Sample records for biochemical evidence suggests

  1. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation]. (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto


    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  2. Biochemical and histological evidences for the antitumor potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and histological evidences for the antitumor potential of Teucrium Oliverianum and Rhazya stricta in chemically-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Abdelaaty A Shahat, Mansour S Alsaid, Soheir E Kotob, Husseiny A Husseiny, Amal AM Al-Ghamdi, Hanaa H Ahmed ...

  3. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 41; Issue 4. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the mechanism underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sae2-mediated abrogation of DNA replication stress. INDRAJEET GHODKE K MUNIYAPPA. ARTICLE Volume 41 Issue 4 December 2016 pp ...

  4. Biochemical and Bioimaging Evidence of Cholesterol in Acquired Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Bjarne; Bloksgaard, Maria; Groza, Alexandra


    -performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was used to achieve a quantitative biochemical determination of the sterols. The intercellular lipids were visualized by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, which enables label-free imaging of the lipids in intact tissue samples. RESULTS...

  5. Interferon-beta treatment associated with a biochemical profile suggestive of acromegaly. A case report of a patient treated for multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Frystyk, Jan; Miller, K.K.


    We describe a 34-year-old female treated with IFN-beta for 8 years with a biochemical profile suggestive of acromegaly. The patient presented with elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insufficient suppression of growth hormone (GH) during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT...... IGF-I. In conclusion, IFN-beta treatment mimicked acromegaly biochemically. The changes were partially reversible...

  6. Interferon-β treatment associated with a biochemical profile suggestive of acromegaly. A case report of a patient treated for multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Frystyk, Jan; Miller, Karen K


    We describe a 34-year-old female treated with IFN-β for 8 years with a biochemical profile suggestive of acromegaly. The patient presented with elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insufficient suppression of growth hormone (GH) during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT......-I. In conclusion, IFN-β treatment mimicked acromegaly biochemically. The changes were partially reversible....

  7. Interferon-β treatment associated with a biochemical profile suggestive of acromegaly. A case report of a patient treated for multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Frystyk, Jan; Miller, Karen K


    We describe a 34-year-old female treated with IFN-ß for 8 years with a biochemical profile suggestive of acromegaly. The patient presented with elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insufficient suppression of growth hormone (GH) during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT......-I. In conclusion, IFN-ß treatment mimicked acromegaly biochemically. The changes were partially reversible....

  8. Evidence of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism: Biochemical Links, Genetic-Based Associations, and Non-Energy-Related Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren K. Griffiths


    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD, the fastest growing developmental disability in the United States, represents a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction and communication as well as restricted and repetitive behavior. The underlying cause of autism is unknown and therapy is currently limited to targeting behavioral abnormalities. Emerging studies suggest a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and ASD. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating this potential connection. We focus specifically on biochemical links, genetic-based associations, non-energy related mechanisms, and novel therapeutic strategies.

  9. Antimicrobials and Non-Healing Wounds. Evidence, controversies and suggestions-key messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, Finn; Apelqvist, Jan; Bjarnsholt, Thomas


    This article constitutes an extraction of key messages originally presented in the Document: Antimicrobials and Non-Healing Wounds. Evidence, controversies and suggestions written by the European Wound Management Association (EWMA), and originally published by the Journal of Wound Care in 2013. All...

  10. Biochemical analysis of three putative KaiC clock proteins from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 suggests their functional divergence. (United States)

    Wiegard, Anika; Dörrich, Anja K; Deinzer, Hans-Tobias; Beck, Christian; Wilde, Annegret; Holtzendorff, Julia; Axmann, Ilka M


    Cyanobacteria have been shown to have a circadian clock system that consists mainly of three protein components: KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. This system is well understood in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, for which robust circadian oscillations have been shown. Like many other cyanobacteria, the chromosome of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 contains additional kaiC and kaiB gene copies besides the standard kaiABC gene cluster. The respective gene products differ significantly in their amino acid sequences, especially in their C-terminal regions, suggesting different functional characteristics. Here, phosphorylation assays of the three Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 KaiC proteins revealed that KaiC1 phosphorylation depends on KaiA, as is well documented for the Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 KaiC protein, whereas KaiC2 and KaiC3 autophosphorylate independently of KaiA. This was confirmed by in vivo protein-protein interaction studies, which demonstrate that only KaiC1 interacts with KaiA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the three different Kai proteins form only homomeric complexes in vivo. As only KaiC1 phosphorylation depends on KaiA, a prerequisite for robust oscillations, we suggest that the kaiAB1C1 gene cluster in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 controls circadian timing in a manner similar to the clock described in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

  11. Anti-scorpion venom activity of Thapsia garganica methanolic extract: Histopathological and biochemical evidences. (United States)

    Bouimeja, Btissam; El Hidan, Moulay Abdelmonaim; Touloun, Oulaid; Ait Laaradia, Mehdi; Ait Dra, Loubna; El Khoudri, Noureddine; Chait, Abderrahman; Boumezzough, Ali


    Thapsia garganica, is a herbal medicine traditionally used as diuretic, emetic and purgative. It is also used as anti-scorpion venom in Morocco; however, its protective effects against scorpion venom remain elusive. The present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-venom activity of T. garganica in vivo through histological and biochemical studies. Methanolic leaves extract of T. garganica was evaluated for anti-venom activity against buthus. occitanus under in vivo conditions. Histopathological and biochemical changes in envenomed and treated mice were also examined. Phytochemical screening was conducted to estimate the major constituents whereas DPPH, β -Carotene-linoleic acid and reducing power assays were performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant activity of T. garganica extract. Methanolic leaves extract of T. garganica (2g/kg) increased the survival time (> 18h) of mice injected with lethal doses of B. occitanus venom, with remarkable recovery of histology damage. Furthermore T. garganica induced a significant decreased of biochemical markers of kidney, liver and heart function. Phytochemistry screening revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and steroids/terpenoids, which might explain the bioactivity of the extract. It was also shown that the extract has an exceptionally high antioxidant activity compared to well-known antioxidants used as standards. The present study provides strong evidence that support the use of T. garganica as anti-scorpion venom in traditional medicine in Morocco. However, additional studies are required to isolate and identify the metabolites responsible for the activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct Evidence of Egestion and Salivation of Xylella fastidiosa Suggests Sharpshooters Can Be "Flying Syringes". (United States)

    Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Morgan, J Kent; Shatters, Robert


    Xylella fastidiosa is unique among insect-transmitted plant pathogens because it is propagative but noncirculative, adhering to and multiplying on the cuticular lining of the anterior foregut. Any inoculation mechanism for X. fastidiosa must explain how bacterial cells exit the vector's stylets via the food canal and directly enter the plant. A combined egestion-salivation mechanism has been proposed to explain these unique features. Egestion is the putative outward flow of fluid from the foregut via hypothesized bidirectional pumping of the cibarium. The present study traced green fluorescent protein-expressing X. fastidiosa or fluorescent nanoparticles acquired from artificial diets by glassy-winged sharpshooters, Homalodisca vitripennis, as they were egested into simultaneously secreted saliva. X. fastidiosa or nanoparticles were shown to mix with gelling saliva to form fluorescent deposits and salivary sheaths on artificial diets, providing the first direct, conclusive evidence of egestion by any hemipteran insect. Therefore, the present results strongly support an egestion-salivation mechanism of X. fastidiosa inoculation. Results also support that a column of fluid is transiently held in the foregut without being swallowed. Evidence also supports (but does not definitively prove) that bacteria were suspended in the column of fluid during the vector's transit from diet to diet, and were egested with the held fluid. Thus, we hypothesize that sharpshooters could be true "flying syringes," especially when inoculation occurs very soon after uptake of bacteria, suggesting the new paradigm of a nonpersistent X. fastidiosa transmission mechanism.

  13. Evidence-based review, grade of recommendation, and suggested treatment recommendations for melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilendu Sarma


    Full Text Available Treatment of melasma is known to be less satisfactory, often incomplete, and relapse is frequent. Although many treatment options are available, they are either known to be unsafe on long-term use or their long-term safety profile is unknown. Patients often use various drugs, even topical steroid-based preparation without any medical supervision for long period of time, making the skin unsuitable for many of the drugs available. Thus, there has been gross disparity among the treating physician about what drugs and what regimen are best suitable for various categories of melasma patients and in different situations. With this background, numerous newer drugs, mostly combinations of some proprietary molecules or even unknown plant extracts, have flooded the market for the management of melasma. Information on efficacy or safety of these products are almost unknown. Studies on Asian people, especially Indian population, are far less commonly available. Therapeutic guideline for use on Indian patients with melasma is almost missing. Extrapolation of data from Caucasian people for use on Asian people may not be scientifically justifiable because Caucasian and Asian people are known to have inherent difference in their response as well as tolerance to the drugs used for melasma. With this background, we have extensively evaluated, following a strict, scientifically designed protocol, all the available studies on melasma management till May 2016 and prepared this document on level of evidence, grade of recommendation and suggested therapeutic guideline for melasma as per the method proposed by Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine. Various ethical, social, logical, regional, and economic issues in the context of Indian and similar populations were given due importance while preparing the suggested therapeutic recommendation.

  14. Are There Any Promising Biochemical Correlates of Achievement Behavior and Motivation? The Evidence for Serum Uric Acid and Serum Cholesterol (United States)

    Kasl, Stanislav V.


    This review examines the available evidence in support of the argument that serum uric acid (SUA) possesses considerable promise as an indicator of one type of biochemical influence on achievement behavior. The evidence arguing for further research into the role of serum cholesterol in achievement behavior is also examined. (Author/JR)

  15. Evidence for preserved novel word learning in Down syndrome suggests multiple routes to vocabulary acquisition. (United States)

    Mosse, Emma K; Jarrold, Christopher


    Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to see whether these may account for an apparent impairment in word learning in Down syndrome demonstrated in earlier research. Paired associate word and nonword learning tasks were presented, requiring participants to learn the names of novel characters. The nonword stimuli varied in the degree of wordlikeness in 2 studies. A third study investigated extraneous task demand. Across 3 studies, there was no suggestion of a word learning deficit associated with Down syndrome (η(2)(p) for the main effect of group of .03, .11, and .03, respectively), despite the level of phonological representation required. There was evidence that novel word learning by participants with Down syndrome exceeded that which their verbal short-term memory capacity would predict. Vocabulary acquisition in Down syndrome may not rely on verbal short-term memory to the same extent as in typically developing children, lending support to the suggestion that new word learning may be underpinned by an additional memory process.

  16. Isotopic evidence suggests different initial reaction mechanisms for anaerobic benzene biodegradation. (United States)

    Mancini, Silvia A; Devine, Cheryl E; Elsner, Martin; Nandi, Monisha E; Ulrich, Ania C; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood


    The initial metabolic reactions for anaerobic benzene biodegradation remain uncharacterized. Isotopic data for carbon and hydrogen fractionation from nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic benzene-degrading enrichment cultures and phylogenic information were used to investigate the initial reaction step in anaerobic benzene biodegradation. Dual parameter plots of carbon and hydrogen isotopic data (deltadelta2H/ deltadelta13C) from each culture were linear, suggesting a consistent reaction mechanism as degradation proceeded. Methanogenic and sulfate-reducing cultures showed consistently higher slopes (m = 29 +/- 2) compared to nitrate-reducing cultures (m = 13 +/- 2) providing evidence for different initial reaction mechanisms. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that culture conditions were strictly anaerobic, precluding any involvement of molecular oxygen in the observed differences. Using published kinetic data, we explored the possibility of attributing such slopes to reaction mechanisms. The higher slopes found under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions suggest against an alkylation mechanism for these cultures. Observed differences between the methanogenic and nitrate-reducing cultures may not represent distinct reactions of different bonds, but rather subtle differences in relative reaction kinetics. Additional mechanistic conclusions could not be made because kinetic isotope effect data for carboxylation and other putative mechanisms are not available.

  17. Statistical Evidence Suggests that Inattention Drives Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (United States)

    Sokolova, Elena; Groot, Perry; Claassen, Tom; van Hulzen, Kimm J.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Franke, Barbara


    Background Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue. Method We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype. Results In all data sets we found strong statistical evidence for the same pattern: the clear dependence between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom level and an established genetic factor (either gender or risk haplotype) vanishes when one conditions upon inattention symptom level. Under reasonable assumptions, e.g., that phenotypes do not cause genotypes, a causal model that is consistent with this pattern contains a causal path from inattention to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Conclusions The robust dependency cancellation observed in three different data sets suggests that inattention is a driving factor for hyperactivity/impulsivity. This causal hypothesis can be further validated in intervention studies. Our model suggests that interventions that affect inattention will also have an effect on the level of hyperactivity/impulsivity. On the other hand, interventions that affect hyperactivity/impulsivity would not change the level of inattention. This causal model may explain earlier findings on heritable factors causing ADHD reported in the study of twins with learning difficulties. PMID:27768717

  18. Evidence Suggesting that Ivory-billed Woodpeckers (Campephilus principalis Exist in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Mennill


    Full Text Available The Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis disappeared from the forests of southeastern North America in the early 20th Century and for more than 50 years has been widely considered extinct. On 21 May 2005, we detected a bird that we identified as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker in the mature swamp forest along the Choctawhatchee River in the panhandle of Florida. During a subsequent year of research, members of our small search team observed birds that we identified as Ivory-billed Woodpeckers on 14 occasions. We heard sounds that matched descriptions of Ivory-billed Woodpecker acoustic signals on 41 occasions. We recorded 99 putative double knocks and 210 putative kent calls. We located cavities in the size range reported for Ivory-billed Woodpeckers and larger than those of Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus that have been reported in the literature or that we measured in Alabama. We documented unique foraging signs consistent with the feeding behavior of Ivory-billed Woodpeckers. Our evidence suggests that Ivory-billed Woodpeckers may be present in the forests along the Choctawhatchee River and warrants an expanded search of this bottomland forest habitat.

  19. Low Level Evidence Suggests That Librarian-Led Instruction in Evidence Based Practice is Effective Regardless of Instructional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. Alcock


    studies which included descriptive statistics and many also included inferential statistics intended to show significance. Differences between groups were assessed with parametric measures in 9 studies and non-parametric measures in 15 studies. Good to high statistical significance on at least 1 measurement was achieved in 23 studies. Given the absence of effect sizes, the level of differences between study groups could not be determined. Conclusion – Numerous pedagogical methods are used in librarian-led instruction in evidence based practice. However, there is a paucity of high level evidence and the literature suggests that no instructional method is demonstrated to be more effective than another.

  20. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback: Level of evidence in mental and brain disorders and suggestions for good clinical practice. (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; McGonigal, A; Lopez, R; Daudet, C; Kotwas, I; Bartolomei, F


    The technique of electroencephalographic neurofeedback (EEG NF) emerged in the 1970s and is a technique that measures a subject's EEG signal, processes it in real time, extracts a parameter of interest and presents this information in visual or auditory form. The goal is to effectuate a behavioural modification by modulating brain activity. The EEG NF opens new therapeutic possibilities in the fields of psychiatry and neurology. However, the development of EEG NF in clinical practice requires (i) a good level of evidence of therapeutic efficacy of this technique, (ii) a good practice guide for this technique. Firstly, this article investigates selected trials with the following criteria: study design with controlled, randomized, and open or blind protocol, primary endpoint related to the mental and brain disorders treated and assessed with standardized measurement tools, identifiable EEG neurophysiological targets, underpinned by pathophysiological relevance. Trials were found for: epilepsies, migraine, stroke, chronic insomnia, attentional-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, addictive disorders, psychotic disorders. Secondly, this article investigates the principles of neurofeedback therapy in line with learning theory. Different underlying therapeutic models are presented didactically between two continua: a continuum between implicit and explicit learning and a continuum between the biomedical model (centred on "the disease") and integrative biopsychosocial model of health (centred on "the illness"). The main relevant learning model is to link neurofeedback therapy with the field of cognitive remediation techniques. The methodological specificity of neurofeedback is to be guided by biologically relevant neurophysiological parameters. Guidelines for good clinical practice of EEG NF concerning technical issues of electrophysiology and of learning are suggested. These require validation by

  1. Epigallocatechin gallate ameliorates chronic fatigue syndrome in mice: behavioral and biochemical evidence. (United States)

    Sachdeva, Anand Kamal; Kuhad, Anurag; Tiwari, Vinod; Chopra, Kanwaljit


    Three decades after the coining of the term chronic fatigue syndrome, the diagnosis of this illness is still symptom based and the aetiology remains elusive. Chronic fatigue syndrome pathogenesis seems to be multifactorial and the possible involvement of immune system is supported. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the epigallocatechin gallate in a mouse model of immunologically induced chronic fatigue. On 19th day, after lipopolysaccharide/Brucella abortus administration, the mice showed significant increase in immobility period, post swim fatigue and thermal hyperalgesia. Behavioral deficits were coupled with enhanced oxidative-nitrosative stress as evident by increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels and decreased endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase) and inflammation (increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and tissue growth factor-beta). Chronic treatment with epigallocatechin gallate restored these behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice. The present study points out towards the beneficial effect of epigallocatechin gallate in the amelioration of chronic fatigue syndrome and thus may provide a new, effective and powerful strategy to treat chronic fatigue syndrome.

  2. Analogical reasoning: An incremental or insightful process? What cognitive and cortical evidence suggests. (United States)

    Antonietti, Alessandro; Balconi, Michela


    Abstract The step-by-step, incremental nature of analogical reasoning can be questioned, since analogy making appears to be an insight-like process. This alternative view of analogical thinking can be integrated in Speed's model, even though the alleged role played by dopaminergic subcortical circuits needs further supporting evidence.

  3. Event-related potential evidence suggesting voters remember political events that never happened. (United States)

    Coronel, Jason C; Federmeier, Kara D; Gonsalves, Brian D


    Voters tend to misattribute issue positions to political candidates that are consistent with their partisan affiliation, even though these candidates have never explicitly stated or endorsed such stances. The prevailing explanation in political science is that voters misattribute candidates' issue positions because they use their political knowledge to make educated but incorrect guesses. We suggest that voter errors can also stem from a different source: false memories. The current study examined event-related potential (ERP) responses to misattributed and accurately remembered candidate issue information. We report here that ERP responses to misattributed information can elicit memory signals similar to that of correctly remembered old information--a pattern consistent with a false memory rather than educated guessing interpretation of these misattributions. These results suggest that some types of voter misinformation about candidates may be harder to correct than previously thought.

  4. Structural, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses suggest that indole-3-acetic acid methyltransferase is an evolutionarily ancient member of the SABATH family. (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Ross, Jeannine; Guan, Ju; Yang, Yue; Pichersky, Eran; Noel, Joseph P; Chen, Feng


    The plant SABATH protein family encompasses a group of related small-molecule methyltransferases (MTs) that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of natural chemicals encompassing widely divergent structures. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) methyltransferase (IAMT) is a member of the SABATH family that modulates IAA homeostasis in plant tissues through methylation of IAA's free carboxyl group. The crystal structure of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IAMT (AtIAMT1) was determined and refined to 2.75 A resolution. The overall tertiary and quaternary structures closely resemble the two-domain bilobed monomer and the dimeric arrangement, respectively, previously observed for the related salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase from Clarkia breweri (CbSAMT). To further our understanding of the biological function and evolution of SABATHs, especially of IAMT, we analyzed the SABATH gene family in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. Forty-one OsSABATH genes were identified. Expression analysis showed that more than one-half of the OsSABATH genes were transcribed in one or multiple organs. The OsSABATH gene most similar to AtIAMT1 is OsSABATH4. Escherichia coli-expressed OsSABATH4 protein displayed the highest level of catalytic activity toward IAA and was therefore named OsIAMT1. OsIAMT1 exhibited kinetic properties similar to AtIAMT1 and poplar IAMT (PtIAMT1). Structural modeling of OsIAMT1 and PtIAMT1 using the experimentally determined structure of AtIAMT1 reported here as a template revealed conserved structural features of IAMTs within the active-site cavity that are divergent from functionally distinct members of the SABATH family, such as CbSAMT. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that IAMTs from Arabidopsis, rice, and poplar (Populus spp.) form a monophyletic group. Thus, structural, biochemical, and phylogenetic evidence supports the hypothesis that IAMT is an evolutionarily ancient member of the SABATH family likely to play a critical role in IAA

  5. Genomic and experimental evidence suggests that Verrucomicrobium spinosum interacts with eukaryotes

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    Michelle eSait


    Full Text Available Our knowledge of pathogens and symbionts is heavily biased towards phyla containing species that are straightforward to isolate in pure culture. Novel bacterial phyla are often represented by a handful of strains, and the number of species interacting with eukaryotes is likely underestimated. Identification of predicted pathogenesis and symbiosis determinants such as the Type III Secretion System (T3SS in the genomes of ‘free-living’ bacteria suggests that these microbes participate in uncharacterized interactions with eukaryotes. Our study aimed to test this hypothesis on Verrucomicrobium spinosum (phylum Verrucomicrobia and to begin characterization of its predicted T3SS. We showed the putative T3SS structural genes to be transcriptionally active, and that expression of predicted effector proteins was toxic to yeast in an established functional screen. Our results suggest that the predicted T3SS genes of V. spinosum could encode a functional T3SS, although further work is needed to determine whether V. spinosum produces a T3SS injectisome that delivers the predicted effectors. In the absence of a known eukaryotic host, we made use of invertebrate infection models. The injection or feeding of V. spinosum to Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabiditis elegans, respectively, was shown to result in increased mortality rates relative to controls, a phenomenon exaggerated in C. elegans mutants hypersensitive to pathogen infection. This finding, although not conclusively demonstrating pathogenesis, suggests that V. spinosum is capable of pathogenic activity towards an invertebrate host. Symbiotic interactions with a natural host provide an alternative explanation for the results seen in the invertebrate models. Further work is needed to determine whether V. spinosum can establish and maintain interactions with eukaryotic species found in its natural habitat, and whether the predicted T3SS is directly involved in pathogenic or symbiotic activity.

  6. Dietary options and behavior suggested by plant biomarker evidence in an early human habitat (United States)

    Magill, Clayton R.; Ashley, Gail M.; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Freeman, Katherine H.


    The availability of plants and freshwater shapes the diets and social behavior of chimpanzees, our closest living relative. However, limited evidence about the spatial relationships shared between ancestral human (hominin) remains, edible resources, refuge, and freshwater leaves the influence of local resources on our species' evolution open to debate. Exceptionally well-preserved organic geochemical fossils-biomarkers-preserved in a soil horizon resolve different plant communities at meter scales across a contiguous 25,000 m2 archaeological land surface at Olduvai Gorge from about 2 Ma. Biomarkers reveal hominins had access to aquatic plants and protective woods in a patchwork landscape, which included a spring-fed wetland near a woodland that both were surrounded by open grassland. Numerous cut-marked animal bones are located within the wooded area, and within meters of wetland vegetation delineated by biomarkers for ferns and sedges. Taken together, plant biomarkers, clustered bone debris, and hominin remains define a clear spatial pattern that places animal butchery amid the refuge of an isolated forest patch and near freshwater with diverse edible resources.

  7. Techniques of tumour bed boost irradiation in breast conserving therapy: Current evidence and suggested guidelines

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    Jalali, Rakesh; Singh, Suruchi; Budrukkar, Ashwini [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)


    Breast conservation surgery followed by external beam radiotherapy to breast has become the standard of care in management of early carcinoma breast. A boost to the tumour bed after whole breast radiotherapy is employed in view of the pattern of tumour bed recurrences in the index quadrant and was particularly considered in patients with some adverse histopathological characteristics such as positive margins, extensive intraductal carcinoma (EIC), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), etc. There is however, now, a conclusive evidence of improvement in local control rates after a boost radiotherapy dose in patients even without such factors and for all age groups. The maximum absolute reduction of local recurrences by the addition of boost is especially seen in young premenopausal patients. At the same time, the addition of boost is associated with increased risk of worsening of cosmesis and no clear cut survival advantage. Radiological modalities such as fluoroscopy, ultrasound and CT scan have aided in accurate delineation of tumour bed with increasing efficacy. A widespread application of these techniques might ultimately translate into improved local control with minimal cosmetic deficit. The present article discusses the role of radiotherapy boost and the means to delineate and deliver the same, identify the high risk group, optimal technique and the doses and fractionations to be used. It also discusses the extent of adverse cosmetic outcome after boost delivery, means to minimise it and relevance of tumour bed in present day scenario of advanced radiotherapy delivery techniques like (IMRT)

  8. Poor quality evidence suggests that failure rates for atraumatic restorative treatment and conventional amalgam are similar. (United States)

    Hurst, Dominic


    The Medline, Cochrane CENTRAL, Biomed Central, Database of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), OpenJ-Gate, Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia (BBO), LILACS, IndMed, Sabinet, Scielo, Scirus (Medicine), OpenSIGLE and Google Scholar databases were searched. Hand searching was performed for journals not indexed in the databases. References of included trials were checked. Prospective clinical trials with test and control groups with a follow up of at least one year were included. Data abstraction was conducted independently and clinical and methodologically homogeneous data were pooled using a fixed-effects model. Eighteen trials were included. From these 32 individual dichotomous datasets were extracted and analysed. The majority of the results show no differences between both types of intervention. A high risk of selection-, performance-, detection- and attrition bias was identified. Existing research gaps are mainly due to lack of trials and small sample size. The current evidence indicates that the failure rate of high-viscosity GIC/ART restorations is not higher than, but similar to that of conventional amalgam fillings after periods longer than one year. These results are in line with the conclusions drawn during the original systematic review. There is a high risk that these results are affected by bias, and thus confirmation by further trials with suitably high numbers of participants is needed.

  9. Genomic and archaeological evidence suggest a dual origin of domestic dogs. (United States)

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Mullin, Victoria E; Pionnier-Capitan, Maud; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Ollivier, Morgane; Perri, Angela; Linderholm, Anna; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Teasdale, Matthew D; Dimopoulos, Evangelos A; Tresset, Anne; Duffraisse, Marilyne; McCormick, Finbar; Bartosiewicz, László; Gál, Erika; Nyerges, Éva A; Sablin, Mikhail V; Bréhard, Stéphanie; Mashkour, Marjan; Bălăşescu, Adrian; Gillet, Benjamin; Hughes, Sandrine; Chassaing, Olivier; Hitte, Christophe; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Dobney, Keith; Hänni, Catherine; Bradley, Daniel G; Larson, Greger


    The geographic and temporal origins of dogs remain controversial. We generated genetic sequences from 59 ancient dogs and a complete (28x) genome of a late Neolithic dog (dated to ~4800 calendar years before the present) from Ireland. Our analyses revealed a deep split separating modern East Asian and Western Eurasian dogs. Surprisingly, the date of this divergence (~14,000 to 6400 years ago) occurs commensurate with, or several millennia after, the first appearance of dogs in Europe and East Asia. Additional analyses of ancient and modern mitochondrial DNA revealed a sharp discontinuity in haplotype frequencies in Europe. Combined, these results suggest that dogs may have been domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia from distinct wolf populations. East Eurasian dogs were then possibly transported to Europe with people, where they partially replaced European Paleolithic dogs. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Morphologic evidence suggestive of hypertension in western gray kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). (United States)

    Kagan, R A; Kinsel, M; Gloor, K; Mylniczenko, N D; Langan, J N; Farina, L L; Terio, K A


    Marked renal vascular changes, suggestive of hypertension, were present in adult western gray kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) from a single facility over a 14-year period. A subset of these kangaroos also had vague clinical nervous system deficits, including blindness. To characterize the vascular lesions, determine prevalence, and document other changes, case histories and archival tissue sections from 21 adult kangaroos (8 male, 13 female) that died or were euthanatized between 1994 and 2008 were reviewed. Relevant lesions included increased thickness of the renal arteriolar tunica media with smooth muscle hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia, accumulation of extracellular matrix within arterioles, increased vascular tortuosity, and varying degrees of juxtaglomerular hyperplasia. Renal tissue from two more severely affected animals was further examined by transmission electron microscopy, highlighting arteriolar endothelial cell hypertrophy and disruption of the medial architecture. Hypertrophy of arteries and arterioles in other organ systems was also present (3/21), including vessels in the brain and spinal cord of one animal with clinical neurologic signs. Four kangaroos had antemortem retinal detachment, a potential sequel of hypertension in humans and domestic mammals. The cause of these vascular lesions in this mob is uncertain. Lesions were not associated with an infectious disease process, age, underlying renal disease, or thyroid abnormalities. In the absence of other causes, hypertension was a differential. Further investigation into clinical significance and predisposing factors, such as genetics and diet, is warranted.

  11. Evidence to suggest that teeth act as human ornament displays signalling mate quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A Hendrie

    Full Text Available Ornament displays seen in animals convey information about genetic quality, developmental history and current disease state to both prospective sexual partners and potential rivals. In this context, showing of teeth through smiles etc is a characteristic feature of human social interaction. Tooth development is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Adult teeth record environmental and traumatic events, as well as the effects of disease and ageing. Teeth are therefore a rich source of information about individuals and their histories. This study examined the effects of digital manipulations of tooth colour and spacing. Results showed that deviation away from normal spacing and/or the presence of yellowed colouration had negative effects on ratings of attractiveness and that these effects were markedly stronger in female models. Whitening had no effect beyond that produced by natural colouration. This indicates that these colour induced alterations in ratings of attractiveness are mediated by increased/decreased yellowing rather than whitening per se. Teeth become yellower and darker with age. Therefore it is suggested that whilst the teeth of both sexes act as human ornament displays, the female display is more complex because it additionally signals residual reproductive value.

  12. Cytogenetic and molecular evidence suggest multiple origins and geographical parthenogenesis in Nothoscordum gracile (Alliaceae). (United States)

    Souza, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues; Crosa, Orfeo; Speranza, Pablo; Guerra, Marcelo


    Nothoscordum gracile is an apomitic tetraploid widely distributed throughout the Americas and naturalized in many temperate regions of other continents. It has been suggested to form a species complex with sexual and apomictic N. nudicaule and N. macrostemon. Tetraploids of these species also share a structurally heterozygous chromosome complement 2n = 19 (13M + 6A). In this work, the origin of N. gracile and its relationships with its related species was investigated based on cytological and molecular data. Cytogenetic analyses were based on meiotic behaviour, CMA bands, localization of 5S and 45S rDNA sites, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Nuclear ITS and plastidial trnL-trnF sequences were also obtained for most individuals. Proximal CMA bands were observed in the long arms of all acrocentrics of 2x and 4x N. macrostemon but not in diploid and some tetraploid cytotypes of N. nudicaule. Samples of N. gracile showed a variable number of CMA bands in the long arms of acrocentrics. Analysis of ITS sequences, dot-blot, GISH, and 5S and 45S rDNA sites, revealed no differentiation among the three species. The trnL-trnF cpDNA fragment showed variation with a trend to geographical structuring irrespective of morphospecies and fully congruent with karyotype variation. The 2n = 19 karyotype was probably formed by a centric fusion event occurring in N. nudicaule and later transmitted to tetraploid cytotypes of N. macrostemon. Diploids of N. nudicaule and N. macrostemon appeared as consistent recently diverged species, whereas tetraploid apomicts seem to constitute an assemblage of polyploid hybrids originating from multiple independent hybridization events between them, part of which are morphologically recognizable as N. gracile.

  13. Evidence suggests rigid aortic grafts increase systolic blood pressure: results of a preliminary study. (United States)

    O'Brien, T; Morris, L; McGloughlin, T


    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a serious complication of the aorta and is treated using vascular bypass grafts. Two main classes of graft are available to treat AAA; grafts implanted by open surgery and stent-grafts implanted using minimally invasive endovascular techniques. Both classes of graft consist of an aortic section which bifurcates into two iliac sections. It has been hypothesized that implantation of aortic grafts and stent-grafts serve to significantly increase abdominal aortic pressures. In this study, an open-loop computer-controlled pumping system was built to produce physiologically realistic pressure and flow-rates. Models of a compliant abdominal aortic aneurysm, a compliant walled graft and a tapered graft were manufactured using an injection moulding technique and fused deposition modelling was used to create a rigid walled graft. A specific transient flow-rate waveform was then applied at the inlet of each model and the resulting pressure waveforms 30 mm upstream from the bifurcation was recorded. Peak pressure measurements were recorded over the course of the pulse for each model. The compliant aneurysm model was found to have a systolic pressure of 107 mmHg while the complaint graft model was 153 mmHg. The rigid graft model had a peak systolic pressure of 199 mmHg. In the tapered graft, the peak pressure dropped to 142 mmHg. The data suggests that implanting a graft model in place of an aneurysm model in an in vitro flow circuit can increase the pressures recorded upstream from the iliac bifurcation and that tapered grafts may alleviate this problem.

  14. An Analysis of the Regulatory Environment Governing Hearsay Electronic Evidence in South Africa: Suggestions for Reform – Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Swales


    Full Text Available The purpose of this two-part article is to examine the regulatory environment governing hearsay electronic evidence in South Africa – with a view to providing clear, practical suggestions for regulatory reform in the context of the South African Law Reform Commission's most recent Discussion Paper on electronic evidence. Technology has become an indispensable part of modern life. In particular, the Internet has facilitated new forms of business enterprise, and shifted basic communication norms. From a legal perspective, technology has presented several novel challenges for courts and legal practitioners to deal with – one of these key challenges relates to electronic evidence and in particular the application of the hearsay rules to the digital environment. The South African Law Reform Commission has identified the application of the hearsay rule as one of the core concerns with regard to electronic evidence, and certain academic analysis has revealed inefficiency in the current legal position which may involve multiple sources of law. Moreover, the Law Society of South Africa has stated that there is some confusion amongst members of the profession in relation to hearsay as it applies to electronic evidence. With the pervasive and burgeoning nature of technology, and with the Internet in mind, it is natural to assume that electronic evidence will be relevant in most forms of legal proceedings in future, and hearsay electronic evidence in particular will play an increasingly important role in years to come. Consequently, part one of this article will consider the key definitional concept in relation to electronic evidence – data messages - and examine whether the definition should be revised. In addition, part one of this article will answer two further critical questions posed by the South African Law Reform Commission in relation to data messages and hearsay evidence, namely: should a data message constitute hearsay? And, how should one

  15. Loss of Niemann-Pick C1 or C2 protein results in similar biochemical changes suggesting that these proteins function in a common lysosomal pathway.

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    Sayali S Dixit

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the endolysosomal system. NPC disease results from a defect in either of two distinct cholesterol-binding proteins: a transmembrane protein, NPC1, and a small soluble protein, NPC2. NPC1 and NPC2 are thought to function closely in the export of lysosomal cholesterol with both proteins binding cholesterol in vitro but they may have unrelated lysosomal roles. To investigate this possibility, we compared biochemical consequences of the loss of either protein. Analyses of lysosome-enriched subcellular fractions from brain and liver revealed similar decreases in buoyant densities of lysosomes from NPC1 or NPC2 deficient mice compared to controls. The subcellular distribution of both proteins was similar and paralleled a lysosomal marker. In liver, absence of either NPC1 or NPC2 resulted in similar alterations in the carbohydrate processing of the lysosomal protease, tripeptidyl peptidase I. These results highlight biochemical alterations in the lysosomal system of the NPC-mutant mice that appear secondary to lipid storage. In addition, the similarity in biochemical phenotypes resulting from either NPC1 or NPC2 deficiency supports models in which the function of these two proteins within lysosomes are linked closely.

  16. Secondary Circulating Prostate Cells Predict Biochemical Failure in Prostate Cancer Patients after Radical Prostatectomy and without Evidence of Disease

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    Nigel P. Murray


    Full Text Available Introduction. Although 90% of prostate cancer is considered to be localized, 20%–30% of patients will experience biochemical failure (BF, defined as serum PSA >0.2 ng/mL, after radical prostatectomy (RP. The presence of circulating prostate cells (CPCs in men without evidence of BF may be useful to predict patients at risk for BF. We describe the frequency of CPCs detected after RP, relation with clinicopathological parameters, and association with biochemical failure. Methods and Patients. Serial blood samples were taken during followup after RP, mononuclear cells were obtained by differential gel centrifugation, and CPCs identified using standard immunocytochemistry using anti-PSA monoclonal antibodies. Age, pathological stage (organ confined, nonorgan confined, pathological grade, margin status (positive, negative, extracapsular extension, perineural, vascular, and lymphatic infiltration (positive, negative were compared with the presence/absence of CPCs and with and without biochemical failure. Kaplan Meier methods were used to compare the unadjusted biochemical failure free survival of patients with and without CPCs. Results. 114 men participated, and secondary CPCs were detected more frequently in patients with positive margins, extracapsular extension, and vascular and lymphatic infiltration and were associated with biochemical failure independent of these clinicopathological variables, and with a shorter time to BF. Conclusions. Secondary CPCs are an independent risk factor associated with increased BF in men with a PSA <0.2 ng/mL after radical prostatectomy, but do not determine if the recurrence is due to local or systemic disease. These results warrant larger studies to confirm the findings.

  17. Molecular and biochemical evidence for the involvement of calcium/calmodulin in auxin action (United States)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.


    -dependent manner suggests that calcium/CaM regulate ZmSAUR1 at the post-translational level. Our data provide the first direct evidence for the involvement of calcium/CaM-mediated signaling in auxin-mediated signal transduction.

  18. Behavioural and biochemical evidence for interactions between Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and nicotine (United States)

    Valjent, Emmanuel; Mitchell, Jennifer M; Besson, Marie-Jo; Caboche, Jocelyne; Maldonado, Rafael


    Behavioural and pharmacological effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and nicotine are well known. However, the possible interactions between these two drugs of abuse remain unclear in spite of the current association of cannabis and tobacco in humans. The present study was designed to analyse the consequences of nicotine administration on THC-induced acute behavioural and biochemical responses, tolerance and physical dependence. Nicotine strongly facilitated hypothermia, antinociception and hypolocomotion induced by the acute administration of THC. Furthermore, the co-administration of sub-threshold doses of THC and nicotine produced an anxiolytic-like response in the light–dark box and in the open-field test as well as a significant conditioned place preference. Animals co-treated with nicotine and THC displayed an attenuation in THC tolerance and an enhancement in the somatic expression of cannabinoid antagonist-precipitated THC withdrawal. THC and nicotine administration induced c-Fos expression in several brain structures. Co-administration of both compounds enhanced c-Fos expression in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, central and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, dorso-lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, cingular and piriform cortex, and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These results clearly demonstrate the existence of a functional interaction between THC and nicotine. The facilitation of THC-induced acute pharmacological and biochemical responses, tolerance and physical dependence by nicotine could play an important role in the development of addictive processes. PMID:11815392

  19. Evidence-based competencies for improving communication skills in graduate medical education: a review with suggestions for implementation. (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G; Holmboe, Eric S; Frankel, Richard M


    Communicating with patients is arguably the most common and important activity in medical practice, but this activity receives relatively little emphasis in graduate medical education. We propose 12 evidence-based communication competencies that program directors can adopt as a framework for teaching and evaluating residents' communication skills. We review supporting evidence for these competencies and argue that communication should be treated like a procedural skill that must be taught and evaluated by observing real resident-patient interactions. We make practical suggestions for implementing these competencies by addressing three critical components of a competency-based approach to communication skills: patient safety, faculty development, and direct observation of residents. This approach to teaching and assessing communication skills provides a rationale for incorporating routine direct observation into graduate medical education programs and also for designing communication skills training that ensures graduating residents develop the skills needed to provide safe, effective patient care.

  20. Functional Genomics and Phylogenetic Evidence Suggest Genus-Wide Cobalamin Production by the Globally Distributed Marine Nitrogen Fixer Trichodesmium

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    Nathan G. Walworth


    Full Text Available Only select prokaryotes can biosynthesize vitamin B12 (i.e., cobalamins, but these organic co-enzymes are required by all microbial life and can be vanishingly scarce across extensive ocean biomes. Although global ocean genome data suggest cyanobacteria to be a major euphotic source of cobalamins, recent studies have highlighted that >95% of cyanobacteria can only produce a cobalamin analog, pseudo-B12, due to the absence of the BluB protein that synthesizes the α ligand 5,6-dimethylbenzimidizole (DMB required to biosynthesize cobalamins. Pseudo-B12 is substantially less bioavailable to eukaryotic algae, as only certain taxa can intracellularly remodel it to one of the cobalamins. Here we present phylogenetic, metagenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and chemical analyses providing multiple lines of evidence that the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium transcribes and translates the biosynthetic, cobalamin-requiring BluB enzyme. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that the Trichodesmium DMB biosynthesis gene, bluB, is of ancient origin, which could have aided in its ecological differentiation from other nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Additionally, orthologue analyses reveal two genes encoding iron-dependent B12 biosynthetic enzymes (cbiX and isiB, suggesting that iron availability may be linked not only to new nitrogen supplies from nitrogen fixation, but also to B12 inputs by Trichodesmium. These analyses suggest that Trichodesmium contains the genus-wide genomic potential for a previously unrecognized role as a source of cobalamins, which may prove to considerably impact marine biogeochemical cycles.

  1. Biochemical and molecular evidences for the antitumor potential of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in rodents. (United States)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; Shousha, Wafaa Gh; El-Mezayen, Hatem A; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Sayed, Alaa H; Ramadan, Aesha R


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest primary cancers, with a 5-year survival rate of 10% or less. This study was undertaken to elucidate the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms in favor of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, the aim of this work was extended to explore the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in deterioration of HCC in rats. In the current study, HCC group experienced significant downregulation of ING-3 gene expression and upregulation of Foxp-1 gene expression in liver. Treatment of HCC groups with Ginkgo biloba leaves extract resulted in upregulation of ING-3 and downregulation of Foxp-1 gene expression in liver. In addition, there was significant increase in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and glypican-3 (GPC-3) levels in HCC group versus the negative control group. In contrast, the groups with HCC subjected to either high or low dose of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract elicited significant reduction (PGinkgo biloba leaves extract elicited marked improvement in the histological feature of liver tissue in HCC groups. In conclusion, this research indicated that the carcinogenic potency of N-nitrosodiethylamine targeted multiple systems on the cellular and molecular levels. In addition, the results of the current study shed light on the promising anticancer activity of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced chemically in the experimental model through its apoptotic and antiproliferative properties.

  2. Behavioural and biochemical evidence for signs of abstinence in mice chronically treated with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. (United States)

    Hutcheson, D M; Tzavara, E T; Smadja, C; Valjent, E; Roques, B P; Hanoune, J; Maldonado, R


    Tolerance and dependence induced by chronic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration were investigated in mice. The effects on body weight, analgesia and hypothermia were measured during 6 days of treatment (10 or 20 mg kg(-1) THC twice daily). A rapid tolerance to the acute effects was observed from the second THC administration. The selective CB-1 receptor antagonist SR 141716A (10 mg kg(-1)) was administered at the end of the treatment, and somatic and vegetative manifestations of abstinence were evaluated. SR 141716A administration precipitated several somatic signs that included wet dog shakes, frontpaw tremor, ataxia, hunched posture, tremor, ptosis, piloerection, decreased locomotor activity and mastication, which can be interpreted as being part of a withdrawal syndrome. Brains were removed immediately after the behavioural measures and assayed for adenylyl cyclase activity. An increase in basal, forskolin and calcium/calmodulin stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities was specifically observed in the cerebellum of these mice. The motivational effects of THC administration and withdrawal were evaluated by using the place conditioning paradigm. No conditioned change in preference to withdrawal associated environment was observed. In contrast, a conditioned place aversion was produced by the repeated pairing of THC (20 mg kg(-1)), without observing place preference at any of the doses used. This study constitutes a clear behavioural and biochemical model of physical THC withdrawal with no motivational aversive consequences. This model permits an easy quantification of THC abstinence in mice and can be useful for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in cannabinoid dependence.

  3. Biochemical evidence for deficient DNA repair leading to enhanced G2 chromatid radiosensitivity and susceptibility to cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantt, R.; Parshad, R.; Price, F.M.; Sanford, K.K.


    Human tumor cells and cells from cancer-prone individuals, compared with those from normal individuals, show a significantly higher incidence of chromatid breaks and gaps seen in metaphase cells immediately after G2 X irradiation. Previous studies with DNA repair-deficient mutants and DNA repair inhibitors strongly indicate that the enhancement results from a G2 deficiency(ies) in DNA repair. We report here biochemical evidence for a DNA repair deficiency that correlates with the cytogenetic studies. In the alkaline elution technique, after a pulse label with radioactive thymidine in the presence of 3-acetylaminobenzamide (a G2-phase blocker) and X irradiation, DNA from tumor or cancer-prone cells elutes more rapidly during the postirradiation period than that from normal cells. These results indicate that the DNA of tumor and cancer-prone cells either repairs more slowly or acquires more breaks than that of normal cells; breaks can accumulate during incomplete or deficient repair processes. The kinetic difference between normal and tumor or cancer-prone cells in DNA strand-break repair reaches a maximum within 2 h, and this maximum corresponds to the kinetic difference in chromatid aberration incidence following X irradiation reported previously. These findings support the concept that cells showing enhanced G2 chromatid radiosensitivity are deficient in DNA repair. The findings could also lead to a biochemical assay for cancer susceptibility

  4. Behavioural and biochemical evidence for signs of abstinence in mice chronically treated with Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (United States)

    Hutcheson, Daniel M; Th. Tzavara, Eleni; Smadja, Claire; Valjent, Emmanuel; Roques, Bernard P; Hanoune, Jacques; Maldonado, Rafael


    Tolerance and dependence induced by chronic Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration were investigated in mice. The effects on body weight, analgesia and hypothermia were measured during 6 days of treatment (10 or 20 mg kg−1 THC twice daily). A rapid tolerance to the acute effects was observed from the second THC administration.The selective CB-1 receptor antagonist SR 141716A (10 mg kg−1) was administered at the end of the treatment, and somatic and vegetative manifestations of abstinence were evaluated. SR 141716A administration precipitated several somatic signs that included wet dog shakes, frontpaw tremor, ataxia, hunched posture, tremor, ptosis, piloerection, decreased locomotor activity and mastication, which can be interpreted as being part of a withdrawal syndrome.Brains were removed immediately after the behavioural measures and assayed for adenylyl cyclase activity. An increase in basal, forskolin and calcium/calmodulin stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities was specifically observed in the cerebellum of these mice.The motivational effects of THC administration and withdrawal were evaluated by using the place conditioning paradigm. No conditioned change in preference to withdrawal associated environment was observed. In contrast, a conditioned place aversion was produced by the repeated pairing of THC (20 mg kg−1), without observing place preference at any of the doses used.This study constitutes a clear behavioural and biochemical model of physical THC withdrawal with no motivational aversive consequences. This model permits an easy quantification of THC abstinence in mice and can be useful for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in cannabinoid dependence. PMID:9884086

  5. Cycloid psychoses in the psychosis spectrum: evidence for biochemical differences with schizophrenia. (United States)

    van de Kerkhof, Nora Wa; Fekkes, Durk; van der Heijden, Frank Mma; Hoogendijk, Witte Jg; Stöber, Gerald; Egger, Jos Im; Verhoeven, Willem Ma


    Cycloid psychoses (CP) differ from schizophrenia regarding symptom profile, course, and prognosis and over many decades they were thought to be a separate entity within the psychosis spectrum. As to schizophrenia, research into the pathophysiology has focused on dopamine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glutamate signaling in which, concerning the latter, the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor plays a crucial role. The present study aims to determine whether CP can biochemically be delineated from schizophrenia. Eighty patients referred for psychotic disorders were assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History, and (both at inclusion and after 6 weeks of antipsychotic treatment) with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Clinical Global Impression. From 58 completers, 33 patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia and ten with CP according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and Leonhard criteria, respectively. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with other disorders within the psychosis spectrum. At both time points, blood levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and amino acids related to glutamate neurotransmission were measured and compared with a matched control sample. Patients with CP showed a significantly better response to antipsychotic treatment as compared to patients with schizophrenia. In CP, glycine levels were elevated and tryptophan levels were lowered as compared to schizophrenia. Glutamate levels were increased in both patient groups as compared to controls. These results, showing marked differences in both treatment outcome and glutamate-related variable parameters, may point at better neuroplasticity in CP, necessitating demarcation of this subgroup within the psychosis spectrum.

  6. Microbiological, histological, and biochemical evidence for the adverse effects of food azo dyes on rats

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    Khaled Elbanna


    Full Text Available In this study, 120 lactic acid bacterial strains from different fermented dairy products as well as 10 bacterial intestinal isolates were evaluated for in vitro and in vivo degradation of various food azo dyes. Of these isolates, lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains 13 and 100 and the intestinal isolates Ent2 and Eco5 exhibited 96–98% degradation of the tested food azo dyes within 5–6 hours. High performance liquid chromatography mass spectra of sunset yellow (E110 and carmoisine (E122 anaerobic degradation products by the intestinal isolates showed that they were structurally related to toxic aromatic amines. For an in vivo study, eight groups of rats were treated for 90 days with either the food azo dyes or their degradation products. All groups were kept for a further 30 days as recovery period and then dissected at 120 days. Hematological, histopathological, and protein markers were assessed. Rats treated with either E110/E122 or their degradation products exhibited highly significant changes in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and white blood cell count. In addition, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, amylase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, total protein, and globulins were significantly increased. Furthermore, marked histopathological alterations in the liver, kidney, spleen, and small intestine were observed. Significant decreases in inflammation and a noticeable improvement in the liver, kidney, spleen, and small intestine of rats treated with LAB and food azo dyes simultaneously were observed. Finally, these results provide a reliable basis for not only a better understanding of the histological and biochemical effects of food additives, but also for early diagnostics. In addition, LAB strains 13 and 100 may play an important role as potential probiotics in food and dairy technology as a

  7. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies suggest that the effects of thapsigargin on human platelets are mediated by changes in intracellular calcium but not by intracellular histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, S P; McNicol, A; Becker, A B


    -fluoromethyl histidine (alpha-FMH) failed to inhibit Tg-induced aggregation. The intracellular histamine receptor antagonist, N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy] ethanamine. HCl (DPPE), inhibited Tg-induced aggregation but with IC50 values dependent on the concentration of agonist used. The inhibitory effects...... of DPPE on Tg-induced aggregation were not reversed by the addition of histamine to saponin-permeabilized platelets suggesting non-histamine mediated effects of DPPE on Tg-induced aggregation. Tg stimulated an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration which was unaffected by DPPE indicating...... that the effects of DPPE are also not due to the inhibition of mobilization of cytosolic calcium. The ultrastructural studies suggest that the major Tg-induced changes (pseudopod formation and granule centralization) are consistent with a primary role for Tg to mobilize calcium; DPPE had very little effect...

  8. Cycloid psychoses in the psychosis spectrum: evidence for biochemical differences with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Kerkhof NW


    Full Text Available Nora WA van de Kerkhof,1,2 Durk Fekkes,2,3 Frank MMA van der Heijden,1 Witte JG Hoogendijk,2 Gerald Stöber,4 Jos IM Egger,1,5,6 Willem MA Verhoeven1,2 1Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Venray, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Clinical Chemistry, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 4Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; 5Behavioural Science Institute, 6Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Abstract: Cycloid psychoses (CP differ from schizophrenia regarding symptom profile, course, and prognosis and over many decades they were thought to be a separate entity within the psychosis spectrum. As to schizophrenia, research into the pathophysiology has focused on dopamine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glutamate signaling in which, concerning the latter, the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor plays a crucial role. The present study aims to determine whether CP can biochemically be delineated from schizophrenia. Eighty patients referred for psychotic disorders were assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History, and (both at inclusion and after 6 weeks of antipsychotic treatment with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Clinical Global Impression. From 58 completers, 33 patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia and ten with CP according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and Leonhard criteria, respectively. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with other disorders within the psychosis spectrum. At both time points, blood levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and amino acids related to glutamate neurotransmission were measured and compared with a matched control sample. Patients with CP showed a significantly

  9. Biosynthesis of 1α-hydroxycorticosterone in the winter skate Leucoraja ocellata: evidence to suggest a novel steroidogenic route. (United States)

    Wiens, J; Ho, R; Brassinga, A K; Deck, C A; Walsh, P J; Ben, R N; Mcclymont, K; Charlton, T; Evans, A N; Anderson, W G


    The present study explores the ability of intracellular bacteria within the renal-inter-renal tissue of the winter skate Leucoraja ocellata to metabolize steroids and contribute to the synthesis of the novel elasmobranch corticosteroid, 1α-hydroxycorticosterone (1α-OH-B). Despite the rarity of C1 hydroxylation noted in the original identification of 1α-OH-B, literature provides evidence for steroid C1 hydroxylation by micro-organisms. Eight ureolytic bacterial isolates were identified in the renal-inter-renal tissue of L. ocellata, the latter being the site of 1α-OH-B synthesis. From incubations of bacterial isolates with known amounts of potential 1α-OH-B precursors, one isolate UM008 of the genus Rhodococcus was seen to metabolize corticosteroids and produce novel products via HPLC analysis. Cations Zn 2+ and Fe 3+ altered metabolism of certain steroid precursors, suggesting inhibition of Rhodococcus steroid catabolism. Genome sequencing of UM008 identified strong sequence and structural homology to that of Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4. A complete enzymatic pathway for steroid-ring oxidation as documented within other Actinobacteria was identified within the UM008 genome. This study highlights the potential role of Rhodococcus bacteria in steroid metabolism and proposes a novel alternative pathway for 1α-OH-B synthesis, suggesting a unique form of mutualism between intracellular bacteria and their elasmobranch host. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies suggest that the effects of thapsigargin on human platelets are mediated by changes in intracellular calcium but not by intracellular histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, S P; McNicol, A; Becker, A B


    was observed at 1 microM Tg. Preincubation of platelets with inhibitors of histamine metabolizing enzymes had little effect on intracellular histamine levels in platelets stimulated by 0.5 microM Tg. In addition, the inhibitors of histidine decarboxylase (HDC), alpha-methyl histidine (alpha-MH) and alpha......-fluoromethyl histidine (alpha-FMH) failed to inhibit Tg-induced aggregation. The intracellular histamine receptor antagonist, N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy] ethanamine. HCl (DPPE), inhibited Tg-induced aggregation but with IC50 values dependent on the concentration of agonist used. The inhibitory effects...... of DPPE on Tg-induced aggregation were not reversed by the addition of histamine to saponin-permeabilized platelets suggesting non-histamine mediated effects of DPPE on Tg-induced aggregation. Tg stimulated an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration which was unaffected by DPPE indicating...

  11. Programmed cell death in Leishmania: biochemical evidence and role in parasite infectivity

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    Sreenivas eGannavaram


    Full Text Available Demonstration of features of a programmed cell death (PCD pathway in protozoan parasites initiated a great deal of interest and debate in the field of molecular parasitology. Several of the markers typical of mammalian apoptosis have been shown in Leishmania which suggested the existence of an apoptosis like death in these organisms. However studies to elucidate the down stream events associated with phosphotidyl serine exposure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase-like activities in cells undergoing such cell death remain an ongoing challenge. Recent advances in genome sequencing, chemical biology should help solve some of these challenges. Leishmania genetic mutants that lack putative regulators/effectors of PCD pathway should not only help demonstrate the mechanisms of PCD but also provide tools to better understand the putative role for this pathway in population control and in the establishment of a successful infection of the host.

  12. Role of Lactobacillus acidophilus loaded floating beads in chronic fatigue syndrome: behavioral and biochemical evidences. (United States)

    Singh, P K; Chopra, K; Kuhad, A; Kaur, I P


      In recent years the interface between neuropsychiatry and gastroenterology has converged in to a new discipline referred to as enteric neuroscience. Implications of brain-gut communication in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders indicate a possible role of suitably packaged/delivered probiotics as newer therapeutic options. In the present study probable role of per-oral administration of free Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAB) and LAB loaded alginate beads in attenuation of the symptoms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) were evaluated.   Chronic fatigue syndrome following physical fatigue was induced in rats by forcing them to swim (forced swim test; FST) in water till exhaustion, after weighing them down with 10% their body weight, daily for 28 days. Immobility (I) and postswim fatigue time (PSF) were taken as suitable markers. Free LAB and LAB loaded floating beads (FBs) were administered, from 21 to 28 days.   Immobility and PSF were found to increase considerably in FST rats (665 ± 22 s and 196 ± 6 s) as compared with the naïve (32 ± 7 s and 22 ± 2 s) at 20 days, establishing severe fatigue like behavior. FST control group exhibited significant (P < 0.05) hypertrophy of spleen, hypotrophy of thymus, and increased oxido-nitrosative stress in brain and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in serum. Treatment with LAB and LAB FBs significantly decreased I and PSF and attenuated (P < 0.05) oxido-nitrosative stress and TNF-α levels. Spleen and thymus were also restored to their original size in this group.   The findings suggest a valuable therapeutic role of LAB especially when incorporated into alginate beads for the treatment of CFS. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. New function for Escherichia coli xanthosine phophorylase (xapA): genetic and biochemical evidences on its participation in NAD+ salvage from nicotinamide (United States)


    Background In an effort to reconstitute the NAD+ synthetic pathway in Escherichia coli (E. coli), we produced a set of gene knockout mutants with deficiencies in previously well-defined NAD+de novo and salvage pathways. Unexpectedly, the mutant deficient in NAD+de novo and salvage pathway I could grow in M9/nicotinamide medium, which was contradictory to the proposed classic NAD+ metabolism of E. coli. Such E. coli mutagenesis assay suggested the presence of an undefined machinery to feed nicotinamide into the NAD+ biosynthesis. We wanted to verify whether xanthosine phophorylase (xapA) contributed to a new NAD+ salvage pathway from nicotinamide. Results Additional knockout of xapA further slowed down the bacterial growth in M9/nicotinamide medium, whereas the complementation of xapA restored the growth phenotype. To further validate the new function of xapA, we cloned and expressed E. coli xapA as a recombinant soluble protein. Biochemical assay confirmed that xapA was capable of using nicotinamide as a substrate for nicotinamide riboside formation. Conclusions Both the genetic and biochemical evidences indicated that xapA could convert nicotinamide to nicotinamide riboside in E. coli, albeit with relatively weak activity, indicating that xapA may contribute to a second NAD+ salvage pathway from nicotinamide. We speculate that this xapA-mediated NAD+ salvage pathway might be significant in some bacteria lacking NAD+de novo and NAD+ salvage pathway I or II, to not only use nicotinamide riboside, but also nicotinamide as precursors to synthesize NAD+. However, this speculation needs to be experimentally tested. PMID:24506841

  14. New function for Escherichia coli xanthosine phophorylase (xapA): genetic and biochemical evidences on its participation in NAD(+) salvage from nicotinamide. (United States)

    Dong, Wei-Ren; Sun, Cen-Cen; Zhu, Guan; Hu, Shi-Hua; Xiang, Li-Xin; Shao, Jian-Zhong


    In an effort to reconstitute the NAD(+) synthetic pathway in Escherichia coli (E. coli), we produced a set of gene knockout mutants with deficiencies in previously well-defined NAD(+)de novo and salvage pathways. Unexpectedly, the mutant deficient in NAD(+) de novo and salvage pathway I could grow in M9/nicotinamide medium, which was contradictory to the proposed classic NAD(+) metabolism of E. coli. Such E. coli mutagenesis assay suggested the presence of an undefined machinery to feed nicotinamide into the NAD(+) biosynthesis. We wanted to verify whether xanthosine phophorylase (xapA) contributed to a new NAD(+) salvage pathway from nicotinamide. Additional knockout of xapA further slowed down the bacterial growth in M9/nicotinamide medium, whereas the complementation of xapA restored the growth phenotype. To further validate the new function of xapA, we cloned and expressed E. coli xapA as a recombinant soluble protein. Biochemical assay confirmed that xapA was capable of using nicotinamide as a substrate for nicotinamide riboside formation. Both the genetic and biochemical evidences indicated that xapA could convert nicotinamide to nicotinamide riboside in E. coli, albeit with relatively weak activity, indicating that xapA may contribute to a second NAD(+) salvage pathway from nicotinamide. We speculate that this xapA-mediated NAD(+) salvage pathway might be significant in some bacteria lacking NAD(+) de novo and NAD(+) salvage pathway I or II, to not only use nicotinamide riboside, but also nicotinamide as precursors to synthesize NAD(+). However, this speculation needs to be experimentally tested.

  15. Ultrastructural and biochemical aspects of liver mitochondria during recovery from ethanol-induced alterations. Experimental evidence of mitochondrial division. (United States)

    Koch, O. R.; Roatta de Conti, L. L.; Bolaños, L. P.; Stoppani, A. O.


    To study the morphologic and biochemical changes occuring in liver mitochondria during recovery from ethanol-induced injury, rats fed a 6-month high-alcohol regimen plus a nutritionally adequate diet which did not induce fatty liver were compared with isocalorically fed controls. After this period the alcohol-fed animals displayed striking ultrastructural changes of liver mitochondria and a decreased respiratory activity with succinate or malate-glutamate as substrate. On the contrary, the respiratory rate with I-glycerophosphate was 50% increased. Regression changes were studied after alcohol was withdrawn from the diet. Enlarged mitochondria rapidly disappeared (in 24 hours), although a few megamitochondria were still present after 8 days of abstinence. A similar recovery was observed for the functional alterations. At the end of the experimental period, only a slight decrease of the maximal respiratory rate using malate-glutamate as a substrate was noted. The ultrastructural findings and the morphometric data suggest that the way in which mitochondrial normalization takes place is based on partition of these organelles. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 13 PMID:623205

  16. Behavioral evidence of hunting and foraging techniques by a top predator suggests the importance of scavenging for preadults. (United States)

    Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, MªÀngels; Sánchez, Roberto; Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Oria, Javier; González, Luis Mariano


    Scavenging may be a regular feeding behavior for some facultative raptor species occupying low quality habitats and/or with little experience in hunting techniques. However, its importance has been largely underestimated due to methodological limitations in identifying the real proportion in the diet. Here, through direct observations, we assessed the hunting and foraging success of the threatened Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti determining the influence of age, sex, breeding status, habitat quality, prey type, and landscape characteristics. From 465 observations, Spanish imperial eagles used hunting in flight (42%), scavenging (30%), hunting from a perch (16%) and kleptoparasitism (12%). Our model suggests that Prey size and Prey type best explain hunting success, followed by Landscape and Sex . Our findings suggest that Spanish imperial eagles increase hunting success with age, with scavenging and kleptoparasitism regularly used as juveniles. The absence of relationships with any of the variables considered suggests that kleptoparasitism is an opportunistic behavior used sporadically. Scavenging is also independent of habitat quality and landscape characteristics. Accordingly, low prey density is not a driver of carrion use for preadult individuals, suggesting that a lack of hunting ability obliges this age-class to use this alternative feeding technique regularly. As a result, the threatened Spanish imperial eagle population is also prone to mortality related to the illegal use of poison baits and, potentially, veterinary drugs (i.e., diclofenac).

  17. Social stratification in the Sikh population of Punjab (India) has a genetic basis: evidence from serological and biochemical markers. (United States)

    Chahal, Sukh Mohinder Singh; Virk, Rupinder Kaur; Kaur, Sukhvir; Bansal, Rupinder


    The present study was planned to assess whether social stratification in the Sikh population inhabiting the northwest border Indian state of Punjab has any genetic basis. Blood samples were collected randomly from a total of 2851 unrelated subjects belonging to 21 groups of two low-ranking Sikh scheduled caste populations, viz. Mazhabi and Ramdasi, and a high-ranking Jat Sikh caste population of Punjab. The genetic profile of Sikh groups was investigated using a total of nine serobiochemical genetic markers, comprising two blood groups (ABO, RH(D)) and a battery of seven red cell enzyme polymorphisms (ADA, AK1, ESD, PGM1, GLO1, ACP1, GPI), following standard serological and biochemical laboratory protocols. Genetic structure was studied using original allele frequency data and statistical measures of heterozygosity, genic differentiation, genetic distance, and genetic admixture. Great heterogeneity was observed between Sikh scheduled caste and Jat Sikh populations, especially in the RH(D) blood group system, and distribution of ESD, ACP1, and PGM1 enzyme markers was also found to be significantly different between many of their groups. Genetic distance trees demonstrated little or no genetic affinities between Sikh scheduled caste and Jat Sikh populations; the Mazhabi and Ramdasi also showed little genetic relationship. Genetic admixture analysis suggested a higher element of autochthonous tribal extraction in the Ramdasi. The present study revealed much genetic heterogeneity in differently ranking Sikh caste populations of Punjab, mainly attributable to their different ethnic backgrounds, and provided a genetic basis to social stratification present in this religious community of Punjab, India.

  18. Phenotypic and Molecular Evidence Suggest That Decrements in Morning and Evening Energy Are Distinct But Related Symptoms (United States)

    Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Dhruva, Anand; Paul, Steven M.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Kober, Kord M.; Miaskowski, Christine


    Context Little is known about energy levels in oncology patients and their family caregivers (FCs). Objectives This study sought to identify latent classes of participants, based on self-reported energy levels and to evaluate for differences in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics between these classes. Methods Energy subscale scores from the Lee Fatigue Scale were used to determine latent class membership. Morning and evening energy scores were obtained just prior to, during, and for four months following the completion of radiation therapy. Genetic associations were evaluated for fifteen pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes. Results Two latent classes with distinct morning energy trajectories were identified. Participants who were younger, female, not married/partnered, Black, and had more comorbidities, and a lower functional status were more likely to be in the Low Morning Energy class. Two polymorphisms (IL2 rs1479923, NFKB1 rs4648110) were associated with morning energy latent class membership. Two latent classes with distinct evening energy trajectories were identified. Participants who were younger and male and who had more comorbidities, decreased body weight, and a lower functional status were more likely to be in the Moderate Evening Energy class. Five different polymorphisms (IL1R2 rs4141134, IL6 rs4719714, IL17A rs8193036, NFKB2 rs1056890, TNFA rs1800683) were associated with evening energy latent class membership. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence that decrements in morning and evening energy are associated with different phenotypic risk factors as well as cytokine gene variations. PMID:26031709

  19. Morphological evidence suggests homoploid hybridization as a possible mode of speciation in the Triatominae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Reduviidae). (United States)

    Costa, Jane; Peterson, A Townsend; Dujardin, Jean Pierre


    All known significant insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi are members of the Reduviidae, subfamily Triatominae. Infections with this parasite are the cause of Chagas disease, the single most costly parasitic disease in the Western Hemisphere. The Triatominae are almost completely restricted to the Americas, with >130 species distributed in several foci of species richness and endemism; nevertheless, the processes involved in the diversification of this group remain poorly understood. The Triatoma brasiliensis species complex was recently proposed based on geography, morphology, ecology, and molecular data, and is believed to comprise two species and two subspecies. Here, we report results from a broad series of studies, in which first-generation offspring of experimental crosses were studied in terms of wing morphometry and phylogenetic position. Morphometrics, morphological, ecological and geographic analyses were consistent with the hypothesis of T. brasiliensis macromelasoma as a product of hybridization between two others (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis and T. juazeirensis). Although evidence is supportive of the hypothesis of speciation via hybridization as a mode of triatomine diversification, the case is not as-yet conclusive, and confirmation via molecular markers is necessary.

  20. Growing evidence suggests WT1 effects in the kidney development are modulated by Hsp70/NO interaction. (United States)

    Mazzei, Luciana; Manucha, Walter


    The study of kidney development at the cellular and molecular levels remains an active area of nephrology research. The functional integrity of the kidney depends on normal development as well as on physiological cell turnover. Apoptosis induction is essential for these mechanisms. A route to cell death revealed in the past decade shows that heat shock proteins (HSPs) and their cofactors are responsible for regulating the apoptotic pathway. Specifically, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), the most ubiquitous and highly conserved HSP, helps proteins adopt native conformation or regain function after misfolding. Hsp70 is an important cofactor for the function of Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) and suggests a potential role for this chaperone during kidney differentiation. In addition, we have demonstrated that WT1 expression is modulated by nitric oxide (NO) availability and Hsp70 interaction after neonatal unilateral ureteral obstruction. NO has been identified as playing an important role in the developing kidney. These findings suggest that Hsp70 and NO may play a critical and fundamental role in the capacity to modulate both apoptotic pathway and oxidative stress during kidney development. Furthermore, the design of experimental protocols that assess renal epithelial functionality in this context, could contribute to the understanding of renal development and alterations.

  1. Genomic, RNAseq, and Molecular Modeling Evidence Suggests That the Major Allergen Domain in Insects Evolved from a Homodimeric Origin (United States)

    Randall, Thomas A.; Perera, Lalith; London, Robert E.; Mueller, Geoffrey A.


    The major allergen domain (MA) is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. This suggested that the evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence. Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: 1) within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, 2) within one genus Drosophila, and 3) within one species Aedes aegypti. Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. aegypti shows a common evolutionary origin for its monomer and several closely related MAs. Molecular modeling of the A. aegypti monomer with the unique Bla g 1 fold confirms the distant evolutionary relationship and supports the feasibility of homodimer formation from a single monomer. RNAseq data for A. aegypti confirms that the monomer is expressed in the mosquito similar to other A. aegypti MAs after a blood meal. Together, these data support the contention that the detected monomer shares similar functional characteristics to related MAs in other insects. An extensive search for this domain outside of Insecta confirms that the MAs are restricted to insects. PMID:24253356

  2. Investigating population differentiation in a major African agricultural pest: evidence from geometric morphometrics and connectivity suggests high invasion potential. (United States)

    Karsten, M; Addison, P; Jansen van Vuuren, B; Terblanche, J S


    The distribution, spatial pattern and population dynamics of a species can be influenced by differences in the environment across its range. Spatial variation in climatic conditions can cause local populations to undergo disruptive selection and ultimately result in local adaptation. However, local adaptation can be constrained by gene flow and may favour resident individuals over migrants-both are factors critical to the assessment of invasion potential. The Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) is a major agricultural pest in Africa with a history of island invasions, although its range is largely restricted to south east Africa. Across Africa, C. rosa is genetically structured into two clusters (R1 and R2), with these clusters occurring sympatrically in the north of South Africa. The spatial distribution of these genotypic clusters remains unexamined despite their importance for understanding the pest's invasion potential. Here, C. rosa, sampled from 22 South African locations, were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and assessed morphologically using geometric morphometric wing shape analyses to investigate patterns of population structure and determine connectedness of pest-occupied sites. Our results show little to no intraspecific (population) differentiation, high population connectivity, high effective population sizes and only one morphological type (R2) within South Africa. The absence of the R1 morphotype at sites where it was previously found may be a consequence of differences in thermal niches of the two morphotypes. Overall, our results suggest high invasion potential of this species, that area-wide pest management should be undertaken on a country-wide scale, and that border control is critical to preventing further invasions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Mesoamerican spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi): Molecular evidence suggests the need for a revised taxonomy. (United States)

    Morales-Jimenez, Alba Lucia; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana; Di Fiore, Anthony


    Mesoamerican spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi sensu lato) are widely distributed from Mexico to northern Colombia. This group of primates includes many allopatric forms with morphologically distinct pelage color and patterning, but its taxonomy and phylogenetic history are poorly understood. We explored the genetic relationships among the different forms of Mesoamerican spider monkeys using mtDNA sequence data, and we offer a new hypothesis for the evolutionary history of the group. We collected up to ∼800 bp of DNA sequence data from hypervariable region 1 (HV1) of the control region, or D-loop, of the mitochondrion for multiple putative subspecies of Ateles geoffroyi sensu lato. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian reconstructions, using Ateles paniscus as an outgroup, showed that (1) A. fusciceps and A. geoffroyi form two different monophyletic groups and (2) currently recognized subspecies of A. geoffroyi are not monophyletic. Within A. geoffroyi, our phylogenetic analysis revealed little concordance between any of the classifications proposed for this taxon and their phylogenetic relationships, therefore a new classification is needed for this group. Several possible clades with recent divergence times (1.7-0.8 Ma) were identified within Ateles geoffroyi sensu lato. Some previously recognized taxa were not separated by our data (e.g., A. g. vellerosus and A. g. yucatanensis), while one distinct clade had never been described as a different evolutionary unit based on pelage or geography (Ateles geoffroyi ssp. indet. from El Salvador). Based on well-supported phylogenetic relationships, our results challenge previous taxonomic arrangements for Mesoamerican spider monkeys. We suggest a revised arrangement based on our data and call for a thorough taxonomic revision of this group. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Possible evidence for contemporary doming of the Adirondack Mountains, New York, and suggested implications for regional tectonics and seismicity (United States)

    Isachsen, Y.W.


    The Adirondack Mountain massif is a dissected elongate dome having a north-northeast axis about 190 km long, and an east-west dimension of about 140 km. The dome exposes a core of Proterozoic metamorphic rocks from which the Paleozoic cover rocks have been eroded, except in several north-northeast-trending graben. The minimum amplitude of the dome, based on a 'reconstruction' of the Proterozoic-Paleozoic unconformity is 1600 m. The Adirondack dome is an anomalous feature of the eastern edge of the North American craton. It differs from other uplifts in the Interior Lowlands of the craton not only in terms of the greater combined amplitude and area of its uplift, but in the present high elevation of its Mountains (up to 1600 m) which are unequalled on the craton except along the Rocky Mountain front and in the Torngat Mountains of northernmost Labrador. This prompted an interest in the possibility that the Adirondack dome has undergone neotectonic regeneration and may be undergoing domical uplift at the present time. Accordingly, leveling records were consulted at the National Geodetic Survey data base in Rockville, Maryland, and used to construct leveling profiles. The most informative of these extends north-south along the block-faulted eastern flank of the Adirondack dome, extending from Saratoga Springs to Rouses Point, a distance of 245 km. A comparison of the level lines for 1955 and 1973 demonstrates that arching has occurred. An uplift of 40 mm along the central portion of the line, and a corresponding subsidence of 50 mm at the northern end, has produced a net increase in the amplitude of arching of 90 mm in the 18-year interval. This differential uplift, particularly with subsidence at the northern end, argues for a tectonic rather than glacio-isostatic mechanism. Pending releveling across the center of the Adirondack dome, it is tempting to extrapolate the releveling profile and suggest that the Adirondacks as a whole may be undergoing contemporary doming

  5. Molecular and biochemical evidences on the protective effects of triiodothyronine against phosphine-induced cardiac and mitochondrial toxicity. (United States)

    Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Baghaei, Amir; Solgi, Reza; Gooshe, Maziar; Baeeri, Maryam; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Jafari, Abbas; Rezayat, Seyed Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Abdollahi, Mohammad


    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a widely used fumigant and rodenticide. While AlP ingestion leads to high mortality, its exact mechanism of action is unclear. There are ample evidences suggesting cardioprotective effects of triiodothyronine (T3). In this study, we aimed to examine the potential of T3 in the protection of a rat model of AlP induced cardiotoxicity. In order to induce AlP intoxication animals were intoxicated with AlP (12 mg/kg; LD50) by gavage. In treatment groups, T3 (1, 2 and 3 μg/kg) was administered intra-peritoneally 30 min after AlP administration. Animals were connected to the electronic cardiovascular monitoring device simultaneously after T3 administration. Then, electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were monitored for 180 min. Additionally, 24h after AlP intoxication, rats were deceased and the hearts were dissected out for evaluation of oxidative stress, cardiac mitochondrial function (complexes I, II and IV), ATP/ADP ratio, caspases 3 & 9, and apoptosis by flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that AlP intoxication causes cardiac toxicity presenting with changes in ECG patterns such as decrement of HR, BP and abnormal QRS complexes, QTc and ST height. T3 at a dose of 3 μg/kg significantly improved ECG and also oxidative stress parameters. Furthermore, T3 administration could increase mitochondrial function and ATP levels within the cardiac cells. In addition, administration of T3 showed a reduction in apoptosis through diminishing the caspase activities and improving cell viability. Overall, the present data demonstrate the beneficial effects of T3 in cardiotoxicity of AlP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence and suggested therapeutic approach in psoriasis of difficult-to-treat areas: Palmoplantar psoriasis, nail psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, and intertriginous psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilendu Sarma


    Full Text Available Psoriasis is resistant to treatment and it shows frequent relapse; systemic treatment is often associated with toxicities, and long-term safety data are lacking for most of the newer drugs like biologics. Moreover, some body areas such as hands, feet, intertriginous areas, scalp, and nails are even more resistant. Frequently, systemic treatments are necessary considering the higher psychological impact on the patient. There is a lack of agreement on the best therapeutic modalities in the management of psoriasis involving difficult-to-treat locations. At present, there are no Indian guidelines for these conditions. Available literature has been reviewed extensively on the treatment of psoriasis involving difficult-to-treat locations; level of evidence has been evaluated as per the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 guideline, and therapeutic suggestions have been developed. Best care has been employed to consider socioeconomic, cultural, genetic, and ethnic factors to prepare a therapeutic suggestion that is appropriate and logical to be used among Indian population and people of similar ethnic and socioeconomic background.

  7. Towards a Transparent, Credible, Evidence-Based Decision-Making Process of New Drug Listing on the Hong Kong Hospital Authority Drug Formulary: Challenges and Suggestions. (United States)

    Wong, Carlos King Ho; Wu, Olivia; Cheung, Bernard M Y


    The aim of this article is to describe the process, evaluation criteria, and possible outcomes of decision-making for new drugs listed in the Hong Kong Hospital Authority Drug Formulary in comparison to the health technology assessment (HTA) policy overseas. Details of decision-making processes including the new drug listing submission, Drug Advisory Committee (DAC) meeting, and procedures prior to and following the meeting, were extracted from the official Hong Kong Hospital Authority drug formulary management website and manual. Publicly-available information related to the new drug decision-making process for five HTA agencies [the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE), the Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC), the Australia Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC), the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH), and the New Zealand Pharmaceutical Management Agency (PHARMAC)] were reviewed and retrieved from official documents from public domains. The DAC is in charge of systemically and critically appraising new drugs before they are listed on the formulary, reviewing submitted applications, and making the decision to list the drug based on scientific evidence to which safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness are the primary considerations. When compared with other HTA agencies, transparency of the decision-making process of the DAC, the relevance of clinical and health economic evidence, and the lack of health economic and methodological input of submissions are the major challenges to the new-drug listing policy in Hong Kong. Despite these challenges, this review provides suggestions for the establishment of a more transparent, credible, and evidence-based decision-making process in the Hong Kong Hospital Authority Drug Formulary. Proposals for improvement in the listing of new drugs in the formulary should be a priority of healthcare reforms.

  8. An analysis of omitting biliary tract imaging in 668 subjects admitted to an acute care surgery service with biochemical evidence of choledocholithiasis. (United States)

    Riggle, Andrew J; Cripps, Michael W; Liu, Laindy; Subramanian, Madhu; Nakonezny, Paul A; Wolf, Steven E; Phelan, Herb A


    No consensus exists for the timing and utility of biliary imaging in patients with preoperative concern for choledocholithiasis. Admissions to an acute care surgery service with evidence of choledocholithiasis undergoing same-admission cholecystectomy without preoperative or intraoperative imaging were identified. One-way analysis of variance on the log-transformed outcomes, with the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison procedure, were used to compare means between groups. A total of 668 patients with elevated but downtrending liver enzymes underwent cholecystectomy without preoperative or intraoperative imaging. Thirty-eight patients (5.7%) had postoperative biliary imaging, of whom 22 (3.3%) had definite choledocholithiasis. One case of postoperative cholangitis occurred which required readmission and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with no long-term morbidity. Presenting liver enzymes were significantly higher in the group found to have retained stones postoperatively than those without retained stones. Patients presenting with biochemical evidence of choledocholithiasis who downtrend preoperatively can be safely managed by cholecystectomy with omission of biliary tract imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pavilion Lake Microbialites: Morphological, Molecular and Biochemical Evidence for a Cold-Water Transition to Colonial Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Brady


    Full Text Available The presence of microbialite structures in a freshwater, dimictic mid-latitudelake and their establishment after the last ice age about 10,000 years ago is puzzling.Freshwater calcite microbialites at Pavilion Lake, British Columbia, Canada, consist of acomplex community of microorganisms that collectively form large, ordered structuredaggregates. This distinctive assemblage of freshwater calcite microbialites was studied through standard microbial methods, morphological observations, phospholipid fatty acid(PLFA analysis, DNA sequencing and the identification of quorum sensing molecules.Our results suggest that the microbialites may represent a transitional form from theexclusively prokaryotic colonial precursors of stromatolites to the multicellular organismicaggregates that give rise to coral reefs.

  10. Biochemical, transcriptional and translational evidences of the phenol-meta-degradation pathway by the hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus solfataricus 98/2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Comte

    Full Text Available Phenol is a widespread pollutant and a model molecule to study the biodegradation of monoaromatic compounds. After a first oxidation step leading to catechol in mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms, two main routes have been identified depending on the cleavage of the aromatic ring: ortho involving a catechol 1,2 dioxygenase (C12D and meta involving a catechol 2,3 dioxygenase (C23D. Our work aimed at elucidating the phenol-degradation pathway in the hyperthermophilic archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus 98/2. For this purpose, the strain was cultivated in a fermentor under different substrate and oxygenation conditions. Indeed, reducing dissolved-oxygen concentration allowed slowing down phenol catabolism (specific growth and phenol-consumption rates dropped 55% and 39%, respectively and thus, evidencing intermediate accumulations in the broth. HPLC/Diode Array Detector and LC-MS analyses on culture samples at low dissolved-oxygen concentration (DOC  =  0.06 mg x L(-1 suggested, apart for catechol, the presence of 2-hydroxymuconic acid, 4-oxalocrotonate and 4-hydroxy-2-oxovalerate, three intermediates of the meta route. RT-PCR analysis on oxygenase-coding genes of S. solfataricus 98/2 showed that the gene coding for the C23D was expressed only on phenol. In 2D-DIGE/MALDI-TOF analysis, the C23D was found and identified only on phenol. This set of results allowed us concluding that S. solfataricus 98/2 degrade phenol through the meta route.

  11. Biochemical evidence for overlapping neocortical and allocortical glutamate projections to the nucleus accumbens and rostral caudatoputamen in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I.


    The high affinity uptake of L-glutamate has been used to investigate the origin and distribution of putative glutamate fibers in restricted parts of the rostral caudatoputamen and the nucleus accumbens of the rat brain. Ablation of the frontal cortex reduced the glutamate uptake heavily (-77%) in the dorsal part of the ipsilateral caudatoputamen, but also led to significant decreases in the ventral parts of the ipsilateral caudatoputamen (-62% and -53%) in the ipsilateral nucleus accumbens (-25% and -18%) and in the contralateral dorsal part of the caudatoputamen (-21%). Lesion of the caudal neocortex reduced the glutamate uptake in the dorsal part of the ipsilateral caudatoputamen only (-23%). Lesions of the fimbria/fornix reduced the glutamate uptake in both parts of the ipsilateral nucleus accumbens (-46% and -34%) and by approximately 20% in the whole dorsoventral extent of the anterior caudatoputamen. The results indicate that the frontal neocortex distributes fibers which may use glutamate as neurotransmitter both to the whole ipsilateral caudatoputamen and to the nucleus accumbens, and also to the dorsal parts of the contralateral caudatoputamen. The caudal neocortex probably sends such fibers to the dorsal ipsilateral caudatoputamen and the caudal allocortex sends such fibers through the fimbria/fornix to the nucleus accumbens and the ventral part of the ipsilateral caudatoputamen. The results thus corroborate previous suggestions of close similarities between the nucleus accumbens and the ventral caudatoputamen.

  12. Biochemical and microbiological evidence for fermentative digestion in free-living land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus) and marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on the Galápagos archipelago. (United States)

    Mackie, Roderick I; Rycyk, Mathew; Ruemmler, Rebecca L; Aminov, Rustam I; Wikelski, Martin


    Herbivorous lizards are potentially capable of high digestive efficiency, but the presence of an indigenous microbial population has been implied from measurements of activity rather than directly studied. This study is the first to provide direct biochemical and microbiological evidence for fermentative digestion in free-living land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus) and marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) from the Galapagos archipelago. In marine iguanas, the stomach and large capacious colon contained ca. 32% and 60%, respectively, of the weight of total gut content. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was ca. 150 and 180 mM, respectively, for marine and land iguanas. Molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate (80.3%, 9.5%, and 3.5%) in land iguana fecal samples were similar to those for marine iguanas. Examination of fecal samples using confocal and transmission electron microscopy, as well as cultivable counts, revealed a dense and diverse population of bacteria, with spores prominent. Total culturable counts of anaerobes (2.22x10(8) g(-1) wet weight of fecal material) outnumbered aerobes on average by a factor of ca. 700. Combined, these results strongly support the contention that these unique herbivorous lizards are largely dependent on the presence and metabolic activities of a resident bacterial population in order to hydrolyze and ferment plant polymers that are indigestible to the host.

  13. Review of Evidence Suggesting That the Fascia Network Could Be the Anatomical Basis for Acupoints and Meridians in the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bai


    Full Text Available The anatomical basis for the concept of meridians in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has not been resolved. This paper reviews the evidence supporting a relationship between acupuncture points/meridians and fascia. The reviewed evidence supports the view that the human body's fascia network may be the physical substrate represented by the meridians of TCM. Specifically, this hypothesis is supported by anatomical observations of body scan data demonstrating that the fascia network resembles the theoretical meridian system in salient ways, as well as physiological, histological, and clinical observations. This view represents a theoretical basis and means for applying modern biomedical research to examining TCM principles and therapies, and it favors a holistic approach to diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Shi


    Full Text Available Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR. Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  15. New evidence suggests Southern China as a common source of multiple clusters of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Wang, Chengmin; Dong, Guoying; Guo, Yunhai; Nolte, Dale Louis; Deliberto, Thomas Jude; Xu, Jianguo; Duan, Mingxing; He, Hongxuan


    Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza is considered an avian disease, although there is some evidence of limited human-to-human transmission of the virus. A global effort is underway to control or eradicate the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in poultry and prevent human exposure, both of which may also reduce the risk of pandemic emergence. Hemagglutinin gene sequences from 215 human H5N1 influenza viruses were used to trace the source and dispersal pattern of human H5N1 influenza viruses on a global scale. A mutation network and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin gene show that human H5N1 influenza viruses can be clearly divided among 4 clusters across geographic space. On the basis of analysis of the N-glycosylation sites at positions 100 and 170 in the hemagglutinin protein, human H5N1 influenza viruses were also divided into 3 types. When we combined these analyses with geographic information system data analyses, we found that Southern China is often a common source of multiple clusters of H5N1 influenza viruses and that each cluster has different dispersal patterns and individual evolutionary features. In summary, the genetic evidence presented here provides clear evidence for multiple clusters of human H5N1 influenza viruses that initially originated in Southern China.

  16. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome. (United States)

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola


    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Grazing, egg production, and biochemical evidence of differences in the life strategies of Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus in Disko Bay, western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne; Dünweber, Michael


    This is the first high temporal-resolution study in Disko Bay covering population dynamics, grazing, reproduction, and biochemical composition of 3 dominating copepod species (Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus) from late winter to midsummer in 2008. C. finmarchicus and C. glac...

  18. Low-Level Evidence Suggests that Perceived Ability to Evaluate and Trust Online Health Information is Associated with Low Health Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Alcock


    Full Text Available Objective – To review, based on research evidence, the correlation between low health literacy and four outcomes of interest: (1 the ability to evaluate online health information based on (2 perceived reliability and accuracy, (3 trust in the Internet as an information source, and (4 the application of established evaluation criteria. Design – Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Setting –MEDLINE, PsycInfo, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Communication and Mass-media Complete as well as articles discovered through the snowball method. Subjects – 38 studies identified through a systematic literature search. Methods – An exhaustive list of potential articles was gathered through searching five online databases and Google Scholar, and hand searching of references. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied in a two-phase screening process in which two researchers participated to address reliability. Data, including study characteristics and metadata, predictors, assessment methods, and outcomes, were extracted from relevant studies, and then synthesized narratively. Main Results – Following duplication removal 13,632 records were retrieved, 254 of which were identified for full-text assessment. Thirty-eight studies met the eligibility criteria. All studies were non-experimental and therefore graded as a low level of evidence; 35 were cross-sectional designs, 1 a focus group, and 2 were observational studies. Studies varied widely in population definition and sample size and were published between 2001 and 2013, primarily in North America. Overall, a positive association was identified between health literacy and outcomes related to the ability to evaluate or trust Internet health information, while findings were inconsistent related to perceived quality of information and the application of evaluative criteria. Four studies examined the impact of health literacy levels on one or more of the outcomes of interest. The most prevalent

  19. When the rule becomes the exception. no evidence of gene flow between two Zerynthia cryptic butterflies suggests the emergence of a new model group. (United States)

    Zinetti, Francesca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Vovlas, Alessio; Chelazzi, Guido; Bonelli, Simona; Balletto, Emilio; Ciofi, Claudio


    There is increasing evidence that most parapatric cryptic/sister taxa are reproductively compatible across their areas of contact. Consequently, the biological species concept, which assumes absence of interbreeding, is becoming a not so effective criterion in evolutionary ecology. Nevertheless, the few parapatric sister taxa showing complete reproductive barriers represent interesting models to study speciation processes and the evolution of reproductive isolation. In this study, we examined contact populations in northwestern Italy of two butterfly species, Zerynthia polyxena and Z. cassandra, characterized by different genitalic morphotypes. We studied levels of divergence among 21 populations distributed from Sicily to France using three genetic markers (the mitochondrial COI and ND1 genes and the nuclear wingless gene) and genitalic geometric morphometrics. Moreover, we performed species distribution modelling to estimate different climatic requirements of Z. polyxena and Z. cassandra. We projected climatic data into glacial maximum scenarios in order to verify if and to which extent glacial cycles could have contributed to speciation processes. Genetic and morphometric analyses identified two main groups. All specimens showed a concordant pattern of diversification, including those individuals sampled in the contact area. Haplotype distribution and climatic models showed that during glacial maxima both species experienced a strong range contraction and presumably remained separated into different microrefugia in southern France, in the Italian Peninsula and on the islands of Elba and Sicily. Long term separation was probably favoured by reduced dispersal ability and high phylopatry, while genitalic diversification probably favoured interbreeding avoidance. Conversely, the aposematic wing pattern remained almost identical. We compared our results with those obtained in other species and concluded that Z. polyxena and Z. cassandra represent a valuable model in

  20. Diffusion-weighted MRI measures suggest increased white-matter integrity in Internet gaming disorder: Evidence from the comparison with recreational Internet game users. (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Wu, Lingdan; Wang, Ziliang; Wang, Yifan; Du, Xiaoxia; Potenza, Marc N


    Several studies have suggested that Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is related to altered brain white matter integrity. However, seeming inconsistencies exist and may reflect comparison groups not matched well for certain gaming characteristics. In order to address this possible concern, we recruited in the present study individuals with recreational Internet game use (RGU) comprised of individuals who spend similar amounts of time as IGD subjects playing online games without developing IGD. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected from 42 IGD and 44 RGU subjects. Whole-brain comparisons showed that IGD subjects demonstrated increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the bilateral anterior thalamic radiation, anterior limb of the internal capsule, bilateral corticospinal tract, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, corpus callosum, and bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus. In addition, Internet-addiction severity was positively correlated with FA values. Taken together, we conclude that IGD is associated with measures of increased white-matter integrity in tracts linking reward circuitry and sensory and motor control systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence of at least two evolutionary lineages in Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini) suggested by mtDNA variability and geometric morphometrics of forewings (United States)

    Bonatti, Vanessa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Franco, Fernando Faria; Francoy, Tiago Mauricio


    Melipona subnitida, a tropical stingless bee, is an endemic species of the Brazilian northeast and exhibits great potential for honey and pollen production in addition to its role as one of the main pollinators of the Caatinga biome. To understand the genetic structure and better assist in the conservation of this species, we characterized the population variability of M. subnitida using geometric morphometrics of the forewing and cytochrome c oxidase I gene fragment sequencing. We collected workers from six localities in the northernmost distribution. Both methodologies indicated that the variability among the sampled populations is related both to the environment in which samples were collected and the geographical distance between the sampling sites, indicating that differentiation among the populations is due to the existence of at least evolutionary lineages. Molecular clock data suggest that this differentiation may have begun in the middle Pleistocene, approximately 396 kya. The conservation of all evolutionary lineages is important since they can present differential resistance to environmental changes, as resistance to drought and diseases.

  2. Evidence Suggesting That Francisella tularensis O-Antigen Capsule Contains a Lipid A-Like Molecule That Is Structurally Distinct from the More Abundant Free Lipid A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Barker

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, the Gram-negative bacterium that causes tularemia, produces a high molecular weight capsule that is immunologically distinct from Francisella lipopolysaccharide but contains the same O-antigen tetrasaccharide. To pursue the possibility that the capsule of Francisella live vaccine strain (LVS has a structurally unique lipid anchor, we have metabolically labeled Francisella with [14C]acetate to facilitate highly sensitive compositional analysis of capsule-associated lipids. Capsule was purified by two independent methods and yielded similar results. Autoradiographic and immunologic analysis confirmed that this purified material was largely devoid of low molecular weight LPS and of the copious amounts of free lipid A that the Francisellae accumulate. Chemical hydrolysis yielded [14C]-labeled free fatty acids characteristic of Francisella lipid A but with a different molar ratio of 3-OH C18:0 to 3-OH C16:0 and different composition of non-hydroxylated fatty acids (mainly C14:0 rather than C16:0 than that of free Francisella lipid A. Mild acid hydrolysis to induce selective cleavage of KDO-lipid A linkage yielded a [14C]-labeled product that partitioned during Bligh/Dyer extraction and migrated during thin-layer chromatography like lipid A. These findings suggest that the O-antigen capsule of Francisella contains a covalently linked and structurally distinct lipid A species. The presence of a discrete lipid A-like molecule associated with capsule raises the possibility that Francisella selectively exploits lipid A structural heterogeneity to regulate synthesis, transport, and stable bacterial surface association of the O-antigen capsular layer.

  3. Lack of genomic evidence of AI-2 receptors suggests a non-quorum sensing role for luxS in most bacteria. (United States)

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Duffy, Brion


    Great excitement accompanied discoveries over the last decade in several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the LuxS protein, which catalyzes production of the AI-2 autoinducer molecule for a second quorum sensing system (QS-2). Since the luxS gene was found to be widespread among the most diverse bacterial taxa, it was hypothesized that AI-2 may constitute the basis of a universal microbial language, a kind of bacterial Esperanto. Many of the studies published in this field have drawn a direct correlation between the occurrence of the luxS gene in a given organism and the presence and functionality of a QS-2 therein. However, rarely hathe existence of potential AI-2 receptors been examined. This is important, since it is now well recognized that LuxS also holds a central role as a metabolic enzyme in the activated methyl cycle which is responsible for the generation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, the major methyl donor in the cell. In order to assess whether the role of LuxS in these bacteria is indeed related to AI-2 mediated quorum sensing we analyzed genomic databases searching for established AI-2 receptors (i.e., LuxPQ-receptor of Vibrio harveyi and Lsr ABC-transporter of Salmonella typhimurium) and other presumed QS-related proteins and compared the outcome with published results about the role of QS-2 in these organisms. An unequivocal AI-2 related behavior was restricted primarily to organisms bearing known AI-2 receptor genes, while phenotypes of luxS mutant bacteria lacking these genes could often be explained simply by assuming deficiencies in sulfur metabolism. Genomic analysis shows that while LuxPQ is restricted to Vibrionales, the Lsr-receptor complex is mainly present in pathogenic bacteria associated with endotherms. This suggests that QS-2 may play an important role in interactions with animal hosts. In most other species, however, the role of LuxS appears to be limited to metabolism, although in a few cases the presence of yet unknown

  4. Lack of genomic evidence of AI-2 receptors suggests a non-quorum sensing role for luxS in most bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Brion


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Great excitement accompanied discoveries over the last decade in several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the LuxS protein, which catalyzes production of the AI-2 autoinducer molecule for a second quorum sensing system (QS-2. Since the luxS gene was found to be widespread among the most diverse bacterial taxa, it was hypothesized that AI-2 may constitute the basis of a universal microbial language, a kind of bacterial Esperanto. Many of the studies published in this field have drawn a direct correlation between the occurrence of the luxS gene in a given organism and the presence and functionality of a QS-2 therein. However, rarely hathe existence of potential AI-2 receptors been examined. This is important, since it is now well recognized that LuxS also holds a central role as a metabolic enzyme in the activated methyl cycle which is responsible for the generation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, the major methyl donor in the cell. Results In order to assess whether the role of LuxS in these bacteria is indeed related to AI-2 mediated quorum sensing we analyzed genomic databases searching for established AI-2 receptors (i.e., LuxPQ-receptor of Vibrio harveyi and Lsr ABC-transporter of Salmonella typhimurium and other presumed QS-related proteins and compared the outcome with published results about the role of QS-2 in these organisms. An unequivocal AI-2 related behavior was restricted primarily to organisms bearing known AI-2 receptor genes, while phenotypes of luxS mutant bacteria lacking these genes could often be explained simply by assuming deficiencies in sulfur metabolism. Conclusion Genomic analysis shows that while LuxPQ is restricted to Vibrionales, the Lsr-receptor complex is mainly present in pathogenic bacteria associated with endotherms. This suggests that QS-2 may play an important role in interactions with animal hosts. In most other species, however, the role of LuxS appears to be limited to metabolism

  5. The correlation of acute toxicity and late rectal injury in radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma: Evidence suggestive of consequential late effect (CQLE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-J.; Leung, Stephen Wan; Chen, H.-C.; Sun, L.-M.; Fang, F.-M.; Huang, E.-Y.; Hsiung, C.-Y.; Changchien, C.-C.


    increased the risk of late rectal injury. This result suggested that early excessive damage of acute-responding component of rectal wall may play an important role in the initiation of late rectal injury. Radiation proctitis can be accounted, in part, as a consequential late effect

  6. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter


    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  7. Regulation of gene expression by repressor localization: biochemical evidence that membrane and DNA binding by the PutA protein are mutually exclusive.


    Muro-Pastor, A M; Ostrovsky, P; Maloy, S


    The PutA protein from Salmonella typhimurium is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate, a reaction that is coupled to the transfer of electrons to the electron transport chain in the cytoplasmic membrane. The PutA protein is also a transcriptional repressor that regulates the expression of the put operon in response to the availability of proline. Despite extensive genetic and biochemical studies of the PutA protein, it was not known if the PutA protein car...

  8. Evidence Suggesting Absence of Mitochondrial DNA Methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechta, Mie; Ingerslev, Lars R; Fabre, Odile


    Methylation of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins participates in the regulation of mitochondria function. The existence of cytosine methylation in the mitochondrial genome is debated. To investigate whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is methylated, we used both targeted- and whole mito...

  9. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvar Rezae


    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress. 

  10. Regulation of gene expression by repressor localization: biochemical evidence that membrane and DNA binding by the PutA protein are mutually exclusive. (United States)

    Muro-Pastor, A M; Ostrovsky, P; Maloy, S


    The PutA protein from Salmonella typhimurium is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate, a reaction that is coupled to the transfer of electrons to the electron transport chain in the cytoplasmic membrane. The PutA protein is also a transcriptional repressor that regulates the expression of the put operon in response to the availability of proline. Despite extensive genetic and biochemical studies of the PutA protein, it was not known if the PutA protein carries out both of these two opposing functions while membrane associated or if instead it carries them out in different cellular compartments. To distinguish between these alternatives, we directly assayed the binding of purified PutA protein to DNA and membranes in vitro. The results indicate that wild-type PutA does not simultaneously associate with DNA and membranes. In addition, PutA superrepressor mutants that exhibit increased repression of the put genes show a direct correlation between decreased membrane binding and increased DNA binding. These results support a model in which the PutA protein shuttles between the membrane (where it acts as an enzyme but lacks access to DNA-binding sites) and the cytoplasm (where it binds DNA and acts as a transcriptional repressor), depending on the availability of proline.

  11. Ultrastructural changes during spermatogenesis, biochemical and hormonal evidences of testicular toxicity caused by TBT in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879). (United States)

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan


    The present investigation documents the impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the ultrastructural variation of spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The environmentally realistic concentration of TBT can cause damages to the endocrine and reproductive physiology of crustaceans. In this context, three concentrations viz. 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 90 days. The TBT exposed prawn exhibited decrease the reproductive activity as evidenced by sperm count and sperm length compared to control. Histopathological results revealed the retarded testicular development, abnormal structure of seminiferous tubule, decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa, diminution of seminiferous tubule membrane, abundance of spermatocytes and vacuolation in testis of treated prawns. Ultrastructural study also confirmed the impairment of spermatogenesis in treated prawns. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) clearly documented the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT substantially reduced the level of male sex hormone as well as biochemical constituents which ultimately led to impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  12. Biochemical and structural studies of the oligomerization domain of the Nipah virus phosphoprotein: evidence for an elongated coiled-coil homotrimer. (United States)

    Blocquel, David; Beltrandi, Matilde; Erales, Jenny; Barbier, Pascale; Longhi, Sonia


    Nipah virus (NiV) is a recently emerged severe human pathogen that belongs to the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. The NiV genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid that is the substrate used by the polymerase for transcription and replication. The polymerase is recruited onto the nucleocapsid via its cofactor, the phosphoprotein (P). The NiV P protein has a modular organization, with alternating disordered and ordered domains. Among these latter, is the P multimerization domain (PMD) that was predicted to adopt a coiled-coil conformation. Using both biochemical and biophysical approaches, we show that NiV PMD forms a highly stable and elongated coiled-coil trimer, a finding in striking contrast with respect to the PMDs of Paramyxoviridae members investigated so far that were all found to tetramerize. The present results therefore represent the first report of a paramyxoviral P protein forming trimers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular and biochemical evidence on the protection of cardiomyocytes from phosphine-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by acetyl-L-carnitine. (United States)

    Baghaei, Amir; Solgi, Reza; Jafari, Abbas; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Golaghaei, Alireza; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Baeeri, Maryam; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Abdollahi, Mohammad


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on pathologic changes of mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, ATP production, oxidative stress, and cellular apoptosis/necrosis induced by aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning. The study groups included: the Sham that received almond oil only; the AlP that received oral LD50 dose of aluminum; the AC-100, AC-200, and AC-300 which received concurrent oral LD50 dose of AlP and single 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of ALCAR by intraperitoneal injection. After 24 h, the rats were sacrificed; the heart and blood sample were taken for measurement of biochemical and mitochondrial factors. The results specified that ALCAR significantly attenuated the oxidative stress (elevated ROS and plasma iron levels) caused by AlP poisoning. ALCAR also increased the activity of cytochrome oxidase, which in turn amplified ATP production. Furthermore, flow cytometric assays and caspase activity indicated that ALCAR prohibited AlP-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model. (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving


    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  15. Evidence for Posttranslational Protein Flavinylation in the Syphilis Spirochete Treponema pallidum: Structural and Biochemical Insights from the Catalytic Core of a Periplasmic Flavin-Trafficking Protein. (United States)

    Deka, Ranjit K; Brautigam, Chad A; Liu, Wei Z; Tomchick, Diana R; Norgard, Michael V


    The syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum is an important human pathogen but a highly enigmatic bacterium that cannot be cultivated in vitro. T. pallidum lacks many biosynthetic pathways and therefore has evolved the capability to exploit host-derived metabolites via its periplasmic lipoprotein repertoire. We recently reported a flavin-trafficking protein in T. pallidum (Ftp_Tp; TP0796) as the first bacterial metal-dependent flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes FAD into AMP and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in the spirochete's periplasm. However, orthologs of Ftp_Tp from other bacteria appear to lack this hydrolytic activity; rather, they bind and flavinylate subunits of a cytoplasmic membrane redox system (Nqr/Rnf). To further explore this dichotomy, biochemical analyses, protein crystallography, and structure-based mutagenesis were used to show that a single amino acid change (N55Y) in Ftp_Tp converts it from an Mg(2+)-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase to an FAD-binding protein. We also demonstrated that Ftp_Tp has a second enzymatic activity (Mg(2+)-FMN transferase); it flavinylates protein(s) covalently with FMN on a threonine side chain of an appropriate sequence motif using FAD as the substrate. Moreover, mutation of a metal-binding residue (D284A) eliminates Ftp_Tp's dual activities, thereby underscoring the role of Mg(2+) in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The posttranslational flavinylation activity that can target a periplasmic lipoprotein (TP0171) has not previously been described. The observed activities reveal the catalytic flexibility of a treponemal protein to perform multiple functions. Together, these findings imply mechanisms by which a dynamic pool of flavin cofactor is maintained and how flavoproteins are generated by Ftp_Tp locally in the T. pallidum periplasm. Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete, exploits its periplasmic lipoproteins for a number of essential physiologic processes. One of these, flavin

  16. Open to Suggestion. (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987


    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  17. Increased Insulin following an Oral Glucose Load, Genetic Variation near the Melatonin Receptor MTNR1B, but No Biochemical Evidence of Endothelial Dysfunction in Young Asian Men and Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Matuszek

    Full Text Available To identify biochemical and genetic variation relating to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in young, lean male and female adults of different ethnicities.Fasting blood and urine and non-fasting blood following oral glucose intake were analysed in 90 Caucasians, South Asians and South East/East Asians.There were no differences in age, birthweight, blood pressure, body mass index, percent body fat, total energy, percentage of macronutrient intake, microalbumin, leptin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, nitric oxide metabolites, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, von Willebrand factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue plasminogen activator. Fasting total cholesterol (P = .000, triglycerides (P = .050, low density lipoprotein (P = .009 and non-fasting blood glucose (15 min (P = .024 were elevated in South Asians compared with Caucasians, but there was no significant difference in glucose area under curve (AUC. Non-fasting insulin in South Asians (15-120 min, in South East/East Asians (60-120 min, and insulin AUC in South Asians and South East/East Asians, were elevated compared with Caucasians (P≤0.006. The molar ratio of C-peptide AUC/Insulin AUC (P = .045 and adiponectin (P = .037 were lower in South Asians compared with Caucasians. A significant difference in allele frequency distributions in Caucasians and South Asians was found for rs2166706 (P = 0.022 and rs10830963 (P = 0.009, which are both near the melatonin receptor MTNR1B.Elevated non-fasting insulin exists in young South Asians of normal fasting glucose and insulin. Hepatic clearance of insulin may be reduced in South Asians. No current biochemical evidence exists of endothelial dysfunction at this stage of development. MTNR1B signalling may be a useful therapeutic target in Asian populations in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Anti-stress and nootropic activity of drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system in rats based on indirect biochemical evidence. (United States)

    Anil Kumar, K V; Nagwar, Shrasti; Thyloor, Rama; Satyanarayana, Sreemantula


    Various stress hormones are responsible for bringing out stress-related changes and are implicated in learning and memory processes. The extensive clinical experience of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and direct renin inhibitor as antihypertensive agents provides anecdotal evidence of improvements in cognition. The neurochemical basis underlying the anti-stress and nootropic effects are unclear. This study was aimed to determine the effects of aliskiren, valsartan and their combination on the neuromediators of the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery as well as on cognitive function. Groups of rats were subjected to a forced swim stress for one hour after daily treatment with aliskiren, valsartan and their combination. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandellic acid (VMA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 6-β-hydroxycortisol (6-β-OH) cortisol and homovanillic acid (HVA) was determined in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. Nootropic activity was studied using cook's pole climbing apparatus and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity by Ellman's method. Administration of aliskiren (10 mg/kg), valsartan (20 mg/kg) and their combination at a dose of 5 and 10 mg/kg respectively reduced the urinary metabolite levels. Further, all drugs showed significant improvement in scopolamine-impaired performance and produced inhibition of the AChE enzyme. The present study provides scientific support for the anti-stress and nootropic activities of aliskiren, valsartan and their combination. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Microcystin uptake and biochemical responses in the freshwater clam Corbicula leana P. exposed to toxic and non-toxic Microcystis aeruginosa: Evidence of tolerance to cyanotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Luu Pham


    Full Text Available We investigated the accumulation and adverse effects of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis in the edible clam Corbicula leana. Treated clams were exposed to toxic Microcystis at 100 μg of MC (microcystin-LReq L−1 for 10 days. The experimental organism was then placed in toxin-free water and fed on non-toxic Microcystis for the following 10 days for depuration. Filtering rates (FRs by C. leana of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis and of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris as a control were estimated. Adverse effects were evaluated though the activity of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione S-transferase (GST. Clam accumulated MCs (up to 12.7 ± 2.5 μg g−1 dry weight (DW of free MC and 4.2 ± 0.6 μg g−1 DW of covalently bound MC. Our results suggest that although both toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria caused adverse effects by inducing the detoxification and antioxidant defense system, the clam was quite resistant to cyanotoxins. The estimated MC concentration in C. leana was far beyond the World Health Organization's (WHO provisional tolerable daily intake (0.04 μg kg−1 day−1, suggesting that consuming clams harvested during cyanobacterial blooms carries a high health risk.

  20. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication]. (United States)

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L


    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  1. Ameliorative Effects of PACAP against Cartilage Degeneration. Morphological, Immunohistochemical and Biochemical Evidence from in Vivo and in Vitro Models of Rat Osteoarthritis (United States)

    Giunta, Salvatore; Castorina, Alessandro; Marzagalli, Rubina; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Pichler, Karin; Mobasheri, Ali; Musumeci, Giuseppe


    Osteoarthritis (OA); the most common form of degenerative joint disease, is associated with variations in pro-inflammatory growth factor levels, inflammation and hypocellularity resulting from chondrocyte apoptosis. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide endowed with a range of trophic effects in several cell types; including chondrocytes. However; its role in OA has not been studied. To address this issue, we investigated whether PACAP expression is affected in OA cartilage obtained from experimentally-induced OA rat models, and then studied the effects of PACAP in isolated chondrocytes exposed to IL-1β in vitro to mimic the inflammatory milieu of OA cartilage. OA induction was established by histomorphometric and histochemical analyses. Changes in PACAP distribution in cartilage, or its concentration in synovial fluid (SF), were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Results showed that PACAP abundance in cartilage tissue and SF was high in healthy controls. OA induction decreased PACAP levels both in affected cartilage and SF. In vitro, PACAP prevented IL-1β-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, as determined by MTT assay; Hoechst staining and western blots of apoptotic-related proteins. These changes were also accompanied by decreased i-NOS and COX-2 levels, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Altogether, these findings support a potential role for PACAP as a chondroprotective agent for the treatment of OA. PMID:25782157

  2. Ameliorative effects of PACAP against cartilage degeneration. Morphological, immunohistochemical and biochemical evidence from in vivo and in vitro models of rat osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Giunta, Salvatore; Castorina, Alessandro; Marzagalli, Rubina; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Pichler, Karin; Mobasheri, Ali; Musumeci, Giuseppe


    Osteoarthritis (OA); the most common form of degenerative joint disease, is associated with variations in pro-inflammatory growth factor levels, inflammation and hypocellularity resulting from chondrocyte apoptosis. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide endowed with a range of trophic effects in several cell types; including chondrocytes. However; its role in OA has not been studied. To address this issue, we investigated whether PACAP expression is affected in OA cartilage obtained from experimentally-induced OA rat models, and then studied the effects of PACAP in isolated chondrocytes exposed to IL-1β in vitro to mimic the inflammatory milieu of OA cartilage. OA induction was established by histomorphometric and histochemical analyses. Changes in PACAP distribution in cartilage, or its concentration in synovial fluid (SF), were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Results showed that PACAP abundance in cartilage tissue and SF was high in healthy controls. OA induction decreased PACAP levels both in affected cartilage and SF. In vitro, PACAP prevented IL-1β-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, as determined by MTT assay; Hoechst staining and western blots of apoptotic-related proteins. These changes were also accompanied by decreased i-NOS and COX-2 levels, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Altogether, these findings support a potential role for PACAP as a chondroprotective agent for the treatment of OA.

  3. Ameliorative Effects of PACAP against Cartilage Degeneration. Morphological, Immunohistochemical and Biochemical Evidence from in Vivo and in Vitro Models of Rat Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Giunta


    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA; the most common form of degenerative joint disease, is associated with variations in pro-inflammatory growth factor levels, inflammation and hypocellularity resulting from chondrocyte apoptosis. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neuropeptide endowed with a range of trophic effects in several cell types; including chondrocytes. However; its role in OA has not been studied. To address this issue, we investigated whether PACAP expression is affected in OA cartilage obtained from experimentally-induced OA rat models, and then studied the effects of PACAP in isolated chondrocytes exposed to IL-1β in vitro to mimic the inflammatory milieu of OA cartilage. OA induction was established by histomorphometric and histochemical analyses. Changes in PACAP distribution in cartilage, or its concentration in synovial fluid (SF, were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Results showed that PACAP abundance in cartilage tissue and SF was high in healthy controls. OA induction decreased PACAP levels both in affected cartilage and SF. In vitro, PACAP prevented IL-1β-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, as determined by MTT assay; Hoechst staining and western blots of apoptotic-related proteins. These changes were also accompanied by decreased i-NOS and COX-2 levels, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Altogether, these findings support a potential role for PACAP as a chondroprotective agent for the treatment of OA.

  4. Augmentation by escitalopram, but not citalopram or R-citalopram, of the effects of low-dose risperidone: behavioral, biochemical, and electrophysiological evidence. (United States)

    Marcus, Monica M; Jardemark, Kent; Malmerfelt, Anna; Gertow, Jens; Konradsson-Geuken, Asa; Svensson, Torgny H


    Antidepressant drugs are frequently used to treat affective symptoms in schizophrenia. We have recently shown that escitalopram, but not citalopram or R-citalopram, increases firing rate and burst firing of midbrain dopamine neurons, potentiates cortical N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated transmission and enhances cognition, effects that might influence the outcome of concomitant antipsychotic medication. Here, we studied, in rats, the behavioral and neurobiological effects of adding escitalopram, citalopram, or R-citalopram to the second-generation antipsychotic drug risperidone. We examined antipsychotic efficacy using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test, extrapyramidal side effect (EPS) liability using a catalepsy test, dopamine outflow in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving animals, and NMDA receptor-mediated transmission in the mPFC using intracellular electrophysiological recording in vitro. Only escitalopram (5 mg/kg), but not citalopram (10 mg/kg), or R-citalopram (10 mg/kg), dramatically enhanced the antipsychotic-like effect of a low dose of risperidone (0.25 mg/kg), without increasing catalepsy. Given alone, escitalopram, but not citalopram or R-citalopram, markedly enhanced both cortical dopamine output and NMDA receptor-mediated transmission. Addition of escitalopram and to some extent R-citalopram, but not citalopram, significantly enhanced both cortical dopamine output and cortical NMDA receptor-mediated transmission induced by a suboptimal dose/concentration of risperidone. These results suggest that adjunct treatment with escitalopram, but not citalopram, may enhance the effect of a subtherapeutic dose of risperidone on positive, negative, cognitive, and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia, yet without increased EPS liability. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Structural and Biochemical Evidence That a TEM-1 [beta]-Lactamase N170G Active Site Mutant Acts via Substrate-assisted Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas G.; Shanker, Sreejesh; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Palzkill, Timothy; (Baylor)


    TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is the most common plasmid-encoded {beta}-lactamase in Gram-negative bacteria and is a model class A enzyme. The active site of class A {beta}-lactamases share several conserved residues including Ser{sup 70}, Glu{sup 166}, and Asn{sub 170} that coordinate a hydrolytic water involved in deacylation. Unlike Ser{sup 70} and Glu{sup 166}, the functional significance of residue Asn{sup 170} is not well understood even though it forms hydrogen bonds with both Glu{sup 166} and the hydrolytic water. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of Asn{sup 170} for catalysis and substrate specificity of {beta}-lactam antibiotic hydrolysis. The codon for position 170 was randomized to create a library containing all 20 possible amino acids. The random library was introduced into Escherichia coli, and functional clones were selected on agar plates containing ampicillin. DNA sequencing of the functional clones revealed that only asparagine (wild type) and glycine at this position are consistent with wild-type function. The determination of kinetic parameters for several substrates revealed that the N170G mutant is very efficient at hydrolyzing substrates that contain a primary amine in the antibiotic R-group that would be close to the Asn{sup 170} side chain in the acyl-intermediate. In addition, the x-ray structure of the N170G enzyme indicated that the position of an active site water important for deacylation is altered compared with the wild-type enzyme. Taken together, the results suggest the N170G TEM-1 enzyme hydrolyzes ampicillin efficiently because of substrate-assisted catalysis where the primary amine of the ampicillin R-group positions the hydrolytic water and allows for efficient deacylation.

  6. Physiological, biochemical and transcriptional analysis of onion bulbs during storage (United States)

    Chope, Gemma A.; Cools, Katherine; Hammond, John P.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Terry, Leon A.


    Background and Aims During the transition from endo-dormancy to eco-dormancy and subsequent growth, the onion bulb undergoes the transition from sink organ to source, to sustain cell division in the meristematic tissue. The mechanisms controlling these processes are not fully understood. Here, a detailed analysis of whole onion bulb physiological, biochemical and transcriptional changes in response to sprouting is reported, enabling a better knowledge of the mechanisms regulating post-harvest onion sprout development. Methods Biochemical and physiological analyses were conducted on different cultivars (‘Wellington’, ‘Sherpa’ and ‘Red Baron’) grown at different sites over 3 years, cured at different temperatures (20, 24 and 28 °C) and stored under different regimes (1, 3, 6 and 6 → 1 °C). In addition, the first onion oligonucleotide microarray was developed to determine differential gene expression in onion during curing and storage, so that transcriptional changes could support biochemical and physiological analyses. Key Results There were greater transcriptional differences between samples at harvest and before sprouting than between the samples taken before and after sprouting, with some significant changes occurring during the relatively short curing period. These changes are likely to represent the transition from endo-dormancy to sprout suppression, and suggest that endo-dormancy is a relatively short period ending just after curing. Principal component analysis of biochemical and physiological data identified the ratio of monosaccharides (fructose and glucose) to disaccharide (sucrose), along with the concentration of zeatin riboside, as important factors in discriminating between sprouting and pre-sprouting bulbs. Conclusions These detailed analyses provide novel insights into key regulatory triggers for sprout dormancy release in onion bulbs and provide the potential for the development of biochemical or transcriptional markers for sprout

  7. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon


    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  8. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deog Yoon [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays.

  9. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: which test is best?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J.W.M.; Pacak, K.; Walther, M.M.; Linehan, W.M.; Mannelli, M.; Friberg, P.; Keiser, H.R.; Goldstein, D.S.; Eisenhofer, G.


    CONTEXT: Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma depends on biochemical evidence of catecholamine production by the tumor. However, the best test to establish the diagnosis has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the biochemical test or combination of tests that provides the best method for diagnosis

  10. Measures of Biochemical Sociology (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell


    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  11. Biochemical Education in Brazil. (United States)

    Vella, F.


    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  12. [Evidence of work-related musculo-skeletal disorders of the upper extremities and current methods of risk assessment: can Charlie Chaplin give us any suggestions in "modern times"]. (United States)

    Apostoli, P; Sala, Emma


    in some sequences of the film "Modern Times" Chaplin is clearly involved in activities at high risk for work-related musculo-skeletal disorders of the upper extremities (UEWMSDs), but evidence and perception of any complaint are not evident. To evaluate the extent of the biomechanical risk using current risk assessment methods and discuss the possible reasons for lack of complaints. we made an analysis using six of the current methods for ergonomic risk assessment (State of Washington, check list OCRA, HAL by ACGIH, RULA Strain Index, OREGE). All the methods applied demonstrated high-to-very high levels of biomechanical risk for the upper extremities, with evident psychic effects but without apparent musculo-skeletal disorders. The discrepancy between evident psychological disorders ad apparent absence of UEWMSDs are discussed as being due to either: an artistic choice by Charlie Chaplin who focused on the aspects thought to be more immediately and easily comic; the short duration of the physical load exertion; or because of a different perception of muscular work and fatigue that was also typical until the 1970's and 1980's, which also confirmed the principles and practices of our preventive and medical disciplines at that time.

  13. Histopathological and biochemical disrupting effects of Escravos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histological findings include: lymphocytic infiltration, cirrhosis, fibrosis, hemosiderin, oedema, mild tissue scaring and tissue necrosis. Thus, this result suggests that Escravos crude oil is a potential biochemical disruptor and can also affect the micro-architecture of liver and heart. Key words: Escravos crude oil, liver, ...

  14. In vivo evidence suggesting reciprocal renal hypoxia-inducible factor-1 upregulation and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation in response to hypoxic and non-hypoxic stimuli. (United States)

    Nechemia-Arbely, Yael; Khamaisi, Mogher; Rosenberger, Christian; Koesters, Robert; Shina, Ahuva; Geva, Carmit; Shriki, Anat; Klaus, Stephen; Rosen, Seymour; Rose-John, Stefan; Galun, Eithan; Axelrod, Jonathan H; Heyman, Samuel N


    In vitro studies suggest that combined activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) promotes the hypoxia response. However, their interrelationship in vivo remains poorly defined. The present study investigated the possible relationship between HIF-1 upregulation and STAT3 activation in the rodent kidney in vivo. Activation of HIF-1 and STAT3 was analysed by immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis in: (i) models of hypoxia-associated kidney injury induced by radiocontrast media or rhabdomyolysis; (ii) following activation of STAT3 by the interleukin (IL)-6-soluble IL-6 receptor complex; or (iii) following HIF-1α stabilization using hypoxic and non-hypoxic stimuli (mimosine, FG-4497, CO, CoCl(2)) and in targeted von Hippel-Lindau-knockout mice. Western blot analysis and immunostaining revealed marked induction of both transcription factors under all conditions tested, suggesting that in vivo STAT3 can trigger HIF and vice versa. Colocalization of HIF-1α and phosphorylated STAT3 was detected in some, but not all, renal cell types, suggesting that in some cells a paracrine mechanism may be responsible for the reciprocal activation of the two transcription factors. Nevertheless, in several cell types spatial concordance was observed under the majority of conditions tested, suggesting that HIF-1 and STAT3 may act as cotranscription factors. These in vivo studies suggest that, in response to renal hypoxic-stress, upregulation of HIF-1 and activation of STAT3 may be both reciprocal and cell type dependent. © 2013 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Suggestive evidence for association between L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNA1C) gene haplotypes and bipolar disorder in Latinos: a family-based association study (United States)

    Gonzalez, Suzanne; Xu, Chun; Ramirez, Mercedes; Zavala, Juan; Armas, Regina; Contreras, Salvador A; Contreras, Javier; Dassori, Albana; Leach, Robin J; Flores, Deborah; Jerez, Alvaro; Raventós, Henriette; Ontiveros, Alfonso; Nicolini, Humberto; Escamilla, Michael


    Objectives Through recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS), several groups have reported significant association between variants in the alpha 1C subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNA1C) and bipolar disorder (BP) in European and European-American cohorts. We performed a family-based association study to determine whether CACNA1C is associated with BP in the Latino population. Methods This study consisted of 913 individuals from 215 Latino pedigrees recruited from the United States, Mexico, Guatemala, and Costa Rica. The Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping Assay was used to genotype 58 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that spanned a 602.9 kb region encompassing the CACNA1C gene including two SNPs (rs7297582 and rs1006737) previously shown to associate with BP. Individual SNP and haplotype association analyses were performed using Family-Based Association Test (version 2.0.3) and Haploview (version 4.2) software. Results An eight-locus haplotype block that included these two markers showed significant association with BP (global marker permuted p = 0.0018) in the Latino population. For individual SNPs, this sample had insufficient power (10%) to detect associations with SNPs with minor effect (odds ratio = 1.15). Conclusions Although we were not able to replicate findings of association between individual CACNA1C SNPs rs7297582 and rs1006737 and BP, we were able to replicate the GWAS signal reported for CACNA1C through a haplotype analysis that encompassed these previously reported significant SNPs. These results provide additional evidence that CACNA1C is associated with BP and provides the first evidence that variations in this gene might play a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder in the Latino population. PMID:23437964

  16. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai


    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  17. Polyphenol Oxidases in Crops: Biochemical, Physiological and Genetic Aspects. (United States)

    Taranto, Francesca; Pasqualone, Antonella; Mangini, Giacomo; Tripodi, Pasquale; Miazzi, Monica Marilena; Pavan, Stefano; Montemurro, Cinzia


    Enzymatic browning is a colour reaction occurring in plants, including cereals, fruit and horticultural crops, due to oxidation during postharvest processing and storage. This has a negative impact on the colour, flavour, nutritional properties and shelf life of food products. Browning is usually caused by polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), following cell damage caused by senescence, wounding and the attack of pests and pathogens. Several studies indicated that PPOs play a role in plant immunity, and emerging evidence suggested that PPOs might also be involved in other physiological processes. Genomic investigations ultimately led to the isolation of PPO homologs in several crops, which will be possibly characterized at the functional level in the near future. Here, focusing on the botanic families of Poaceae and Solanaceae, we provide an overview on available scientific literature on PPOs, resulting in useful information on biochemical, physiological and genetic aspects.

  18. Biochemical events in naturally occurring forms of cell death. (United States)

    Fesus, L


    Several molecular elements of programmed cell death and apoptosis have recently been revealed. The function of gene products which deliver the lethal 'hit' is still not known. Well-characterized and newly discovered cell surface structures (e.g. antigen receptors, FAS/APO-1), as well as transcriptional factors (steroid receptor, c-myc, P53, retinoblastoma protein and others), have been implicated in the initiation of the death pathway. Negative regulators of the process (ced-9 gene product in programmed death of cells in Caenorhabditis elegans and bcl-2 protein in apoptosis) have been described. Biochemical mechanisms responsible for the silent nature of natural deaths of cells include their rapid engulfment (mainly through integrin receptors), transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-linking of cellular proteins, and fragmentation of DNA. Several lines of evidence suggest that distinct molecular mechanisms may operate in various forms of natural cell death.

  19. Conformal technique dose escalation for prostate cancer: biochemical evidence of improved cancer control with higher doses in patients with pretreatment prostate-specific antigen ≥10 NG/ML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Lee, W. Robert; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Hunt, Margie; Kaplan, Edward; Epstein, Barry E.; Movsas, Benjamin; Schultheiss, Timothy E.


    Purpose: Conformal radiation technology results in fewer late complications and allows testing of the value of higher doses in prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We report the biochemical freedom from disease (bNED) rates (bNED failure is Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) ≥ 1.5 ng/ml and rising) at 2 and 3 years for 375 consecutive patients treated with conformal technique from 66 to 79 Gy. Median follow-up was 21 months. Biochemical freedom from disease was analyzed for patients treated above and below 71 Gy as well as above and below 73 Gy. Each dose group was subdivided by pretreatment PSA level (<10, 10-19.9, and ≥ 20 ng/ml). Dose was stated to be at the center of the prostate gland. Results: There was significant improvement in bNED survival for all patients divided by a dose above or below 71 Gy (p = 0.007) and a marginal improvement above or below 73 Gy (p 0.07). Subdividing by pretreatment PSA level showed no benefit to the PSA <10 ng/ml group at the higher dose but there was a significant improvement at 71 and 73 Gy for pretreatment PSA 10-19.9 ng/ml (p = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively) and for pretreatment PSA ≥ 20 ng/ml (p = 0.003 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusions: Increasing dose above 71 or 73 Gy did not result in improved bNED survival for patients with pretreatment PSA <10 ng/ml at 2 or 3 years. Further dose escalation studies may not be useful in these patients. A significant improvement in bNED survival was noted for patients with pretreatment PSA ≥ 10 ng/ml treated above 71 or 73 Gy; further dose escalation studies are warranted

  20. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems. (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xuan; Dempsey, William P; Goutsias, John


    Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems as well as for designing optimal approaches for selective perturbation and intervention. Deterministic sensitivity analysis techniques, using derivatives of the system response, have been extensively used in the literature. However, these techniques suffer from several drawbacks, which must be carefully considered before using them in problems of systems biology. We develop here a probabilistic approach to sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems. The proposed technique employs a biophysically derived model for parameter fluctuations and, by using a recently suggested variance-based approach to sensitivity analysis [Saltelli et al., Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 105, 2811 (2005)], it leads to a powerful sensitivity analysis methodology for biochemical reaction systems. The approach presented in this paper addresses many problems associated with derivative-based sensitivity analysis techniques. Most importantly, it produces thermodynamically consistent sensitivity analysis results, can easily accommodate appreciable parameter variations, and allows for systematic investigation of high-order interaction effects. By employing a computational model of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade, we demonstrate that our approach is well suited for sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems and can produce a wealth of information about the sensitivity properties of such systems. The price to be paid, however, is a substantial increase in computational complexity over derivative-based techniques, which must be effectively addressed in order to make the proposed approach to sensitivity analysis more practical.

  1. Preliminary evidence suggests extra-pair mating in the endangered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilized four microsatellite genetic markers, originally developed for the African grey parrot. Parentage testing was undertaken using genotype comparisons with the dominant pair within the breeding group as well as auxiliary males where available. Although four markers were insufficient to provide conclusive ...

  2. Scientific evidence suggests a changed approach in ergonomic intervention research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Jørgen; Schiller, Bernt; Dellve, L.


    Ergonomic interventions have generally been unsuccessful in improving workers’ health, with concurrent rationalization efforts negating potentially successful intervention initiatives. We propose the two aims are considered simultaneously, aiming at the joint consideration of competitive performa...... to carry out such research. The present authors bring forth the vision of “a Nordic Model for development of more sustainable production systems”....

  3. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J; Schlarb, Angelika A; Rasch, Björn


    Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" extends the amount of SWS. Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations.

  4. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn


    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  5. Legal Education Reform: Modest Suggestions. (United States)

    Watson, Alan


    Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…

  6. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  7. Infant Care Suggestions for Parents (United States)

    ... bones, that are in various stages of healing. Handling Suggestions • All movements should be slow, methodical and ... holding, lifting, diapering, and general infant care. The return demonstration will ensure that the parents are comfortable ...

  8. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya


    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  9. Hypnotic suggestion and cognitive neuroscience. (United States)

    Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W


    The growing acceptance of consciousness as a legitimate field of enquiry and the availability of functional imaging has rekindled research interest in the use of hypnosis and suggestion to manipulate subjective experience and to gain insights into healthy and pathological cognitive functioning. Current research forms two strands. The first comprises studies exploring the cognitive and neural nature of hypnosis itself. The second employs hypnosis to explore known psychological processes using specifically targeted suggestions. An extension of this second approach involves using hypnotic suggestion to create clinically informed analogues of established structural and functional neuropsychological disorders. With functional imaging, this type of experimental neuropsychopathology offers a productive means of investigating brain activity involved in many symptom-based disorders and their related phenomenology.

  10. Autotaxin : biochemical and functional studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, Anna Jacoba Sara


    This thesis focuses on autotaxin (ATX), the main enzyme responsible for the production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The ATX-LPA receptor axis has a wide implication in health and disease. The studies described in this thesis aim at characterizing the biochemical and functional properties of ATX,

  11. Serum biochemical changes accompanying prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 18, 2010 ... Toxicological evaluation of the whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora was carried out using the serum biochemical changes accompanying prolonged administration of the ethanolic extract of the fruit in ... glucose in rats administered with the extract of 8000 mg/kg body weight increased two and half-fold.

  12. Nutritional and biochemical therapies for neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Barreto


    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington and Alzheimer’s disease are characterized by neuronal death and loss in different areas of the brain. Downstream signaling mechanisms associated to cellular death/survival are altered, where mitochondrial damage and inflammation, dysfunctional autophagy process, and accumulation of toxins proteins play a central role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. The disabling effects of these diseases on health system are high and greatly affect the health and daily lifestyle of patients. In this context, pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies, which are used in palliative and preventive treatments, have been widely assessed in human patients, as well as animal and cellular models in the last decades. However, the genetics and epigenetics factors of any disease can cause different paths in its progression. Nutritional and biochemical therapy approaches by activation or manipulation of different transcription factors such as Nrf2, PPARα, CREB and TEFB in animal and cellular models have shown protective effects against neurodegeneration. Some of these therapies include caloric restriction diet, use of glutathione precursors and Mediterranean diet. This work highlights the evidences of different nutritional and biochemical approaches for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and how novel research approaches, such as the use of systems biology, will allow a better comprehension of key processes and biological responses involved in these diseases.

  13. Biochemical evidence of the interactions of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT): potential implications linking proteolysis with energy metabolism in cancer cells. (United States)

    Radichev, Ilian A; Remacle, Albert G; Sounni, Nor Eddine; Shiryaev, Sergey A; Rozanov, Dmitri V; Zhu, Wenhong; Golubkova, Natalya V; Postnova, Tatiana I; Golubkov, Vladislav S; Strongin, Alex Y


    Invasion-promoting MT1-MMP (membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase) is a key element in cell migration processes. To identify the proteins that interact and therefore co-precipitate with this proteinase from cancer cells, we used the proteolytically active WT (wild-type), the catalytically inert E240A and the C-end truncated (tailless; DeltaCT) MT1-MMP-FLAG constructs as baits. The identity of the pulled-down proteins was determined by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography tandem MS) and then confirmed by Western blotting using specific antibodies. We determined that, in breast carcinoma MCF cells (MCF-7 cells), ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) efficiently interacted with the WT, E240A and DeltaCT constructs. The WT and E240A constructs also interacted with alpha-tubulin, an essential component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In turn, tubulin did not co-precipitate with the DeltaCT construct because of the inefficient endocytosis of the latter, thus suggesting a high level of selectivity of our test system. To corroborate these results, we then successfully used the ANT2-FLAG construct as a bait to pull-down MT1-MMP, which was naturally produced by fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. We determined that the presence of the functionally inert catalytic domain alone was sufficient to cause the proteinase to interact with ANT2, thus indicating that there is a non-proteolytic mode of these interactions. Overall, it is tempting to hypothesize that by interacting with pro-invasive MT1-MMP, ANT plays a yet to be identified role in a coupling mechanism between energy metabolism and pericellular proteolysis in migrating cancer cells.

  14. Molecular and biochemical characterization of Paragonimus westermani tyrosinase. (United States)

    Bae, Y-A; Kim, S-H; Ahn, C-S; Kim, J-G; Kong, Y


    Trematode tyrosinases (TYRs) play a major role in the tanning process during eggshell formation. We investigated the molecular and biochemical features of Paragonimus westermani TYR (PwTYR). The PwTYR cDNA was composed of 1568-bp encompassing a 1422-bp-long open reading frame (474-amino acid polypeptide). A strong phylogenetic relationship with Platyhelminthes and Deuterostomian orthologues was evident. The recombinant PwTYR expressed in prokaryotic cells promptly oxidized diphenol substrates, with a preferential affinity toward ortho-positioned hydroxyl groups. It demonstrated fairly weak activity for monophenol compounds. Diphenol oxidase activity was augmented with an increase of pH from 5.0 to 8.0, while monophenol oxidase activity was highest at an acidic pH and gradually decreased as pH increased. Transcription profile of PwTYR was temporally upregulated along with worm development. PwTYR was specifically localized in vitellocytes and eggs. The results suggested that conversion of tyrosine to L-dihydroxyphenylalanine by PwTYR monophenol oxidase activity might be rate-limiting step during the sclerotization process of P. westermani eggs. The pH-dependent pattern of monophenol and diphenol oxidase activity further proposes that the initial hydroxylation might slowly but steadily progress in acidic secreted vesicles of vitellocytes and the second oxidation process might be rapidly accelerated by neural or weak alkaline pH environments within the ootype.

  15. Physiological and biochemical responses of halophyte Kalidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of a halophyte Kalidium foliatum to salinity were studied. In order to reflect salt-tolerance in K. foliatum and to analyze the physiological and biochemical mechanism for its salt tolerance, salinity threshold and biochemical parameters were studied. A halophyte ...

  16. Biochemical markers predictive for bone marrow involvement in systemic mastocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, Marjolein L.; van Doormaal, Jasper J.; van Doormaal, Frederiek F.; Kluin, Philip M.; van der Veer, Eveline; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; Kema, Ido P.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.


    Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by bone marrow involvement, which requires a bone marrow biopsy for diagnostic work-up. We questioned whether bone marrow involvement could be predicted using biochemical markers. We selected patients with various symptoms suggestive of indolent systemic

  17. Biochemical markers predictive for bone marrow involvement in systemic mastocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, Marjolein L.; van Doormaal, Jasper J.; van Doormaal, Frederiek F.; Kluin, Philip M.; van der Veer, Eveline; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; Kema, Ido P.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by bone marrow involvement, which requires a bone marrow biopsy for diagnostic work-up. We questioned whether bone marrow involvement could be predicted using biochemical markers. We selected patients with various symptoms suggestive of indolent systemic

  18. Biochemical Parameters of Orienteers Competing in a Long Distance Race. (United States)

    Mikan, Vladimir; And Others


    Measured important biochemical parameters in a group of orienteers two hours before beginning and immediately after an orienteering marathon. Found levels of dehydration. Suggests a drinking regimen which is designed for orienteering races. Concludes that no runner having kidney or liver abnormalities or changes in the urine should be allowed to…

  19. Altered calcium metabolism: the probable major biochemical lesion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These data are suggestive of altered calcium metabolism impairing cell membrane stabilization, the vasorelaxing effect of calcium and cell signaling. Altered calcium metabolism may be the major biochemical lesion underlying many pathological and clinical states of lead toxicity. Journal of Biomedical Investigation Vol.

  20. Evaluation of Selected Biochemical Indices in Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the selected biochemical indices studied were higher in test fish exposed to 10.0% AE, followed by those of the lower concentrations. These findings suggest that exposure of Clarias gariepinus to low levels of AE of Nigerian Crude Oil would result in chronic oxidation stress, cellular membrane damage and death of cell.

  1. Pulmonary biochemical alterations resulting from ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, M.G.; Lee, S.D.


    Metabolic response of lung tissue to ozone was studied in rats and monkeys after exposure of animals to various levels of ozone (0.1 to 0.8 ppM) for 1 to 30 days. In rats, 0.8 ppM ozone exposure resulted in a 40 to 50 percent augmentation of oxygen utilization in lung homogenate in the presence of an added substrate (e.g., succinate or 2-oxoglutarate). Activities of marker enzymes, viz. mitochondrial succinate-cytochrome c reductase; microsomal NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and cytosolic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, increased maximally (40 to 70 percent over control) after 3 to 4 days of exposure, and remained elevated throughout the 0.8 ppM ozone exposure for 30 days. In monkeys, the observations were the same except that the magnitude of biochemical changes was relatively smaller. Exposure of animals to lower levels of ozone resulted in proportionately smaller biochemical changes in the lung, and ozone effects were detectable up to the 0.2 ppM level. While 0.1 ppM ozone exposure was ineffective, dietary deficiency of vitamin E, a natural antioxidant, increased the sensitivity of rat lungs to this concentration of ozone. The results suggest that low-level ozone exposures may cause metabolic alterations in the lung, and that dietary supplementation of vitamin E may offer protection against oxidant stress.

  2. Biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification. (United States)

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Paganini, Adam W


    The change in oceanic carbonate chemistry due to increased atmospheric PCO2  has caused pH to decline in marine surface waters, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on organisms have been shown to be widespread among diverse taxa from a wide range of habitats. The majority of studies of organismal response to OA are in short-term exposures to future levels of PCO2 . From such studies, much information has been gathered on plastic responses organisms may make in the future that are beneficial or harmful to fitness. Relatively few studies have examined whether organisms can adapt to negative-fitness consequences of plastic responses to OA. We outline major approaches that have been used to study the adaptive potential for organisms to OA, which include comparative studies and experimental evolution. Organisms that inhabit a range of pH environments (e.g. pH gradients at volcanic CO2 seeps or in upwelling zones) have great potential for studies that identify adaptive shifts that have occurred through evolution. Comparative studies have advanced our understanding of adaptation to OA by linking whole-organism responses with cellular mechanisms. Such optimization of function provides a link between genetic variation and adaptive evolution in tuning optimal function of rate-limiting cellular processes in different pH conditions. For example, in experimental evolution studies of organisms with short generation times (e.g. phytoplankton), hundreds of generations of growth under future conditions has resulted in fixed differences in gene expression related to acid-base regulation. However, biochemical mechanisms for adaptive responses to OA have yet to be fully characterized, and are likely to be more complex than simply changes in gene expression or protein modification. Finally, we present a hypothesis regarding an unexplored area for biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification. In this hypothesis, proteins and membranes exposed to the

  3. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 26, 2016 ... repair. Here, we reveal a crucial role for Sae2 in DNA replication stress. We show that different mutant alleles of SAE2 cause hypersensitivity to genotoxic agents, and when ... way, known as the DNA damage response is a collective cell ...... replication fork reversal catalyzed by Mycobacterium tubercu-.

  4. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    mediated abrogation of replication stress- related defects in ... Branched DNA intermediates; DNA replication stress; genome integrity; MRX complex; Sae2 nuclease ...... stranded DNA structures into faster migrating cleavage prod-.

  5. The effects of Islamic fasting on blood hematological-biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Sedaghat


    Conclusion:This study on healthy subjects suggests that fasting could affect some hematological-biochemical parameters but not all of them. Also, these changes in hematological-biochemical parameters were within the normal range and Ramadan fasting seems to be safe for healthy subjects.

  6. Optical fibre gratings as tools for chemical and biochemical sensing. (United States)

    Baldini, F; Brenci, M; Chiavaioli, F; Giannetti, A; Trono, C


    Optical fibre gratings have recently been suggested as optical platforms for chemical and biochemical sensing. On the basis of the measurement of refractive index changes induced by a chemical and biochemical interaction in the transmission spectrum along the fibres, they are proposed as a possible alternative to the other label-free optical approaches, such as surface plasmon resonance and optical resonators. The combination of the use of optical fibres with the fact that the signal modulation is spectrally encoded offers multiplexing and remote measurement capabilities which the other technology platforms are not able to or can hardly offer. The fundamentals of the different types of optical fibre gratings are described and the performances of the chemical and biochemical sensors based on this approach are reviewed. Advantages and limitations of optical fibre gratings are considered, with a look at new perspectives for their utilization in the field.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of biochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.; Fan, L.T.; Shieh, J.H.


    Introduction of the concepts of the availability (or exergy), datum level materials, and the dead state has been regarded as some of the most significant recent developments in classical thermodynamics. Not only the available energy balance but also the material and energy balances of a biological system may be established in reference to the datum level materials in the dead state or environment. In this paper these concepts are illustrated with two examples of fermentation and are shown to be useful in identifying sources of thermodynamic inefficiency, thereby leading naturally to the rational definition of thermodynamic efficiency of a biochemical process

  8. Biochemical structure of Calendula officinalis. (United States)

    Korakhashvili, A; Kacharava, T; Kiknavelidze, N


    Calendula officinalis is a well known medicinal herb. It is common knowledge that its medicinal properties are conditioned on biologically active complex substances of Carotin (Provitamin A), Stearin, Triterpiniod, Plavonoid, Kumarin, macro and micro compound elements. Because of constant need in raw material of Calendula officinalis, features of its ontogenetic development agro-biological qualities in various eco regions of Georgia were investigated. The data of biologically active compounds, biochemical structure and the maintenance both in flowers and in others parts of plant is presented; the pharmacological activity and importance in medicine was reviewed.

  9. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena


    We are developing a biorefinery concept for biological production of chemicals, drugs, feed and fuels using plant biomass as raw material in well-defined cell-factories. Among the important goals is the discovery of new biocatalysts for production of enzymes, biochemicals and fuels and already our...... screening of a large collection of fungal strains isolated from natural habitats have resulted in identification of strains with high production of hydrolytic enzymes and excretion of organic acids. Our research focuses on creating a fungal platform based on synthetic biology for developing new cell...

  10. Biochemical Abnormalities in Batten's Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jytte Lene; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov


    The present data indicate that a group of ten patients with Batten's syndrome showed reduced activity of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px) (glutathione: H2O2 oxidoreductase, EC using H2O2 as peroxide donor. Assay of erythrocyte GSHPx using H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide and t......-butyl hydroperoxide as donors also makes it possible biochemically to divide Batten's syndrome into two types: (1) one type with decreased values when H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide are used, and (2) one type with increased values when t-butyl hydroperoxide is used. Furthermore an increased content of palmitic, oleic...

  11. Bistability in biochemical signaling models. (United States)

    Sobie, Eric A


    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes, slides, and a student assignment for a two-part lecture on the principles underlying bistability in biochemical signaling networks, which are illustrated with examples from the literature. The lectures cover analog, or graded, versus digital, all-or-none, responses in cells, with examples from different types of biological processes requiring each. Rate-balance plots are introduced as a method for determining whether generic one-variable systems exhibit one or several stable steady states. Bifurcation diagrams are presented as a more general method for detecting the presence of bistability in biochemical signaling networks. The examples include an artificial toggle switch, the lac operon in bacteria, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in both Xenopus oocytes and mammalian cells. The second part of the lecture links the concepts of bistability more closely to the mathematical tools provided by dynamical systems analysis. The examples from the first part of the lecture are analyzed with phase-plane techniques and bifurcation analysis, using the scientific programming language MATLAB. Using these programs as a template, the assignment requires the students to implement a model from the literature and analyze the stability of this model's steady states.

  12. Biochemical markers of myocardial remodelling in hypertensive heart disease. (United States)

    González, Arantxa; López, Begoña; Ravassa, Susana; Beaumont, Javier; Arias, Teresa; Hermida, Nerea; Zudaire, Amaia; Díez, Javier


    The intricate mechanisms responsible for the structural remodelling of the myocardium that facilitates the evolution to heart failure in hypertensive patients, namely in those with left ventricular hypertrophy, requires from clinicians the utilization of a multibiomarker approach for short-term and long-term stratification as well as prognostication of patients. Biochemical markers may also help to identify patients with no clinical evidence of hypertensive heart disease, and provide information about the need for more aggressive therapy during different stages of the disease, and potentially provide valuable biochemical data for the specialist. Although there is a continuous and complex interplay between biochemical and imaging markers, perhaps their use will also have the potential to modify the medical management of patients with hypertensive heart disease and therapeutic decision-making by tailoring a targeted therapy according to the predominant mechanism of myocardial remodelling. This article will review in brief the most relevant information on a panel of circulating molecules that may accomplish the criteria required to be considered as biochemical markers of the cardiomyocyte and non-cardiomyocyte structural changes that occur in the hypertensive myocardium.

  13. Cloning and Biochemical Characterization of HIV Integrase (United States)


    biochemical assays for the interaction of the HIV Intebration protein, IN, with a specific DNA target, the viral LTRs. The gene encoding IN has been subcloned ...FILE COPY CO CONTRACT NO.: DAMD7-88-C-8126 r TITLE: CLONING AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HIV INTEGRASE I- SPRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: ELLEN...ELEMENT No. NO. 392- NO. IACCESSION NO. 1 . TITLE (indude Security Classification)630A I315D49C08 (U) Cloning and Biochemical Characterization of the HIV

  14. Biochemical adaptation of phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical adaptation of phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, in response to temperature stress. Natthiya Buensanteai, Kanjana Thumanu, Khanistha Kooboran, Dusit Athinuwat, Sutruedee Prathuangwong ...

  15. Anthropogenic N deposition increases soil organic matter accumulation without altering its biochemical composition. (United States)

    Zak, Donald R; Freedman, Zachary B; Upchurch, Rima A; Steffens, Markus; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid


    Accumulating evidence indicates that future rates of atmospheric N deposition have the potential to increase soil C storage by reducing the decay of plant litter and soil organic matter (SOM). Although the microbial mechanism underlying this response is not well understood, a decline in decay could alter the amount, as well as biochemical composition of SOM. Here, we used size-density fractionation and solid-state 13 C-NMR spectroscopy to explore the extent to which declines in microbial decay in a long-term (ca. 20 yrs.) N deposition experiment have altered the biochemical composition of forest floor, bulk mineral soil, as well as free and occluded particulate organic matter. Significant amounts of organic matter have accumulated in occluded particulate organic matter (~20%; oPOM); however, experimental N deposition had not altered the abundance of carboxyl, aryl, alkyl, or O/N-alkyl C in forest floor, bulk mineral soil, or any soil fraction. These observations suggest that biochemically equivalent organic matter has accumulated in oPOM at a greater rate under experimental N deposition, relative to the ambient treatment. Although we do not understand the process by which experimental N deposition has fostered the occlusion of organic matter by mineral soil particles, our results highlight the importance of interactions among the products of microbial decay and the chemical and physical properties of silt and clay particles that occlude organic matter from microbial attack. Because oPOM can reside in soils for decades to centuries, organic matter accumulating under future rates of anthropogenic N deposition could remain in soil for long periods of time. If temperate forest soils in the Northern Hemisphere respond like those in our experiment, then unabated deposition of anthropogenic N from the atmosphere has the potential to foster greater soil C storage, especially in fine-texture forest soils. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion. (United States)

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria


    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events.

  17. Family history and biochemical diagnosis in 1948 kidney stone formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Spivacow


    Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of family history of nephrolithiasis is associated with an increased risk of renal lithiasis. Different epidemiological studies have shown a family component in the incidence of it, which is independent of dietary and environmental factors. The role of heredity is evident in monogenic diseases such as cystinuria, Dent’s disease or primary hyperoxaluria, while a polygenic inheritance has been proposed to explain the tendency to form calcium oxalate stones. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the family history of patients with renal lithiasis and the correlation of family history with its corresponding biochemical alteration, considering only those with a single metabolic alteration. Methods: a prospective and retrospective observational and analytical study that included 1948 adults over 17 years of age and a normal control group of 165 individuals, all evaluated according to an ambulatory protocol to obtain a biochemical diagnosis. They were asked about their family history of nephrolithiasis and classified into five groups according to the degree of kinship and the number of people affected in the family. Results: a positive family history of nephrolithiasis was found in 27.4% of renal stone formers, predominantly in women, compared to 15.2% of normal controls. The family history of nephrolithiasis was observed especially in 31.4% of patients with hypomagnesuria and in 29.6% of hypercalciuric patients. The rest of the biochemical alterations had a positive family history between 28.6% in hyperoxaluria and 21.9% in hypocitraturia. The highest percentage of family history of nephrolithiasis was found in cystinuria (75% although there were few patients with this diagnosis. Conclusions: the inheritance has a clear impact on urolithiasis independently of the present biochemical alteration. Family history of nephrolithiasis of the first and second degree was observed between 21 and 32% of patients with renal

  18. Biochemical Characterization of Prion Strains in Bank Voles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romolo Nonno


    Full Text Available Prions exist as different strains exhibiting distinct disease phenotypes. Currently, the identification of prion strains is still based on biological strain typing in rodents. However, it has been shown that prion strains may be associated with distinct PrPSc biochemical types. Taking advantage of the availability of several prion strains adapted to a novel rodent model, the bank vole, we investigated if any prion strain was actually associated with distinctive PrPSc biochemical characteristics and if it was possible to univocally identify strains through PrPSc biochemical phenotypes. We selected six different vole-adapted strains (three human-derived and three animal-derived and analyzed PrPSc from individual voles by epitope mapping of protease resistant core of PrPSc (PrPres and by conformational stability and solubility assay. Overall, we discriminated five out of six prion strains, while two different scrapie strains showed identical PrPSc types. Our results suggest that the biochemical strain typing approach here proposed was highly discriminative, although by itself it did not allow us to identify all prion strains analyzed.

  19. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 2, 1991 ... Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormali- ties was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39 ...

  20. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  1. Evaluation of Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After 84 days of exposure, blood was collected and used in conducting haematological and biochemical analyses. Exposure of water to crude oil caused increased levels in chloride, conductivity, salinity, magnesium, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity and Nitrate. The crude oil contaminated ...

  2. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Chang

    Full Text Available The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species.

  3. Diversity in Biochemical Characteristics and Antibiotics Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out on one hundred and fifty poultry isolates of Escherichia coli using Microscan® Dried Gram-negative Breakpoint Combo Pannels. The microscan panel analysed bacterial isolates for 24 biochemical tests and 23 to 25 antimicrobial agents following ...

  4. Organic and biochemical synthesis group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Stable isotopes, because of their unique properties and non-radioactive nature, have great potential for many fields of science and technology. In particular, isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur (the basic building blocks of all biological molecules) would be widely used in biomedical and environmental research if they were economically available in sufficient quantities and in the required chemical forms. The major objective of our program continues to be stimulation of the widespread utilization of stable isotopes and commercial involvement through development and demonstration of applications which have potential requirements for large quantities of isotopes. Thus, demand will be created which is necessary for large-scale production of stable isotopes and labeled compounds and concomitant low unit costs. The program continues to produce a variety of labeled materials needed for clinical, biomedical, chemical, and environmental applications which serve as effective demonstrations of unique and advantageous utilization of stable isotopes. Future commercial involvement should benefit, and is a consideration in our research and development, from the technology transfer that can readily be made as a result of our organic and biochemical syntheses and also of various techniques involved in applications

  5. Tissue accumulation of microplastics in mice and biomarker responses suggest widespread health risks of exposure (United States)

    Deng, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yan; Lemos, Bernardo; Ren, Hongqiang


    Microplastics (MPs) are a significant environmental health issue and increasingly greater source of concern. MPs have been detected in oceans, rivers, sediments, sewages, soil and even table salts. MPs exposure on marine organisms and humans has been documented, but information about the toxicity of MPs in mammal is limited. Here we used fluorescent and pristine polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) particles with two diameters (5 μm and 20 μm) to investigate the tissue distribution, accumulation, and tissue-specific health risk of MPs in mice. Results indicated that MPs accumulated in liver, kidney and gut, with a tissue-accumulation kinetics and distribution pattern that was strongly depended on the MPs particle size. In addition, analyses of multiple biochemical biomarkers and metabolomic profiles suggested that MPs exposure induced disturbance of energy and lipid metabolism as well as oxidative stress. Interestingly, blood biomarkers of neurotoxicity were also altered. Our results uncovered the distribution and accumulation of MPs across mice tissues and revealed significant alteration in several biomarkers that indicate potential toxicity from MPs exposure. Collectively, our data provided new evidence for the adverse consequences of MPs.

  6. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald


    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  7. haematological, lipid profile and other biochemical parameters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 1, 2006 ... HAEMATOLOGICAL, LIPID PROFILE AND OTHER BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN NORMAL AND HYPERTENSIVE SUBJECTS AMONG THE ... Hypertensive individuals had significantly higher serum sodium, chloride and calcium levels but a .... exposed to urbanisation and associated changes in diet,.

  8. Biochemical and immunohistochemical characterisation of mucins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and immunohistochemical characterisation of mucins in 8 cases of colonic disease - a pilot study. N Chirwa, A Mall, M Tyler, B Kavin, P Goldberg, JEJ Krige, Z Lotz, D Khan, D Govender, A Hunter ...

  9. Biochemical, haematological and morphological variations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical, haematological and morphological variations in juvenile Clarias gariepinus exposed to Carbendazim® fungicide. ... protein levels and neutrophil numbers. Consequently, the use and environmental concentrations of CBZ should be closely monitored to safeguard fish health condition in aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Magnaporthe grisea) causes significant yield loss in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to isolate, identify and characterize the pathogen (using morphological, physiological and biochemical methods). Methodology and ...

  11. Raman spectroscopic biochemical mapping of tissues (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas; Hart Prieto, Maria C.; Kendall, Catherine A.; Shetty, Geeta; Barr, Hugh


    Advances in technologies have brought us closer to routine spectroscopic diagnosis of early malignant disease. However, there is still a poor understanding of the carcinogenesis process. For example it is not known whether many cancers follow a logical sequence from dysplasia, to carcinoma in situ, to invasion. Biochemical tissue changes, triggered by genetic mutations, precede morphological and structural changes. These can be probed using Raman or FTIR microspectroscopy and the spectra analysed for biochemical constituents. Local microscopic distribution of various constituents can then be visualised. Raman mapping has been performed on a number of tissues including oesophagus, breast, bladder and prostate. The biochemical constituents have been calculated at each point using basis spectra and least squares analysis. The residual of the least squares fit indicates any unfit spectral components. The biochemical distribution will be compared with the defined histopathological boundaries. The distribution of nucleic acids, glycogen, actin, collagen I, III, IV, lipids and others appear to follow expected patterns.

  12. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering. (United States)

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.


    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  13. Short Report Biochemical derangements prior to emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diagnoses frequently associated with biochemical derangement. A substantial proportion displayed clinically significant derangements in their blood tests. These derangements can result in anorexia, nausea, muscle weakness, paralytic ileus, and ...

  14. Biochemical genetics of some Indian fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Qasim, S.Z.

    Studies on biochemical genetics of fishes, using electrophoretic methods, are relatively of recent origin. Earlier serum and eye lens protein were used to identify marine populations. This technique showed that closely related species have...

  15. Increased cell hydration promotes both tumor growth and metastasis: a biochemical mechanism consistent with genetic signatures. (United States)

    McIntyre, G I


    It was postulated previously that a progressive increase in cell hydration, induced by successive genetic or epigenetic changes, is the basic mechanism of multistep carcinogenesis, and also that the degree of malignancy increases with the degree of cell hydration. These hypotheses implied that increased cell hydration is a common factor promoting both tumor growth and metastasis, and that metastatic potential increases with the degree of cell hydration. This paper discusses these implications in relation to current concepts of genetic mechanisms determining the acquisition of metastatic potential. It was also postulated previously that the enhancement of metabolic activity by increased cell hydration will increase the ability of tumor cells to compete for nutrients with their normal counterparts. This effect may favor the preferential selection of cells whose genotypes confer the greatest increase in cell hydration and which, on the present hypothesis, would be those with the greatest capacity for metastasis. An important feature of this "common factor" hypothesis is that it suggests a biochemical explanation for DNA-microarray data showing a similarity between the gene expression patterns associated with both tumor growth and metastasis, while the postulated role of genes causing increased cell hydration might explain the apparent acquisition of metastatic potential at an early stage of tumorigenesis. Previous investigations were consistent with the hypothesis that various factors promoting carcinogenesis may do so by increasing cell hydration. A survey of the literature showed that all of these factors also promote cell motility, migration or metastasis, and provided evidence that these effects could be attributed to the associated increase in cell hydration. Methods are suggested for testing the hypothesis, and the paper concludes by emphasizing the need for more research on the biochemistry of cancer, and on the role of water as a biochemical factor of

  16. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability. (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina


    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  17. Improving Marine Ecosystem Models with Biochemical Tracers (United States)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Choy, C. Anela; Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.


    Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques. Here, we explore the trophic information required by ecosystem model frameworks (species, individual, and size based) and match them to the most commonly used biochemical tracers (bulk tissue and compound-specific stable isotopes, fatty acids, and trace elements). Key quantitative parameters derived from biochemical tracers include estimates of diet composition, niche width, and trophic position. Biochemical tracers also provide powerful insight into the spatial and temporal variability of food web structure and the characterization of dominant basal and microbial food web groups. A major challenge in incorporating biochemical tracer data into ecosystem models is scale and data type mismatches, which can be overcome with greater knowledge exchange and numerical approaches that transform, integrate, and visualize data.

  18. Hypnotic suggestion: opportunities for cognitive neuroscience. (United States)

    Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W


    Hypnosis uses the powerful effects of attention and suggestion to produce, modify and enhance a broad range of subjectively compelling experiences and behaviours. For more than a century, hypnotic suggestion has been used successfully as an adjunctive procedure to treat a wide range of clinical conditions. More recently, hypnosis has attracted a growing interest from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Recent studies using hypnotic suggestion show how manipulating subjective awareness in the laboratory can provide insights into brain mechanisms involved in attention, motor control, pain perception, beliefs and volition. Moreover, they indicate that hypnotic suggestion can create informative analogues of clinical conditions that may be useful for understanding these conditions and their treatments.

  19. Polyphenol oxidase as a biochemical seed defense mechanism. (United States)

    Fuerst, E Patrick; Okubara, Patricia A; Anderson, James V; Morris, Craig F


    Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), when wild oat (Avena fatua L.) caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea), non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems.

  20. Polyphenol Oxidase as a Biochemical Seed Defense Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patrick Fuerst


    Full Text Available Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, when wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea, non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems.

  1. Accelerated maximum likelihood parameter estimation for stochastic biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daigle Bernie J


    . Conclusions This work provides a novel, accelerated version of a likelihood-based parameter estimation method that can be readily applied to stochastic biochemical systems. In addition, our results suggest opportunities for added efficiency improvements that will further enhance our ability to mechanistically simulate biological processes.

  2. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a transmural anterior myocardial infarction with resultant left ventricular aneurysm formation were found in a 22-year-old man who had sustained a ballistic missile injury to his chest.

  3. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J


    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  4. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.


    This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.

  5. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.


    This project addresses DOE's interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals

  6. eQuilibrator—the biochemical thermodynamics calculator (United States)

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron


    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like ‘how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?’ are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator ( enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use. PMID:22064852

  7. Biochemical and serological properties of Streptococcus uberis. (United States)

    Lämmler, C


    The Strep-Zym identification system, a combination of 23 enzymatic tests, allowed a rapid biochemical characterization of Streptococcus uberis. The biochemical profiles of the S. uberis cultures clearly differed from those of S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae. Serological grouping of S. uberis revealed polysaccharide antigens of groups E, G, P and U. Some cultures of S. uberis demonstrated CAMP-like synergistic hemolytic activities on sheep blood agar and reacted specifically with the lectins of Helix pomatia and Dolichos biflorus. The occurrence of group polysaccharides, CAMP-like reactivities, and the lectin agglutination reactions were obviously not related to each other or to any of the biochemical properties. These reactions, possibly of importance as virulence factors, might serve as epidemiological markers.

  8. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis. (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A


    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  9. Radiation effects on biochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, G.M.


    Xanthine oxidase catalyses the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine, xanthine and a wide range of carbonyl compounds. The enzyme exists as an oxidase and a dehydrogenase; both catalyze the oxidation of the same substrates. Steady state radiolysis and pulse radiolysis were used to generate oxidative and reductive free radicals. Their effects on the enzymatic activity of xanthine oxidase were determined. Initially inactivation studies were carried out to evaluate the extent to which radiolysis in aqueous solution affects the enzyme activity. Values of D 37 and G inactivation were calculated following irradiation in the presence of free radical scavengers and in the presence of catalase and superoxide dismutase. The kinetic constants Vmax and Km were also determined following radiolysis. The effect of ionising radiation on the iron content of xanthine oxidase was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Native gel electrophoresis and iso-electric focussing were performed in an attempt to demonstrate changes in the overall structure of the enzyme. The binding of xanthine oxidase to heparin was carried out by measuring, (1) the displacement of methylene blue (MB + ) from a heparin-MB + complex, (2) affinity chromatography and, (3) pulse radiolysis. The effect of irradiation on the binding process was investigated using techniques (1) and (2). Finally the radiation-induced conversion of xanthine oxidase to dehydrogenase was established. The results indicate that xanthine oxidase is inactivated greatest in the presence of air and irradiation causes Vmax to he reduced and Km to increase. The iron content of irradiated xanthine oxidase is unaffected. Electrophoresis shows the enzyme becomes fragmented and the isoelectric points of the fragments vary over a wide range of pH. Binding of xanthine oxidase to heparin as measured by displacement of MB + from a heparin-MB + complex suggests that irradiation increases the affinity of the enzyme for the polyanion, whereas

  10. Biochemical activity of fullerenes and related derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huczko, A.; Lange, H.; Calko, E.


    An astonishing scientific interest, embodied in over 15000 research articles so far, has been encountered since 1985 when fullerenes were discovered. From new superconductors to a rich electrochemistry and reaction chemistry, fullerene nanostructures continue to excite the scientific world, and new findings continue at record pace. This review presents many examples of the biochemical activities of fullerenes and derivatives, e. g. cytotoxic activity, selective DNA cleavage and antiviral activity against HIV. We also present some results of our testing which show that, despite its chemical and biochemical activity, fullerene matter does not present any health hazard directly related to skin irritation and allergic risks. (author)

  11. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase: two polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium at the structural gene DBH associate with biochemical phenotypic variation. (United States)

    Cubells, J F; van Kammen, D P; Kelley, M E; Anderson, G M; O'Connor, D T; Price, L H; Malison, R; Rao, P A; Kobayashi, K; Nagatsu, T; Gelernter, J


    Levels of the enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH) in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are closely related biochemical phenotypes. Both are under strong genetic control. Linkage and association studies suggest the structural gene encoding DbetaH (locus name, DBH) is a major locus influencing plasma activity of DbetaH. This study examined relationships of DBH genotype determined at two polymorphic sites (a previously described GT repeat, referred to as the DBH STR and a single-base substitution at the 3' end of DBH exon 2, named DBH*444 g/a), to CSF levels of DbetaH protein in European-American schizophrenic patients, and to plasma DbetaH activity in European-American patients with mood or anxiety disorders. We also investigated linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the polymorphisms in the pooled samples from those European-American subjects (n=104). Alleles of DBH*444 g/a were associated with differences in mean values of CSF DbetaH levels. Alleles at both polymorphisms were associated with plasma DbetaH activity. Significant LD was observed between respective alleles with similar apparent influence on biochemical phenotype. Thus, allele A3 of the DBH STR was in positive LD with DBH*444a, and both alleles were associated with lower plasma DbetaH activity. DBH STR allele A4 was in positive LD with DBH*444 g, and both alleles were associated with higher plasma DbetaH activity. The results confirm that DBH is a major quantitative trait locus for plasma DbetaH activity, and provide the first direct evidence that DBH also influences CSF DbetaH levels. Both polymorphisms examined in this study appear to be in LD with one or more functional polymorphisms that mediate the influence of allelic variation at DBH on DbetaH biochemical phenotypic variation

  12. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis. (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W


    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps


    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...... and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  14. The Glymphatic Hypothesis of Glaucoma: A Unifying Concept Incorporating Vascular, Biomechanical, and Biochemical Aspects of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wostyn


    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma is still largely unknown, although a joint contribution of vascular, biomechanical, and biochemical factors is widely acknowledged. Since glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, exploring its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms is extremely important and challenging. Evidence from recent studies appears supportive of the hypothesis that a “glymphatic system” exists in the eye and optic nerve, analogous to the described “glymphatic system” in the brain. As discussed in the present paper, elucidation of a glymphatic clearance pathway in the eye could provide a new unifying hypothesis of glaucoma that can incorporate many aspects of the vascular, biomechanical, and biochemical theories of the disease. It should be stressed, however, that the few research data currently available cannot be considered as proof of the existence of an “ocular glymphatic system” and that much more studies are needed to validate this possibility. Even though nothing conclusive can yet be said, the recent reports suggesting a paravascular transport system in the eye and optic nerve are encouraging and, if confirmed, may offer new perspectives for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for this devastating disorder.

  15. Children's suggestibility research: Things to know before interviewing a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Courtney Hritz


    Full Text Available Children's testimony is often the only evidence of alleged abuse. Thus, the importance of conducting forensic interviews that are free from bias and misleading information is immense, as these could lead to false reports. In the current paper, we review unexpected findings in children's suggestibility that illustrate the difficulty in distinguishing between false and accurate reports. We explore situations in which a younger person's memory account may be more accurate than that of an adult, when a single suggestive interview may be as detrimental as multiple interviews, and when children can make inaccurate reports spontaneously. We conclude with recommendations for interviewers to decrease false reporting by both children and adults.

  16. Radiation effects on biochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seddon, G.M


    Xanthine oxidase catalyses the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine, xanthine and a wide range of carbonyl compounds. The enzyme exists as an oxidase and a dehydrogenase; both catalyze the oxidation of the same substrates. Steady state radiolysis and pulse radiolysis were used to generate oxidative and reductive free radicals. Their effects on the enzymatic activity of xanthine oxidase were determined. Initially inactivation studies were carried out to evaluate the extent to which radiolysis in aqueous solution affects the enzyme activity. Values of D{sub 37} and G{sub inactivation} were calculated following irradiation in the presence of free radical scavengers and in the presence of catalase and superoxide dismutase. The kinetic constants Vmax and Km were also determined following radiolysis. The effect of ionising radiation on the iron content of xanthine oxidase was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Native gel electrophoresis and iso-electric focussing were performed in an attempt to demonstrate changes in the overall structure of the enzyme. The binding of xanthine oxidase to heparin was carried out by measuring, (1) the displacement of methylene blue (MB{sup +}) from a heparin-MB{sup +} complex, (2) affinity chromatography and, (3) pulse radiolysis. The effect of irradiation on the binding process was investigated using techniques (1) and (2). Finally the radiation-induced conversion of xanthine oxidase to dehydrogenase was established. The results indicate that xanthine oxidase is inactivated greatest in the presence of air and irradiation causes Vmax to he reduced and Km to increase. The iron content of irradiated xanthine oxidase is unaffected. Electrophoresis shows the enzyme becomes fragmented and the isoelectric points of the fragments vary over a wide range of pH. Binding of xanthine oxidase to heparin as measured by displacement of MB{sup +} from a heparin-MB{sup +} complex suggests that irradiation increases the affinity of the enzyme

  17. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping


    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  18. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  19. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl


    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  20. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.


    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  1. IRIT at TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track (United States)


    both criteria users preferences and geographical location criteria. 1 Introduction TREC3 2014 Contextual Suggestion track examines search techniques...Contextual Retrieval Framework We address here the contextual retrieval problem as a multi-criteria decision making ( MCDM ) problem. The difficulty here

  2. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting. (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  3. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet


    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...... and points the way for further research....

  4. Human skeletal muscle biochemical diversity. (United States)

    Tirrell, Timothy F; Cook, Mark S; Carr, J Austin; Lin, Evie; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L


    The molecular components largely responsible for muscle attributes such as passive tension development (titin and collagen), active tension development (myosin heavy chain, MHC) and mechanosensitive signaling (titin) have been well studied in animals but less is known about their roles in humans. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of titin, collagen and MHC isoform distributions in a large number of human muscles, to search for common themes and trends in the muscular organization of the human body. In this study, 599 biopsies were obtained from six human cadaveric donors (mean age 83 years). Three assays were performed on each biopsy - titin molecular mass determination, hydroxyproline content (a surrogate for collagen content) and MHC isoform distribution. Titin molecular mass was increased in more distal muscles of the upper and lower limbs. This trend was also observed for collagen. Percentage MHC-1 data followed a pattern similar to collagen in muscles of the upper extremity but this trend was reversed in the lower extremity. Titin molecular mass was the best predictor of anatomical region and muscle functional group. On average, human muscles had more slow myosin than other mammals. Also, larger titins were generally associated with faster muscles. These trends suggest that distal muscles should have higher passive tension than proximal ones, and that titin size variability may potentially act to 'tune' the protein's mechanotransduction capability.

  5. Personalized and not general suggestion produces false autobiographical memories and suggestion-consistent behavior. (United States)

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Jarry, Josée L; Bernstein, Daniel M


    Suggesting false childhood events produces false autobiographical beliefs, memories and suggestion-consistent behavior. The mechanisms by which suggestion affects behavior are not understood, and whether false beliefs and memories are necessary for suggestions to impact behavior remains unexplored. We examined the relative effects of providing a personalized suggestion (suggesting that an event occurred to the person in the past), and/or a general suggestion (suggesting that an event happened to others in the past). Participants (N=122) received a personalized suggestion, a general suggestion, both or neither, about childhood illness due to spoiled peach yogurt. The personalized suggestion resulted in false beliefs, false memories, and suggestion-consistent behavioral intentions immediately after the suggestion. One week or one month later participants completed a taste test that involved eating varieties of crackers and yogurts. The personalized suggestion led to reduced consumption of only peach yogurt, and those who reported a false memory showed the most eating suppression. This effect on behavior was equally strong after one week and one month, showing a long lived influence of the personalized suggestion. The general suggestion showed no effects. Suggestions that convey personal information about a past event produce false autobiographical memories, which in turn impact behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Haematological And Biochemical Effects Of Sulphadimidine In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and biochemical efects of sulphadmidine were studied in Nigerian mongrel dogs. Five Nigerian mongrel dogs of either sex weighing between 7 and 12 kg were used for the study. The pretreatment blood and serum samples were collected and the weight of animals taken before the administraton of 100 ...

  7. Haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler chickens fed copper and probiotics supplemented diets. A total of 180-day old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six treatment groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were divided into three replicates of ten ...

  8. Estimation of biochemical variables using quantumbehaved particle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the difficulties in the measurement of biochemical variables in fermentation process, softsensing model based on radius basis function neural network had been established for estimating the variables. To generate a more efficient neural network estimator, we employed the previously proposed quantum-behaved ...

  9. Biochemical Markers of Joint Tissue Turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Sondergaard, Bodil Cecilie; Christiansen, Claus


    Recent disappointments in late stage developments of anti-osteoarthritic drugs have reinforced efforts to develop better biomarkers for application in both the drug development process as well as in the routine management of these patients. Here we provide a brief review of biochemical tests...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    A CASCADE OF BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MARKERS IN PATHOLOGICAL. DISORDERS. A few years ago, a neurophysiology lecturer in the Department of Medical Physiology, University of. Nairobi, was doing ... from haemolysis of RBC is rapidly distributed into cells and excreted in kidney. It would have been.

  11. Isolation, molecular and biochemical characterization of oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and physiological characterization performed on the 34 bacterial isolates, revealed the presence of oil biodegrading bacterial genera and species of Pseudomonas Acidovorans, P. aerugi-nosa, P. alcaligenes, P. fluorescens, P. cepacia, P. mallei, P. maltophilia, P. oleovorans, P. putida, P. stutzeri P. vesicularis, ...

  12. Some haematological, biochemical and zootechnical parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biochemical and zootechnical parameters of a colony of fruit eating bats (Eidolon helvum) in Morogoro region, Tanzania. A total of 50 bats were captured using hand held hooks and quickly transported to the laboratory where the various parameters were measured. Zootechnical parameters (body length, wing span and ...

  13. Biochemical Applications in the Analytical Chemistry Lab (United States)

    Strong, Cynthia; Ruttencutter, Jeffrey


    An HPLC and a UV-visible spectrophotometer are identified as instruments that helps to incorporate more biologically-relevant experiments into the course, in order to increase the students understanding of selected biochemistry topics and enhances their ability to apply an analytical approach to biochemical problems. The experiment teaches…

  14. Reference Physiological Ranges for Serum Biochemical Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinical trials and scaling up of ARV drugs among AIDS patients. ... parametric and non parametric statistics for analyses with 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles considered ..... Physiological Ranges for Plasma Biochemical Parameters among Adult Healthy Cameroonians. Urban. Rural. Males. Females. Males. Females. Parameter.

  15. Biochemical and Kinetic Characterization of Geranylgeraniol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This enzyme and its gene are an attractive target for development of plaunotol production and its detailed biochemical properties need to be understood. Recently, even though the gene (CYP97C27) coding for GGOH 18-hydroxylase has been identified, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli system, the enzyme activity ...

  16. Characterizing multistationarity regimes in biochemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Otero-Muras

    Full Text Available Switch like responses appear as common strategies in the regulation of cellular systems. Here we present a method to characterize bistable regimes in biochemical reaction networks that can be of use to both direct and reverse engineering of biological switches. In the design of a synthetic biological switch, it is important to study the capability for bistability of the underlying biochemical network structure. Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT may help at this level to decide whether a given network has the capacity for multiple positive equilibria, based on their structural properties. However, in order to build a working switch, we also need to ensure that the bistability property is robust, by studying the conditions leading to the existence of two different steady states. In the reverse engineering of biological switches, knowledge collected about the bistable regimes of the underlying potential model structures can contribute at the model identification stage to a drastic reduction of the feasible region in the parameter space of search. In this work, we make use and extend previous results of the CRNT, aiming not only to discriminate whether a biochemical reaction network can exhibit multiple steady states, but also to determine the regions within the whole space of parameters capable of producing multistationarity. To that purpose we present and justify a condition on the parameters of biochemical networks for the appearance of multistationarity, and propose an efficient and reliable computational method to check its satisfaction through the parameter space.

  17. Histopathological and biochemical disrupting effects of Escravos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 27, 2014 ... The aim of this study was to investigate the histological and biochemical disrupting effects of Escravos ... rupturing or leaking of production infrastructures that are described as, “very old and lack regular ... crude oil were measured in weight on an electronic weighing balance and given orally (oral gavage) ...

  18. Structural and biochemical characterization of autotaxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, Jens


    Autotaxin (ATX) was originally discovered as an “autocrine motility factor” from melanoma cells, more than two decades ago, but its biochemical function remained elusive. It took another decade to show that ATX functions as a lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid growth factor

  19. Biochemical and serological characterization of Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the isolation rate, serotypes and biochemical profiles of E. coli from colibacillosis and dead-in-shell embryos in Zaria, Northern-Nigeria. The isolation rate of E. coli from hatcheries studied were 4.67% and 7.50% from farms of Simtu Agricultural Company and National Animal Production ...

  20. Biochemical and secondary metabolites changes under moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed the importance of carbohydrate and nitrogen cycle related metabolites in mediating tolerance in cassava by affecting their phenotypic expression in the plant. Keywords: Hydrothermal stress, bio-chemicals, pigments, secondary metabolites, cassava. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(31) 3173-3186 ...

  1. Growth, haematological and biochemical responses of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, haematological and biochemical responses of growing lambs injected. A.N.M Nour El-Din, S.Z El-Zarkouny, S.Z El-Zarkouny, H Ghobashy, H Ghobashy, E.I Abdel-Gawad, E.I Abdel-Gawad, D.J Kesler, D.J Kesler ...

  2. Reference Physiological Ranges for Serum Biochemical Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A valid scientific evaluation of the efficacy of HIV vaccines or antiretroviral drugs includes measurement of changes in physiological parameters of subjects from known established baseline reference ranges. This study was designed to establish reference ranges for biochemical parameters among healthy ...

  3. Biochemical analysis of Brachystegia aurycoma harms seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A biochemical analysis of Brachystegia aurycoma harm seeds was conducted. Brachystegia, of the family Leguminosae sub-family Caesalpinioidae is a timber tree whose seeds “achi”, are relished as soup condiment by the lgbo-speaking people of Nigeria. The seed were subjected to oil extraction using Soxhlet method.

  4. Haematological and Biochemical Studies on some Ruminants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    CHUKU, L C; *UWAKWE, A A. Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: Haematological studies of ruminant vertebrates (cow, sheep and goat) present one acceptable method of understanding the ecological biochemical and physiological relationship between lower and ...

  5. Some hematological and biochemical parameters in smokeless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Jharda powder (smokeless tobacco) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in consumers was investigated. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin content and white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in jharda powder consumers, while monocytes and basophiles counts were ...

  6. Some hematological and biochemical parameters in smokeless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 4, 2007 ... The effect of Jharda powder (smokeless tobacco) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in consumers was investigated. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin content and white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in jharda powder consumers, while monocytes and.

  7. Biochemical reference values in elderly black subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 1, 1990 ... the resulting estimate of normal range. Clin Chem 1971; 17: 275-284. 13. Wooton IDO, King E]. Normal values for blood constituents: inter-hospital differences. Lancer 1953; I: 70. 14. Chen FWK, Millard PH. The effect of ageing on certain biochemical values. Mod Geriarrics 1972; 2: 92. IS. Forbes GB, Reina ...

  8. Preliminary biochemical and haematological effects of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some biochemical and haematological parameters were assayed in rats fed aqueous pulp suspension of hyphaene thebaica (L) mart. Sixteen white albino rats of the wistar strain weighing between 90-110g were grouped into four groups of four rats each. Group 1 served as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given ...

  9. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.


    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the

  10. Selected plasma biochemical parameters in improved indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the biochemical parameters of apparently healthy NIGERHYB pigs and comparison of age and sex related differences in these parameters. One hundred and thirty five NIGERHYB pigs (35 boar, 35 sow, 30 weaned boar piglets and 35 weaned gilt piglets) obtained from intensively managed pig ...

  11. Discordant results between biochemical and molecular transthyretin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Discordant results between biochemical and molecular transthyretin assays: lessons learned from a unique testing algorithm at the Mayo Clinic. Honey V. Reddi Brittany C. Thomas Kurt S. Willkomm Matthew J. Ferber Kandelaria M. Rumilla Kimiyo M. Raymond John F. O'Brien W. Edward Highsmith. Research Note Volume ...

  12. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)


    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  13. Characterization of biochemical behavior of sorghum ( Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to characterize the biochemical behavior of sorghum plants under saline stress using multivariate statistical analysis methods for efficient management of Sorghum bicolor [Moench.]). The experimental design was completely randomized design composed of three saline concentrations (0, 1.5 ...

  14. Drinking patterns: biochemical and haematological findings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    drinking patterns on biochemical and haematological parameters in alcohol consumers in Ile-Ife. Conigrave et al. (1995) stated that a variety of blood tests have been used to aid the assessment of drinking history and that more recently, laboratory tests based on urine, breath and sweat analyses have been investigated.

  15. Biochemical characterization of sea buckthorn ( Hippophae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sea buckthorn is a valuable medicinal plant, cultivated and naturally grown in northern Pakistan. The plant produces berry with small hard seed in the centre. The seed is the source of all nutrients and phytochemcials. However, there is lack of literature regarding the biochemical and physico-chemical quality of the seed.

  16. Effects Of Ceftriaxone On Haematological And Biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term effects of ceftriaxone on haematological and biochemical parameters of Nigerian local turkey poults were studied. The pre-treatment blood and serum samples were collected and the weight of animals taken before the administration of body weight for a period of 4 days. The animals were weighed daiy.

  17. Growth performance, hematological and serum biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve (12) weeks feeding trial was carried out to determine the effect of varying dietary inclusions of Microdesmis puberula leaf meal (MPLM) on the growth performance, hematological indices and serum biochemical constituents of growing rabbits. Four grower rabbit diets were formulated to contain the leaf meal at ...

  18. Evaluation of Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Evaluation of Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of Juvenile Oreochromis niloticus after Exposure to Water Soluble Fractions of ... niloticus were evaluated. After a preliminary determination of the 96 h-LC50 of ... evaporation, dissolution, emulsion, photolysis and biodegradation which generate a water soluble.

  19. Biochemical and microstructural characteristics of meat samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of different plant proteases for changing biochemical and microstructural characteristics in muscle foods. The meat samples from chicken, giant catfish, pork and beef were treated with four types of proteolytic enzymes: Calotropis procera latex proteases, papaya latex ...

  20. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Rashed


    Full Text Available There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed. Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  1. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar (United States)

    Rashed, M. G.; Moklof, M. G.


    There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed). Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  2. Does neuroimaging of suggestion elucidate hypnotic trance? (United States)

    Raz, Amir


    Contemporary studies in the cognitive neuroscience of attention and suggestion shed new light on the underlying neural mechanisms that operationalize these effects. Without adhering to important caveats inherent to imaging of the living human brain, however, findings from brain imaging studies may enthrall more than explain. Scholars, practitioners, professionals, and consumers must realize that the influence words exert on focal brain activity is measurable but that these measurements are often difficult to interpret. While recent brain imaging research increasingly incorporates variations of suggestion and hypnosis, correlating overarching hypnotic experiences with specific brain substrates remains tenuous. This article elucidates the mounting role of cognitive neuroscience, including the relative merits and intrinsic limitations of neuroimaging, in better contextualizing trance-like concepts.

  3. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  4. Ontology Learning - Suggesting Associations from Text


    Kvarv, Gøran Sveia


    In many applications, large-scale ontologies have to be constructed and maintained. A manual construction of an ontology is a time consuming and resource demanding process, often involving some domain experts. It would therefore be beneficial to support this process with tools that automates the construction of an ontology. This master thesis has examined the use of association rules for suggesting associations between words in text. In ontology learning, concepts are often extracted from d...

  5. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration]. (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L


    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  6. The correlation between biochemical abnormalities in frontal white matter, hippocampus and serum thyroid hormone levels in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder. (United States)

    Jia, Yanbin; Zhong, Shuming; Wang, Ying; Liu, Tao; Liao, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Li


    Previous neuroimaging studies found evidence of potential brain biochemical abnormalities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Abnormal serum thyroid hormone levels were also found in MDD patients, which may correlated with the abnormal biochemical metabolism of brain. However, they rarely excluded the compounding effects of medication, and brain degeneration. This study sought to investigate the relationship between the biochemical metabolism and the serum thyroid hormone levels in first-episode, treatment-naive, non-late-life patients with MDD. 26 first-episode, treatment-naive, non-late-life patients with MDD and 13 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Participants underwent two-dimensinal multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) [repetition time (TR)=1000ms; echo-time (TE)=144ms] at 1.5T to obtain bilateral metabolite levels from the white matter in prefrontal (WMP) lobe, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and hippocampus. The ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline containg compounds (Cho)/creatine (Cr) were calculated. Morning serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxin (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured before antidepressant treatment. On the comparison of brain biochemical changes, MDD patients had a significantly lower NAA/Cr ratio in the left WMP, and lower NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios in the right WMP when compared to the controls. There were no significant differences in the metabolite ratios in the bilateral ACC, and hippocampus. On the comparison of serum thyroid hormone levels, MDD patients had a significantly decreased T3 and TSH levels. On the comparison of correlation of brain biochemical changes and serum thyroid hormone levels in patients with MDD, the NAA/Cr ratio in the right WMP was positively correlated with the level of TSH. These findings suggest that biochemical abnormalities and thyroid dysfunction may

  7. Preventing motor training through nocebo suggestions. (United States)

    Pollo, Antonella; Carlino, Elisa; Vase, Lene; Benedetti, Fabrizio


    Although placebos have repeatedly been shown to increase physical performance and endurance, much less is known about the effect of their negative counterpart, nocebos. Here, we employ negative suggestions and a sham electrical stimulation as a nocebo conditioning procedure in healthy subjects performing a leg extension exercise to total exhaustion. Using two different protocols, we analyze the contribution of expectation alone or the combination of conditioning and expectation to the nocebo effect evaluated as the change of work performed and rate of perceived exertion. We find that it is possible to negatively modulate the physical performance in both cases, and we argue that this effect can effectively offset the outcome of training programs.

  8. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)


    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  9. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D San Antonio

    Full Text Available Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  10. Calixarene methylene bisphosphonic acids as promising effectors of biochemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Komisarenko


    rim have been studied with respect to their effects on fibrin polymerization. The most potent inhibitor proved to be calix[4]arene tetrakis-methylene-bis-phosphonic acid (C-192, in which case the maximum rate of fibrin polymerization in the fibrinogen + thrombin reaction decreased by 50% at concentrations of 0.52·10-6 M (IC50. At this concentration, the molar ratio of the compound to fibrinogen was 1.7 : 1. For the case of desAB fibrin polymerization, the IC50 was 1.26·10-6 M at a molar ratio of C-192 to fibrin monomer of 4 : 1. Dipropoxycalix[4]-arene bis-methylene-bis-phosphonic acid (C-98 inhibited fibrin desAB polymerization with an IC50 = 1.31·10-4 M. We hypothesized that C-192 blocks fibrin formation by combining with polymerization site ‘A’ (Aa17–19, which ordinarily initiates protofibril formation in a ‘knob-hole’ manner. This suggestion was confirmed by an HPLC assay, which showed a host–guest inclusion complex of C-192 with the synthetic peptide Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro, an analogue of site ‘A’. Further confirmation that the inhibitor was acting at the initial step of the reaction was obtained by electron microscopy, with no evidence of protofibril formation being evident. Calixarene C-192 also doubled both the prothrombin time and the activated partial thromboplastin time in normal human blood plasma at concentrations of 7.13·10-5 and 1.10·10-5 M, respectively. These experiments demonstrate that C-192 is a specific inhibitor of fibrin polymerization and blood coagulation and can be used for the design of a new class of antithrombotic agents.

  11. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger


    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  12. Elastic wave scattering methods: assessments and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.


    The author was asked by the meeting organizers to review and assess the developments over the past ten or so years in elastic wave scattering methods and to suggest areas of future research opportunities. He highlights the developments, focusing on what he feels were distinct steps forward in our theoretical understanding of how elastic waves interact with flaws. For references and illustrative figures, he decided to use as his principal source the proceedings of the various annual Reviews of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). These meetings have been the main forum not only for presenting results of theoretical research but also for demonstrating the relevance of the theoretical research for the design and interpretation of experiment. In his opinion a quantitative NDE is possible only if this relevance exists, and his major objective is to discuss and illustrate the degree to which relevance has developed

  13. Health service marketing: a suggested model. (United States)

    Zaltman, G; Vertinsky, I


    Focus is on social marketing in a health context, and attention is directed to the development of a psychosocial model of health-related behavior with emphasis on developing countries. Each component of the model is identified and defined, with some of the interactions among its components noted. There are both advantages and limitations to using the model in a social marketing context. The model's primary contribution at this stage of its development is in structuring and organizing diverse sources of knowledge and data. New relationships are suggested which were not previously considered in the literature. The relationship between risk-taking and perceived susceptibility is 1 example. The model also provides a basis for simulating health processes, providing a testing ground for health policies before their actual implementation. The model's perspective is uniquely appropriate for the development of social marketing strategies, and it promises to encompass health market behavior in various cultural settings.

  14. Limits of quantitation — Yet another suggestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Jill; Wysoczanski, Artur; Voigtman, Edward, E-mail:


    The work presented herein suggests that the limit of quantitation concept may be rendered substantially less ambiguous and ultimately more useful as a figure of merit by basing it upon the significant figure and relative measurement error ideas due to Coleman, Auses and Gram, coupled with the correct instantiation of Currie's detection limit methodology. Simple theoretical results are presented for a linear, univariate chemical measurement system with homoscedastic Gaussian noise, and these are tested against both Monte Carlo computer simulations and laser-excited molecular fluorescence experimental results. Good agreement among experiment, theory and simulation is obtained and an easy extension to linearly heteroscedastic Gaussian noise is also outlined. - Highlights: • True Currie detection limits are estimated. • Experimental results validate previous 2008 theory. • Linearly heteroscedastic system is correctly modeled.

  15. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo


    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  16. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion* (United States)

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e


    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Widyaningrum


    Full Text Available Students learn English in Speaking Class should get enjoyable learning atmosphere in order to help them improve their speaking skill. Teacher‘s role as facilitator contributes in reducing students‘ anxiety when they have chance to speak. Nunan (1995 and Richards (2008 argue that speaking is an important skill in language learning whether it is as EFL or ESL that enable language learners to communicate not only in expressing view point but also in giving responses in their communication. This classroom study supports the idea to give positive suggestion as students‘ feedback given by their peers. Each student has their own chance to review and to be reviewed so that they can perform better in speaking class. This study is conducted in order to improve students‘ speaking skill in speaking class.

  18. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics. (United States)

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan


    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  19. Management Options for Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer. (United States)

    Fakhrejahani, Farhad; Madan, Ravi A; Dahut, William L


    Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumor malignancy in men worldwide. Treatment with surgery and radiation can be curative in organ-confined disease. Unfortunately, about one third of men develop biochemically recurrent disease based only on rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the absence of visible disease on conventional imaging. For these patients with biochemical recurrent prostate cancer, there is no uniform guideline for subsequent management. Based on available data, it seems prudent that biochemical recurrent prostate cancer should initially be evaluated for salvage radiation or prostatectomy, with curative intent. In selected cases, high-intensity focused ultrasound and cryotherapy may be considered in patients that meet very narrow criteria as defined by non-randomized trials. If salvage options are not practical or unsuccessful, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a standard option for disease control. While some patients prefer ADT to manage the disease immediately, others defer treatment because of the associated toxicity. In the absence of definitive randomized data, patients may be followed using PSA doubling time as a trigger to initiate ADT. Based on retrospective data, a PSA doubling time of less than 3-6 months has been associated with near-term development of metastasis and thus could be used signal to initiate ADT. Once treatment is begun, patients and their providers can choose between an intermittent and continuous ADT strategy. The intermittent approach may limit side effects but in patients with metastatic disease studies could not exclude a 20% greater risk of death. In men with biochemical recurrence, large studies have shown that intermittent therapy is non-inferior to continuous therapy, thus making this a reasonable option. Since biochemically recurrent prostate cancer is defined by technological limitations of radiographic detection, as new imaging (i.e., PSMA) strategies are developed, it may alter how the disease is

  20. Clinico-hemato-biochemical profile of dogs with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Elhiblu


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant tools in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in dogs. Material and Methods: A total of 140 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinico-hemato biochemical, urological, ultrasonographic (USG, and USG guided fine-needle biopsy examinations by standard methods. On the basis of these results, 6 dogs out of 140 dogs were found to be suffering from liver cirrhosis. Six clinically healthy dogs constituted the control group. Results: The dogs suffering from liver cirrhosis manifested inappetence, halitosis, abdominal distension, weight loss, melena, icterus, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis with the left shift. Levels of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and platelet count were significantly lower in liver cirrhosis group than control group while total leukocyte count, neutrophils, and MCH concentration were significantly higher. Glucose, total protein, albumin, A/G ratio, and fibrinogen were significantly lower, and creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, prothrombin time, and APTT were significantly higher than the control values. Ultrasound revealed diffuse increase in echogenicity with rounded and irregular liver margins. Cytological examination of the ascitic fluid and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver was not fruitful in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: Liver cirrhosis causes clinical and hemo-biochemical alterations, which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. USG, diffuse increase in echogenicity of liver, rounding and irregularity of liver margins and microhepatica were the consistent findings. It is suggested that USG along with hemo-biochemical alterations may be used as a diagnostic tool for

  1. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research. (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron


    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary antioxidants and the biochemical response to oxidant inhalation. II. Influence of dietary selenium on the biochemical effects of ozone exposure in mouse lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, N.M.; Hacker, A.D.; Kuehn, K.; Mustafa, M.G.; Schrauzer, G.N.


    The influence of dietary selenium (Se) on the pulmonary biochemical response to ozone (O/sub 3/) exposure was examined. For 11 weeks, weanling female strain A/St mice were fed a test diet containing Se either at 0 ppm (-Se) or 1 ppm (+Se). Each diet contained 55 ppm vitamin E (vit E). Mice from each dietary group were exposed to 0.8 +/- 0.05 ppm (1568 +/- 98 micrograms/m3) O/sub 3/ continuously for 5 days. After O/sub 3/ exposure, they were killed along with a matched number of unexposed controls, and their lungs were analyzed for various biochemical parameters. The Se contents of lung tissue and whole blood were determined, and the levels were seven- to eightfold higher in +Se mice than in -Se mice, reflecting the Se intake of the animals. In unexposed control mice, Se deficiency caused a decline in glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity relative to +Se group. After O/sub 3/ exposure, the GP activity in the -Se group was associated with a lack of stimulation of glutathione reductase (GR) activity and the pentose phosphate cycle (PPC) as assessed by measuring glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) activities. In contrast, the +Se group after O/sub 3/ exposure exhibited increases in all four enzyme activities. Other parameters, e.g., lung weight, total lung protein, DNA and nonprotein sulfhydryl contents, and O/sub 2/ consumption, were not affected by dietary Se in the presence or absence of O/sub 3/ exposure. The data indicate that dietary Se alters the GP activity, which in turn influences the GR and PPC activities in the lung evidently through a reduced demand for NADPH. The level of vit E in the lung was found to be twofold higher in the -Se group than in the +Se group, suggesting a compensatory relationship between Se and vit E in the lung. With O3 exposure, both Se and vit E contents further increased in the lungs of each dietary group.

  3. Biochemical changes during aging of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana


    Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .

  4. Suggested use of vaccines in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev


    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as a disease of major public health importance in India affecting the rich and the poor alike. Conventionally, comprehensive diabetes management is aimed at preventing micro and macro vascular complications. However, morbidity and mortality due to infections are also significant. In developing countries like India, the concept of adult immunization is far from reality. Recently the H1N1 pandemic has triggered the necessity for considering immunization in all age groups for the prevention of vaccine-preventable fatal infectious diseases. Considering the economics of immunization in a developing country, providing free vaccines to all adults may not be a practical solution, although the free universal immunization program for children is in existence for several decades. There is no consensus on the use of vaccines in diabetes subjects in India. However, there are some clinics offering routine pneumococcal, influenza and other vaccinations. Patients with diabetes have a deranged immune system making them more prone for infections. Hospitalization and death due to pneumococcal disease and influenza are higher in diabetes patients. They, like other healthy individuals, have a normal humoral response to vaccination with clinically significant benefits. The American Diabetes Association, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, United Kingdom Guidelines and a number of other scientific organizations have well defined guidelines for vaccination in diabetes. In this article we make some suggestions for clinicians in India, regarding use of vaccines in subjects with diabetes.

  5. Fitness effects of fluctuations in biochemical networks (United States)

    Tanase-Nicola, Sorin


    The concentration of many cellular components fluctuates not only as a response to external and internal inputs but also due to random birth and death events of individual molecules. This biochemical noise affects the capacity of every individual cell in a population to respond and adapt to the environment. While the sources and effects of biochemical fluctuations on individual cells have been intensively studied, the effects of noise on the growth rate of a population of cells are much less understood. We present a model of the cell cycle in which the growth and division of individual cells are coupled with the noisy dynamics of their internal components. The model allows us to compute the contribution of the biochemical noise to the average growth rate of a population of cells as a function of the noise strength and the correlation time of the fluctuations. We show that, due to fluctuations, the growth rate of a population of cells is always larger than the average growth rate of a individual cell and can be larger even than a corresponding deterministic model. In most relevant cases it is assumed that the average concentration of a cellular component is close to a value that maximizes the population growth as given by the external, environmental, conditions and the internal cellular regulation. In such cases we show that contribution of fluctuations to the growth rate is negative and increases with the sensitivity of the biochemical networks to the noise sources and the noise correlation time. We also discuss how the selection pressure due to fluctuations affects the structure and parameters of genetic regulatory networks.

  6. Multidimensional biochemical information processing of dynamical patterns. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko


    Cells receive signaling molecules by receptors and relay information via sensory networks so that they can respond properly depending on the type of signal. Recent studies have shown that cells can extract multidimensional information from dynamical concentration patterns of signaling molecules. We herein study how biochemical systems can process multidimensional information embedded in dynamical patterns. We model the decoding networks by linear response functions, and optimize the functions with the calculus of variations to maximize the mutual information between patterns and output. We find that, when the noise intensity is lower, decoders with different linear response functions, i.e., distinct decoders, can extract much information. However, when the noise intensity is higher, distinct decoders do not provide the maximum amount of information. This indicates that, when transmitting information by dynamical patterns, embedding information in multiple patterns is not optimal when the noise intensity is very large. Furthermore, we explore the biochemical implementations of these decoders using control theory and demonstrate that these decoders can be implemented biochemically through the modification of cascade-type networks, which are prevalent in actual signaling pathways.

  7. Explorations into Chemical Reactions and Biochemical Pathways. (United States)

    Gasteiger, Johann


    A brief overview of the work in the research group of the present author on extracting knowledge from chemical reaction data is presented. Methods have been developed to calculate physicochemical effects at the reaction site. It is shown that these physicochemical effects can quite favourably be used to derive equations for the calculation of data on gas phase reactions and on reactions in solution such as aqueous acidity of alcohols or carboxylic acids or the hydrolysis of amides. Furthermore, it is shown that these physicochemical effects are quite effective for assigning reactions into reaction classes that correspond to chemical knowledge. Biochemical reactions constitute a particularly interesting and challenging task for increasing our understanding of living species. The BioPath.Database is a rich source of information on biochemical reactions and has been used for a variety of applications of chemical, biological, or medicinal interests. Thus, it was shown that biochemical reactions can be assigned by the physicochemical effects into classes that correspond to the classification of enzymes by the EC numbers. Furthermore, 3D models of reaction intermediates can be used for searching for novel enzyme inhibitors. It was shown in a combined application of chemoinformatics and bioinformatics that essential pathways of diseases can be uncovered. Furthermore, a study showed that bacterial flavor-forming pathways can be discovered. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Multidimensional biochemical information processing of dynamical patterns (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko


    Cells receive signaling molecules by receptors and relay information via sensory networks so that they can respond properly depending on the type of signal. Recent studies have shown that cells can extract multidimensional information from dynamical concentration patterns of signaling molecules. We herein study how biochemical systems can process multidimensional information embedded in dynamical patterns. We model the decoding networks by linear response functions, and optimize the functions with the calculus of variations to maximize the mutual information between patterns and output. We find that, when the noise intensity is lower, decoders with different linear response functions, i.e., distinct decoders, can extract much information. However, when the noise intensity is higher, distinct decoders do not provide the maximum amount of information. This indicates that, when transmitting information by dynamical patterns, embedding information in multiple patterns is not optimal when the noise intensity is very large. Furthermore, we explore the biochemical implementations of these decoders using control theory and demonstrate that these decoders can be implemented biochemically through the modification of cascade-type networks, which are prevalent in actual signaling pathways.

  9. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. 158.2000 Section 158.2000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides...

  10. Dactylifera L) on the biochemical indicators of lead poisoning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the biochemical parameters. Thus, the treatment by the pectin of dates reduced the high concentration of these parameters. Our results show that the pectins of dates may have a corrective effect on the biochemical disturbances induced by the lead. Keywords: Phoenix Dactylifera, Pectin, Lead, Biochemical parameters ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franja Fratrić


    Full Text Available Widespread opinion that all the sportsmen nowadays “are sick”, as well as the results of the analysis of the random sample from all over Europe, show that very few of them are not under some kind of treatment or doctor’s supervision. This should be a warning for experts and scientists in sports, for making a strategy to prevent this trend. Sickness is a huge individual and socio-economical problem. Sportsmen nowadays are under extreme pressure, without control of biochemical processes. There is a risk of becoming an “organism dump” full of wasteful and harmful substances, that are sediment. These are: - acids - medicaments - chemicals - proteins, etc. The cause of an error is possible resolve only by knowing its origin. This is precisely the most important function of the diagnostics in sport. In this paper we are presenting the strategy of the diagnostics of the biochemical status of the sportsman’s organism. Moreover, we are bringing out the key problems and suggesting concrete prevention measures.

  12. Dust Fertilization of the Western Atlantic Biota: a Biochemical Model (United States)

    Holmes, C. W.


    Every year an estimated 50 million tons of African dust reaches the Western Atlantic. This dust is composed of quartz sand, clay, and a mixture of quartz and clay particles agglutinated with micronutrient enriched ferruginous cement. However, whether it is friend or foe to biochemical systems is a matter of conjecture. Corals are ideal recorders of changing conditions as the layers can be dated so that the record of chemical changes is easily assessed. There is extensive shallow-and deep water coral development bordering the Florida Straits. The changes in trace element chemistry within these corals show a positive relationship with the African dust record. Recently, it has been demonstrated that many of the metals contained within the dust are necessary micronutrients in the fertilization of plankton. Using the results of these studies, a biochemical model has been constructed. This model suggests a path from inorganic dust through microbial transformation to micronutrient enzymes (i.e. Cd-enriched carbonic anahydrase) and carbonate precipitation on the Bahamian Banks. It is estimated that more than ten million metric tons of this fine, metal-rich sediment is formed each year. However, for much of this sediment, its deposition is temporary, as it is transported into the Florida Straits yearly by tropical cyclones. This metal-enriched fine carbonate becomes nutrients for phytoplankton, providing food for the corals, both shallow and deep.

  13. Association with the origin recognition complex suggests a novel role for histone acetyltransferase Hat1p/Hat2p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenblatt Jack F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone modifications have been implicated in the regulation of transcription and, more recently, in DNA replication and repair. In yeast, a major conserved histone acetyltransferase, Hat1p, preferentially acetylates lysine residues 5 and 12 on histone H4. Results Here, we report that a nuclear sub-complex consisting of Hat1p and its partner Hat2p interacts physically and functionally with the origin recognition complex (ORC. While mutational inactivation of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT gene HAT1 alone does not compromise origin firing or initiation of DNA replication, a deletion in HAT1 (or HAT2 exacerbates the growth defects of conditional orc-ts mutants. Thus, the ORC-associated Hat1p-dependent histone acetyltransferase activity suggests a novel linkage between histone modification and DNA replication. Additional genetic and biochemical evidence points to the existence of partly overlapping histone H3 acetyltransferase activities in addition to Hat1p/Hat2p for proper DNA replication efficiency. Furthermore, we demonstrated a dynamic association of Hat1p with chromatin during S-phase that suggests a role of this enzyme at the replication fork. Conclusion We have found an intriguing new association of the Hat1p-dependent histone acetyltransferase in addition to its previously known role in nuclear chromatin assembly (Hat1p/Hat2p-Hif1p. The participation of a distinct Hat1p/Hat2p sub-complex suggests a linkage of histone H4 modification with ORC-dependent DNA replication.

  14. Histological and Biochemical Evaluation of the Kidney following Chronic Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. U. Ukoha


    Full Text Available Hibiscus sabdariffa L. has been used traditionally as herbal medicine and has been documented to have a broad range of therapeutic effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic administration of aqueous extract of flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the histology of the kidney and some biochemical indices of renal function in male Wistar rats. Twenty (20 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four (4 groups of five rats each. The extract was administered orally in doses 200, 500, and 800 mg/kg body weight for 21 days. The kidney was harvested and processed histologically and blood samples were taken for biochemical assays. The histological results showed dose dependent pathological states and the biochemical analysis revealed a dose dependant variation in renal indices. These results suggest that chronic administration of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa may be toxic to the kidney.

  15. Structural evidence suggests that antiactivator ExsD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a DNA binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhards, R.C.; Robinson, H.; Jing, X.; Vogelaar, N. J.; Schubot, F. D.


    The opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to support acute infections in predisposed individuals. In this bacterium, expression of all T3SS-related genes is dependent on the AraC-type transcriptional activator ExsA. Before host contact, the T3SS is inactive and ExsA is repressed by the antiactivator protein ExsD. The repression, thought to occur through direct interactions between the two proteins, is relieved upon opening of the type III secretion (T3S) channel when secretion chaperone ExsC sequesters ExsD. We have solved the crystal structure of ?20ExsD, a protease-resistant fragment of ExsD that lacks only the 20 amino terminal residues of the wild-type protein at 2.6 {angstrom}. Surprisingly the structure revealed similarities between ExsD and the DNA binding domain of transcriptional repressor KorB. A model of an ExsD-DNA complex constructed on the basis of this homology produced a realistic complex that is supported by the prevalence of conserved residues in the putative DNA binding site and the results of differential scanning fluorimetry studies. Our findings challenge the currently held model that ExsD solely acts through interactions with ExsA and raise new questions with respect to the underlying mechanism of ExsA regulation.

  16. Molecular evidence suggesting species in the zoanthid genera Palythoa and Protopalythoa (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) are congeneric. (United States)

    Reimer, James Davis; Ono, Shusuke; Takishita, Kiyotaka; Tsukahara, Junzo; Maruyama, Tadashi


    Taxonomic status of the zoanthid genera Palythoa and Protopalythoa has been in question for almost a century. Separation of the two genera has been based on traditional morphological methods (colony and polyp form, nematocyst size and form, and number of septa), with Palythoa polyps embedded in a well developed coenenchyme and Protopalythoa polyps standing free and clear of the coenenchyme. Here we sequenced two mitochondrial regions, the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene and 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) genes, from Palythoa and Protopalythoa samples from various parts of the world and performed phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data. The phylogenetic trees for both COI and 16S rDNA from Palythoa and Protopalythoa show four monophyletic groups (designated Palythoa tuberculosa, Palythoa heliodiscus, Palythoa mutuki 1, and Palythoa mutuki 2), with levels of sequence divergence (COI and 16S rDNA divergence approximately 0.0 approximately 1.1%) similar to or lower than that previously found among congeneric species within the closely related genus Zoanthus. Surprisingly, sequence differences among Palythoa tuberculosa, Palythoa mutuki 1, and Palythoa mutuki 2 were negligible (0.0 approximately 0.2% for both COI and 16S rDNA), potentially indicating relationships below the species level. Our sequences align well with the few Palythoa and Protopalythoa sequences reported to date. These findings strongly indicate that our samples represent a minimum of two and possibly up to four species (the Palythoa tuberculosa - P. mutuki 1 - P. mutuki 2 group, and P. heliodiscus) within the genus Palythoa, and that the genus Protopalythoa is erroneous nomenclature.

  17. Although Limited Evidence Suggests Patient Perceptions and Expectations for Dental Implants Are Realistic, Many Misconceptions Remain. (United States)

    Farsai, Paul S


    What do patients expect from treatment with Dental Implants? Perceptions, expectations and misconceptions: A multicenter study. Yao J, Li M, Tang H, Want P-L, Zhao Y-X, McGrath C, Mattheos N. Clin Oral Implants Res 28(3):261-71. Information not available TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Cross-sectional study (survey). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant drugs to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis: What does evidence suggest? (United States)

    Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Dávalos-Cobián, Carlos; García-Correa, Jesús; Ambriz-González, Gabriela; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv; García-Rentería, Jesús; Rendón-Félix, Jorge; Chávez-Tostado, Mariana; Cuesta-Márquez, Lizbeth Araceli; Alvarez-Villaseñor, Andrea Socorro; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; González-Ojeda, Alejandro


    To determine whether or not the use of antioxidant supplementation aids in the prevention of post- endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was made to evaluate the preventive effect of prophylactic antioxidant supplementation in post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). The inclusion criteria included: acute post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis in adults; randomized clinical trials with the use of any antioxidant as an intervention compared with placebo, to reduce PEP. The outcome measure was the incidence and severity of PEP. Twelve RCTs involving 3110 patients since 1999 were included. The antioxidants used were selenite, β-carotene, and pentoxifylline (each one in one trial), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in three trials, and allopurinol in six trials. The group of patients treated with NAC received different doses; either oral or intravenous, and allopurinol-treated patients received five different oral doses in two different administration periods. The results are expressed with raw numbers, proportions, as well as mean and standard deviations. The incidence of pancreatitis between groups was analyzed with Pearson's χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test (F). The main outcome is expressed as relative risks and 95%CI. The incidence of pancreatitis in all antioxidant treatment groups was 8.6%, whereas it was 9.7% in the control group. The antioxidants used were selenite, β-carotene, and pentoxifylline (each one in one trial), NAC in three trials, and allopurinol in six trials. In allopurinol trials, three different dosifications were used; two trials reported a low dosage (of less than 400 mg), two trials reported a moderate dose (600 mg) and the remaining two employed higher doses (more than 900 mg). Supplementation was not associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of PEP [relative risk (RR) = 0.93; 95%CI: 0.82-1.06; P = 0.28]. In addition, the incidences of PEP in patients treated with allopurinol and those treated with other antioxidants were similar to that observed in patients who received the placebo (RR for trials with allopurinol, 0.92; 95%CI: 0.78-1.08; P = 0.31) and, with the use of other antioxidants, the incidence of PEP was 8.9%, whereas it was 9.7% in the control group (RR = 0.95; 95%CI: 0.77-1.18; P = 0.19). Antioxidant supplementation shows no beneficial effect on the incidence of PEP. There is a lack of robust trials to support the use of antioxidants for prevention.

  19. Certification as a viable quality assurance mechanism: theory and suggestive evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svítková, Katarína; Ortmann, Andreas

    -, č. 288 (2006), s. 1-35 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : certification * quality assurance * experience goods Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  20. Limited evidence suggests standard fluoride toothpaste reduces caries potential in preschool children. (United States)

    Elkhadem, Ahmed; Wanees, Suzan


    CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, LILACS and BBO databases, the Brazilian database of thesis and dissertations (Banco de Teses CAPES), a Brazilian register of ethically approved projects involving human beings (SISNEP) and two registers of ongoing trials (Current Controlled Trials and Reference lists were also scanned for relevant papers. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Individual or cluster-randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials conducted in children under seven were included. Study selection and data abstraction were conducted by two reviewers independently. Risk of bias assessment was undertaken using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Meta-analyses of prevented fractions (PF) were performed to assess the effect of fluoride toothpaste on the dmft and dmfs. Meta-analyses were also performed to obtain a pooled relative risk (RR) to assess the effect of fluoride toothpastes on the proportion of children developing caries. Eight studies were included. When standard F toothpastes were compared to placebo or no intervention, significant caries reduction at surface (PF = 31%; 95% CI 18-43; 2644 participants in five studies), tooth (PF = 16%; 95% CI 8-25; 2555 participants in one study) and individual (RR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.81-0.93; 2806 participants in two studies) level were observed. Low F toothpastes were effective only at surface level (PF = 40%; 95% CI 5-75; 561 participants in two studies). Standard F toothpastes are effective in reducing dental caries in the primary teeth of preschool children and thus their use should be recommended to this age group.

  1. New evidence suggests pyroclastic flows are responsible for the remarkable preservation of the Jehol biota (United States)

    Jiang, Baoyu; Harlow, George E.; Wohletz, Kenneth; Zhou, Zhonghe; Meng, Jin


    The lower Cretaceous Yixian and Jiufotang formations contain numerous exceptionally well-preserved invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils that comprise the Jehol Biota. Freshwater and terrestrial fossils of the biota usually occur together within some horizons and have been interpreted as deposits of mass mortality events. The nature of the events and the mechanisms behind the exceptional preservation of the fossils, however, are poorly understood. Here, after examining and analysing sediments and residual fossils from several key horizons, we postulate that the causal events were mainly phreatomagmatic eruptions. Pyroclastic density currents were probably responsible for the major causalities and for transporting the bulk of the terrestrial vertebrates from different habitats, such as lizards, birds, non-avian dinosaurs and mammals, into lacustrine environments for burial. Terrestrial vertebrate carcasses transported by and sealed within the pyroclastic flows were clearly preserved as exceptional fossils through this process.

  2. Evidence Suggesting a Role of Iron in a Mouse Model of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhanda Bose

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is associated with gadolinium contrast exposure in patients with reduced kidney function and carries high morbidity and mortality. We have previously demonstrated that gadolinium contrast agents induce in vivo systemic iron mobilization and in vitro differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells into ferroportin (iron exporter-expressing fibrocytic cells. In the present study we examined the role of iron in a mouse model of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Chronic kidney disease was induced in 8-week-old male Balb/C mice with a two-step 5/6 nephrectomy surgery. Five groups of mice were studied: control (n = 5, sham surgery control (n = 5, chronic kidney disease control (n = 4, chronic kidney disease injected with 0.5 mmol/kg body weight of Omniscan 3 days per week, for a total of 10 injections (n = 8, and chronic kidney disease with Omniscan plus deferiprone, 125 mg/kg, in drinking water (n = 9. Deferiprone was continued for 16 weeks until the end of the experiment. Mice with chronic kidney disease injected with Omniscan developed skin changes characteristic of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis including hair loss, reddening, ulceration, and skin tightening by 10 to 16 weeks. Histopathological sections demonstrated dermal fibrosis with increased skin thickness (0.25±0.06 mm, sham; 0.34±+0.3 mm, Omniscan-injected. Additionally, we observed an increase in tissue infiltration of ferroportin-expressing, fibrocyte-like cells accompanied by tissue iron accumulation in the skin of the Omniscan-treated mice. The deferiprone-treated group had significantly decreased skin thickness (p<0.05 and significantly decreased dermal fibrosis compared to the Omniscan-only group. In addition, iron chelation prevented tissue infiltration of ferroportin-expressing, fibrocyte-like cells. Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that exposure to Omniscan resulted in the release of catalytic iron and this was prevented by the iron chelator deferiprone. Deferiprone inhibited the differentiation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into ferroportin-expressing cells by immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis. Our studies support an important role of iron in the pathophysiology of gadolinium chelate toxicity and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

  3. Who invests in renewable electricity production? : Empirical evidence and suggestions for further research


    Bergek, Anna; Mignon, Ingrid; Sundberg, Gunnel


    Transforming energy systems to fulfill the needs of a low-carbon economy requires large investments in renewable electricity production (RES-E). Recent literature underlines the need to take a closer look at the composition of the RES-E investor group in order to understand the motives and investment processes of different types of investors. However, existing energy policies generally consider RES-E investments made on a regional or national level, and target investors who evaluate their RES...

  4. Putative Androgen Exposure and Sexual Orientation: Cross-Cultural Evidence Suggesting a Modified Neurohormonal Theory. (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Lykins, Amy; Hoskin, Anthony; Ratnasingam, Malini


    According to neurohormonal theory, prenatal androgens are key determinants of sexual orientation. As a reputed marker for prenatal androgens, the 2D:4D finger length ratio has been used in more than a dozen studies to test the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation. Findings have been very inconsistent. The present study sought to retest the hypothesis that 2D:4D and sexual orientation are related is a manner consistent with neurohormonal theory. A 2D:4D measure (of the right hand) along with four additional somatic markers of androgen exposure (height, physical strength, muscularity, and athletic ability) with samples of college students in Malaysia (N = 2,058) and the United States (N = 2,511). The five androgen measures were factor analyzed, resulting in a two-factor solution: Factor 1 consisted of strength, muscularity, and athletic ability (the muscular coordination factor), and Factor 2 was comprised of the r2D:4D and adult height (the bone growth factor). Sexual orientation was measured by asking each respondent the extent to which they were sexually attracted to males and the extent to which they were sexually attracted to females, both on 11-point scales. When the countries and sexes were analyzed separately, neither the r2D:4D measure nor Factor 2 correlated with sexual orientation to significant degrees. Instead, it was the muscular coordination factor that correlated the best. Support was found for the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation, but the nature of these influences was more complex than neurohormonal theory predicted. A modified theory is needed and presented to accommodate the results from this study. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Evidence suggesting that desire-state attribution may govern food sharing in Eurasian jays. (United States)

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Shaw, Rachael C; Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S


    State-attribution is the ability to ascribe to others an internal life like one's own and to understand that internal, psychological states such as desire, hope, belief, and knowledge underlie others' actions. Despite extensive research, comparative studies struggle to adequately integrate key factors of state-attribution that have been identified by evolutionary and developmental psychology as well as research on empathy. Here, we develop a behavioral paradigm to address these issues and investigate whether male Eurasian jays respond to the changing desire-state of their female partners when sharing food. We demonstrate that males feed their mates flexibly according to the female's current food preference. Critically, we show that the males need to see what the female has previously eaten to know what food she will currently want. Consequently, the males' sharing pattern was not simply a response to their mate's behavior indicating her preference as to what he should share, nor was it a response to the males' own desire-state. Our results raise the possibility that these birds may be capable of ascribing desire to their mates.

  6. Genetic evidence suggests that GIS functions downstream of TCL1 to regulate trichome formation in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Yang, Li; Luo, Sha; Wang, Xutong; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Yuxin; Tian, Hainan; Zheng, Kaijie; Cai, Ling; Wang, Shucai


    Trichome formation in Arabidopsis is regulated by a MBW complex formed by MYB, bHLH and WD40 transcriptional factors, which can activate GLABRA2 (GL2) and the R3 MYB transcription factor genes. GL2 promotes trichome formation, whereas R3 MYBs are able to block the formation of the MBW complex. It has been reported that the C2H2 transcription factor GIS (GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS) functions upstream of the MBW activator complex to regulate trichome formation, and that the expression of TCL1 is not regulated by the MBW complex. However, gis and the R3 MYB gene mutant tcl1 (trichomeless 1) have opposite inflorescence trichome phenotypes, but their relationship in regulating trichome formation remained unknown. By generating and characterization of the gis tcl1 double mutant, we found that trichome formation in the gis tcl1double and the tcl1 single mutants were largely indistinguishable, but the trichome formation in the 35S:TCL1/gis transgenic plant was similar to that in the gis mutant. By using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we showed that expression level of GIS was increased in the triple mutant tcl1 try cpc, but the expression level of TCL1 was not affected in the gis mutant. On the other hand, trichome morphology in both gis tcl1 and 35S:TCL1/gis plants was similar to that in the gis mutant. In summary, our results indicate that GIS may work downstream of TCL1 to regulate trichome formation, and GIS has a dominant role in controlling trichome morphology.

  7. Debating Curricular Strategies for Teaching Statistics and Research Methods: What Does the Current Evidence Suggest? (United States)

    Barron, Kenneth E.; Apple, Kevin J.


    Coursework in statistics and research methods is a core requirement in most undergraduate psychology programs. However, is there an optimal way to structure and sequence methodology courses to facilitate student learning? For example, should statistics be required before research methods, should research methods be required before statistics, or…

  8. Evidence suggesting that oral corticosteroids increase mortality in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (United States)

    Horita, Nobuyuki; Miyazawa, Naoki; Morita, Satoshi; Kojima, Ryota; Inoue, Miyo; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Takeshi


    Oral corticosteroids were used to control stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) decades ago. However, recent guidelines do not recommend long-term oral corticosteroids (LTOC) use for stable COPD patients, partly because it causes side-effects such as respiratory muscle deterioration and immunosuppression. Nonetheless, the impact of LTOC on life prognosis for stable COPD patients has not been clarified. We used the data of patients randomized to non-surgery treatment in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial. Severe and very severe stable COPD patients who were eligible for volume reduction surgery were recruited at 17 clinical centers in the United States and randomized during 1998-2002. Patients were followed-up for at least five years. Hazard ratios for death by LTOC were estimated by three models using Cox proportional hazard analysis and propensity score matching. The pre-matching cohort comprised 444 patients (prescription of LTOC: 23.0%. Age: 66.6 ± 5.4 year old. Female: 35.6%. Percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second: 27.0 ± 7.1%. Mortality during follow-up: 67.1%). Hazard ratio using a multiple-variable Cox model in the pre-matching cohort was 1.54 (P = 0.001). Propensity score matching was conducted with 26 parameters (C-statics: 0.73). The propensity-matched cohort comprised of 65 LTOC(+) cases and 195 LTOC(-) cases (prescription of LTOC: 25.0%. Age: 66.5 ± 5.3 year old. Female: 35.4%. Percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second: 26.1 ± 6.8%. Mortality during follow-up: 71.3%). No parameters differed between cohorts. The hazard ratio using a single-variable Cox model in the propensity-score-matched cohort was 1.50 (P = 0.013). The hazard ratio using a multiple-variable Cox model in the propensity-score-matched cohort was 1.73 (P = 0.001). LTOC may increase the mortality of stable severe and very severe COPD patients.

  9. Virulence factor rtx in Legionella pneumophila, evidence suggesting it is a modular multifunctional protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelaz Carmen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The repeats in toxin (Rtx are an important pathogenicity factor involved in host cells invasion of Legionella pneumophila and other pathogenic bacteria. Its role in escaping the host immune system and cytotoxic activity is well known. Its repeated motives and modularity make Rtx a multifunctional factor in pathogenicity. Results The comparative analysis of rtx gene among 6 strains of L. pneumophila showed modularity in their structures. Among compared genomes, the N-terminal region of the protein presents highly dissimilar repeats with functionally similar domains. On the contrary, the C-terminal region is maintained with a fashionable modular configuration, which gives support to its proposed role in adhesion and pore formation. Despite the variability of rtx among the considered strains, the flanking genes are maintained in synteny and similarity. Conclusion In contrast to the extracellular bacteria Vibrio cholerae, in which the rtx gene is highly conserved and flanking genes have lost synteny and similarity, the gene region coding for the Rtx toxin in the intracellular pathogen L. pneumophila shows a rapid evolution. Changes in the rtx could play a role in pathogenicity. The interplay of the Rtx toxin with host membranes might lead to the evolution of new variants that are able to escape host cell defences.

  10. On the Adaptive Design Rules of Biochemical Networks in Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen


    Full Text Available Biochemical networks are the backbones of physiological systems of organisms. Therefore, a biochemical network should be sufficiently robust (not sensitive to tolerate genetic mutations and environmental changes in the evolutionary process. In this study, based on the robustness and sensitivity criteria of biochemical networks, the adaptive design rules are developed for natural selection in the evolutionary process. This will provide insights into the robust adaptive mechanism of biochemical networks in the evolutionary process. We find that if a mutated biochemical network satisfies the robustness and sensitivity criteria of natural selection, there is a high probability for the biochemical network to prevail during natural selection in the evolutionary process. Since there are various mutated biochemical networks that can satisfy these criteria but have some differences in phenotype, the biochemical networks increase their diversities in the evolutionary process. The robustness of a biochemical network enables co-option so that new phenotypes can be generated in evolution. The proposed robust adaptive design rules of natural selection gain much insight into the evolutionary mechanism and provide a systematic robust biochemical circuit design method of biochemical networks for biotechnological and therapeutic purposes in the future.

  11. Hyaluronan in the experimental injury of the cartilage: biochemical action and protective effects. (United States)

    Avenoso, Angela; D'Ascola, Angela; Scuruchi, Michele; Mandraffino, Giuseppe; Calatroni, Alberto; Saitta, Antonino; Campo, Salvatore; Campo, Giuseppe M


    Our knowledge of extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and function has increased enormously over the last decade or so. There is evidence demonstrating that ECM provides signals affecting cell adhesion, shape, migration, proliferation, survival, and differentiation. ECM presents many domains that become active after proteolytic cleavage. These active ECM fragments are called matrikines which play different roles; in particular, they may act as potent inflammatory mediators during cartilage injury. A major component of the ECM that undergoes dynamic regulation during cartilage damage and inflammation is the non-sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) hyaluronan (HA). In this contest, HA is the most studied because of its different activity due to the different polymerization state. In vivo evidences have shown that low molecular weight HA exerts pro-inflammatory action, while high molecular weight HA possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, the beneficial HA effects on arthritis are not only limited to its viscosity and lubricant action on the joints, but it is especially due to a specific and effective anti-inflammatory activity. Several in vitro experimental investigations demonstrated that HA treatment may regulate different biochemical pathways involved during the cartilage damage. Emerging reports are suggesting that the ability to recognize receptors both for the HA degraded fragments, whether for the high-polymerized native HA involve interaction with integrins, toll-like receptors (TLRs), and the cluster determinant (CD44). The activation of these receptors induced by small HA fragments, via the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cell (NF-kB) mediation, directly or other different pathways, produces the transcription of a large number of damaging intermediates that lead to cartilage erosion. This review briefly summarizes a number of findings of the recent studies focused on the protective effects of HA, at the different

  12. Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS: software for stochastic modeling of biochemical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston Timothy C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrinsic fluctuations due to the stochastic nature of biochemical reactions can have large effects on the response of biochemical networks. This is particularly true for pathways that involve transcriptional regulation, where generally there are two copies of each gene and the number of messenger RNA (mRNA molecules can be small. Therefore, there is a need for computational tools for developing and investigating stochastic models of biochemical networks. Results We have developed the software package Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS for efficientlyand accurately simulating stochastic models of biochemical networks. BioNetS has a graphical user interface that allows models to be entered in a straightforward manner, and allows the user to specify the type of random variable (discrete or continuous for each chemical species in the network. The discrete variables are simulated using an efficient implementation of the Gillespie algorithm. For the continuous random variables, BioNetS constructs and numerically solvesthe appropriate chemical Langevin equations. The software package has been developed to scale efficiently with network size, thereby allowing large systems to be studied. BioNetS runs as a BioSpice agent and can be downloaded from BioNetS also can be run as a stand alone package. All the required files are accessible from Conclusions We have developed BioNetS to be a reliable tool for studying the stochastic dynamics of large biochemical networks. Important features of BioNetS are its ability to handle hybrid models that consist of both continuous and discrete random variables and its ability to model cell growth and division. We have verified the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods by considering several test systems.

  13. Outcome after PSMA PET/CT based radiotherapy in patients with biochemical persistence or recurrence after radical prostatectomy. (United States)

    Schmidt-Hegemann, Nina-Sophie; Fendler, Wolfgang Peter; Ilhan, Harun; Herlemann, Annika; Buchner, Alexander; Stief, Christian; Eze, Chukwuka; Rogowski, Paul; Li, Minglun; Bartenstein, Peter; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus


    PSMA PET/CT visualises prostate cancer residual disease or recurrence at lower PSA levels compared to conventional imaging and results in a change of treatment in a remarkable high number of patients. Radiotherapy with dose escalation to the former prostate bed has been associated with improved biochemical recurrence-free survival. Thus, it can be hypothesised that PSMA PET/CT-based radiotherapy might improve the prognosis of these patients. One hundred twenty-nine patients underwent PSMA PET/CT due to biochemical persistence (52%) or recurrence (48%) after radical prostatectomy without evidence of distant metastases (February 2014-May 2017) and received PSMA PET/CT-based radiotherapy. Biochemical recurrence free survival (PSA ≤ 0.2 ng/ml) was defined as the study endpoint. Patients with biochemical persistence were significantly more often high-risk patients with significantly shorter time interval before PSMA PET/CT than patients with biochemical recurrence. Patients with biochemical recurrence had significantly more often no evidence of disease or local recurrence only in PSMA PET/CT, whereas patients with biochemical persistence had significantly more often lymph node involvement. Seventy-three patients were started on antiandrogen therapy prior to radiotherapy due to macroscopic disease in PSMA PET/CT. Cumulatively, 70 (66-70.6) Gy was delivered to local macroscopic tumor, 66 (63-66) Gy to the prostate fossa, 61.6 (53.2-66) Gy to PET-positive lymph nodes and 50.4 (45-52.3) Gy to lymphatic pathways. Median PSA after radiotherapy was 0.07 ng/ml with 74% of patients having a PSA ≤ 0.1 ng/ml. After a median follow-up of 20 months, median PSA was 0.07 ng/ml with ongoing antiandrogen therapy in 30 patients. PET-positive patients without antiandrogen therapy at last follow-up (45 patients) had a median PSA of 0.05 ng/ml with 89% of all patients, 94% of patients with biochemical recurrence and 82% of patients with biochemical persistence having a

  14. Biochemical Markers for Assessing Aquatic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová


    Full Text Available Biochemical markers, specifically enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD - were used to determine the quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in fish muscle (PCB, HCB, HCH, OCS, DDT. Eight rivers were monitored (Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina; and the River Blanice was used as a control. The indicator species selected was the chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. There were no significant differences in cytochrome P450 content between the locations monitored. The highest concentration of cytochrome P450 in fish liver was in the Vltava (0.241 nmol mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (0.120 nmol mg-1 protein. Analysis of EROD activity showed a significant difference between the Blanice and the Vltava (P< 0.05, and also between the Orlice and the Vltava (P< 0.01, the Orlice and the Bílina (P< 0.01, and the Orlice and the Ohře (P< 0.05. The highest EROD activity in fish liver was in the Vltava (576.4 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (63.05 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. In individual locations, results of chemical monitoring and values of biochemical markers were compared. A significant correlation (P< 0.05 was found between biochemical markers and OCS, and PCB. Among the tributaries studied those that contaminated the Elbe most were the Vltava and the Bílina. These tributaries should not be considered the main sources of industrial contamination of the River Elbe, because the most important contamination sources were along the river Elbe itself.

  15. [Chronic fatigue syndrome: biochemical examination of blood]. (United States)

    Hakariya, Yukiko; Kuratsune, Hirohiko


    Though patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have lots of complaints, abnormal findings cannot be detected by biochemical screening tests. However, some specialized blood tests have revealed neuroendocrine immune axis abnormalities, which is closely associated with each other. Recent studies indicate that CFS can be understood as a special condition based on abnormality of the psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunological system, with the distinguishing feature of CFS seeming to be the secondary brain dysfunction caused by several cytokines and/or autoantibodies. In this paper, we summarize these abnormalities found in CFS and show the neuro-molecular mechanism leading to chronic fatigue.

  16. Conservation Laws in Biochemical Reaction Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi, Adam; Ferragut, Antoni; Valls, Claudia


    We study the existence of linear and nonlinear conservation laws in biochemical reaction networks with mass-action kinetics. It is straightforward to compute the linear conservation laws as they are related to the left null-space of the stoichiometry matrix. The nonlinear conservation laws...... are difficult to identify and have rarely been considered in the context of mass-action reaction networks. Here, using the Darboux theory of integrability, we provide necessary structural (i.e., parameterindependent) conditions on a reaction network to guarantee the existence of nonlinear conservation laws...

  17. The biochemical womb of schizophrenia: A review. (United States)

    Gaur, N; Gautam, S; Gaur, M; Sharma, P; Dadheech, G; Mishra, S


    The conclusive identification of specific etiological factors or pathogenic processes in the illness of schizophrenia has remained elusive despite great technological progress. The convergence of state-of-art scientific studies in molecular genetics, molecular neuropathophysiology, in vivo brain imaging and psychopharmacology, however, indicates that we may be coming much closer to understanding the genesis of schizophrenia. In near future, the diagnosis and assessment of schizophrenia using biochemical markers may become a "dream come true" for the medical community as well as for the general population. An understanding of the biochemistry/ visa vis pathophysiology of schizophrenia is essential to the discovery of preventive measures and therapeutic intervention.

  18. Simplifying biochemical models with intermediate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten


    Mathematical models are increasingly being used to understand complex biochemical systems, to analyse experimental data and make predictions about unobserved quantities. However, we rarely know how robust our conclusions are with respect to the choice and uncertainties of the model. Using algebraic......-state concentrations of the species in the core model, after suitable matching of parameters. Importantly, our results provide guidelines to the modeller in choosing between models and in distinguishing their properties. Further, our work provides a formal way of comparing models that share a common skeleton....

  19. Radiation treatment of drugs, biochemicals and vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordheim, W.; Braeuniger, S.; Kirsch, B.; Kotowski, H.; Teupel, D.


    The concise and tabulated review reports experimental results on the effects of radiation treatment on drugs, vaccines, biochemicals and adjuvants including enzymes as well. Irradiation was mostly performed by γ-radiation using 60 Co and to a lesser extent by 137 Cs, 182 Ta, X-rays and accelerators. Ionizing radiation proved to be a useful tool for sterilization and inactivation in producing drugs, vaccines, and bioactive agents and will contribute to realize procedures difficultly solvable as to engineering and economy, respectively. 124 refs

  20. [The biochemical carcinogenesis of selected heavy metals in bladder cancer]. (United States)

    Rorbach-Dolata, Anna; Marchewka, Zofia; Piwowar, Agnieszka


    Bladder cancer takes the second place in the classification of morbidity of urinary system cancers. Many chemical factors take part in cancerogenesis. It is suggested that exposure to heavy metals such as arsenic, chromium, nickel and cadmium as well as its metabolites may trigger the bladder cancer through inducing excessive reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress formation which are responsible for DNA damage. In patients with bladder cancer is observed the disorder of processes regulated by p-53, including apoptosis. There are many patients with bladder cancer with confirmed absence of retinoblastoma protein, which is responsible of holding on the process of coming up the cells with mutation into synthesis, where the replication process undergoes. It is mentioned that excessive expression of proto-oncogenes may also cause the bladder cancer. The article concerns biochemical effects of exposure to chosen heavy metals and their potential role in bladder cancer progression.

  1. Gluconeogenesis: An ancient biochemical pathway with a new twist. (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Amrein, Hubert


    Synthesis of sugars from simple carbon sources is critical for survival of animals under limited nutrient availability. Thus, sugar-synthesizing enzymes should be present across the entire metazoan spectrum. Here, we explore the evolution of glucose and trehalose synthesis using a phylogenetic analysis of enzymes specific for the two pathways. Our analysis reveals that the production of trehalose is the more ancestral biochemical process, found in single cell organisms and primitive metazoans, but also in insects. The gluconeogenic-specific enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) first appears in Cnidaria, but is also present in Echinodermata, Mollusca and Vertebrata. Intriguingly, some species of nematodes and arthropods possess the genes for both pathways. Moreover, expression data from Drosophila suggests that G6Pase and, hence, gluconeogenesis, initially had a neuronal function. We speculate that in insects-and possibly in some vertebrates-gluconeogenesis may be used as a means of neuronal signaling.

  2. It has been suggested that oxidative stress, especially oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 14, 2012 ... Oxidative stress has been implicated in coronary artery disease (CAD). Malondialdehyde (MDA) is lipid ... Key words: Oxidative stress, bilirubin, malondialdehyde, coronary artery disease, antioxidant capacity, homocysteine. .... logists, unaware of the patients' clinical history and biochemical results, visually ...

  3. Biochemical markers of bone turnover in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (United States)

    Lee, Sun Bin; Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Young Ju; Kim, Hyoung-Mi


    Objective Several studies have suggested a possible relationship between recurrent benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and altered calcium homeostasis in the endolymph of the inner ear. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between Ca2+ and vitamin D status and BPPV occurrence as well as the status of bone biochemical markers in osteoporotic patients who were diagnosed with idiopathic BPPV. Methods The study included total 132 patients who were referred to our clinic between August 2008 and October 2013. Based on the bone mineral density (BMD) results, the subjects were divided into three groups: normal BMD (n = 34), osteopenia (n = 40) and osteoporosis (n = 58). The biochemical markers of bone turnover including serum Carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and urinary free deoxypyridinoline (u-DPD), were analyzed, along with the serum Ca2+ and vitamin D levels. Results The mean serum calcium, phosphate and creatinine clearance levels were within the standard laboratory reference range. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was 11.8% (4/34) in the normal BMD group, 15% (6/40) in the osteopenia group and 43.1% (25/58) in the osteoporosis group. There was a positive correlation between the 25(OH)D and BMD results in the patients with BPPV. Among the bone turnover markers, the osteocalcin and u-DPD levels were significantly elevated in the osteoporotic patients with BPPV. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency were associated with BPPV. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the prevalence of BPPV in osteoporotic patients is associated with vitamin D deficiency and high bone turnover rates at systemic level, which could disturb local Ca2+ homeostasis in the inner ear. PMID:28467451

  4. Biochemical processes for geothermal brine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Zhou, W.; Shelenkova, L.; Wilke, R.


    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL`s Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines, (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL's Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  6. Rebinding in biochemical reactions on membranes (United States)

    Lawley, Sean D.; Keener, James P.


    The behavior of many biochemical processes depends crucially on molecules rapidly rebinding after dissociating. In the case of multisite protein modification, the importance of rebinding has been demonstrated both experimentally and through several recent computational studies involving stochastic spatial simulations. As rebinding stems from spatio-temporal correlations, theorists have resorted to models that explicitly include space to properly account for the effects of rebinding. However, for reactions in three space dimensions it was recently shown that well-mixed ordinary differential equation (ODE) models can incorporate rebinding by adding connections to the reaction network. The rate constants for these new connections involve the probability that a pair of molecules rapidly rebinds after dissociation. In order to study biochemical reactions on membranes, in this paper we derive an explicit formula for this rebinding probability for reactions in two space dimensions. We show that ODE models can use the formula to replicate detailed stochastic spatial simulations, and that the formula can predict ultrasensitivity for reactions involving multisite modification of membrane-bound proteins. Further, we compute a new concentration-dependent rebinding probability for reactions in three space dimensions. Our analysis predicts that rebinding plays a much larger role in reactions on membranes compared to reactions in cytoplasm.

  7. Biochemical research elucidating metabolic pathways in Pneumocystis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneshiro E.S.


    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing the Pneumocystis carinii genome have helped identify potential metabolic pathways operative in the organism. Also, data from characterizing the biochemical and physiological nature of these organisms now allow elucidation of metabolic pathways as well as pose new challenges and questions that require additional experiments. These experiments are being performed despite the difficulty in doing experiments directly on this pathogen that has yet to be subcultured indefinitely and produce mass numbers of cells in vitro. This article reviews biochemical approaches that have provided insights into several Pneumocystis metabolic pathways. It focuses on 1 S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet; SAM, which is a ubiquitous participant in numerous cellular reactions; 2 sterols: focusing on oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol in P. carinii; SAM:sterol C-24 methyltransferase that adds methyl groups at the C-24 position of the sterol side chain; and sterol 14α-demethylase that removes a methyl group at the C-14 position of the sterol nucleus; and 3 synthesis of ubiquinone homologs, which play a pivotal role in mitochondrial inner membrane and other cellular membrane electron transport.

  8. [Biochemical principles of early saturnism recognition]. (United States)

    Tsimakuridze, M P; Mansuradze, E A; Zurashvili, D G; Tsimakuridze, M P


    The aim of the work is to determine the major sensitive criteria of biochemical indicators that allow timely discovery of negative influence of lead on organism and assist in early diagnosis of primary stages of saturnism. The workers of Georgian typographies, performing technological processes of letterpress printing were observed. Professional groups having contact with lead aerosols (main group of 66 people) and the workers of the same typography not being in touch with the poison (control group of 24 people) were studied. It was distinguished that, protracted professional contact with lead causes moderate increase of lead, coproporphyrin and DALA in daily urine in most cases; it is more clearly evidenced in the professional groups of lead smelters and lino operators and less clearly among typesetter and printers. Upon the checkup of people, having a direct contact with lead, biochemical analysis of urine should be given a preference, especially the determination of quantitative content of lead and coproporphyrin in urine with the aim of revealing the lead carrier, which is one of the first signals for occupational lookout and medical monitoring of the similar contingent.

  9. Biochemical Manifestation of HIV Lipodystrophy Syndrome. (United States)

    Ihenetu, Kenneth; Mason, Darius


    Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), including protease inhibitors (PI) have led to dramatic improvements in the quality and quantity of life in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a significant number of AIDS patients on HAART develop characteristic changes in body fat redistribution referred to as lipodystrophy syndrome (LDS). Features of LDS include hypertrophy in the neck fat pad (buffalo hump), increased fat in the abdominal region (protease paunch), gynecomastia and loss of fat in the mid-face and extremities. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge regarding this syndrome. This article reviews the published investigations on biochemical manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy syndrome. It is estimated that approximately 64% of patients treated with PI will experience this syndrome. Biochemically, these patients have increased triglycerides (Trig), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and extremely low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). It is hoped that awareness of this syndrome would aid in early diagnosis and better patient management, possibly leading to a lower incidence of cardiovascular complications among these patients.

  10. Biochemical markers of neonatal myocardial dysfunction. (United States)

    Almeida, Cristina Maria; Carrapato, Manuel R G; Pinto, Fernando; Pinto, Mariana; Ferreira, Sofia; Schmitt, Denise; Marinho, Luis


    Cardiac ultrasounds (US) are not always available at the bedside. Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI), CK-MB and NT-proBNP may be an alternative or complementary to influence evaluation and treatment. To determine reference ranges of biochemical markers cTnI, CK-MB and NT-proBNP in normal neonates. Cord and blood samples were collected from neonates and the above biochemical markers were determined. Ultrasounds were performed blindly. CK-MB remains constant from cord blood to the first day, declining thereafter to almost half the values (81.5 vs 52.0 U/l); cTnI increases from 0.004 to 0.058 ng/ml by 72 h falling to 0.030 by day 10; NT-proBNP peaks by 24 h (5085.5 pg/ml), subsiding to 3388.5 pg/ml by day 3, falling to 1316.0 pg/ml by day 10. CK-MB, mostly of muscle origin and reflecting labor stress or injury, is not to recommend as a measure of myocardial damage in the neonate. The rise in cTnI may be explained by a degree of myocardial involvement, albeit physiological. The initial rise and subsequent fall of NT-proBNP represents the physiological ventricular overload of transient birth adaptation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Bian


    Full Text Available Difficulties encountered by students in L2 academic writing has been a subject of research for several decades. However, to date, there still remains a lack of detailed and in-depth investigation into this area of interest. This qualitative study thoroughly investigated the rhetorical difficulties faced by Chinese EFL undergraduate academic writers, and collected suggestions on how to address these rhetorical issues. To be sufficiently detailed and thorough, this study divided students' difficulties into process- and product-related difficulties, and used triangulated data from supervisors' perspectives, students' perspectives, and supervisors' comments to address research questions. Although there were no strong generalizations derived from data from different perspectives and sources, the findings of this study showed supervisor perceptions of the rhetorical difficulties the students experienced were almost identical. In nature these rhetorical difficulties were culturallyembedded and genre-related issues; and the degree of difficulty experienced by each student varied. In this study, supervisors and students both suggested that, to solve rhetorical difficulties, teacher student communication should be improved. This study provided empirical evidence to contrastive rhetoric theory and socio-cultural theory. It also offered suggestions on how to strengthen future research in this area of inquiry, and how to improve academic writing teaching in L2 educational contexts.

  12. From the Sugar Platform to biofuels and biochemicals : Final report for the European Commission Directorate-General Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.; Nattrass, L.; Alberts, G.; Robson, P.; Chudziak, C.; Bauen, A.; Libelli, I.M.; Lotti, G.; Prussi, M.; Nistri, R.; Chiaramonti, D.; lópez-Contreras, A.M.; Bos, H.L.; Eggink, G.; Springer, J.; Bakker, R.; Ree, van R.


    Numerous potential pathways to biofuels and biochemicals exist via the sugar platform1. This study uses literature surveys, market data and stakeholder input to provide a comprehensive evidence base for policymakers and industry – identifying the key benefits and development needs for the sugar

  13. A clinical and biochemical profile of biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram, M.; Mushraf, M.


    To describe clinical and biochemical features of patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fifty patients of either and of all ages were included, who had ultrasound evidence of fatty liver, deranged liver enzymes, and negative history of alcohol uptake. Serological/biochemical tests/markers of other liver diseases were negative. Each subject underwent liver biopsy reported by a single histopathologist. Clinical (symptoms, hypertension, hepatomegaly, and obesity) and biochemical evaluation (for diabetes, lipid abnormalities, and aspartate to alanine aminotransferase ratio (AST/ALT)) of each subject was done. Chi-square and t-tests were used for p-value calculation for finding significant difference between fatty liver and non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis groups. Thirty three (66%) patients were female and 34% were male. Mean age was 45.50+-11.50 years. Histopathologically, 62% subjects had fatty liver alone, while 38% had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Fatigue (100%), hypertriglyceridemia (80%), hepatomegaly (72%), AST/ALT ratio <1 (72%), and obesity/overweight (54%) were common NAFLD-related features. Except for hypertriglycedemia (p-value 0.008), no statistically significant association was noted between these features and histopathological subtypes of NAFLD. NAFLD-related clinical and biochemical features included fatigue, obesity, hepatomegaly, AST/ALT ratio <1, and hypertriglycedemia. Significant relationship existed between hypertriglyceridemia and NASH. (author)

  14. Moisture and Salinity Stress Induced Changes in Biochemical Constituents and Water Relations of Different Grape Rootstock Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satisha Jogaiah


    Full Text Available Ten grape rootstocks were subjected to moisture and salinity stress in two separate experiments. The influence of these stresses on gas exchange, water relation, and biochemical parameters was monitored at various stages of stress cycle. Both stresses indicated significant changes in the physiological and biochemical parameters studied. Some biochemical constituents increased by several folds in few rootstock cultivars which also recorded increased osmotic potential suggesting their role in osmotic adjustment. Some of the rootstock cultivars such as 110R, 1103P, 99R, Dogridge, and B2/56 recorded increased phenolic compounds under stressed conditions. The same rootstock also recorded increased water use efficiency. The increased accumulation of phenolic compounds in these cultivars may indicate the possible role of phenolic compounds as antioxidants for scavenging the reactive oxygen species generated during abiotic stresses thus maintaining normal physiological and biochemical process in leaves of resistant cultivars.

  15. Biochemical plasticity of synaptic transmission: a critical review of Dale's Principle. (United States)

    Sabelli, H C; Mosnaim, A D; Vazquez, A J; Giardina, W J; Borison, R L; Pedemonte, W A


    "Dale's Principle" states that each neuron releases one and only one synaptic transmitter. Mental disorders and behavioral drug effects are attributed to activation or blockade of one or more of these specific transmitters. A series of biochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies suggests the alternative view that at each monoaminergic synapse the action of the transmitter is modulated by several metabolically related substances: amine analogs (2-phenylethylamine [PEA], p-tyramine, etc.), deaminated products (aldehydes, acids, and alcohols), and possibly also amino acid precursors. In support of this view, the authors present evidence for the presence, synthesis, metabolism, and biological activity (at the cellular level, using microelectrode techniques) of amino acid, amines, and deaminated compounds metabolically related to catecholamines and sorotonin. That neuroamino acids exert direct effects (not mediated via their amine metabolites) is illustrated by the rapid effects of microiontophoretic dopa upon cortical unit activity, and by the observation that neither the lethargic effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan (considered to support Jouvet's serotonergic theory of sleep) nor the behavioral stimulant effects of dopa (considered to support the catecholamine theory of affective behavior) are significantly prevented by L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitors. The biological activity of the deaminated metabolites of catecholamines and serotonin is illustrated by the effects of their microiontophoretic administration upon cortical units. Further, probenecid (an inhibitor of acid transport across the blood-brain barrier) is shown to qualitatively alter the effects of intraventricularly administered PEA and of its metabolite phenylacetic acid upon visual evoked potentials. Rabbit brain is shown to synthesize a series of pharmacologically active noncatecholic phenylethylamines as by-products of catecholamine metabolism. Amine modulators such as PEA differ

  16. Hepatic lipidosis in anorectic, lactating holstein cattle: a retrospective study of serum biochemical abnormalities. (United States)

    Cebra, C K; Garry, F B; Getzy, D M; Fettman, M J


    The association between hepatic lipidosis (HL) and disease in 59 anorectic, ketotic, lactating Holstein heifers and cows was investigated. Severe HL, as determined by histologic evaluation of liver tissue, was present in 46 animals; only half of these animals required intensive treatment for ketosis, and only half had serum biochemical evidence of liver disease, as determined by the presence of a last value of 2-fold or greater than the upper limit of the reference ranges for at least 2 of the 4 serum tests: gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities and bile acid concentrations. Most cattle with biochemical evidence of liver disease and severe HL had been lactating for 14 or more days. Cows that required intensive treatment inconsistently had serum biochemical evidence of liver disease. Although cattle with severe HL had significantly higher serum bilirubin concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities than cattle with less severe lipidosis, the specificity of abnormally high serum sorbitol dehydrogenase activity or bilirubin concentration for severe lipidosis was only 8%. Abnormally high serum aspartate aminotransferase activity was 83% sensitive and 62% specific for severe lipidosis. Serum glucose and total carbon dioxide concentrations were significantly lower in cattle with severe lipidosis than in those with mild or moderate lipidosis, and low serum glucose or total carbon dioxide concentrations were rare in cattle without severe lipidosis. From these data, we conclude that the use of a single biochemical or histopathologic criterion to define severity of disease or degree of liver compromise in anorectic, ketotic cows results in the misidentification of many animals.



    yıldırım, Işıl


    AbstractStudies about herbal products are increasing every day due to their rich biochemical content. Elaeagnus angustofolia is one of the best known plant species to have a strong biochemical substance spectrum. This work was performed to identify the some biochemical content of Eleagnus angustofolia. In this study, vitamins A, E, and C, total sugar content, inverted sugar content, cellulose content, amount of total protein, and fatty acid properties were studied. Our investigations revealed...

  18. BioNessie - a grid enabled biochemical networks simulation environment


    Liu, X.; Jiang, J.; Ajayi, O.; Gu, X.; Gilbert, D.; Sinnott, R.O.


    The simulation of biochemical networks provides insight and understanding about the underlying biochemical processes and pathways used by cells and organisms. BioNessie is a biochemical network simulator which has been developed at the University of Glasgow. This paper describes the simulator and focuses in particular on how it has been extended to benefit from a wide variety of high performance compute resources across the UK through Grid technologies to support larger scale simulations.

  19. Biochemical Measurements of the Human Stress Response (United States)


    8217 biochemical stress response. Dr Thomas Longridge was the project scientist and Dr Joe De Maio was the task scientist. This research was conducted by the...under condition A described in next paragraph. Second, DOPAC, MHPG, HVA, 5-HIAA, and VMA were determined by a modified method of Joseph, Kadam , and...n tt Ln 0 0 vJ 0 (N ’lw %.D w 0 0) to CI la, co 0 (r) Ch 𔃺I I 0 𔃺 0 0 0 (’) v 01-4 V~ 4 Hn qqJ Ln NOD & OD N r- ai r, m 0 ~ $4 c4 H 0 OI H r) (n t

  20. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Almeida Xavier


    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  1. Biochemical composition of marine monogenean parasite eggs. (United States)

    Brazenor, Alexander K; Francis, David S; Hutson, Kate S; Carton, Alexander G


    This study on the eggs of the tropical monogenean Neobenedenia girellae presents the first detailed quantitative biochemical information of a marine parasite species' eggs. Moisture and protein composed the majority of the contents of freshly laid eggs (79.12±0.82 and 11.51±0.49% respectively) followed by lipid (2.50±0.15%). Lipids were composed of approximately equal amounts of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids and the predominant lipid class was triacylglycerol (33.82±1.20%). This study represents a fundamental step towards a better understanding of the early life biology of this important species of parasite. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Biochemical Basis of Sestrin Physiological Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Allison; Cho, Chun-Seok; Namkoong, Sim; Cho, Uhn-Soo; Lee, Jun Hee (Michigan)


    Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chronic activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) are well-characterized promoters of aging and age-associated degenerative pathologies. Sestrins, a family of highly conserved stress-inducible proteins, are important negative regulators of both ROS and mTORC1 signaling pathways; however, the mechanistic basis of how Sestrins suppress these pathways remains elusive. In the past couple of years, breakthrough discoveries about Sestrin signaling and its molecular nature have markedly increased our biochemical understanding of Sestrin function. These discoveries have also uncovered new potential therapeutic strategies that may eventually enable us to attenuate aging and age-associated diseases.

  3. Highly valuable microalgae: biochemical and topological aspects. (United States)

    Pignolet, Olivier; Jubeau, Sébastien; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Michaud, Philippe


    The past decade has seen a surge in the interest in microalgae culture for biodiesel production and other applications as renewable biofuels as an alternative to petroleum transport fuels. The development of new technologies for the culture of these photosynthetic microorganisms and improved knowledge of their biochemical composition has spurred innovation in the field of high-value biomolecules. These developments are only economically viable if all the microalgae fractions are valorized in a biorefinery strategy. Achieving this objective requires an understanding of microalgae content and the cellular localization of the main biomolecular families in order to develop efficient harvest and sequential recovery technologies. This review summarizes the state of the art in microalgae compositions and topologies using some examples of the main industrially farmed microalgae.

  4. Physico-Biochemical aspects of Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni M.D.


    Full Text Available Shock is a clinical condition characterized by decreased blood flow to vital organs due to imbalance between size of vascular bed and effective circulating blood volume and the inability of body tissues to metabolize nutrients normally. The decreased blood flow to vital organs like kidney, liver, spleen, brain etc. is caused by pulling and stagnation blood elsewhere in circulation. The defective blood flow to tissues implies incomplete oxygen supply to the cells, tissues and organs consequent effect being interference with metabolism. It is very essential to study physicobiochemical aspect of shock because after knowing the pathways involved in various physio -pathological processes, we can undertake effective treatment and there by shock can be satisfactorily treated and prevented. Following are the various physico-biochemical processes stated by various workers to study the shock. [Vet. World 2009; 2(4.000: 161-162

  5. Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates (United States)

    Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.


    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

  6. Biochemical Hypermedia: Glucose as a Central Molecule in Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai


    Full Text Available The technologies of information, together with education resources, have been pointed out as a solution to the improvement of teaching approach, but they still claim for programs to fulfill the demands of didactic materials. So, a biochemical software was developed aiming to contribute for the better understanding of the glycolysis. It was prepared with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. The introduction screen shows a teacher in a theater presenting glucose as a central molecule in the metabolism of animals, plants and many microorganisms. She invites for a better knowledge of glucose through a view of its discovery and its metabolism. A step by step animation process shows the interaction of glucose in aerobic conditions with the enzymes of the glycolytic pathways and its products. An explanation text of each enzyme catalytic process is provided by links. A static pathway is always available through a link. The fates of pyruvate yielding lactic acid and ethanol under anaerobic conditions are shown as well. The overall reactions of gluconeogenesis and the functional significance of this pathway are presented. The experimental treatment involved the presentation of this hypermedia for Nutrition undergraduate students (UFSC as a tool for better comprehension of the theme. The students revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the enzymatic mechanisms involved in glycolysis. This suggests that there is a significant added value in employing the software as an instructional effort to enhance student’s abilities to understand biochemical pathways.

  7. Dynamic analysis of biochemical network using complex network method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuqiang


    Full Text Available In this study, the stochastic biochemical reaction model is proposed based on the law of mass action and complex network theory. The dynamics of biochemical reaction system is presented as a set of non-linear differential equations and analyzed at the molecular-scale. Given the initial state and the evolution rules of the biochemical reaction system, the system can achieve homeostasis. Compared with random graph, the biochemical reaction network has larger information capacity and is more efficient in information transmission. This is consistent with theory of evolution.

  8. Pattern Selection by Dynamical Biochemical Signals (United States)

    Palau-Ortin, David; Formosa-Jordan, Pau; Sancho, José M.; Ibañes, Marta


    The development of multicellular organisms involves cells to decide their fate upon the action of biochemical signals. This decision is often spatiotemporally coordinated such that a spatial pattern arises. The dynamics that drive pattern formation usually involve genetic nonlinear interactions and positive feedback loops. These complex dynamics may enable multiple stable patterns for the same conditions. Under these circumstances, pattern formation in a developing tissue involves a selection process: why is a certain pattern formed and not another stable one? Herein we computationally address this issue in the context of the Notch signaling pathway. We characterize a dynamical mechanism for developmental selection of a specific pattern through spatiotemporal changes of the control parameters of the dynamics, in contrast to commonly studied situations in which initial conditions and noise determine which pattern is selected among multiple stable ones. This mechanism can be understood as a path along the parameter space driven by a sequence of biochemical signals. We characterize the selection process for three different scenarios of this dynamical mechanism that can take place during development: the signal either 1) acts in all the cells at the same time, 2) acts only within a cluster of cells, or 3) propagates along the tissue. We found that key elements for pattern selection are the destabilization of the initial pattern, the subsequent exploration of other patterns determined by the spatiotemporal symmetry of the parameter changes, and the speeds of the path compared to the timescales of the pattern formation process itself. Each scenario enables the selection of different types of patterns and creates these elements in distinct ways, resulting in different features. Our approach extends the concept of selection involved in cellular decision-making, usually applied to cell-autonomous decisions, to systems that collectively make decisions through cell

  9. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  10. Robust simplifications of multiscale biochemical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinovyev Andrei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular processes such as metabolism, decision making in development and differentiation, signalling, etc., can be modeled as large networks of biochemical reactions. In order to understand the functioning of these systems, there is a strong need for general model reduction techniques allowing to simplify models without loosing their main properties. In systems biology we also need to compare models or to couple them as parts of larger models. In these situations reduction to a common level of complexity is needed. Results We propose a systematic treatment of model reduction of multiscale biochemical networks. First, we consider linear kinetic models, which appear as "pseudo-monomolecular" subsystems of multiscale nonlinear reaction networks. For such linear models, we propose a reduction algorithm which is based on a generalized theory of the limiting step that we have developed in 1. Second, for non-linear systems we develop an algorithm based on dominant solutions of quasi-stationarity equations. For oscillating systems, quasi-stationarity and averaging are combined to eliminate time scales much faster and much slower than the period of the oscillations. In all cases, we obtain robust simplifications and also identify the critical parameters of the model. The methods are demonstrated for simple examples and for a more complex model of NF-κB pathway. Conclusion Our approach allows critical parameter identification and produces hierarchies of models. Hierarchical modeling is important in "middle-out" approaches when there is need to zoom in and out several levels of complexity. Critical parameter identification is an important issue in systems biology with potential applications to biological control and therapeutics. Our approach also deals naturally with the presence of multiple time scales, which is a general property of systems biology models.

  11. Biochemical characterization of MLH3 missense mutations does not reveal an apparent role of MLH3 in Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Jianghua; Rasmussen, Merete; Westers, Helga


    for eight of these MLH3 UVs identified in suspected Lynch syndrome patients, we performed several biochemical tests. We determined the protein expression and stability, protein localization and interaction of the mutant MLH3 proteins with wildtype MLH1. All eight MLH3 UVs gave protein expression levels...... comparable with wildtype MLH3. Furthermore, the UV-containing proteins, in contrast to previous studies, were all localized normally in the nucleus and they interacted normally with wildtype MLH1. Our different biochemical assays yielded no evidence that the eight MLH3 UVs tested are the cause of hereditary...

  12. Quantity and biochemical composition of particulate organic matter in a highly trawled area (Thermaikos Gulf, Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pusceddu


    Full Text Available Bottom trawling represents nowadays one of the most severe anthropogenic disturbances at sea, and determines large impacts on benthic communities and processes. Bottom trawling determines also local sediment resuspension and the effects of the injection of large amounts of surface sediments into the water column have been repeatedly investigated. Few studies have assessed the consequences of sediment resuspension caused by bottom trawling on the quantity, biochemical composition and bioavailability of suspended organic particles and how these eventually rival those exerted by natural storms. To provide insights on this poorly addressed issue, we investigated concentrations and biochemical composition of total and enzymatically digestible pools of particulate organic matter (POM in the Thermaikos Gulf (Mediterranean Sea under calm sea conditions, during intensive trawling activities, and after a severe storm. We show here that sediment resuspension caused by trawling can cause large effects on POM quantity, biochemical composition and bioavailability. Both during trawling and after the storm, the relative importance of the carbohydrate pools increased (in the upper water column and the total lipid concentrations decreased (in the intermediate and bottom layers when compared to values measured during calm conditions. These results would suggest that bottom trawling could inject in the upper water column POM pools more refractory in nature (e.g., carbohydrates than those present in calm or after-storm conditions. By contrast, we show also that the bioavailable fraction of biopolymeric C increased significantly during trawling in the upper water column of the shallowest stations and in the bottom water column layer of the deepest ones. These results provide evidence that bottom trawling can influence the overall trophic status of coastal waters, exerting effects similar or stronger than those caused by natural storms, though of variable amplitude

  13. Biochemical relapse for prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy: salvage radiotherapy without hormonal therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fede, Angelo B.S. [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Jacinto, Alexandre Arthur; Fagundes, Livia A.; Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro dos Santos; Arruda, Gustavo Viani; Castilho, Marcus Simoes; Maia, Maria Aparecida Conte; Silva, Maria Leticia Gobo; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Salvajoli, Joao Victor [Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Radiation Oncology]. E-mail:


    Objectives: This paper aims to study biochemical control, hormonal therapy-free survival, and prognostic factors related to salvage radiation for prostate cancer patients submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP) without hormonal therapy (HT) before or during radiation. Materials and Methods: from August 2002 to July 2004, 39 prostate cancer patients submitted to RP presented biochemical failure after achieving PSA nadir (<0.2 ng/ml). All patients were submitted to three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3 DC-EBRT) and no patients had received HT. Median age was 62 years, median preoperative PSA was 9.4 ng/ml, median Gleason Score was 7. We defined PSA rise above 0.2 as biochemical failure after surgery. Median 3 DC-EBRT dose was 70 Gy, and biochemical failure after EBRT was defined as three consecutive rises in PSA or a single rise sufficient to trigger HT. Results: Biochemical non-evidence of disease (BNED) in 3 years was 72%. PSA doubling time (PSADT) lower than 4 months (p=0.04), and delay to salvage EBRT (p=0.05) were associated to worse chance of successful salvage therapy. Late morbidity was acceptable. Conclusion: Expressive PSA control (72% BNED / 3 years) could be achieved with salvage radiotherapy in well-selected patients. The importance of PSADT was confirmed, and radiotherapy should be started as early as possible. Follow-up is somewhat short, but it is possible to conclude that it is possible to achieve a long interval free from hormonal therapy with low rate of toxicity, avoiding or at least delaying morbidity related to hormonal treatment radiotherapy. (author)

  14. The Role of Frontal Executive Functions in Hypnosis and Hypnotic Suggestibility


    Parris, Benjamin


    There is both theoretical and empirical evidence supporting a role for frontal executive functions (FEFs) in hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility. However, the precise nature of this involvement is debated. While there is clear evidence that FEFs are impaired under hypnosis, the cause of this decreased function is unclear. Theories make differing predictions as to the role of FEFs in hypnotic suggestibility, with some arguing that decreased baseline (normal function outside of the hypnotic co...

  15. Plant responses to UV and blue light: biochemical and genetic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, G.I.; Christie, J.M.; Fuglevand, G.; Long, J.C.; Jackson, J.A.


    UV and blue light control many aspects of plant growth and development. It is evident that several different photoreceptors mediate responses to UV and blue light, and there are reports of the functional and biochemical characterisation of a putative photoreceptor for phototropism and of the functional and molecular characterisation of the CRY1 photoreceptor, encoded by the Arabidopsis HY4 gene. The CRY1 photoreceptor mediates extension growth and gene expression responses to UV-A/blue light presumably through different or branching signal transduction pathways. Progress has been made in cell physiological and biochemical studies of UV/blue light signal transduction, but much remains to be done to relate candidate UV/blue signal transduction events to particular photoreceptors and responses. The application of a genetic approach in Arabidopsis has been responsible for many advances in understanding UV/blue responses, but further UV-B, UV-A and blue light response mutants need to be isolated. (author)

  16. Acetylcholine receptors and cholinergic ligands: biochemical and genetic aspects in Torpedo californica and Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, L.S.


    This study evaluates the biochemical and genetic aspects of the acetylcholine receptor proteins and cholinergic ligands in Drosophila melanogaster and Torpedo californica. Included are (1) a comparative study of nicotinic ligand-induced cation release from acetylcholine receptors isolated from Torpedo californica and from Drosophila melanogaster, (2) solution studies of the cholinergic ligands, nikethamide and ethamivan, aimed at measuring internal molecular rotational barriers in solvents of different polarity; and (3) the isolation and characterization of the gene(s) for the acetylcholine receptor in Drosophila melasogaster. Acetylcholine receptor proteins isolated from Drosphila melanogaster heads were found to behave kinetically similar (with regards to cholinergic ligand-induced 155 Eu: 3+ displacement from prelabeled proteins) to receptor proteins isolated from Torpedo californica electric tissue, providing additional biochemical evidence for the existence of a Drosophila acetylcholine receptor

  17. Optimal experiment design for model selection in biochemical networks. (United States)

    Vanlier, Joep; Tiemann, Christian A; Hilbers, Peter A J; van Riel, Natal A W


    Mathematical modeling is often used to formalize hypotheses on how a biochemical network operates by discriminating between competing models. Bayesian model selection offers a way to determine the amount of evidence that data provides to support one model over the other while favoring simple models. In practice, the amount of experimental data is often insufficient to make a clear distinction between competing models. Often one would like to perform a new experiment which would discriminate between competing hypotheses. We developed a novel method to perform Optimal Experiment Design to predict which experiments would most effectively allow model selection. A Bayesian approach is applied to infer model parameter distributions. These distributions are sampled and used to simulate from multivariate predictive densities. The method is based on a k-Nearest Neighbor estimate of the Jensen Shannon divergence between the multivariate predictive densities of competing models. We show that the method successfully uses predictive differences to enable model selection by applying it to several test cases. Because the design criterion is based on predictive distributions, which can be computed for a wide range of model quantities, the approach is very flexible. The method reveals specific combinations of experiments which improve discriminability even in cases where data is scarce. The proposed approach can be used in conjunction with existing Bayesian methodologies where (approximate) posteriors have been determined, making use of relations that exist within the inferred posteriors.

  18. Spongiosa Primary Development: A Biochemical Hypothesis by Turing Patterns Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodrigo López-Vaca


    Full Text Available We propose a biochemical model describing the formation of primary spongiosa architecture through a bioregulatory model by metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. It is assumed that MMP13 regulates cartilage degradation and the VEGF allows vascularization and advances in the ossification front through the presence of osteoblasts. The coupling of this set of molecules is represented by reaction-diffusion equations with parameters in the Turing space, creating a stable spatiotemporal pattern that leads to the formation of the trabeculae present in the spongy tissue. Experimental evidence has shown that the MMP13 regulates VEGF formation, and it is assumed that VEGF negatively regulates MMP13 formation. Thus, the patterns obtained by ossification may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. Moreover, for the numerical solution, we used the finite element method with the Newton-Raphson method to approximate partial differential nonlinear equations. Ossification patterns obtained may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification.

  19. Structuring evolution: biochemical networks and metabolic diversification in birds. (United States)

    Morrison, Erin S; Badyaev, Alexander V


    Recurrence and predictability of evolution are thought to reflect the correspondence between genomic and phenotypic dimensions of organisms, and the connectivity in deterministic networks within these dimensions. Direct examination of the correspondence between opportunities for diversification imbedded in such networks and realized diversity is illuminating, but is empirically challenging because both the deterministic networks and phenotypic diversity are modified in the course of evolution. Here we overcome this problem by directly comparing the structure of a "global" carotenoid network - comprising of all known enzymatic reactions among naturally occurring carotenoids - with the patterns of evolutionary diversification in carotenoid-producing metabolic networks utilized by birds. We found that phenotypic diversification in carotenoid networks across 250 species was closely associated with enzymatic connectivity of the underlying biochemical network - compounds with greater connectivity occurred the most frequently across species and were the hotspots of metabolic pathway diversification. In contrast, we found no evidence for diversification along the metabolic pathways, corroborating findings that the utilization of the global carotenoid network was not strongly influenced by history in avian evolution. The finding that the diversification in species-specific carotenoid networks is qualitatively predictable from the connectivity of the underlying enzymatic network points to significant structural determinism in phenotypic evolution.

  20. Biochemical principles and inhibitors to interfere with viral capping pathways. (United States)

    Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno


    Messenger RNAs are decorated by a cap structure, which is essential for their translation into proteins. Many viruses have developed strategies in order to cap their mRNAs. The cap is either synthetized by a subset of viral or cellular enzymes, or stolen from capped cellular mRNAs by viral endonucleases ('cap-snatching'). Reverse genetic studies provide evidence that inhibition of viral enzymes belonging to the capping pathway leads to inhibition of virus replication. The replication defect results from reduced protein synthesis as well as from detection of incompletely capped RNAs by cellular innate immunity sensors. Thus, it is now admitted that capping enzymes are validated antiviral targets, as their inhibition will support an antiviral response in addition to the attenuation of viral mRNA translation. In this review, we describe the different viral enzymes involved in mRNA capping together with relevant inhibitors, and their biochemical features useful in inhibitor discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biochemical composition of the hoof capsule of buffaloes and its influence on hoof quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Assis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to establish the biochemical parameters of the abaxial wall, dorsal wall and sole of the hoof of the medial thoracic, lateral, and medial pelvic digits of buffalos. The hoof samples were subjected to destructive biochemical analyses to identify the dry material (DM, mineral matter (MM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP and ether extract (EE contents. Sulfur (S, calcium (Ca, potassium (K, phosphorus (P, zinc (Zn and copper (Cu levels were determined based on nondestructive biochemical analyses. The parameters of dry material, mineral matter, organic matter, crude protein and ether extract of hoof capsule of the digits of buffalos can be determined by means of both destructive and nondestructive biochemical analysis. In addition, this study revealed that the highest concentrations of DM, CP and minerals such as, K, Zn and Cu are concentrated in the digits that bear the greatest body mass weight, suggesting that there is a positive correlation between the aforementioned parameters and the strength and growth of the hoof capsule in the digits. As for the element S, this study demonstrated that its highest concentration is located in the lateral digits of the pelvic members.

  2. Blood Biochemical Reference Intervals for Wild Ornate Box Turtles ( Terrapene ornata) during the Active Season. (United States)

    Harden, Leigh Anne; Fernandez, Jennifer; Milanovich, Joseph R; Struecker, Brock P; Midway, Stephen R


    Blood biochemical and hematology analyses are helpful indicators of the physiologic health of animals, particularly when making conservation and management decisions for threatened species. In this study, we 1) established blood biochemical reference intervals for two populations of threatened, free-ranging ornate box turtles ( Terrapene ornata) in northern Illinois during their active season and 2) examined the effects of individual carapace temperature ( T c ) on blood biochemical variables by using a Bayesian hierarchic framework. Individual blood variables differed throughout the active season (May-September 2015), but there were few distinct patterns in concentrations over time. When controlling for individual variability, blood biochemical variables potassium, sodium, chloride, ionized calcium, hematocrit (percentage of packed cell volume), and osmolality showed no effect of T c (i.e., slope estimates for these variables were not credibly different from zero) and had little individual variation. Glucose and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were found to have slopes credibly different from zero, with glucose having an estimated positive slope and BUN having an estimated negative slope, suggesting different relationships in response to T c when controlling for individual variability. These physiologic blood data will serve as important baseline reference values for the clinical evaluation of wild ornate box turtles presented for veterinary care or for comparison to other studies of wild populations. Further, this study highlights the importance of considering individual-level effects (e.g., T c ) on physiologic health variables.

  3. Biochemical Evaluation of Withania somnifera Root Powder on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahaboobkhan Rasool


    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the biochemical effect of Withania somnifera Linn. Solanaceae, commonly known as ashwagandha on adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Results were compared to Indomethacin, a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Arthritis was induced by an intra dermal injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (0.1 ml into the right hind paw of Wistar albino rats. Withania somnifera root powder (1000 mg/kg/day and Indomethacin (3 mg/kg/day were orally administered for 8 days (from 11th to 18th day after adjuvant injection. After the experimental period, all the animals were sacrificed and serum, liver and spleen samples were collected for further biochemical analysis. A significant increase in the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes, tissue marker enzymes, blood glucose level, WBC, platelet count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and acute phase proteins (hyaluronic acid, fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin was observed in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, whereas the activities of glycolytic enzymes, body weight, levels of hemoglobin, RBC count, and packed cell volume were found to be decreased. These biochemical alterations observed in arthritic animals were ameliorated significantly after the administration of Withania somnifera root powder (1000 mg/kg/b.wt and Indomethacin (3 mg/kg/b.wt. Our results suggest that Withania somnifera root powder is capable of rectifying the above biochemical changes in adjuvant arthritis and it may prove to be useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. A simplified representation of biochemical principles based on the dynamics of chemical flow systems. (United States)

    Tienari, J


    This work suggests that the amount of information included in biochemistry texts is artificially increased, because the knowledge presented contains tautologies that are obscured by the use of inappropriate methods of representation. The work then proposes alternative methods of representation for describing biochemical systems that are based on the dynamics of an idealized chemical open-flow system. They would clarify the fact, in an open system, the concentrations of the reactants and reaction products depend not only on the equilibrium constants but on the absolute velocities of the reactions as well. Similar rules apply to phenomena involving other processes, such as diffusion of ions. Biochemical systems are considered as a set of chemical flow systems in which individual processes have the potential for interactions if their end products influence the rate of other processes. These interactions are used to explain how biochemical systems maintain themselves in states of high order. By use of these formulations, some of the logical sequences by which biochemical principles can be deduced from the principles of chemistry can be given simple and illustrative expression.

  5. A mechanical-biochemical feedback loop regulates remodeling in the actin cytoskeleton. (United States)

    Stachowiak, Matthew R; Smith, Mark A; Blankman, Elizabeth; Chapin, Laura M; Balcioglu, Hayri E; Wang, Shuyuan; Beckerle, Mary C; O'Shaughnessy, Ben


    Cytoskeletal actin assemblies transmit mechanical stresses that molecular sensors transduce into biochemical signals to trigger cytoskeletal remodeling and other downstream events. How mechanical and biochemical signaling cooperate to orchestrate complex remodeling tasks has not been elucidated. Here, we studied remodeling of contractile actomyosin stress fibers. When fibers spontaneously fractured, they recoiled and disassembled actin synchronously. The disassembly rate was accelerated more than twofold above the resting value, but only when contraction increased the actin density to a threshold value following a time delay. A mathematical model explained this as originating in the increased overlap of actin filaments produced by myosin II-driven contraction. Above a threshold overlap, this mechanical signal is transduced into accelerated disassembly by a mechanism that may sense overlap directly or through associated elastic stresses. This biochemical response lowers the actin density, overlap, and stresses. The model showed that this feedback mechanism, together with rapid stress transmission along the actin bundle, spatiotemporally synchronizes actin disassembly and fiber contraction. Similar actin remodeling kinetics occurred in expanding or contracting intact stress fibers but over much longer timescales. The model accurately described these kinetics, with an almost identical value of the threshold overlap that accelerates disassembly. Finally, we measured resting stress fibers, for which the model predicts constant actin overlap that balances disassembly and assembly. The overlap was indeed regulated, with a value close to that predicted. Our results suggest that coordinated mechanical and biochemical signaling enables extended actomyosin assemblies to adapt dynamically to the mechanical stresses they convey and direct their own remodeling.

  6. Biochemical changes occurring during fermentation of camel milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical changes occurring during fermentation of camel milk by selected bacterial starter cultures. ... Abstract. The biochemical changes in amino acids, water soluble vitamins, soluble sugars and organic acids occurring during fermentation (at 43°C for 6 h) of camel milk inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus 37, ...

  7. Biochemical markers of mineral bone disorder in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Associations between log transformed PTH and other biochemical parameters were assessed by multiple linear regression analyses following significant associa- tions obtained from univariate regression analyses. A lo- gistic regression model was used to evaluate the effect of other biochemical parameters on the odds of ...

  8. Developments in commercially produced microbials at Biochem Products (United States)

    John Lublinkhof; Douglas H. Ross


    Biochem Products is part of a large industrial and scientific family - the Solvay Group. Solvay, headquartered in Brussels, Belgium is a multinational company with 46,000 employees worldwide. In the U.S., our working partners include a large polymer manufacturer, a peroxygen producer and a leading poultry and animal health products company. Biochem Products is a...

  9. Exploring basic biochemical constituents in the body tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding regime did not influence susceptibility to mass loss during export. Animal age influenced the biochemical composition and export performance of abalone. Keywords: abalone; aquaculture; feeds; Haliotis midae; live export; mass loss; tissue biochemical constituents. African Journal of Marine Science 2010, 32(1): ...

  10. Biochemical evaluation of phenylketonuria (PKU: from diagnosis to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Belmont-Martínez


    Besides periodical Phe and Tyr testing, biochemical follow-up includes the measurement of necessary elements that guarantee normal physical and intellectual development such as selenium, zinc, B12 vitamin, folates, iron and long chain fatty acids. Clinical context is as important as biochemical status so periodic evaluation of nutritional, medical, social and psychological aspects should be included.

  11. Reference Ranges for Some Biochemical Parameters in Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PURPOSE: To establish the reference ranges of some biochemical parameters for adult Kenyan population. METHODS: In a prospective involving 1100 healthy blood donors (age: 18-55 yr) in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya reference ranges of some biochemical analytes were constructed by using the parametric ...

  12. An improved solution of first order kinetics for biochemical oxygen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluated selected Biochemical Oxygen Demand first order kinetics methods. Domesticinstitutional wastewaters were collected twice in a month for three months from the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife waste stabilization ponds. Biochemical Oxygen Demand concentrations at different days were determined ...

  13. Biochemical characterization of three Aspergillus niger β-galactosidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Niu


    Conclusions: Three new β-galactosidases belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 35 from A. niger F0215 were cloned and biochemically characterized. In addition to the known LacA, A. niger has at least three β-galactosidase family members with remarkably different biochemical properties.

  14. Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African dwarf goats vaccinated against Pestes des petit ruminants (PPR) ... blood biochemical indices of forty randomly selected West African dwarf (WAD) goats were studied. Packed cell volume ... neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and white blood cells (WBC) than females.

  15. Differential response of biochemical parameters to EMS and MMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B.B.D. Khalandar


    Jun 10, 2015 ... Abstract Aim: To study the effect of alkylating agents such as EMS and MMS on chromosomes and biochemical parameters in induced diabetic mouse. Methods: Chromosome preparations from bone marrow was made using the method of Evans et al. (1964) and biochemical estimations from the liver was ...

  16. Possible Biochemical Markers in Protein-Energy Malnutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine possible biochemical markers in children suffering from Plasmodium falciparum malaria and Protein-Energy Malnutrition in a Hospital setting in Western Kenya. Spectrophotometric assays of selected biochemical parameters namely, albumin, total proteins, glucose, glutamate ...

  17. Local biochemical and morphological differences in human Achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Fredberg, U.; Qvortrup, Klaus


    The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy....... The expressions of growth factors, inflammatory mediators and tendon morphology were determined in both chronically diseased and healthy tendon parts....

  18. A case study of human hepatic hydatidosis and the biochemical Profile of cyst wall and fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshadullah Malik


    Full Text Available The non specific haematological changes and negative Casoni's test suggest that ultrasonography is more reliable for the diagnosis and epidemiological stud­ies of human hydatidosis. The majo.r biochemical compo­nents like glycogen, proteins, nucleic acids, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acids and phospho­lipid fractions were analysed and compared with the other host's cysts. The differences were discussed in the light of strain variations in Echinococcus granulosus.

  19. Definitions of biochemical failure in prostate cancer following radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Griffith, Kent A.; Sandler, Howard M.


    Purpose: The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) published a consensus panel definition of biochemical failure following radiation therapy for prostate cancer. In this paper, we develop a series of alternative definitions of biochemical failure. Using data from 688 patients, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the various definitions, with respect to a defined 'clinically meaningful' outcome. Methods and Materials: The ASTRO definition of biochemical failure requires 3 consecutive rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA). We considered several modifications to the standard definition: to require PSA rises of a certain magnitude, to consider 2 instead of 3 rises, to require the final PSA value to be greater than a fixed cutoff level, and to define biochemical failure based on the slope of PSA over 1, 1.5, or 2 years. A clinically meaningful failure is defined as local recurrence, distant metastases, initiation of unplanned hormonal therapy, unplanned radical prostatectomy, or a PSA>25 later than 6 months after radiation. Results: Requiring the final PSA in a series of consecutive rises to be larger than 1.5 ng/mL increased the specificity of biochemical failure. For a fixed specificity, defining biochemical failure based on 2 consecutive rises, or the slope over the last year, could increase the sensitivity by up to approximately 20%, compared to the ASTRO definition. Using a rule based on the slope over the previous year or 2 rises leads to a slightly earlier detection of biochemical failure than does the ASTRO definition. Even with the best rule, only approximately 20% of true failures are biochemically detected more than 1 year before the clinically meaningful event time. Conclusion: There is potential for improvement in the ASTRO consensus definition of biochemical failure. Further research is needed, in studies with long follow-up times, to evaluate the relationship between various definitions of biochemical failure and

  20. Biochemical analysis of Phytolacca DOPA dioxygenase. (United States)

    Takahashi, Kana; Yoshida, Kazuko; Yura, Kei; Ashihara, Hiroshi; Sakuta, Masaaki


    The biochemical analysis of Phytolacca americana DOPA dioxygenases (PaDOD1 and PaDOD2) was carried out. The recombinant protein of PaDOD1 catalyzed the conversion of DOPA to betalamic acid, whereas DOD activity was not detected in PaDOD2 in vitro. While the reported motif conserved in DODs from betalain-producing plants was found in PaDOD1, a single amino acid residue alteration was detected in PaDOD2. A mutated PaDOD1 protein with a change of 177 Asn to Gly showed reduced specific activity compared with PaDOD1, while DOPA dioxygenase activity was not observed for a mutated PaDOD2 protein which had its conserved motif replaced with that of PaDOD. A three-dimensional (3D) structural model of PaDOD1 and PaDOD2 showed that the conserved motif in DODs was located in the N-terminal side of a loop, which was found close to the putative active site. The difference in stability of the loop may affect the enzymatic activity of PaDOD2.

  1. PHA bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from crops. (United States)

    Somleva, Maria N; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D


    Large scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in plants can provide a sustainable supply of bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from sunlight and atmospheric CO(2). PHAs are a class of polymers with various chain lengths that are naturally produced by some microorganisms as storage materials. The properties of these polyesters make them functionally equivalent to many of the petroleum-based plastics that are currently in the market place. However, unlike most petroleum-derived plastics, PHAs can be produced from renewable feedstocks and easily degrade in most biologically active environments. This review highlights research efforts over the last 20 years to engineer the production of PHAs in plants with a focus on polyhydroxybutryrate (PHB) production in bioenergy crops with C(4) photosynthesis. PHB has the potential to be a high volume commercial product with uses not only in the plastics and materials markets, but also in renewable chemicals and feed. The major challenges of improving product yield and plant fitness in high biomass yielding C(4) crops are discussed in detail. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Skin biochemical composition analysis by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Patricia Karen; Tosato, Maira Gaspar; Alves, Rani de Souza; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro, E-mail: [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomedica, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento - IP e D, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UniVap, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)


    Skin aging is characterized by cellular and molecular alterations. In this context, Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used in vivo to measure these biochemical changes as function of the skin depth. In this study we have tried to correlate spectra from pure amino acids to in vivo spectra from volunteers with different ages. This study was performed on 32 volunteers: 11 from Group A (20-23 years), 11 from Group B (39-42 years) and 10 from Group C (59-62 years). For each group, the Raman spectra were measured on the surface (0 mm), 30 +- 3 mm and 60 +- 3 {mu}m below the surface. The results from intergroup comparisons showed that the oldest group had a prevalence of the tyrosine band, but it also presented a decrease in the band centered at 875 cm{sup -1} of pyrrolidone acid. The amide I band centered at 1637 cm{sup -1} that is attributed to collagen, as well as other proteins and lipid, showed a smaller amount of these biomolecules for Group C, which can be explained by the decrease in collagen concentration as a function of age. (author)

  3. BALL - biochemical algorithms library 1.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöckel Daniel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL is a comprehensive rapid application development framework for structural bioinformatics. It provides an extensive C++ class library of data structures and algorithms for molecular modeling and structural bioinformatics. Using BALL as a programming toolbox does not only allow to greatly reduce application development times but also helps in ensuring stability and correctness by avoiding the error-prone reimplementation of complex algorithms and replacing them with calls into the library that has been well-tested by a large number of developers. In the ten years since its original publication, BALL has seen a substantial increase in functionality and numerous other improvements. Results Here, we discuss BALL's current functionality and highlight the key additions and improvements: support for additional file formats, molecular edit-functionality, new molecular mechanics force fields, novel energy minimization techniques, docking algorithms, and support for cheminformatics. Conclusions BALL is available for all major operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and MacOS X. It is available free of charge under the Lesser GNU Public License (LPGL. Parts of the code are distributed under the GNU Public License (GPL. BALL is available as source code and binary packages from the project web site at Recently, it has been accepted into the debian project; integration into further distributions is currently pursued.

  4. Muriel Wheldale Onslow and early biochemical genetics. (United States)

    Richmond, Marsha L


    Muriel Whedale, a distinguished graduate of Newnham College, Cambridge, was a member of William Bateson's school of genetics at Cambridge University from 1903. Her investigation of flower color inheritance in snapdragons (Antirrhinum), a topic of particular interest to botanists, contributed to establishing Mendelism as a powerful new tool in studying heredity. Her understanding of the genetics of pigment formation led her to do cutting-edge work in biochemistry, culminating in the publication of her landmark work, The Anthocyanin Pigments of Plants (1916). In 1915, she joined Frederick Gowland Hopkin's Department of Biochemistry as assistant and in 1926 became one of the first women to be appointed university lecturer. In 1919 she married the biochemist Huia Onslow, with whom she collaborated until his death in 1922. This paper examines Whedale's work in genetics and especially focuses on the early linkage of Mendelian methodology with new techniques in biochemistry that eventually led to the founding of biochemical genetics. It highlights significant issues in the early history of women in genetics, including the critical role of mentors, funding opportunities, and career strategies.

  5. Validation of artificial neural network models for predicting biochemical markers associated with male infertility. (United States)

    Vickram, A S; Kamini, A Rao; Das, Raja; Pathy, M Ramesh; Parameswari, R; Archana, K; Sridharan, T B


    Seminal fluid is the secretion from many glands comprised of several organic and inorganic compounds including free amino acids, proteins, fructose, glucosidase, zinc, and other scavenging elements like Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+), and Na(+). Therefore, in the view of development of novel approaches and proper diagnosis to male infertility, overall understanding of the biochemical and molecular composition and its role in regulation of sperm quality is highly desirable. Perhaps this can be achieved through artificial intelligence. This study was aimed to elucidate and predict various biochemical markers present in human seminal plasma with three different neural network models. A total of 177 semen samples were collected for this research (both fertile and infertile samples) and immediately processed to prepare a semen analysis report, based on the protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO [2010]). The semen samples were then categorized into oligoasthenospermia (n=35), asthenospermia (n=35), azoospermia (n=22), normospermia (n=34), oligospermia (n=34), and control (n=17). The major biochemical parameters like total protein content, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc content were elucidated by standard protocols. All the biochemical markers were predicted by using three different artificial neural network (ANN) models with semen parameters as inputs. Of the three models, the back propagation neural network model (BPNN) yielded the best results with mean absolute error 0.025, -0.080, 0.166, and -0.057 for protein, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc, respectively. This suggests that BPNN can be used to predict biochemical parameters for the proper diagnosis of male infertility in assisted reproductive technology (ART) centres. AAS: absorption spectroscopy; AI: artificial intelligence; ANN: artificial neural networks; ART: assisted reproductive technology; BPNN: back propagation neural network model; DT: decision tress; MLP: multilayer perceptron; PESA: percutaneous

  6. Propagation of kinetic uncertainties through a canonical topology of the TLR4 signaling network in different regions of biochemical reaction space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St Laurent Georges


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transduction networks represent the information processing systems that dictate which dynamical regimes of biochemical activity can be accessible to a cell under certain circumstances. One of the major concerns in molecular systems biology is centered on the elucidation of the robustness properties and information processing capabilities of signal transduction networks. Achieving this goal requires the establishment of causal relations between the design principle of biochemical reaction systems and their emergent dynamical behaviors. Methods In this study, efforts were focused in the construction of a relatively well informed, deterministic, non-linear dynamic model, accounting for reaction mechanisms grounded on standard mass action and Hill saturation kinetics, of the canonical reaction topology underlying Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4-mediated signaling events. This signaling mechanism has been shown to be deployed in macrophages during a relatively short time window in response to lypopolysaccharyde (LPS stimulation, which leads to a rapidly mounted innate immune response. An extensive computational exploration of the biochemical reaction space inhabited by this signal transduction network was performed via local and global perturbation strategies. Importantly, a broad spectrum of biologically plausible dynamical regimes accessible to the network in widely scattered regions of parameter space was reconstructed computationally. Additionally, experimentally reported transcriptional readouts of target pro-inflammatory genes, which are actively modulated by the network in response to LPS stimulation, were also simulated. This was done with the main goal of carrying out an unbiased statistical assessment of the intrinsic robustness properties of this canonical reaction topology. Results Our simulation results provide convincing numerical evidence supporting the idea that a canonical reaction mechanism of the TLR4

  7. Application of the ex-Gaussian function to the effect of the word blindness suggestion on Stroop task performance suggests no word blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Andrew Parris


    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to apply the ex-Gaussian function to data reported by Parris et al. (2012 given its utility in studies involving the Stroop task. Parris et al. showed an effect of the word blindness suggestion when Response-Stimulus Interval (RSI was 500ms but not when it was 3500ms. Analysis revealed that: 1 The effect of the suggestion on interference is observed in µ, supporting converging evidence indicating the suggestion operates over response competition mechanisms; and, 2 Contrary to Parris et al., an effect of the suggestion was observed in µ when RSI was 3500ms. The reanalysis of the data from Parris et al. (2012 supports the utility of ex-Gaussian analysis in revealing effects that might otherwise be thought of as absent. We suggest that word reading itself is not suppressed by the suggestion but instead that response conflict is dealt with more effectively.

  8. Application of the ex-Gaussian function to the effect of the word blindness suggestion on Stroop task performance suggests no word blindness (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A.; Dienes, Zoltan; Hodgson, Timothy L.


    The aim of the present paper was to apply the ex-Gaussian function to data reported by Parris et al. (2012) given its utility in studies involving the Stroop task. Parris et al. showed an effect of the word blindness suggestion when Response-Stimulus Interval (RSI) was 500 ms but not when it was 3500 ms. Analysis revealed that: (1) The effect of the suggestion on interference is observed in μ, supporting converging evidence indicating the suggestion operates over response competition mechanisms; and, (2) Contrary to Parris et al. an effect of the suggestion was observed in μ when RSI was 3500 ms. The reanalysis of the data from Parris et al. (2012) supports the utility of ex-Gaussian analysis in revealing effects that might otherwise be thought of as absent. We suggest that word reading itself is not suppressed by the suggestion but instead that response conflict is dealt with more effectively. PMID:24065947

  9. Application of the ex-Gaussian function to the effect of the word blindness suggestion on Stroop task performance suggests no word blindness. (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan; Hodgson, Timothy L


    The aim of the present paper was to apply the ex-Gaussian function to data reported by Parris et al. (2012) given its utility in studies involving the Stroop task. Parris et al. showed an effect of the word blindness suggestion when Response-Stimulus Interval (RSI) was 500 ms but not when it was 3500 ms. Analysis revealed that: (1) The effect of the suggestion on interference is observed in μ, supporting converging evidence indicating the suggestion operates over response competition mechanisms; and, (2) Contrary to Parris et al. an effect of the suggestion was observed in μ when RSI was 3500 ms. The reanalysis of the data from Parris et al. (2012) supports the utility of ex-Gaussian analysis in revealing effects that might otherwise be thought of as absent. We suggest that word reading itself is not suppressed by the suggestion but instead that response conflict is dealt with more effectively.

  10. Metabolic signature of sun exposed skin suggests catabolic pathway overweighs anabolic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Randhawa

    Full Text Available Skin chronically exposed to sun results in phenotypic changes referred as photoaging. This aspect of aging has been studied extensively through genomic and proteomic tools. Metabolites, the end product are generated as a result of biochemical reactions are often studied as a culmination of complex interplay of gene and protein expression. In this study, we focused exclusively on the metabolome to study effects from sun-exposed and sun-protected skin sites from 25 human subjects. We generated a highly accurate metabolomic signature for the skin that is exposed to sun. Biochemical pathway analysis from this data set showed that sun-exposed skin resides under high oxidative stress and the chains of reactions to produce these metabolites are inclined toward catabolism rather than anabolism. These catabolic activities persuade the skin cells to generate metabolites through the salvage pathway instead of de novo synthesis pathways. Metabolomic profile suggests catabolic pathways and reactive oxygen species operate in a feed forward fashion to alter the biology of sun exposed skin.

  11. Biochemical genetic variation between four populations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system) to 0.093 in the Spekboom River population (Limpopo River system). The genetic distance, FST and NEM values, as well as pair-wise contingency c2 analyses indicate a lack of gene flow between populations, as expected for isolated fish. Evidence of foreign genetic material in one population was also observed.

  12. The Biochemical Prognostic Factors of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Won Lee


    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT are common in clinical practice. However, the clinical significance of SHT, including prognosis, has not been established. Further clarifying SHT will be critical in devising a management plan and treatment guidelines for SHT patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors of SHT.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of Korean patients who visited the endocrinology outpatient clinic of Severance Hospital from January 2008 to September 2012. Newly-diagnosed patients with SHT were selected and reviewed retrospectively. We compared two groups: the SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group.ResultsThe SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group had initial thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels that were significantly different (P=0.035. In subanalysis for subjects with TSH levels between 5 to 10 µIU/mL, the spontaneous improvement group showed significantly lower antithyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab titer than the SHT maintenance group (P=0.039. Regarding lipid profiles, only triglyceride level, unlike total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, was related to TSH level, which is correlated with the severity of SHT. Diffuse thyroiditis on ultrasonography only contributed to the severity of SHT, not to the prognosis. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and urine iodine excretion, generally regarded as possible prognostic factors, did not show any significant relation with the prognosis and severity of SHT.ConclusionOnly initial TSH level was a definite prognostic factor of SHT. TPO-Ab titer was also a helpful prognostic factor for SHT in cases with mildly elevated TSH. Other than TSH and TPO-Ab, we were unable to validate biochemical prognostic factors in this retrospective study for Korean SHT patients.

  13. A chemiluminescence biochemical oxygen demand measuring method. (United States)

    Nakamura, Hideaki; Abe, Yuta; Koizumi, Rui; Suzuki, Kyota; Mogi, Yotaro; Hirayama, Takumi; Karube, Isao


    A new chemiluminescence biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(CL)) determining method was studied by employing redox reaction between quinone and Baker's yeast. The measurement was carried out by utilizing luminol chemiluminescence (CL) reaction catalyzed by ferricyanide with oxidized quinone of menadione, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a batch-type luminometer. In this study, dimethyl sulfoxide was used as a solvent for menadione. After optimization of the measuring conditions, the CL response to hydrogen peroxide in the incubation mixture had a linear response between 0.1 and 100 microM H2O2 (r2=0.9999, 8 points, n=3, average of relative standard deviation; R.S.D.(av)=4.22%). Next, a practical relationship between the BOD(CL) response and the glucose glutamic acid concentration was obtained over a range of 11-220 mg O2 L(-1) (6 points, n=3, R.S.D.(av) 3.71%) with a detection limit of 5.5 mg O2 L(-1) when using a reaction mixture and incubating for only 5 min. Subsequently, the characterization of this method was studied. First, the BOD(CL) responses to 16 pure organic substances were examined. Second, the influences of chloride ions, artificial seawater, and heavy metal ions on the BOD(CL) response were investigated. Real sample measurements using river water were performed. Finally, BOD(CL) responses were obtained for at least 8 days when the S. cerevisiae suspension was stored at 4 degrees C (response reduction, 69.9%; R.S.D. for 5 testing days, 18.7%). BOD(CL) responses after 8 days and 24 days were decreased to 69.9% and 35.8%, respectively, from their original values (R.S.D. for 8 days involving 5 testing days, 18.7%).

  14. Modeling of some biochemical mechanisms of development of manganese hypermicroelementosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Goncharenko


    , muscles, liver and spleen. It was accompanied by increasing calcium content in liver, heart, muscle, kidneys and bones as well as by disorders of Ca/Mg ratios. MnCl2causes significant redistribution of the microelements in the rats’ organs. It is characterized by a decrease of copper, zinc and nickel contents in almost all studied tissues. The most antagonistic effect of manganese manifested in relation to nickel and copper in heart and spleen. A reduction of zinc content was most pronounced in spleen, while its contents in bones and kidneys almost don’t change. The study of the impact of manganese on biochemical parameters of membranes proved for the first time the malfunction of erythrocytes’ membranes. It results in increasing sorption capacity of the red blood cells glycocalyx to alcian blue. Using the erythrocyte model we established that manganese cations cause a significant increase in sorption capacity of the red blood cells (53.4 ± 1.8% and their osmotic fragility, as evidenced by an increase of spontaneous hemolysis to 42%. The other evidence is the change of surface properties (glycocalyx, which indicated by an increase in the sialic acid content by 60% as compared with the control. The obtained data of the model study of the dynamics of the sorption capacity of erythrocytes glycocalyx to alcian blue, osmotic resistance of erythrocytes, activation of lipid peroxidation and increased level of sialic acid may be a signal that the primary mechanism of manganese intoxication is a damage of cell (plasma membranes. The data obtained on a mitochondrial model suggests that MnCl2, acting as an antagonist of magnesium, has the ability to disturb respiration and oxidative phosphorylation that inhibits the energy metabolism of a cell. Mitochondrial oxidation of malate+glutamate was affected by MnCl2 in narrow range concentrations 3–4.5 mM that cause disengagement (3 mM and complete inhibition (4.5 mM. The effectiveness of manganese intoxicated rats treatment

  15. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan


    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  16. Expression and biochemical characterization of recombinant human epididymis protein 4. (United States)

    Hua, Ling; Liu, Yunhui; Zhen, Shuai; Wan, Deyou; Cao, Jiyue; Gao, Xin


    Whey acidic proteins (WAP) belong to a large gene family of antibacterial peptides that perform critical immune system functions. The function of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), a 124-amino acid long polypeptide that has two whey acidic protein four-disulfide core (WFDC) domains, is not well studied. Here, a fusion gene encoding the HE4 protein fused to an IgG1 Fc domain was constructed. The recombinant HE4 protein was expressed as a secretory protein in Pichia pastoris and mammalian HEK293-F cells and was subsequently purified. Our data suggested that the HE4 protein produced by these two expression systems bound to both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, but demonstrated slightly inhibitory activity towards the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, HE4 exhibited proteinase inhibitory activity towards trypsin, elastase, matrix metallopeptidase 9, and the secretory proteinases from Bacillus subtilis. The effects of glycosylation on the biochemical characterization of HE4 were also investigated. LC-ESI-MS glycosylation analysis showed that the high-mannose glycosylated form of HE4 expressed by P. pastoris has lower biological activity when compared to its complex-glycosylated form produced from HEK293-F cells. The implications of this are discussed, which may be provide theoretical basis for its important role in the development of cancer and innate immune system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Biochemical characterization of xylan xylosyltransferases involved in wood formation in poplar. (United States)

    Lee, Chanhui; Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua


    The major polysaccharides in dicot wood biomass are cellulose and xylan. Although wood-associated cellulose synthase genes responsible for cellulose biosynthesis have been characterized, wood-associated xylan synthase genes have not been biochemically identified. A recent report by Lee et al. (2012) provides the first biochemical evidence that two functionally non-redundant Arabidopsis GT43 members are xylosyltransferases (XylTs) that function cooperatively in the elongation of the xylan backbone. We further extend this finding in the current report demonstrating that two poplar (Populus trichocarpa) GT43 glycosyltransferases, PtrGT43B and PtrGT43C, are xylan XylTs involved in wood formation. We show that microsomes from transgenic tobacco BY2 cells coexpressing PtrGT43B and PtrGT43C exhibited a high XylT activity capable of generating β-(1,4)-linked xylooligosaccharides, whereas little XylT activity was detected in microsomes with expression of PtrGT43B or PtrGT43C alone. These findings indicate that poplar GT43 members are XylTs that act cooperatively in catalyzing the successive transfer of xylosyl residues during xylan backbone biosynthesis, which provides further support of the hypothesis that the biochemical functions of GT43 members in vascular plants are evolutionarily conserved.

  18. Red Blood Cell Susceptibility to Pneumolysin: CORRELATION WITH MEMBRANE BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. (United States)

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Petrov, Peter G; Khafaji, Mawya A; Mughal, Muhammad K; Naylor, Claire E; Shore, Angela C; Gooding, Kim M; Casanova, Francesco; Mitchell, Tim J; Titball, Richard W; Winlove, C Peter


    This study investigated the effect of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the plasma membrane as well as membrane morphology on the susceptibility of human red blood cells to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin, a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, using single cell studies. We show a correlation between the physical properties of the membrane (bending rigidity and surface and dipole electrostatic potentials) and the susceptibility of red blood cells to pneumolysin-induced hemolysis. We demonstrate that biochemical modifications of the membrane induced by oxidative stress, lipid scrambling, and artificial cell aging modulate the cell response to the toxin. We provide evidence that the diversity of response to pneumolysin in diabetic red blood cells correlates with levels of glycated hemoglobin and that the mechanical properties of the red blood cell plasma membrane are altered in diabetes. Finally, we show that diabetic red blood cells are more resistant to pneumolysin and the related toxin perfringolysin O relative to healthy red blood cells. Taken together, these studies indicate that the diversity of cell response to pneumolysin within a population of human red blood cells is influenced by the biophysical and biochemical status of the plasma membrane and the chemical and/or oxidative stress pre-history of the cell. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Immaterial Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov N. A.


    Full Text Available It is substantiated in the article that some of the objects which either could serve as instruments of a crime for criminal actions, or they were obtained through the commission of a crime, are immaterial objects, and they may be conditionally designated as evidence. The author relates to immaterial evidence physical fields, radiation, undocumented information, computer programs, property rights, intangible benefits, heat and electric power, and information processes.

  20. Physiological, biochemical, anthropometric, and biomechanical influences on exercise economy in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Montero, D; Gehrig, S


    Interindividual variation in running and cycling exercise economy (EE) remains unexplained although studied for more than a century. This study is the first to comprehensively evaluate the importance of biochemical, structural, physiological, anthropometric, and biomechanical influences on running...... were correlated (R2=.94; Pexercise, the biomechanical influence on EE would be small because of the fixed...... movement pattern. Differences in cycling and running exercise protocols, for example, related to biomechanics, play however only a secondary role in determining EE. There was no evidence for an impact of structural or functional skeletal muscle variables on EE. Body weight was the main determinant of EE...

  1. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana


    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  2. Biochemical markers for prediction of 4-year response in bone mass during bisphosphonate treatment for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Thompson, Desmond E; Ross, Philip D


    Short-term changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone markers) have been suggested as predictors of long-term response in bone mass during antiresorptive treatment. In the Danish cohort (n = 306) of the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) Study (n = 1609) of oral alendronate...

  3. Biochemical markers for prediction of 4-year response in bone mass during bisphosphonate treatment for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Thompson, Desmond E; Ross, Philip D


    Short-term changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone markers) have been suggested as predictors of long-term response in bone mass during antiresorptive treatment. In the Danish cohort (n = 306) of the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) Study (n = 1609) of oral alendronat...

  4. Biochemical mediator demand--a novel rapid alternative for measuring biochemical oxygen demand. (United States)

    Pasco, N; Baronian, K; Jeffries, C; Hay, J


    The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) test (BOD5) is a crucial environmental index for monitoring organic pollutants in waste water but is limited by the 5-day requirement for completing the test. We have optimised a rapid microbial technique for measuring the BOD of a standard BOD5 substrate (150 mg glucose/l, 150 mg glutamic acid/l) by quantifying an equivalent biochemical mediator demand in the absence of oxygen. Elevated concentrations of Escherichia coli were incubated with an excess of redox mediator, potassium hexacyanoferrate(III), and a known substrate for 1 h at 37 degrees C without oxygen. The addition of substrate increased the respiratory activity of the microorganisms and the accumulation of reduced mediator; the mediator was subsequently re-oxidised at a working electrode generating a current quantifiable by a coulometric transducer. Catabolic conversion efficiencies exceeding 75% were observed for the oxidation of the standard substrate. The inclusion of a mediator allowed a higher co-substrate concentration compared to oxygen and substantially reduced the incubation time from 5 days to 1 h. The technique replicates the traditional BOD5 method, except that a mediator is substituted for oxygen, and we aim to apply the principle to measure the BOD of real waste streams in future work.

  5. Role of rosemary leaves extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, G. S.; Goyal, P. K.


    The present paper is a study of the modulatory effect of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract on radiation-induced hematological and biochemical changes in Swiss albino mice.The dose reduction factor for the Rosemary extract against gamma rays was calculated 1.53 from LD 50/30 values. The Rosemary extract was administered orally for 5 consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. The hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed from day 1 to 30 post-irradiation intervals. The total erythrocyte count, total leucocytes count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values in the experimental group were found to be elevated as compared to the control group of mice. Furthermore, the Rosemary extract treatment enhanced reduced glutathione content in the liver and blood against radiation-induced depletion. Treatment with the plant extract brought a significant fall in the lipid peroxidation level, suggesting rosemary's role in protection against radiation-induced membrane and cellular damage. The results from the present study suggest a radio-protective effect of the Rosemary extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice. (author)

  6. Biochemical Markers of Physical Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Steen; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Waldemar, Gunhild


    BACKGROUND: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or mild cognitive impairment have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review...... is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to February 2015. We included intervention studies investigating the effect of physical exercise activity on biomarkers...... with controls. CONCLUSION: Although few studies suggest a beneficial effect on selected biomarkers, we need more knowledge of the biochemical effect of physical exercise in dementia or MCI....

  7. Biochemical mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field population of Dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muthusamy


    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance has been known to be prevalent in several insect species including mosquito. It has become a major problem in vector control programme due to pesticide resistance through detoxification enzymes. The present study investigated the toxicity of Ae. aegypti to organophosphates and pyrethroid insecticide and biochemical mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance in larval population. Larval bioassay revealed an LC50 value of 0.734 ppm for dichlorvos and 1.140 ppm for λ-cyhalothrin exposure. Biochemical assay revealed increased activity of AChE (0.3 µmole/mg protein and GST in dichlorvos (1-1.5 µmole/mg protein treatment and esterase activity in λ-cyhalothrin treated compared to control activity. These studies suggest that AChE and GST is associated with organophosphate and esterase associated with pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti.

  8. Restless legs syndrome in Parkinson's disease: clinical characteristics and biochemical correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Machado Guerreiro


    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological disorder that responds to dopaminergic drugs, indicating a common pathophysiology with Parkinson's disease (PD. The prevalence of RLS was estimated in a group of PD patients and its clinical and biochemical characteristics were analysed. Forty-eight patients with PD were evaluated into two groups, with and without RLS. Clinical characteristics assessed in both groups were age, gender, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr, and Schwab and England scales. Laboratory variables such as hemoglobin, s-iron, s-ferritin and creatinine were obtained. The prevalence of RLS was 18.75%. No significant differences regarding clinical variables and biochemical parameters were observed. The high prevalence of RLS found in PD patients suggests the concept of a common etiological link and it seems that secondary causes did not play a central role in the pathophysiology of RLS in this group of parkinsonian patients.

  9. Incorporating extrinsic noise into the stochastic simulation of biochemical reactions: A comparison of approaches (United States)

    Thanh, Vo Hong; Marchetti, Luca; Reali, Federico; Priami, Corrado


    The stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) has been widely used for simulating biochemical reaction networks. SSA is able to capture the inherently intrinsic noise of the biological system, which is due to the discreteness of species population and to the randomness of their reciprocal interactions. However, SSA does not consider other sources of heterogeneity in biochemical reaction systems, which are referred to as extrinsic noise. Here, we extend two simulation approaches, namely, the integration-based method and the rejection-based method, to take extrinsic noise into account by allowing the reaction propensities to vary in time and state dependent manner. For both methods, new efficient implementations are introduced and their efficiency and applicability to biological models are investigated. Our numerical results suggest that the rejection-based method performs better than the integration-based method when the extrinsic noise is considered.

  10. Biochemical survey for children of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Chiyoko


    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has conducted biochemical survey in children of A-bomb survivors, with the purpose of elucidating whether or not the rate of genetic mutation in genital cells is increased. This paper describes the previous surveys done at protein levels. Two kinds of indicators have been used: (1) 'rare mutation type' reflecting base substitution mutation, base deletion, and insertion; (2) 'mutation type' reflecting the decrease of red cell enzyme activity. According to the DS86 dosimetry system, the children population of A-bomb survivors were examined by dividing into the exposed group (n=11,364) of their parents exposed to 0.01 Sv or more and the control group (n=12,297) of those exposed to less than 0.01 Sv. 'Rare mutation type' was detected using electrophoresis in a total of 1,233 children in both groups. Of these children, 2 in the exposed group and 4 in the control group had a new 'mutation', i.e., mutation that was considered to have occurred in genital cells of their parents. Survey for genetic foci has revealed mutation in 2 children in the exposed group and 4 children in the control group, with the rate of mutation being 0.37 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation and 0.68 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation, respectively. Mutation type reflecting the decrease in red cell enzyme activity was seen in 26 in the exposed group and 21 in the control group. A total of 41 children were found to have been inherited from their parents. In the survey for genetic foci, only one had mutation in the exposed group, with the rate of mutation being 1.7 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation. These findings have revealed no evidence of significant difference in the rate of mutation between the exposed and control groups. Finally, the future genetic surveys at molecular levels are briefly discussed. (N.K.)

  11. Precise synaptic efficacy alignment suggests potentiation dominated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eHartmann


    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses.To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar in the morning than they are after sleep depriviation.In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with

  12. Congenital spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia. Morphological and biochemical examination of skeletal tissue in an unusual case of this disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engfeldt, B.; Hjerpe, A.; Reinholt, F.P.; Wikstroem, B.; Bolme, P.; Ekloef, O.


    This report deals with an unusual case of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, where the diagnosis was suspected clinically and radiologically and where cartilage and osseocartilaginous specimens were taken for ultrastructural and biochemical analyses. Unlike cases described previously the electron microscopic studies of chondrocytes showed vacuolization of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. These vacuoles contained an amorphous substance, and the picture is suggestive of a metabolic disturbance. The results of the biochemical analyses were within the normal range and did not indicate storage of glycosaminoglycans in the tissue. (orig.)

  13. Biochemical investigation of cypermethrin toxicity in rabbits. (United States)

    Dahamna, S; Harzallah, D; Guemache, A; Sekfali, N


    cypermethrin on the erythropoiesis. An increase of plasma enzyme activities in GOT, GPT and CPK were recorded, explain a high energy-generating product. An increase, in the plasma enzyme activity in Alkaline phosphatase, related to their role in the cell permeability. The histopathological results showed lesions and morphological changes of hepato-cellular, fibrosis and appearance of inflammatory infiltrate, confirmed disturbances of the biochemical parameters. These changes were much underlines during the animal toxicity.

  14. Influence of ARVs on Some Biochemical Changes in Liver Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of ARVs on Some Biochemical Changes in Liver Non Enzymatic Markers of HIV Positive Patients Attending Specialist Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria. MG Abubakar, MM Abduljalil, G Bola-Alaka, YI Nasiru ...

  15. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.


    This paper describes the results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to the biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, the full experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experi...

  16. Polycystic ovaries and associated clinical and biochemical features ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric measurement, clinical examination of acne and hirsutism, vaginal ultrasonography for PCO and biochemical analysis of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone were performed. All 102 ... Doctors should investigate their clients for PCOS and offer appropriate treatment.

  17. Behavioural and biochemical responses of juvenile catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavioural and biochemical responses of juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to graded concentrations of cassava waste water. Chinweike Norman ASOGWA, Francis O EZENWAJIAKU, Chidinma Adanna, OKOLO, Felicia Nkechi EKEH, Daniel Don NWIBO, Christian Onyeka CHUKWUKA ...

  18. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzullo, Leslie [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)


    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  19. Haematological and serum biochemical profiles of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MOLM) on the haematological and serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens. Fresh Moringa leaves (FML) were shade-dried for four days and milled into meal. A total of two hundred broilers unsexed chickens (Anak strain) were randomly ...

  20. Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of penaeid prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of females belonging to four species of penaeid prawns, viz. Metapenaeus affinis, M. dobsoni, Penaeus merguiensis and Parapenaeopsis stylifera, inhabiting the coastal waters of Goa, India, was estimated...

  1. Biochemical and hematological profile of different breeds of goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and hematological profile of different breeds of goat maintained under intensive production system. Samira Ahmed Mohammed, Mohammed Abdur Razzaque, Anaam E. Omar, Sheeba Albert, Waleed M. Al-Gallaf ...

  2. Modulation of key biochemical markers relevant to stroke by Antiaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of key biochemical markers relevant to stroke by Antiaris africana leaf extract following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Omotayo B. Ilesanmi, Afolabi C. Akinmoladun, Olanrewaju Sam Olayeriju, Ibrahim Olabayode Saliu, M. Tolulope Olaleye, Afolabi A. Akindahunsi ...

  3. Correlation of hematological and biochemical parameters to severity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome is a recognized emerging disease and rapidly established itself throughout the world. Hematological and biochemical abnormalities are common findings in patients with HIV infection. These includes anemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, pancytopenia, altered liver ...

  4. Productivity and biochemical composition of Tetradesmus obliquus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buono, Silvia; Colucci, Antonella; Angelini, Antonella; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Massa, Marina; Martello, Anna; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Dibenedetto, Angela


    The present work evaluated biomass productivity, carbon dioxide fixation rate, and biochemical composition of two microalgal species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyta) and Tetradesmus obliquus (Chlorophyta), cultivated indoors in high-technology photobioreactors (HT-PBR) and outdoors

  5. Psoriatic arthritis: An assessment of clinical, biochemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , epidemiological, clinical and radiological studies of South African (SA) patients are scarce. Objectives. To assess clinical, biochemical and radiological features in a single-centre SA cohort. Methods. We conducted a prospective assessment ...

  6. Biochemical profile of cuttings used for in vitro organogenesis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical profile of cuttings used for in vitro organogenesis of Prunus africana: An endangered species in Cameroon. JG Nzweundji, N Niemenak, O Oumar, JJ Tsafack, K Konan, L Nyochembeng, C Noumi, DT Nehemie, DO Ndoumou ...

  7. A Simple Approach to Study Designs in Complex Biochemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somdatta Sinha

    Protein sequences. • Biochemical & Genetic information. REVERSE ENGINEERING. LARGE NETWORKS. FORWARD ENGINEERING. All designs that are not physically forbidden are realizable, but not all realizable designs are functionally effective. (in relation to context and constraints of the system and environment).

  8. Biochemical markers of mineral bone disorder in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Secondary hyperparathyroidism and 25–OH vitamin D deficiency were common in our haemodialysis patients. Hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia were strong predictors for developing secondary hyperparathyroidism. Keywords: Biochemical markers, guidelines, mineral bone disorder, haemodialysis ...

  9. Biochemical constituents of seaweeds along the Maharashtra coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Protein, carbohydrate and organic carbon were estimated in 43 marine algal species from different stations along the Maharashtra Coast in India These species showed variation in their biochemical contents Protein varied from 10 to 33% Chlorophyceae...

  10. Seasonal changes in biochemical composition of Holothuria leucospilota (Echinodermata)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayasree, V.; Parulekar, A.H.; Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Biochemical composition of body wall and gonads of Holothuria leucospilota was analysed for protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, dry weight and calorific values and was discussed in relation to its spawning activities. Lipids constituted the major...

  11. A new dynamical layout algorithm for complex biochemical reaction networks


    Kummer Ursula; Wegner Katja


    Abstract Background To study complex biochemical reaction networks in living cells researchers more and more rely on databases and computational methods. In order to facilitate computational approaches, visualisation techniques are highly important. Biochemical reaction networks, e.g. metabolic pathways are often depicted as graphs and these graphs should be drawn dynamically to provide flexibility in the context of different data. Conventional layout algorithms are not sufficient for every k...



    Mehreen Khan


    Plants are well known to have certain primary and secondary metabolites collectively are known as biochemicals that plays an important role for human health as their medicinal properties. The aim of present study was to enhance and evaluate biochemical profile of Praecitrullus fistulosus by induced mutagenesis to cause genetic variations, plant leaves were treated with different chemical and physical mutagens. Colchicine and Ethidium bromide were used as chemical mutagens. While Ultraviolet (...

  13. Biochemical composition liquid medium for cultivation of Mycoplasma




    The article discusses the biochemical composition of nutrient media for cultivation of mycoplasmas isolated from animals. In liquid media for cultivation of mycoplasmas on the basis of tryptic digest of the heart of cattle with serum albumin of cattle and horse blood, blood serum of cattle, broiler chickens, horses and the environment were identified as Edward biochemical parameters: total protein and its fractions, cholesterol, triglycerides, amino nitrogen, grain size distribution of lipopr...

  14. Physiological, molecular and ultrastructural analyses during ripening and over-ripening of banana (Musa spp., AAA group, Cavendish sub-group) fruit suggest characteristics of programmed cell death. (United States)

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Maricruz; Huber, Donald J; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Kelley, Karen


    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a part of plant development that has been studied for petal senescence and vegetative tissue but has not been thoroughly investigated for fleshy fruits. The purpose of this research was to examine ripening and over-ripening in banana fruit to determine if there were processes in common to previously described PCD. Loss of cellular integrity (over 40%) and development of senescence related dark spot (SRDS) occurred after day 8 in banana peel. Nuclease and protease activity in the peel increased during ripening starting from day 2, and decreased during over-ripening. The highest activity was for proteases and nucleases with apparent molecular weights of 86 kDa and 27 kDa, respectively. Images of SRDS showed shrinkage of the upper layers of cells, visually suggesting cell death. Decrease of electron dense areas was evident in TEM micrographs of nuclei. This study shows for the first time that ripening and over-ripening of banana peel share physiological and molecular processes previously described in plant PCD. SRDS could represent a morphotype of PCD that characterizes a structural and biochemical failure in the upper layers of the peel, thereafter spreading to lower and adjacent layers of cells. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Soya bean Gα proteins with distinct biochemical properties exhibit differential ability to complement Saccharomyces cerevisiae gpa1 mutant. (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Wang, Yuqi; Pandey, Sona


    Signalling pathways mediated by heterotrimeric G-proteins are common to all eukaryotes. Plants have a limited number of each of the G-protein subunits, with the most elaborate G-protein network discovered so far in soya bean (Glycine max, also known as soybean) which has four Gα, four Gβ and ten Gγ proteins. Biochemical characterization of Gα proteins from plants suggests significant variation in their properties compared with the well-characterized non-plant proteins. Furthermore, the four soya bean Gα (GmGα) proteins exhibit distinct biochemical activities among themselves, but the extent to which such biochemical differences contribute to their in vivo function is also not known. We used the yeast gpa1 mutant which displays constitutive signalling and growth arrest in the pheromone-response pathway as an in vivo model to evaluate the effect of distinct biochemical activities of GmGα proteins. We showed that specific GmGα proteins can be activated during pheromone-dependent receptor-mediated signalling in yeast and they display different strengths towards complementation of yeast gpa1 phenotypes. We also identified amino acids that are responsible for differential complementation abilities of specific Gα proteins. These data establish that specific plant Gα proteins are functional in the receptor-mediated pheromone-response pathway in yeast and that the subtle biochemical differences in their activity are physiologically relevant.

  16. On the Effects of Suggested Prices in Gasoline Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)


    textabstractThis article analyzes the role of suggested prices in the Dutch retail market for gasoline. Suggested prices are announced by large oil companies with the suggestion that retailers follow them. There are at least two competing rationales for the existence of suggested prices: they may

  17. Biochemical deficiency of pyridoxine does not affect interleukin-2 production of lymphocytes from patients with Sjögren's syndrome. (United States)

    Tovar, A R; Gómez, E; Bourges, H; Ortíz, V; Kraus, A; Torres, N


    There is evidence that pyridoxine deficiency may alter the immune response. It is not known whether a deficiency of this vitamin is evident in subjects with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We studied whether subjects with primary SS showed a biochemical deficiency of pyridoxine, and if it is associated with abnormal production of interleukin-2 from lymphocytes stimulated in vitro with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Two studies were conducted, (i) biochemical and nutritional assessments were performed in a cross-over study in subjects with primary SS, who were supplemented with 25 mg/day of pyridoxine or placebo for 3 months. After 1 month washout, they were supplemented for 3 months with placebo, (ii) patients with SS and matched controls received pyridoxine or placebo for 45 days, and a blood sample was obtained to study IL-2 production and expression in T-lymphocytes stimulated with PHA. Subjects with primary SS showed limited dietary intake of pyridoxine and biochemical deficiency of this vitamin assessed through the activation coefficient of the erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase. The biochemical deficiency did not affect production nor mRNA expression of IL-2 from T-lymphocytes stimulated in vitro with PHA compared with the control group. Supplementation of subjects with primary SS with 25 mg/day with pyridoxine for 45 days did not produce any significant change as compared to those patients supplemented with placebo. Subjects with primary SS showed biochemical deficiency of pyridoxine, possibly due to limited intake of this vitamin which was corrected by supplementation with pyridoxine. However, IL-2 production and mRNA expression from stimulated lymphocytes were unaffected by supplementation, probably because the deficiency was not severe enough to affect the immune system. This work was supported by the National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT), Mexico, grant no. 212226-5-0902PM.

  18. Performance, immunity, serum biochemical and hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... results suggest that supplementing broilers' diet with 5 g/kg thyme can indicate favorable influences of antibiotic growth promoter on performance without any detrimental impacts on immune responses and blood parameters. Key words: Broiler, thyme, growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry, hematology.

  19. Biochemical, nutritional and haematological implications of Telfairia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 16, 2007 ... Results of the study suggest that inclusion levels of about 15% TOLM in broiler starter diets may be nutritionally ... of the amino acids in plant leaves is also accomplished with other ..... Relative weight (gkg-1 body weight) of chest and thigh muscles of broiler starter chicks fed TOLM-based diets. Diets. 1. 2. 3.

  20. Antidepressant effect of Valeriana wallichii patchouli alcohol chemotype in mice: Behavioural and biochemical evidence. (United States)

    Sah, Sangeeta Pilkhwal; Mathela, Chandra S; Chopra, Kanwaljit


    Valeriana wallichii DC, an ayurvedic traditional medicine has now been shown to exist chemically as three distinct chemotypes. The study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect of dichloromethane extract of Valeriana wallichii patchouli alcohol chemotype. Antidepressant effect of dichloromethane extract of Valeriana wallichii (10, 20 and 40mg/kg, p.o.) using forced swim test, was determined in both acute and chronic study. The neurotransmitter levels were estimated in mouse forebrain after two weeks of dosing. Single administration of extract (40mg/kg) significantly inhibited the immobility period in mice (p<0.05). Similarly, chronic administration of extract (20 and 40mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility period and significantly increased the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in mouse forebrain (p<0.05). The extract demonstrated antidepressant effect and significantly increased the norepinephrine and dopamine levels in forebrain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biochemical trade-offs: evidence for ecologically linked secondary metabolism of the sponge Oscarella balibaloi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijana Ivanisevic

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolite production is assumed to be costly and therefore the resource allocation to their production should be optimized with respect to primary biological functions such as growth or reproduction. Sponges are known to produce a great diversity of secondary metabolites with powerful biological activities that may explain their domination in some hard substrate communities both in terms of diversity and biomass. Oscarella balibaloi (Homoscleromorpha is a recently described, highly dynamic species, which often overgrows other sessile marine invertebrates. Bioactivity measurements (standardized Microtox assay and metabolic fingerprints were used as indicators of the baseline variations of the O. balibaloi secondary metabolism, and related to the sponge reproductive effort over two years. The bioactivity showed a significant seasonal variation with the lowest values at the end of spring and in early summer followed by the highest bioactivity in the late summer and autumn. An effect of the seawater temperature was detected, with a significantly higher bioactivity in warm conditions. There was also a tendency of a higher bioactivity when O. balibaloi was found overgrowing other sponge species. Metabolic fingerprints revealed the existence of three principal metabolic phenotypes: phenotype 1 exhibited by a majority of low bioactive, female individuals, whereas phenotypes 2 and 3 correspond to a majority of highly bioactive, non-reproductive individuals. The bioactivity was negatively correlated to the reproductive effort, minimal bioactivities coinciding with the period of embryogenesis and larval development. Our results fit the Optimal Defense Theory with an investment in the reproduction mainly shaping the secondary metabolism variability, and a less pronounced influence of other biotic (species interaction and abiotic (temperature factors.

  2. Metabolic syndrome, endocrine disruptors and prostate cancer associations: biochemical and pathophysiological evidences (United States)

    Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Rossetti, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; Di Palo, Rossella; Lamantia, Elvira; Castaldo, Luigi; Nocerino, Flavia; Ametrano, Gianluca; Cappuccio, Francesca; Malzone, Gabriella; Montanari, Micaela; Vanacore, Daniela; Romano, Francesco Jacopo; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Iovane, Gelsomina; Pepe, Maria Filomena; Berretta, Massimiliano; D'Aniello, Carmine; Perdonà, Sisto; Muto, Paolo; Botti, Gerardo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; De Falco, Francesco; Maiolino, Piera; Caraglia, Michele; Montella, Maurizio; Iaffaioli, Rosario Vincenzo; Facchini, Gaetano


    This review summarizes the main pathophysiological basis of the relationship between metabolic syndrome, endocrine disruptor exposure and prostate cancer that is the most common cancer among men in industrialized countries. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and hormonal factors having a central role in the initiation and recurrence of many western chronic diseases including hormonal-related cancers and it is considered as the worlds leading health problem in the coming years. Many biological factors correlate metabolic syndrome to prostate cancer and this review is aimed to focus, principally, on growth factors, cytokines, adipokines, central obesity, endocrine abnormalities and exposure to specific endocrine disruptors, a cluster of chemicals, to which we are daily exposed, with a hormone-like structure influencing oncogenes, tumor suppressors and proteins with a key role in metabolism, cell survival and chemo-resistance of prostate cancer cells. Finally, this review will analyze, from a molecular point of view, how specific foods could reduce the relative risk of incidence and recurrence of prostate cancer or inhibit the biological effects of endocrine disruptors on prostate cancer cells. On the basis of these considerations, prostate cancer remains a great health problem in terms of incidence and prevalence and interventional studies based on the treatment of metabolic syndrome in cancer patients, minimizing exposure to endocrine disruptors, could be a key point in the overall management of this disease. PMID:28389628

  3. The renoprotective activity of hesperetin in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats: Molecular and biochemical evidence. (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Dahiya, Vicky; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Lahkar, Mangala


    Nephrotoxicity remain a major life-threatening complication in cancer patients on cisplatin chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the protective effect and possible cellular mechanism of the hesperetin, a naturally-occurring bioflavonoid against cisplatin-induced renal injury in rats. Hesperetin was administered at a dose of 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg orally for 10days and cisplatin (7.5mg/kg, ip) was administered on the 5th day of experiment. Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity was evidenced by alteration in the level of markers such as blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum albumin and severe histopathological changes in kidney. Cisplatin administration also resulted in significant increase in the tissue oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. The level of antioxidants enzymes were decreased significantly in the cisplatin administered rats. Hesperetin treatment (50mg/kg and 100mg/kg) normalized the renal function by attenuation of the cisplatin-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines and histopathological alterations. On the basis of these experimental findings our present study postulate that co-administration of hesperetin with cisplatin chemotherapy may be promising preventive approach to limit the major mortal side effect of cisplatin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochemical evidence that L-glutamate is a neurotransmitter of primary vagal afferent nerve fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrone, M.H.


    To determine in rat if vagal afferent fibers projecting into the intermediate one third of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the site of termination of baroafferents, utilize glutamate as a neurotransmitter, the high-affinity uptake of [ 3 H]L-glutamate and content of glutamate were analyzed in micropunches of rat brain stem. The intermediate NTS contains a high-affinity synaptosomal uptake system for [ 3 H]L-glutamate that is greater in capacity than that in areas adjacent to the NTS; it is almost two-fold higher than uptake in medial septum and nucleus accumbens and equal to that of hippocampal regions purportedly containing a rich glutamatergic innervation. Unilateral ablation of the nodose ganglion (i.e. cells of origin of vagal afferents) resulted, within 24 h in a prolonged significant reduction, to 56% of control, of [ 3 H]L-glutamate uptake, bilaterally in the NTS. The reduction of Na + -dependent synaptosomal uptake of [ 3 H]L-glutamate, resulted from a decrease in Vsub(max) without change in the Ksub(m) of the process, was anatomically restricted to the intermediate NTS, and was not associated with changes in [ 3 H]GABA uptake. The content of glutamate in the NTS was significantly (P < 0.01) decreased by 30% 7 days following unilateral extirpation of the nodose ganglion without changes in the concentrations of aspartate, glycine, glutamine, or GABA. A population of vagal afferent fibers projecting to NTS are glutamatergic. The results are consistent with the hypothesis obtained by physiological and pharmacological techniques that glutamate is a neurotransmitter of baroafferents. (Auth.)

  5. Cycloid psychoses in the psychosis spectrum: Evidence for biochemical differences with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, N.W.A. van de; Fekkes, D.; Heijden, F.M.M.A. van der; Hoogendijk, W.J.G.; Stöber, G.; Egger, J.I.M.; Verhoeven, W.M.A.


    Cycloid psychoses (CP) differ from schizophrenia regarding symptom profile, course, and prognosis and over many decades they were thought to be a separate entity within the psychosis spectrum. As to schizophrenia, research into the pathophysiology has focused on dopamine, brain-derived neurotrophic

  6. Biochemical alterations in inflammatory reactive chondrocytes: evidence for intercellular network communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Skiöldebrand


    Full Text Available Chondrocytes are effectively involved in the pathophysiological processes of inflammation in joints. They form cellular processes in the superficial layer of the articular cartilage and form gap junction coupled syncytium to facilitate cell-to-cell communication. However, very little is known about their physiological cellular identity and communication. The aim with the present work is to evaluate the physiological behavior after stimulation with the inflammatory inducers interleukin-1β and lipopolysaccharide. The cytoskeleton integrity and intracellular Ca2+ release were assessed as indicators of inflammatory state. Cytoskeleton integrity was analyzed through cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and actin labeling with an Alexa 488-conjugated phalloidin probe. Ca2+ responses were assessed through the Ca2+ sensitive fluorophore Fura-2/AM. Western blot analyses of several inflammatory markers were performed. The results show reorganization of the actin filaments. Glutamate, 5-hydoxytryptamine, and ATP evoked intracellular Ca2+ release changed from single peaks to oscillations after inflammatory induction in the chondrocytes. The expression of toll-like receptor 4, the glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1, and the matrix metalloproteinase-13 increased. This work demonstrates that chondrocytes are a key part in conditions that lead to inflammation in the cartilage. The inflammatory inducers modulate the cytoskeleton, the Ca2+ signaling, and several inflammatory parameters. In conclusion, our data show that the cellular responses to inflammatory insults from healthy and inflammatory chondrocytes resemble those previously observed in astrocyte and cardiac fibroblasts networks.

  7. A method for integrating and ranking the evidence for biochemical pathways by mining reactions from text (United States)

    Miwa, Makoto; Ohta, Tomoko; Rak, Rafal; Rowley, Andrew; Kell, Douglas B.; Pyysalo, Sampo; Ananiadou, Sophia


    Motivation: To create, verify and maintain pathway models, curators must discover and assess knowledge distributed over the vast body of biological literature. Methods supporting these tasks must understand both the pathway model representations and the natural language in the literature. These methods should identify and order documents by relevance to any given pathway reaction. No existing system has addressed all aspects of this challenge. Method: We present novel methods for associating pathway model reactions with relevant publications. Our approach extracts the reactions directly from the models and then turns them into queries for three text mining-based MEDLINE literature search systems. These queries are executed, and the resulting documents are combined and ranked according to their relevance to the reactions of interest. We manually annotate document-reaction pairs with the relevance of the document to the reaction and use this annotation to study several ranking methods, using various heuristic and machine-learning approaches. Results: Our evaluation shows that the annotated document-reaction pairs can be used to create a rule-based document ranking system, and that machine learning can be used to rank documents by their relevance to pathway reactions. We find that a Support Vector Machine-based system outperforms several baselines and matches the performance of the rule-based system. The success of the query extraction and ranking methods are used to update our existing pathway search system, PathText. Availability: An online demonstration of PathText 2 and the annotated corpus are available for research purposes at Contact: Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23813008

  8. Effects of chronic low-dose cadmium exposure on selected biochemical and antioxidant parameters in rats. (United States)

    Lovásová, Eva; Rácz, Oliver; Cimboláková, Iveta; Nováková, Jaroslava; Dombrovský, Peter; Ništiar, František


    The effects of long-term (1 yr) exposure to low doses of cadmium (Cd) dissolved in drinking water on selected biochemical and antioxidant parameters were studied in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups: male control group (C-m), female control group (C-f), male Cd-exposed group (Cd-m), and female Cd-exposed group (Cd-f). Cd groups were exposed to Cd dissolved in drinking water (cadmium dichloride 4.8 mg CdCl2/L, i.e., 2.5 mg Cd/L, 500-fold of maximal allowable concentration for potable water). The experiment was terminated on d 370. In all groups, biochemical parameters (total protein [TP], albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, urea, and creatinine) and antioxidant parameters (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity) were measured in the blood. Total protein and albumin concentrations were decreased significantly in the Cd-m group. Other biochemical parameters did not change in Cd groups compared to control groups. Superoxide dismutase fell significantly in both male and female Cd-exposed groups. Activity of glutathione peroxidase was markedly lower in Cd-exposed groups. Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly in Cd-f group. These results suggest that chronic low-dose oral Cd exposure induces oxidative stress.

  9. Clinical, hemato-biochemical alterations and oxidant–antioxidant biomarkers in Babesia-infected calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Y. Salem


    Full Text Available Babesia is one of the main causes of anemia in cattle, a lot of elucidations have been suggested to explain its pathogenesis. This study was designed to investigate clinical, hemato-biochemical and oxidant/antioxidant status and its relation with the resultant anemia in Babesia-infected calves. Seventeen (17 native breed calves were involved in this study, clinical signs and microscopic findings were recorded, also blood samples were taken to investigate hematologic changes, serum biochemical variations and oxidative stress biomarkers. The most commonly observed clinical signs were fever, emaciation, depression, icterus and hemoglobinuria. Significant reduction in PCV, HB, RBCs, MCHC, Total protein, and albumin along with significant increase in MCV, WBCs, monocytes and BUN were the most consistent hemato-biochemical changes. Oxidant/antioxidant and trace mineral assessment showed significant reduction in Superoxide dismutase “SOD”, Glutathione peroxidase “GPx”, Zn, Cu along with significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA activities. In the current investigation, oxidant/antioxidant imbalance along with the synchronized alterations in antioxidant trace minerals was detected in Babesia-infected calves. These findings support notion that Babesia infection associated with oxidative stress and this process may be linked to the resultant anemia.

  10. Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students. (United States)

    Alganami, Fatimah; Varese, Filippo; Wagstaff, Graham F; Bentall, Richard P


    Auditory hallucinations are associated with signal detection biases. We examine the extent to which suggestions influence performance on a signal detection task (SDT) in highly hallucination-prone and low hallucination-prone students. We also explore the relationship between trait suggestibility, dissociation and hallucination proneness. In two experiments, students completed on-line measures of hallucination proneness (the revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale; LSHS-R), trait suggestibility (Inventory of Suggestibility) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-II). Students in the upper and lower tertiles of the LSHS-R performed an auditory SDT. Prior to the task, suggestions were made pertaining to the number of expected targets (Experiment 1, N = 60: high vs. low suggestions; Experiment 2, N = 62, no suggestion vs. high suggestion vs. no voice suggestion). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that trait suggestibility and dissociation predicted hallucination proneness. Highly hallucination-prone students showed a higher SDT bias in both studies. In Experiment 1, both bias scores were significantly affected by suggestions to the same degree. In Experiment 2, highly hallucination-prone students were more reactive to the high suggestion condition than the controls. Suggestions may affect source-monitoring judgments, and this effect may be greater in those who have a predisposition towards hallucinatory experiences.

  11. Salvage radiotherapy for biochemical relapse after complete PSA response following radical prostatectomy: outcome and prognostic factors for patients who have never received hormonal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaes Paulo ERS


    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the results of salvage conformal radiation therapy (3DC-EBRT for patients submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP who have achieved complete PSA response and who have never been treated with hormonal therapy (HT. To present the results of biochemical control, a period free from hormonal therapy and factors related to its prognosis. Materials and methods from August 2002 to December 2004, 43 prostate cancer patients submitted to RP presented biochemical failure after achieving a PSA Results 3-year biochemical non-evidence of disease (BNED was 71%. PSA doubling time lower than 4 months (p = 0.01 and time from recurrence to salvage EBRT (p = 0.04 were associated with worse chance of biochemical control. Biochemical control of 76% was achieved when RT had been introduced with a PSA lower than 1 ng/ml vs. 48% with a PSA higher than 1 (p = 0.19. Late toxicity was acceptable. Conclusion 70% of biochemical control in 3 years can be achieved with salvage radiotherapy in selected patients. The importance of PSADT was confirmed in this study and radiotherapy should be started as early as possible. Longer follow up is necessary, but it is possible to conclude that a long interval free from hormonal therapy was achieved with low rate of toxicity avoiding or at least delaying several important adverse effects related to hormonal treatment.

  12. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints. (United States)


    ... suggestions or complaints with regard to its administration of the Privacy Act. Many requesters will receive pre-paid, customer satisfaction survey cards. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify the...

  13. Economic evaluation of diagnostic localization following biochemical prostate cancer recurrence. (United States)

    Barocas, Daniel A; Bensink, Mark E; Berry, Kristin; Musa, Zahra; Bodnar, Carolyn; Dann, Robert; Ramsey, Scott D


    The aim of this study was to assess potential cost-effectiveness of using a prostate cancer specific functional imaging technology capable of identifying residual localized disease versus small volume metastatic disease for asymptomatic men with low but detectable prostate specific antigen (PSA) elevation following radical prostatectomy. Markov modeling was used to estimate the incremental impact on healthcare system costs (2012 USD) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of two alternative strategies: (i) using the new diagnostic to guide therapy versus (ii) current usual care-using a combination of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and bone scan to guide therapy. Costs were based on estimates from literature and Medicare reimbursement. Prostate cancer progression, survival, utilities, and background risk of all-cause mortality were obtained from literature. Base-case diagnostic sensitivity (75 percent), specificity (90 percent), and cost (USD 2,500) were provided by our industry partner GE Healthcare. The new diagnostic strategy provided an average gain of 1.83 (95 percent uncertainty interval [UI]: 1.24-2.64) QALYs with added costs of USD 15,595 (95 percent UI: USD -6,330-44,402) over 35 years. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was USD 8,516/QALY (95 percent UI: USD -2,947-22,372). RESULTS were most influenced by the utility discounting rate and test performance characteristics; however, the new diagnostic provided clinical benefits over a wide range of sensitivity and specificity. This analysis suggests a diagnostic technology capable of identifying whether men with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy have localized versus metastatic disease would be a cost-effective alternative to current standard work-up. The results support additional investment in development and validation of such a diagnostic.

  14. Clinical and biochemical polymorphism of spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Sokolova


    Full Text Available Objective: to conduct clinical laboratory studies of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA for the clarification of the pathogenetic features and role of neurotrophic factors in the formation of polymorphism of this diseasePatients and methods. Thirty-five patients aged 9 months to 53 years (mean age, 14.5 years with different inherited forms of SMA were examined. Clinical, genealogical, and laboratory tests were carried out. A control group consisted of 40 healthy individuals aged 7–45 years (mean age, 16.5 years. The levels of neurotrophins, such as brain-derived growth factor (BDGF, nerve growth factor (NGF, and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF in serum samples were determined by enzyme immunoassay.Results. Changes in the expression of the neurotrophic factors were found in patients with SMA. The enzyme immunoassay data suggest that the serum concentrations of BDGF, NGF, and CNTF in patients with SMA were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. The group of SMA patients aged under 18 years showed a statistically significant (p<0.001 increase in NGF concentrations (3680±936 ng/ml versus the control group of the same age (625±444 pg/ml.Conclusion. In our opinion, the clinical polymorphism of SMA can be explained by the polymorphism of various pathogenic factors: genetic, morphofunctional, and biochemical ones. Overexpression of neurotrophins was first noticed to play a role in the development of more severe clinical types of SMA (proximal SMA, which may be related to both the ontogenetic features of children's age and disease duration. The study results can be further used to choose pathogenetic personalized therapy for SMA.

  15. Biomechanical and biochemical outcomes of porcine temporomandibular joint disc deformation. (United States)

    Matuska, Andrea M; Muller, Stephen; Dolwick, M Franklin; McFetridge, Peter S


    The structure-function relationship in the healthy temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc has been well established, however the changes in dysfunctional joints has yet to be systematically evaluated. Due to the poor understanding of the etiology of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) this study evaluated naturally occurring degenerative remodeling in aged female porcine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) discs in order to gain insight into the progression and effects on possible treatment strategies of TMDs. Surface and regional biomechanical and biochemical properties of discal tissues were determined in grossly deformed (≥Wilkes Stage 3) and morphologically normal (≤Wilkes Stage 2) TMJ discs. Compared to normal disc structure the deformed discs lacked a smooth biconcave shape and characteristic ECM organization. Reduction in tensile biomechanical integrity and increased compressive stiffness and cellularity was found in deformed discs. Regionally, the posterior and intermediate zones of the disc were most frequently affected along with the inferior surface. The frequency of degeneration observed on the inferior surface of the disc (predominantly posterior), suggests that a disruption in the disc-condyle relationship likely contributes to the progression of joint dysfunction more than the temporodiscal relationship. As such, the inferior joint space may be an important consideration in early clinical diagnosis and treatment of TMDs, as it is overlooked in techniques performed in the upper joint space, including arthroscopy and arthrocentesis. Furthermore, permanent damage to the disc mechanical properties would limit the ability to successfully reposition deformed discs, highlighting the importance of emerging therapies such as tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic correlations in adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency. (United States)

    Race, V; Marie, S; Vincent, M F; Van den Berghe, G


    Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency (MIM 103050) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of purine synthesis characterized by the accumulation in body fluids of succinylaminoimidazolecarboxamide (SAICA) riboside and succinyladenosine (S-Ado), the dephosphorylated derivatives of the two substrates of the enzyme. Because ADSL-deficient patients display widely variable degrees of psychomotor retardation, we have expressed eight mutated ADSL enzymes as thioredoxin fusions and compared their properties with the clinical and biochemical characteristics of 10 patients. Three expressed mutated ADSL enzymes (M26L, R426H and T450S) were thermolabile, four (A2V, R141W, R303C and S395R) were thermostable and one (del206-218), was inactive. Thermolabile mutations decreased activities with SAICA ribotide (SAICAR) and adenylosuccinate (S-AMP) in parallel, or more with SAICAR than with S-AMP. Patients homozygous for one of these mutations, R426H, displayed similarly decreased ADSL activities in their fibroblasts, S-Ado:SAICA riboside ratios of approximately 1 in their cerebrospinal fluid and were profoundly retarded. With the exception of A2V, thermostable mutations decreased activity with S-AMP to a much more marked extent than with SAICAR. Two unrelated patients homozygous for one of the thermostable mutations, R303C, also displayed a much more marked decrease in the activity of fibroblast ADSL with S-AMP than with SAICAR, had S-Ado:SAICA riboside ratios between 3 and 4 in their cerebrospinal fluid and were mildly retarded. These results suggest that, in some cases, the genetic lesion of ADSL determines the ratio of its activities with S-AMP versus SAICAR, which in turn defines the S-Ado:SAICA riboside ratio and the patients' mental status.

  17. Biochemical characterization of the GM2 gangliosidosis B1 variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutor J.C.


    Full Text Available The deficiency of the A isoenzyme of ß-hexosaminidase (Hex produced by different mutations of the gene that codes for the alpha subunit (Tay-Sachs disease has two variants with enzymological differences: the B variant consists of the absence of Hex A isoenzyme and the B1 variant produces an inactive Hex A isoenzyme for the hydrolysis of the GM2 ganglioside and synthetic substrates with negative charge. In contrast to the early childhood form of the B variant, the B1 variant appears at a later clinical stage (3 to 7 years of age with neurodegenerative symptoms leading to the death of the patient in the second decade of life. The most frequent mutation responsible for the GM2 gangliosidosis B1 variant is R178H, which has a widespread geographic and ethnic distribution. The highest incidence has been described in Portugal, which has been suggested as the point of origin of this mutation. Biochemical characterization of this lysosomal disease is carried out using negatively charged synthetic alpha subunit-specific sulfated substrates, since Hex A isoenzyme heat-inactivation assays are not applicable. However, the determination of the apparent activation energy of Hex using the neutral substrate 3,3'-dichlorophenolsulfonphthaleinyl N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminide, may offer a valid alternative. The presence of an alpha subunit in the alphaß heterodimer Hex A means that its activation energy (41.8 kJ/mol is significantly lower than that of the ßß homodimer Hex B (75.1 kJ/mol; however, as mutation inactivates the alpha subunit, the Hex A of the B1 variant presents an activation energy that is similar to that of the Hex B isoenzyme.

  18. Isotopic and molecular distributions of biochemicals from fresh and buried Rhizophora mangle leaves†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Myrna E


    Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle L. (red mangrove is the dominant species of mangrove in the Americas. At Twin Cays, Belize (BZ red mangroves are present in a variety of stand structures (tall >5 m in height, transition ~2–4 m and dwarf ~1–1.5 m. These height differences are coupled with very different stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic values1 (mean tall δ13C = -28.3‰, δ15N = 0‰; mean tall δ13C = -25.3‰, δ15N = -10‰. To determine the utility of using these distinct isotopic compositions as 'biomarkers' for paleoenvironmental reconstruction of mangrove ecosystems and nutrient availability, we investigated the distribution and isotopic (δ13C and δ15N composition of different biochemical fractions (water soluble compounds, free lipids, acid hydrolysable compounds, individual amino acids, and the residual un-extractable compounds in fresh and preserved red mangrove leaves from dwarf and tall trees. The distribution of biochemicals are similar in dwarf and tall red mangrove leaves, suggesting that, regardless of stand structure, red mangroves use nutrients for biosynthesis and metabolism in a similar manner. However, the δ13C and δ15N of the bulk leaf, the biochemical fractions, and seven amino acids can be used to distinguish dwarf and tall trees at Twin Cays, BZ. The data support the theory that the fractionation of carbon and nitrogen occurs prior to or during uptake in dwarf and tall red mangrove trees. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes could, therefore, be powerful tools for predicting levels of nutrient limitation at Twin Cays. The δ13C and δ15N of biochemical fractions within preserved leaves, reflect sedimentary cycling and nitrogen immobilization. The δ15N of the immobilized fraction reveals the overlying stand structure at the time of leaf deposition. The isotopic composition of preserved mangrove leaves could yield significant information about changes in ecosystem dynamics, nutrient limitation and past stand structure in

  19. Cross-resistance of bisultap resistant strain of Nilaparvata lugens and its biochemical mechanism. (United States)

    Ling, Shanfeng; Zhang, Runjie


    The resistant (R) strain of the planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) selected for bisultap resistance displayed 7.7-fold resistance to bisultap and also had cross-resistance to nereistoxin (monosultap, thiocyclam, and cartap), chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, and malathion but no cross-resistance to buprofezin, imidacloprid, and fipronil. To find out the biochemical mechanism of resistance to bisultap, biochemical assay was done. The results showed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) activity in R strain was 2.71-fold that in susceptible strain (S strain), in which the changed activity for general esterase (EST) was 1.91 and for glutathione S-transferases only 1.32. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) could significantly inhibit P450 activity (percentage of inhibition [PI]: 37.31%) in the R strain, with ESTs PI = 16.04% by triphenyl phosphate (TPP). The results also demonstrated that diethyl maleate had no synergism with bisultap. However, PBO displayed significant synergism in three different strains, and the synergism increased with resistance (S strain 1.42, Lab strain, 2.24 and R strain, 3.23). TPP also showed synergism for three strains, especially in R strain (synergistic ratio = 2.47). An in vitro biochemical study and in vivo synergistic study indicated that P450 might be play important role in the biochemical mechanism of bisultap resistance and that esterase might be the important factor of bisultap resistance. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity play important role in bisultap resistance. We suggest that buprofezin, imidacloprid, and fipronil could be used in resistance management programs for N. lugens via alternation and rotation with bisultap.

  20. Determination of fecal contamination origin in reclaimed water open-air ponds using biochemical fingerprinting of enterococci and fecal coliforms. (United States)

    Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Blanch, Anicet R


    Low levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were recently detected in two reclaimed water open-air ponds used to irrigate a golf course located in Northeastern Spain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a biochemical fingerprinting method to track the origin of fecal contamination in water with low FIB levels, as in the aforementioned ponds. We also aimed to determine whether FIB presence was due to regrowth of the reclaimed water populations or to a contribution of fecal matter whose source was in the golf facility. Three hundred and fifty enterococcal strains and 308 fecal coliform strains were isolated from the ponds and reclamation plant, and they were biochemically phenotyped. In addition, the inactivation of several microbial fecal pollution indicators (fecal coliforms, total bifidobacteria, sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria, somatic bacteriophages, and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) was studied using a mesocosm in situ in order to obtain information about their decay rate. Although FIB concentration was low, the biochemical fingerprinting provided evidence that the origin of the fecal contamination in the ponds was not related to the reclaimed water. Biochemical fingerprinting thus proved to be a successful approach, since other microbial source-tracking methods perform poorly when dealing with low fecal load matrices. Furthermore, the mesocosm assays indicated that none of the microbial fecal indicators was able to regrow in the ponds. Finally, the study highlights the fact that reclaimed water may be recontaminated in open-air reservoirs, and therefore, its microbial quality should be monitored throughout its use.

  1. Evidence-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper


    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... meeting customer needs. We are suggesting that the effects of the use of a system should play a prominent role in the contractual definition of IT projects and that contract fulfilment should be determined on the basis of evidence of these effects. Based on two ongoing studies of home-care management...

  2. A possible biochemical missing link among archaebacteria (United States)

    Achenbach-Richter, Laurie; Woese, Carl R.; Stetter, Karl O.


    The characteristics of the newly discovered strain of archaebacteria, VC-16, the only archaebacterium known to reduce sulfate, suggest that VC-16 might represent a transitional form between an anaerobic thermophilic sulfur-based type of metabolism and methanogenesis. It is shown here, using a matrix of evolutionary distances derived from an alignment of various archaebacterial 16S rRNAs and the phylogenetic tree derived from these evolutionary distances, that the lineage represented by strain VC-16 arises from the archaebacterial tree precisely where such an interpretation would predict that it would, between the Methanococcus lineage and that of Thermococcus.

  3. Long-tern monitoring in the Netherlands suggests that lichens respond to global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herk, van C.M.; Aptroot, A.; Dobben, van H.F.


    There is evidence to suggest that part of the recent changes in the lichen flora of the Netherlands is attributable to an increase in temperature. Changes which have occurred over the last 22 years were studied in detail, and were subjected to a statistical treatment by comparing the change of

  4. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.


    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  5. Aniridia-associated cytogenetic rearrangements suggest that a position effect may cause the mutant phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fantes, J.; Redeker, B.; Breen, M.; Boyle, S.; Brown, J.; Fletcher, J.; Jones, S.; Bickmore, W.; Fukushima, Y.; Mannens, M.


    Current evidence suggests that aniridia (absence of iris) is caused by loss of function of one copy of the PAX6 gene, which maps to 11p13. We present the further characterisation of two aniridia pedigrees in which the disease segregates with chromosomal rearrangements which involve 11p13 but do not

  6. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Gregory J


    Column biooxidation tests with Kentucky coal confirmed results of earlier shake flask tests showing significant removal from the coal of arsenic, selenium, cobalt, manganese, nickel and cadmium. Rates of pyrite biooxidation in Kentucky coal were only slightly more than half the rates found previously for Indiana and Pittsburgh coals. Removal of pyrite from Pittsburgh coal by ferric ion oxidation slows markedly as ferrous ions accumulate in solution, requiring maintenance of high redox potentials in processes designed for removal of pyrite and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors by circulation of ferric solutions through coal. The pyrite oxidation rates obtained in these tests were used by Unifield Engineering to support the conceptual designs for alternative pyrite and HAP precursor bioleaching processes for the phase 2 pilot plant. Thermophilic microorganisms were tested to determine if mercury could be mobilized from coal under elevated growth temperatures. There was no evidence for mercury removal from coal under these conditions. However, the activity of the organisms may have liberated mercury physically. It is also possible that the organisms dissolved mercury and it readsorbed to the clay preferentially. Both of these possibilities are undergoing further testing. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) slurry column reactor was operated and several batches of feed coal, product coal, waste solids and leach solutions were submitted to LBL for HAP precursor analysis. Results to date indicate significant removal of mercury, arsenic and other HAP precursors in the combined physical-biological process.

  7. Autocatalytic sets in a partitioned biochemical network. (United States)

    Smith, Joshua I; Steel, Mike; Hordijk, Wim


    In previous work, RAF theory has been developed as a tool for making theoretical progress on the origin of life question, providing insight into the structure and occurrence of self-sustaining and collectively autocatalytic sets within catalytic polymer networks. We present here an extension in which there are two "independent" polymer sets, where catalysis occurs within and between the sets, but there are no reactions combining polymers from both sets. Such an extension reflects the interaction between nucleic acids and peptides observed in modern cells and proposed forms of early life. We present theoretical work and simulations which suggest that the occurrence of autocatalytic sets is robust to the partitioned structure of the network. We also show that autocatalytic sets remain likely even when the molecules in the system are not polymers, and a low level of inhibition is present. Finally, we present a kinetic extension which assigns a rate to each reaction in the system, and show that identifying autocatalytic sets within such a system is an NP-complete problem. Recent experimental work has challenged the necessity of an RNA world by suggesting that peptide-nucleic acid interactions occurred early in chemical evolution. The present work indicates that such a peptide-RNA world could support the spontaneous development of autocatalytic sets and is thus a feasible alternative worthy of investigation.

  8. Sucralose Induces Biochemical Responses in Daphnia magna (United States)

    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Gorokhova, Elena


    The intense artificial sweetener sucralose has no bioconcentration properties, and no adverse acute toxic effects have been observed in standard ecotoxicity tests, suggesting negligible environmental risk. However, significant feeding and behavioural alterations have been reported in non-standard tests using aquatic crustaceans, indicating possible sublethal effects. We hypothesized that these effects are related to alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and oxidative status in the exposed animals and investigated changes in AChE and oxidative biomarkers (oxygen radical absorbing capacity, ORAC, and lipid peroxidation, TBARS) in the crustacean Daphnia magna exposed to sucralose (0.0001–5 mg L−1). The sucralose concentration was a significant positive predictor for ORAC, TBARS and AChE in the daphnids. Moreover, the AChE response was linked to both oxidative biomarkers, with positive and negative relationships for TBARS and ORAC, respectively. These joint responses support our hypothesis and suggest that exposure to sucralose may induce neurological and oxidative mechanisms with potentially important consequences for animal behaviour and physiology. PMID:24699280

  9. Neurologic manifestations of diabetic comas: correlation with biochemical alterations in the brain. (United States)

    Guisado, R; Arieff, A I


    Coma and other neurologic abnormalities are present in patients with either diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or nonketotic coma (NKC), and the cause of such phenomena are not known. Patients with NKC also manifest seizures and focal neurologic changes. Treatment of diabetic coma with insulin may induce cerebral edema by as yet undefined mechanism(s). In patients with DKA, cerebral oxygen utilization is impaired, and there is hyperviscosity of the blood. A substantial part of the brain's energy source is derived from ketones, which in themselves can depress sensorium. Extracellular hyperosomolality is present, which may also contribute to the genesis of coma. In addition, most ketoacidotic patients have associated medical conditions, which may further impair consciousness. Biochemical changes in the brains of animals with DKA include impairment of both phosphofructokinase activity and pyruvate oxidation, and accumulation of citrate. The net effect upon sensorium in ketoacidotic patients probably represents the interaction of most of the above factors and differs markedly among individuals. Patients with NKC manifest not only depression of sensorium, but also focal motor seizures, hemiparesis, and other neurologic changes, such as aphasia, hypereflexia, sensory defects, autonomic changes, and brainstem dysfunction. Most of the aforementioned changes revert to normal after correction of hyperosomolality. Gamma amino butyric acid, which has been shown to elevate the seizure threshold, is normal in brains of ketoacidotic animals, but may be low in nonketotic coma. Also, hyperosomolality per se may produce seizures. Cerebral edema may complicate the treatment of either DKA or NKC. The available experimental evidence suggests that many of the commonly held theories for the production of such brain swelling probably do not occur. There is no breakdown of the sodium pump, sorbitol or fructose do not accumulate in brain, and brain glucose is only about 25 percent of that in

  10. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai


    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  11. Hematologic and plasma biochemical values of hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). (United States)

    Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Niemeyer, Claudia; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Nunes, Adauto L V; Rameh-de-Albuquerque, Luciana C; Sant'Anna, Sávio S; Catão-Dias, José L


    The hyacinth macaw (Anodorhyncus hyacinthinus), considered the largest psittacine bird species in the world, is an endangered species, with a remaining population of approximately 6500 birds in the wild. To establish hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges and to verify differences related to sex, samples from 29 hyacinth macaws (14 males, 15 females) were obtained from birds apprehended from illegal wildlife trade and subsequently housed at the Sorocaba Zoo, Brazil. No significant differences in hematologic or plasma biochemical values were found between females and males. Compared with published reference values, differences were found in mean concentrations of total red blood cell count, corpuscular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin level, total white blood cell count, aspartate aminotransferase level, creatine kinase concentration, alkaline phosphatase concentration, and phosphorus level. Baseline hematologic and plasma biochemical ranges were established, which may be useful as reference values for clinicians working with this endangered species in captivity or rehabilitation centers.

  12. Measurement of biochemical oxygen demand of the leachates. (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali


    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the leachates originally from the different types of landfill sites was studied based on the data measured using the two manometric methods. The measurements of BOD using the dilution method were carried out to assess the typical physicochemical and biological characteristics of the leachates together with some other parameters. The linear regression analysis was used to predict rate constants for biochemical reactions and ultimate BOD values of the different leachates. The rate of a biochemical reaction implicated in microbial biodegradation of pollutants depends on the leachate characteristics, mass of contaminant in the leachate, and nature of the leachate. Character of leachate samples for BOD analysis of using the different methods may differ significantly during the experimental period, resulting in different BOD values. This work intends to verify effect of the different dilutions for the manometric method tests on the BOD concentrations of the leachate samples to contribute to the assessment of reaction rate and microbial consumption of oxygen.

  13. Rate of Biochemical oxygen demand during formation of hypoxia in Amur Bay, Sea of Japan (United States)

    Tishchenko, P. P.; Tishchenko, P. Ya.; Zvalinskii, V. I.; Semkin, P. Yu.


    In May 2011, a Water Quality Monitor (WQM) hydrological station was maintained in the hypoxia area of Amur Bay one meter above the bottom, at the depth of 19 m. The temperature, electric conductivity, pressure, and content of dissolved oxygen were registered every four hours for more than three months. On the basis of these data, it was found that the period of hypoxia at the observation point lasted 93 days and a model of calculation of the rate of biochemical oxygen demand and the velocity of ventilation of the bottom waters is suggested.

  14. Thermodynamic considerations on the role of heat and mass transfer in biochemical causes of carcinogenesis (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto; Grisolia, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio; Deisboeck, Thomas S.


    Cellular homoeostasis involves a continuous interaction between the cell and its microenvironment. As such, active and passive transport of ions, nutrients, molecules and water are the basis for biochemical-physical cell life. These transport phenomena change the internal and external ionic concentrations, and, as a consequence, the cell membrane's electric potential and the pH. In this paper we focus on the relationship between these ion transport-induced pH and membrane voltage changes to highlight their impact on carcinogenesis. The preliminary results suggest a critical role for Cl- in driving tumour transformation towards a more malignant phenotype.

  15. Purification and biochemical characterization of the haloalkaliphilic archaeon Natronococcus occultus extracellular serine protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studdert, C A; Herrera Seitz, M K; Plasencia, I


    other halobacteria nor with commercial proteases except subtilisin. The amino acid sequences of three tryptic peptides obtained from Natronococcus occultus protease did not show significant similarity to other known proteolytic enzymes. This fact, in addition to its high molecular mass suggests......A serine protease was purified from Natronococcus occultus stationary phase culture medium (328-fold, yield 19%) and characterized at the biochemical level. The enzyme has a native molecular mass of 130 kDa, has chymotrypsin-like activity, is stable and active in a broad pH range (5...... that Natronococcus occultus extracellular protease may be a novel enzyme. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-null...

  16. Microbiological evidence for Fe(III) reduction on early Earth (United States)

    Vargas, Madeline; Kashefi, Kazem; Blunt-Harris, Elizabeth L.; Lovley, Derek R.


    It is generally considered that sulphur reduction was one of the earliest forms of microbial respiration, because the known microorganisms that are most closely related to the last common ancestor of modern life are primarily anaerobic, sulphur-reducing hyperthermophiles. However, geochemical evidence indicates that Fe(III) is more likely than sulphur to have been the first external electron acceptor of global significance in microbial metabolism. Here we show that Archaea and Bacteria that are most closely related to the last common ancestor can reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and conserve energy to support growth from this respiration. Surprisingly, even Thermotoga maritima, previously considered to have only a fermentative metabolism, could grow as a respiratory organism when Fe(III) was provided as an electron acceptor. These results provide microbiological evidence that Fe(III) reduction could have been an important process on early Earth and suggest that microorganisms might contribute to Fe(III) reduction in modern hot biospheres. Furthermore, our discovery that hyperthermophiles that had previously been thought to require sulphur for cultivation can instead be grown without the production of toxic and corrosive sulphide, should aid biochemical investigations of these poorly understood organisms.

  17. Urine collection from disposable diapers in premature infants: biochemical analysis. (United States)

    Muratore, C; Dhanireddy, R


    Urine collection for analysis is commonly done in premature infants in sterile adhesive bags. Leakage due to poor adherence of the bag and irritation of the skin are frequent drawbacks with this technique. Urine retrieved from the fiber padding of disposable diapers has been shown to be reliable for biochemical analysis. However, the previous studies were done under laboratory conditions and the volume of urine used was much larger than a premature infant may void at one time. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of urine collected from disposable diapers for biochemical analysis in premature infants in the intensive care nursery.

  18. Human milk as a carrier of biochemical messages. (United States)

    Bernt, K M; Walker, W A


    Not only does breast milk provides an ideal nutrient composition for the newborn, but it also contains a variety of substances that may actively influence growth and development of the infant and stimulate neonatal protection against gastrointestinal diseases. Hormones, growth factors, cytokines and even whole cells are present in breast milk and act to establish biochemical and immunological communication between mother and child. In addition, milk nutrients such as nucleotides, glutamine and lactoferrin have been shown to influence gastrointestinal development and host defense. The unique properties of milk as a mediator of biochemical messages will be presented and the clinical significance of breastfeeding in the prevention of neonatal gastrointestinal diseases will be discussed.

  19. Diagnosis Of Inherited Neurometabolic Disorders : A Biochemical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R


    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed a rapid increase in the knowledge of the inherited neurometabolic disorders. The precise diagnosis of these disorders which is a challenge to the physician can be best accomplished by biochemical methods. Screening of clinically selected patients with simple chemical urine tests and routine blood chemistry investigations followed by measurement of specific metabolites and assay of the relevant enzymes confirms the diagnosis in most cases. Biochemical diagnosis of inherited neurometabolic disorders although expensive is rapid and confirmatory and therefore aids in treatment and further prevention of these rare disorders.

  20. Moorella Strains for the Production of Biochemicals from Syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie; Jensen, Torbjørn Ølshøj; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    In the process of sugar fermentation, a significant portion of lignocellulosic biomass is left unused. An alternative is the gasification into syngas, a carbon-rich gas mixture. Syngas serves as energy and carbon source for acetogenic bacteria, which can then produce biochemicals. In the syngas...... value biochemicals (acetone) from syngas using Moorella strains as cell factories. Moorella has outstanding abilities that make it especially suitable for the syngas fermentation process (thermophily, carbon source utilization). Firstly, the project focuses on understanding the primary metabolism...

  1. Placebo-Suggestion Modulates Conflict Resolution in the Stroop Task (United States)

    Caspar, Emilie A.; Gevers, Wim; Cleeremans, Axel


    Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction) can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a “brain wave” machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion). We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion’s contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. PMID:24130735

  2. Evidence based practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger


    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an influential interdisciplinary movement that originated in medicine as evidence-based medicine (EBM) about 1992. EBP is of considerable interest to library and information science (LIS) because it focuses on a thorough documentation of the basis for the decision...... making that is established in research as well as an optimization of every link in documentation and search processes. EBP is based on the philosophical doctrine of empiricism and, therefore, it is subject to the criticism that has been raised against empiricism. The main criticism of EBP...... is that practitioners lose their autonomy, that the understanding of theory and of underlying mechanisms is weakened, and that the concept of evidence is too narrow in the empiricist tradition. In this article, it is suggested that we should speak of “research-based practice” rather than EBP, because this term is open...

  3. What Brain Research Suggests for Teaching Reading Strategies (United States)

    Willis, Judy


    How the brain learns to read has been the subject of much neuroscience educational research. Evidence is mounting for identifiable networks of connected neurons that are particularly active during reading processes such as response to visual and auditory stimuli, relating new information to prior knowledge, long-term memory storage, comprehension,…

  4. Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Dec 2, 2011 ... selection. Using a set of experimental populations in which the transmission of genetic material had been restricted to males for 82 generations, we show that CHCs did not evolve, providing experimental evidence for the absence of current intralocus sexual conflict over these traits. The absence of ongoing ...

  5. Therapeutic suggestion has no effect on postoperative morphine requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van der Laan (W.); B.L. van Leeuwen (B.); P.S. Sebel (P.); E. Winograd (E.); P. Baumann (P.); B. Bonke (Benno)


    textabstractThis study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting

  6. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.


    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  7. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA


    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  8. Critical Success Factors of Suggestions Systems. | Marx | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A literature study approach is followed to establish which factors contribute to the success and failure of various suggestion systems. It was found ... The value of the paper firstly, shows the importance of creativity and innovation within the organisation's own culture and the framework of a formal suggestion system. Secondly ...

  9. User Simulations for Interactive Search : Evaluating Personalized Query Suggestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Järvelin, K.; Kraaij, W.


    In this paper, we address the question “what is the influence of user search behaviour on the effectiveness of personalized query suggestion?”. We implemented a method for query suggestion that generates candidate follow-up queries from the documents clicked by the user. This is a potentially

  10. Students' Suggestions for Eliminating Bullying at a University (United States)

    Meriläinen, Matti; Puhakka, Helena; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija


    Students' suggestions for how to eliminate bullying at universities were gathered as part of an e-questionnaire sent to each university student (N = 10,551) at a Finnish university. The suggestions (n = 2804) regarding how to address bullying at universities were divided into the following four classes: support (944), punishment (78), support and…

  11. Exploration of Opinion-aware Approach to Contextual Suggestion (United States)


    are selected since they cover 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection...suggestion are crawled. Approximately 60,442 candidate sug- gestions are crawled for all contexts, resulting in average 1208 candidate suggestions per

  12. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews. (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah


    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  13. Suggestibility, intelligence, memory recall and personality: an experimental study. (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H


    A new suggestibility test, potentially useful in the context of police interrogation, was administered to 45 subjects who also completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Suggestibility was significantly related to low intelligence, poor memory recall, neuroticism and social desirability.

  14. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect in a non-hypnotic context. (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan


    The present study investigated how the magnitude the word blindness suggestion effect on Stroop interference depended on hypnotic suggestibility when given as an imaginative suggestion (i.e. not post-hypnotic suggestion) and under conditions in which hypnosis was not mentioned. Hypnotic suggestibility is shown to be a significant predictor of the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect under these conditions. This is therefore the first study to show a linear relationship between the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect and hypnotic suggestibility across the whole hypnotizability spectrum. The results replicate previous findings showing that highs respond to the word blindness suggestion to a greater extent than lows but extend previous work by showing that the advantage for those higher on the hypnotizability spectrum occurs even in a non-hypnotic context. Negative attitudes about hypnosis may not explain the failure to observe similar effects of the word blindness suggestion in less hypnotizable individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biochemical composition of fetal fluids in at term, normal developed, healthy, viable dogs and preliminary data from pathologic littermates. (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Bolis, B; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Mollo, A


    triglycerides), the results showed significant differences between the amniotic and allantoic biochemical composition (for all the parameters, except of alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, cholesterol, albumin, amylase and glucose), suggesting that diverse sources could concur to the final composition of each fluid. A wide variability within and among litters was found for both amniotic and allantoic biochemical composition, and for some parameters an influence of breed body size (amniotic amylase, cholesterol, and allantoic calcium and glucose), maternal parity (amniotic and allantoic CK, glucose, LDH, chloride) and newborn gender (allantoic phosphorus) was found. Further investigations are needed for addressing the origin of each fetal fluid biochemical composition in the dog and also to indeep possible differences in fetal fluids biochemical composition between normal and pathologic puppies, providing potential markers for the quick identification of newborns that need special surveillance and cares immediately after birth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemical composition of deep-sea decapod crustaceans with two different benthic life strategies off the Portuguese south coast (United States)

    Rosa, R.; Nunes, M. L.


    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the benthic life strategies of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Penaeidea), Parapenaeus longirostris (Crustacea: Penaeidea) and Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Astacidea) on the basis of biochemical composition (proximate chemical composition, total lipids, glycogen and cholesterol contents), and its response to biological and environmental factors (sex, maturation, reproduction, food availability and depth) into account. The specimens were collected at depths between 200 and 600 m off the Portuguese south coast (Algarve). The nektobenthic species ( A. antennatus and P. longirostris) showed higher protein, lipid, cholesterol and glycogen contents, and lower moisture content in the muscle than the benthic-endobenthic species ( N. norvegicus). Consequently, the energy content of the nektobenthic species was also higher. Principal component analyses were used to assess the relationship between the different biochemical contents and to relate them to the biotic and abiotic factors. Depth seems to have the most important role in the observed trends of the biochemical composition. The increase of the ovarian lipid levels occurs as a result of the maturation process. The highest values were obtained in mature N. norvegicus females. The differences can be due to maternal investment (lipid metabolism of the female is geared to the provision of egg lipid), since N. norvegicus produce large lecithotrophic eggs. The biochemical differences observed in the three species did not seem to be due to distinct trophic strategies, but instead were a consequence of depth, which may have a significant interspecific effect on food intake. It was also evident that reproductive cycle has profound effects upon the biochemistry of the three species. Gonadal maturation has large associated energy costs due to the increase in biosynthetic work. Moreover, the biochemical composition would be influenced by or synchronized with seasonal

  17. Salvage Radiation Therapy Dose Response for Biochemical Failure of Prostate Cancer After Prostatectomy—A Multi-Institutional Observational Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisansky, Thomas M., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Agrawal, Shree [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Koontz, Bridget F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Liauw, Stanley L. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Abramowitz, Matthew C.; Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Moghanaki, Drew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Hunter Holmes McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Den, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kattan, Michael W. [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); and others


    Purpose: To determine whether a dose-response relationship exists for salvage radiation therapy (RT) of biochemical failure after prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Individual data from 1108 patients who underwent salvage RT at 10 academic centers were pooled. The cohort was enriched for selection criteria more likely associated with tumor recurrence in the prostate bed (margin positive and pre-RT prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of ≤2.0 ng/mL) and without the confounding of planned androgen suppression. The cumulative incidence of biochemical failure and distant metastasis over time was computed, and competing risks hazard regression models were used to investigate the association between potential predictors and these outcomes. The association of radiation dose with outcomes was the primary focus. Results: With a 65.2-month follow-up duration, the 5- and 10-year estimates of freedom from post-RT biochemical failure (PSA level >0.2 ng/mL and rising) was 63.5% and 49.8%, respectively, and the cumulative incidence of distant metastasis was 12.4% by 10 years. A Gleason score of ≥7, higher pre-RT PSA level, extraprostatic tumor extension, and seminal vesicle invasion were associated with worse biochemical failure and distant metastasis outcomes. A salvage radiation dose of ≥66.0 Gy was associated with a reduced cumulative incidence of biochemical failure, but not of distant metastasis. Conclusions: The use of salvage radiation doses of ≥66.0 Gy are supported by evidence presented in the present multicenter pooled analysis of individual patient data. The observational reporting method, limited sample size, few distant metastasis events, modest follow-up duration, and elective use of salvage therapy might have diminished the opportunity to identify an association between the radiation dose and this endpoint.

  18. The impact of hypnotic suggestibility in clinical care settings (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel


    Hypnotic suggestibility has been described as a powerful predictor of outcomes associated with hypnotic interventions. However, there have been no systematic approaches to quantifying this effect across the literature. The present meta-analysis evaluates the magnitude of the effect of hypnotic suggestibility on hypnotic outcomes in clinical settings. PsycINFO and PubMed were searched from their inception through July 2009. Thirty-four effects from ten studies and 283 participants are reported. Results revealed a statistically significant overall effect size in the small to medium range (r = 0.24; 95% Confidence Interval = −0.28 to 0.75), indicating that greater hypnotic suggestibility led to greater effects of hypnosis interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility accounted for 6% of the variance in outcomes. Smaller sample size studies, use of the SHCS, and pediatric samples tended to result in larger effect sizes. Results question the usefulness of assessing hypnotic suggestibility in clinical contexts. PMID:21644122

  19. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing. (United States)

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q


    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Evidence and potential mechanisms for mindfulness practices and energy psychology for obesity and binge-eating disorder. (United States)

    Sojcher, Renee; Gould Fogerite, Susan; Perlman, Adam


    Obesity is a growing epidemic. Chronic stress produces endocrine and immune factors that are contributors to obesity's etiology. These biochemicals also can affect appetite and eating behaviors that can lead to binge-eating disorder. The inadequacies of standard care and the problem of patient noncompliance have inspired a search for alternative treatments. Proposals in the literature have called for combination therapies involving behavioral or new biological therapies. This manuscript suggests that mind-body interventions would be ideal for such combinations. Two mind-body modalities, energy psychology and mindfulness meditation, are reviewed for their potential in treating weight loss, stress, and behavior modification related to binge-eating disorder. Whereas mindfulness meditation and practices show more compelling evidence, energy psychology, in the infancy stages of elucidation, exhibits initially promising outcomes but requires further evidence-based trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Parasitological and biochemical studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shara'b District, Taiz, Yemen. (United States)

    Asmaa, Qhtan; Al-Shamerii, Salwa; Al-Tag, Mohammed; Al-Shamerii, Adam; Li, Yiping; Osman, Bashir H


    The leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by intracellular haemoflagellate protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Leishmaniasis has diverse clinical manifestations; cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common form of leishmaniasis which is responsible for 60% of disability-adjusted life years. CL is endemic in Yemen. In Shara'b there is no reference study available to identify the prevalence of endemic diseases and no investigation has been conducted for diagnosing the diseases. This study was conducted in villages for CL which collected randomly. The study aimed at investigating the epidemiological factors of CL in Shara'b by using questioner. Symptoms of lesions in patients suffering from CL, confirmed by laboratory tests, gave a new evidence of biochemical diagnosis in 525 villagers aged between 1 and 60 years old. Venous bloods were collected from 99 patients as well as from 51 control after an overnight fast. The percentage prevalence of CL was found 18.8%. The prevalence rate of infection among males (19.3%) was higher than females (18.40%). Younger age group (1-15) had a higher prevalence rate (20.3%) than the other age groups. Furthermore, the population with no formal education had the higher rate of infection (61% of the total). A significant increase of serum malondialdehyde (P < 0.001) in CL patients was obtained. The highest level of MDA may be due to over production of ROS and RNS results in oxidative stress and the acceleration of lipid peroxidation in CL patients. There were high prevalence rates of CL in Shara'b. The patient who had CL has been found with many changes in some biochemical levels. This study provides a clear indication on the role of MDA as an early biochemical marker of peroxidation damage occurring during CL. Increased uric acid, and catalase activity was provided of free radical.

  2. Hematologic, Biochemical, and Endocrine Parameters in Horses With Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis. (United States)

    Earley, Edward T; Rawlinson, Jennifer R; Baratt, Robert M; Galloway, Stephen S; Smedley, Rebecca C; Scarlett, Janet M; Refsal, Kent R; Dotzel, Allison R; Cox, Victor S; Perkins, Gillian A


    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a frequently diagnosed condition in adult horses. The underlying etiology is still unknown. Hematologic, biochemical, and endocrine values have not been reported in EOTRH-affected horses. The main objective of the study was to describe the hematologic, biochemical, and endocrine parameters in horses with EOTRH. Descriptive cross-sectional study of client-owned animals with EOTRH. A complete blood count, biochemistry panel, and endocrine profile were performed in horses diagnosed with EOTRH. Diagnosis was based on oral and radiographic examination findings and confirmed with histopathology. Eighteen horses with EOTRH aged 10 to 32 years from various regions of the United States were sampled. The only consistent abnormality on the complete blood cell count and chemistry panel was hypoalbuminemia (88%). Endocrine parameters demonstrated no major abnormalities in the functioning of the thyroid and pituitary pars intermedia. The parathyroid hormone concentration was increased in 7 (47%) of 15 horses with an elevated 25-hydroxy vitamin D in 3 (17%) of 17 horses. Main Limitations: The main limitations of this study are the small sample size and lack of age-matched and management-matched control horses. The relevance of elevated parathyroid hormone in this study cannot be determined due to the lack of age-based controls and large population studies. With the small population evaluated in this study, there are no obvious hematological, biochemical, and endocrine changes evident. Further evaluation with signalment-matched controls will be necessary to evaluate some trends noted in the laboratory values.

  3. Seasonal variation of hemato-biochemical parameters in indigenous pig: Zovawk of Mizoram (United States)

    Mayengbam, P.; Tolenkhomba, T. C.


    Aim: To investigate the influence of season on erythrocyte picture, plasma enzyme and electrolyte profile of local pig of Mizoram at a different age. Materials and Methods: A volume of 2 ml of blood samples were collected from 72 Zovawk pigs of three different age groups viz. pre-weaning, grower and adult pigs reared in College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, India, livestock farm during summer and winter in order to find out influence of season on erythrocyte picture, enzyme and electrolyte profile. The hematological parameters were estimated by using an automatic blood analyzer. The biochemical parameters were estimated by using diagnostic kits. Results: The grower pigs had lower hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) during summer, rainy and winter seasons (p<0.05) and lower MCH concentration (MCHC) during summer season (p<0.05). Adult pigs had lower Hb with higher total erythrocyte count in rainy season. PCV and MCV of adult pigs decreased in summer (p<0.05). Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity of both the grower and adult groups increased during summer and rainy seasons (p<0.05). Zovawk pigs had higher sodium (Na) and lower potassium (K) in rainy season (p<0.05). Pre-weaning piglets had higher Na, K, calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) in summer than in winter. Grower pigs had higher Na, K and Ca in summer (p<0.05). Pi of pre-weaning and grower groups was higher in winter. Adult pigs had lower alkaline phosphatase activity and Ca in summer and higher Pi and Mg in winter (p<0.05). Conclusion: Seasonal variation in some hemato-biochemical parameters of Zovawk pig were investigated. Influence of season on the hemato-biochemical profile was most evident during the grower stage, followed by adults and pre-weaning piglets. PMID:27065639

  4. Metabolic and biochemical effects of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption. (United States)

    Whitfield, John B; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Pergadia, Michele L; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G


    Alcohol consumption has multiple biochemical consequences. Only a few of these are useful as diagnostic markers, but many reflect potentially harmful or beneficial effects of alcohol. Average consumption of 2 to 4 drinks per day is associated with lower overall or cardiovascular mortality risk than either lower or higher intake. We have analyzed the dose-response relationships between reported alcohol consumption and 17 biomarkers, with emphasis on intake of up to 3 drinks per day. Biochemical tests were performed on serum from 8,396 study participants (3,750 men and 4,646 women, aged 51 ± 13 years, range 18 to 93) who had provided information on alcohol consumption in the week preceding blood collection. Gamma glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, urate, ferritin, and bilirubin showed little or no change with alcohol consumption below 2 to 3 drinks per day, but increased with higher intake. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and albumin showed increasing results, and insulin showed decreasing results, across the entire range of alcohol use. Biphasic responses, where subjects reporting 1 to 2 drinks per day had lower results than those reporting either more or less alcohol use, occurred for triglycerides, glucose, C-reactive protein, alkaline phosphatase, and butyrylcholinesterase. Increasing alcohol use was associated with decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in younger women, but higher LDL-C in older men. Some markers show threshold relationships with alcohol, others show continuous ones, and a third group show biphasic or U-shaped relationships. Overall, the biochemical sequelae of low-to-moderate alcohol use are consistent with the epidemiological evidence on morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Observational evidence for mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, F.


    Theory has long suggested that dynamical friction between colliding galaxies must lead to mergers. The problem for observers has been to find which galaxies are mergers. The author first reviews the available evidence for mergers in various kinds of galaxies, then proposes a tentative classification scheme for mergers, and finally discusses mergers in giant ellipticals and their relation to the evolution and perhaps even the formation of ellipticals. (Auth.)

  6. Reconstructing Nursing: Evidence, Artistry and the Curriculum. (United States)

    Marks-Maran, Di


    The prevailing world view is shifting from positivism to postmodernism. A postmodern perspective on evidence-based nursing suggests that evidence for nursing decisions should be derived from research, patient and nurse values, reflection, intuition, and tacit knowledge. (SK)

  7. Impairment in biochemical indices in sprayers exposed to commonly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of spraying organophosphate, carbamate and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides on biochemical parameters viz., red blood cell (RBC) acetylcholine esterase (AchE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities, oxidative stress parameters viz., plasma T-BARs, catalase ...

  8. Biochemical changes induced by five pathogenic fungi on seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different biochemical analysis were carried out to determine the changes induced by some fungi inoculated on Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed for 14days. The inoculated fungi are Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem, Aspergillus flavus Link Ex fr, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht, Penicillium chrysogenum Thom and Penicillium ...

  9. Vitamin b 12 supplementation: effects on some biochemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenytoin is known to have some toxicological implications. Vitamin B12 supplementation during phenytoin administration was investigated to assess the benefits and risks of single vitamin supplementation. This study evaluated the biochemical and haematological effects of vitamin B12 on phenytoin toxicity. Twenty-four ...

  10. Toxicological Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Some Biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is believed that while normal people may suffer complications of active and passive cigarette smoking, diabetes patients may suffer more. This study therefore aimed at investigating the toxicological effects of cigarette smoke on some biochemical parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n ...

  11. Altered biochemical specificity of G-quadruplexes with mutated tetrads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švehlová, Kateřina; Lawrence, M. S.; Bednárová, Lucie; Curtis, Edward A.


    Roč. 44, č. 22 (2016), s. 10789-10803 ISSN 0305-1048 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : G-quadruplex * G motif GTP aptamer * peroxidase deoxyribozyme Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 10.162, year: 2016

  12. Biochemical and histopathological studies on the methanolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study seeks to evaluate the biochemical and the histopathological characteristics of rats administered with various doses of methanolic extract of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf. Wistar albino rats fed with 500 mg/kg and 2 g/kg of methanolic extract of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf for 28 days were dissected and vital organs ...


    Existence of endocrine active substances in the aquatic environment has been clearly established in several studies. Exposure of organisms to both natural and synthetic xenoestrogens have been found to alter biochemical homeostatis and, in some cases, result in reproductive and d...

  14. Haematological, biochemical and clinical changes in domestic pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical parameters were monitored daily and blood samples collected for leucocytes count and biochemical tests. In the present study, the incubation period of the disease ranged from 7 - 15 days and in average the clinical disease lasted for 5 days. On the eighth day post infection, all test pigs had significant leucopaenia ...

  15. Diurnal changes of biochemical metabolic markers in healthy young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Fahrenkrug, Jan


    .06 mmol/L) did not show significant oscillations. CONCLUSIONS: When diagnosing and monitoring metabolic disorders compensation for the 24-h variation of the biochemical metabolic markers is needed especially C-peptide, triglyceride and glucose. Furthermore, the stable HbA1c level through 24 h makes...... it an accurate diagnostic test for diabetes mellitus....

  16. Some haematological and biochemical profile of blood of Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematological and biochemical profile of blood of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed on diets containing watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedmeal were evaluated using packed cell volume (PCV); haemoglobin content (Hb), white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin ...

  17. Biochemical changes occurring during fermentation of camel milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 25, 2010 ... The biochemical changes in amino acids, water soluble vitamins, soluble sugars and organic acids occurring during fermentation ... Key words: Camel milk, fermentation, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, sugars. INTRODUCTION ... milk, growth behavior of some lactic acid bacteria in camel milk and the ...

  18. Association of Biochemical Markers, Hepatitis C Virus and Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the association between Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection and diabetes mellitus (DM), and the effects of these pathological conditions on some biochemical markers in Pakistanis. Methods: A total number of 4717 chronic HCV patients were enrolled in this study out of which 4250 were positive with ...

  19. Biochemical and Histological effects of Aqueous extract of Cyperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    on the liver in experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rats.Aqueous ... with the aqueous extract of Cyperus esculentus attenuated both the biochemical effects and ... Studies have shown that tiger nuts have a high energy nutrient such as glucose oleic acid, starch, fats, sugars and proteins (Kim et al., 2007). They are rich in.

  20. Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary supplementation with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. ... Furthermore, high dietary supplementation of vitamin E showed no deleterious effects on rats and no pathological changes in the liver, kidney and heart tissues were observed in the ...