Form A is thermodynamically stable below the transition temperature; it accorded with interaction energies of the two forms obtained from Density Function Theory (DFT) calculations on the hydrogen-bonding and π-stacking interactions. The character of the solid-state decomposition, studied using DSC analysis, showed that the activation energies of decomposition of the polymorphs A and B after melting at high temperatures were 109.80 and 59.14 kJ · mol−1, respectively. It is conclusion that melted states of polymorphs A and B reserved “the memories” of their respective crystalline state. Furthermore, phase transition of the polymorphs was not found under solid-state grinding conditions. Moisture sorption/desorption experiments showed that the two forms of m-nisoldipine are nonhygroscopic

  13. Association between an interleukin-13 promoter polymorphism and atopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshoj, T; Bodtger, U; Datta, P;

    2003-01-01

    Several studies indicate genetic involvement of Th2 cytokines in allergic diseases. Interleukin (IL)-13 has been mapped to the cytokine cluster on chromosome 5q31-33, which has been associated with atopic conditions. Recently, an association was reported between the T allele in a promoter...... polymorphism in the IL-13 gene (C to T exchange) at position -1055 and allergic asthma in a population study in the Netherlands. This observation was apparently confirmed in a case-control study using probands and spouses from a Dutch asthma family study, but the polymorphism in that study was reported to...

  14. Genetic polymorphism of milk proteins in some Bos genus populations

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Guastella; G. D'Urso; G. Tirella; Budelli, E; S. Bordonaro; Marletta, D

    2011-01-01

    In cattle the analysis of the genetic polymorphism of milk proteins provides an effective tool both to characterize the genetic diversity and to improve the efficiency of selection for specific production traits. Four genes, αS1-casein (CSN1S1), β-casein (CSN2), κ-casein (CSN3) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) have showed a high level of genetic polymorphism and are candidate to play a role in selection programmes in order to improve milk production. In this work three Bos genu...

  15. Possible Association between Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism and Suicide Behavior in Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Hong, Jin-Pyo; Hwang, Jung-A; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Yoon, Ho-Kyung; Lee, Bun-Hee; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2015-01-01

    Objective The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genes are major candidate genes for modulating the suicidal behavior. We investigated the association between serotonin transporter polymorphisms and suicidal behavior in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Serotonin transporter intron 2 VNTR polymorphism (5-HTTVNTR) and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) were analyzed in 132 depressed patients with suicidal attempt as well as in 122 normal con...

  16. Oxytocin and vasopressin receptor polymorphisms interact with circulating neuropeptides to predict human emotional reactions to stress

    OpenAIRE

    Moons, Wesley G.; Way, Baldwin M.; Taylor, Shelley E.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and a polymorphism (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) have been independently associated with stress reactivity, whereas oxytocin’s sister peptide, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and polymorphisms in the vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A) have been independently associated with aggressive behavior. In this study, 68 men and 98 women were genotyped for the OXTR rs53576 polymorphism and the AVPR1A RS1 polymorphism. Baseline and post-stressor levels of plasma OT, plasma AV...

  17. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of genetic, pharmacogenetic and biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, C; Faraone, S V; Scassellati, C

    2016-07-01

    The adult form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has a prevalence of up to 5% and is the most severe long-term outcome of this common disorder. Family studies in clinical samples as well as twin studies suggest a familial liability and consequently different genes were investigated in association studies. Pharmacotherapy with methylphenidate (MPH) seems to be the first-line treatment of choice in adults with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and some studies were conducted on the genes influencing the response to this drug. Finally some peripheral biomarkers were identified in ADHD adult patients. We believe this work is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of candidate gene association studies, pharmacogenetic and biochemical (metabolomics) studies performed in adults with ADHD to identify potential genetic, predictive and peripheral markers linked specifically to ADHD in adults. After screening 5129 records, we selected 87 studies of which 61 were available for candidate gene association studies, 5 for pharmacogenetics and 21 for biochemical studies. Of these, 15 genetic, 2 pharmacogenetic and 6 biochemical studies were included in the meta-analyses. We obtained an association between adult ADHD and the gene BAIAP2 (brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2), even after Bonferroni correction, with any heterogeneity in effect size and no publication bias. If we did not apply the Bonferroni correction, a trend was found for the carriers allele 9R of dopamine transporter SLC6A3 40 bp variable tandem repeat polymorphism (VNTR) and for 6/6 homozygotes of SLC6A3 30 bp VNTR. Negative results were obtained for the 9-6 haplotype, the dopamine receptor DRD4 48 bp VNTR, and the enzyme COMT SNP rs4680. Concerning pharmacogenetic studies, no association was found for the SLC6A3 40 bp and response to MPH with only two studies selected. For the metabolomics studies, no differences between ADHD adults and controls were

  18. A general method for modeling biochemical and biomedical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Roberto; Lerd Ng, Jia; Hughes, Tyler; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Bouhali, Othmane; Arredouani, Abdelilah; Allen, Roland

    2012-10-01

    The impressive achievements of biomedical science have come mostly from experimental research with human subjects, animal models, and sophisticated laboratory techniques. Additionally, theoretical chemistry has been a major aid in designing new drugs. Here we introduce a method which is similar to others already well known in theoretical systems biology, but which specifically addresses biochemical changes as the human body responds to medical interventions. It is common in systems biology to use first-order differential equations to model the time evolution of various chemical concentrations, and we as physicists can make a significant impact through designing realistic models and then solving the resulting equations. Biomedical research is rapidly advancing, and the technique presented in this talk can be applied in arbitrarily large models containing tens, hundreds, or even thousands of interacting species, to determine what beneficial effects and side effects may result from pharmaceuticals or other medical interventions.

  19. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.;

    2010-01-01

    experimental conditions were reported. The study was performed using 4 samples: 3 reference substrates (starch, cellulose and gelatine), and 1 raw material (mung bean). The BMP of mung bean was carried out at two inoculum to substrate ratios (ISR), specifically 2 and 1. The methane yields of reference......This paper describes the results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to the biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, the full experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and...... substrates for starch, cellulose and gelatine were 352±33, 353±29 and 382±42 mL/g VSadded, respectively. The percentages of biotransformation of these substrates into methane were 85±8, 85±7 and 88±10%, respectively. On the other hand, the values of methane yields and biodegradability for MB were 373±35 m...

  20. Biochemical Properties and Biological Functions of FET Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob C; Cech, Thomas R; Parker, Roy R

    2015-01-01

    Members of the FET protein family, consisting of FUS, EWSR1, and TAF15, bind to RNA and contribute to the control of transcription, RNA processing, and the cytoplasmic fates of messenger RNAs in metazoa. FET proteins can also bind DNA, which may be important in transcription and DNA damage responses. FET proteins are of medical interest because chromosomal rearrangements of their genes promote various sarcomas and because point mutations in FUS or TAF15 can cause neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar dementia. Recent results suggest that both the normal and pathological effects of FET proteins are modulated by low-complexity or prion-like domains, which can form higher-order assemblies with novel interaction properties. Herein, we review FET proteins with an emphasis on how the biochemical properties of FET proteins may relate to their biological functions and to pathogenesis. PMID:25494299