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Sample records for biochem physiol part

  1. Nig. J. Physiol. Sci.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    lasunigeria.org. Manuscript Accepted: May, 2011. INTRODUCTION. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is regulated by protein- protein interactions. Recently, we used real time measurement of basal NOS function by DAF assay in live endothelial cells ...

  2. MINERAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS PARTS OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS LINN

    OpenAIRE

    Udayakumar, R.; Sundaran, M.; Krishna, Raghuram

    2004-01-01

    Ash, minerals and biochemical contents were determined in various parts of root, stem and leaf of Cissus quadrangularis. The maximum ash content was observed in the root. The maximum concentration of carbohydrate and protein in the root and phosphorus, iron, calcium and lipids in the stem were observed.

  3. Biochemical parameters in Tubifex tubifex as an integral part of complex sediment toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smutna, M.; Hilscherova, K.; Paskova, V. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (CZ). RECETOX (Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology); Marsalek, B [Czech Academy of Science, Brno (Czech Republic). Centre for Cyanobacteria and their Toxins

    2008-06-15

    Background, aim, and scope Restoration of lakes and reservoirs with extensive cyanobacterial water bloom often requires evaluation of the sediment quality. Next to the chemical analysis of known pollutants, sediment bioassays should be employed to assess toxicity of the present contaminants and to make predictions of associated risk. Brno reservoir in the Czech Republic is a typical example of water bodies with long-term problems concerning cyanobacterial water blooms. Comprehensive assessment of reservoir sediment quality was conducted since successful reservoir restoration might require sediment removal. An important part of this survey focused on an examination of the utility of Tubifex tubifex and its sublethal biochemical markers for the assessment of direct sediment toxicity. Materials and methods This complex study included chemical analysis of contaminants (heavy metals, organic pollutants), ecotoxicity testing of sediment elutriates (tests with Daphnia magna, Pseudomonas putida, Sinapis alba, Scenedesmus subspicatus), and other parameters. We have tested in more detail the applicability of T. tubifex as a test organism for direct evaluation of contact sediment toxicity. Survival tests after 14 days of exposure were complemented by an assessment of parameters serving as biomarkers for sublethal effects [such as total glutathione content (GSH), activities of the enzymes glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)]. The data matrix was subjected to multivariate analysis to interpret relationships between different parameters and possible differences among locations. Results The multivariate statistical techniques helped to clearly identify the more contaminated upstream sites and separate them from the less contaminated and reference samples. The data document closer relationships of the detected sediment contamination with results of direct sediment exposure in the T. tubifex test regarding mortality but namely

  4. A comparison of different Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) parts in biochemical characteristics, protoplast formation and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxia; Sui, Zhenghong; Hu, Yiyi; Zhang, Si; Pan, Yulong; Ju, Hongri

    2014-08-01

    Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis is a commercially exploited alga. Its filaceous thallus can be divided into three parts, holdfast, middle segment and tip. The growth and branch forming trend and agar content of these three parts were analyzed, respectively, in this study. The results showed that the tip had the highest growth rate and branched most, although it was the last part with branch forming ability. The holdfast formed branches earliest but slowly. Holdfast had the highest agar content. We also assessed the difference in protoplast formation and regeneration among three parts. The middle segment displayed the shortest enzymolysis time and the highest protoplast yield; whereas the tip had the strongest vitality of protoplasts formation. Juvenile plants were only obtained from the protoplasts generated from the tip. These results suggested that the differentiation and function of G. lemaneiformis was different.

  5. Characterization of biochemical traits of dog rose (Rosa canina L.) ecotypes in the central part of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmard, Milad; Asadi-Gharneh, Hossein Ali; Nikneshan, Pejman

    2018-07-01

    Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) is a wild native species in Iran, with a significant genetic diversity. This plant serves as a rich source of vitamin C, anthocyanins, phenolic contents and carotenoids. Rose hips have been used in several food products, as well as perfumery and cosmetics industries. In this research, we investigate biochemical characteristics of five dog rose ecotypes (Kopehjamshid, Zarneh, Miyankish, Aghcheh and Sadeghiyeh), that were collected from the central part of Iran (Isfahan province). Amounts of vitamin C, total carotenoids, total phenolic contents, total anthocyanins, macro and micro minerals were measured. Seed oil are extracted by soxhlet method and analysed by gas chromatography. The macro and micro minerals levels in the fruit vary significantly among these regions. The results of this study demonstrate that dog rose have great diversity and can be used in breeding programmes in order to increase nutrient values as a food resource additive.

  6. Acetylcholinesterase of the Sand Fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): Construction, Expression and Biochemical Properties of the G119S Orthologous Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-10

    C, Pasteur N, Philips A, Fort P, Raymond M: Insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Nature 2003, 423:136–137. 27. Weill W, Lutfalla G, Mogensen K...Chandre F, Berthomieu A, Berticat C, Pasteur N, Philips A, Fort P, Raymond M: Corrigendum:Insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Nature 2003...1 biochemical properties. Comp Biochem Physiol B 2008, 150:271–277. 46. Alout H, Labbé P, Berthomieu A, Pasteur N, Weill M: Multiple duplications of

  7. Comparative biochemical analysis during the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass from six morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana (Triploid Musa AAA group) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Irénée; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Bilik, Igor; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    We studied banana lignocellulosic biomass (BALICEBIOM) that is abandoned after fruit harvesting, and assessed its biochemical methane potential, because of its potential as an energy source. We monitored biogas production from six morphological parts (MPs) of the "Williams Cavendish" banana cultivar using a modified operating procedure (KOP) using KOH. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The bulbs, leaf sheaths, petioles-midribs, leaf blades, rachis stems, and floral stalks gave total biogas production of 256, 205, 198, 126, 253, and 221 ml g⁻¹ dry matter, respectively, and total biomethane production of 150, 141, 127, 98, 162, and 144 ml g⁻¹, respectively. The biogas production rates and yields depended on the biochemical composition of the BALICEBIOM and the ability of anaerobic microbes to access fermentable substrates. There were no significant differences between the biogas analysis results produced using KOP and gas chromatography. Acetate was the major VFA in all the MP sample culture media. The bioconversion yields for each MP were below 50 %, showing that these substrates were not fully biodegraded after 188 days. The estimated electricity that could be produced from biogas combustion after fermenting all of the BALICEBIOM produced annually by the Cameroon Development Corporation-Del Monte plantations for 188 days is approximately 10.5 × 10⁶ kW h (which would be worth 0.80-1.58 million euros in the current market). This bioenergy could serve the requirements of about 42,000 people in the region, although CH₄ productivity could be improved.

  8. Removal of ammonia nitrogen from leachate of Muribeca municipal solid waste landfill, Pernambuco, Brazil, using natural zeolite as part of a biochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Cecilia Maria M S; Alves, Maria Cristina M; Campos, Juacyara C; Silva, Fabrícia Maria S; Jucá, José Fernando T; Lins, Eduardo Antonio M

    2015-01-01

    The inadequate disposal of leachate is one of the key factors in the environmental impact of urban solid waste landfills in Brazil. Among the compounds present in the leachates from Brazilian landfills, ammonia nitrogen is notable for its high concentrations. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of a permeable reactive barrier filled with a natural zeolite, which is part of a biochemical system for the tertiary treatment of the leachate from Muribeca Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Pernambuco, Brazil, to reduce its ammonia nitrogen concentration. This investigation initially consisted of kinetic studies and batch equilibrium tests on the natural zeolite to construct the sorption isotherms, which showed a high sorption capacity, with an average of 12.4 mg NH4+.L(-1), a value close to the sorption rates found for the aqueous ammonium chloride solution. A permeable reactive barrier consisting of natural zeolite, as simulated by the column test, was efficient in removing the ammonia nitrogen present in the leachate pretreated with calcium hydroxide. Nevertheless, the regenerated zeolite did not satisfactorily maintain the sorption properties of the natural zeolite, and an analysis of their cation-exchange properties showed a reduced capacity of 54 meq per 100 g for the regenerated zeolite compared to 150 meq per 100 g for the natural zeolite.

  9. Does the orientation of Norway spruce (Picea abies /L./ Karst.) branches within sunlit crown part influence the heterogeneity of biochemical, structural and spectral characteristics of needles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhotáková, Z.; Albrechtová, J.; Malenovsky, Z.; Rock, B.N.; Polák, T.; Cudlín, P.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if selected biochemical, structural and spectral properties of Norway spruce needles are influenced by the azimuth orientation of the branch. Three youngest needle age classes from 20 mature (100 years old or older) Norway spruce trees were sampled from upper

  10. Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice: Part II: Impact on specific chemical and biochemical quality parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, L.; Plancken, van der I.; Grauwet, T.; Timmermans, R.A.H.; Mastwijk, H.C.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.E.; Loey, van A.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of thermal, high pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for mild pasteurization of orange juice was compared on a fair basis, using processing conditions leading to an equivalent degree of microbial inactivation. Examining the effect on specific chemical and biochemical

  11. Effects of photobiomodulation therapy and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug on skeletal muscle injury induced by contusion in rats-part 2: biochemical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Frigo, Lúcio; Dos Reis Ferreira, Tereza Cristina; Casalechi, Heliodora Leão; Teixeira, Simone; de Almeida, Patrícia; Muscara, Marcelo Nicolas; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; Serra, Andrey Jorge; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto

    2017-11-01

    Muscle injuries trigger an inflammatory process, releasing important biochemical markers for tissue regeneration. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is the treatment of choice to promote pain relief due to muscle injury. NSAIDs exhibit several adverse effects and their efficacy is questionable. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has been demonstrated to effectively modulate inflammation induced from musculoskeletal disorders and may be used as an alternative to NSAIDs. Here, we assessed and compared the effects of different doses of PBMT and topical NSAIDs on biochemical parameters during an acute inflammatory process triggered by a controlled model of contusion-induced musculoskeletal injury in rats. Muscle injury was induced by trauma to the anterior tibial muscle of rats. After 1 h, rats were treated with PBMT (830 nm, continuous mode, 100 mW of power, 35.71 W/cm 2 ; 1, 3, and 9 J; 10, 30, and 90 s) or diclofenac sodium (1 g). Our results demonstrated that PBMT, 1 J (35.7 J/cm 2 ), 3 J (107.1 J/cm 2 ), and 9 J (321.4 J/cm 2 ) reduced the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) genes at all assessed times as compared to the injury and diclofenac groups (p levels of COX-2 only in relation to the injury group (p levels of cytokines TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 at all assessed times as compared to the injury and diclofenac groups (p topical NSAIDs in the modulation of the inflammatory process caused by muscle contusion injuries.

  12. 14CO2 fixation and allocation of 14C into major biochemical fractions in different parts of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, D.; Rathore, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    14CO2 fixation and transport of 14C-photosynthates amongst different parts of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and the incorporation of 14C into major chemical fractions in different plant parts was studied at ripening stage. Stem and pod together contributed 70 % of the total 14C fixed by the plant. In all plant parts neutral saccharide fraction contained maximum radioactivity immediately after exposing plants to 14CO2. After 24 h, the radioactivity in this fraction declined considerably due to translocation or conversion into other fractions. Concomitantly radioactivity in lipids and pigments, residue and starch fractions increased after 24 h. The 14C allocation patterns in stem and leaves were similar. However, in pods very high radioactivity was recovered from amino and organic acid fractions indicating the presence of active phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in pod walls

  13. BISEN: Biochemical simulation environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanlier, J.; Wu, F.; Qi, F.; Vinnakota, K.C.; Han, Y.; Dash, R.K.; Yang, F.; Beard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB® computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for

  14. Biochemical toxicology of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, A. de

    1976-01-01

    A thorough and up-to-date account of the molecular-biological aspects of harmful agents - both chemical and physical - is given. This current treatise is principally intended to serve as an informative reference work for researchers in various areas of the field. In the pursuit of this aim, a devision of the entire field into 42 chapters has been made. Each chapter starts with a short introductory account dealing with the biochemical essentials of the particular subject. Radiation effects are discussed briefly at the end of each treatise. In order to make the treatise useful as a source book, a substantial collection of pertinent literature references is provided which are numbered in order of citation in the text. Initial chapters are devoted to the metabolic fate of the major classes of xenobiotic compounds. Peripheral topics, closely related to metabolism and dealing with modification of xenobiotic-metabolizing ability, as well as interaction phenomena follow (chs. 5-8). Subjects that draw heavily on the practical field of occupational hygiene are dealt with in chapters 9 and 10. The systematic treatment of how chemical and physical agents interact with the various biochemical and enzymatic systems they encounter during their passage through the organism occupies quantitatively the main part of the book (chs. 11-36). Finally, radiation biochemistry is discussed from the viewpoint of its high degree of scientific advancement, and secondly because the type of biochemical changes produced in vivo by X-rays closely parallel those evoked by chemical agents

  15. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  16. Local biochemical and morphological differences in human Achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Fredberg, U.; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy....... The expressions of growth factors, inflammatory mediators and tendon morphology were determined in both chronically diseased and healthy tendon parts....

  17. Developments in commercially produced microbials at Biochem Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lublinkhof; Douglas H. Ross

    1985-01-01

    Biochem Products is part of a large industrial and scientific family - the Solvay Group. Solvay, headquartered in Brussels, Belgium is a multinational company with 46,000 employees worldwide. In the U.S., our working partners include a large polymer manufacturer, a peroxygen producer and a leading poultry and animal health products company. Biochem Products is a...

  18. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  19. Implantable biochemical fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, G; Rao, J R

    1978-01-05

    Implantable biochemical fuel cells for the operation of heart pacemakers or artificial hearts convert oxidisable body substances such as glucose on the anode side and reduce the oxygen contained in body fluids at the cathode. The anode and cathode are separated by membranes which are impermeable to albumen and blood corpuscles in body fluids. A chemical shortcircuit cannot occur in practice if, according to the invention, one or more selective oxygen electrodes with carbon as catalyst are arranged so that the mixture which diffuses into the cell from body fluids during operation reaches the fuel cell electrode through the porous oxygen electrode. The membranes used must be permeable to water. Cellulose, polymerised polyvinyl alcohol or an ion exchanger with a buffering capacity between pH5 and 8 act as permeable materials.

  20. Systems biology and the origins of life? part II. Are biochemical networks possible ancestors of living systems? networks of catalysed chemical reactions: non-equilibrium, self-organization and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The present article discusses the possibility that catalysed chemical networks can evolve. Even simple enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions can display this property. The example studied is that of a two-substrate proteinoid, or enzyme, reaction displaying random binding of its substrates A and B. The fundamental property of such a system is to display either emergence or integration depending on the respective values of the probabilities that the enzyme has bound one of its substrate regardless it has bound the other substrate, or, specifically, after it has bound the other substrate. There is emergence of information if p(A)>p(AB) and p(B)>p(BA). Conversely, if p(A)equilibrium. Moreover, in such systems, emergence results in an increase of the energy level of the ternary EAB complex that becomes closer to the transition state of the reaction, thus leading to the enhancement of catalysis. Hence a drift from quasi-equilibrium is, to a large extent, responsible for the production of information and enhancement of catalysis. Non-equilibrium of these simple systems must be an important aspect that leads to both self-organization and evolutionary processes. These conclusions can be extended to networks of catalysed chemical reactions. Such networks are, in fact, networks of networks, viz. meta-networks. In this formal representation, nodes are chemical reactions catalysed by poorly specific proteinoids, and links can be identified to the transport of metabolites from proteinoid to proteinoid. The concepts of integration and emergence can be applied to such situations and can be used to define the identity of these networks and therefore their evolution. Defined as open non-equilibrium structures, such biochemical networks possess two remarkable properties: (1) the probability of occurrence of their nodes is dependant upon the input and output of matter in, and from, the system and (2) the probability of occurrence of the nodes is strictly linked to their degree of

  1. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  2. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  3. The Evolution of Biochemical Indices After Basal Cell Epithelioma Removal - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgas L.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes new exposure data on etiopathogenesis basal cell epithelioma and present a clinical case investigated dermatoscopic, biochemically, treated surgically and guided to avoid relapses. The case presented is part of typical cases of pigmented basal cell carcinoma. Biochemical and haematological investigations performed one day before the excisional intervention (results 1 and 30 days (results 2 after the intervention: It is recommended to monitor biochemical investigations in which alterations were found, and ways for raising the immunological status.

  4. Biochemical reactions of the organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorova, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of mercury, strontium chloride, GMDA, trichlorfon as well as some radionuclides ( 89 Sr, 137 Cs, 203 Hg) were studied on rats. Changes in biochemical parameters (histamine content, activity of cholinesterase and histaminase) are noted. Most noticeable changes were observed in enzymatic activity. Distortion of enzymatic systems and accumulation of intermediate exchange and decay products of tissues in excess quantities affecting other systems can be the reason for changes in the organism. The observed changes in biochemical parameters should be necessarily taken into account at hygienic regulations of harmful effects of enviroment

  5. Circadian Clocks: Unexpected Biochemical Cogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2015-10-05

    A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ∼ 24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Circadian Clocks: Unexpected Biochemical Cogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2015-01-01

    A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ~24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes.

  7. Biochemical evaluation of tomato germplasm part I: workflow and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the seed crop species conserved at PGRU, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the largest in terms of numbers of accessions. Furthermore, tomato ranks very high among vegetable crops in economic importance to the US. We are characterizing a tomato core collection for traits that are of interest to...

  8. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  9. Biochemical Process Development and Integration | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochemical Process Development and Integration Biochemical Process Development and Integration Our conversion and separation processes to pilot-scale integrated process development and scale up. We also Publications Accounting for all sugar produced during integrated production of ethanol from lignocellulosic

  10. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  11. Biochemical Abnormalities in Batten's Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jytte Lene; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov

    1978-01-01

    The present data indicate that a group of ten patients with Batten's syndrome showed reduced activity of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px) (glutathione: H2O2 oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.9.) using H2O2 as peroxide donor. Assay of erythrocyte GSHPx using H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide and t......-butyl hydroperoxide as donors also makes it possible biochemically to divide Batten's syndrome into two types: (1) one type with decreased values when H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide are used, and (2) one type with increased values when t-butyl hydroperoxide is used. Furthermore an increased content of palmitic, oleic...

  12. Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2007-11-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguide microring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n=1.33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2x10(-4) RIU.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of biochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.; Fan, L.T.; Shieh, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction of the concepts of the availability (or exergy), datum level materials, and the dead state has been regarded as some of the most significant recent developments in classical thermodynamics. Not only the available energy balance but also the material and energy balances of a biological system may be established in reference to the datum level materials in the dead state or environment. In this paper these concepts are illustrated with two examples of fermentation and are shown to be useful in identifying sources of thermodynamic inefficiency, thereby leading naturally to the rational definition of thermodynamic efficiency of a biochemical process

  14. Biochemical nature of Russell Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Ami, Diletta; Anelli, Tiziana; Fagioli, Claudio; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Sitia, Roberto

    2015-07-30

    Professional secretory cells produce and release abundant proteins. Particularly in case of mutations and/or insufficient chaperoning, these can aggregate and become toxic within or amongst cells. Immunoglobulins (Ig) are no exception. In the extracellular space, certain Ig-L chains form fibrils causing systemic amyloidosis. On the other hand, Ig variants lacking the first constant domain condense in dilated cisternae of the early secretory compartment, called Russell Bodies (RB), frequently observed in plasma cell dyscrasias, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections. RB biogenesis can be recapitulated in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells by expressing mutant Ig-μ, providing powerful models to investigate the pathophysiology of endoplasmic reticulum storage disorders. Here we analyze the aggregation propensity and the biochemical features of the intra- and extra-cellular Ig deposits in human cells, revealing β-aggregated features for RB.

  15. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvar Rezae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress. 

  16. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  17. BALL - biochemical algorithms library 1.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöckel Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL is a comprehensive rapid application development framework for structural bioinformatics. It provides an extensive C++ class library of data structures and algorithms for molecular modeling and structural bioinformatics. Using BALL as a programming toolbox does not only allow to greatly reduce application development times but also helps in ensuring stability and correctness by avoiding the error-prone reimplementation of complex algorithms and replacing them with calls into the library that has been well-tested by a large number of developers. In the ten years since its original publication, BALL has seen a substantial increase in functionality and numerous other improvements. Results Here, we discuss BALL's current functionality and highlight the key additions and improvements: support for additional file formats, molecular edit-functionality, new molecular mechanics force fields, novel energy minimization techniques, docking algorithms, and support for cheminformatics. Conclusions BALL is available for all major operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and MacOS X. It is available free of charge under the Lesser GNU Public License (LPGL. Parts of the code are distributed under the GNU Public License (GPL. BALL is available as source code and binary packages from the project web site at http://www.ball-project.org. Recently, it has been accepted into the debian project; integration into further distributions is currently pursued.

  18. Organic and biochemical synthesis group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Stable isotopes, because of their unique properties and non-radioactive nature, have great potential for many fields of science and technology. In particular, isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur (the basic building blocks of all biological molecules) would be widely used in biomedical and environmental research if they were economically available in sufficient quantities and in the required chemical forms. The major objective of our program continues to be stimulation of the widespread utilization of stable isotopes and commercial involvement through development and demonstration of applications which have potential requirements for large quantities of isotopes. Thus, demand will be created which is necessary for large-scale production of stable isotopes and labeled compounds and concomitant low unit costs. The program continues to produce a variety of labeled materials needed for clinical, biomedical, chemical, and environmental applications which serve as effective demonstrations of unique and advantageous utilization of stable isotopes. Future commercial involvement should benefit, and is a consideration in our research and development, from the technology transfer that can readily be made as a result of our organic and biochemical syntheses and also of various techniques involved in applications

  19. Biochemical thermodynamics: applications of Mathematica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberty, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    reactants. Thus loading this package makes available 774 mathematical functions for these properties. These functions can be added and subtracted to obtain changes in these properties in biochemical reactions and apparent equilibrium constants.

  20. Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-28

    Feb 28, 2014 ... compounds seem to reflect inherent biochemical and physiological differences among P. grisea isolates .... solutions for imaging and microscopy, soft image system .... characteristics among 12 P. grisea isolates from rice were.

  1. Biochemical changes in blood caused by radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The changes were studied occurring in some biochemical indicators in blood at chronic peroral administration of strontium-90, cesium-137 and iodine-131 in amounts resulting in accumulation of commensurable doses in critical organs corresponding to each isotope

  2. Biochemical and kinetic characterization of geranylgeraniol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suchart

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... biochemical characterization of GGOH 18-hydroxylase activity in the microsomal fraction from C. .... method as previously described (Chanama et al., 2009). Briefly, 30 g of frozen ..... Catalytic properties of the plant cytochrome.

  3. Short Report Biochemical derangements prior to emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MMJ VOL 29 (1): March 2017. Biochemical derangements prior to emergency laparotomy at QECH 55. Malawi Medical Journal 29 (1): March 2017 ... Venepuncture was performed preoperatively for urgent cases, defined as those requiring.

  4. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  5. Raman spectroscopic biochemical mapping of tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas; Hart Prieto, Maria C.; Kendall, Catherine A.; Shetty, Geeta; Barr, Hugh

    2006-02-01

    Advances in technologies have brought us closer to routine spectroscopic diagnosis of early malignant disease. However, there is still a poor understanding of the carcinogenesis process. For example it is not known whether many cancers follow a logical sequence from dysplasia, to carcinoma in situ, to invasion. Biochemical tissue changes, triggered by genetic mutations, precede morphological and structural changes. These can be probed using Raman or FTIR microspectroscopy and the spectra analysed for biochemical constituents. Local microscopic distribution of various constituents can then be visualised. Raman mapping has been performed on a number of tissues including oesophagus, breast, bladder and prostate. The biochemical constituents have been calculated at each point using basis spectra and least squares analysis. The residual of the least squares fit indicates any unfit spectral components. The biochemical distribution will be compared with the defined histopathological boundaries. The distribution of nucleic acids, glycogen, actin, collagen I, III, IV, lipids and others appear to follow expected patterns.

  6. Identification of biochemical features of defective Coffea arabica L. beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-05-01

    Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Polyphenol Oxidase as a Biochemical Seed Defense Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, when wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea, non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems.

  8. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  9. Improving Marine Ecosystem Models with Biochemical Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Choy, C. Anela; Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques. Here, we explore the trophic information required by ecosystem model frameworks (species, individual, and size based) and match them to the most commonly used biochemical tracers (bulk tissue and compound-specific stable isotopes, fatty acids, and trace elements). Key quantitative parameters derived from biochemical tracers include estimates of diet composition, niche width, and trophic position. Biochemical tracers also provide powerful insight into the spatial and temporal variability of food web structure and the characterization of dominant basal and microbial food web groups. A major challenge in incorporating biochemical tracer data into ecosystem models is scale and data type mismatches, which can be overcome with greater knowledge exchange and numerical approaches that transform, integrate, and visualize data.

  10. RMBNToolbox: random models for biochemical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Jari

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing interest to model biochemical and cell biological networks, as well as to the computational analysis of these models. The development of analysis methodologies and related software is rapid in the field. However, the number of available models is still relatively small and the model sizes remain limited. The lack of kinetic information is usually the limiting factor for the construction of detailed simulation models. Results We present a computational toolbox for generating random biochemical network models which mimic real biochemical networks. The toolbox is called Random Models for Biochemical Networks. The toolbox works in the Matlab environment, and it makes it possible to generate various network structures, stoichiometries, kinetic laws for reactions, and parameters therein. The generation can be based on statistical rules and distributions, and more detailed information of real biochemical networks can be used in situations where it is known. The toolbox can be easily extended. The resulting network models can be exported in the format of Systems Biology Markup Language. Conclusion While more information is accumulating on biochemical networks, random networks can be used as an intermediate step towards their better understanding. Random networks make it possible to study the effects of various network characteristics to the overall behavior of the network. Moreover, the construction of artificial network models provides the ground truth data needed in the validation of various computational methods in the fields of parameter estimation and data analysis.

  11. River water quality model no. 1 (RWQM1): II. Biochemical process equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichert, P.; Borchardt, D.; Henze, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, biochemical process equations are presented as a basis for water quality modelling in rivers under aerobic and anoxic conditions. These equations are not new, but they summarise parts of the development over the past 75 years. The primary goals of the presentation are to stimulate...... transformation processes. This paper is part of a series of three papers. In the first paper, the general modelling approach is described; in the present paper, the biochemical process equations of a complex model are presented; and in the third paper, recommendations are given for the selection of a reasonable...

  12. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE's interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals

  13. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.

  14. eQuilibrator--the biochemical thermodynamics calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like 'how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?' are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use.

  15. eQuilibrator—the biochemical thermodynamics calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like ‘how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?’ are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use. PMID:22064852

  16. Biochemical activity of fullerenes and related derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huczko, A.; Lange, H.; Calko, E.

    1999-01-01

    An astonishing scientific interest, embodied in over 15000 research articles so far, has been encountered since 1985 when fullerenes were discovered. From new superconductors to a rich electrochemistry and reaction chemistry, fullerene nanostructures continue to excite the scientific world, and new findings continue at record pace. This review presents many examples of the biochemical activities of fullerenes and derivatives, e. g. cytotoxic activity, selective DNA cleavage and antiviral activity against HIV. We also present some results of our testing which show that, despite its chemical and biochemical activity, fullerene matter does not present any health hazard directly related to skin irritation and allergic risks. (author)

  17. Sub-acute toxicity and biochemical effects of extracts of Anaphe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ataxia syndrome which is characterized by sudden onset of severe muscular tremor and gait ataxia has been shown to be associated with the consumption of the larvae of Anaphe venata in South Western part of Nigeria. In this report, the sub -acute toxicity and biochemical effects of polar and nonpolar extracts of Anaphe ...

  18. Biochemical characterization of Tunisian grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjani Ben Abdallah

    1998-03-01

    The study of GPI, PGM, AAT and peroxydase isozyme banding patterns in combination with berry colour has led to establish a classification of the 61 autochton varieties into 37 groups including 26 varieties definitely differentiated through the results of this biochemical study.

  19. Survey of Biochemical Education in Japanese Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Yasuo

    1995-01-01

    Reports findings of questionnaires sent to faculty in charge of biochemical education in medical schools and other programs from dentistry to agriculture. Total class hours have declined since 1984. New trends include bioethics and computer-assisted learning. Tables show trends in lecture hours, lecture content, laboratory hours, core subject…

  20. Haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler chickens fed copper and probiotics supplemented diets. A total of 180-day old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six treatment groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were divided into three replicates of ten ...

  1. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xuan; Dempsey, William P; Goutsias, John

    2009-09-07

    Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems as well as for designing optimal approaches for selective perturbation and intervention. Deterministic sensitivity analysis techniques, using derivatives of the system response, have been extensively used in the literature. However, these techniques suffer from several drawbacks, which must be carefully considered before using them in problems of systems biology. We develop here a probabilistic approach to sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems. The proposed technique employs a biophysically derived model for parameter fluctuations and, by using a recently suggested variance-based approach to sensitivity analysis [Saltelli et al., Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 105, 2811 (2005)], it leads to a powerful sensitivity analysis methodology for biochemical reaction systems. The approach presented in this paper addresses many problems associated with derivative-based sensitivity analysis techniques. Most importantly, it produces thermodynamically consistent sensitivity analysis results, can easily accommodate appreciable parameter variations, and allows for systematic investigation of high-order interaction effects. By employing a computational model of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade, we demonstrate that our approach is well suited for sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems and can produce a wealth of information about the sensitivity properties of such systems. The price to be paid, however, is a substantial increase in computational complexity over derivative-based techniques, which must be effectively addressed in order to make the proposed approach to sensitivity analysis more practical.

  2. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the

  3. Some hematological and biochemical parameters in smokeless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-04

    Jan 4, 2007 ... The effect of Jharda powder (smokeless tobacco) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in consumers was investigated. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin content and white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in jharda powder consumers, while monocytes and.

  4. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  5. Some hematological and biochemical parameters in smokeless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Jharda powder (smokeless tobacco) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in consumers was investigated. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin content and white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in jharda powder consumers, while monocytes and basophiles counts were ...

  6. Haematological And Biochemical Effects Of Sulphadimidine In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and biochemical efects of sulphadmidine were studied in Nigerian mongrel dogs. Five Nigerian mongrel dogs of either sex weighing between 7 and 12 kg were used for the study. The pretreatment blood and serum samples were collected and the weight of animals taken before the administraton of 100 ...

  7. Biochemical and secondary metabolites changes under moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed the importance of carbohydrate and nitrogen cycle related metabolites in mediating tolerance in cassava by affecting their phenotypic expression in the plant. Keywords: Hydrothermal stress, bio-chemicals, pigments, secondary metabolites, cassava. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(31) 3173-3186 ...

  8. Biochemical and serological characterization of Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the isolation rate, serotypes and biochemical profiles of E. coli from colibacillosis and dead-in-shell embryos in Zaria, Northern-Nigeria. The isolation rate of E. coli from hatcheries studied were 4.67% and 7.50% from farms of Simtu Agricultural Company and National Animal Production ...

  9. Biochemical and Kinetic Characterization of Geranylgeraniol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This enzyme and its gene are an attractive target for development of plaunotol production and its detailed biochemical properties need to be understood. Recently, even though the gene (CYP97C27) coding for GGOH 18-hydroxylase has been identified, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli system, the enzyme activity ...

  10. Characterizing multistationarity regimes in biochemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Otero-Muras

    Full Text Available Switch like responses appear as common strategies in the regulation of cellular systems. Here we present a method to characterize bistable regimes in biochemical reaction networks that can be of use to both direct and reverse engineering of biological switches. In the design of a synthetic biological switch, it is important to study the capability for bistability of the underlying biochemical network structure. Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT may help at this level to decide whether a given network has the capacity for multiple positive equilibria, based on their structural properties. However, in order to build a working switch, we also need to ensure that the bistability property is robust, by studying the conditions leading to the existence of two different steady states. In the reverse engineering of biological switches, knowledge collected about the bistable regimes of the underlying potential model structures can contribute at the model identification stage to a drastic reduction of the feasible region in the parameter space of search. In this work, we make use and extend previous results of the CRNT, aiming not only to discriminate whether a biochemical reaction network can exhibit multiple steady states, but also to determine the regions within the whole space of parameters capable of producing multistationarity. To that purpose we present and justify a condition on the parameters of biochemical networks for the appearance of multistationarity, and propose an efficient and reliable computational method to check its satisfaction through the parameter space.

  11. Evaluation of Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Evaluation of Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of Juvenile Oreochromis niloticus after Exposure to Water Soluble Fractions of ... niloticus were evaluated. After a preliminary determination of the 96 h-LC50 of ... evaporation, dissolution, emulsion, photolysis and biodegradation which generate a water soluble.

  12. Metabonomics and medicine: the Biochemical Oracle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Steve; Holmes, Elaine; Carmichael, Paul

    2002-10-01

    Occasionally, a new idea emerges that has the potential to revolutionize an entire field of scientific endeavour. It is now within our grasp to be able to detect subtle perturbations within the phenomenally complex biochemical matrix of living organisms. The discipline of metabonomics promises an all-encompassing approach to understanding total, yet fundamental, changes occurring in disease processes, drug toxicity and cell function.

  13. Discordant results between biochemical and molecular transthyretin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Discordant results between biochemical and molecular transthyretin assays: lessons learned from a unique testing algorithm at the Mayo Clinic. Honey V. Reddi Brittany C. Thomas Kurt S. Willkomm Matthew J. Ferber Kandelaria M. Rumilla Kimiyo M. Raymond John F. O'Brien W. Edward Highsmith. Research Note Volume ...

  14. Biochemical and microstructural characteristics of meat samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of different plant proteases for changing biochemical and microstructural characteristics in muscle foods. The meat samples from chicken, giant catfish, pork and beef were treated with four types of proteolytic enzymes: Calotropis procera latex proteases, papaya latex ...

  15. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-02

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  16. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the effect of ionizing radiations on the lung parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquier, Christian.

    1975-03-01

    Concerning the biochemical reactions of the lung parenchyma to irradiation the following points have been developed. Role of biochemically active substances (histamine, serotonin, kinins, catecholamines, prostaglandins) in the early reaction of the lung to irradiation, their common feature being their vascular impact point. Lung irradiation and lipids (fatty acids and lipid metabolism in general); irradiation, by raising the proportion of unsaturated at the expense of saturated fatty acids, may give rise to serious physiological respiratory disorders. Lung irradiation and blood fluidity (fibrinolytic activity, heparin, platelet factors). Pulmonary interstitium and irradiation (of the three interstitium components collagen plays a preferential part). Irradiation and immunological lung reaction (reasons behind the immunological theory, immunological assistance, immunological mechanism of pulmonary reactions towards pollutants). Enzymatic lung radiolesion indicators. Three kinds of physiological changes have been considered. Vascular physiology disturbances caused by the initial biochemical reactions; anomalies of physiological or functional trials, images of the lesion formed; disorders of the cell physiology of carcinogenesis [fr

  17. Dynamics of biochemical processes and redox conditions in geochemically linked landscapes of oligotrophic bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Szajdak, L.; Sergeeva, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The biological activity in oligotrophic peatlands at the margins of the Vasyugan Mire has been studied. It is shown found that differently directed biochemical processes manifest themselves in the entire peat profile down to the underlying mineral substrate. Their activity is highly variable. It is argued that the notion about active and inert layers in peat soils is only applicable for the description of their water regime. The degree of the biochemical activity is specified by the physical soil properties. As a result of the biochemical processes, a micromosaic aerobic-anaerobic medium is developed under the surface waterlogged layer of peat deposits. This layer contains the gas phase, including oxygen. It is concluded that the organic and mineral parts of peat bogs represent a single functional system of a genetic peat profile with a clear record of the history of its development.

  18. An Inductive Logic Programming Approach to Validate Hexose Binding Biochemical Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Houssam; Al-Ali, Hassan; Khuri, Sawsan; Keirouz, Walid; Page, David

    2010-01-01

    Hexoses are simple sugars that play a key role in many cellular pathways, and in the regulation of development and disease mechanisms. Current protein-sugar computational models are based, at least partially, on prior biochemical findings and knowledge. They incorporate different parts of these findings in predictive black-box models. We investigate the empirical support for biochemical findings by comparing Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) induced rules to actual biochemical results. We mine the Protein Data Bank for a representative data set of hexose binding sites, non-hexose binding sites and surface grooves. We build an ILP model of hexose-binding sites and evaluate our results against several baseline machine learning classifiers. Our method achieves an accuracy similar to that of other black-box classifiers while providing insight into the discriminating process. In addition, it confirms wet-lab findings and reveals a previously unreported Trp-Glu amino acids dependency.

  19. Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Syzigium ... tract diseases and also used as food spices), on some biochemical indices, such as ... liver functions and blood parameters were studied in adult albino rats of both sexes.

  20. Biochemical changes during aging of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .

  1. Reconstructing biochemical pathways from time course data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividhya, Jeyaraman; Crampin, Edmund J; McSharry, Patrick E; Schnell, Santiago

    2007-03-01

    Time series data on biochemical reactions reveal transient behavior, away from chemical equilibrium, and contain information on the dynamic interactions among reacting components. However, this information can be difficult to extract using conventional analysis techniques. We present a new method to infer biochemical pathway mechanisms from time course data using a global nonlinear modeling technique to identify the elementary reaction steps which constitute the pathway. The method involves the generation of a complete dictionary of polynomial basis functions based on the law of mass action. Using these basis functions, there are two approaches to model construction, namely the general to specific and the specific to general approach. We demonstrate that our new methodology reconstructs the chemical reaction steps and connectivity of the glycolytic pathway of Lactococcus lactis from time course experimental data.

  2. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  3. Optimal Information Processing in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Chris

    2012-02-01

    A variety of experimental results over the past decades provide examples of near-optimal information processing in biological networks, including in biochemical and transcriptional regulatory networks. Computing information-theoretic quantities requires first choosing or computing the joint probability distribution describing multiple nodes in such a network --- for example, representing the probability distribution of finding an integer copy number of each of two interacting reactants or gene products while respecting the `intrinsic' small copy number noise constraining information transmission at the scale of the cell. I'll given an overview of some recent analytic and numerical work facilitating calculation of such joint distributions and the associated information, which in turn makes possible numerical optimization of information flow in models of noisy regulatory and biochemical networks. Illustrating cases include quantification of form-function relations, ideal design of regulatory cascades, and response to oscillatory driving.

  4. Some biochemical studies on thyroid immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoush, M.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of induced immunological environment on: a - Carbohydrate metabolism as reflected by immunoreactive insulin and blood sugar levels. b - Biochemical parameters, namely total protein, albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase and transaminases, reflecting liver function. c - Radioimmunological tests reflecting thyroid function. The study comprised 36 male rabbits, boscate strain of six months age assigned randomly to : control, albumin immunized and thyroglobulin immunized groups

  5. Biochemical composition and methane production correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Charnier, Cyrille; Latrille, Eric; Moscoviz, Roman; Miroux, Jérémie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Substrates for anaerobic digestion are composed of heterogeneous and complex organic matter. General parameters of the organic matter can be used to describe its composition such as sugar, protein and lipid contents, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) and kinetic of methane production. These parameters are required for the monitoring of digesters but their characterization are time consuming and expensive; thus, these parameters are rarely assessed all together....

  6. Biochemical characterization of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium.

    OpenAIRE

    Mott, G E; Brinkley, A W; Mersinger, C L

    1980-01-01

    We characterized two isolates of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium by conducting conventional biochemical tests and by testing various sterols and glycerolipids as potential growth factors. In media containing cholesterol and plasmenylethanolamine, the tests for nitrate reduction, indole production, and gelatin and starch hydrolyses were negative, and no acid was produced from any of 22 carbohydrates. Both isolates hydrolyzed esculin to esculetin, indicating beta-glycosidase activity. In addit...

  7. Biochemical changes in ginger after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, T.; Salahuddin; Pervaiz, K.; Niazi, A.H.K.

    2001-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinate) was irradiated with gamma rays (0.1Kgy, 1.0Kgy). Biochemical changes during storage at room temperature (23-28 degree centigrade), in sand (23-28 degree centigrade) and at cold (8 degree centigrade) temperature were observed. Changes in starch, soluble protein, fixed oil and volatile oil contents showed that treatment of ginger at 0.1Kgy radiation level was most appropriate for storage upto 45 days

  8. Biochemical Factors Modulating Cellular Neurotoxicity of Methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvinder Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg, an environmental toxicant primarily found in fish and seafood, poses a dilemma to both consumers and regulatory authorities, given the nutritional benefits of fish consumption versus the possible adverse neurological damage. Several studies have shown that MeHg toxicity is influenced by a number of biochemical factors, such as glutathione (GSH, fatty acids, vitamins, and essential elements, but the cellular mechanisms underlying these complex interactions have not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this paper is to outline the cellular response to dietary nutrients, as well as to describe the neurotoxic exposures to MeHg. In order to determine the cellular mechanism(s of toxicity, the effect of pretreatment with biochemical factors (e.g., N-acetyl cysteine, (NAC; diethyl maleate, (DEM; docosahexaenoic acid, (DHA; selenomethionine, SeM; Trolox and MeHg treatment on intercellular antioxidant status, MeHg content, and other endpoints was evaluated. This paper emphasizes that the protection against oxidative stress offered by these biochemical factors is among one of the major mechanisms responsible for conferring neuroprotection. It is therefore critical to ascertain the cellular mechanisms associated with various dietary nutrients as well as to determine the potential effects of neurotoxic exposures for accurately assessing the risks and benefits associated with fish consumption.

  9. Multidimensional biochemical information processing of dynamical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko

    2018-02-01

    Cells receive signaling molecules by receptors and relay information via sensory networks so that they can respond properly depending on the type of signal. Recent studies have shown that cells can extract multidimensional information from dynamical concentration patterns of signaling molecules. We herein study how biochemical systems can process multidimensional information embedded in dynamical patterns. We model the decoding networks by linear response functions, and optimize the functions with the calculus of variations to maximize the mutual information between patterns and output. We find that, when the noise intensity is lower, decoders with different linear response functions, i.e., distinct decoders, can extract much information. However, when the noise intensity is higher, distinct decoders do not provide the maximum amount of information. This indicates that, when transmitting information by dynamical patterns, embedding information in multiple patterns is not optimal when the noise intensity is very large. Furthermore, we explore the biochemical implementations of these decoders using control theory and demonstrate that these decoders can be implemented biochemically through the modification of cascade-type networks, which are prevalent in actual signaling pathways.

  10. Explorations into Chemical Reactions and Biochemical Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-12-01

    A brief overview of the work in the research group of the present author on extracting knowledge from chemical reaction data is presented. Methods have been developed to calculate physicochemical effects at the reaction site. It is shown that these physicochemical effects can quite favourably be used to derive equations for the calculation of data on gas phase reactions and on reactions in solution such as aqueous acidity of alcohols or carboxylic acids or the hydrolysis of amides. Furthermore, it is shown that these physicochemical effects are quite effective for assigning reactions into reaction classes that correspond to chemical knowledge. Biochemical reactions constitute a particularly interesting and challenging task for increasing our understanding of living species. The BioPath.Database is a rich source of information on biochemical reactions and has been used for a variety of applications of chemical, biological, or medicinal interests. Thus, it was shown that biochemical reactions can be assigned by the physicochemical effects into classes that correspond to the classification of enzymes by the EC numbers. Furthermore, 3D models of reaction intermediates can be used for searching for novel enzyme inhibitors. It was shown in a combined application of chemoinformatics and bioinformatics that essential pathways of diseases can be uncovered. Furthermore, a study showed that bacterial flavor-forming pathways can be discovered. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

    2014-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [The biochemical carcinogenesis of selected heavy metals in bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorbach-Dolata, Anna; Marchewka, Zofia; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer takes the second place in the classification of morbidity of urinary system cancers. Many chemical factors take part in cancerogenesis. It is suggested that exposure to heavy metals such as arsenic, chromium, nickel and cadmium as well as its metabolites may trigger the bladder cancer through inducing excessive reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress formation which are responsible for DNA damage. In patients with bladder cancer is observed the disorder of processes regulated by p-53, including apoptosis. There are many patients with bladder cancer with confirmed absence of retinoblastoma protein, which is responsible of holding on the process of coming up the cells with mutation into synthesis, where the replication process undergoes. It is mentioned that excessive expression of proto-oncogenes may also cause the bladder cancer. The article concerns biochemical effects of exposure to chosen heavy metals and their potential role in bladder cancer progression.

  13. On the Adaptive Design Rules of Biochemical Networks in Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical networks are the backbones of physiological systems of organisms. Therefore, a biochemical network should be sufficiently robust (not sensitive to tolerate genetic mutations and environmental changes in the evolutionary process. In this study, based on the robustness and sensitivity criteria of biochemical networks, the adaptive design rules are developed for natural selection in the evolutionary process. This will provide insights into the robust adaptive mechanism of biochemical networks in the evolutionary process. We find that if a mutated biochemical network satisfies the robustness and sensitivity criteria of natural selection, there is a high probability for the biochemical network to prevail during natural selection in the evolutionary process. Since there are various mutated biochemical networks that can satisfy these criteria but have some differences in phenotype, the biochemical networks increase their diversities in the evolutionary process. The robustness of a biochemical network enables co-option so that new phenotypes can be generated in evolution. The proposed robust adaptive design rules of natural selection gain much insight into the evolutionary mechanism and provide a systematic robust biochemical circuit design method of biochemical networks for biotechnological and therapeutic purposes in the future.

  14. Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS: software for stochastic modeling of biochemical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston Timothy C

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrinsic fluctuations due to the stochastic nature of biochemical reactions can have large effects on the response of biochemical networks. This is particularly true for pathways that involve transcriptional regulation, where generally there are two copies of each gene and the number of messenger RNA (mRNA molecules can be small. Therefore, there is a need for computational tools for developing and investigating stochastic models of biochemical networks. Results We have developed the software package Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS for efficientlyand accurately simulating stochastic models of biochemical networks. BioNetS has a graphical user interface that allows models to be entered in a straightforward manner, and allows the user to specify the type of random variable (discrete or continuous for each chemical species in the network. The discrete variables are simulated using an efficient implementation of the Gillespie algorithm. For the continuous random variables, BioNetS constructs and numerically solvesthe appropriate chemical Langevin equations. The software package has been developed to scale efficiently with network size, thereby allowing large systems to be studied. BioNetS runs as a BioSpice agent and can be downloaded from http://www.biospice.org. BioNetS also can be run as a stand alone package. All the required files are accessible from http://x.amath.unc.edu/BioNetS. Conclusions We have developed BioNetS to be a reliable tool for studying the stochastic dynamics of large biochemical networks. Important features of BioNetS are its ability to handle hybrid models that consist of both continuous and discrete random variables and its ability to model cell growth and division. We have verified the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods by considering several test systems.

  15. Biochemical Markers for Assessing Aquatic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers, specifically enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD - were used to determine the quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in fish muscle (PCB, HCB, HCH, OCS, DDT. Eight rivers were monitored (Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina; and the River Blanice was used as a control. The indicator species selected was the chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. There were no significant differences in cytochrome P450 content between the locations monitored. The highest concentration of cytochrome P450 in fish liver was in the Vltava (0.241 nmol mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (0.120 nmol mg-1 protein. Analysis of EROD activity showed a significant difference between the Blanice and the Vltava (P< 0.05, and also between the Orlice and the Vltava (P< 0.01, the Orlice and the Bílina (P< 0.01, and the Orlice and the Ohře (P< 0.05. The highest EROD activity in fish liver was in the Vltava (576.4 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (63.05 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. In individual locations, results of chemical monitoring and values of biochemical markers were compared. A significant correlation (P< 0.05 was found between biochemical markers and OCS, and PCB. Among the tributaries studied those that contaminated the Elbe most were the Vltava and the Bílina. These tributaries should not be considered the main sources of industrial contamination of the River Elbe, because the most important contamination sources were along the river Elbe itself.

  16. The biochemical womb of schizophrenia: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, N; Gautam, S; Gaur, M; Sharma, P; Dadheech, G; Mishra, S

    2008-10-01

    The conclusive identification of specific etiological factors or pathogenic processes in the illness of schizophrenia has remained elusive despite great technological progress. The convergence of state-of-art scientific studies in molecular genetics, molecular neuropathophysiology, in vivo brain imaging and psychopharmacology, however, indicates that we may be coming much closer to understanding the genesis of schizophrenia. In near future, the diagnosis and assessment of schizophrenia using biochemical markers may become a "dream come true" for the medical community as well as for the general population. An understanding of the biochemistry/ visa vis pathophysiology of schizophrenia is essential to the discovery of preventive measures and therapeutic intervention.

  17. Conservation Laws in Biochemical Reaction Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi, Adam; Ferragut, Antoni; Valls, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of linear and nonlinear conservation laws in biochemical reaction networks with mass-action kinetics. It is straightforward to compute the linear conservation laws as they are related to the left null-space of the stoichiometry matrix. The nonlinear conservation laws...... are difficult to identify and have rarely been considered in the context of mass-action reaction networks. Here, using the Darboux theory of integrability, we provide necessary structural (i.e., parameterindependent) conditions on a reaction network to guarantee the existence of nonlinear conservation laws...

  18. Lipoprotein (a) and biochemical parameters in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Yuttana Sudjaroen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an low-density lipoprotein like particle and is an important independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases (CAD). Few studies on Lp(a) level in Thai elderly to screening risk of CAD may concerned. Aims: To study the relation of Lp(a) level and routine biochemical parameters including lipid profiles and fasting blood glucose in elderly and to determine risk of subclinical symptoms by using Lp(a) levels as early risk predictor. Settings and Design: ...

  19. Radiation treatment of drugs, biochemicals and vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordheim, W.; Braeuniger, S.; Kirsch, B.; Kotowski, H.; Teupel, D.

    1984-12-01

    The concise and tabulated review reports experimental results on the effects of radiation treatment on drugs, vaccines, biochemicals and adjuvants including enzymes as well. Irradiation was mostly performed by γ-radiation using 60 Co and to a lesser extent by 137 Cs, 182 Ta, X-rays and accelerators. Ionizing radiation proved to be a useful tool for sterilization and inactivation in producing drugs, vaccines, and bioactive agents and will contribute to realize procedures difficultly solvable as to engineering and economy, respectively. 124 refs

  20. [Biochemical principles of early saturnism recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimakuridze, M P; Mansuradze, E A; Zurashvili, D G; Tsimakuridze, M P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the work is to determine the major sensitive criteria of biochemical indicators that allow timely discovery of negative influence of lead on organism and assist in early diagnosis of primary stages of saturnism. The workers of Georgian typographies, performing technological processes of letterpress printing were observed. Professional groups having contact with lead aerosols (main group of 66 people) and the workers of the same typography not being in touch with the poison (control group of 24 people) were studied. It was distinguished that, protracted professional contact with lead causes moderate increase of lead, coproporphyrin and DALA in daily urine in most cases; it is more clearly evidenced in the professional groups of lead smelters and lino operators and less clearly among typesetter and printers. Upon the checkup of people, having a direct contact with lead, biochemical analysis of urine should be given a preference, especially the determination of quantitative content of lead and coproporphyrin in urine with the aim of revealing the lead carrier, which is one of the first signals for occupational lookout and medical monitoring of the similar contingent.

  1. Identifying optimal models to represent biochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Apri

    Full Text Available Biochemical systems involving a high number of components with intricate interactions often lead to complex models containing a large number of parameters. Although a large model could describe in detail the mechanisms that underlie the system, its very large size may hinder us in understanding the key elements of the system. Also in terms of parameter identification, large models are often problematic. Therefore, a reduced model may be preferred to represent the system. Yet, in order to efficaciously replace the large model, the reduced model should have the same ability as the large model to produce reliable predictions for a broad set of testable experimental conditions. We present a novel method to extract an "optimal" reduced model from a large model to represent biochemical systems by combining a reduction method and a model discrimination method. The former assures that the reduced model contains only those components that are important to produce the dynamics observed in given experiments, whereas the latter ensures that the reduced model gives a good prediction for any feasible experimental conditions that are relevant to answer questions at hand. These two techniques are applied iteratively. The method reveals the biological core of a model mathematically, indicating the processes that are likely to be responsible for certain behavior. We demonstrate the algorithm on two realistic model examples. We show that in both cases the core is substantially smaller than the full model.

  2. Biochemical Manifestation of HIV Lipodystrophy Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihenetu, Kenneth; Mason, Darius

    2012-01-01

    Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), including protease inhibitors (PI) have led to dramatic improvements in the quality and quantity of life in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a significant number of AIDS patients on HAART develop characteristic changes in body fat redistribution referred to as lipodystrophy syndrome (LDS). Features of LDS include hypertrophy in the neck fat pad (buffalo hump), increased fat in the abdominal region (protease paunch), gynecomastia and loss of fat in the mid-face and extremities. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge regarding this syndrome. This article reviews the published investigations on biochemical manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy syndrome. It is estimated that approximately 64% of patients treated with PI will experience this syndrome. Biochemically, these patients have increased triglycerides (Trig), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and extremely low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). It is hoped that awareness of this syndrome would aid in early diagnosis and better patient management, possibly leading to a lower incidence of cardiovascular complications among these patients.

  3. Biochemical research elucidating metabolic pathways in Pneumocystis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneshiro E.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing the Pneumocystis carinii genome have helped identify potential metabolic pathways operative in the organism. Also, data from characterizing the biochemical and physiological nature of these organisms now allow elucidation of metabolic pathways as well as pose new challenges and questions that require additional experiments. These experiments are being performed despite the difficulty in doing experiments directly on this pathogen that has yet to be subcultured indefinitely and produce mass numbers of cells in vitro. This article reviews biochemical approaches that have provided insights into several Pneumocystis metabolic pathways. It focuses on 1 S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet; SAM, which is a ubiquitous participant in numerous cellular reactions; 2 sterols: focusing on oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol in P. carinii; SAM:sterol C-24 methyltransferase that adds methyl groups at the C-24 position of the sterol side chain; and sterol 14α-demethylase that removes a methyl group at the C-14 position of the sterol nucleus; and 3 synthesis of ubiquinone homologs, which play a pivotal role in mitochondrial inner membrane and other cellular membrane electron transport.

  4. Pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: Biochemical and genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; Rodriguez Puyol, Diego; Fernández Rodríguez, Loreto; Sención Martinez, Gloria Lisette; Martínez Miguel, Patricia

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are tumours derived from neural crest cells, which can be diagnosed by biochemical measurement of metanephrine and methoxytyramine. Advances in genetic research have identified many genes involved in the pathogenesis of these tumours, suggesting that up to 35-45% may have an underlying germline mutation. These genes have a singular transcriptional signature and can be grouped into 2 clusters (or groups): cluster 1 (VHL and SHDx), involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia pathways; and cluster 2 (MEN2 and NF1), linked to the kinase signalling pathway. In turn, these genes are associated with a characteristic biochemical phenotype (noradrenergic and adrenergic), and clinical features (location, biological behaviour, age of presentation, etc.) in a large number of cases. Early diagnosis of these tumours, accompanied by a correct genetic diagnosis, should eventually become a priority to enable better treatment, early detection of complications, proper screening of family members and related tumours, as well as an improvement in the overall prognosis of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Trace element deficiency and its diagnosis by biochemical criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, M.; Grassmann, E.; Roth, H.P.; Spoerl, R.; Schnegg, A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of trace element deficiency on growth of rats and dairy cows is demonstrated using zinc and nickel. The effect of copper deficiency on reproductive performance is shown to be associated with increased death rates of pregnant animals and their foetuses. For the diagnosis of suboptimum states of trace element supply, biochemical criteria are needed. The mere analysis of the trace element content of various body tissues may lead to falase diagnoses because of the often slow response to varying intake and because of interactions with other dietary ingredients affecting absorption and metabolic efficiency of utilization. Thus copper deficiency is associated with a decrease in the serum level of both copper and iron, despite adequate iron intake, and simultaneously with an accumulation of iron in the liver of the animal. Enzymes and hormones containing the essential trace element as an integral constituent may serve as biochemical criteria. A sensitive response to zinc intake is exhibited by the activity of the alkaline phosphatase of serum or bones, and by the activity of the pancreatic carboxypeptidase A, all of which show a significant reaction to deficient intake within two to four days, and perhaps by the biopotency of insulin. Ceruloplasmin responds to the supply of copper. Its biosynthesis in the liver is possible only from copper available for this purpose. Thus, the determination of ceruloplasmin may take account of at least part of the copper available to the body for metabolic functions. Among various criteria, the catalase activity in blood may provide additional information on the state of iron supply. Malate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase respond to nickel-deficient intake. Nickel deficiency also involves anaemia due to disorders in iron absorption

  6. Biochemical profile of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis and its nutritional attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Asha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oysters are highly esteemed sea food and considered a delicacy throughout the world. Yet this resource is not optimally utilised in several parts of the world. The aim of this study is to highlight its nutritional importance. Biochemical composition and nutritional attributes of oyster meat are discussed. Proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles and mineral content were determined in oysters (Crassostrea madrasensis. Moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash contents in the oyster were 82.64%, 9.41%, 3.25% 3.2% and 1.01%, respectively and it was rich in macro-minerals and trace elements especially selenium. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA were highest of the total lipids among which eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and linoleic acid were the prominent fatty acids. The n-3/n-6 index was high indicating a predominance of n-3 fatty acids in the species. Total amino acid content was 99.33 g/100 g crude protein, of which, essential amino acid lysine was the most abundant. Valine had the lowest essential amino acid score (EAAS (0.17 while threonine had the highest EAAS of 3.62. Chemical score was 17% and the lowest limiting amino acid was valine. Protein efficiency ratio, essential amino acid index and biological value of oyster were 3.92, 120.2 and 174.0, respectively which indicates that the protein is of superior quality. Data on biochemical composition, nutritional attributes and quality indices of C. madrasensis protein may prove important for future policies regarding exploitation of this species and for inducing favourable changes in consumer preferences.

  7. Dietary behaviour and health in Northern Ireland: an exploration of biochemical and haematological associations.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, M E; McClean, S I; Strain, J J; Thompson, K A

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine the relationships between dietary behaviour and biochemical and haematological measures. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional population study. SETTING--The study took place in the general community within Northern Ireland. SUBJECTS--522 randomly selected adults aged 18-64 years took part (65% of the eligible sample). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Four dietary behaviours were identified using principal components analysis from 7 d weighed dietary recor...

  8. Hormonal and biochemical profile in elite sportsmen during the preparation season

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Islami; Abbas Ghanbar Niaki; Aliakbar Sharifiyan; Ramezanali Arabameri

    2018-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of short time intensive training on adolescent athletes. The aim of the present study was to investigate six weeks of volleyball training on hormonal and biochemical profile in elite high school male volleyball players in Golestan province (Iran) in preparation season to take part in global competitions of champion school in France. Subjects of training group consisted of 12 elite volleyball players in premier league students a...

  9. BioNessie - a grid enabled biochemical networks simulation environment

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, X.; Jiang, J.; Ajayi, O.; Gu, X.; Gilbert, D.; Sinnott, R.O.

    2008-01-01

    The simulation of biochemical networks provides insight and understanding about the underlying biochemical processes and pathways used by cells and organisms. BioNessie is a biochemical network simulator which has been developed at the University of Glasgow. This paper describes the simulator and focuses in particular on how it has been extended to benefit from a wide variety of high performance compute resources across the UK through Grid technologies to support larger scale simulations.

  10. Possibilities and methods for biochemical assessment of radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkova, M [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya

    1986-01-01

    An extensitive review (77 references) is made of the application of biochemical diagnostic methods for assessment of radiation diseases. A brief characteristics of several biochemical indicators is given: deoxycytidine, thymidine, rho-aminoisocarboxylic acid, DNA-ase, nucleic acids. Influence of such factors as age, sex, season etc. is studied by means of functional biochemical indicators as: creatine, triptophanic metabolites, 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid, biogenic amines, serum proteins, enzymes, etc.

  11. Electrocardiographic and hemato-biochemical effects of two balanced anesthetic protocols in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Khurana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the electrocardiographic (ECG, hematological and clinico-biochemical effects of two balanced anesthetic protocols in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 clinical cases of dogs, randomly divided into two groups of 10 animals each were made part of study. All dogs were premedicated with injection atropine sulfate @ 0.04 mg/kg body weight (b. wt. subcutaneously followed 15 min later with injection butorphanol tartarate @ 0.2 mg/kg b. wt. intravenous (IV. Subsequently after 10 min premedicated with injection diazepam @ 0.5 mg/kg b. wt. IV (Group DP or injection acepromazine maleate @ 0.015 mg/kg b. wt. IV (Group AP followed by injection propofol “till effect” IV for induction of surgical anesthesia. The animals were immediately transferred to halothane in oxygen. Observations recorded in dogs included ECG recordings, hematological and clinico-biochemical observations at various time intervals. Results: No arrhythmia was observed in any animal pre-operatively and intra-operatively in any of the groups. Significant fall in packed cell volume (PCV and total erythrocyte count occurred in DP group in early phase, whereas only PCV decreased significantly in AP group. Biochemical parameters were non-significant in both the groups. Conclusion: Both diazepam-butorphanol-propofol-halothane and acepromazine-butorphanol-propofol-halothane are safe with respect to their ECG, hematological and biochemical effects in clinical cases.

  12. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  13. Biochemical Basis of Sestrin Physiological Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Allison; Cho, Chun-Seok; Namkoong, Sim; Cho, Uhn-Soo; Lee, Jun Hee (Michigan)

    2016-05-10

    Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chronic activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) are well-characterized promoters of aging and age-associated degenerative pathologies. Sestrins, a family of highly conserved stress-inducible proteins, are important negative regulators of both ROS and mTORC1 signaling pathways; however, the mechanistic basis of how Sestrins suppress these pathways remains elusive. In the past couple of years, breakthrough discoveries about Sestrin signaling and its molecular nature have markedly increased our biochemical understanding of Sestrin function. These discoveries have also uncovered new potential therapeutic strategies that may eventually enable us to attenuate aging and age-associated diseases.

  14. Simplifying biochemical models with intermediate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    techniques, we study systematically the effects of intermediate, or transient, species in biochemical systems and provide a simple, yet rigorous mathematical classification of all models obtained from a core model by including intermediates. Main examples include enzymatic and post-translational modification...... systems, where intermediates often are considered insignificant and neglected in a model, or they are not included because we are unaware of their existence. All possible models obtained from the core model are classified into a finite number of classes. Each class is defined by a mathematically simple...... canonical model that characterizes crucial dynamical properties, such as mono- and multistationarity and stability of steady states, of all models in the class. We show that if the core model does not have conservation laws, then the introduction of intermediates does not change the steady...

  15. Biochemical and genetic improvement of Zymomonas mobilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, L O; Carey, V C; Dombek, K M; Holt, A S; Holt, W A; Osman, Y A; Walia, S K

    1984-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis offers many advantages for alcohol production including three- to five-fold higher rates of substrate conversion. Current progress and approaches are discussed for the biochemical and genetic improvement of this organism. These include the isolation of salt-resistant mutants and low pH-tolerant mutants. Gene banks of Lactobacillus heterohiochi are being screened for genes encoding alcohol resistance which can be subsequently introduced into Zymomonas mobilis. In addition, an enteric lactose operon has been inserted into Zymomonas mobilis and is expressed. These new strains are being further modified to increase the substrate range of Zymomonas mobilis to include lactose. This lactose operon serves as a model system to investigate the expression of foreign genes in Zymomonas mobilis. 25 references.

  16. Implantable biochemical fuel cell. [German patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, G; Rao, J R

    1978-09-14

    Implantable biochemical fuel cells for the operation of heart pacemakers or artificial hearts convert oxidisable body substances such as glucose on the anode side and reduce the oxygen contained in body fluids at the cathode. The anode and cathode are separated by membranes which are impermeable to albumen and blood corpuscles in body fluids. A chemical shortcircuit cannot occur in practice if, according to the invention, one or more selective oxygen electrodes with carbon as catalyst are arranged so that the mixture which diffuses into the cell from body fluids during operation reaches the fuel cell electrode through the porous oxygen electrode. The membranes used must be permeable to water. Cellulose, polymerised polyvinyl alcohol or an ion exchanger with a buffering capacity between pH5 and 8 act as permeable materials.

  17. The biochemical anatomy of cortical inhibitory synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Heller

    Full Text Available Classical electron microscopic studies of the mammalian brain revealed two major classes of synapses, distinguished by the presence of a large postsynaptic density (PSD exclusively at type 1, excitatory synapses. Biochemical studies of the PSD have established the paradigm of the synapse as a complex signal-processing machine that controls synaptic plasticity. We report here the results of a proteomic analysis of type 2, inhibitory synaptic complexes isolated by affinity purification from the cerebral cortex. We show that these synaptic complexes contain a variety of neurotransmitter receptors, neural cell-scaffolding and adhesion molecules, but that they are entirely lacking in cell signaling proteins. This fundamental distinction between the functions of type 1 and type 2 synapses in the nervous system has far reaching implications for models of synaptic plasticity, rapid adaptations in neural circuits, and homeostatic mechanisms controlling the balance of excitation and inhibition in the mature brain.

  18. Highly valuable microalgae: biochemical and topological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolet, Olivier; Jubeau, Sébastien; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Michaud, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    The past decade has seen a surge in the interest in microalgae culture for biodiesel production and other applications as renewable biofuels as an alternative to petroleum transport fuels. The development of new technologies for the culture of these photosynthetic microorganisms and improved knowledge of their biochemical composition has spurred innovation in the field of high-value biomolecules. These developments are only economically viable if all the microalgae fractions are valorized in a biorefinery strategy. Achieving this objective requires an understanding of microalgae content and the cellular localization of the main biomolecular families in order to develop efficient harvest and sequential recovery technologies. This review summarizes the state of the art in microalgae compositions and topologies using some examples of the main industrially farmed microalgae.

  19. Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

  20. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  1. Modeling of uncertainties in biochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišković, Ljubiša; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2011-02-01

    Mathematical modeling is an indispensable tool for research and development in biotechnology and bioengineering. The formulation of kinetic models of biochemical networks depends on knowledge of the kinetic properties of the enzymes of the individual reactions. However, kinetic data acquired from experimental observations bring along uncertainties due to various experimental conditions and measurement methods. In this contribution, we propose a novel way to model the uncertainty in the enzyme kinetics and to predict quantitatively the responses of metabolic reactions to the changes in enzyme activities under uncertainty. The proposed methodology accounts explicitly for mechanistic properties of enzymes and physico-chemical and thermodynamic constraints, and is based on formalism from systems theory and metabolic control analysis. We achieve this by observing that kinetic responses of metabolic reactions depend: (i) on the distribution of the enzymes among their free form and all reactive states; (ii) on the equilibrium displacements of the overall reaction and that of the individual enzymatic steps; and (iii) on the net fluxes through the enzyme. Relying on this observation, we develop a novel, efficient Monte Carlo sampling procedure to generate all states within a metabolic reaction that satisfy imposed constrains. Thus, we derive the statistics of the expected responses of the metabolic reactions to changes in enzyme levels and activities, in the levels of metabolites, and in the values of the kinetic parameters. We present aspects of the proposed framework through an example of the fundamental three-step reversible enzymatic reaction mechanism. We demonstrate that the equilibrium displacements of the individual enzymatic steps have an important influence on kinetic responses of the enzyme. Furthermore, we derive the conditions that must be satisfied by a reversible three-step enzymatic reaction operating far away from the equilibrium in order to respond to

  2. Biochemical parameters in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, R M; Lazarus, J M

    1988-03-01

    We analyzed biochemical data derived from 911 patients with renal insufficiency observed at our institution for periods up to 7 years. During early renal failure (RF) (creatinine less than 5 mg/dL), the rate of change of hematocrit, total CO2 (tCO2) and urea per unit change of creatinine was significantly higher than during moderate (creatinine between 5 and 10 mg/dL) or advanced (creatinine greater than 10 mg/dL) RF. For example, the rate of change of hematocrit (%, volume/volume [v/v]) was (mean +/- SEM) -2.15 +/- 0.15% for each 1 mg/dL increase in creatinine in the range of creatinine less than 5 mg/dL, whereas for the range of creatinine greater than 10 mg/dL, the rate of change was only -0.48 +/- 0.06% (P less than 0.001). Similarly, the rate of change of tCO2 was -1.68 +/- 0.09 mEq/L for each 1 mg/dL increment in creatinine concentration during early RF, and -0.19 +/- 0.09 mEq/L per unit increase in creatinine during advanced RF (P less than 0.001). Chloride concentration initially increased as a function of creatinine in early RF, but decreased in advanced RF, whereas the anion gap increased throughout the course of RF. Mean serum phosphate concentration also increased steadily, but remained below the upper range of normal (4.7 mg/dL) during early RF without the use of phosphate binders. These data suggest that different biochemical parameters change at different rates as a function of the severity of renal dysfunction, and that although phosphate retention may occur, hyperphosphatemia is not a hallmark of early RF.

  3. Discerning the biochemical stability of pyrogenic C in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rosa, José M.; Paneque, Marina; Contreras-Bernal, Lidia; Miller, Ana Z.; Knicker, Heike

    2016-04-01

    The soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes approximately 2/3 of the global terrestrial C pool, which corresponds to estimated 4000 Pg to a depth of 3 m [1] and therefore, the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) in soils control a large part of the terrestrial C cycle. The term Pyrogenic Carbon (PyC) comprises the whole range of pyrogenic organic materials, from partly charred material through charcoal to soot produced during fire, as well as technical chars (biochars) produced by pyrolysis of biomass. The previously common assumption of PyC being inert has long been proven wrong [2]. In theory, the pyrogenic process confers these materials a longer mean residence time in the soils than their precursors, thus the application of PyC in general and particularly biochar to soil is proposed as a valid approach to establish a significant, long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems [3]. Nevertheless, the knowledge concerning the biochemical recalcitrance of PyOM in soils is still limited. This study combines the analysis by 13C solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (13C NMR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and CO2 emissions in incubated pots of burned and unburned soils as well as in biochar amended and un-amended soils. By using this integrated approach we achieved a more complete understanding of the stability of different forms of PyC in the soil and the chemical changes occurring during aging. Significant differences are found between the stability of PyC. They depend on the nature of the source material, surficial properties of PyC, the pyrolysis process and the soil conditions during aging. Acknowledgements: The Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions (PCIG12-GA-2012-333784-Biocharisma project and PIEF-GA-2012-328689-DECAVE project), and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) (project PCGL2012-37041) are thanked for the financial support of the present study

  4. Motorcycle Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    An article in NASA Tech Briefs describing a vacuum bagging process for forming composite parts helped a small Oklahoma Company to improve its manufacturing process. President of Performance Extremes, Larry Ortega, and his partners make motorcycle parts from carbon/epoxy to reduce weight. Using vacuum bags, parts have a better surface and fewer voids inside. When heat used in the vacuum bag process caused deformation upon cooling, a solution found in another tech brief solved the problem. A metal plate inside the vacuum bag made for more even heat transfer. A third article described a simple procedure for repairing loose connector pins, which the company has also utilized.

  5. CDIO Projects in DTU’s Chemical and Biochemical B.Eng. Study Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Karsten; Harris, Pernille; Agersø, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe how the CDIO standards [1] have influenced the cross-disciplinary projects that are part of the study plan for the Chemical and Biochemical B.Eng. program. Four projects are described: The 1st semester design-build project on cleaning of waste water from a power...... plant, the 2nd semester laboratory project concerning antimicrobial resistant E. coli bacteria in retail meats, the 3rd semester project on unit operations in enzyme production, the 4th semester project on the fermentation and purification part of enzyme production....

  6. Exploring basic biochemical constituents in the body tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding regime did not influence susceptibility to mass loss during export. Animal age influenced the biochemical composition and export performance of abalone. Keywords: abalone; aquaculture; feeds; Haliotis midae; live export; mass loss; tissue biochemical constituents. African Journal of Marine Science 2010, 32(1): ...

  7. Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African dwarf goats vaccinated against Pestes des petit ruminants (PPR) ... blood biochemical indices of forty randomly selected West African dwarf (WAD) goats were studied. Packed cell volume ... neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and white blood cells (WBC) than females.

  8. An improved solution of first order kinetics for biochemical oxygen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluated selected Biochemical Oxygen Demand first order kinetics methods. Domesticinstitutional wastewaters were collected twice in a month for three months from the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife waste stabilization ponds. Biochemical Oxygen Demand concentrations at different days were determined ...

  9. Simulation studies in biochemical signaling and enzyme reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelatury, Sudarshan R.; Vagula, Mary C.

    2014-06-01

    Biochemical pathways characterize various biochemical reaction schemes that involve a set of species and the manner in which they are connected. Determination of schematics that represent these pathways is an important task in understanding metabolism and signal transduction. Examples of these Pathways are: DNA and protein synthesis, and production of several macro-molecules essential for cell survival. A sustained feedback mechanism arises in gene expression and production of mRNA that lead to protein synthesis if the protein so synthesized serves as a transcription factor and becomes a repressor of the gene expression. The cellular regulations are carried out through biochemical networks consisting of reactions and regulatory proteins. Systems biology is a relatively new area that attempts to describe the biochemical pathways analytically and develop reliable mathematical models for the pathways. A complete understanding of chemical reaction kinetics is prohibitively hard thanks to the nonlinear and highly complex mechanisms that regulate protein formation, but attempting to numerically solve some of the governing differential equations seems to offer significant insight about their biochemical picture. To validate these models, one can perform simple experiments in the lab. This paper introduces fundamental ideas in biochemical signaling and attempts to take first steps into the understanding of biochemical oscillations. Initially, the two-pool model of calcium is used to describe the dynamics behind the oscillations. Later we present some elementary results showing biochemical oscillations arising from solving differential equations of Elowitz and Leibler using MATLAB software.

  10. Possible Biochemical Markers in Protein-Energy Malnutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine possible biochemical markers in children suffering from Plasmodium falciparum malaria and Protein-Energy Malnutrition in a Hospital setting in Western Kenya. Spectrophotometric assays of selected biochemical parameters namely, albumin, total proteins, glucose, glutamate ...

  11. Biochemical evaluation of phenylketonuria (PKU: from diagnosis to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Belmont-Martínez

    2014-07-01

    Besides periodical Phe and Tyr testing, biochemical follow-up includes the measurement of necessary elements that guarantee normal physical and intellectual development such as selenium, zinc, B12 vitamin, folates, iron and long chain fatty acids. Clinical context is as important as biochemical status so periodic evaluation of nutritional, medical, social and psychological aspects should be included.

  12. Cushing's syndrome: update on signs, symptoms and biochemical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, Lynnette K

    2015-10-01

    Endogenous pathologic hypercortisolism, or Cushing's syndrome, is associated with poor quality of life, morbidity, and increased mortality. Early diagnosis may mitigate against this natural history of the disorder. The clinical presentation of Cushing's syndrome varies, in part related to the extent and duration of cortisol excess. When hypercortisolism is severe, its signs and symptoms are unmistakable. However, most of the signs and symptoms of Cushing's syndrome are common in the general population (e.g., hypertension and weight gain) and not all are present in every patient. In addition to classical features of glucocorticoid excess, such as proximal muscle weakness and wide purple striae, patients may present with the associated comorbidities that are caused by hypercortisolism. These include cardiovascular disease, thromboembolic disease, psychiatric and cognitive deficits, and infections. As a result, internists and generalists must consider Cushing's syndrome as a cause, and endocrinologists should search for and treat these comorbidities. Recommended tests to screen for Cushing's syndrome include 1  mg dexamethasone suppression, urine free cortisol, and late night salivary cortisol. These may be slightly elevated in patients with physiologic hypercortisolism, which should be excluded, along with exogenous glucocorticoid use. Each screening test has caveats and the choice of tests should be individualized based on each patient's characteristics and lifestyle. The objective of this review is to update the readership on the clinical and biochemical features of Cushing's syndrome that are useful when evaluating patients for this diagnosis. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Definitions of biochemical failure in prostate cancer following radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Griffith, Kent A.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) published a consensus panel definition of biochemical failure following radiation therapy for prostate cancer. In this paper, we develop a series of alternative definitions of biochemical failure. Using data from 688 patients, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the various definitions, with respect to a defined 'clinically meaningful' outcome. Methods and Materials: The ASTRO definition of biochemical failure requires 3 consecutive rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA). We considered several modifications to the standard definition: to require PSA rises of a certain magnitude, to consider 2 instead of 3 rises, to require the final PSA value to be greater than a fixed cutoff level, and to define biochemical failure based on the slope of PSA over 1, 1.5, or 2 years. A clinically meaningful failure is defined as local recurrence, distant metastases, initiation of unplanned hormonal therapy, unplanned radical prostatectomy, or a PSA>25 later than 6 months after radiation. Results: Requiring the final PSA in a series of consecutive rises to be larger than 1.5 ng/mL increased the specificity of biochemical failure. For a fixed specificity, defining biochemical failure based on 2 consecutive rises, or the slope over the last year, could increase the sensitivity by up to approximately 20%, compared to the ASTRO definition. Using a rule based on the slope over the previous year or 2 rises leads to a slightly earlier detection of biochemical failure than does the ASTRO definition. Even with the best rule, only approximately 20% of true failures are biochemically detected more than 1 year before the clinically meaningful event time. Conclusion: There is potential for improvement in the ASTRO consensus definition of biochemical failure. Further research is needed, in studies with long follow-up times, to evaluate the relationship between various definitions of biochemical failure and

  14. Applied spectrophotometry: analysis of a biochemical mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Toni A; Schultz, Emeric; Borland, Michael G; Pugh, Michael Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Spectrophotometric analysis is essential for determining biomolecule concentration of a solution and is employed ubiquitously in biochemistry and molecular biology. The application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Lawis routinely used to determine the concentration of DNA, RNA or protein. There is however a significant difference in determining the concentration of a given species (RNA, DNA, protein) in isolation (a contrived circumstance) as opposed to determining that concentration in the presence of other species (a more realistic situation). To present the student with a more realistic laboratory experience and also to fill a hole that we believe exists in student experience prior to reaching a biochemistry course, we have devised a three week laboratory experience designed so that students learn to: connect laboratory practice with theory, apply the Beer-Lambert-Bougert Law to biochemical analyses, demonstrate the utility and limitations of example quantitative colorimetric assays, demonstrate the utility and limitations of UV analyses for biomolecules, develop strategies for analysis of a solution of unknown biomolecular composition, use digital micropipettors to make accurate and precise measurements, and apply graphing software. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Interactions of Cannabinoids With Biochemical Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have seen much progress in the identification and characterization of cannabinoid receptors and the elucidation of the mechanisms by which derivatives of the Cannabis sativa plant bind to receptors and produce their physiological and psychological effects. The information generated in this process has enabled better understanding of the fundamental physiological and psychological processes controlled by the central and peripheral nervous systems and has fostered the development of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. A negative aspect of this decades-long effort is the proliferation of clandestinely synthesized analogs as recreational street drugs with dangerous effects. Currently, the interactions of cannabinoids with their biochemical substrates are extensively but inadequately understood, and the clinical application of derived and synthetic receptor ligands remains quite limited. The wide anatomical distribution and functional complexity of the cannabinoid system continue to indicate potential for both therapeutic and side effects, which offers challenges and opportunities for medicinal chemists involved in drug discovery and development.

  16. PHA bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somleva, Maria N; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2013-02-01

    Large scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in plants can provide a sustainable supply of bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from sunlight and atmospheric CO(2). PHAs are a class of polymers with various chain lengths that are naturally produced by some microorganisms as storage materials. The properties of these polyesters make them functionally equivalent to many of the petroleum-based plastics that are currently in the market place. However, unlike most petroleum-derived plastics, PHAs can be produced from renewable feedstocks and easily degrade in most biologically active environments. This review highlights research efforts over the last 20 years to engineer the production of PHAs in plants with a focus on polyhydroxybutryrate (PHB) production in bioenergy crops with C(4) photosynthesis. PHB has the potential to be a high volume commercial product with uses not only in the plastics and materials markets, but also in renewable chemicals and feed. The major challenges of improving product yield and plant fitness in high biomass yielding C(4) crops are discussed in detail. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Skin biochemical composition analysis by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Patricia Karen; Tosato, Maira Gaspar; Alves, Rani de Souza; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro, E-mail: amartin@univap.br [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomedica, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento - IP e D, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UniVap, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Skin aging is characterized by cellular and molecular alterations. In this context, Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used in vivo to measure these biochemical changes as function of the skin depth. In this study we have tried to correlate spectra from pure amino acids to in vivo spectra from volunteers with different ages. This study was performed on 32 volunteers: 11 from Group A (20-23 years), 11 from Group B (39-42 years) and 10 from Group C (59-62 years). For each group, the Raman spectra were measured on the surface (0 mm), 30 +- 3 mm and 60 +- 3 {mu}m below the surface. The results from intergroup comparisons showed that the oldest group had a prevalence of the tyrosine band, but it also presented a decrease in the band centered at 875 cm{sup -1} of pyrrolidone acid. The amide I band centered at 1637 cm{sup -1} that is attributed to collagen, as well as other proteins and lipid, showed a smaller amount of these biomolecules for Group C, which can be explained by the decrease in collagen concentration as a function of age. (author)

  18. Biochemical characterization of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, G E; Brinkley, A W; Mersinger, C L

    1980-12-01

    We characterized two isolates of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium by conducting conventional biochemical tests and by testing various sterols and glycerolipids as potential growth factors. In media containing cholesterol and plasmenylethanolamine, the tests for nitrate reduction, indole production, and gelatin and starch hydrolyses were negative, and no acid was produced from any of 22 carbohydrates. Both isolates hydrolyzed esculin to esculetin, indicating beta-glycosidase activity. In addition to plasmenylethanolamine, five other lipids which contain an alkenyl ether residue supported growth of Eubacterium strain 403 in a lecithin-cholesterol base medium. Of six steroids tested, cholesterol, cholest-4-en-3-one, cholest-4-en-3 beta-ol (allocholesterol), and androst-5-en-3 beta-ol-17-one supported growth of Eubacterium strain 403. All four steroids were reduced to the 3 beta-ol, 5 beta-H products. The delta 5 steroids cholest-5-en-3 alpha-ol (epicholesterol) and 22,23-bisnor-5-cholenic acid-3-beta-ol were not reduced and did not support growth of the Eubacterium strain.

  19. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, John; Aritua, V.; Mortensen, Carmen Nieves

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between...... pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus......-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re...

  20. Nitric Oxide Deficit Is Part of the Maladaptive Paracrine-Autocrine Response of the Carotid Body to Intermittent Hypoxia in Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, M L

    2015-01-01

    The carotid body functions to maintain the blood gas homeostasis, whereas anomalous carotid chemoreceptor activities could be pathogenic in patients with sleep apnea. Recent findings suggest an upregulation of renin-angiotensin system (Lam SY, Liu Y, Ng KM et al. Exp Physiol 99:220-231, 2014), which could lead to inflammation in the carotid body during intermittent hypoxia (Lam SY, Liu Y, Ng KM et al. Histochem Cell Biol 137:303-317, 2012). In addition, the level of nitric oxide detected in the carotid body was significantly decreased following intermittent hypoxia for days. These locally regulated mechanisms are proposed to be a significant part of the hypoxia-mediated maladaptive changes of the carotid body, which could play a role in the pathophysiological cascade of sleep apnea in patients with an overactivity of the chemoreflex.

  1. Biochemical processes of oligotrophic peat deposits of Vasyugan Mire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Sergeeva, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The problem of peat and mire ecosystems functioning and their rational use is the main problem of biosphere study. This problem also refers to forecasting of biosphere changes results which are global and anthropogenic. According to many scientists' research the portion of mires in earth carbon balance is about 15% of world's stock. The aim of this study is to investigate biochemical processes in oligotrophic deposits in North-eastern part of Vasyugan Mire. The investigations were made on the territory of scientific-research ground (56˚ 03´ and 56˚ 57´ NL, 82˚ 22´ and 82˚ 42´ EL). It is situated between two rivers Bakchar and Iksa (in outskirts of the village Polynyanka, Bakchar region, Tomsk oblast). Evolution of investigated mire massif began with the domination of eutrophic phytocenosis - Filicinae, then sedge. Later transfer into oligotrophic phase was accompanied by formation of meter high-moor peat deposit. The age of three-meter peat deposit reaches four thousand years. Biochemical processes of carbon cycle cover the whole peat deposit, but the process activity and its direction in different layers are defined by genesis and duration of peat formation. So, the number of cellulose-fermenting aerobes in researched peat deposits ranges from 16.8 to 75.5 million CFU/g, and anaerobic bacteria from 9.6 to 48.6 million CFU/g. The high number of aerobes is characteristic for high water levels, organizing by raised bog peats. Their number decreases along the profile in 1.7 - 2 times. The number of microflora in peat deposit is defined by the position in the landscape profile (different geneses), by the depth, by hydrothermic conditions of years and individual months. But microflora activity shows along all depth of peat deposit. We found the same in the process of studying of micromycete complex structure. There was revealed either active component micromycete complex - mycelium, or inert one - spores in a meter layer of peat deposit. If mushrooms

  2. The Biochemical Prognostic Factors of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Won Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT are common in clinical practice. However, the clinical significance of SHT, including prognosis, has not been established. Further clarifying SHT will be critical in devising a management plan and treatment guidelines for SHT patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors of SHT.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of Korean patients who visited the endocrinology outpatient clinic of Severance Hospital from January 2008 to September 2012. Newly-diagnosed patients with SHT were selected and reviewed retrospectively. We compared two groups: the SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group.ResultsThe SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group had initial thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels that were significantly different (P=0.035. In subanalysis for subjects with TSH levels between 5 to 10 µIU/mL, the spontaneous improvement group showed significantly lower antithyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab titer than the SHT maintenance group (P=0.039. Regarding lipid profiles, only triglyceride level, unlike total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, was related to TSH level, which is correlated with the severity of SHT. Diffuse thyroiditis on ultrasonography only contributed to the severity of SHT, not to the prognosis. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and urine iodine excretion, generally regarded as possible prognostic factors, did not show any significant relation with the prognosis and severity of SHT.ConclusionOnly initial TSH level was a definite prognostic factor of SHT. TPO-Ab titer was also a helpful prognostic factor for SHT in cases with mildly elevated TSH. Other than TSH and TPO-Ab, we were unable to validate biochemical prognostic factors in this retrospective study for Korean SHT patients.

  3. THE EVOLUTION OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN THE HONEYBEES’ HAEMOLYMPH (A. M. CARPATHICA COLLECTED IN THE INACTIVE SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGRIPINA SAPCALIU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical analyses of the blood are largely used for the routine diagnosis and especially for the metabolic survey in farm animals. These facts conduct us to the idea that similar analyses, applied on honeybee hemolymph, could be used IN monitoring the healthy state of honeybee colonies. The present studies represent preliminary researches, which aimed to investigate the variability of the main biochemical parameters in the hemolymph of the healthy honeybees (Apis mellifera in inactive season. The researches were carried out on honeybee samples collected from 5 honeybee colonies belonging to a breeding apiary of the Institute for Beekeeping Research and Development from Bucharest. In order to perform the biochemical analyses, the honeybees samples, consisting in 50 individuals on sample (10 individuals/colony were randomly collected and their haemolimph collected, at different time intervals, in inactive season (fall-winter. Totally, there were collected 250 haemolyph samples in a 2 years interval and the following 21 biochemical parameters were analysed: GLU, HDL-c, ALP, T-cho, Tprot, Alb., BUN, LDH, CPK,, Mg, IP, GGT, GOT, GPT, Ca, Cre,, Amy, T–BIL, TG, UA.. The test was carried out after the collection and processing of the samples using the SPOTCHEM EZSP4430, equipment with dry kits, the slides technique, respectively .During the 2nd part of the inactive season, the values of most biochemical parameters increase in different proportions, their levels being maintained also in the first part of the active seasons (April, May, June.The values obtained for the main studied biochemical parameters in the haemolymph of the healthy honeybees collected from honeybee colonies kept in natural conditions show a highly variable evolution in the two consecutive years of experiments during the inactive season.

  4. Uptake, accumulation and some biochemical responses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under the conditions of these increasing zinc concentrations, the highest zinc accumulation was obtained in the roots of the plants treated with 10 mM applications. The zinc concentration in the vegetative parts, was highest in the root and was lowest in the cotyledons. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) value was ...

  5. Biochemical assessement of liver enzymes in immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study aims at the estimation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutmyltransferase GGT (Liver enzymes) in Human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) and/or Acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS) patients in parts of Edo State, Nigeria.

  6. An assessment of biochemical, phytochemical and antinutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absence of phytate and the extremely low levels of both oxalate and hydrogen cyanide in this plant are highly remarkable. Thus, the use of this plant as fodder and its extract as part of animals' diet may not pose any serious health problems to the ruminants eating it. Key words: Anti-nutritional, Animal Feeds, Herbivore, ...

  7. Biochemical composition and calorific value of zooplankton from northern part of Central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nandakumar, K.; Bhat, K.L.; Wagh, A.B.

    Average biomass value of zooplankton obtained was 22.69 ml 100 m-3. Average percentages of lipid, carbohydrate, protein and carbon were 6.3, 6.0, 23.6 and 34.62 respectively. Calorific values ranged between 6217 and 24708 J.g-1 dry wt (8082...

  8. Biochemical study of some environmental pollutants dyes Part II: disperse dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakra, S.; Ahmed, F.A.; Fetyan, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    This work was aimed to develop a method for removal of the dyes color from the textile wastewater that is well be much less costly than the other chemical or physical methods used. It therefore included: 1. Preparation of three disperses dyes. 2. Isolation of dyes degradable microorganisms from wastewater effluents and soil after adding 200 ppm of each dye individually. 3. Decolorisation and biodegradation of the dyes in liquid culture of the isolated bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis). 4. Identification of the probable byproducts by different instruments. 5. Toxicity assessment of the dyes and their biodegraded products

  9. Biochemical investigation of cypermethrin toxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahamna, S; Harzallah, D; Guemache, A; Sekfali, N

    2009-01-01

    cypermethrin on the erythropoiesis. An increase of plasma enzyme activities in GOT, GPT and CPK were recorded, explain a high energy-generating product. An increase, in the plasma enzyme activity in Alkaline phosphatase, related to their role in the cell permeability. The histopathological results showed lesions and morphological changes of hepato-cellular, fibrosis and appearance of inflammatory infiltrate, confirmed disturbances of the biochemical parameters. These changes were much underlines during the animal toxicity.

  10. Biochemical profile of cuttings used for in vitro organogenesis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical profile of cuttings used for in vitro organogenesis of Prunus africana: An endangered species in Cameroon. JG Nzweundji, N Niemenak, O Oumar, JJ Tsafack, K Konan, L Nyochembeng, C Noumi, DT Nehemie, DO Ndoumou ...

  11. Biochemical constituents of seaweeds along the Maharashtra coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Protein, carbohydrate and organic carbon were estimated in 43 marine algal species from different stations along the Maharashtra Coast in India These species showed variation in their biochemical contents Protein varied from 10 to 33% Chlorophyceae...

  12. Seasonal changes in biochemical composition of Holothuria leucospilota (Echinodermata)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayasree, V.; Parulekar, A.H.; Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Biochemical composition of body wall and gonads of Holothuria leucospilota was analysed for protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, dry weight and calorific values and was discussed in relation to its spawning activities. Lipids constituted the major...

  13. Modulation of key biochemical markers relevant to stroke by Antiaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of key biochemical markers relevant to stroke by Antiaris africana leaf extract following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Omotayo B. Ilesanmi, Afolabi C. Akinmoladun, Olanrewaju Sam Olayeriju, Ibrahim Olabayode Saliu, M. Tolulope Olaleye, Afolabi A. Akindahunsi ...

  14. Biochemical and Histological effects of Aqueous extract of Cyperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Biochemical and Histological effects of Triton Wr-1339 and Aqueous extract. 674. INNIH, SO; UBHENIN, AE; ... fatty liver, chronic hepatitis, and cirrhosis is not giving much ..... Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Southern Iran: A Population Based ...

  15. haematological parameters and serum biochemical indices of pre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mrmrsolayiwola

    2012-05-01

    BWSFM) on haematological and serum biochemical parameters in rabbit were studied. Thirty-two (32) cross-bred. (New Zealand-white X Chinchilla) male weaner rabbits aged between 6 and 9 weeks were randomly.

  16. Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of penaeid prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of females belonging to four species of penaeid prawns, viz. Metapenaeus affinis, M. dobsoni, Penaeus merguiensis and Parapenaeopsis stylifera, inhabiting the coastal waters of Goa, India, was estimated...

  17. A Review of the Biochemical and Haematological Effects of Caffeine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review of the Biochemical and Haematological Effects of Caffeine. ... be found in different food and drinks which includes; coffee, tea, chocolate, beverages, ... when taken in excess over a period of time can result in adverse health hazards.

  18. Appraisal of biochemical and genetic diversity of mango cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appraisal of biochemical and genetic diversity of mango cultivars using molecular markers. ... Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the oldest fruit crops and is broadly cultivated worldwide. To determine the level of ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  19. A Simple Approach to Study Designs in Complex Biochemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somdatta Sinha

    Protein sequences. • Biochemical & Genetic information. REVERSE ENGINEERING. LARGE NETWORKS. FORWARD ENGINEERING. All designs that are not physically forbidden are realizable, but not all realizable designs are functionally effective. (in relation to context and constraints of the system and environment).

  20. Evaluation of biochemical changes in unstimulated salivary, calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TORNADO

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... salivary, calcium, phosphorous and total protein during ... teins in saliva are important components and any chan- ... Sialochemical analysis .... quantities of protein utilizing the principal of protein-dye binding. Anal biochem.

  1. Diagnostic utility of clinical and biochemical parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic utility of clinical and biochemical parameters in pancreatic head malignancy ... Department of Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, ..... technical review on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and.

  2. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles of black south african women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with the urban diet composed of more refined carbohydrates and fatty food. ... A significant association was found between insulin sensitivity and BMI and ... anthropometric indicators, biochemical parameters, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus ...

  3. Haematological and serum biochemical profiles of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MOLM) on the haematological and serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens. Fresh Moringa leaves (FML) were shade-dried for four days and milled into meal. A total of two hundred broilers unsexed chickens (Anak strain) were randomly ...

  4. Effect of Probiotics on Serum Biochemical and Blood Constituents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King ... enzyme activities, and hematological and biochemical indices of broiler chickens challenged with ..... Brancaster and Enteritidis from humans and broiler.

  5. Growth and Biochemical performance of Cassava-Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    the crude oil polluted soil improved the growth and biochemical performance of cassava. For the qualitative .... delay in the rate of soil recovery and a decrease in crop yield ... enhances biodegradation of polluted soil presumably by removing ...

  6. Anthropometric and Biochemical Profiles of Black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    Anthropometric and biochemical profiles were determined according to standard methods. From the ... Email: bejufemi@yahoo.co.uk ... 995 plots, Pahameng 1 711, Joe Slovo 1 359, and. Botchabela 2 ...... York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Steyn K ...

  7. Decoupling of Growth from Production of Biochemicals and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Songyuan

    With increasing awareness of sustainability in our current society, alternative approaches to produce fuels and petro-derived chemicals are required. Biofuels and biochemicals produced from microbial cell factories provide an alternative to current fossil based chemicals. Meanwhile, microbial cell...

  8. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzullo, Leslie [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  9. Biochemical and Haematological Indices of Weanly Albino Rats Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is a public health problem in Nigeria accounting for more than 50% of ... weanly albino rats using nutritional, biochemical ... groundnut (16%), soy beans (16%), crayfish ... consumption was observed in rats on PC and.

  10. Biochemical evaluation of Gmelina arborea fruit meal as a swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    Division of Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Animal Production,. University of Ilorin ... certain biochemical parameters including blood enzyme profile of wean pigs. 16-piglets ..... 1992) who reported similar results in guinea fowls fed test ...

  11. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to the biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, the full experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experi...

  12. Psoriatic arthritis: An assessment of clinical, biochemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , epidemiological, clinical and radiological studies of South African (SA) patients are scarce. Objectives. To assess clinical, biochemical and radiological features in a single-centre SA cohort. Methods. We conducted a prospective assessment ...

  13. an improved solution of first order kinetics for biochemical oxygen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Accuracies of these methods were evaluated using relative error, Akaike ... Keywords: Wastewater, Environmental Engineering, Biochemical Oxygen Demand Kinetic Parameters,. Statistical ... evaluating organic pollution level and quality of wastewaters. ... compounds ...... method can be applied on electronic devices, and.

  14. Part two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Korsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

    A novel micro combined heat and power system and a dynamic model thereof were presented in part one of the publication. In the following, the control system and dynamic performance of the system are presented. The model is subjected to a measured consumption pattern of 25 Danish single family...... houses with measurements of heat, power and hot water consumption every 15th minute during one year. Three scenarios are analyzed ranging from heat following only (grid compensation for electricity) to heat and power following with net export of electricity during high and peak load hours. Average...

  15. Combining phytoextraction and biochar addition improves soil biochemical properties in a soil contaminated with Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huanping; Li, Zhian; Fu, Shenglei; Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of phytoremediation is to improve ecosystem functioning. Soil biochemical properties are considered as effective indicators of soil quality and are sensitive to various environmental stresses, including heavy metal contamination. The biochemical response in a soil contaminated with cadmium was tested after several treatments aimed to reduce heavy metal availability including liming, biochar addition and phytoextraction using Amaranthus tricolor L. Two biochars were added to the soil: eucalyptus pyrolysed at 600 °C (EB) and poultry litter at 400 °C (PLB). Two liming treatments were chosen with the aim of bringing soil pH to the same values as in the treatments EB and PLB. The properties studied included soil microbial biomass C, soil respiration and the activities of invertase, β-glucosidase, β-glucosaminidase, urease and phosphomonoesterase. Both phytoremediation and biochar addition improved soil biochemical properties, although results were enzyme specific. For biochar addition these changes were partly, but not exclusively, mediated by alterations in soil pH. A careful choice of biochar must be undertaken to optimize the remediation process from the point of view of metal phytoextraction and soil biological activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemical analysis of force-sensitive responses using a large-scale cell stretch device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Derrick J; Ewald, Makena L; Kim, Timothy; Yamada, Soichiro

    2017-09-03

    Physical force has emerged as a key regulator of tissue homeostasis, and plays an important role in embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and disease progression. Currently, the details of protein interactions under elevated physical stress are largely missing, therefore, preventing the fundamental, molecular understanding of mechano-transduction. This is in part due to the difficulty isolating large quantities of cell lysates exposed to force-bearing conditions for biochemical analysis. We designed a simple, easy-to-fabricate, large-scale cell stretch device for the analysis of force-sensitive cell responses. Using proximal biotinylation (BioID) analysis or phospho-specific antibodies, we detected force-sensitive biochemical changes in cells exposed to prolonged cyclic substrate stretch. For example, using promiscuous biotin ligase BirA* tagged α-catenin, the biotinylation of myosin IIA increased with stretch, suggesting the close proximity of myosin IIA to α-catenin under a force bearing condition. Furthermore, using phospho-specific antibodies, Akt phosphorylation was reduced upon stretch while Src phosphorylation was unchanged. Interestingly, phosphorylation of GSK3β, a downstream effector of Akt pathway, was also reduced with stretch, while the phosphorylation of other Akt effectors was unchanged. These data suggest that the Akt-GSK3β pathway is force-sensitive. This simple cell stretch device enables biochemical analysis of force-sensitive responses and has potential to uncover molecules underlying mechano-transduction.

  17. Biochem-Env, a plateform of environmental biochemistry for research

    OpenAIRE

    GRONDIN, VIRGINIE; Nelieu, Sylvie; Crouzet, Olivier; Hedde, Mickaël; Mougin, Christian

    2016-01-01

    As a service of the research infrastructure AnaEE-France (http://www.anaee-france.fr/fr/), the platform Biochem-Env (http://www.biochemenv.fr) offers skills and innovative analytical tools for biochemical characterizations of soils, sediments, and micro-macro-organisms living in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The platform provides methods validated according to Quality Guidelines, i.e. to measure global soil enzymatic activities. Our robot-supported protocols allow great number of enzyme...

  18. Biochemical basis for the action of radioprotective drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romantsev, E.F.; Blokhina, V.D.; Zhulanova, Z.I.; Koshcheenko, N.N.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis of complex biochemical mechanism of action of radioprotective drugs is described. Shortly after injection of radioprotective aminothiols into animals the inhibition of radiosensitive biochemical processes: DNA and RNA synthesis, protein synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation has been observed. The molecular mechanism of these phenomena consists of radioprotectors ability to form adsorption, thioester, amide, and disulphide bonds with appropriate enzymes. The curve reflecting the formation and breakdown of mixed disulphides between radioprotectors and proteins coincides well with that reflecting the radioprotective effect dependence on time. The radiobiological significance of molecular interactions observed may be interpreted as the diminution in ''spoiled'' molecules formation (inhibition of replication) and elevation in repartion rate. The inhibition of biochemical processes has the reversible nature and last for short time. The drugs acting according to so-called oxygen effect protect also by means of biochemical mechanisms. The molecular mechanism is mediated through their ability to bind to receptors, and biologically important molecules and macromolecules. As a result the inhibition of radiosensitive processes occurs, the ''spoiled'' molecules number is diminished and reparation takes place more easily. The idea on the complex biochemical mechanism of action of radioprotectors correlates with the proposal on complex biochemical mechanism responsible for interphase death occured after irradiation

  19. Biochemical analysis of CTLA-4 immunoreactive material from human blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennert Kate

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CTLA-4 was initially described as a membrane-bound molecule that inhibited lymphocyte activation by interacting with B7.1 and B7.2 molecules on antigen presenting cells. Alternative splicing of mRNA encoding the CTLA-4 receptor leads to the production of a molecule (sCTLA-4 that lacks a membrane anchor and is therefore secreted into the extracellular space. Despite studies finding that people with autoimmune disease more frequently express high levels of sCTLA-4 in their blood than apparently healthy people, the significance of these findings is unclear. Methods Molecules isolated from blood using CTLA-4 specific antibodies were analyzed with ligand binding assays, mass spectroscopy, and biochemical fractionation in an effort to increase our understanding of CTLA-4 immunoreactive material. Results Mass spectroscopy analysis of the molecules recognized by multiple CTLA-4-specific antibodies failed to identify any CTLA-4 protein. Even though these molecules bind to the CTLA-4 receptors B7.1 and B7.2, they also exhibit properties common to immunoglobulins. Conclusion We have identified molecules in blood that are recognized by CTLA-4 specific antibodies but also exhibit properties of immunoglobulins. Our data indicates that what has been called sCTLA-4 is not a direct product of the CTLA-4 gene, and that the CTLA-4 protein is not part of this molecule. These results may explain why the relationship of sCTLA-4 to immune system activity has been difficult to elucidate.

  20. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  1. Modeling biochemical transformation processes and information processing with Narrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palfreyman Niall M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Software tools that model and simulate the dynamics of biological processes and systems are becoming increasingly important. Some of these tools offer sophisticated graphical user interfaces (GUIs, which greatly enhance their acceptance by users. Such GUIs are based on symbolic or graphical notations used to describe, interact and communicate the developed models. Typically, these graphical notations are geared towards conventional biochemical pathway diagrams. They permit the user to represent the transport and transformation of chemical species and to define inhibitory and stimulatory dependencies. A critical weakness of existing tools is their lack of supporting an integrative representation of transport, transformation as well as biological information processing. Results Narrator is a software tool facilitating the development and simulation of biological systems as Co-dependence models. The Co-dependence Methodology complements the representation of species transport and transformation together with an explicit mechanism to express biological information processing. Thus, Co-dependence models explicitly capture, for instance, signal processing structures and the influence of exogenous factors or events affecting certain parts of a biological system or process. This combined set of features provides the system biologist with a powerful tool to describe and explore the dynamics of life phenomena. Narrator's GUI is based on an expressive graphical notation which forms an integral part of the Co-dependence Methodology. Behind the user-friendly GUI, Narrator hides a flexible feature which makes it relatively easy to map models defined via the graphical notation to mathematical formalisms and languages such as ordinary differential equations, the Systems Biology Markup Language or Gillespie's direct method. This powerful feature facilitates reuse, interoperability and conceptual model development. Conclusion Narrator is a

  2. Modeling biochemical transformation processes and information processing with Narrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Johannes J; Fuss, Hendrik; Palfreyman, Niall M; Dubitzky, Werner

    2007-03-27

    Software tools that model and simulate the dynamics of biological processes and systems are becoming increasingly important. Some of these tools offer sophisticated graphical user interfaces (GUIs), which greatly enhance their acceptance by users. Such GUIs are based on symbolic or graphical notations used to describe, interact and communicate the developed models. Typically, these graphical notations are geared towards conventional biochemical pathway diagrams. They permit the user to represent the transport and transformation of chemical species and to define inhibitory and stimulatory dependencies. A critical weakness of existing tools is their lack of supporting an integrative representation of transport, transformation as well as biological information processing. Narrator is a software tool facilitating the development and simulation of biological systems as Co-dependence models. The Co-dependence Methodology complements the representation of species transport and transformation together with an explicit mechanism to express biological information processing. Thus, Co-dependence models explicitly capture, for instance, signal processing structures and the influence of exogenous factors or events affecting certain parts of a biological system or process. This combined set of features provides the system biologist with a powerful tool to describe and explore the dynamics of life phenomena. Narrator's GUI is based on an expressive graphical notation which forms an integral part of the Co-dependence Methodology. Behind the user-friendly GUI, Narrator hides a flexible feature which makes it relatively easy to map models defined via the graphical notation to mathematical formalisms and languages such as ordinary differential equations, the Systems Biology Markup Language or Gillespie's direct method. This powerful feature facilitates reuse, interoperability and conceptual model development. Narrator is a flexible and intuitive systems biology tool. It is

  3. Biochemical failure after radical external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Satoshi; Imada, Hajime; Kato, Fumio; Yahara, Katsuya; Morioka, Tomoaki; Ohguri, Takayuki; Nakano, Keita; Korogi, Yukunori

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate biochemical failures after radical external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. A total of 143 patients with prostate cancer (5 cases in stage A2, 95 in stage B and 43 in stage C; 18 in low risk group, 37 in intermediate risk group, 67 in high risk group and 21 in unknown group) were included in this study. Patients of stage A2 and B underwent external irradiation of 46 Gy to the prostate gland and seminal vesicle and additional 20 Gy to the prostate gland, while patients of stage C underwent external irradiation of 66 Gy to the prostate gland and seminal vesicle including 46 Gy to the pelvis. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy was done in 66 cases, and long-term hormonal therapy in 75 cases; two cases were treated with radiation therapy alone. The 3-year relapse free survival rates by stage A2, B and C were 100%, 96.7% and 88.1%, respectively. The 3-year relapse free survival rates by low, intermediate and high risk groups were 100%, 92.3% and 89.7%, respectively. Biochemical failure was noted in nine cases during the average observation term of 32.2 months; in this group the median of prostate specific antigen (PSA) value was 2.6 ng/ml, the doubling time was 8.6 months, and the term of biochemical failure was 33.2 months. Six of eight cases with biochemical failure were the neoadjuvant hormonal therapy group, but biochemical no evidence of disease (bNED) curve showed no significant difference between neoadjuvant and long-term hormonal groups. It is supposed that unnecessary hormonal therapies were performed based on the nonspecific diagnosis of biochemical failure after radical radiotherapy in our group of patients. A precise criterion of biochemical failure after radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer is necessary. (author)

  4. (segunda parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Oliva-Martínez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es la continuación de otro anterior (Oliva, 2004, ambos dedicados al estudio de la importancia del pensamiento analógico en la construcción histórica de la noción de fuerza gravitatoria y del modelo de Sistema Solar. En aquella ocasión analizamos dicho papel durante el período comprendido desde las antiguas civilizaciones hasta llegar a la revolución copernicana con científicos como Copérnico, Gilbert, Kepler o el propio Galileo. En esta segunda parte, se continúa con algunos de los razonamientos analógicos proporcionados desde la vertiente mecanicista, capitaneada por Descartes y desde la tradición subsiguiente que se desarrolló en línea con la utilización del método de la analogía como criterio argumentativo (Huyghens, Hooke, Bernoulli, etc.. Dedicamos asimismo un capítulo aparte a la figura de Newton, quien continúa con dicha tradición en su intento de explicar la naturaleza de la gravitación. Finalmente se procede, a modo de síntesis, a realizar una clasificación de distintos tipos de razonamientos analógicos aportados en el desarrollo histórico en torno a estos temas, estudiando el papel científico y divulgativo de cada uno

  5. Stochastic theory of nonequilibrium steady states. Part II: Applications in chemical biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Hao; Qian Min; Qian Hong

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) has a natural application in open biochemical systems which have sustained source(s) and sink(s) in terms of a difference in their chemical potentials. After a brief introduction in Section , in Part II of this review, we present the widely studied biochemical enzyme kinetics, the workhorse of biochemical dynamic modeling, in terms of the theory of NESS (Section ). We then show that several phenomena in enzyme kinetics, including a newly discovered activation–inhibition switching (Section ) and the well-known non-Michaelis–Menten-cooperativity (Section ) and kinetic proofreading (Section ), are all consequences of the NESS of driven biochemical systems with associated cycle fluxes. Section is focused on nonlinear and nonequilibrium systems of biochemical reactions. We use the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC), one of the most important biochemical signaling networks, as an example (Section ). It starts with a brief introduction of the Delbrück–Gillespie process approach to mesoscopic biochemical kinetics (Sections ). We shall discuss the zeroth-order ultrasensitivity of PdPC in terms of a new concept — the temporal cooperativity (Sections ), as well as PdPC with feedback which leads to biochemical nonlinear bistability (Section ). Also, both are nonequilibrium phenomena. PdPC with a nonlinear feedback is kinetically isomorphic to a self-regulating gene expression network, hence the theory of NESS discussed here could have wide applications to many other biochemical systems.

  6. Sublethal microcystin exposure and biochemical outcomes among hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D Hilborn

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are commonly-occurring contaminants of surface waters worldwide. Microcystins, potent hepatotoxins, are among the best characterized cyanotoxins. During November, 2001, a group of 44 hemodialysis patients were exposed to microcystins via contaminated dialysate. Serum microcystin concentrations were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which measures free serum microcystin LR equivalents (ME. We describe serum ME concentrations and biochemical outcomes among a subset of patients during 8 weeks following exposure. Thirteen patients were included; 6 were males, patients' median age was 45 years (range 16-80, one was seropositive for hepatitis B surface antigen. The median serum ME concentration was 0.33 ng/mL (range: <0.16-0.96. One hundred thirty nine blood samples were collected following exposure. Patients' biochemical outcomes varied, but overall indicated a mixed liver injury. Linear regression evaluated each patient's weekly mean biochemical outcome with their maximum serum ME concentration; a measure of the extrinsic pathway of clotting function, prothrombin time, was negatively and significantly associated with serum ME concentrations. This group of exposed patients' biochemical outcomes display evidence of a mixed liver injury temporally associated with microcystin exposure. Interpretation of biochemical outcomes are complicated by the study population's underlying chronic disease status. It is clear that dialysis patients are a distinct 'at risk' group for cyanotoxin exposures due to direct intravenous exposure to dialysate prepared from surface drinking water supplies. Careful monitoring and treatment of water supplies used to prepare dialysate is required to prevent future cyanotoxin exposure events.

  7. Changes in Biochemical Properties of the Blood in Winter Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleglow, Aneta; Marchewka, Jakub; Marchewka, Anna; Kulpa, Jan

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of winter swimming on biochemical indicators of the blood. The subjects - winter swimmers - belonged to the Krakow Walrus Club "Kaloryfer" - "The Heater". The study group consisted of 11 men, aged 30-50 years, 'walrusing' throughout the whole season from November to March. Statistically significant changes throughout the 'walrusing' season were observed for the following biochemical parameters: a decrease in sodium (mmol/1), chloride (mmol/1), alpha-2 globulin(g/1), gamma globulin (g/1), IgG (g/1), and an increase in albumin (g/1), indicator A/G, IgA (g/l ), Herpes simplex virus IgM. Seasonal effort of winter swimmers has a positive influence on biochemical blood parameters.

  8. Designing Epigenome Editors: Considerations of Biochemical and Locus Specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Dilara; Keung, Albert J

    2018-01-01

    The advent of locus-specific protein recruitment technologies has enabled a new class of studies in chromatin biology. Epigenome editors enable biochemical modifications of chromatin at almost any specific endogenous locus. Their locus specificity unlocks unique information including the functional roles of distinct modifications at specific genomic loci. Given the growing interest in using these tools for biological and translational studies, there are many specific design considerations depending on the scientific question or clinical need. Here we present and discuss important design considerations and challenges regarding the biochemical and locus specificities of epigenome editors. These include how to account for the complex biochemical diversity of chromatin; control for potential interdependency of epigenome editors and their resultant modifications; avoid sequestration effects; quantify the locus specificity of epigenome editors; and improve locus specificity by considering concentration, affinity, avidity, and sequestration effects.

  9. The Biochemical Toxin Arsenal from Ant Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Touchard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ants (Formicidae represent a taxonomically diverse group of hymenopterans with over 13,000 extant species, the majority of which inject or spray secretions from a venom gland. The evolutionary success of ants is mostly due to their unique eusociality that has permitted them to develop complex collaborative strategies, partly involving their venom secretions, to defend their nest against predators, microbial pathogens, ant competitors, and to hunt prey. Activities of ant venom include paralytic, cytolytic, haemolytic, allergenic, pro-inflammatory, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and pain-producing pharmacologic activities, while non-toxic functions include roles in chemical communication involving trail and sex pheromones, deterrents, and aggregators. While these diverse activities in ant venoms have until now been largely understudied due to the small venom yield from ants, modern analytical and venomic techniques are beginning to reveal the diversity of toxin structure and function. As such, ant venoms are distinct from other venomous animals, not only rich in linear, dimeric and disulfide-bonded peptides and bioactive proteins, but also other volatile and non-volatile compounds such as alkaloids and hydrocarbons. The present review details the unique structures and pharmacologies of known ant venom proteinaceous and alkaloidal toxins and their potential as a source of novel bioinsecticides and therapeutic agents.

  10. Biochemical, Environmental Engineering and Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.A.E.; Ibrahem, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    to Environmental Considerations - The environmental impacts of a proposed wastewater treatment facility are as important,t, if not more so, as cost considerations, a few comments regarding applicable environmental considerations that must also be addressed are appropriate. - The environmental evaluations should focus on social, technical, ecological, economic, political, legal, and institutional (STEEPLI) criteria. - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) prepared for any proposed governmental action that is determined to have a significant impact on the quality of the human environment. - The regulations ensure that the probable environmental effects are identified, that a reasonable number of alternative actions and their environmental impacts are considered, that the environmental information is available for public understanding and scrutiny, and that the public and governmental agencies participate as a part of the decision process. - All pertinent regulations and the inherent participate afforded must be disclosed in the EIS. - National Environmental Policy Act of USA (NEP A ) neither prohibits nor permits any action but requires full disclosure of environmental information and public participation in the decision making process

  11. The Biochemical Toxin Arsenal from Ant Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchard, Axel; Aili, Samira R.; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Escoubas, Pierre; Orivel, Jérôme; Nicholson, Graham M.; Dejean, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Ants (Formicidae) represent a taxonomically diverse group of hymenopterans with over 13,000 extant species, the majority of which inject or spray secretions from a venom gland. The evolutionary success of ants is mostly due to their unique eusociality that has permitted them to develop complex collaborative strategies, partly involving their venom secretions, to defend their nest against predators, microbial pathogens, ant competitors, and to hunt prey. Activities of ant venom include paralytic, cytolytic, haemolytic, allergenic, pro-inflammatory, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and pain-producing pharmacologic activities, while non-toxic functions include roles in chemical communication involving trail and sex pheromones, deterrents, and aggregators. While these diverse activities in ant venoms have until now been largely understudied due to the small venom yield from ants, modern analytical and venomic techniques are beginning to reveal the diversity of toxin structure and function. As such, ant venoms are distinct from other venomous animals, not only rich in linear, dimeric and disulfide-bonded peptides and bioactive proteins, but also other volatile and non-volatile compounds such as alkaloids and hydrocarbons. The present review details the unique structures and pharmacologies of known ant venom proteinaceous and alkaloidal toxins and their potential as a source of novel bioinsecticides and therapeutic agents. PMID:26805882

  12. From chemical or biochemical microsensors to fast detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistre, J.; Dejous, C.; Rebiere, D.

    2011-01-01

    The market of chemical and biochemical sensors is increasing and represents a large opportunity. The problem of chemical and biochemicaldetection involves the use of one/several transducing layer/interface. Several types of detection exist. Among them, acoustic wave devices present many advantages. The paper deals with surface acoustic waves devices and their implementation. The role and properties of the sensing layer are discussed for chemical sensors and biochemical sensors as well. Examples of realizations are presented taking into account the microfluidic approach.

  13. Diagnosis Of Inherited Neurometabolic Disorders : A Biochemical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed a rapid increase in the knowledge of the inherited neurometabolic disorders. The precise diagnosis of these disorders which is a challenge to the physician can be best accomplished by biochemical methods. Screening of clinically selected patients with simple chemical urine tests and routine blood chemistry investigations followed by measurement of specific metabolites and assay of the relevant enzymes confirms the diagnosis in most cases. Biochemical diagnosis of inherited neurometabolic disorders although expensive is rapid and confirmatory and therefore aids in treatment and further prevention of these rare disorders.

  14. Physiological and molecular biochemical mechanisms of bile formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich

    2013-01-01

    This review considers the physiological and molecular biochemical mechanisms of bile formation. The composition of bile and structure of a bile canaliculus, biosynthesis and conjugation of bile acids, bile phospholipids, formation of bile micellar structures, and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids are described. In general, the review focuses on the molecular physiology of the transporting systems of the hepatocyte sinusoidal and apical membranes. Knowledge of physiological and biochemical basis of bile formation has implications for understanding the mechanisms of development of pathological processes, associated with diseases of the liver and biliary tract. PMID:24259965

  15. Principal component analysis of tomato genotypes based on some morphological and biochemical quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glogovac Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates variability of tomato genotypes based on morphological and biochemical fruit traits. Experimental material is a part of tomato genetic collection from Institute of Filed and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Serbia. Genotypes were analyzed for fruit mass, locule number, index of fruit shape, fruit colour, dry matter content, total sugars, total acidity, lycopene and vitamin C. Minimum, maximum and average values and main indicators of variability (CV and σ were calculated. Principal component analysis was performed to determinate variability source structure. Four principal components, which contribute 93.75% of the total variability, were selected for analysis. The first principal component is defined by vitamin C, locule number and index of fruit shape. The second component is determined by dry matter content, and total acidity, the third by lycopene, fruit mass and fruit colour. Total sugars had the greatest part in the fourth component.

  16. biochemical and haematological findings in alcohol consumers in Ile

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Effect of drinking patterns on biochemical and haematological parameters was conducted on ... disease depends on a variety of factors, including genetic ... by cirrhosis, cancer and violent deaths. .... (1985) stated that the marked influence of alcohol ... The relationship between alcohol consumption, health indicators and.

  17. Effect of Probiotics on Serum Biochemical and Blood Constituents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the effects of two commercial probiotics (Toyocerin and CloSTAT) on serum enzyme activities, and hematological and biochemical indices of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium (ST). Methods: The chicks received one of the following treatments at 0 day of age: ...

  18. Effect of genotype on haematology and biochemical parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frizzle n = 33, Naked neck, n= 33 and Normal n = 33) were generated from 36 matured local chickens and used for the study to determine the effect of genotype on hematological and biochemical parameters of local chicken in the humid ...

  19. Serum biochemical indices of Finisher Broiler Chickens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4 week feeding trial was conducted using 180 five-week old Hubbard broiler chickens to determine the effect of feeding variously processed roselle(Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds on serum biochemical indices with a view to determining the potential of roselle seed as an alternative to soybeans. Five broiler finisher diets were ...

  20. Some Biochemical and Haematological Studies on the Prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    Printed in Nigeria. Some Biochemical and Haematological Studies on the Prevalence of Congenital Malaria in. Ilorin, Nigeria. Olatunji M. KOLAWOLE. 1 ... appropriate information filled such as maternal age, parity, past clinical history of malaria, anti malaria drug (such as chloroquine, amodiaquine in combination with.

  1. Development of a new first-aid biochemical detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingfei; Liao, Haiyang; Su, Shilin; Ding, Hao; Liu, Suquan

    2016-10-01

    The traditional biochemical detector exhibits poor adaptability, inconvenient carrying and slow detection, which can't meet the needs of first-aid under field condition like natural or man-made disasters etc. Therefore a scheme of first-aid biochemical detector based on MOMES Micro Spectrometer, UV LED and Photodiode was proposed. An optical detection structure combined continuous spectrum sweep with fixed wavelength measurement was designed, which adopted mobile detection optical path consisting of Micro Spectrometer and Halogen Lamp to detect Chloride (Cl-), Creatinine (Cre), Glucose (Glu), Hemoglobin (Hb). The UV LED and Photodiode were designed to detect Potassium (K-), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Sodium (Na+). According to the field diagnosis and treatment requirements, we designed the embedded control hardware circuit and software system, the prototype of first-aid biochemical detector was developed and the clinical trials were conducted. Experimental results show that the sample's absorbance repeatability is less than 2%, the max coefficient of variation (CV) in the batch repeatability test of all 7 biochemical parameters in blood samples is 4.68%, less than the clinical requirements 10%, the correlation coefficient (R2) in the clinical contrast test with AU5800 is almost greater than 0.97. To sum up, the prototype meets the requirements of clinical application.

  2. Biochemical and genetic diagnosis of Smith-Lemli- Opitz syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clinical spectrum of manifestations is broad, ... delay as well as selfinjurious behaviour and autism are reported. ... recessive disorder that is more common than other defects in cholesterol biosynthesis. ... To perform biochemical and genetic workups in four South African families of European ancestry with suspected ...

  3. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  4. Biochemical correlates in an animal model of depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    A valid animal model of depression was used to explore specific adrenergic receptor differences between rats exhibiting aberrant behavior and control groups. Preliminary experiments revealed a distinct upregulation of hippocampal beta-receptors (as compared to other brain regions) in those animals acquiring a response deficit as a result of exposure to inescapable footshock. Concurrent studies using standard receptor binding techniques showed no large changes in the density of alpha-adrenergic, serotonergic, or dopaminergic receptor densities. This led to the hypothesis that the hippocampal beta-receptor in responses deficient animals could be correlated with the behavioral changes seen after exposure to the aversive stimulus. Normalization of the behavior through the administration of antidepressants could be expected to reverse the biochemical changes if these are related to the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. This study makes three important points: (1) there is a relevant biochemical change in the hippocampus of response deficient rats which occurs in parallel to a well-defined behavior, (2) the biochemical and behavioral changes are normalized by antidepressant treatments exhibiting both serotonergic and adrenergic mechanisms of action, and (3) the mode of action of antidepressants in this model is probably a combination of serotonergic and adrenergic influences modulating the hippocampal beta-receptor. These results are discussed in relation to anatomical and biochemical aspects of antidepressant action

  5. Biochemical changes induced by five pathogenic fungi on seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different biochemical analysis were carried out to determine the changes induced by some fungi inoculated on Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed for 14days. The inoculated fungi are Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem, Aspergillus flavus Link Ex fr, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht, Penicillium chrysogenum Thom and Penicillium ...

  6. Biochemical markers predictive for bone marrow involvement in systemic mastocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, Marjolein L.; van Doormaal, Jasper J.; van Doormaal, Frederiek F.; Kluin, Philip M.; van der Veer, Eveline; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; Kema, Ido P.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by bone marrow involvement, which requires a bone marrow biopsy for diagnostic work-up. We questioned whether bone marrow involvement could be predicted using biochemical markers. We selected patients with various symptoms suggestive of indolent systemic

  7. Egg quality parameters and blood biochemical profile of six strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six different poultry strains (Indigenous chicken, Broiler, Turkey, Geese, Duck and Guinea fowl) were studied under extensive system of management to investigate the effect of rearing system on their egg quality and the blood biochemical profile, respectively. Birds used for the study were obtained from four different ...

  8. Haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African dwarf goats fed ensiled cassava leaves with molasses and caged layer waste. Eighteen West African dwarf goats were randomly assigned to three experimental diets consisting of cassava leaves ensiled alone ...

  9. Erythrocyte indices and serum biochemical constituents of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) four weeks old Ross breed broiler finisher birds were used to study the effect of feeding maggot meal as a replacement for fish meal on erythrocyte indices and serum biochemical constituents. The birds were divided into 5 treatment groups identified as T1, T2, T3 , T4 and T5 with 24 birds per ...

  10. Effect Of Chromium- Picolinat On Biochemical And Histopathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromium III tris (picolinate) [Cr(pic)3]is a popular nutritional supplement; however its safety has been questioned, especially with regard to its ability to act as a clastogen. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biochemical and morphological changes in the liver following oral administration of Cr-picolinate and ...

  11. Haematological and Serum Bio-Chemical Parameters of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and Serum Bio-Chemical Parameters of West African Dwarf and Kalahari Red Goats in the Humid Tropics. ... Haematological results showed that white blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin ...

  12. Complement Levels and Haemate-Biochemical Parameters as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complement levels and haemato-biochemical parameters in West African Dwarf (WAD) and Borno White (BW) goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense were investigated. Parasitaemia was established in both breeds of goats by day 7 post-infection. Peak parasitaemia of 7.5 x 103/µL for WAD goats was ...

  13. Insulin-mimetic activity of stevioside on diabetic rats: biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical, molecular and histopathological studies have been done to evaluate the therapeutic effect of stevioside on minimizing levels of glucose and its ... For mRNA expression, stevioside up-regulated the expressions of PK and IRS-1 genes, which are down-regulated in diabetic rats, and was very effective in the ...

  14. Clinico-haematological and serum biochemical alterations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An increase in serum CRE and BUN values were recorded in all cases of pyometra which reduced to lower levels during both treatments in follow-ups. All the haemato-biochemical parameters were comparable to their respective reference values after either medicinal treatment or ovariohysterectomy of dogs. Thus the dogs ...

  15. Pattern Of Biochemical Derangements Seen In Chronic Renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the pattern of biochemical derangements in advanced renal failure patients. Subjects and Methods: Ninety adult patients [54 males and 36 females] were recruited from the renal clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu over a period of one year. History and physical ...

  16. Biochemical and histological evidences for the antitumor potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and histological evidences for the antitumor potential of Teucrium Oliverianum and Rhazya stricta in chemically-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. ... Photomicrograph of liver tissue sections of rats in HCC revealed hepatic parenchyma with foci of anaplastic hepatocellular carcinoma as well as other foci of ...

  17. Haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of north western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed to provide baseline data regarding haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of Gaddi sheep found in north western Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Each random sample was collected from 45 Gaddi sheep reared in government sheep breeding farm Tal, Hamirpur, India, during ...

  18. Article Neurotransmitters – A biochemical view | Shalayel | Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neurotransmission at most if not all synapses is chemical and is of great biochemical, physiological and pharmacological importance. Neurons communicate with each other at synapses by a process called synaptic transmission in which the release of small quantities of chemical messengers, called neurotransmitters ...

  19. Vitamin b 12 supplementation: effects on some biochemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenytoin is known to have some toxicological implications. Vitamin B12 supplementation during phenytoin administration was investigated to assess the benefits and risks of single vitamin supplementation. This study evaluated the biochemical and haematological effects of vitamin B12 on phenytoin toxicity. Twenty-four ...

  20. Effect of natural growth promoters on immunity, and biochemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biochemical and haematological parameters of broiler chickens. Syed Muddassar ... acids, phytobiotics, and their combinations) as feed additives in poultry feed. Methods: Different feed ... by nutrition, season, climate change, age, sex, type of birds and ... glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low ...

  1. Biochemical response of ouda sheep to water contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, biochemical examinations of fasting blood glucose(FBGL), total serum protein(TSP), serum albumin(S.ALB), blood urea nitrogen(BUN), serum creatinine(S.CREAT.), serum phosphate(S.PO4), aspartate ... hours of the experiment following standard procedures. The result showed that all the parameters measured were ...

  2. Biochemical evaluation of Gmelina arborea fruit meal as a swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Gmelina arborea fruits (GAF) meal on haematology and certain biochemical parameters including blood ... regards to blood urea nitrogen, creatinine in blood and urine and uric acids) though not significantly as the dietary inclusion level of raw GAF meal increased.

  3. studies on blood and plasma biochemical characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A study to determine the blood parameters and plasma biochemical values of ... highest in animals at the 4th month state (9.75g/dl) and lowest at the 12th ... study is indicative of satisfactory physiological, nutritional and pathological ... domestication and integration into the micro-livestock farming system is ..... Principles and.

  4. Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary supplementation with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. ... Furthermore, high dietary supplementation of vitamin E showed no deleterious effects on rats and no pathological changes in the liver, kidney and heart tissues were observed in the ...

  5. Serum Biochemical Changes Associated With The Digestibility Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum Biochemical Changes Associated With The Digestibility Of Raw And Heat Processed Cajanus cajan Seeds In Rats. ... The level of anti-nutritive food toxicants in exotic breed of Cajanus cajan L. (pigeon pea) was evaluated in this study using an animal model experiment in which animals were fed with raw and heat ...

  6. Evaluation of biogas production rate and biochemical changes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of biogas generation and biochemical changes in pig dung used in a simple mobile biogas digester designed and constructed at the Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria were evaluated. Measurable gas production started 4 days after feeding the digester with ...

  7. Haematological and Serum Biochemical Variables in rats Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematology and serum biochemical effects of oral administration of the ethanolic extract of the root of Moringa oleifera at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg were investigated in 30 mated female Wistar rats. The rats were assigned into five groups of six rats each. Group A was given 50mg/kg of the extract; group B, 100mg/kg; ...

  8. Biological and biochemical evaluation of some prepared high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological and biochemical evaluation of some prepared high antioxidant fruit beverages as functional foods. W A El-Malky ... The beverage which contain mango, red grape, carrot and tomato was the best prepared beverages according to the sensory evaluation, chemical composition and antioxidant activity. The high ...

  9. An evaluation of solutions to moment method of biochemical oxygen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluated selected solutions of moment method in respect to Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) kinetics with the aim of ascertain error free solution. Domestic - institutional wastewaters were collected two - weekly for three months from waste - stabilization ponds in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile - Ife.

  10. Laying performance, haematology and serum biochemical profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to compare the effects of unfermented and fermented African locust bean on laying performance, haematology and serum biochemical profile of hens in a twelve week feeding trial. The unfermented African locust bean (UALB) contained seeds that were dehulled and boiled in water, without going ...

  11. Haematological and biochemical values of 10 green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divers, S J; Redmayne, G; Aves, E K

    1996-03-02

    Ten clinically healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana) imported from South America were examined, and haematological and biochemical measurements were made on samples of blood. This paper describes the methods of blood sampling, handling and laboratory analysis, and presents the results as a set of normal blood ranges for the green iguana.

  12. Fragrance analysis using molecular and biochemical methods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Biochemical analysis of aroma was performed with the 1.7% KOH solution and molecular analysis of aroma was carried out with microsatellite markers present on chromosome 8 (BAD2, BADEX7-5, SCUSSR1) to determine the extent of association between trait, marker and chromosome 8. Among these markers, BAD2 ...

  13. Serum biochemical and liver enzymes changes in dogs with single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serum biochemical changes that occur in dogs with single and conjunct experimental infections of Trypanosoma brucei and Ancylostoma caninum were studied. Four groups (GPI, GPII, GPIII and GPIV) of five dogs each were used for this study. GPI was the uninfected control while GPII, GPIII and GPIV were infected ...

  14. Dynamic changes in biochemical markers of renal function with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid dysfunction is known to cause significant changes in glomerular filtration rate. The present cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the changes in biochemical markers of renal function in hypothyroid subjects before and after treatment. Thyroid function tests (T3, T4 and TSH levels) were assayed in 385 ...

  15. Toxicological Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Some Biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is believed that while normal people may suffer complications of active and passive cigarette smoking, diabetes patients may suffer more. This study therefore aimed at investigating the toxicological effects of cigarette smoke on some biochemical parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n ...

  16. Biochemical and hematological profile of different breeds of goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shthomas

    index of transportation stress (Ambore et al., 2009). The biochemical ... conditions were typical of the Arabian desert, temperature was high. (up to 52°C) ..... Int. J. Food Agric. Vet. Sci. .... Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, release 10.0.

  17. Effects of phospholipids in the diet on biochemical factors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the influence of dietary phospholipids biochemical factors parameters of beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles. Juveniles were fed formulated diet with four varying dietary levels of PL, that is, 0 (D1), 2 (D2), 4 (D3) and 6% (D4). At the end of the experimental period (56 days), there were ...

  18. Biochemical response of normal albino rats to the addition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the biochemical effect of Hibiscus cannabinus and Murraya koenigii extracts on normal albino rats using standard methods. Analyses carried out indicated that the aqueous leaf extract of H. cannabinus and M. koenigii exhibited significant hypolipideamic activity in normal rats.

  19. on the biochemical indicators of lead poisoning in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Sadi

    1 sept. 2017 ... ABSTRACT. This study is conducted to examine the effect of the oral administration of pectin of dates on perturbation of the biochemical parameters induced by lead. Male rats were exposed to lead acetate at 350mg/Kg for one month, after this period, rats treated during one month with the pectin of date at ...

  20. Physicochemical and biochemical characterization of biosurfactants released by Lactobacillus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velraeds, MMC; vanderMei, HC; Reid, G; Busscher, HJ

    1996-01-01

    Biosurfactants from Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54 and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were isolated from bacteria in their mid-exponential (4-5 h) and stationary growth phases (18 h) and physicochemical and biochemical properties of the

  1. Altered biochemical specificity of G-quadruplexes with mutated tetrads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švehlová, Kateřina; Lawrence, M. S.; Bednárová, Lucie; Curtis, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 22 (2016), s. 10789-10803 ISSN 0305-1048 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : G-quadruplex * G motif GTP aptamer * peroxidase deoxyribozyme Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 10.162, year: 2016 https://academic.oup.com/nar/article/44/22/10789/2333933/Altered-biochemical-specificity-of-G-quadruplexes

  2. Xanthine, hypoxanthine and muscle pain. Histochemical and biochemical observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, H; Badenhorst, M; Pickering, A [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Department of Physiology; Heffron, J J.A. [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Department of Physiological Chemistry; Berman, L

    1975-06-21

    A suspected case of xanthine oxidase deficiency has been further investigated. The patient complained of arthralgia and myalgia. Further studies included histochemical and ultramicroscopic analysis of muscle sarcoplasmic recticulum, and biochemical studies. High levels of xanthine and hypoxanthine were found, while uric acid was absent in the muscle extracts.

  3. Studies on blood and plasma biochemical characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats were fed on commercial grower mash and water provided ad libitum. Two separate blood samples were collected from the jugular veins of eight rats at 4th, 8th and 12th month stages of the experiment. One group of the samples was used for haematological studies and the other for biochemical tests. Data collected

  4. Differential response of biochemical parameters to EMS and MMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1964) and biochemical estimations from the liver was done by the method of Sinha (1972) for catalase, Van der Vies (1954) for glycogen and Uchiyama and Mihara (1978) for MDA. Results: The study has revealed that EMS and MMS induced a dose dependent increase in chromosomal aberrations of chromatid type in the ...

  5. Effects of Pineal Proteins on Biochemical, Enzyme Profile and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Pineal Proteins on Biochemical, Enzyme Profile and Non-Specific Immune Response of Indian Goats under Thermal Stress. ... Total precipitated pineal proteins successfully and significantly relieved the animals from adverse effects of heat stress and metyrapone treatment. There is evidence that most of the ...

  6. Iodine-125 safety procedures in a biochemical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes of iodine are of considerable importance in biochemical research and this 14 minute videotape is designed to give workers an introduction to the radiation safety aspects of their use. It deals with I-125, which is now generally used in preference to I-131, but the principles of safe working practice are the same for both isotopes. (author)

  7. Impact of parathion exposure on some biochemical parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nagat Aly

    2014-09-16

    Sep 16, 2014 ... developing field aims to reveal environmental threats before obvious toxic effects such as ... followed by the Student–Newman–Keuls test to determine sig- nificance between ..... open-field activity in chicks. Toxicol Lett 2007 ... ical and serum biochemical changes in mice and protective effect · of vitamin C. J ...

  8. A MULTILAYER BIOCHEMICAL DRY DEPOSITION MODEL 1. MODEL FORMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multilayer biochemical dry deposition model has been developed based on the NOAA Multilayer Model (MLM) to study gaseous exchanges between the soil, plants, and the atmosphere. Most of the parameterizations and submodels have been updated or replaced. The numerical integration ...

  9. A MULTILAYER BIOCHEMICAL DRY DEPOSITION MODEL 2. MODEL EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The multilayer biochemical dry deposition model (MLBC) described in the accompanying paper was tested against half-hourly eddy correlation data from six field sites under a wide range of climate conditions with various plant types. Modeled CO2, O3, SO2<...

  10. Hybrid Nanogenerator for Concurrently Harvesting Biomechanical and Biochemical Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Hansen, Benjamin J.; Liu, Ying; Yang, Rusen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-01-01

    the beat of a heart, and a flexible enzymatic biofuel cell for harvesting the biochemical (glucose/O2) energy in biofluid, which are two types of energy available in vivo. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, thereby

  11. Study on the alteration of bubaline blood biochemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bubaline blood biochemistry as affected by slaughter was the agenda for this work. Blood samples were collected from 30 buffaloes from abattoirs before and at slaughter. After biochemical and statistical analysis (mean was compared with t-test), it was observed that the albumin, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase ...

  12. Biochemical characterization of blood plasma of coronary artery ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study aimed to investigate the biochemical profile of blood plasma of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and angiographically normal subjects (controls) to determine biomarkers for their differentiation. In this double blind study, 5 mL venous blood was drawn before angiography from CAD patients (n=60) and ...

  13. Opium and heroin alter biochemical parameters of human's serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Divsalar; Tahereh, Haghpanah; Mohammadreza, Afarinesh; Minoo, Mahmoudi Zarandi

    2010-05-01

    Iran is a significant consumer of opium, and, generally, of opioids, in the world. Addiction is one of the important issues of the 21st century and is an imperative issue in Iran. Long-term consumption of opioids affects homeostasis. To determine the effects of opium and heroin consumption on serum biochemical parameters. In a cross-sectional study, subjects who had consumed heroin (n = 35) or opium (n = 42) for more than two years and 35 nonaddict volunteers as the control group were compared in regard to various biochemical parameters such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, creatinine, and total protein. Chromatography was used to confirm opioid consumption, and the concentration of biochemical parameters was determined by laboratory diagnostic tests on serum. No significant differences were found in Na(+), Ca(2+), BUN, UA, TG, creatinine, and total protein concentrations among the three groups. FBS, K(+), and UA levels were significantly lower in opium addicts compared to the control group. Serum Ca(2+) concentration of heroin addicts showed a significant decrease compared to that of the control group. Both addict groups showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Chronic use of opium and heroin can change serum FBS, K(+), Ca(2+), UA, and cholesterol. This study, one of few on the effects of opium on serum biochemical parameters in human subjects, has the potential to contribute to the investigation of new approaches for further basic studies.

  14. Evaluation of haematological and plasma biochemical effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TAYO AJIBADE

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 11(88), pp. ... biochemical values revealed significant increase in total protein, albumin and aspartate amino transferase. However ... functions and damages to cellular membrane normally leads to the .... way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for statistical significance was.

  15. Haematological profile and serum biochemical indices of weaned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the haematological profile and serum biochemical indices of rabbits fed pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaves as feed supplement to a corn – soybean mealbasal diet. The study involved thirty six (36) cross bred (New Zealand White X Chinchilla) mixed sex weaned rabbits of five - six ...

  16. Effect of Modifying Factors on Radiosensitive Biochemical Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romantsev, E. F.; Filippovich, I. V.; Zhulanova, Z. I.; Blokhina, V. D.; Trebenok, Z. A.; Kolesnikov, E. E.; Sheremetyevskaya, T. N.; Nikolsky, A. V.; Zymaleva, O. G. [Institute of Biophysics, USSR Ministry of Health, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1971-03-15

    Some of the radioprotective aminothiols are now routine pharmacopoeial drugs and are used in clinics to decrease the radiation reaction which appears as a side effect during the radiotherapy of cancer. The action of effective modifying agents on radiosensitive biochemical reactions in the organisms of mammals, in principle, cannot be different from the same effects of the protectors on biochemical systems of the human organism. The effect of modifying agents is mediated by biochemical systems. The administration of radioprotective doses of MEA to rats before irradiation results in a significant normalization of the excretion in urine of degradation products of nucleic acids (so-called Dische-positive compounds), the excretion of which sharply rises after irradiation. The curve of the radioprotective effect of MEA (survival rate after administration of radioprotectors at different intervals of time) completely corresponds to curves of the accumulation of MEA which is bound (by mixed disulphide links) to the proteins of liver mitochondria, to proteins of the nuclear-sap, to the hyaloplasm of rat thymus and to the nuclear ribosomes of the spleen. After MEA administration the curve of the biosynthesis of deoxycytidine represents a mirror reflection of the curve of MEA bound to proteins of the thymus hyaloplasm by means of mixed disulphide links. The mechanism of action of such modifying factors as MEA in experiments on mammals is mediated to a great degree through the temporary formation of mixed disulphide links between the aminothiol and the protein component of enzymes in different biochemical systems. (author)

  17. Silicon mediated biochemical changes in wheat under salinized and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silicon (Si) can alleviate salinity damage, a major threat to agriculture that causes instability in wheat production. We report on the effects of silicon (150 mg L-1) on the morphological, physiological and biochemical traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5) differing ...

  18. A coupled mechano-biochemical model for bone adaptation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klika, Václav; Pérez, M. A.; García-Aznar, J. M.; Maršík, F.; Doblaré, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, 6-7 (2014), s. 1383-1429 ISSN 0303-6812 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : mechano-biochemical model * bone remodelling * BMU Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00285-013-0736-9

  19. Molecular and biochemical diagnosis of Salmonella in wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to employ biochemical and molecular assays to detect and diagnose Salmonella in wastewater. For this reason, two water samples were collected from Alexandria wastewater treatment plant (S1) and septic tank of a hospital at Alexandria governorate (S2). Selective culture media specific for Salmonella ...

  20. Biochemical and cytological analysis of five cultivars of Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... variability and relatedness, seed storage protein analysis represents a valid alternative to ... Indian Institute of Pulse Research, Kanpur (U.P.) India. During the present study, five accessions were used for biochemical and cytological analysis. The details of five ... using pestle and mortar. 500 ml of protein ...

  1. MATLAB-Based Teaching Modules in Biochemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kilho; Comolli, Noelle K.; Kelly, William J.; Huang, Zuyi

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models play an important role in biochemical engineering. For example, the models developed in the field of systems biology have been used to identify drug targets to treat pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilms. In addition, competitive binding models for chromatography processes have been developed to predict expanded…

  2. 40 CFR 798.5195 - Mouse biochemical specific locus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-induced variants are bred to determine the genetic nature of the change. (f) Data and reports—(1... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5195 Mouse...) A biochemical specific locus mutation is a genetic change resulting from a DNA lesion causing...

  3. Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide as a non-invasive biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide as a non-invasive biochemical marker of dyspnoea in congestive heart failure patients. ... University of Mauritius Research Journal ... score assessed by a 10 graded visual analogue scale in the control group (mean score = 1) and an increased from 1.6 to 6.4 in the heart failure patients.

  4. Molecular and biochemical studies of some yeast strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... Kluyveromyces lactis (Y.9) and Pichia jadinii (Y.10) contained almost double the amount of total amino ... Differences between ... biochemical analysis (total protein profile and total amino acids) were used as tools to select the best yeast strains in Saudi Arabia and Egypt as a rich source of animal protein.

  5. Haematological and biochemical evaluation of the n -hexane extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study undertook to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicological profile of the seed of Ricinus communis var. minor (RICOM-1013-J), widely used as anticonceptive agent among Bassa people of Plateau State, Nigeria, on haematological and biochemical parameters in adult rats. Thirty-six (36) adult female rats were divided ...

  6. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 41; Issue 4. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the mechanism underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sae2-mediated abrogation of DNA replication stress. INDRAJEET GHODKE K MUNIYAPPA. ARTICLE Volume 41 Issue 4 December 2016 pp ...

  7. Seasonal variation in the biochemical composition of red seaweed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The biochemical composition of red seaweeds,Catenella repens was investigated in this present study along with subsequent analysis of relevant physico-chemical variables.In this study, the relationship between the nutritive components of this species and the ambient environmental parameters was established.

  8. Blood biochemical of nile crocodile ( Crocodylus niloticus ) in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates serum biochemistry of Nile crocodile from Kano Zoological Garden, Kano, Nigeria. Six (6) adult Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) were captured from crocodile pond. Blood was collected from post occipital sinus of the physically restrain crocodile and used for serum biochemical parameters.

  9. Biochemical and Heamatological Indices of Broiler Chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    investigate the implications of feeding broiler chickens with mucuna bean processed by simple domestic methods on performance, haematological and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods. Sample preparation: The raw Mucuna pruriens beans used in this study were purchased from International Institute of.

  10. haematological parameters and serum biochemical indices of pre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mrmrsolayiwola

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... pubertal male rabbits fed with graded level of blood- ... The effects of feeding graded levels of blood wild sunflower forage meal ... and serum biochemical parameters in rabbit were studied. ... (Cheeke et al., 1986), high in protein, low in cholesterol ..... assay of nutritional anaemia (dietary deficiency of iron,.

  11. Physiological and biochemical responses to low temperature stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cuttings of three hybrid clones of P. ussuriensis × P. deltoides were exposed to different low temperatures (cold and freezing) for 24 h, or consecutive low temperatures (5°C, 0 to 120 h), to determine physiological and biochemical responses to cold stress in these woody plants. Soluble sugar and protein contents increased ...

  12. Fragrance analysis using molecular and biochemical methods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma, a mapping population comprising 208 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a diverse cross between CSR10 and Taraori Basmati through Single seed descent (SSD) method was used. RILs are among the best mapping populations, which provide a novel material ...

  13. Polycystic ovaries and associated clinical and biochemical features ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of polycystic ovaries (PCO) and associated clinical and biochemical features among women with infertility attending gynaecological outpatient department (GOPD) at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. All women with infertility attending the ...

  14. Diagnostic utility of clinical and biochemical parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic utility of clinical and biochemical parameters in pancreatic head malignancy patients with normal carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels. Xiaoli Jin1, Yulian Wu2. 1. Department of Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 3 Qingchun. Road East, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province ...

  15. The biochemical, physiological and therapeutic roles of ascorbic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbic acid is an important micronutrient necessary for a significant number of metabolic reactions in humans and other primates. It is a strong reducing agent involved in reduction reaction and it is structurally related to glucose. Experimental and epidemiological studies have documented the biochemical, physiological ...

  16. Association of Biochemical Markers, Hepatitis C Virus and Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the association between Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection and diabetes mellitus (DM), and the effects of these pathological conditions on some biochemical markers in Pakistanis. Methods: A total number of 4717 chronic HCV patients were enrolled in this study out of which 4250 were positive with ...

  17. Sex Hormones And Biochemical Profiles Of Male Gossypol Users In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of gossypol administration on sex hormones and biochemical parameters of male subjects. Twelve male subjects receiving 20mg daily gossypol at the family planning clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan were studied. Blood samples collected from the subjects ...

  18. Dactylifera L) on the biochemical indicators of lead poisoning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is conducted to examine the effect of the oral administration of pectin of dates on perturbation of the biochemical parameters induced by lead. Male rats were exposed to lead acetate at 350mg/Kg for one month, after this period, rats treated during one month with the pectin of date at 3%. Rats were sacrificed, the ...

  19. Thermodynamically consistent Bayesian analysis of closed biochemical reaction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutsias John

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry from noisy time series measurements of molecular concentrations is an important step for building predictive models of cellular function. Inference techniques currently available in the literature may produce rate constant values that defy necessary constraints imposed by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics. As a result, these techniques may lead to biochemical reaction systems whose concentration dynamics could not possibly occur in nature. Therefore, development of a thermodynamically consistent approach for estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system is highly desirable. Results We introduce a Bayesian analysis approach for computing thermodynamically consistent estimates of the rate constants of a closed biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry given experimental data. Our method employs an appropriately designed prior probability density function that effectively integrates fundamental biophysical and thermodynamic knowledge into the inference problem. Moreover, it takes into account experimental strategies for collecting informative observations of molecular concentrations through perturbations. The proposed method employs a maximization-expectation-maximization algorithm that provides thermodynamically feasible estimates of the rate constant values and computes appropriate measures of estimation accuracy. We demonstrate various aspects of the proposed method on synthetic data obtained by simulating a subset of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling pathway, and examine its robustness under conditions that violate key assumptions. Software, coded in MATLAB®, which implements all Bayesian analysis techniques discussed in this paper, is available free of charge at http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS%20lab/software.html. Conclusions Our approach provides an attractive statistical methodology for

  20. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  1. Family history and biochemical diagnosis in 1948 kidney stone formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Spivacow

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of family history of nephrolithiasis is associated with an increased risk of renal lithiasis. Different epidemiological studies have shown a family component in the incidence of it, which is independent of dietary and environmental factors. The role of heredity is evident in monogenic diseases such as cystinuria, Dent’s disease or primary hyperoxaluria, while a polygenic inheritance has been proposed to explain the tendency to form calcium oxalate stones. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the family history of patients with renal lithiasis and the correlation of family history with its corresponding biochemical alteration, considering only those with a single metabolic alteration. Methods: a prospective and retrospective observational and analytical study that included 1948 adults over 17 years of age and a normal control group of 165 individuals, all evaluated according to an ambulatory protocol to obtain a biochemical diagnosis. They were asked about their family history of nephrolithiasis and classified into five groups according to the degree of kinship and the number of people affected in the family. Results: a positive family history of nephrolithiasis was found in 27.4% of renal stone formers, predominantly in women, compared to 15.2% of normal controls. The family history of nephrolithiasis was observed especially in 31.4% of patients with hypomagnesuria and in 29.6% of hypercalciuric patients. The rest of the biochemical alterations had a positive family history between 28.6% in hyperoxaluria and 21.9% in hypocitraturia. The highest percentage of family history of nephrolithiasis was found in cystinuria (75% although there were few patients with this diagnosis. Conclusions: the inheritance has a clear impact on urolithiasis independently of the present biochemical alteration. Family history of nephrolithiasis of the first and second degree was observed between 21 and 32% of patients with renal

  2. Accurate atom-mapping computation for biochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latendresse, Mario; Malerich, Jeremiah P; Travers, Mike; Karp, Peter D

    2012-11-26

    The complete atom mapping of a chemical reaction is a bijection of the reactant atoms to the product atoms that specifies the terminus of each reactant atom. Atom mapping of biochemical reactions is useful for many applications of systems biology, in particular for metabolic engineering where synthesizing new biochemical pathways has to take into account for the number of carbon atoms from a source compound that are conserved in the synthesis of a target compound. Rapid, accurate computation of the atom mapping(s) of a biochemical reaction remains elusive despite significant work on this topic. In particular, past researchers did not validate the accuracy of mapping algorithms. We introduce a new method for computing atom mappings called the minimum weighted edit-distance (MWED) metric. The metric is based on bond propensity to react and computes biochemically valid atom mappings for a large percentage of biochemical reactions. MWED models can be formulated efficiently as Mixed-Integer Linear Programs (MILPs). We have demonstrated this approach on 7501 reactions of the MetaCyc database for which 87% of the models could be solved in less than 10 s. For 2.1% of the reactions, we found multiple optimal atom mappings. We show that the error rate is 0.9% (22 reactions) by comparing these atom mappings to 2446 atom mappings of the manually curated Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) RPAIR database. To our knowledge, our computational atom-mapping approach is the most accurate and among the fastest published to date. The atom-mapping data will be available in the MetaCyc database later in 2012; the atom-mapping software will be available within the Pathway Tools software later in 2012.

  3. Aspects on the Physiological and Biochemical Foundations of Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Henrik Nordström

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurocritical care (NCC is a branch of intensive care medicine characterized by specific physiological and biochemical monitoring techniques necessary for identifying cerebral adverse events and for evaluating specific therapies. Information is primarily obtained from physiological variables related to intracranial pressure (ICP and cerebral blood flow (CBF and from physiological and biochemical variables related to cerebral energy metabolism. Non-surgical therapies developed for treating increased ICP are based on knowledge regarding transport of water across the intact and injured blood–brain barrier (BBB and the regulation of CBF. Brain volume is strictly controlled as the BBB permeability to crystalloids is very low restricting net transport of water across the capillary wall. Cerebral pressure autoregulation prevents changes in intracranial blood volume and intracapillary hydrostatic pressure at variations in arterial blood pressure. Information regarding cerebral oxidative metabolism is obtained from measurements of brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2 and biochemical data obtained from intracerebral microdialysis. As interstitial lactate/pyruvate (LP ratio instantaneously reflects shifts in intracellular cytoplasmatic redox state, it is an important indicator of compromised cerebral oxidative metabolism. The combined information obtained from PbtO2, LP ratio, and the pattern of biochemical variables reveals whether impaired oxidative metabolism is due to insufficient perfusion (ischemia or mitochondrial dysfunction. Intracerebral microdialysis and PbtO2 give information from a very small volume of tissue. Accordingly, clinical interpretation of the data must be based on information of the probe location in relation to focal brain damage. Attempts to evaluate global cerebral energy state from microdialysis of intraventricular fluid and from the LP ratio of the draining venous blood have recently been presented. To be of clinical relevance

  4. Role of Sida cordifolia L. leaves on biochemical and antioxidant profile during myocardial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubavat, J B; Asdaq, S M B

    2009-07-06

    The Sida cordifolia L. (Family: Malvaceae) is a widely allocated herb by folk tribes of Gujarat state of India for the treatment of coronary manifestations. However, no published data relevant to use of the plant is available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and biochemical profile of hydroalcoholic extract of Sida cordifolia L. (HESC) leaves against myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Albino rats were administered HESC (100 and 500 mg/kg) and propranolol (10 mg/kg) once daily orally for 30 days. At the end of treatment period, MI was induced by administering isoproterenol (ISO) or by subjecting heart to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Endogenous biomarkers (LDH and CK-MB) and antioxidants (SOD and catalase) were estimated in serum/perfusate and heart tissue homogenate (HTH). The LDH and CK-MB activities were elevated in HTH and depleted in serum/perfusate of HESC and propranolol groups when compared to ISO/IRI control. Further, it was found that both doses significantly increased endogenous antioxidants in HTH. Moreover, biochemical findings were supported by histopathological observations. The result confirm, at least in part, for the use of Sida cordifolia in folk medicine to treat MI.

  5. Lack of seasonal variation in bone mass and biochemical estimates of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overgaard, K.; Nilas, L.; Johansen, J.S.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-01-01

    Three previous studies have indicated a seasonal variation in bone mineral content, with values during the summer being 1.7% to 7.5% higher than during the winter. We have examined the seasonal influence on both bone mass, biochemical estimates of bone turnover and vitamin D metabolites in 86 healthy women, aged 29-53 years. All participants were followed up for 2 years with examinations every 6 weeks or 3 months. Bone mineral content in the proximal and distal part of the forearm (single photon absorptiometry) did not reveal any significant seasonal variation, whereas bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (dual photon absorptiometry) indicated that the highest values occurred in winter. None of the biochemical parameters showed any statistically significant cyclical changes. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 showed a highly significant seasonal variation, whereas the serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration was virtually unchanged. We conclude that seasonal variation in bone mineral content and bone turnover should not be taken into account when interpreting data from longitudinal studies of healthy pre- and postmenopausal women on a sufficient vitamin D nutriture

  6. Biochemical changes in cuttings of Robinia pseudoacacia after treatment with naphthenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLAVKO KEVRESAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Naphthenic acids were isolated from gas oil fractions (distillation interval 168–290 °C of Vojvodina crude oil “Velebit”, characterized and their biological ac­tivity evaluated by the biochemical changes in cuttings of Robinia pseudoacacia after treatment with naphthenate. The activities of IAA peroxidase, total peroxi­da­ses and amylase, as well as the contents of reducing sugars and total proteins, were determined in the basal parts of soft wood cuttings of black locust after treat­ment with sodium naphthenate or the sodium salt of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, con­­centration 10-7 mol dm-3 for 3 or 6 h. High activities of IAA oxidase and amy­lase, together with a low activity of peroxidase (which is known as being stimula­tory for the initiation and activation of primordia were obtained after the three-hour treatment with sodium naphthenate. Six-hour treatment had an inhibitory effect on the examined biochemical markers. The effects of three- and six-hour treatments with NAA were between those of the corresponding treatment with naphthenic acids.

  7. Genetic and Biochemical Diversity of Paenibacillus larvae Isolated from Tunisian Infected Honey Bee Broods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadlia Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB, a virulent disease of honeybee (Apis mellifera larvae. In Tunisia, AFB has been detected in many beekeeping areas, where it causes important economic losses, but nothing is known about the diversity of the causing agent. Seventy-five isolates of P. larvae, identified by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were obtained from fifteen contaminated broods showing typical AFB symptoms, collected in different locations in the northern part of the country. Using BOX-PCR, a distinct profile of P. larvae with respect to related Paenibacillus species was detected which may be useful for its identification. Some P. larvae-specific bands represented novel potential molecular markers for the species. BOX-PCR fingerprints indicated a relatively high intraspecific diversity among the isolates not described previously with several molecular polymorphisms identifying six genotypes on polyacrylamide gel. Polymorphisms were also detected in several biochemical characters (indol production, nitrate reduction, and methyl red and oxidase tests. Contrary to the relatively high intraspecies molecular and phenotypic diversity, the in vivo virulence of three selected P. larvae genotypes did not differ significantly, suggesting that the genotypic/phenotypic differences are neutral or related to ecological aspects other than virulence.

  8. Computer-aided biochemical programming of synthetic microreactors as diagnostic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, Alexis; Amar, Patrick; Fages, François; Renard, Eric; Molina, Franck

    2018-04-26

    Biological systems have evolved efficient sensing and decision-making mechanisms to maximize fitness in changing molecular environments. Synthetic biologists have exploited these capabilities to engineer control on information and energy processing in living cells. While engineered organisms pose important technological and ethical challenges, de novo assembly of non-living biomolecular devices could offer promising avenues toward various real-world applications. However, assembling biochemical parts into functional information processing systems has remained challenging due to extensive multidimensional parameter spaces that must be sampled comprehensively in order to identify robust, specification compliant molecular implementations. We introduce a systematic methodology based on automated computational design and microfluidics enabling the programming of synthetic cell-like microreactors embedding biochemical logic circuits, or protosensors , to perform accurate biosensing and biocomputing operations in vitro according to temporal logic specifications. We show that proof-of-concept protosensors integrating diagnostic algorithms detect specific patterns of biomarkers in human clinical samples. Protosensors may enable novel approaches to medicine and represent a step toward autonomous micromachines capable of precise interfacing of human physiology or other complex biological environments, ecosystems, or industrial bioprocesses. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  9. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Biochemical studies on some zooplankton off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Rao, T.S.S.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    Proximate biochemical analyses on twelve zooplankton species showed that protein was the predominant biochemical component followed by lipid. Carbohydrate content was very low especially in species with high water content or calcareous shell...

  11. Seasonal changes in meat weight and biochemical composition in the Black Clam Villorita cyprinoides (Grey)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    Seasonal changes in meat weight and biochemical composition are associated with reproduction, storage and utilization of reserves. The main period of increase in biochemical constituents corresponds to gametogenesis and maturation of gonads just...

  12. Homocystein: A new biochemical marker in livestock sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Kozat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector is making great contributions to the world economy. Many different diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, kidney and mineral substance insufficiency, cause huge losses in yield and production in the livestock sector. Early diagnosis is essential to combat these diseases. Today, homocysteine levels are used as biochemical markers in the diagnosis of the functions and diseases of many different organs in human medicine. Homocysteine is an amino acid that occurs in the process of methionine metabolism and does not enter the primary structure of proteins. Homocysteine is a biochemical marker used in the assessment of cardiovascular and renal diseases as well as other organ functions. In this review, homocysteine determination methods and detailed information about which organ and system diseases can be used in livestock sector will be given. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 319-332

  13. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Emnova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the intensity of certain soil biochemical processes (e.g. soil organic C mineralization at Organic and mixed Mineral+Organic fertilization of typical chernozem in crop rotation dynamics (for 6 years by use of eco-physiological indicators of biological soil quality: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, as well as, microbial and metabolic quotients. Soil sampling was performed from a long-term field crop experiment, which has been established in 1971 at the Balti steppe (Northern Moldova. The crop types had a more considerable impact on the soil microbial biomass accumulation and community biochemical activity compared to long-term Organic or mixed Mineral + Organic fertilizers amendments. The Org fertilization system doesn’t make it possible to avoid the loss of organic C in arable typical chernozem. The organic fertilizer (cattle manure is able to mitigate the negative consequences of long-term mineral fertilization.

  14. Elevation of PSA after prostate radiotherapy: Rebound or biochemical recurrence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, A.; Kanoui, A.; Chiche, R.; Lamallem, H.; Beley, S.; Thibault, F.; Sebe, P.

    2008-01-01

    The fact that external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy are now considered to be curative techniques has led to major review of the modalities of follow-up after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The problem concerns both the diagnosis of recurrence, rapidly announced by elevation of prostatic-specific antigen (PSA), usually at a subclinical stage, and the validity of criteria of biochemical recurrence to allow comparison of various study. Physicians involved in follow-up should be aware of the potential of bounce in PSA follow-up after external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. The PSA bounce phenomenon was defined by a rise of PSA values (+ 0.1 -0.8 ng/ml) with a subsequent fall. Biochemical failure after external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy (with or without hormonotherapy) was defined by Phoenix criteria by a rise of 2 ng/ml above an initial PSA nadir. This definition was more correlated to PSA bounce phenomenon. (authors)

  15. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae: a morphological and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873 from Lake Valencia (type locality and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis. In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacustrine populations refered to Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 by several authors correspond in shell characters to an extreme variant of B. prona from the Lake and really belong to the last*mentioned species. They may be regarded as the result of a process of directional selection favoring a shell phenotype other than those making up the modal class in the Lake.

  16. Accelerated maximum likelihood parameter estimation for stochastic biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daigle Bernie J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for the mechanistic simulation of a biochemical system is detailed knowledge of its kinetic parameters. Despite recent experimental advances, the estimation of unknown parameter values from observed data is still a bottleneck for obtaining accurate simulation results. Many methods exist for parameter estimation in deterministic biochemical systems; methods for discrete stochastic systems are less well developed. Given the probabilistic nature of stochastic biochemical models, a natural approach is to choose parameter values that maximize the probability of the observed data with respect to the unknown parameters, a.k.a. the maximum likelihood parameter estimates (MLEs. MLE computation for all but the simplest models requires the simulation of many system trajectories that are consistent with experimental data. For models with unknown parameters, this presents a computational challenge, as the generation of consistent trajectories can be an extremely rare occurrence. Results We have developed Monte Carlo Expectation-Maximization with Modified Cross-Entropy Method (MCEM2: an accelerated method for calculating MLEs that combines advances in rare event simulation with a computationally efficient version of the Monte Carlo expectation-maximization (MCEM algorithm. Our method requires no prior knowledge regarding parameter values, and it automatically provides a multivariate parameter uncertainty estimate. We applied the method to five stochastic systems of increasing complexity, progressing from an analytically tractable pure-birth model to a computationally demanding model of yeast-polarization. Our results demonstrate that MCEM2 substantially accelerates MLE computation on all tested models when compared to a stand-alone version of MCEM. Additionally, we show how our method identifies parameter values for certain classes of models more accurately than two recently proposed computationally efficient methods

  17. The emergence of mass spectrometry in biochemical research

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The initial steps toward routinely applying mass spectrometry in the biochemical laboratory have been achieved. In the past, mass spectrometry was confined to the realm of small, relatively stable molecules; large or thermally labile molecules did not survive the desorption and ionization processes intact. Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry allow for the analysis of both small and large biomolecules through "mild" desorption...

  18. Advances in Metabolic Engineering of Cyanobacteria for Photosynthetic Biochemical Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Martin C.; Lan, Ethan I.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering cyanobacteria into photosynthetic microbial cell factories for the production of biochemicals and biofuels is a promising approach toward sustainability. Cyanobacteria naturally grow on light and carbon dioxide, bypassing the need of fermentable plant biomass and arable land. By tapping into the central metabolism and rerouting carbon flux towards desirable compound production, cyanobacteria are engineered to directly convert CO2 into various chemicals. This review discusses the d...

  19. Biochemical genetics in marine fisheries management and conservation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    - 403004 NBDBlDBTSponsored Training on Taxonomy, GOIdia turd Gme Bturking o/Coastal and Marine Bloresources, CIFE, Mumbal BIOCHEMICAL GENETICS IN MARINE FISHERIES MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION Maria R. Menezes Introduction . Species of fish, like most... population structure may have evolved and been maintained in species of fish ofeconomic interest has led to the concept of 'stock'. The stock concept dominates much of marine fisheries management, theory and practice because the identification of discrete...

  20. Biochemical mechanisms determine the functional compatibility of heterologous genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Andreas; Schou, Thea S.; Munck, Christian

    2018-01-01

    -gene libraries have suggested that sequence composition is a strong barrier for the successful integration of heterologous genes. Here we sample 200 diverse genes, representing >80% of sequenced antibiotic resistance genes, to interrogate the factors governing genetic compatibility in new hosts. In contrast...... factors governing the functionality and fitness of antibiotic resistance genes. These findings emphasize the importance of biochemical mechanism for heterologous gene compatibility, and suggest physiological constraints as a pivotal feature orienting the evolution of antibiotic resistance....

  1. Valuation of Biochemical and Microbiological Indicators in Soil Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Peruzzi, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    This thesis research aimed at valuating the suitability of biochemical and microbiological indicators in soil quality and soil health assessment, applying an interdisciplinary approach by means of different methodologies. As the concept of soil quality encompasses both functionality and biological diversity, two cases of study are proposed and each of them aimed at the description of this two aspects. The first case study examined the degree of interference of high soil copper contamination w...

  2. Intermittency route to chaos in a biochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, I M; Martinez, L; Veguillas, J

    1996-01-01

    The numerical analysis of a glycolytic model performed through the construction of a system of three differential-delay equations reveals a phenomenon of intermittency route to chaos. In our biochemical system, the consideration of delay time variations under constant input flux as well as frequency variations of the periodic substrate input flux allows us, in both cases, to observe a type of transition to chaos different from the 'Feigenbaum route'.

  3. Biochemical changes in diabetic retinopathy triggered by hyperglycaemia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solani D. Mathebula

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is now a global health problem which will lead to increasing incidence of macrovascular and microvascular complications that contribute to morbidity, mortality and premature deaths. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a serious complication of DM, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Diabetes mellitus is one of the fastest growing causes of visual impairment and blindness in the working-age population. Aim: The aim of this paper was to introduce the multiple interconnecting biochemical pathways that have been proposed and tested as key contributors in how the diabetic eye loses vision. Method: An extensive literature search was performed using the Medline database from 1970 to present. The search subjects included diabetes and eye, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic complications in the eye. The search was limited to the literature pertaining to humans and to English language. Preference was given to recent published papers. Results: Results were limited to human participants with publications in English. References of all included papers were also scrutinized to identify additional studies. Studies were selected for inclusion in the review if they met the following criteria: subjects with diabetes, pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: Although the biochemical pathways involved in DR have been researched, to date the exact mechanism involved in the onset and progression of the disease is uncertain, which makes therapeutic interventions challenging. The aim of this review is to discuss the possible biochemical pathways and clinical and anatomical changes that occur during the onset and progression of DR that link hyperglycaemia with retinal tissue damage. An understanding of the biochemical and molecular changes may lead to health care practitioners advising patients with DR on events that lead to possible complications of the diseases.

  4. Biochemical and biomechanical characterisation of equine cervical facet joint cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, S A; White, J L; Hu, J C; Athanasiou, K A

    2018-04-15

    The equine cervical facet joint is a site of significant pathology. Located bilaterally on the dorsal spine, these diarthrodial joints work in conjunction with the intervertebral disc to facilitate appropriate spinal motion. Despite the high prevalence of pathology in this joint, the facet joint is understudied and thus lacking in viable treatment options. The goal of this study was to characterise equine facet joint cartilage and provide a comprehensive database describing the morphological, histological, biochemical and biomechanical properties of this tissue. Descriptive cadaver studies. A total of 132 facet joint surfaces were harvested from the cervical spines of six skeletally mature horses (11 surfaces per animal) for compiling biomechanical and biochemical properties of hyaline cartilage of the equine cervical facet joints. Gross morphometric measurements and histological staining were performed on facet joint cartilage. Creep indentation and uniaxial strain-to-failure testing were used to determine the biomechanical compressive and tensile properties. Biochemical assays included quantification of total collagen, sulfated glycosaminoglycan and DNA content. The facet joint surfaces were ovoid in shape with a flat articular surface. Histological analyses highlighted structures akin to articular cartilage of other synovial joints. In general, biomechanical and biochemical properties did not differ significantly between the inferior and superior joint surfaces as well as among spinal levels. Interestingly, compressive and tensile properties of cervical facet articular cartilage were lower than those of articular cartilage from other previously characterised equine joints. Removal of the superficial zone reduced the tissue's tensile strength, suggesting that this zone is important for the tensile integrity of the tissue. Facet surfaces were sampled at a single, central location and do not capture the potential topographic variation in cartilage properties. This

  5. Gluconeogenesis: An ancient biochemical pathway with a new twist

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Amrein, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of sugars from simple carbon sources is critical for survival of animals under limited nutrient availability. Thus, sugar-synthesizing enzymes should be present across the entire metazoan spectrum. Here, we explore the evolution of glucose and trehalose synthesis using a phylogenetic analysis of enzymes specific for the two pathways. Our analysis reveals that the production of trehalose is the more ancestral biochemical process, found in single cell organisms and primitive metazoans...

  6. Imminent Cardiac Risk Assessment via Optical Intravascular Biochemical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, D.; Wetzel, L; Wetzel, M; Lodder, R

    2009-01-01

    Heart disease is by far the biggest killer in the United States, and type II diabetes, which affects 8% of the U.S. population, is on the rise. In many cases, the acute coronary syndrome and/or sudden cardiac death occurs without warning. Atherosclerosis has known behavioral, genetic and dietary risk factors. However, our laboratory studies with animal models and human post-mortem tissue using FT-IR microspectroscopy reveal the chemical microstructure within arteries and in the arterial walls themselves. These include spectra obtained from the aortas of ApoE-/- knockout mice on sucrose and normal diets showing lipid deposition in the former case. Also pre-aneurysm chemical images of knockout mouse aorta walls, and spectra of plaque excised from a living human patient are shown for comparison. In keeping with the theme of the SPEC 2008 conference Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Disease this paper describes the background and potential value of a new catheter-based system to provide in vivo biochemical analysis of plaque in human coronary arteries. We report the following: (1) results of FT-IR microspectroscopy on animal models of vascular disease to illustrate the localized chemical distinctions between pathological and normal tissue, (2) current diagnostic techniques used for risk assessment of patients with potential unstable coronary syndromes, and (3) the advantages and limitations of each of these techniques illustrated with patent care histories, related in the first person, by the physician coauthors. Note that the physician comments clarify the contribution of each diagnostic technique to imminent cardiac risk assessment in a clinical setting, leading to the appreciation of what localized intravascular chemical analysis can contribute as an add-on diagnostic tool. The quality of medical imaging has improved dramatically since the turn of the century. Among clinical non-invasive diagnostic tools, laboratory tests of body fluids, EKG, and physical examination are

  7. Biochemical Benefits, Diagnosis, and Clinical Risks Evaluation of Kratom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimy Fluyau

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundKratom (Mitragyna speciosa is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules. Some case reports have associated kratom exposure with psychosis, seizures, intrahepatic cholestasis, other medical conditions, and deaths. The clinical manifestations of kratom effects are not well defined and the clinical studies are limited. Data research suggest that both stimulant and sedative dose-dependent effects do exist, in addition to antinociceptive, antidepressant activity, anxiolytic-like effects, and anorectic effects, but a growing concern for the drug’s effects and safety of use has resulted in national and international attention primarily due to an increase in hospital visits and deaths in several countries that are believed to have been caused by extracts of the plant. There is a dearth of double blind controlled studies. In this study, we aim to use existing literature to clarify both benefits and risks of kratom as well as its diagnosis evaluation as kratom misuse is an emerging trend in the Western world.MethodsLiterature review using databases such as Embase, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Mendeley from 2007 to 2017 were evaluated by all authors to analyze current state on benefits, risks, and diagnosis evaluation of kratom (M. speciosa.ResultsData analysis suggested that kratom possesses some benefits such as stimulant and sedative effects as wells as antinociceptive effects. It seems to inhibit pro-inflammatory mediator release and vascular permeability and can enhance immunity. In addition, it may be an antidepressant and

  8. Relationship between obesity and biochemical markers in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Romero

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of biochemical markers and associate with obesity in Brazilian adolescents enrolled in public schools in a rural area. The sample consisted of 199 adolescents between 10 to 14 years old from Piracicaba, Brazil. The obesity was measured by body mass index (BMI and according to the World Health Organization curves. We collected blood for biochemical markers analysis (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triacylglycerol, insulin and glycemia. Mann Whitney test was used to compare continuous variables between sexes. Chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To investigate the association between the independent variables and biochemical markers a multiple logistic regression model was performed. Among 199 adolescents, 23.1% was obese and 65.8% were insufficiently active. A high prevalence of dyslipidemia (71.4% was observed, whereas the low levels of high density lipoprotein (40.7% were the most prevalent. An association between obesity and undesirable values for high density lipoprotein, triacylglycerol and insulin resistance was found. Obese adolescents were less likely to present a desirable value for high density lipoprotein. It is understood that obesity is detrimental to metabolic profile and should be prevented and treated even in adolescence.

  9. Considerations on the biochemical composition of some freshwater zooplankton species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta RICCARDI

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The mean elemental (C, H, N and biochemical composition (lipids, carbohydrates and proteins of some abundant crustacean zooplankton species of Italian insubric lakes has been estimated by the analysis of samples collected at different seasons from various environments (Lake Maggiore, Lake Varese, Lake Comabbio, Lake Monate. From each sample an adequate number of specimens of each abundant species was sorted and analyzed by a CHN elemental analyzer. The percentage of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and the calorific content were calculated from the elemental composition according to Gnaiger & Bitterlich (1984. Inter- and intraspecific variability of biochemical composition was quite high, while elemental composition and calorific content were less variable. An estimate of the mean elemental and biochemical composition of each species was obtained by pooling the data. These mean values have been used to estimate the pools of elements and compounds in the crustacean zooplankton of Lake Comabbio to provide an example of the importance of a multiple approach in zooplankton studies.

  10. Improved biochemical preservation of heart slices during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, D A; Reid, B B; Connors, R C; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V

    2000-01-01

    Development of myocardial preservation solutions requires the use of whole organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that myocardial slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat hearts were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 200 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in one of the following solutions: Columbia University (CU), University of Wisconsin (UW), D5 0.2% normal saline with 20 meq/l KCL (QNS), normal saline (NS), or a novel cardiac preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Myocardial biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamoles ATP/mg wet weight) and capacity for protein synthesis (counts per minute (cpm)/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 hours), and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as the mean +/- standard deviation. ATP content was higher in the heart slices stored in the NPS compared to all other solutions at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours of cold storage (p cold storage (p cold storage.

  11. Improved biochemical preservation of lung slices during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, D A; Connors, R C; Reid, B B; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V

    2000-05-15

    Development of lung preservation solutions typically requires whole-organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that lung slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat lungs were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 500 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in the following solutions: University of Wisconsin (UW), Euro-Collins (EC), low-potassium-dextran (LPD), Kyoto (K), normal saline (NS), or a novel lung preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Lung biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamol ATP/mg wet wt) and capacity for protein synthesis (cpm/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 h) and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 h of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as means +/- SD. ATP content was significantly higher in the lung slices stored in NPS compared with all other solutions at each time point (P cold storage. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: what does it mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho-Barbosa, Rafael; Srougi, Victor; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Baghdadi, Mohammed; Rembeyo, Gregory; Eiffel, Sophie S.; Barret, Eric; Rozet, Francois; Galiano, Marc; Cathelineau, Xavier; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Radical prostatectomy (RP) has been used as the main primary treatment for prostate cancer (PCa) for many years with excellent oncologic results. However, approximately 20-40% of those patients has failed to RP and presented biochemical recurrence (BCR). Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) has been the pivotal tool for recurrence diagnosis, but there is no consensus about the best PSA threshold to define BCR until this moment. The natural history of BCR after surgical procedure is highly variable, but it is important to distinguish biochemical and clinical recurrence and to find the correct timing to start multimodal treatment strategy. Also, it is important to understand the role of each clinical and pathological feature of prostate cancer in BCR, progression to metastatic disease and cancer specific mortality (CSM). Review design A simple review was made in Medline for articles written in English language about biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Objective To provide an updated assessment of BCR definition, its meaning, PCa natural history after BCR and the weight of each clinical/pathological feature and risk group classifications in BCR, metastatic disease and CSM. PMID:29039897

  13. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF SALINITY TOLERANCE IN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa YILDIZ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress limits plant productivity in arid and semi arid regions. Salt stress causes decrease in plant growth by adversely affecting physiological processes, especially photosynthesis. Salinity tolerance is defined as the ability of plant to maintain normal rowth and development under salt conditions. Salt stress results in accumulation of low molecular weight compounds, termed compatible solutes, which do not interfere with the normal biochemical reactions. These compatible solutes such as carbohydrates, polyols, amino acids and amides, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyamines andsoluble proteins may play a crucial role in osmotic adjustment, protection of macromolecules, maintenance of cellular pH and detoxification of free radicals. On the other hand, plants subjected to environmental stresses such as salinity produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and these ROS are efficiently eliminated by antioxidant enzyme systems. In plant breeding studies, the use of some physiological and biochemical markers for improving the salt tolerance in plants is crucial. In this review, the possibility of using some physiological and biochemical markers as selection criteria for salt tolerance is discussed.

  14. Biochemical and biomedical applications of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shih-Hung; Juang, Ruey-Shin

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for future medical diagnosis and therapy. Various types of nanoparticles have been extensively studied for numerous biochemical and biomedical applications. Magnetic nanoparticles are well-established nanomaterials that offer controlled size, ability to be manipulated by an external magnetic field, and enhancement of contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, these nanoparticles could have many applications including bacterial detection, protein purification, enzyme immobilization, contamination decorporation, drug delivery, hyperthermia, etc. All these biochemical and biomedical applications require that these nanoparticles should satisfy some prerequisites including high magnetization, good stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Because of the potential benefits of multimodal functionality in biomedical applications, in this account highlights some general strategies to generate magnetic nanoparticle-based multifunctional nanostructures. After these magnetic nanoparticles are conjugated with proper ligands (e.g., nitrilotriacetate), polymers (e.g., polyacrylic acid, chitosan, temperature- and pH-sensitive polymers), antibodies, enzymes, and inorganic metals (e.g., gold), such biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles exhibit many advantages in biomedical applications. In addition, the multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles have been widely applied in biochemical fields including enzyme immobilization and protein purification.

  15. Modelling biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuanling; Burrage, Kevin; Chen, Luonan

    2016-05-07

    In this paper, we gave a new framework for modelling and simulating biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection not in a heuristic way but in a mathematical way. The model is computationally efficient compared with the discrete-state Markov chain approach, and it ensures that both analytic and numerical solutions remain in a biologically plausible region. Specifically, our model mathematically ensures that species numbers lie in the domain D, which is a physical constraint for biochemical reactions, in contrast to the previous models. The domain D is actually obtained according to the structure of the corresponding chemical Langevin equations, i.e., the boundary is inherent in the biochemical reaction system. A variant of projection method was employed to solve the reflected stochastic differential equation model, and it includes three simple steps, i.e., Euler-Maruyama method was applied to the equations first, and then check whether or not the point lies within the domain D, and if not perform an orthogonal projection. It is found that the projection onto the closure D¯ is the solution to a convex quadratic programming problem. Thus, existing methods for the convex quadratic programming problem can be employed for the orthogonal projection map. Numerical tests on several important problems in biological systems confirmed the efficiency and accuracy of this approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies on some biochemical parameters in viral hepatitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present investigation deals with studying liver amino transferases (ALT. AST). Cholesterol and triglycerides. As well as testosterone and protection hormones in blood of Egyptian men infected with hepatitis C virus.hepatitis B virus and mixed B and C viruses. These biochemical parameters were evaluated to be used in diagnosis and prognosis of viral hepatitis. Which considered the most important health problem in Egypt and developing countries. Biochemical analysis were performed using spectrophotometric and radioimmunoassay techniques. All data will be subjected to statistical analysis in order to detect the most suitable biochemical analysis that can be used as specific tests for early diagnosis of viral hepatitis and to detect the parameters that show abnormalities among the different groups of infected patients. The data revealed that AST and ALT levels were increased in all patient groups. Concerning the level of triglycerides, it was increased only in the group of mixed viral hepatitis B and C, while cholesterol showed non-significant changes in all viral hepatitis groups. The sex hormone testosterone was decreased in all infected patients while the prolactin level was increased only in case of patients infected with mixed B and C viruses. However, these abnormal values in such sex hormones play a serious role in male sterility

  17. BIOCHEMICAL NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF LIVER CIRRHOSIS PATIENTS WITH HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zanatta PORT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Liver cirrhosis patients with hepatocellular carcinoma present nutritional alterations and metabolic disorders that negatively impact the prognosis. Objective The objective is to identify alterations in the metabolism of macro and micronutrients among liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma and their relation to the Child-Turcote-Pugh score and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Methods Analytical transversal study, with 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 48 liver cirrhosis patients. Laboratorial exams were carried out. The existence of an association between the biochemical parameters and the disease severity as well as the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was assessed. Results The metabolic-nutritional profile of liver cirrhosis patients caused by the hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma showed alterations, specifically the lipid (total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, protein (albumin, creatinine and uric acid, iron (transferrin, iron and ferritin saturation, hematocrit and hemoglobin, zinc and B12 vitamin profiles. There is a relation between nutritional biochemical markers and the Child-Turcote-Pugh, as well as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Conclusions Considering the existence of alterations in the metabolism of nutrients in liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma, and also that conventional nutritional assessment methods present limitations for this population, the biochemical laboratorial exams are valid to complement the diagnosis of the nutritional state in a quick and practical manner.

  18. Biochemical comparison of osteoarthritic knees with and without effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several symptom-relieving interventions have been shown to be efficacious among osteoarthritis (OA) patients with knee effusion; however, not every symptomatic knee OA patient has clinical effusion. Results may be over-generalized since it is unclear if effused knees represent a unique pathological condition or subset compared to knees without effusion. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if biochemical differences existed between OA knees with and without effusion. Methods The present cross-sectional study consisted of 22 volunteers (11 with knee effusion, 11 without knee effusion) with confirmed late-stage radiographic knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence score ≥ 3). Synovial fluid samples were collected and analyzed using a custom multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine eight specific biomarker concentrations (e.g., catabolic, anabolic). Results Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1, TIMP-2, and interleukin-10 were significantly higher in the knees with effusion than in the knees without effusion. Conclusions The biochemical differences that existed between knees with and without effusion provide support that OA subsets may exist, characterized by distinct biochemical characteristics and clinical findings (e.g., effusion). PMID:22122951

  19. Pollutant exclusion experiments on spruce at the Edelmannshof site. Results of physiological and biochemical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt; Bauer; Bourgois

    1993-01-01

    From 1987-1992 within the framework of a multidisciplinary approach extensive studies of physiological and biochemical parameters of spruce trees (Picea abies L. Karst.) growing on natural site in a forest decline area (Schwaebisch-Fraenkischer Wald) north-west of the conurbation Stuttgart were carried out. This pollutant-exclusion experiment was a further part of a threepart research program including field observations and defined pollutant experiments with young forest trees in modelecosystems. The results show, that also low concentrations of air pollutants cause effects in plant metabolism before the occurence of visible symptoms. The pollutant effects caused specially by ozone have to be linked to climatic factors such as drought which occured in the last years. In a final view some factors influencing the long-term project Edelmannshof are shown. Ultimately possible key-reactions for bioindication methods on the synecological level are presented. (orig.) [de

  20. Discovering Reliable Sources of Biochemical Thermodynamic Data to Aid Students' Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Me´ndez, Eduardo; Cerda´, María F.

    2016-01-01

    Students of physical chemistry in biochemical disciplines need biochemical examples to capture the need, not always understood, of a difficult area in their studies. The use of thermodynamic data in the chemical reference state may lead to incorrect interpretations in the analysis of biochemical examples when the analysis does not include relevant…

  1. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections 158.2081...

  2. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oganesyants Lev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties cultivated in the Rostov region of Russia. Cold winters are considered to be the major stress for the grape plants. Under these conditions, leaves accumulate large amount of biologically active substances, including trans-resveratrol, which provide significant advantage compared with the harvest from grapes cultivated in areas where the plants are not protected during winter. Comparative studies on the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous and European varieties were conducted, including on the use of bioassay systems in vitro. It was found that extracts of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties have a marked effect on the rate of glutathione reductase and pyruvate kinase reactions that are demonstrating their angioprotective and energizing properties. The increase in the rate of the catalase reaction indicates the manifestation of antioxidant properties. The technology of CO2 – and highly concentrated hydrophilic extracts production from red vine leaves that preserves biologically active compounds to the maximum extent possible. The extracts are used for the manufacture of soft drinks that have the venomotor action and may be applied in the process of the manufacture of fat products with extended shelf life, as well as the main raw material for the preparations with the pronounced angioprotective effect.

  3. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Fernandez, Luzimar Gonzaga; de Castro, Renato Delmondez; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2014-08-12

    Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing environments. In this context, we analysed the effect of temperature on growth of young R. communis seedlings and we measured primary and secondary metabolites in roots and cotyledons. Three genotypes, recommended to small family farms as cash crop, were used in this study. Seedling biomass was strongly affected by the temperature, with the lowest total biomass observed at 20°C. The response in terms of biomass production for the genotype MPA11 was clearly different from the other two genotypes: genotype MPA11 produced heavier seedlings at all temperatures but the root biomass of this genotype decreased with increasing temperature, reaching the lowest value at 35°C. In contrast, root biomass of genotypes MPB01 and IAC80 was not affected by temperature, suggesting that the roots of these genotypes are less sensitive to changes in temperature. In addition, an increasing temperature decreased the root to shoot ratio, which suggests that biomass allocation between below- and above ground parts of the plants was strongly affected by the temperature. Carbohydrate contents were reduced in response to increasing temperature in both roots and cotyledons, whereas amino acids accumulated to higher contents. Our results show that a specific balance between amino acids, carbohydrates and organic acids in the cotyledons and roots seems to be an important trait for faster and more efficient growth of genotype MPA11. An increase in temperature triggers the mobilization of carbohydrates to support the preferred growth of the aerial parts, at the expense of the roots. A shift in the carbon-nitrogen metabolism towards the accumulation of nitrogen-containing compounds seems to be the main biochemical

  4. Haematological and biochemical reference values for healthy adults in the middle belt of Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Dosoo

    Full Text Available Reference values are very important in clinical management of patients, screening participants for enrollment into clinical trials and for monitoring the onset of adverse events during these trials. The aim of this was to establish gender-specific haematological and biochemical reference values for healthy adults in the central part of Ghana.A total of 691 adults between 18 and 59 years resident in the Kintampo North Municipality and South District in the central part of Ghana were randomly selected using the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System and enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. Out of these, 625 adults made up of 316 males and 309 females were assessed by a clinician to be healthy. Median values and nonparametric 95% reference values for 16 haematology and 22 biochemistry parameters were determined for this population based on the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute guidelines. Values established in this study were compared with the Caucasian values being used currently by our laboratory as reference values and also with data from other African and western countries.REFERENCE VALUES ESTABLISHED INCLUDE: haemoglobin 113-164 g/L for males and 88-144 g/L for females; total white blood cell count 3.4-9.2 × 10(9/L; platelet count 88-352 × 10(9/L for males and 89-403 × 10(9/L for females; alanine aminotransferase 8-54 U/L for males and 6-51 U/L for females; creatinine 56-119 µmol/L for males and 53-106 µmol/L for females. Using the haematological reference values based on the package inserts would have screened out up to 53% of potential trial participants and up to 25% of the population using the biochemical parameters.We have established a panel of locally relevant reference parameters for commonly used haematological and biochemical tests. This is important as it will help in the interpretation of laboratory results both for clinical management of patients and safety monitoring during a trial.

  5. Seasonal variation in haematological and biochemical variables in free-ranging subadult brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsli, Anne Randi; Evans, Alina L; Fahlman, Åsa; Bertelsen, Mads F; Blanc, Stéphane; Arnemo, Jon M

    2015-12-08

    Free-ranging brown bears exhibit highly contrasting physiological states throughout the year. They hibernate 6 months of the year, experiencing a decrease in body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and metabolism. An increase in food consumption and the resulting weight gain (mostly through fat storage) prior to hibernation are also part of the brown bear's annual cycle. Due to these physiological changes, haematological and biochemical variables vary dramatically throughout the year. Seasonal changes in 12 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were evaluated in blood samples collected from 40 free-ranging subadult brown bears (22 females, 18 males) immobilised in Sweden in winter (February-March), spring (April-May), and summer (June). Higher levels of haemoglobin, haematocrit and red blood cell count, and a lower white blood cell count and mean cell volume was found during hibernation than in spring and summer. Lower values of the enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GD) and amylase, and increased values of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HBA) and blood lipids; triglycerides, cholesterol and free fatty acids, were present during hibernation compared to spring and summer. This study documents significant shifts in haematological and biochemical variables in samples collected from brown bears anaesthetised in winter (February-March) compared to in spring and summer (April-June), reflecting the lowered metabolic, renal and hepatic activity during hibernation. Lower values of enzymes and higher values of blood lipids during hibernation, likely reflect a lipid-based metabolism.

  6. The Effects of 17 Weeks of Ballet Training on the Autonomic Modulation, Hormonal and General Biochemical Profile of Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Carla Cristiane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the alterations in physiological and biochemical markers, after 17 weeks of ballet training in high level ballet dancers. Twenty four female ballet dancers from 12 to 15 years old took part in the study. The study followed 17 weeks of ballet training and analyzed changes in body composition, the autonomic nervous system and biochemical variables before and after (post training. The internal training load was obtained using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE method, calculated as the mean weekly session-RPE, monotony and strain. After 17 weeks of training there were significant increases in body mass, height, lean body mass, total protein, urea, hemoglobin concentration, testosterone and thyroxine. During this period, decreases in relative body fat, uric acid, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were also found. After the training period, the autonomic modulation demonstrated significant positive alterations, such as increases in parasympathetic related indices. Based on the results obtained we concluded that ballet training led to improvements in body composition and autonomic modulation. In general hematological and biochemical variables demonstrated that the training did not have adverse effects on the health state of the adolescents.

  7. Diagnosing and quantification of acute alcohol intoxication. Comparison of dual-energy CT with biochemical analysis. Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkusuz, H.; Abbas Raschidi, B.; Keese, D.; Kromen, W.; Bauer, R.W.; Vogl, T.J.; Namgaladze, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the correlation between fat content of an acute alcohol intoxication and the difference of computer tomography attenuation value in dual-energy CT in comparison to biochemical triglyceride analysis and to evaluate qualitatively the value of DECT in the diagnosis of fatty liver caused by ethanol-dosage in rats. Materials and Methods: DECT at 140 kV and 80 kV was performed on 20 rats before and two days after the administration of 3 ml of 50 % ethanol. The CT attenuation value in the livers at 140 kV, 80 kV and the differences between them in Hounsfield units (ΔH) were collected. Parts of the liver (100 mg) were measured in biochemical triglyceride analysis as the reference standard. A blood sample was also taken to measure specific liver enzymes. Results: Linear correlation between biochemical triglyceride analysis and CT density of ΔH was found (r = 0.949). 140 kV attenuation data were between 44 HU and 61.3 HU, 80 kV attenuation data were between 58.4 HU and 64.7 HU, and ΔH data were between 3.4 HU and 14.4 HU (p ≤ 0.037). The biochemical triglyceride analysis data were between 7.1 mg/g and 41.1 mg/g. The hepatic enzymes serum aspartate (ASAT) aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) were elevated in all rats. ASAT correlated directly with ΔHU (r = -0.86). Conclusion: DECT provides a non-invasive method to determine and evaluate hepatic fat content after acute alcohol intoxication. It provides the possibility to detect and quantify the hepatic fat content of liver graft. (orig.)

  8. Industrial dust sulphate and its effects on biochemical and morphological characteristics of Morus (Morus alba) plant in NCR Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gyan Prakash; Singh, Sudha; Kumar, Bablu; Kulshrestha, U C

    2015-03-01

    Abundance of CaCO3 rich soil dust is a typical feature of atmospheric environment in the Indian region. During prevailing dry weather conditions, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces of plant affecting their morphology, stomata and the levels of biochemical constituents. This study reports the chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of a medicinal plant (Morus alba) at two sites which are differentiated on the basis of landuse pattern, viz., (i) residential, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), and (ii) industrial, Sahibabad (SB), located in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. Dustfall was characterized for major anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and SO4 (--)) and cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(++) and Ca(++)). Biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, proline and ascorbic acid were determined in foliar samples. The results showed that the dustfall fluxes of all the major ions were found to be higher at the industrial site (SB) as compared to the residential site (JNU). Foliar analysis revealed that the levels of biochemical parameters were more affected at SB site due to higher levels of dust SO4 (--) contributed by various anthropogenic sources resulting in more stressful conditions affecting the biochemistry of the plant. The possible entry pathways for dust SO4 (--) into foliar cells are also discussed in the paper. It was noticed that the deposition of urban dust was responsible for the damage of trichome, epidermis, cuticle and stomatal guard cells significantly affecting foliar morphology. SB exhibited more damage to these morphological parts suggesting that industrial dust is harmful to the plants.

  9. Biochemical Post-Irradiation Changes and Radiation Indicators: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, G. [Radiologisches Institut, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1971-03-15

    In a number of mammalian tissues a breakdown of the biological macromolecules, as nucleic acids and proteins, is observed after irradiation. This degradation appears in lymphatic tissues even after a radiation exposure less than 100 R and proceeds with increasing exposure to about 600 R. On the other hand, other biochemical effects are found after the whole-body irradiation of mammals which seem to have some relation to the functional status of the organs and the organisms. It appears therefore useful to classify the biochemical effects of radiation into two groups: (1) Observations which are a consequence of the degradation processes; (2) observations which are a consequence of functional changes. Most investigations in the field of biochemical indicators after irradiation have been concerned with the first class of reactions. The excretion of deoxycytidine, thymidine and pseudouridine have been extensively investigated in animals during recent years. However, in humans the normal deoxycytidine excretion is very low, as this substance is metabolized to a higher degree in humans than in other species. {beta}-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), a metabolite of thymine, was also investigated in this connection. Besides nucleic acids, proteins are broken down in these radiosensitive organs. This leads to an increased content of amino acids for instance in the lymphatic tissues and to an increase in urinary excretion of amino acids. There are two amino acids which play a special role for this discussion: cysteine and tryptophan. Taurine, a metabolite of cysteine, is excreted in the urine to an increased extent after the irradiation of mice, rats and man. Again the enhancement is proportional to the radiation exposure between 100 and 300 R. Another substance which has been extensively studied is creatine. It has been shown that there is a good relationship between radiation exposure (up to about 600 R) and the increased excretion of creatine/creatinine in the urine of rats

  10. Self-organizing ontology of biochemically relevant small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Leonid L; Hastings, Janna; Ennis, Marcus; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel

    2012-01-06

    The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI) are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. We conclude that the proposed methodology can ease the burden of chemical data annotators and

  11. Self-organizing ontology of biochemically relevant small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI) are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. Results To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed methodology can ease the burden of

  12. Self-organizing ontology of biochemically relevant small molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chepelev Leonid L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. Results To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed methodology

  13. Clinico-hemato-biochemical profile of dogs with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Elhiblu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant tools in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in dogs. Material and Methods: A total of 140 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinico-hemato biochemical, urological, ultrasonographic (USG, and USG guided fine-needle biopsy examinations by standard methods. On the basis of these results, 6 dogs out of 140 dogs were found to be suffering from liver cirrhosis. Six clinically healthy dogs constituted the control group. Results: The dogs suffering from liver cirrhosis manifested inappetence, halitosis, abdominal distension, weight loss, melena, icterus, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis with the left shift. Levels of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and platelet count were significantly lower in liver cirrhosis group than control group while total leukocyte count, neutrophils, and MCH concentration were significantly higher. Glucose, total protein, albumin, A/G ratio, and fibrinogen were significantly lower, and creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, prothrombin time, and APTT were significantly higher than the control values. Ultrasound revealed diffuse increase in echogenicity with rounded and irregular liver margins. Cytological examination of the ascitic fluid and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver was not fruitful in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: Liver cirrhosis causes clinical and hemo-biochemical alterations, which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. USG, diffuse increase in echogenicity of liver, rounding and irregularity of liver margins and microhepatica were the consistent findings. It is suggested that USG along with hemo-biochemical alterations may be used as a diagnostic tool for

  14. Stoichiometric estimates of the biochemical conversion efficiencies in tsetse metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Custer Adrian V

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time varying flows of biomass and energy in tsetse (Glossina can be examined through the construction of a dynamic mass-energy budget specific to these flies but such a budget depends on efficiencies of metabolic conversion which are unknown. These efficiencies of conversion determine the overall yields when food or storage tissue is converted into body tissue or into metabolic energy. A biochemical approach to the estimation of these efficiencies uses stoichiometry and a simplified description of tsetse metabolism to derive estimates of the yields, for a given amount of each substrate, of conversion product, by-products, and exchanged gases. This biochemical approach improves on estimates obtained through calorimetry because the stoichiometric calculations explicitly include the inefficiencies and costs of the reactions of conversion. However, the biochemical approach still overestimates the actual conversion efficiency because the approach ignores all the biological inefficiencies and costs such as the inefficiencies of leaky membranes and the costs of molecular transport, enzyme production, and cell growth. Results This paper presents estimates of the net amounts of ATP, fat, or protein obtained by tsetse from a starting milligram of blood, and provides estimates of the net amounts of ATP formed from the catabolism of a milligram of fat along two separate pathways, one used for resting metabolism and one for flight. These estimates are derived from stoichiometric calculations constructed based on a detailed quantification of the composition of food and body tissue and on a description of the major metabolic pathways in tsetse simplified to single reaction sequences between substrates and products. The estimates include the expected amounts of uric acid formed, oxygen required, and carbon dioxide released during each conversion. The calculated estimates of uric acid egestion and of oxygen use compare favorably to

  15. Biochemical and ultrasonographic predictors of outcome in threatened abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Maged

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: CA125, β HCG and progesterone are good biochemical markers and FHR and CRL are good ultrasonographic markers for the prediction of outcome in women with threatened abortion. FHR at 110 bpm gives the best predictivity followed by serum P at 25 ng/ml, β HCG at 19887 mIU/ml, CA 125 at 80 IU/ml and CRL at 21 mm with the least predictive accuracy among studied markers. Adding serum progesterone to FHR gave a sensitivity and specificity of 100%.

  16. A neurological and biochemical study of early lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, J A.S.

    1980-05-01

    Motor nerve conduction velocities in 194 workers exposed to lead in a battery factory were compared with those of 94 age-matched controls. Changes in nerve conduction velocities of the 94 lead workers were found to have occurred. All mean maximum motor nerve conducting velocities measured were significantly lower in the lead-exposed group than in the control group. There was no statistically significant correlation to indicate that progressive slowing of nerve conduction was associated with increasing exposure to lead or with the commonly measured biochemical changes associated with disturbed haemopoiesis in lead exposure. Results suggest that the onset of nerve conduction changes occurs within two years.

  17. Lignin biodegradation: experimental evidence, molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monties, B

    1985-01-01

    A critical review is presented of English, French and some German language literature, mainly from 1983 onwards. It examines experimental evidence on the behaviour as barriers to biodegradation of lignins and phenolic polymers such as tannins and suberins. The different molecular mechanisms of lignolysis by fungi (mainly), actinomycetes and bacteria are examined. A new biochemical approach to the physiological mechanism of regulation of lignolytic activities is suggested based on the discoveries of ligniolytic enzymes: effects of nitrogen, oxygen and substrate are discussed. It is concluded that a better knowledge of the structure and reactivity of phenolic barriers is needed in order to control the process of lignolysis.

  18. Fibre optic system for biochemical and microbiological sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penwill, L A; Slater, J H; Hayes, N W; Tremlett, C J

    2007-01-01

    This poster will discuss state-of-the-art fibre optic sensors based on evanescent wave technology emphasising chemophotonic sensors for biochemical reactions and microbe detection. Devices based on antibody specificity and unique DNA sequences will be described. The development of simple sensor devices with disposable single use sensor probes will be illustrated with a view to providing cost effective field based or point of care analysis of major themes such as hospital acquired infections or bioterrorism events. This presentation will discuss the nature and detection thresholds required, the optical detection techniques investigated, results of sensor trials and the potential for wider commercial application

  19. Biochemical composition of the biomass of some yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippova, T.V.; Tyurina, Z.P.

    1981-01-01

    The biochemical composition of Rhodotorula gracilis was dependent on the culture medium. Cultivation of the yeast on molasses, starch, and plant hydrolyzates gave a high biomass yield with high protein and carbohydrate contents and relatively low nucleic acid contents. Similar results were obtained with fodder yeasts: Candida tropicalis, C. scotti, and Sporobolomyces pararoseus. There were 17 amino acids in yeast biomass. The amino acid content of R. gracilis and C. scotti was 29-30 percent and 39 percent respectively. Both species were deficient in methionine.

  20. Biochemical disease-free survival following I-125 prostate implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, David C; Priestley, Joseph B

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objective: To assess the five-year clinical and biochemical results of ultrasound-guided permanent I-125 brachytherapy in early prostate cancer. Biochemical disease-free survival (BDFS) is reported, using PSA follow-up and is compared to the surgical and radiation therapy literature. Materials and Methods: From 12/88 through 12/93, ultrasound-guided brachytherapy was preplanned with I-125 and delivered 16,000 cGy as the sole treatment in 499 patients. All were clinically staged as T1 or T2 - N0M0 adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Within the first year, 19 patients were lost to follow-up and have been excluded from further study. The remaining 480 patients form the basis of this report. Clinical status and PSA values were systematically recorded before and after treatment. Results: With a median follow-up of 35 months (3-70) the actuarial clinical local control is 83%. Both stage and grade are shown to predict for this endpoint. Actuarial BDFS is also correlated with stage, grade, and PSA at presentation. Biochemical disease-free survival at five years is 94% for T1, 70% for unilateral T2, and 34% for T2c tumors. Grade is also predictive, ranging from 85% in low-grade tumors to 30% in high-grade tumors. In a multivariate analysis, the pretreatment PSA is most highly correlated (p < 0.0001). Patients with a normal pretreatment PSA enjoyed 93% BDFS, while those presenting with PSA > 10 had a BDFS of 40%. Complications have been few, with severe urinary urgency or dysuria in 4% and both incontinence and proctitis seen in 1%. Conclusion: While biochemical disease-free survival reports in the literature are immature and have short follow-up, our data compares favorably with studies following radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. Further follow-up of this cohort is required. The complication rate is low and patient acceptance excellent. Permanent implantation of I-125 as the sole treatment for early prostate cancer is a viable alternative for patients with

  1. Analytical interference by contrast agents in biochemical assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otnes, Sigrid; Fogh-Andersen, Niels; Rømsing, Janne

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To provide a clinically relevant overview of the analytical interference by contrast agents (CA) in laboratory blood test measurements. Materials and Methods. The effects of five CAs, gadobutrol, gadoterate meglumine, gadoxetate disodium, iodixanol, and iomeprol, were studied on the 29...... most frequently performed biochemical assays. One-day-old plasma, serum, and whole blood were spiked with doses of each agent such that the gadolinium agents and the iodine agents reached concentrations of 0.5mMand 12mg iodine/mL, respectively. Subsequently, 12 assays were reexamined using 1/2 and 1...

  2. Integrating Carbon Nanotubes into Microfluidic Chip for Separating Biochemical Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a new type of device to separate biochemical compounds wherein carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are integrated as chromatographic stationary phase. The CNTs were directly grown on the bottom of microfluidic channels on Si/SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetylene was used...... as carbon source and Ni was employed as catalyst. For electrokinetic separations, higher electrical field strength is usually required; therefore, the CNTs were constructed in pillar-array-form by patterning the catalyst layer. Electrical field strength of 2.0 kV/cm has been realized, which is more than one...

  3. Use of laminar flow patterning for miniaturised biochemical assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Krühne, Ulrich; Beyer, M.

    2004-01-01

    Laminar flow in microfluidic chambers was used to construct low (one dimensional) density arrays suitable for miniaturized biochemical assays. By varying the ratio of flows of two guiding streams flanking a sample stream, precise focusing and positioning of the latter was achieved, and reactive s...... species carried in the sample stream were deposited on functionalized chip surfaces as discrete 50 mm wide lanes. Using different model systems we have confirmed the method's suitability for qualitative screening and quantification tasks in receptor-ligand assays, recording biotin...

  4. Biochemical disease-free survival following I-125 prostate implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, David C.; Priestley, Joseph B.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To assess the five-year clinical and biochemical results of ultrasound-guided permanent I-125 brachytherapy in early prostate cancer. Biochemical disease-free survival (BDFS) is reported, using PSA follow-up and is compared to the surgical and radiation therapy literature. Materials and Methods: From 12/88 through 12/93, ultrasound-guided brachytherapy was preplanned with I-125 and delivered 16,000 cGy as the sole treatment in 499 patients. All were clinically staged as T1 or T2 - N0M0 adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Within the first year, 19 patients were lost to follow-up and have been excluded from further study. The remaining 480 patients form the basis of this report. Clinical status and PSA values were systematically recorded before and after treatment. Results: With a median follow-up of 35 months (3-70) the actuarial clinical local control is 83%. Both stage and grade are shown to predict for this endpoint. Actuarial BDFS is also correlated with stage, grade, and PSA at presentation. Biochemical disease-free survival at five years is 94% for T1, 70% for unilateral T2, and 34% for T2c tumors. Grade is also predictive, ranging from 85% in low-grade tumors to 30% in high-grade tumors. In a multivariate analysis, the pretreatment PSA is most highly correlated (p 10 had a BDFS of 40%. Complications have been few, with severe urinary urgency or dysuria in 4% and both incontinence and proctitis seen in 1%. Conclusion: While biochemical disease-free survival reports in the literature are immature and have short follow-up, our data compares favorably with studies following radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. Further follow-up of this cohort is required. The complication rate is low and patient acceptance excellent. Permanent implantation of I-125 as the sole treatment for early prostate cancer is a viable alternative for patients with early stage and low- to moderate-grade cancers. The PSA provides significant prognostic information and

  5. Laser induced fluorescence of biochemical for UV LIDAR application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Sharma, R C; Razdan, A K; Maini, A K

    2014-05-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the ultraviolet regime has been used for the detection of biochemical through a fiber coupled CCD detector from a distance of 2 m. The effect of concentration and laser excitation energy on the fluorescence spectra of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been investigated. The signature fluorescence peak of NADH was centred about 460 nm. At lower concentration Raman peak centred at 405 nm was also observed. The origin of this peak has been discussed. Detection limit with the proposed set up is found to be 1 ppm.

  6. Ultraviolet transparent silicon oxynitride waveguides for biochemical microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Friis, Peter; Hübner, Jörg

    2001-01-01

    The UV wavelength region is of great interest in absorption spectroscopy, which is employed for chemical analysis, since many organic compounds absorb in only this region. Germanium-doped silica, which is often preferred as the waveguide core material in optical devices for telecommunication....... The applicability of these waveguides was demonstrated in a biochemical microsystem consisting of multimode buried-channel SiOxNy waveguides that were monolithically integrated with microfluidic channels. Absorption measurements of a beta -blocking agent, propranolol, at 212-215 nm were performed. The detection...

  7. Influences of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages on the land surface fluxes and radiative temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lianhong; Meyers, Tilden; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hanson, Paul J.; Yang, Bai; Heuer, Mark; Hosman, Kevin P.; Liu, Qing; Riggs, Jeffery S.; Sluss, Dan; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2007-01-01

    biomass energy storages act to dampen the diurnal temperature range. From these simulation results, we concluded that biomass heat and biochemical energy storages are an integral and substantial part of the surface energy budget and play a role in modulating land surface temperatures and must be considered in studies of land-atmosphere interactions and climate modeling.

  8. Combination of biochemical and mechanical cues for tendon tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Stefano; Costantini, Marco; Fornetti, Ersilia; Bernardini, Sergio; Trombetta, Marcella; Seliktar, Dror; Cannata, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto; Gargioli, Cesare

    2017-11-01

    Tendinopathies negatively affect the life quality of millions of people in occupational and athletic settings, as well as the general population. Tendon healing is a slow process, often with insufficient results to restore complete endurance and functionality of the tissue. Tissue engineering, using tendon progenitors, artificial matrices and bioreactors for mechanical stimulation, could be an important approach for treating rips, fraying and tissue rupture. In our work, C3H10T1/2 murine fibroblast cell line was exposed to a combination of stimuli: a biochemical stimulus provided by Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) and Ascorbic Acid (AA); a three-dimensional environment represented by PEGylated-Fibrinogen (PEG-Fibrinogen) biomimetic matrix; and a mechanical induction exploiting a custom bioreactor applying uniaxial stretching. In vitro analyses by immunofluorescence and mechanical testing revealed that the proposed combined approach favours the organization of a three-dimensional tissue-like structure promoting a remarkable arrangement of the cells and the neo-extracellular matrix, reflecting into enhanced mechanical strength. The proposed method represents a novel approach for tendon tissue engineering, demonstrating how the combined effect of biochemical and mechanical stimuli ameliorates biological and mechanical properties of the artificial tissue compared to those obtained with single inducement. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  9. Dust Fertilization of the Western Atlantic Biota: a Biochemical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Every year an estimated 50 million tons of African dust reaches the Western Atlantic. This dust is composed of quartz sand, clay, and a mixture of quartz and clay particles agglutinated with micronutrient enriched ferruginous cement. However, whether it is friend or foe to biochemical systems is a matter of conjecture. Corals are ideal recorders of changing conditions as the layers can be dated so that the record of chemical changes is easily assessed. There is extensive shallow-and deep water coral development bordering the Florida Straits. The changes in trace element chemistry within these corals show a positive relationship with the African dust record. Recently, it has been demonstrated that many of the metals contained within the dust are necessary micronutrients in the fertilization of plankton. Using the results of these studies, a biochemical model has been constructed. This model suggests a path from inorganic dust through microbial transformation to micronutrient enzymes (i.e. Cd-enriched carbonic anahydrase) and carbonate precipitation on the Bahamian Banks. It is estimated that more than ten million metric tons of this fine, metal-rich sediment is formed each year. However, for much of this sediment, its deposition is temporary, as it is transported into the Florida Straits yearly by tropical cyclones. This metal-enriched fine carbonate becomes nutrients for phytoplankton, providing food for the corals, both shallow and deep.

  10. Efficient Parallel Statistical Model Checking of Biochemical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ballarini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of verifying stochastic models of biochemical networks against behavioral properties expressed in temporal logic terms. Exact probabilistic verification approaches such as, for example, CSL/PCTL model checking, are undermined by a huge computational demand which rule them out for most real case studies. Less demanding approaches, such as statistical model checking, estimate the likelihood that a property is satisfied by sampling executions out of the stochastic model. We propose a methodology for efficiently estimating the likelihood that a LTL property P holds of a stochastic model of a biochemical network. As with other statistical verification techniques, the methodology we propose uses a stochastic simulation algorithm for generating execution samples, however there are three key aspects that improve the efficiency: first, the sample generation is driven by on-the-fly verification of P which results in optimal overall simulation time. Second, the confidence interval estimation for the probability of P to hold is based on an efficient variant of the Wilson method which ensures a faster convergence. Third, the whole methodology is designed according to a parallel fashion and a prototype software tool has been implemented that performs the sampling/verification process in parallel over an HPC architecture.

  11. Physiological and biochemical performances of menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available The unique mutualism between corals and their photosynthetic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp. is the driving force behind functional assemblages of coral reefs. However, the respective roles of hosts and Symbiodinium in this endosymbiotic association, particularly in response to environmental challenges (e.g., high sea surface temperatures, remain unsettled. One of the key obstacles is to produce and maintain aposymbiotic coral hosts for experimental purposes. In this study, a simple and gentle protocol to generate aposymbiotic coral hosts (Isopora palifera and Stylophora pistillata was developed using repeated incubation in menthol/artificial seawater (ASW medium under light and in ASW in darkness, which depleted more than 99% of Symbiodinium from the host within 4∼8 days. As indicated by the respiration rate, energy metabolism (by malate dehydrogenase activity, and nitrogen metabolism (by glutamate dehydrogenase activity and profiles of free amino acids, the physiological and biochemical performances of the menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals were comparable to their symbiotic counterparts without nutrient supplementation (e.g., for Stylophora or with a nutrient supplement containing glycerol, vitamins, and a host mimic of free amino acid mixture (e.g., for Isopora. Differences in biochemical responses to menthol-induced bleaching between Stylophora and Isopora were attributed to the former digesting Symbiodinium rather than expelling the algae live as found in the latter species. Our studies showed that menthol could successfully bleach corals and provided aposymbiotic corals for further exploration of coral-alga symbioses.

  12. Coarse-graining stochastic biochemical networks: adiabaticity and fast simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hengartner, Nick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We propose a universal approach for analysis and fast simulations of stiff stochastic biochemical kinetics networks, which rests on elimination of fast chemical species without a loss of information about mesoscoplc, non-Poissonian fluctuations of the slow ones. Our approach, which is similar to the Born-Oppenhelmer approximation in quantum mechanics, follows from the stochastic path Integral representation of the cumulant generating function of reaction events. In applications with a small number of chemIcal reactions, It produces analytical expressions for cumulants of chemical fluxes between the slow variables. This allows for a low-dimensional, Interpretable representation and can be used for coarse-grained numerical simulation schemes with a small computational complexity and yet high accuracy. As an example, we derive the coarse-grained description for a chain of biochemical reactions, and show that the coarse-grained and the microscopic simulations are in an agreement, but the coarse-gralned simulations are three orders of magnitude faster.

  13. Improved methods for the mathematically controlled comparison of biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwacke John H

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The method of mathematically controlled comparison provides a structured approach for the comparison of alternative biochemical pathways with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. Under this approach, alternative implementations of a biochemical pathway are modeled mathematically, forced to be equivalent through the application of selected constraints, and compared with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. While the method has been applied successfully in a variety of studies, we offer recommendations for improvements to the method that (1 relax requirements for definition of constraints sufficient to remove all degrees of freedom in forming the equivalent alternative, (2 facilitate generalization of the results thus avoiding the need to condition those findings on the selected constraints, and (3 provide additional insights into the effect of selected constraints on the functional effectiveness measures. We present improvements to the method and related statistical models, apply the method to a previously conducted comparison of network regulation in the immune system, and compare our results to those previously reported.

  14. The clinical presentation and biochemical diagnosis of acromegaly and gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jialal, I; Nathoo, B C; Joubert, S; Asmal, A C; Pillay, N L

    1982-04-24

    Over a 5-year period 14 patients with acromegaly and gigantism were seen at the endocrine clinic of King Edward VIII Hospital: 9 were Blacks and 5 Indians; 8 of the patients were women. The mean age of the patients was 46 years. Surprisingly, only 2 patients complained of acral overgrowth. Symptomatology was varied and not characteristic of the condition. On examination all patients had unequivocal signs of soft-tissue and bony overgrowth, 64% had visual abnormalities and 50% hypertension. Radiologically, 88% showed an enlarged pituitary fossa. On biochemical investigation, the fasting levels of growth hormone (GH) were increased in 12 patients and during oral glucose tolerance tests, the GH levels in these 12 patients were not suppressed. One patient in whom the fasting GH level was not increased had progressed to the stage of panhypopituitarism, in the remaining patient challenge with thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) led to increased GH levels and L-dopa challenge resulted in a paradoxical decrease in GH levels. Seven patients with increased GH levels who were challenged with L-dopa showed the typical decrease in GH levels found in this condition; in 5 of these patients, challenged with TRH, GH levels increased. The findings emphasize that despite the ease of clinical diagnosis, appropriate biochemical investigations are necessary to confirm the exact status of the disease, which is rare in the population studied.

  15. Biochemical and immunological responses to low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.H.; Sayed, Z.S.; Mahdy, E.M.; El-Gawish, M.A.; Shosha, W.

    2006-01-01

    Malondialdehyde, lactate dehydrogenase, iron concentration, IL-6 and IL-1b concentration, hemoglobin content, red cells, white cells and platelet counts were determined in seventy-two male albino rats divided into two main groups. The first one was subdivided into 7 subgroups; control and 6 irradiated subgroups with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 Gy single dose of gamma radiation. The other was subdivided into 4 subgroups irradiated with fractionated doses of gamma radiation; three groups were irradiated with 0.3, 0.7 and 1 Gy (0.1 Gy/day) and the last subgroup with 1 Gy (0.2 Gy/day). All animals were sacrificed after three days of the last irradiation dose. The results revealed that all biochemical parameters were increased in rats exposed to fractionated doses more than the single doses. Hematological parameters were decreased in rats exposed to single doses more than the fractionated ones. In conclusion, the data of this study highlights the stimulatory effect of low ionizing radiation doses (= 1 Gy), whether single or fractionated, on some biochemical and immunological parameters

  16. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. de O. Abrantes

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Nematologists need correct species identification to carry out research, teaching, extension and other activities. Therefore, nematode taxonomy must be pursued diligently at all levels. The identification of plant-parasitic nematodes is not always easy and that of some species is especially difficult. Most of the information that nematologists use when characterizing and identifying specimens is based on morphological and morphometrical characters. Although these characters are of primary importance, in the last three decades they have been supplemented by biochemical/ molecular characters. Biochemical approaches include the separation of proteins (general proteins and isozymes by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-capillary gel electrophoresis. Serology has also been found effective in the identification and quantification of nematodes, monoclonal antibodies being a more useful immunological tool than polyclonal antibodies. Identification based on the direct examination of DNA is potentially a more powerful method to characterize inter- and intra-specific variability. The development of techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, and amplified fragment length polymorphism has increased the accuracy and speed of nematode characterization/identification. Progress continues to be made and more and more nematologists are using molecular techniques for diagnostic purposes and to assess genetic variation.

  17. The human sunburn reaction: histologic and biochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilchrest, B.A.; Soter, N.A.; Stoff, J.S.; Mihm, M.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet-induced erythema reaction was investigated histologically and biochemically in four subjects, utilizing suction blister aspirates, analyzed for histamine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and Epon-embedded 1-mu skin biopsy sections from control skin and from irradiated skin at intervals for 72 hours after exposure to a Hanovia lamp. Major histologic alterations in the epidermis included dyskeratotic and vacuolated keratinocytes (sunburn cells), and disappearance of Langerhans cells. In the dermis the major changes were vascular, involving both the superficial and deep venular plexuses. Endothelial cell enlargement was first apparent within 30 minutes of irradiation, peaked at 24 hours, and persisted throughout the 72-hour study period. Mast cell degranulation and associated perivenular edema were first apparent at 1 hour and striking at the onset of erythema, 3 to 4 hours postirradiation; edema was absent and mast cells were again normal in number and granule content at 24 hours. Histamine levels rose approximately fourfold above control values immediately after the onset of erythema and returned to baseline within 24 hours. PGE2 levels were statistically elevated even before the onset of erythema and reached approximately 150% of the control value at 24 hours. These data provide the first evidence that histamine may mediate the early phase of the human sunburn reaction and increase our understanding of its complex histologic and biochemical sequelae

  18. Estimating rare events in biochemical systems using conditional sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on development of variance reduction strategies to estimate rare events in biochemical systems. Obtaining this probability using brute force Monte Carlo simulations in conjunction with the stochastic simulation algorithm (Gillespie's method) is computationally prohibitive. To circumvent this, important sampling tools such as the weighted stochastic simulation algorithm and the doubly weighted stochastic simulation algorithm have been proposed. However, these strategies require an additional step of determining the important region to sample from, which is not straightforward for most of the problems. In this paper, we apply the subset simulation method, developed as a variance reduction tool in the context of structural engineering, to the problem of rare event estimation in biochemical systems. The main idea is that the rare event probability is expressed as a product of more frequent conditional probabilities. These conditional probabilities are estimated with high accuracy using Monte Carlo simulations, specifically the Markov chain Monte Carlo method with the modified Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Generating sample realizations of the state vector using the stochastic simulation algorithm is viewed as mapping the discrete-state continuous-time random process to the standard normal random variable vector. This viewpoint opens up the possibility of applying more sophisticated and efficient sampling schemes developed elsewhere to problems in stochastic chemical kinetics. The results obtained using the subset simulation method are compared with existing variance reduction strategies for a few benchmark problems, and a satisfactory improvement in computational time is demonstrated.

  19. Deterministic modelling and stochastic simulation of biochemical pathways using MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M; Schmidt, H; Cho, K H; Wolkenhauer, O

    2006-03-01

    The analysis of complex biochemical networks is conducted in two popular conceptual frameworks for modelling. The deterministic approach requires the solution of ordinary differential equations (ODEs, reaction rate equations) with concentrations as continuous state variables. The stochastic approach involves the simulation of differential-difference equations (chemical master equations, CMEs) with probabilities as variables. This is to generate counts of molecules for chemical species as realisations of random variables drawn from the probability distribution described by the CMEs. Although there are numerous tools available, many of them free, the modelling and simulation environment MATLAB is widely used in the physical and engineering sciences. We describe a collection of MATLAB functions to construct and solve ODEs for deterministic simulation and to implement realisations of CMEs for stochastic simulation using advanced MATLAB coding (Release 14). The program was successfully applied to pathway models from the literature for both cases. The results were compared to implementations using alternative tools for dynamic modelling and simulation of biochemical networks. The aim is to provide a concise set of MATLAB functions that encourage the experimentation with systems biology models. All the script files are available from www.sbi.uni-rostock.de/ publications_matlab-paper.html.

  20. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  1. Biochemical markers for the assessment of aquatic environment contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelková, Marcela; Randák, Tomáš; Blahová, Jana; Slatinská, Iveta; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2008-01-01

    The need for assessment of aquatic ecosystem contamination and of its impact on water dwelling organisms was developed in response to rising aquatic environmental pollution. In this field study, liver enzymes of phase I and phase II of xenobiotic transformation, namely cytochrome P450, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, glutathione-S-transferase and tripeptide glutathione were used to assess the contamination of the aquatic environment at different rivers in the Czech Republic. The indicator species selected was the male chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) and male brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). Chemical analyses included also the assessment of the most important inductors of previously mentioned biochemical markers. The major inductors of monitored biomarkers are industrial contaminants which belong to a large group of organic pollutants (PCB, PAH, PCDD/F, DDT, HCH, HCB and OCS), persistent in the environment. Four different groups of river basins were assessed: the River Tichá Orlice and its tributary the Kralický brook; important tributaries of the River Elbe (the rivers Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina); major rivers in the Czech Republic (the rivers Lužnice, Otava, Sázava, Berounka, Vltava, Labe, Ohře, Svratka, Dyje, Morava and Odra) and the River Vltava. The use of the biochemical markers together with chemical analyses seems to be an effective way to monitor the quality of aquatic environment. PMID:21218108

  2. Biochemical and cytological effects of sulphur dioxide on plant metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, S S; Hocking, D

    1976-01-01

    Biochemical effects of sulfur dioxide arise from its unique ability to act as an oxidizing or a reducing agent. Among some of the important metabolic effects are direct interference with photosynthetic CO/sub 2/ fixation (competitive inhibiton of ribulose diphosphate carbosylase by SO/sub 3/) and with energy metabolism (inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production by SO/sub 3//sup =/). Many indirect effects result from formation of sulfites and organic sulfonates with other cell constituents. These compounds can cause inhibition of a variety of metabolic enzyme systems. All these factors are probably instrumental in the gross disruption of chloroplast and mitochondrial ultrastructure. Injurious effects result when sulfur dioxide is taken up in excess of the capacity of the tissue to incorporate sulfur into the normal metabolic activities. The ubiquitous presence of small amounts of SO/sub 2/ and the subtle and varied nature of its biochemical effects suggest that crop losses to SO/sub 2/ pollution may be more widespread and serious than is generally suspected.

  3. [INVITED] Tilted fiber grating mechanical and biochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    The tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is a new kind of fiber-optic sensor that possesses all the advantages of well-established Bragg grating technology in addition to being able to excite cladding modes resonantly. This device opens up a multitude of opportunities for single-point sensing in hard-to-reach spaces with very controllable cross-sensitivities, absolute and relative measurements of various parameters, and an extreme sensitivity to materials external to the fiber without requiring the fiber to be etched or tapered. Over the past five years, our research group has been developing multimodal fiber-optic sensors based on TFBG in various shapes and forms, always keeping the device itself simple to fabricate and compatible with low-cost manufacturing. This paper presents a brief review of the principle, fabrication, characterization, and implementation of TFBGs, followed by our progress in TFBG sensors for mechanical and biochemical applications, including one-dimensional TFBG vibroscopes, accelerometers and micro-displacement sensors; two-dimensional TFBG vector vibroscopes and vector rotation sensors; reflective TFBG refractometers with in-fiber and fiber-to-fiber configurations; polarimetric and plasmonic TFBG biochemical sensors for in-situ detection of cell, protein and glucose.

  4. Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Ali, S. R.; Ishaque, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical and biochemical characteristics of children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) at a tertiary care centre in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Paediatric Rheumatology Clinic of The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Clinical and laboratory profile and outcome of children less than 15 years of age attending the Paediatric Rheumatology Clinic of the Aga Khan University, Karachi with the diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis according to International League against Rheumatism were studied. These children were classified into different types of JIA; their clinical and laboratory characteristics, response to therapy and outcome was evaluated. Results: Sixty eight patients satisfying the criteria of International League against Rheumatism (ILAR) for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis were enrolled during the study period of four consecutive years, their age ranged from 9 months to 15 years. Mean age at onset was 6.45 +- 4.03 years while mean age at diagnosis was 7.60 +- 3.93 years. Polyarticular was the most predominant subtype with 37 (54%) patients, out of these, 9 (24%) were rheumatoid factor positive. An almost equal gender predisposition was observed. Fever and arthritis were the most common presenting symptoms, with only 2 patients presenting with uveitis. Conclusion: The clinico-biochemical characteristics of JIA at the study centre showed a pattern distinct with early onset of disease, high frequency of polyarticular type and a higher rheumatoid factor (QRA) and ANA positivity in girls. (author)

  5. A biochemical basis for induction of retina regeneration by antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri-Ruiz, Nancy; Haynes, Tracy; Landers, Joseph; Woods, Justin; Gemma, Michael J; Hughes, Michael; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2018-01-15

    The use of antioxidants in tissue regeneration has been studied, but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Here, we analyze the role of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in retina regeneration. Embryonic chicks are able to regenerate their retina after its complete removal from retinal stem/progenitor cells present in the ciliary margin (CM) of the eye only if a source of exogenous factors, such as FGF2, is present. This study shows that NAC modifies the redox status of the CM, initiates self-renewal of the stem/progenitor cells, and induces regeneration in the absence of FGF2. NAC works as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals either independently or through the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), and/or by reducing oxidized proteins through a thiol disulfide exchange activity. We dissected the mechanism used by NAC to induce regeneration through the use of inhibitors of GSH synthesis and the use of other antioxidants with different biochemical structures and modes of action, and found that NAC induces regeneration through its thiol disulfide exchange activity. Thus, our results provide, for the first time, a biochemical basis for induction of retina regeneration. Furthermore, NAC induction was independent of FGF receptor signaling, but dependent on the MAPK (pErk1/2) pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SBOLme: a Repository of SBOL Parts for Metabolic Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-12

    The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) is a community-driven open language to promote standardization in synthetic biology. To support the use of SBOL in metabolic engineering, we developed SBOLme, the first open-access repository of SBOL 2-compliant biochemical parts for a wide range of metabolic engineering applications. The URL of our repository is http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/sbolme.

  7. EVALUATION OF HEMATOLOGY AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF FREE-LIVING EUROPEAN BROWN HARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Trusinová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to determine blood hematological and serum chemistry values for a population of free-living European brown hares and to investigate differences related to age. The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus is a species of hare naturally occurring in northern, central and western parts of Europe and southwestern Asia. The blood samples were collected from 25 hares (15 adults and 10 juveniles shot during regular hunting seasons in 4 hunting grounds located in Danube lowland. Following parameters were analyzed: WBC, LYM, GRA, RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC on blood samples, and glucose, total proteins, urea, bilirubin, cholesterol, Ca, P, Na, K, Cl on serum. WBC count was higher in adults (2.86.109.l-1 than in young hares (2.71.109.l-1. RBC count and HGB concentration were higher in young hares (RBC=8.94.1012.l-1, HGB=184.43 g.l-1 than in adults (RBC=8.38.1012.l-1, HGB=177.59 g.l-1. No significant differences were found in other hematology parameters. Biochemical indicators of age were evaluated and an increased content of glucose in adult individuals was found (a = 9.39 mmol.l-1, j = 8.48 mmol.l-1. The increased level of urea in blood serum was observed as almost significant in juvenile individuals (a = 6.11 mmol.l-1, j = 6.94 mmol.l-1, but also reduction of bilirubin was observed (a = 5.19 mmol.l-1, j = 4.23 mmol.l-1. Other monitored biochemical parameters were fairly balanced. All evaluated hematology and serum chemistry parameters of brown hares were within the physiological range with relatively low differences.

  8. Localized Modeling of Biochemical and Flow Interactions during Cancer Cell Adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Behr

    Full Text Available This work focuses on one component of a larger research effort to develop a simulation tool to model populations of flowing cells. Specifically, in this study a local model of the biochemical interactions between circulating melanoma tumor cells (TC and substrate adherent polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN is developed. This model provides realistic three-dimensional distributions of bond formation and attendant attraction and repulsion forces that are consistent with the time dependent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD framework of the full system model which accounts local pressure, shear and repulsion forces. The resulting full dynamics model enables exploration of TC adhesion to adherent PMNs, which is a known participating mechanism in melanoma cell metastasis. The model defines the adhesion molecules present on the TC and PMN cell surfaces, and calculates their interactions as the melanoma cell flows past the PMN. Biochemical rates of reactions between individual molecules are determined based on their local properties. The melanoma cell in the model expresses ICAM-1 molecules on its surface, and the PMN expresses the β-2 integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. In this work the PMN is fixed to the substrate and is assumed fully rigid and of a prescribed shear-rate dependent shape obtained from micro-PIV experiments. The melanoma cell is transported with full six-degrees-of-freedom dynamics. Adhesion models, which represent the ability of molecules to bond and adhere the cells to each other, and repulsion models, which represent the various physical mechanisms of cellular repulsion, are incorporated with the CFD solver. All models are general enough to allow for future extensions, including arbitrary adhesion molecule types, and the ability to redefine the values of parameters to represent various cell types. The model presented in this study will be part of a clinical tool for development of personalized medical treatment programs.

  9. Emergence of switch-like behavior in a large family of simple biochemical networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Siegal-Gaskins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bistability plays a central role in the gene regulatory networks (GRNs controlling many essential biological functions, including cellular differentiation and cell cycle control. However, establishing the network topologies that can exhibit bistability remains a challenge, in part due to the exceedingly large variety of GRNs that exist for even a small number of components. We begin to address this problem by employing chemical reaction network theory in a comprehensive in silico survey to determine the capacity for bistability of more than 40,000 simple networks that can be formed by two transcription factor-coding genes and their associated proteins (assuming only the most elementary biochemical processes. We find that there exist reaction rate constants leading to bistability in ∼90% of these GRN models, including several circuits that do not contain any of the TF cooperativity commonly associated with bistable systems, and the majority of which could only be identified as bistable through an original subnetwork-based analysis. A topological sorting of the two-gene family of networks based on the presence or absence of biochemical reactions reveals eleven minimal bistable networks (i.e., bistable networks that do not contain within them a smaller bistable subnetwork. The large number of previously unknown bistable network topologies suggests that the capacity for switch-like behavior in GRNs arises with relative ease and is not easily lost through network evolution. To highlight the relevance of the systematic application of CRNT to bistable network identification in real biological systems, we integrated publicly available protein-protein interaction, protein-DNA interaction, and gene expression data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified several GRNs predicted to behave in a bistable fashion.

  10. Localized Modeling of Biochemical and Flow Interactions during Cancer Cell Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Julie; Gaskin, Byron; Fu, Changliang; Dong, Cheng; Kunz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on one component of a larger research effort to develop a simulation tool to model populations of flowing cells. Specifically, in this study a local model of the biochemical interactions between circulating melanoma tumor cells (TC) and substrate adherent polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) is developed. This model provides realistic three-dimensional distributions of bond formation and attendant attraction and repulsion forces that are consistent with the time dependent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) framework of the full system model which accounts local pressure, shear and repulsion forces. The resulting full dynamics model enables exploration of TC adhesion to adherent PMNs, which is a known participating mechanism in melanoma cell metastasis. The model defines the adhesion molecules present on the TC and PMN cell surfaces, and calculates their interactions as the melanoma cell flows past the PMN. Biochemical rates of reactions between individual molecules are determined based on their local properties. The melanoma cell in the model expresses ICAM-1 molecules on its surface, and the PMN expresses the β-2 integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. In this work the PMN is fixed to the substrate and is assumed fully rigid and of a prescribed shear-rate dependent shape obtained from micro-PIV experiments. The melanoma cell is transported with full six-degrees-of-freedom dynamics. Adhesion models, which represent the ability of molecules to bond and adhere the cells to each other, and repulsion models, which represent the various physical mechanisms of cellular repulsion, are incorporated with the CFD solver. All models are general enough to allow for future extensions, including arbitrary adhesion molecule types, and the ability to redefine the values of parameters to represent various cell types. The model presented in this study will be part of a clinical tool for development of personalized medical treatment programs.

  11. Muscle fiber population and biochemical properties of whole body muscles in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Minako; Minami, Yoshio; Sayama, Yukiko; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Hiraga, Atsushi; Miyata, Hirofumi

    2009-10-01

    We examine the muscle fiber population and metabolic properties of skeletal muscles from the whole body in Thoroughbred horses. Postmortem samples were taken from 46 sites in six Thoroughbred horses aged between 3 and 6 years. Fiber type population was determined on muscle fibers stained with monoclonal antibody to each myosin heavy chain isoform and metabolic enzyme activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Histochemical analysis demonstrated that most of the muscles had a high percentage of Type IIa fibers. In terms of the muscle characteristic in several parts of the horse body, the forelimb muscles had a higher percentage of Type IIa fiber and a significantly lower percentage of Type IIx fiber than the hindlimb muscles. The muscle fiber type populations in the thoracic and trunk portion were similar to those in the hindlimb portion. Biochemical analysis indicated high succinate dehydrogenase activity in respiratory-related muscle and high phosphofructokinase activity in hindlimbs. We suggested that the higher percentage of Type IIa fibers in Thoroughbred racehorses is attributed to training effects. To consider further the physiological significance of each part of the body, data for the recruitment pattern of each muscle fiber type during exercise are needed. The muscle fiber properties in this study combined with the recruitment data would provide fundamental information for physiological and pathological studies in Thoroughbred horses.

  12. Optimization of waste to energy routes through biochemical and thermochemical treatment options of municipal solid waste in Hyderabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korai, Muhammad Safar; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Uqaili, Muhammad Aslam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Existing practice of municipal solid waste management of Hyderabad city, Pakistan have been analyzed. • Development of scenarios on basis of nature of waste components for optimizing waste to energy route. • Analyzing the biochemical and thermochemical potential of MSW through various scenarios. • Evaluation of various treatment technologies under scenarios to optimize waste to energy route. - Abstract: Improper disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) has created many environmental problems in Pakistan and the country is facing energy shortages as well. The present study evaluates the biochemical and thermochemical treatment options of MSW in order to address both the endemic environmental challenges and in part the energy shortage. According to the nature of waste components, a number of scenarios were developed to optimize the waste to energy (WTE) routes. The evaluation of treatment options has been performed by mathematical equations using the special characteristics of MSW. The power generation potential (PGP) of biochemical (anaerobic digestion) has been observed in the range of 5.9–11.3 kW/ton day under various scenarios. The PGP of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), Mass Burn Incinerator (MBI), Gasification/Pyrolysis (Gasi./Pyro.) and Plasma Arc Gasification (PAG) have been found to be in the range of 2.7–118.6 kW/ton day, 3.8–164.7 kW/ton day, 4.2–184.5 kW/ton day and 5.2–224 kW/ton day, respectively. The highest values of biochemical and all thermochemical technologies have been obtained through the use of scenarios including the putrescible components (PCs) of MSW such as food and yard wastes, and the non-biodegradable components (NBCs) of MSW such as plastic, rubber, leather, textile and wood respectively. Therefore, routes which include these components are the optimized WTE routes for maximum PGP by biochemical and thermochemical treatments of MSW. The findings of study lead to recommend that socio-economic and environmental

  13. Efficacy of topical honey therapy against silver sulphadiazine treatment in burns: A biochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Nagane, N. S.; Ganu, J. V.; Bhagwat, V. R.; Subramanium, M.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal injury is associated with biochemical changes. The present study was undertaken to investigate relation of oxidative free radical generation and related biochemical parameters in burn trauma. The specific aim was to compare the levels of serum lipid peroxide, Ceruloplasmin and Uric Acid in burn patients during treatment with Silver Sulfadiazine Cream and honey therapy. It is a single blind prospective controlled study involving comparison of biochemical changes after treatment with si...

  14. 'BioNessie(G) - a grid enabled biochemical networks simulation environment

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, X; Jiang, J; Ajayi, O; Gu, X; Gilbert, D; Sinnott, R

    2008-01-01

    The simulation of biochemical networks provides insight and understanding about the underlying biochemical processes and pathways used by cells and organisms. BioNessie is a biochemical network simulator which has been developed at the University of Glasgow. This paper describes the simulator and focuses in particular on how it has been extended to benefit from a wide variety of high performance compute resources across the UK through Grid technologies to support larger scal...

  15. Part C and Part D Compliance Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page includes results from CMSs Past Performance Review. The report called Spring 2014 Past Performance Review Outlier Results lists MA organizations and Part D...

  16. Haematological and biochemical effects of polyphenolics in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanamani, Arumugam; Sudha, Munusamy; Deepa, G; Sudha, M; Deivanai, K; Sadulla, S

    2008-07-01

    Polyphenols of natural and synthetic origin are exploited in tanning sector to convert putrescible skin/hide to non-putrescible leather. However, only 30-40% of the inputs have been taken up for processing, the remaining is released as unspent. The existing conventional wastewater treatment systems are inefficient in removing or degrading these unspent polyphenols and thus detrimental to ecosystem. The present study demonstrates the evaluation of impact of both synthetic and natural polyphenols on biochemical and haematological properties of blood and serum in animal models. The results reveal that concentrations of polyphenols play a major role. At higher concentrations, irrespective of their nature, there was a marked change in the lipid profile (81% reduction), followed by insignificant change in glucose levels, RBC and WBC counts and other haematological parameters. At lower concentrations, no significant changes in the above said properties were observed.

  17. Polyphenol Oxidases in Crops: Biochemical, Physiological and Genetic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Taranto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic browning is a colour reaction occurring in plants, including cereals, fruit and horticultural crops, due to oxidation during postharvest processing and storage. This has a negative impact on the colour, flavour, nutritional properties and shelf life of food products. Browning is usually caused by polyphenol oxidases (PPOs, following cell damage caused by senescence, wounding and the attack of pests and pathogens. Several studies indicated that PPOs play a role in plant immunity, and emerging evidence suggested that PPOs might also be involved in other physiological processes. Genomic investigations ultimately led to the isolation of PPO homologs in several crops, which will be possibly characterized at the functional level in the near future. Here, focusing on the botanic families of Poaceae and Solanaceae, we provide an overview on available scientific literature on PPOs, resulting in useful information on biochemical, physiological and genetic aspects.

  18. Dynamics of biochemical parameters of blood serum in kidney injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Podgainiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Annually injuries of varying severity are registered in more than 4,5 million people (up to 10% of the population in Ukraine; renal injury in polytrauma is detected in 26,4% of cases and takes 2 – 3 place of injury of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space. In order to study the kidney function and other vital organs systems 108 patients were examined. Methods and results. Laboratory methods (clinical and biochemical parameters of blood and urine tests, ultrasound and CT scans of the kidneys and abdominal organs were used. Conclusion. It was established that polytrauma often occurs in males (73,5% of middle-age. 42% of patients presented renal function violation - nitrogen excretion and 84% of patients had activated blood coagulation in the first 7 – 10 days of injury.

  19. Optical bio-chemical sensors on SNOW ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Clarke, Nigel; Anantram, M. P.; Singh Saini, Simarjeet

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we propose and analyze novel ring resonator based bio-chemical sensors on silicon nanowire optical waveguide (SNOW) and show that the sensitivity of the sensors can be increased by an order of magnitude as compared to silicon-on-insulator based ring resonators while maintaining high index contrast and compact devices. The core of the waveguide is hollow and allows for introduction of biomaterial in the center of the mode, thereby increasing the sensitivity of detection. A sensitivity of 243 nm/refractive index unit (RIU) is achieved for a change in bulk refractive index. For surface attachment, the sensor is able to detect monolayer attachments as small as 1 Å on the surface of the silicon nanowires.

  20. Biochemical paths in humans and cells: Frontiers of AMS bioanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.; Palmblad, N.M.; Ognibene, T.; Kabir, M.M.; Buchholz, B.A.; Bench, G.

    2007-01-01

    The publication rate of 3 H and 14 C use in biomedical research decreased by a factor of three since 1990 when the first applications of AMS in biomedicine were published. Against this decrease, the high sensitivity of AMS for these isotopes in small isolated samples has made significant contributions. New smaller spectrometers and increased commercial availability of AMS have solved some of the issues surrounding availability and cost, but improved quantitation in non-isotopic methods now compete with some early uses of AMS. We review the strength of AMS for quantifying rare biochemical events and chemical passages through individual people or cells and consider these as the frontiers of quantitation leading to profitable science unavailable to other techniques

  1. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS....... Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results...... define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis...

  2. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of artichoke waste: the inoculum effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Andrea; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate anaerobic digestibility of artichoke waste resulting from industrial transformation. A series of batch anaerobic digestion tests was performed in order to evaluate the biochemical methane potential of the matrix in respect of the process. A comparison of the different performances of the laboratory-scale reactors operating in mesophilic conditions and utilizing three different values of the inoculum/substrate ratio was carried out. The best performance was achieved with an inoculum/substrate ratio of 2. Artichoke-processing byproducts showed a classical organic waste decomposition behaviour: a fast start-up phase, an acclimation stage, and a final stabilization phase. Following this approach, artichoke waste reached chemical oxygen demand removal of about 90% in 40 days. The high methane yield (average 408.62 mL CH4 gvs (-1) voltatile solids), makes artichoke waste a good product to be utilized in anaerobic digestion plants for biogas production.

  3. Gluconeogenesis: An ancient biochemical pathway with a new twist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Amrein, Hubert

    2017-07-03

    Synthesis of sugars from simple carbon sources is critical for survival of animals under limited nutrient availability. Thus, sugar-synthesizing enzymes should be present across the entire metazoan spectrum. Here, we explore the evolution of glucose and trehalose synthesis using a phylogenetic analysis of enzymes specific for the two pathways. Our analysis reveals that the production of trehalose is the more ancestral biochemical process, found in single cell organisms and primitive metazoans, but also in insects. The gluconeogenic-specific enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) first appears in Cnidaria, but is also present in Echinodermata, Mollusca and Vertebrata. Intriguingly, some species of nematodes and arthropods possess the genes for both pathways. Moreover, expression data from Drosophila suggests that G6Pase and, hence, gluconeogenesis, initially had a neuronal function. We speculate that in insects-and possibly in some vertebrates-gluconeogenesis may be used as a means of neuronal signaling.

  4. Complexity of generic biochemical circuits: topology versus strength of interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Mikhail; Bialek, William

    2016-12-01

    The historical focus on network topology as a determinant of biological function is still largely maintained today, illustrated by the rise of structure-only approaches to network analysis. However, biochemical circuits and genetic regulatory networks are defined both by their topology and by a multitude of continuously adjustable parameters, such as the strength of interactions between nodes, also recognized as important. Here we present a class of simple perceptron-based Boolean models within which comparing the relative importance of topology versus interaction strengths becomes a quantitatively well-posed problem. We quantify the intuition that for generic networks, optimization of interaction strengths is a crucial ingredient of achieving high complexity, defined here as the number of fixed points the network can accommodate. We propose a new methodology for characterizing the relative role of parameter optimization for topologies of a given class.

  5. Recommended Nordic paediatric reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, Linda; Rustad, Pål; Aksglæde, Lise

    2013-01-01

    healthy Danish children were collected for establishing reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties (Alanine transaminase, Albumin, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate transaminase, Bilirubin, Calcium, Cholesterol, Creatinine, Creatine kinase, HDL-Cholesterol, Iron, Lactate dehydrogenase, LDL...... values of X for the properties and statistical calculations carried out as performed in the NORIP study. Thus commutable (regarding analytical method) reference intervals for 20 properties were established and for LDL-Cholesterol reference intervals were reported for the specific analytical method...... employed. The data were compared to previous studies and to those obtained from the youngest age group in the NORIP study. Marked age differences were observed for most of the properties. Several properties also showed gender-related differences, mainly at the onset of puberty. Data are presented...

  6. [Cardiorenal syndrome: the role of new biochemical markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernuccio, Federica; Grutta, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Filippo; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome is a pathophysiological heart and kidney disorder, in which acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ induces a damage in the other. It's a syndrome more and more often encountered in clinical practice and this implies the need to recognize the syndrome through biochemical markers with a good sensitivity and specificity, since its earliest stages in order to optimize therapy. In addition to widely validated biomarkers, such as BNP, pro BNP, creatinine, GFR and cystatin C, other promising molecules are available, like NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, KIM-1 (kidney injury molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic peptide), Netrin-1, interleuchin 18 and NAG (N-acetyl-β-glucosa-minidase). The role of these emerging biomarkers is still not completely clarified: hence the need of new clinical trials.

  7. Biochemical markers for prediction of preclampsia: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Santo

    2011-07-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the most common diseases worldwide, complicating ~5% of all pregnancies.Although no major progress has been achieved in the treatment of PE, our ability to identify women at highrisk has increased considerably during the past decade.The early identification of patients with an increased risk for preeclampsia is therefore one of the most important goals in obstetrics. Today, several markers may offer the potential to be used, most likely in a combinatory analysis, as predictors or diagnostic tools. We present here the current knowledge on the biology of preeclampsia and review several biochemical markers which may be used to monitor preeclampsia in a future, that, we hope, is not to distant from today.

  8. HSimulator: Hybrid Stochastic/Deterministic Simulation of Biochemical Reaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Marchetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HSimulator is a multithread simulator for mass-action biochemical reaction systems placed in a well-mixed environment. HSimulator provides optimized implementation of a set of widespread state-of-the-art stochastic, deterministic, and hybrid simulation strategies including the first publicly available implementation of the Hybrid Rejection-based Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (HRSSA. HRSSA, the fastest hybrid algorithm to date, allows for an efficient simulation of the models while ensuring the exact simulation of a subset of the reaction network modeling slow reactions. Benchmarks show that HSimulator is often considerably faster than the other considered simulators. The software, running on Java v6.0 or higher, offers a simulation GUI for modeling and visually exploring biological processes and a Javadoc-documented Java library to support the development of custom applications. HSimulator is released under the COSBI Shared Source license agreement (COSBI-SSLA.

  9. Biochemical effects of gamma irradiation on banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    It is of important to study the extension of shelf-life at ambient temperature. This study would be of significant in the case of non- refrigerated transport, practices within the country and transhipment to distant countries. studies have therefore extended to assess the shelf-life of irradiated banana stored under-room temperature. Extension of shelf -life have been achieved by many methods, the most modern one is using gamma irradiation as a promising technology for developing nations. the aim of this investigation is to study the biochemical effects of gamma irradiation on G ros Michel m ature green banana fruits and also to determine the optimum dose level and the optimum storage conditions which resulted in, keeping the organoleptic qualities as it is and maximum extension in shelf-life

  10. Biochemical fundamentals of rational radurization technology of cooled meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, S.Yu.; Anisimov, B.N.

    1974-01-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in the last few years to explore the possibility of prolonging the storage life of meat in a cooled state. These experiments have shown that a clearly promising approach is to use relatively low doses of ionizing radiation (300-600 Krad). Irradiation of meat and fowl with such doses strongly reduced microbial contamination while increasing 3- to 5-fold the storage life of the products at low above-zero C temperatures. An important consideration is that the organoleptic and nutritive properties remain largely unchanged. The present communication reports the main results of biochemical studies necessary before an irradiation scheme for semifinished meat products can be developed. (E.T.)

  11. Clinical and Biochemical Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Peroxisomal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouwer, Femke C C; Huffnagel, Irene C; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Waterham, Hans R; Wanders, Ronald J A; Engelen, Marc; Poll-The, Bwee Tien

    2016-08-01

    Peroxisomal disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic metabolic disorders, caused by a defect in peroxisome biogenesis or a deficiency of a single peroxisomal enzyme. The peroxisomal disorders include the Zellweger spectrum disorders, the rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata spectrum disorders, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and multiple single enzyme deficiencies. There are several core phenotypes caused by peroxisomal dysfunction that clinicians can recognize. The diagnosis is suggested by biochemical testing in blood and urine and confirmed by functional assays in cultured skin fibroblasts, followed by mutation analysis. This review describes the phenotype of the main peroxisomal disorders and possible pitfalls in (laboratory) diagnosis to aid clinicians in the recognition of this group of diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Hybrid Nanogenerator for Concurrently Harvesting Biomechanical and Biochemical Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Hansen, Benjamin J.

    2010-07-27

    Harvesting energy from multiple sources available in our personal and daily environments is highly desirable, not only for powering personal electronics, but also for future implantable sensor-transmitter devices for biomedical and healthcare applications. Here we present a hybrid energy scavenging device for potential in vivo applications. The hybrid device consists of a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy, such as from breathing or from the beat of a heart, and a flexible enzymatic biofuel cell for harvesting the biochemical (glucose/O2) energy in biofluid, which are two types of energy available in vivo. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, thereby boosting output and lifetime. Using the hybrid device, we demonstrate a "self-powered" nanosystem by powering a ZnO nanowire UV light sensor. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Biochemical Importance of Glycosylation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Ann; Pedersen, Katrine Egelund; Skottrup, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a potential target for anti-thrombotic and anti-cancer therapy. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate here that PAI-1 expressed recombinantly or naturally by human cell lines display a heterogeneous glycosyla......The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a potential target for anti-thrombotic and anti-cancer therapy. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate here that PAI-1 expressed recombinantly or naturally by human cell lines display a heterogeneous...... with the glycosylation sites could be excluded as explanation for the differential reactivity. The latency transition of non-glycosylated, but not of glycosylated PAI-1, was strongly accelerated by a non-ionic detergent. The different biochemical properties of glycosylated and non-glycosylated PAI-1 depended...

  14. Biophysical constraints on the computational capacity of biochemical signaling networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Hao; Mehta, Pankaj

    Biophysics fundamentally constrains the computations that cells can carry out. Here, we derive fundamental bounds on the computational capacity of biochemical signaling networks that utilize post-translational modifications (e.g. phosphorylation). To do so, we combine ideas from the statistical physics of disordered systems and the observation by Tony Pawson and others that the biochemistry underlying protein-protein interaction networks is combinatorial and modular. Our results indicate that the computational capacity of signaling networks is severely limited by the energetics of binding and the need to achieve specificity. We relate our results to one of the theoretical pillars of statistical learning theory, Cover's theorem, which places bounds on the computational capacity of perceptrons. PM and CHW were supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling of Living Systems Grant, and NIH Grant No. 1R35GM119461 (both to PM).

  15. Biochemical Markers for Osteoarthritis: Is There any Promising Candidate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Aydın

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common degenerative joint disease. OA affects millions of individuals each year and becoming the most important cause of pain in geriatric population. Progressive destruction of articular cartilage is one of the prominent features of the disease. The diagnosis of OA is generally based on clinical and radiographical findings, which are insufficient to determine early-stage OA and predict disease course. There is a need for biomarkers that help clinicians early diagnose, assess disease activity, predict prognosis and monitor response to therapy. There are a growing number of publications regarding candidate markers in this field. The aim of this paper was to review recent studies on biochemical markers that reflect cartilage, synovial and bone turnover and their clinical use in patients with OA.

  16. γ-Glutamyltranspeptidases: sequence, structure, biochemical properties, and biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Immacolata; Merlino, Antonello

    2012-10-01

    γ-Glutamyltranspeptidases (γ-GTs) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of γ-glutamyl bonds in glutathione and glutamine and the transfer of the released γ-glutamyl group to amino acids or short peptides. These enzymes are involved in glutathione metabolism and play critical roles in antioxidant defense, detoxification, and inflammation processes. Moreover, γ-GTs have been recently found to be involved in many physiological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and diabetes. In this review, the main biochemical and structural properties of γ-GTs isolated from different sources, as well as their conformational stability and mechanism of catalysis, are described and examined with the aim of contributing to the discussion on their structure-function relationships. Possible applications of γ-glutamyltranspeptidases in different fields of biotechnology and medicine are also discussed.

  17. Prediction of the preeclampsia: a view of biochemical markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sühha Bostancı

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a diverse, multiorgan group of related disease processes that occurs in up to 5%-8% of pregnancies after 20 weeks’ gestation and it is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Many molecular mechanisms are contributed to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Although it is unknown whether the mechanisms act independently or have synergistic effects. This review describes review of primary papers investigating blood based biomarker such as PAP-A, Inhibin A, sFlt1, and PP13 in general and first trimester biochemical markers and combinations of them specifically for preeclampsia.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i4.699

  18. Biochemical adaptation of camelids during periods where feed is withheld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wensvoort

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes during fasting or the withholding of feed for 5 day were studied in serum of camelids (dromedary camel, llama and ruminants (sheep, steers. Camels maintained low levels of 13-hydroxybutyrate (BHB and high levels of glucose but showed some increased levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA and urea when fasting. Sheep and steers showed a rise in serum BHB and much higher increases of NEFA than camels and llamas. Sheep showed decreased serum glucose. The llama showed some increase in BHB but NEFA was lower than the other three species. The results indicate that camelids have a unique ability to control lipolytic and gluconeogenic activity to prevent or postpone the state of ketosis. Understanding and manipulation of these metabolic mechanisms in cattle and sheep could have great benefit to the livestock industry.

  19. Structural and Biochemical Studies of LysM Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Mei Mei Jaslyn Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    . Most of the signalling components in the Nod factor signalling pathway have been identified through genetic approaches. The current symbiosis signalling model, however, lacks components that could link Nod factor perception at the plasma membrane to downstream responses, such as calcium influx and perinuclear calcium...... involved in peptidoglycan hydrolysis; the Cell Wall Lytic enzyme associated with cell Separation (CwlS) from Bacillus subtilis, and P60_Tth from Thermus thermopiles. Biochemical studies conducted on purified CwlS showed that multiple LysM modules function cooperatively to bind N-acetylglucosamine (NAG......-induced intermolecular dimerization was observed in the co-crystal structure of P60_2LysM and NAG6. Until today, this is the only structural evidence illustrating intermolecular dimerization of LysM proteins. Intermolecular dimerization of plant LysM receptor kinases (RK) has been proposed as a mechanism...

  20. Biochemical markers and neuropsychological functioning in distal urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbren, Susan E; Cuthbertson, David; Burgard, Peter; Holbert, Amy; McCarter, Robert; Cederbaum, Stephen

    2018-02-08

    Urea cycle disorders often present as devastating metabolic conditions, resulting in high mortality and significant neuropsychological damage, despite treatment. The Urea Cycle Disorders Longitudinal Study is a natural history study that collects data from regular clinical follow-up and neuropsychological testing. This report examines links between biochemical markers (ammonia, glutamine, arginine, citrulline) and primary neuropsychological endpoints in three distal disorders, argininosuccinic acid synthetase deficiency (ASD or citrullinemia type I), argininosuccinic acid lyase deficiency (ASA or ALD), and arginase deficiency (ARGD). Laboratory results and test scores from neuropsychological evaluations were assessed in 145 study participants, ages 3 years and older, with ASD (n = 64), ASA (n = 65) and ARGD (n = 16). Mean full scale IQ was below the population mean of 100 ± 15 for all groups: (ASD = 79 ± 24; ASA = 71 ± 21; ARGD = 65 ± 19). The greatest deficits were noted in visual performance and motor skills for all groups. While ammonia levels remain prominent as prognostic biomarkers, other biomarkers may be equally valuable as correlates of neuropsychological functioning. Cumulative exposure to the biomarkers included in the study proved to be highly sensitive indicators of neuropsychological outcomes, even when below the cut-off levels generally considered toxic. Blood levels of biomarkers obtained on the day of neuropsychological evaluations were not correlated with measures of functioning for any disorder in any domain. The importance of cumulative exposure supports early identification and confirms the need for well-controlled management of all biochemical abnormalities (and not just ammonia) that occur in urea cycle disorders.

  1. Simulation methods with extended stability for stiff biochemical Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rué Pau

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increasing computer power, simulating the dynamics of complex systems in chemistry and biology is becoming increasingly routine. The modelling of individual reactions in (biochemical systems involves a large number of random events that can be simulated by the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA. The key quantity is the step size, or waiting time, τ, whose value inversely depends on the size of the propensities of the different channel reactions and which needs to be re-evaluated after every firing event. Such a discrete event simulation may be extremely expensive, in particular for stiff systems where τ can be very short due to the fast kinetics of some of the channel reactions. Several alternative methods have been put forward to increase the integration step size. The so-called τ-leap approach takes a larger step size by allowing all the reactions to fire, from a Poisson or Binomial distribution, within that step. Although the expected value for the different species in the reactive system is maintained with respect to more precise methods, the variance at steady state can suffer from large errors as τ grows. Results In this paper we extend Poisson τ-leap methods to a general class of Runge-Kutta (RK τ-leap methods. We show that with the proper selection of the coefficients, the variance of the extended τ-leap can be well-behaved, leading to significantly larger step sizes. Conclusions The benefit of adapting the extended method to the use of RK frameworks is clear in terms of speed of calculation, as the number of evaluations of the Poisson distribution is still one set per time step, as in the original τ-leap method. The approach paves the way to explore new multiscale methods to simulate (biochemical systems.

  2. Antimony-Induced Neurobehavioral and Biochemical Perturbations in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanu, Tanzina; Anjum, Adiba; Jahan, Momotaj; Nikkon, Farjana; Hoque, Mominul; Roy, Apurba Kumar; Haque, Azizul; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled; Saud, Zahangir Alam

    2018-03-08

    Groundwater used for drinking has been contaminated with naturally occurring inorganic arsenic and other metals, and metal-contaminated drinking water is the biggest threat to public health in Bangladesh. Toxic metals present in the drinking water have a strong relationship with chronic diseases in humans. Antimony (Sb), a naturally occurring metal, has been reported to be present in the drinking water along with other heavy metals in Bangladesh. Although Sb is present in the environment, very little attention has been given to the toxic effects of Sb. The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of Sb on neurobehavioral changes like anxiety, learning and memory impairment, and blood indices related to organ dysfunction. Mice exposed to antimony potassium-tartrate hydrate (Sb) (10 mg/kg body weight) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the time spent in open arms while increased the time spent in closed arms compared to the control mice in elevated plus maze. The mean latency time of control group to find the platform decreased (p < 0.05) significantly during 7 days learning as compared to Sb-treated group in Morris water maze test, and Sb-exposed group spent significantly (p < 0.05) less time in the desired quadrant as compared to the control group in probe trial. Sb treatment also significantly altered blood indices related to liver and kidney dysfunction. Additionally, Sb-induced biochemical alterations were associated with significant perturbations in histological architecture of liver and kidney of Sb-exposed mice. These data suggest that Sb has a toxic effect on neurobehavioral and biochemical changes in mice.

  3. Association between sugar consumption, sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorada Hattingh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in prevalence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipid levels has raised the question of a possible relationship between these conditions and the consumption of sugar. Objectives: This study investigated the sugar consumption of financially-restricted Black women in Mangaung, South Africa. Method: Five hundred women were selected randomly and divided into younger (25–34 years and older (35–44 years groups. Dietary intake, sociodemographic status, anthropometry and biochemical data were obtained. Total sugar (TS and added sugar (AS consumption were compared between older and younger women as well as sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical categories. Results: AS intake contributed 12% and 13% of total energy intake in younger and older women, respectively. AS consumption was higher in younger women living in brick houses and those who possessed a microwave oven. In older women, it was higher in husband-headed households. Underweight women with the lowest body mass index had higher sugar consumption than overweight and/or obese women. Women with a lower body fat percentage had a higher AS consumption than women with a high body fat percentage. Sugar consumption was significantly lower in younger women with elevated serum lymphocytecounts. TS and AS consumption was higher in younger women with elevated serum glucose levels. Older women with elevated serum insulin had a significantly higher TS consumption compared to those with normal insulin concentrations. Conclusion: The amounts of TS and AS consumed by women in this observational study were unlikely to contribute to overweight and/or obesity.

  4. Association between sugar consumption, sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorada Hattingh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in prevalence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipid levels has raised the question of a possible relationship between these conditions and the consumption of sugar.Objectives: This study investigated the sugar consumption of financially-restricted Black women in Mangaung, South Africa.Method: Five hundred women were selected randomly and divided into younger (25–34 yearsand older (35–44 years groups. Dietary intake, sociodemographic status, anthropometry and biochemical data were obtained. Total sugar (TS and added sugar (AS consumption were compared between older and younger women as well as sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical categories.Results: AS intake contributed 12% and 13% of total energy intake in younger and older women, respectively. AS consumption was higher in younger women living in brick houses and those who possessed a microwave oven. In older women, it was higher in husbandheaded households. Underweight women with the lowest body mass index had highersugar consumption than overweight and/or obese women. Women with a lower body fat percentage had a higher AS consumption than women with a high body fat percentage. Sugar consumption was significantly lower in younger women with elevated serum lymphocyte counts. TS and AS consumption was higher in younger women with elevated serum glucoselevels. Older women with elevated serum insulin had a significantly higher TS consumption compared to those with normal insulin concentrations.Conclusion: The amounts of TS and AS consumed by women in this observational study were unlikely to contribute to overweight and/or obesity.

  5. POTENTIALITIES AND RISKS OF BIOCHEMICAL EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH VIA INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Gomes

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The internet is more and more present in worldwide education. There are innumerable projects thatstimulate its usage for aiding the teaching-learning process. This new trend modies the reality of thewhole school. However, many copies of identical information are found in several sites: graphs, gures,texts, links and even errors. The aim of this work is to analyse the biochemical issues photosynthesisand cellular respiration available in web pages, taking into account contents quality, trustworthinessand eectiveness. Firstly, 6th secondary level students were inquired by a questionnaire on their use ofinternet resources. More than 80 percent of them were regular users. The result conrms the alreadyknown potential of internet in education. Fourteen sites were analysed regarding to contents, presenceof bibliographical references, authorship, titles of responsibles and adequacy to the target public. Inrelation to contents, presence of conceptual errors, illustrations and other stimulant elements wereanalysed. None of the sites presented biblioghraphic references; less than half divulged responsiblenames and their graduation. The great majority do not mention intended public target. In general,the sites did not contained grave conceptual errors, except for two that mention estoma insteadestroma, cilica/acilica phosphorylation (for cyclic and acyclic, grama (for grana and place oxygenas essential for anaerobic respiration. However, one of these sites was the only one that mentionedenzymes and regulation steps of cellular respiration. Half of the sites presented identical texts andgures. None used livened up resources. The majority showed contents as virtual versions of printedbooks. Illustrations did not present necessary legends. None of the analysed sites, thus, was consideredexcellent. Trustworthiness is also questionable as much of the contents arte clearly copies of otherpages, recurrent even on the errors. Our data strengthen the need for

  6. Biochemical and Structural Properties of Mouse Kynurenine Aminotransferase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Robinson, H; Cai, T; Tagle, D; Li, J

    2009-01-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase III (KAT III) has been considered to be involved in the production of mammalian brain kynurenic acid (KYNA), which plays an important role in protecting neurons from overstimulation by excitatory neurotransmitters. The enzyme was identified based on its high sequence identity with mammalian KAT I, but its activity toward kynurenine and its structural characteristics have not been established. In this study, the biochemical and structural properties of mouse KAT III (mKAT III) were determined. Specifically, mKAT III cDNA was amplified from a mouse brain cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was expressed in an insect cell protein expression system. We established that mKAT III is able to efficiently catalyze the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA and has optimum activity at relatively basic conditions of around pH 9.0 and at relatively high temperatures of 50 to 60C. In addition, mKAT III is active toward a number of other amino acids. Its activity toward kynurenine is significantly decreased in the presence of methionine, histidine, glutamine, leucine, cysteine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine. Through macromolecular crystallography, we determined the mKAT III crystal structure and its structures in complex with kynurenine and glutamine. Structural analysis revealed the overall architecture of mKAT III and its cofactor binding site and active center residues. This is the first report concerning the biochemical characteristics and crystal structures of KAT III enzymes and provides a basis toward understanding the overall physiological role of mammalian KAT III in vivo and insight into regulating the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  7. Biochemical composition of the alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaye, Sushant Vilas; Pawar, Ashwini Pandurang; Rivonker, Chandrasheker Umanath; Sreepada, Rayadurga Anantha; Ansari, Zakir Ali; Ram, Anirudh

    2017-11-01

    Considering the economic importance in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and lack of baseline information, we evaluated the proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, trace element content and C:N ratio in the alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus. Amongst proximate principals, a crude protein formed the major biochemical component ((58.9±2.2)% dry weight). Mean percent concentrations (dry weight) of other components such as a total lipid (TL), ash and nitrogen-free extract measured were, (1.8±0.2)%, (19.2±2.2)% and (20.1±0.45)%, respectively. The fatty acid profile revealed the presence of 27 saturated fatty acids (SFA) with 13 straight-chained and 14 branched-chained, 28 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) with 14 monounsaturated and 14 polyunsaturated and nine other minor fatty acids. Mean percent contributions of total SFAs and UFAs to TL were found to be (55.41±0.24)% and (44.05±0.25)%, respectively. Altogether, 16 different amino acids with an equal number of essential (EAA) and non-essential (NAA) ones were identified. Percent contributions by EAA and NAA to the total amino acid content were 38.11% and 61.89%, respectively. Trace metal concentrations in S. biaculeatus were generally low and their distribution followed the order, Mg>Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Hg>Co. The C:N ratio was (4.37±0.04)%. The profile of major biochemical constituents in alligator pipefish, S. biaculeatus revealed its potential use in TCM as well as a nutritional diet for human consumption. The results of the study would also form the basis for formulation and optimization of diets for the culture of S. biaculeatus.

  8. Biochemical transport modeling, estimation, and detection in realistic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Mathias; Nehorai, Arye

    2006-05-01

    Early detection and estimation of the spread of a biochemical contaminant are major issues for homeland security applications. We present an integrated approach combining the measurements given by an array of biochemical sensors with a physical model of the dispersion and statistical analysis to solve these problems and provide system performance measures. We approximate the dispersion model of the contaminant in a realistic environment through numerical simulations of reflected stochastic diffusions describing the microscopic transport phenomena due to wind and chemical diffusion using the Feynman-Kac formula. We consider arbitrary complex geometries and account for wind turbulence. Localizing the dispersive sources is useful for decontamination purposes and estimation of the cloud evolution. To solve the associated inverse problem, we propose a Bayesian framework based on a random field that is particularly powerful for localizing multiple sources with small amounts of measurements. We also develop a sequential detector using the numerical transport model we propose. Sequential detection allows on-line analysis and detecting wether a change has occurred. We first focus on the formulation of a suitable sequential detector that overcomes the presence of unknown parameters (e.g. release time, intensity and location). We compute a bound on the expected delay before false detection in order to decide the threshold of the test. For a fixed false-alarm rate, we obtain the detection probability of a substance release as a function of its location and initial concentration. Numerical examples are presented for two real-world scenarios: an urban area and an indoor ventilation duct.

  9. Clinical & biochemical profile of trichinellosis outbreak in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul K Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trichinellosis is a parasitic infection caused by Trichinella nematodes, acquired from consumption of raw meat. However, data from Indian subcontinent are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and biochemical profile of a suspected trichinellosis outbreak in a village in Tehri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand state in north India. Methods: Three index cases presenting as acute febrile myalgia syndrome with eosinophilia, after consumption of uncooked pork in a common feast, were confirmed as trichinellosis on muscle biopsy. A detailed epidemiological survey was carried out in the affected community and all the people who participated in the feast were investigated for clinical and biochemical profile. Results: A total of 54 patients were evaluated in the study. The type of pork consumed included uncooked in 24 per cent (n=13, open fire roasted in 39 per cent (n=21 and fried in 37 per cent (n=20. Clinical symptoms were found in those who consumed pork in uncooked or open fire roasted form (n=34. These included fever with chills and myalgia (100%, periorbital oedema (67%, dyspnoea (9%, and dysphagia (3%. Laboratory parameters studied in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients showed eosinophilia in 90 per cent (n=41, raised ESR in 98 per cent (n=45, and an elevated creatinine phosphokinase (CPK level in 85 per cent (n=39. All symptomatic patients were treated with a short course of oral steroids and albendazole therapy. Conclusions: Trichinella infection is not uncommon in India, and should be suspected in case of acute febrile myalgia especially in areas, where habits of consumption of raw meat is more prevalent.

  10. Dosimetric response of some biochemicals used as lyoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettinger, K.V.; Rowe, R.W.; Mallard, J.R.; Takavar, A.; Sephton, J.

    1977-01-01

    It has been found recently that a whole variety of biochemicals exhibit lyoluminescent response to ionizing and UV radiation, which can be used for the purpose of dosimetry. Among the amino acids, glutamine, glutamic acid and valine are showing good response and satisfactory stability of the stored energy i.e. stability of 'frozen' free radicals. Actually, all amino acids involved in naturally occuring proteins, which were investigated (20 compounds) show lyoluminescence to smaller or greater extent. The response is proportional to the dose in the region of 50 rad to 100 kilorad. The mechanism of lyoluminescence in amino acids is probably the same as in the saccharides; formation of free radicals in the solid, conversion to peroxy radicals and, finally generation of excited oxygen dimers on dissolution. Other categories of biochemicals which exhibit lyoluminescence (LL) are DNA, RNA and their salts, as well as some antibiotics like streptomycin, gentamycin and oxytetracycline. Those of proteins that are easily soluble in water, show a good LL response. The half-life of free radicals responsible for LL in albumins (egg, horse and human) is of an order of 24 h. However, in salmine (protamine sulphate) the decay is very slow, of an order of few month, so this material can be used as a 'protein equivalent' dosemeter. In all experiments a 60 Co source was used for irradiations. Proteins, RNA and DNA show a considerable response to UV. In experiments with UV radiation, mostly 2547 A wavelength, the response to radiation in terms of energy deposited in gramme of material was almost twice that for gamma rays of 1.33 and 1.17MeV

  11. Final Technical Report "Multiscale Simulation Algorithms for Biochemical Systems"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Linda R.

    2012-10-25

    Biochemical systems are inherently multiscale and stochastic. In microscopic systems formed by living cells, the small numbers of reactant molecules can result in dynamical behavior that is discrete and stochastic rather than continuous and deterministic. An analysis tool that respects these dynamical characteristics is the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA, Gillespie, 1976), a numerical simulation procedure that is essentially exact for chemical systems that are spatially homogeneous or well stirred. Despite recent improvements, as a procedure that simulates every reaction event, the SSA is necessarily inefficient for most realistic problems. There are two main reasons for this, both arising from the multiscale nature of the underlying problem: (1) stiffness, i.e. the presence of multiple timescales, the fastest of which are stable; and (2) the need to include in the simulation both species that are present in relatively small quantities and should be modeled by a discrete stochastic process, and species that are present in larger quantities and are more efficiently modeled by a deterministic differential equation (or at some scale in between). This project has focused on the development of fast and adaptive algorithms, and the fun- damental theory upon which they must be based, for the multiscale simulation of biochemical systems. Areas addressed by this project include: (1) Theoretical and practical foundations for ac- celerated discrete stochastic simulation (tau-leaping); (2) Dealing with stiffness (fast reactions) in an efficient and well-justified manner in discrete stochastic simulation; (3) Development of adaptive multiscale algorithms for spatially homogeneous discrete stochastic simulation; (4) Development of high-performance SSA algorithms.

  12. Trematode infection modulates cockles biochemical response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Luísa; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2018-05-06

    Resulting mainly from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) build-up, seawater temperature rise is among the most important climate change related factors affecting costal marine ecosystems. Global warming will have implications on the water cycle, increasing the risk of heavy rainfalls and consequent freshwater input into the oceans but also increasing the frequency of extreme drought periods with consequent salinity increase. For Europe, by the end of the century, projections describe an increase of CO 2 concentration up to 1120 ppm (corresponding to 0.5 pH unit decrease), an increase in the water temperature up to 4 °C and a higher frequency of heavy precipitation. These changes are likely to impact many biotic interactions, including host-parasite relationships which are particularly dependent on abiotic conditions. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the edible cockle, Cerastoderma edule, exposed to different salinity, temperature and pH levels as proxy for climate change, modify the infection success of the trematode parasite Himasthla elongata, with consequences to cockles biochemical performance. The results showed that the cercariae infection success increased with acidification but higher biochemical alterations were observed in infected cockles exposed to all abiotic experimental stressful conditions tested. The present study suggested that changes forecasted by many models may promote the proliferation of the parasites infective stages in many ecosystems leading to enhanced transmission, especially on temperate regions, that will influence the geographical distribution of some diseases and, probably, the survival capacity of infected bivalves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biochemical characterization of the maltokinase from Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamosa Pedro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maltose-1-phosphate was detected in Mycobacterium bovis BCG extracts in the 1960's but a maltose-1-phosphate synthetase (maltokinase, Mak was only much later purified from Actinoplanes missouriensis, allowing the identification of the mak gene. Recently, this metabolite was proposed to be the intermediate in a pathway linking trehalose with the synthesis of glycogen in M. smegmatis. Although the M. tuberculosis H37Rv mak gene (Rv0127 was considered essential for growth, no mycobacterial Mak has, to date, been characterized. Results The sequence of the Mak from M. bovis BCG was identical to that from M. tuberculosis strains (99-100% amino acid identity. The enzyme was dependent on maltose and ATP, although GTP and UTP could be used to produce maltose-1-phosphate, which we identified by TLC and characterized by NMR. The Km for maltose was 2.52 ± 0.40 mM and 0.74 ± 0.12 mM for ATP; the Vmax was 21.05 ± 0.89 μmol/min.mg-1. Divalent cations were required for activity and Mg2+ was the best activator. The enzyme was a monomer in solution, had maximal activity at 60°C, between pH 7 and 9 (at 37°C and was unstable on ice and upon freeze/thawing. The addition of 50 mM NaCl markedly enhanced Mak stability. Conclusions The unknown role of maltokinases in mycobacterial metabolism and the lack of biochemical data led us to express the mak gene from M. bovis BCG for biochemical characterization. This is the first mycobacterial Mak to be characterized and its properties represent essential knowledge towards deeper understanding of mycobacterial physiology. Since Mak may be a potential drug target in M. tuberculosis, its high-level production and purification in bioactive form provide important tools for further functional and structural studies.

  14. Experiment K-6-09. Morphological and biochemical investigation of microgravity-induced nerve and muscle breakdown. Part 1: Investigation of nerve and muscle breakdown during spaceflight; Part 2: Biochemical analysis of EDL and PLT muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D. A.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J.; Sedlak, F.; Slocum, G.; Oganov, V.

    1990-01-01

    The present findings on rat hindlimb muscles suggest that skeletal muscle weakness induced by prolonged spaceflight can result from a combination of muscle fiber atrophy, muscle fiber segmental necrosis, degeneration of motor nerve terminals and destruction of microcirculatory vessels. Damage was confined to the red adductor longus (AL) and soleus muscles. The midbelly region of the AL muscle had more segmental necrosis and edema than the ends. Macrophages and neutrophils were the major mononucleated cells infiltrating and phagocytosing the cellular debris. Toluidine blue-positive mast cells were significantly decreased in Flight AL muscles compared to controls; this indicated that degranulation of mast cells contributed to tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils may have promoted myofilament degradation. Overall, mitochondria content and SDH activity were normal, except for a decrease in the subsarcolemmal region. The myofibrillar ATPase activity shifted toward the fast type in the Flight AL muscles. Some of the pathological changes may have occurred or been exacerbated during the 2 day postflight period of readaptation to terrestrial gravity. While simple atrophy should be reversible by exercise, restoration of pathological changes depends upon complex processes of regeneration by stem cells. Initial signs of muscle and nerve fiber regeneration were detected. Even though regeneration proceeds on Earth, the space environment may inhibit repair and cause progressive irreversible deterioration during long term missions. Muscles obtained from Flight rats sacrificed immediately (within a few hours) after landing are needed to distinguish inflight changes from postflight readaptation.

  15. Pushing for Part Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1987-01-01

    More employees are choosing to work part time. Although this trend started because of working women, some men are choosing part-time positions. Part-time employees forfeit salary and promotion potential, yet most feel the trade is fair and that they are more productive during their working hours. (CH)

  16. Optical devices for biochemical sensing in flame hydrolysis deposited glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Lopez, Jesus M.

    Previous research in the field of Flame Hydrolysis Deposition (FHD) of glasses has focused on the production of low cost optical devices for the field of telecommunications. The originality of this doctoral research resides in the exploration of this technology in the fabrication of optical bio-chemical sensors, with integrated "Lab-on-a-chip" devices. To achieve this goal, we have combined and applied different microfabrication processes for the manufacture of sensor platforms using FHD. These structures are unique in that they take advantage of the intrinsic benefits of the microfabrication process, such as, miniaturisation and mass production, and combine them with the properties of FHD glass, namely: low loss optical transducing mechanisms, planar technologies and monolithic integration. This thesis demonstrates that FHD is a suitable technology for biosensing and Lab- on-a-Chip applications. The objective is to provide future researchers with the necessary tools to accomplish an integrated analytical system based on FHD. We have designed, fabricated, and successfully tested a FHD miniaturised sensor, which comprised optical and microfluidic circuitry, in the framework of low volume fluorescence assays. For the first time, volumes as low as 570 pL were analysed with a Cyanine-5 fluorophore with a detection limit of 20 pM, or ca. 6000 molecules (+/-3sigma) for this platform. The fabrication of the sensor generated a compilation of processes that were then utilised to produce other possible optical platforms for bio-chemical sensors in FHD, e.g. arrays and microfluidics. The "catalogue" of methods used included new recipes for reactive ion etching, glass deposition and bonding techniques that enabled the development of the microfluidic circuitry, integrated with an optical circuitry. Furthermore, we developed techniques to implement new tasks such as optical signal treatment using integrated optical structures, planar arraying of sensors, a separating element for

  17. The effect of menstruation on chosen physiological and biochemical reactions caused by the physical effort with the submaximal intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Zieliński

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of the menstruation phase on changes of respective indicators of the gas exchange and on biochemical parameters of blood during physical efforts with the sub-maximal intensity. Fifteen female students of the Academy of Physical Education took part in the study. Girls were aged from 19 to 22 years old and did not practice sports. The effort tests were conducted in the follicular and luteal phase of two succeeding menstrual cycles. As far the aerobic capacity determination is concerned, one cyclo-ergometric test with graded effort was conducted and it was performed till the “refusal”. It allowed to mark a threshold (TDMA and a maximal level of physiological and biochemical indicators. Basing on the results of the graded test individual loads were determined for every next effort trial (repeated 4 times in every phase of the two succeeding menstrual cycles. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the reaction of women’s constitution on work with the sub-maximal intensity. The above trial consisted on two 10 min efforts divided with the 2 min pause (the first effort with the intensity of 80% of the TDMA threshold, second with the intensity bigger about 30-40% of difference between TDMA and a maximal load established by the graded test. The research did not reveal statistically significant differentiation as considering effort changes of basic physiological and biochemical indicators, determining reaction of women’s organisms on work with the sub- and over- threshold intensity (TDMA. It showed that menstruation has not significant effect on the level of changes of analysed parameters caused by the physical effort with the sub-maximal intensity.

  18. Enzyme-linked immunoassay for plasma-free metanephrines in the biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma in adults is not ideal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of the study was to define the analytical and diagnostic performance of the Labor Diagnostica Nord (LDN) 2-Met plasma ELISA assay for fractionated plasma metanephrines in the biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma. Methods: The stated manufacturer\\'s performance characteristics were assessed. Clinical utility was evaluated against liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS) using bias, sensitivity and specificity outcomes. Samples (n=73) were collected from patients in whom phaeochromocytoma had been excluded (n=60) based on low probability of disease, repeat negative testing for urinary fractionated catecholamines and metanephrines, lack of radiological and histological evidence of a tumour and from a group (n=13) in whom the tumour had been histologically confirmed. Blood collected into k(2)EDTA tubes was processed within 30 min. Separated plasma was aliquoted (x2) and frozen at -40 degrees C prior to analyses. One aliquot was analysed for plasma metanephrines using the LDN 2-Met ELISA and the other by LC-MS\\/MS. Results: The mean bias of -32% for normetanephrine (ELISA) when compared to the reference method (LC-MS\\/MS) makes under-diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma likely. The sensitivity of the assay (100%) was equal to the reference method, but specificity (88.3%) lower than the reference method (95%), making it less than optimum for the biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma. Conclusions: Plasma-free metanephrines as measured by Labor Diagnostica Nord (LDN) 2-Met ELISA do not display test characteristics that would support their introduction or continuation as part of a screening protocol for the biochemical detection of phaeochromocytoma unless the calibration problem identified is corrected and other more accurate and analytically specific methods remain unavailable.

  19. A second-order, unconditionally positive, mass-conserving integration scheme for biochemical systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Bruggeman (Frank); H. Burchard; B. Kooi; B.P. Sommeijer (Ben)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBiochemical systems are bound by two mathematically-relevant restrictions. First, state variables in such systems represent non-negative quantities, such as concentrations of chemical compounds. Second, biochemical systems conserve mass and energy. Both properties must be reflected in

  20. Biochemical Changes in the Serum and Liver of albino rats exposed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical changes in the serum and liver of albino rats chronically exposed to rats administered 5gk-1 , 7.5gk-1 and 15gk-1 of gasoline , kerosine and crude petroleum(bonny light) respectively were studied. The petroleum samples were administered intraperitoneally and the biochemical changes in the rat serum and the ...

  1. Biochemical markers in the follow-up of medullary thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Jan Willem B.; Kema, Ido P.; Breukelman, Henk; van der Veer, Eveline; Wiggers, Theo; Plukker, John T. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Links, Thera P.

    2006-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) shares biochemical features with other neuroendocrine tumors but the particular characteristics are largely unexplored. We investigated the biochemical neuroendocrine profile of MTC and whether specific markers could be useful in follow-up. In addition to the standard

  2. An Integrated Qualitative and Quantitative Biochemical Model Learning Framework Using Evolutionary Strategy and Simulated Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zujian; Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M

    2015-01-01

    Both qualitative and quantitative model learning frameworks for biochemical systems have been studied in computational systems biology. In this research, after introducing two forms of pre-defined component patterns to represent biochemical models, we propose an integrative qualitative and quantitative modelling framework for inferring biochemical systems. In the proposed framework, interactions between reactants in the candidate models for a target biochemical system are evolved and eventually identified by the application of a qualitative model learning approach with an evolution strategy. Kinetic rates of the models generated from qualitative model learning are then further optimised by employing a quantitative approach with simulated annealing. Experimental results indicate that our proposed integrative framework is feasible to learn the relationships between biochemical reactants qualitatively and to make the model replicate the behaviours of the target system by optimising the kinetic rates quantitatively. Moreover, potential reactants of a target biochemical system can be discovered by hypothesising complex reactants in the synthetic models. Based on the biochemical models learned from the proposed framework, biologists can further perform experimental study in wet laboratory. In this way, natural biochemical systems can be better understood.

  3. Synthesis of Biochemical Applications on Flow-Based Microfluidic Biochips using Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers and are able to integrate the necessary functions for biochemical analysis on-chip. In this paper we are interested in flow-based biochips, in which the flow of liquid is manipulated using integrated microvalves. By combin...

  4. The effects of Islamic fasting on blood hematological-biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Sedaghat

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion:This study on healthy subjects suggests that fasting could affect some hematological-biochemical parameters but not all of them. Also, these changes in hematological-biochemical parameters were within the normal range and Ramadan fasting seems to be safe for healthy subjects.

  5. Model based design of biochemical micro-reactors

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    Tobias eElbinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modelling of biochemical pathways is an important resource in Synthetic Biology, as the predictive power of simulating synthetic pathways represents an important step in the design of synthetic metabolons. In this paper, we are concerned with the mathematical modeling, simulation and optimization of metabolic processes in biochemical micro-reactors able to carry out enzymatic reactions and to exchange metabolites with their surrounding medium. The results of the reported modeling approach are incorporated in the design of the first micro-reactor prototypes that are under construction. These microreactors consist of compartments separated by membranes carrying specific transporters for the input of substrates and export of products. Inside the compartments multi-enzyme complexes assembled on nano-beads by peptide adapters are used to carry out metabolic reactions.The spatially resolved mathematical model describing the ongoing processes consists of a system of diffusion equations together with boundary and initial conditions. The boundary conditions model the exchange of metabolites with the neighboring compartments and the reactions at the surface of the nano-beads carrying the multi-enzyme complexes. Efficient and accurate approaches for numerical simulation of the mathematical model and for optimal design of the micro-reactor are developed. As a proof-of-concept scenario, a synthetic pathway for the conversion of sucrose to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P was chosen. In this context, the mathematical model is employed to compute the spatio-temporal distributions of the metabolite concentrations, as well as application relevant quantities like the outflow rate of G6P. These computations are performed for different scenarios, where the number of beads as well as their loading capacity are varied. The computed metabolite distributions show spatial patterns which differ for different experimental arrangements. Furthermore, the total output

  6. LeishCyc: a biochemical pathways database for Leishmania major

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    Doyle Maria A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania spp. are sandfly transmitted protozoan parasites that cause a spectrum of diseases in more than 12 million people worldwide. Much research is now focusing on how these parasites adapt to the distinct nutrient environments they encounter in the digestive tract of the sandfly vector and the phagolysosome compartment of mammalian macrophages. While data mining and annotation of the genomes of three Leishmania species has provided an initial inventory of predicted metabolic components and associated pathways, resources for integrating this information into metabolic networks and incorporating data from transcript, protein, and metabolite profiling studies is currently lacking. The development of a reliable, expertly curated, and widely available model of Leishmania metabolic networks is required to facilitate systems analysis, as well as discovery and prioritization of new drug targets for this important human pathogen. Description The LeishCyc database was initially built from the genome sequence of Leishmania major (v5.2, based on the annotation published by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. LeishCyc was manually curated to remove errors, correct automated predictions, and add information from the literature. The ongoing curation is based on public sources, literature searches, and our own experimental and bioinformatics studies. In a number of instances we have improved on the original genome annotation, and, in some ambiguous cases, collected relevant information from the literature in order to help clarify gene or protein annotation in the future. All genes in LeishCyc are linked to the corresponding entry in GeneDB (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Conclusion The LeishCyc database describes Leishmania major genes, gene products, metabolites, their relationships and biochemical organization into metabolic pathways. LeishCyc provides a systematic approach to organizing the evolving information about Leishmania

  7. Summary of the mechanism of U-induced renal damage and its biochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rusong

    1994-05-01

    In China studies on the toxicology of uranium were systematically conducted from the 1960's. Among them the studies of the change of biochemical indicators of U-induced renal damage were involved. On the basis of summarizing the relevant information of our country and the study progress of biochemical methods in recent years, the mechanism of U-induced renal damage and its biochemical basis, the behavior of uranium in kidney and the recent progress to detect renal damage with several biochemical indexes (such as α 1 -or β 2 -microglobulin, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and alanine aminopeptidase etc.) are introduced respectively. Finally, the evaluation on the biochemical basis for acquired tolerance to U in kidney is performed. It should be noted that from the clinical viewpoint the tolerance cannot be considered as a practical measure of protection

  8. Biochemical composition of two giant pill-millipedes of the Western Ghats of India

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    Ambarish Cheviri N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many invertebrates have an unexpected nutraceutical potential and are of nutritional or ethnomedicinal significance to many tribals throughout the world. The giant pill-millipedes of the genus Arthrosphaera are traditionally used as natural medicines by tribals in the Western Ghats of India. In this study, two species of pill-millipedes (Arthrosphaera fumosa and A. magna were subjected to proximate and biochemical analysis to ascertain their nutritional potential. Bodies of A. fumosa and A. magna (after removal of their intestines had a low protein content (8-15% and high quantity of carbohydrates (40-41%. They were rich in many essential elements, especially in calcium. The essential amino acids of pillmillipedes were in high quantities. The level of glycine was the highest, followed by lysine and serine. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs of males and females consist of high quantities of unsaturated fatty acids. The mono-unsaturated fatty acids were more abundant than poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Palmitic and oleic acids were dominant saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. The study has revealed for the first time that pill-millipedes of the Western Ghats of India constitute a good source of essential minerals, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. Being valuable contributors of organic manure by processing recalcitrant plant lignocellulosic wastes, pill-millipedes become part and parcel of organic farming as well as future nutraceutical sources.

  9. Biochemical and hematological effects of lead ingestion in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Franson, J.C.; Pattee, O.H.; Bunck, C.M.; Murray, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    1. One-day old American kestrel (Faico sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed daily with 5 μl/g of corn oil (controls), 25, 125 or 625 mg/kg of metallic lead in corn oil for 10 days.2. Forty per cent of the nestlings receiving 625 mg/kg of lead died after 6 days and growth rates were significantly depressed in the two highest lead dosed groups. At 10 days hematocrit values were significantly lower in the two highest lead treated groups, and hemoglobin content and red blood cell (δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was depressed in all lead treated groups. Plasma creatine phosphokinase decreased in the two highest treatment groups.3. Brain, liver and kidney ALAD activities, brain RNA to protein ratio and liver protein concentration decreased after lead exposure whereas liver DNA, DNA to RNA ratio and DNA to protein ratio increased. Brain monoamine oxidase and ATPase were not significantly altered.4. Measurements of the ontogeny of hematological variants and enzymes in normal development, using additional untreated nestlings, revealed decreases in red blood cell ALAD, plasma aspartate amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, brain DNA and RNA and liver DNA, whereas hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma alkaline phosphatase, brain monoamine oxidase, brain ALAD and liver ALAD increased during the first 10 days of posthatching development.5. Biochemical and hematological alterations were more severe than those reported in adult kestrels or precocial young birds exposed to lead. Alterations may be due in part to delayed development.

  10. Effects of Calcium Source on Biochemical Properties of Microbial CaCO3 Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Du, Yali; Jiang, Zhengwu; She, Anming

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical properties of CaCO3 precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii, an ureolytic type microorganism, were investigated. Effects of calcium source on the precipitation process were examined, since calcium source plays a key role in microbiologically induced mineralization. Regardless of the calcium source type, three distinct stages in the precipitation process were identified by Ca(2+), NH4 (+), pH and cell density monitoring. Compared with stage 1 and 3, stage 2 was considered as the most critical part since biotic CaCO3 precipitation occurs during this stage. Kinetics studies showed that the microbial CaCO3 precipitation rate for calcium lactate was over twice of that for calcium nitrate, indicating that calcium lactate is more beneficial for the cell activity, which in turn determines urease production and CaCO3 precipitation. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the CaCO3 crystal as calcite, although scanning electron microscopy revealed a difference in crystal size and morphology if calcium source was different. The findings of this paper further suggest a promising application of microbiologically induced CaCO3 precipitation in remediation of surface and cracks of porous media, e.g., cement-based composites, particularly by using organic source of calcium lactate.

  11. Refractive Index Sensing with D-Shaped Plastic Optical Fibers for Chemical and Biochemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Filipa; Duarte, Daniel; Bilro, Lúcia; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Pesavento, Maria; Zeni, Luigi; Cennamo, Nunzio

    2016-12-13

    We report the optimization of the length of a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF) sensor for refractive index (RI) sensing from a numerical and experimental point of view. The sensing principle is based on total internal reflection (TIR). POFs with 1 mm in diameter were embedded in grooves, realized in planar supports with different lengths, and polished to remove the cladding and part of the core. All D-shaped POF sensors were tested using aqueous medium with different refractive indices (from 1.332 to 1.471) through intensity-based configuration. Results showed two different responses. Considering the refractive index (RI) range (1.33-1.39), the sensitivity and the resolution of the sensor were strongly dependent on the sensing region length. The highest sensitivity (resolution of 6.48 × 10 -3 refractive index units, RIU) was obtained with 6 cm sensing length. In the RI range (1.41-1.47), the length of the sensing region was not a critical aspect to obtain the best resolution. These results enable the application of this optical platform for chemical and biochemical evanescent field sensing. The sensor production procedure is very simple, fast, and low-cost.

  12. Refractive Index Sensing with D-Shaped Plastic Optical Fibers for Chemical and Biochemical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Sequeira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the optimization of the length of a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF sensor for refractive index (RI sensing from a numerical and experimental point of view. The sensing principle is based on total internal reflection (TIR. POFs with 1 mm in diameter were embedded in grooves, realized in planar supports with different lengths, and polished to remove the cladding and part of the core. All D-shaped POF sensors were tested using aqueous medium with different refractive indices (from 1.332 to 1.471 through intensity-based configuration. Results showed two different responses. Considering the refractive index (RI range (1.33–1.39, the sensitivity and the resolution of the sensor were strongly dependent on the sensing region length. The highest sensitivity (resolution of 6.48 × 10−3 refractive index units, RIU was obtained with 6 cm sensing length. In the RI range (1.41–1.47, the length of the sensing region was not a critical aspect to obtain the best resolution. These results enable the application of this optical platform for chemical and biochemical evanescent field sensing. The sensor production procedure is very simple, fast, and low-cost.

  13. Cystatin C: A new biochemical marker in livestock sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector contributes largely to the economy of India. Different systemic diseases like renal diseases, neurological and cardiovascular diseases cause huge loss in production and productive potential of livestock in India, which is considered as a major concern for both small and large ruminants. Early detection of diseseses is essential to combat the economic loss. An efficient biochemical marker can be developed which would provide more specific, sensitive and reliable measurement of functions of different organs. Determination of endogenous marker Cystatin C may fulfill the above need which can provide a detection platform not only for Kidney function but also for assaying other organs' function. Cystatin C is a low molecular weight protein which is removed from the bloodstream by glomerular filtration in the kidneys. Thus, it may act as a potential biological tool in diagnosis of renal and other systemic diseases in livestock. This mini-review focuses on the Cystatin C and its clinical importance which can be extensively employed in the livestock sector. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 200-205

  14. Biochemical composition of fluids for amnioinfusion during fetoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama van Scheltema, P N; In't Anker, P S; Vereecken, A; Vandenbussche, F P H A; Deprest, J A; Devlieger, R

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate which of the commercially available solutions is best suited for amnioinfusion during fetoscopy, based on resemblance with the biochemical properties of amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid samples from 10 pregnancies were studied. Specimens were obtained from 5 pathologic pregnancies (of which 3 were complicated by polyhydramnios) and 5 uncomplicated pregnancies. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, glucose, osmolality, pH, total protein content and albumin were determined in each sample. A literature search (PubMed, Embase) was performed to identify commercially available fluids used for amnioinfusion in clinical practice. The composition of these infusion solutions was compared to the amniotic fluid samples mentioned above. We identified two different electrolyte solutions used in clinical practice for amnioinfusion. We identified four additional commercially available solutions that could potentially be used for amnioinfusion. Most of these infusion solutions differ considerably from midtrimester amniotic fluid samples both in electrolyte composition and pH, with the most striking difference in the latter. Lactated Ringer's solution approximates amniotic fluid the closest for both electrolyte composition and pH. This infusion solution seems to be the most suitable choice for amnioinfusion during fetoscopy. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALWA A. ORABI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orabi SA, Talaat IM, Balbaa LK. 2014. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 118-125. Two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tryptophan, nicotinamide and α-tocopherol (each at 50 and 100 mg/L on plant growth, essential oil yield and its main constituents. All treatments significantly promoted plant height, and increased fresh and dry mass (g/plant of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.. The treatment with 100 mg/L nicotinamide showed increasing in total potassium mainly in the first cut. Total soluble sugars, oil percentage and oil yield and protein recorded increments with tryptophan treatments. Treatment of Thymus plants with 100 mg/L nicotinamide observed the highest percentage of thymol (67.61%. Oxygenated compounds recorded the highest value with 50 mg/L α-tocopherol treatment, while the maximum non-oxygenated ones resulted from the application of 100 mg/L nicotinamide. All treatments under study significantly affected the activity of oxidoreductase enzymes (POX and PPO. Nicotinamide at the concentration of 100 mg/L recorded the highest increments in APX and GR and the lowest values in oxidoreductase enzyme activities added to the lowest values of lipid peroxidation to enhance the best protection of thyme plants.

  16. Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Children and Adolescents Applying Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ismail

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary agricultural product in Egypt is the cotton crop. Children and adolescents work seasonally in the cotton fields applying pesticides. Objectives: To examine the effect of pesticide exposure on clinical and biochemical parameters in children and adolescents applying pesticides. Methods: Male children currently applying pesticides and aged between 9 and 19 years (n = 50 were recruited for this study. They were asked to complete work, health, and exposure questionnaires; examined for any medical and neurological problems with particular attention to sensory and motor functions including cranial nerves, sensory and motor system, and reflexes. From each participant, a blood sample was taken to measure acetylcholinesterase activity, and liver and kidney functions. Children who have never worked in agriculture (n = 50, matched on age, education, and socioeconomic status were also studied and served as controls. Results: More neuromuscular disorders were identified in pesticide applicators than controls. A significant lower level of acetylcholinesterase was found in the applicator group compared to the controls. There was also a significant difference in hematological, renal and hepatic indices in the exposed children compared to the control children. Working more days in the current season and also working more years as a pesticide applicator were both associated with an increase in the prevalence of neuromuscular abnormalities and significant changes in the laboratory tests. Conclusion: Children and adolescent pesticide applicators working in farms of Egypt are at risk of developing serious health problems similar to those of adults.

  17. Enzymatic and biochemical characterization of Bungarus sindanus snake venom acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses venom from the elapid krait snake Bungarus sindanus, which contains a high level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity. The enzyme showed optimum activity at alkaline pH (8.5 and 45ºC. Krait venom AChE was inhibited by substrate. Inhibition was significantly reduced by using a high ionic strength buffer; low ionic strength buffer (10 mM PO4 pH 7.5 inhibited the enzyme by 1. 5mM AcSCh, while high ionic strength buffer (62 mM PO4 pH 7.5 inhibited it by 1 mM AcSCh. Venom acetylcholinesterase was also found to be thermally stable at 45ºC; it only lost 5% of its activity after incubation at 45ºC for 40 minutes. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km for acetylthiocholine iodide hydrolysis was found to be 0.068 mM. Krait venom acetylcholinesterase was also inhibited by ZnCl2, CdCl2, and HgCl2 in a concentrationdependent manner. Due to the elevated levels of AChE with high catalytic activity and because it is more stable than any other sources, Bungarus sindanus venom is highly valuable for biochemical studies of this enzyme.

  18. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of All Barley Endosperm Starch Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Cuesta-Seijo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs. While the overall starch synthase (SS reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has maltoligosaccharides and not polysaccharides as its preferred substrates.

  19. Myopathies of endocrine disorders: A prospective clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Major categories of endocrine myopathy include those associated with: Adrenal dysfunction (as in Cushing′s disease or steroid myopathy; thyroid dysfunction (as in myxedema coma or thyrotoxic myopathy; vitamin D deficiency; parathyroid dysfunction; and pituitary dysfunction. Steroid myopathy is the most common endocrine myopathy. Objective: To study the etiology, varied presentations, and outcome after therapy of patients with endocrine myopathies. Materials and Methods: Myopathy was evaluated by the standard clinical procedures: Detailed clinical history, manual muscle strength testing, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK. Endocrine disorders were diagnosed as per clinical features and biochemical parameters. The treatment was given to patients as per underlying endocrine disease. Myopathy was assessed before and after treatment. Results: Out of the 37 patients who were diagnosed with endocrine myopathies, thyroid dysfunction was the most common cause (17 cases, followed by vitamin D deficiency in nine, adrenal dysfunction in six, parathyroid dysfunction in three, and pituitary dysfunction in two. Some patients had atypical presentation (repeated falls in one, tongue fasciculations in one, neck weakness in five, one with ptosis and facial weakness, asymmetrical onset in one, and calf hypertrophy in one. The serum creatine kinase (CK concentration did not correlate with muscle weakness. Following the treatment regimen which was specific for a given myopathy, 26 patients recovered fully. Conclusion: We found varied clinical presentations of endocrine myopathies. All the patients with neuromuscular complaints should be investigated for endocrine causes because significant number of them recovers fully with specific treatment.

  20. Structuring evolution: biochemical networks and metabolic diversification in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Erin S; Badyaev, Alexander V

    2016-08-25

    Recurrence and predictability of evolution are thought to reflect the correspondence between genomic and phenotypic dimensions of organisms, and the connectivity in deterministic networks within these dimensions. Direct examination of the correspondence between opportunities for diversification imbedded in such networks and realized diversity is illuminating, but is empirically challenging because both the deterministic networks and phenotypic diversity are modified in the course of evolution. Here we overcome this problem by directly comparing the structure of a "global" carotenoid network - comprising of all known enzymatic reactions among naturally occurring carotenoids - with the patterns of evolutionary diversification in carotenoid-producing metabolic networks utilized by birds. We found that phenotypic diversification in carotenoid networks across 250 species was closely associated with enzymatic connectivity of the underlying biochemical network - compounds with greater connectivity occurred the most frequently across species and were the hotspots of metabolic pathway diversification. In contrast, we found no evidence for diversification along the metabolic pathways, corroborating findings that the utilization of the global carotenoid network was not strongly influenced by history in avian evolution. The finding that the diversification in species-specific carotenoid networks is qualitatively predictable from the connectivity of the underlying enzymatic network points to significant structural determinism in phenotypic evolution.

  1. Mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation: structural and biochemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabanero, M.; Flores V, L. L.; Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo, M. A.; Cordova F, T.; Sosa A, M.; Castruita D, J. P.; Barbosa S, G.

    2015-10-01

    Acute or chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor that may be hazardous to health. It has been reported that exposure to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv / year) and subsequently exposure to high doses have greater effects in people. However, it is unknown molecular and biochemical level alteration. This study, analyzes the susceptibility of a biological system (HeLa Atcc CCL-2 human cervix cancer cell line) to ionizing radiation (6 and 60 mSv/ 90). Our evaluate multiple variables such as: total protein profile, mitochondrial metabolic activity (XTT assay), cell viability (Trypan blue exclusion assay), cytoskeleton (actin micro filaments), nuclei (D API), genomic DNA. The results indicate, that cells exposed to ionizing radiation structurally show alterations in nuclear phenotype and aneuploidy, further disruption in the tight junctions and consequently on the distribution of actin micro filaments. Similar alterations were observed in cells treated with a genotoxic agent (200μM H 2 O 2 /1 h). In conclusion, this multi-criteria assessment enables precise comparisons of the effects of radiation between any biological systems. However, it is necessary to determine stress markers for integration of the effects of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  2. Unique biochemical and mineral composition of whale ear bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sora L; Thewissen, J G M; Churchill, Morgan M; Suydam, Robert S; Ketten, Darlene R; Clementz, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cetaceans are obligate aquatic mammals derived from terrestrial artiodactyls. The defining characteristic of cetaceans is a thick and dense lip (pachyosteosclerotic involucrum) of an ear bone (the tympanic). This unique feature is absent in modern terrestrial artiodactyls and is suggested to be important in underwater hearing. Here, we investigate the mineralogical and biochemical properties of the involucrum, as these may hold clues to the aquatic adaptations of cetaceans. We compared bioapatites (enamel, dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone) of cetaceans with those of terrestrial artiodactyls and pachyosteosclerotic ribs of manatees (Sirenia). We investigated organic, carbonate, and mineral composition as well as crystal size and crystallinity index. In all studied variables, bioapatites of the cetacean involucrum were intermediate in composition and structure between those of tooth enamel on the one hand and those of dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone on the other. We also studied the amino acid composition of the cetacean involucrum relative to that of other skeletal bone. The central involucrum had low glycine and hydroxyproline concentrations but high concentrations of nonessential amino acids, unlike most bone samples but similar to the tympanic of hippos and the (pachyosteosclerotic) ribs of manatees. These amino acid results are evidence of rapid bone development. We hypothesize that the mineralogical and amino acid composition of cetacean bullae differs from that of other bone because of (1) functional modifications for underwater sound reception and (2) structural adaptations related to rapid ossification.

  3. Consolidated briefing of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Achinas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production is one pathway for crude oil reduction and environmental compliance. Bioethanol can be used as fuel with significant characteristics like high octane number, low cetane number and high heat of vaporization. Its main drawbacks are the corrosiveness, low flame luminosity, lower vapor pressure, miscibility with water, and toxicity to ecosystems. One crucial problem with bioethanol fuel is the availability of raw materials. The supply of feedstocks for bioethanol production can vary season to season and depends on geographic locations. Lignocellulosic biomass, such as forest-based woody materials, agricultural residues and municipal waste, is prominent feedstock for bioethanol cause of its high availability and low cost, even though the commercial production has still not been established. In addition, the supply and the attentive use of microbes render the bioethanol production process highly peculiar. Many conversion technologies and techniques for biomass-based ethanol production are under development and expected to be demonstrated. In this work a technological analysis of the biochemical method that can be used to produce bioethanol is carried out and a review of current trends and issues is conducted.

  4. Physical and biochemical properties of green banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntharalingam, S; Ravindran, G

    1993-01-01

    Banana flour prepared from two cooking banana varieties, namely 'Alukehel' and 'Monthan', were evaluated for their physical and biochemical characteristics. The yields of flour averaged 31.3% for 'Alukehel' and 25.5% for 'Monthan'. The pH of the flour ranged from 5.4 to 5.7. The bulk density and particle size distribution were also measured. The average chemical composition (% dry matter) of the flours were as follows: crude protein, 3.2; crude fat, 1.3; ash, 3.7; neutral detergent fiber, 8.9; acid detergent fiber, 3.8; cellulose, 3.1; lignin, 1.0 and hemicellulose, 5.0. Carbohydrate composition indicated the flour to contain 2.8% soluble sugars, 70.0% starch and 12.0% non-starch polysaccharides. Potassium is the predominant mineral in banana flour. Fresh green banana is a good source of vitamin C, but almost 65% is lost during the preparation of flour. Oxalate content (1.1-1.6%) of banana flour is probably nutritionally insignificant. The overall results are suggestive of the potential of green bananas as a source of flour.

  5. Toxic effect of ciprofloxacin on some biochemical variables in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Salih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the acute and sub acute toxicity of ciprofloxacin on lipids metabolism ofchicks which included determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, and albuminlevels in serum of chicks. The biochemical changes induced by giving ciprofloxacin as a single dose (200 and 400 mg/kg.body weight intraperitoneally included significant increases of cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein levels inserum, whereas albumin level significantly decreased, and there was no significant changes in high density lipoprotein levelsas compared with control group. Repeated treatment with ciprofloxacin (100 mg/kg. body weight intra peritoneal for 14 dayscaused significant increase in cholesterol level, albumin level significantly decreased as compared with control group, whereasit did not change significantly high density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, repeated treatment of ciprofloxacin also showedsignificant decrease of the body weights of the chicks as compared with control group. The results suggest that there are toxiceffects of ciprofloxacin on lipids metabolism as seen through changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin and low densitylipoprotein level.

  6. Biochemical indicators for novel forest decline in spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, M.; Lauchert, U.; Wild, A.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of air pollution on 24 stands of spruce trees in several regions in Germany was investigated. We looked for evidence of biochemical and physiological change at the level of the photosynthetic thylakoid membranes as well as for changes in the antioxidative system in two year old needles. We observed that, as the chlorophyll content decreases in the needles, the among of D1 protein declines far more rapidly in relation to the redox components P700 and cytochrome f. Consequently, the PSII/PSI stoichiometry keeps dropping to progressively lower, meaning unfavorable, values at the chlorophyll content diminishes. This is particularly the case in the higher elevation characteristically increases while the D1 protein content falls. The higher α-tocopherol values, however, are obviously neither able to protect the D1 protein from degradation nor to compensate for the higher oxidative stress. Apart from that the ascorbate/tocopherol ratios remained in the majority of cases in the unfavorable range of far below 10, where an effective protection of the membranes from free radicals is not guaranteed. This then is mirrored in the increased degradation of D1 and the lower PSII/PSI ratio

  7. Mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation: structural and biochemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabanero, M.; Flores V, L. L. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Biologia, DCNE, Noria Alta s/n, 36250 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo, M. A.; Cordova F, T.; Sosa A, M. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, DCI, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Castruita D, J. P. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Ecologia, CUCBA, Las Agujas, 45100 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Barbosa S, G., E-mail: myrna.sabanero@gmail.com [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ciencias Medicas, DCS, 20 de Enero No. 929, Col. Obregon, 37000 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Acute or chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor that may be hazardous to health. It has been reported that exposure to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv / year) and subsequently exposure to high doses have greater effects in people. However, it is unknown molecular and biochemical level alteration. This study, analyzes the susceptibility of a biological system (HeLa Atcc CCL-2 human cervix cancer cell line) to ionizing radiation (6 and 60 mSv/ 90). Our evaluate multiple variables such as: total protein profile, mitochondrial metabolic activity (XTT assay), cell viability (Trypan blue exclusion assay), cytoskeleton (actin micro filaments), nuclei (D API), genomic DNA. The results indicate, that cells exposed to ionizing radiation structurally show alterations in nuclear phenotype and aneuploidy, further disruption in the tight junctions and consequently on the distribution of actin micro filaments. Similar alterations were observed in cells treated with a genotoxic agent (200μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/1 h). In conclusion, this multi-criteria assessment enables precise comparisons of the effects of radiation between any biological systems. However, it is necessary to determine stress markers for integration of the effects of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  8. Cerebral biochemical abnormalities in experimental maternal phenylketonuria: gangliosides and sialoglycoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, Y.H.; Hyde, K.R.; Lin, F.H.; Wisniewski, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    The present study sought a biochemical explanation for retarded brain development in the heterozygous offspring of the phenylketonuric (PKU) mother. Two rat models of simulated maternal PKU, one induced by p-chloropheylalanine and phenylalanine and the other by phenylacetate, were employed in this investigation. Maternal PKU had no influence on cerebral concentrations of DNA, protein, and cholesterol, which were normal in the 2 d old pup. However, there was a noticeable disruption of the normal ganglioside pattern and a significant reduction of sialoglycoproteins. Concomitant with a delayed drop in the gangliosides Q/sub 1b/ and D 3 , was a slower rise in M 1 and D/sub 1a/. At least 66% of sialoglycoproteins located on SDS-PAGE gel chromatograms, by radioactivity incorporated in vivo from radiolabeled N-acetylmannosamine and by ( 3 H) sialic acid released by neuraminidase from periodate-( 3 H) borohydride labeled glycoproteins, have mobilites of the cell adhesion molecules N-CAM and D-CAM. Whether the reduction of the sialogylcoproteins induced by maternal PKU is mainly in these cell adhesion molecules requires further investigation. Interference with the function of gangliosides and certain sialoglycoproteins during cerebral development may contribute to the brain dysfunction observed in the offspring of PKU mothers not on diet control during pregnancy. 49 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  9. Spongiosa Primary Development: A Biochemical Hypothesis by Turing Patterns Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodrigo López-Vaca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a biochemical model describing the formation of primary spongiosa architecture through a bioregulatory model by metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. It is assumed that MMP13 regulates cartilage degradation and the VEGF allows vascularization and advances in the ossification front through the presence of osteoblasts. The coupling of this set of molecules is represented by reaction-diffusion equations with parameters in the Turing space, creating a stable spatiotemporal pattern that leads to the formation of the trabeculae present in the spongy tissue. Experimental evidence has shown that the MMP13 regulates VEGF formation, and it is assumed that VEGF negatively regulates MMP13 formation. Thus, the patterns obtained by ossification may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. Moreover, for the numerical solution, we used the finite element method with the Newton-Raphson method to approximate partial differential nonlinear equations. Ossification patterns obtained may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification.

  10. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies on some cyanobacterial isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, E.A.R.; Ebrahim, S.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the isolation and purification of a set of Cyanobacteria strains belonging to genus Oscillatoria was undertaken, followed by the analyses of phylogenetic relationships using different biochemical and molecular genetic techniques (SOS-PAGE and RAPO-PCR). A total of 45 protein bands were observed within the studied Osci/latoria isolates by SOS-PAGE (only three unique bands, eight monomorphic bands and 37 polymorphic bands). On the other hand, extracted ONA from isolates was used to identify the molecular fingerprints. A sum of 94 polymorphic bands was generated by these primers in the Ocsi/laloria genotypes under study. A total of 20 unique bands were identified out of the polymorphic ones. These unique bands were used to discriminate among the studied Ocsi/latoria isolates. Most isolates of Ocsi/latoria genotypes were discriminated by one or more unique bands. Numerical taxonomic using 45 protein attributes of 19 isolates and RAPO markers on five isolates. Two methods -Clustering (UPGMA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used for these analyses. The similarities and clusters produced between the studied isolates were discussed.

  11. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies on some cyanobacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, E A.R. [Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Biology; Ebrahim, S A.A. [Ain Sham University, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Cytogenetic

    2011-11-15

    In the present study, the isolation and purification of a set of Cyanobacteria strains belonging to genus Oscillatoria was undertaken, followed by the analyses of phylogenetic relationships using different biochemical and molecular genetic techniques (SOS-PAGE and RAPO-PCR). A total of 45 protein bands were observed within the studied Osci/latoria isolates by SOS-PAGE (only three unique bands, eight monomorphic bands and 37 polymorphic bands). On the other hand, extracted ONA from isolates was used to identify the molecular fingerprints. A sum of 94 polymorphic bands was generated by these primers in the Ocsi/laloria genotypes under study. A total of 20 unique bands were identified out of the polymorphic ones. These unique bands were used to discriminate among the studied Ocsi/latoria isolates. Most isolates of Ocsi/latoria genotypes were discriminated by one or more unique bands. Numerical taxonomic using 45 protein attributes of 19 isolates and RAPO markers on five isolates. Two methods -Clustering (UPGMA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used for these analyses. The similarities and clusters produced between the studied isolates were discussed.

  12. Statistical physics approaches to subnetwork dynamics in biochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, B.; Sollich, P.

    2017-08-01

    We apply a Gaussian variational approximation to model reduction in large biochemical networks of unary and binary reactions. We focus on a small subset of variables (subnetwork) of interest, e.g. because they are accessible experimentally, embedded in a larger network (bulk). The key goal is to write dynamical equations reduced to the subnetwork but still retaining the effects of the bulk. As a result, the subnetwork-reduced dynamics contains a memory term and an extrinsic noise term with non-trivial temporal correlations. We first derive expressions for this memory and noise in the linearized (Gaussian) dynamics and then use a perturbative power expansion to obtain first order nonlinear corrections. For the case of vanishing intrinsic noise, our description is explicitly shown to be equivalent to projection methods up to quadratic terms, but it is applicable also in the presence of stochastic fluctuations in the original dynamics. An example from the epidermal growth factor receptor signalling pathway is provided to probe the increased prediction accuracy and computational efficiency of our method.

  13. Rapid Discrimination Among Putative Mechanistic Models of Biochemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2016-08-31

    An overarching goal in molecular biology is to gain an understanding of the mechanistic basis underlying biochemical systems. Success is critical if we are to predict effectively the outcome of drug treatments and the development of abnormal phenotypes. However, data from most experimental studies is typically noisy and sparse. This allows multiple potential mechanisms to account for experimental observations, and often devising experiments to test each is not feasible. Here, we introduce a novel strategy that discriminates among putative models based on their repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes, without relying on knowledge of specific values for rate constants and binding constants. As an illustration, we apply this strategy to two synthetic gene circuits exhibiting anomalous behaviors. Our results show that the conventional models, based on their well-characterized components, cannot account for the experimental observations. We examine a total of 40 alternative hypotheses and show that only 5 have the potential to reproduce the experimental data, and one can do so with biologically relevant parameter values.

  14. Biochemical and chemical characterization of pink-pigmented oxidative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, P L; Hollis, D G; Weaver, R E; Moss, C W

    1990-04-01

    The biochemical and chemical characteristics were determined for 156 clinical isolates of pink-pigmented bacteria that are similar to but distinct from Methylobacterium extorquens (synonymous with Pseudomonas mesophilica). These isolates were gram-negative, nonfermentative, usually nonvacuolated, coccoid rods; all grew at 35 degrees C and were catalase and urease positive; the majority grew on MacConkey agar and were variable for oxidase production and motility. On the basis of oxidation of xylose and mannitol and hydrolysis of esculin, these 156 strains were subdivided into four groups that were designated "pink coccoid" groups I, II, III, and IV. Groups I, II, and III are similar to an unnamed taxon described by Gilardi and Faur in 1984; only strains of group IV hydrolyze esculin. The cellular fatty acid compositions of strains of groups I, II, and III were essentially identical and differed from strains of group IV by the absence of 3-OH-C14:0 and the presence of C19:0 delta and 2-OH-C19:0 delta. The fatty acid composition of group IV strains was most similar to that of M. extorquens but differed by the presence of small amounts of two C17:1 acids, 3-OH-C16:0, and 2-OH-C18:1.

  15. Biochemical and Tissue Studies on Post Irradiation Recovery in Mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.M.

    2004-01-01

    three main studies were performed in this thesis, namely, mortality and survival study, biochemical studies, and studies on tissue alterations cobalt-60 gamma irradiation for low let was used for the external whole body irradiation of the irradiated animal groups. a total number of animals of 722 virgin female adult wister rats of approximately the same age and weight were used for the three studies that were performed, including the control and irradiated animal groups. the animals were housed and kept with special care at fixed temperature, humidity and diet. the study on mortality and survival included 370 animals divided into control and groups irradiated with 4,5,6,7,8 and 9 Gy. this study was followed up for one year to record the number and date of animal deaths for the different irradiated groups. for the 8 and 9 Gy irradiated groups the follow up ended after 12 weeks and 11 days respectively when animal mortality reached 100%. the maximum percent mortality was noted at the second week (3.3,8,14 and 29%) for the 4,5,6 and 7 Gy irradiated groups respectively. for the 8 and 9 Gy irradiated groups, the maximum percent mortality was noted at the first week (42.9 and 90% respectively). regression equations were applied for the percent of mortality of the 5-8 Gy irradiated groups to estimate the LD 50/30, which was found to be 6.4 Gy

  16. Collective behaviours: from biochemical kinetics to electronic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Burioni, Raffaella; di Biasio, Aldo; Uguzzoni, Guido

    2013-12-01

    In this work we aim to highlight a close analogy between cooperative behaviors in chemical kinetics and cybernetics; this is realized by using a common language for their description, that is mean-field statistical mechanics. First, we perform a one-to-one mapping between paradigmatic behaviors in chemical kinetics (i.e., non-cooperative, cooperative, ultra-sensitive, anti-cooperative) and in mean-field statistical mechanics (i.e., paramagnetic, high and low temperature ferromagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic). Interestingly, the statistical mechanics approach allows a unified, broad theory for all scenarios and, in particular, Michaelis-Menten, Hill and Adair equations are consistently recovered. This framework is then tested against experimental biological data with an overall excellent agreement. One step forward, we consistently read the whole mapping from a cybernetic perspective, highlighting deep structural analogies between the above-mentioned kinetics and fundamental bricks in electronics (i.e. operational amplifiers, flashes, flip-flops), so to build a clear bridge linking biochemical kinetics and cybernetics.

  17. Short communication: Biochemically active humic substances in contrasting agricultural managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Benitez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Because their crucial role in several soil biochemical cycles and their fast response to changes in soil management, extracellular enzymes activities are widely used as sensitive indicators of ecological change and soil quality. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of soil management on the stable pool of soil carbon cycling enzymes as indicators of essential functions. For this, extracellular β-glucosidase enzymes bounded by humic acids (C higher than 104 Da were used to compare four long-term contrasting agricultural managements in a rainfed olive orchard representative of semi-arid Mediterranean habitats. The study was conducted for 30 years by designing a random-block of four treatments (nude vs. covered soils and four replicates. Maintaining cover crops through fall, winter and early spring provoked a more stable and active pool of extracellular β-glucosidase in soils only if spontaneous vegetation was managed with mechanical methods. When herbicides were used during 30 years, the pattern of the molecular composition and activity of humus β-glucosidase complexes were similar in covered and nude soils, although higher activity was retrieved in the former. Tillage management increased carbon mineralization and the level of humic substances and the activity of β-glucosidase humic-bound were quite lower than in the rest of treatments. Given the ecological role of extracellular soil carbon cycling enzymes, the characterization of humus β-glucosidase complexes could be an adequate indicator of sustainability of agricultural management systems.

  18. Upgrading Laccase Production and Biochemical Properties: Strategies and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Brandt; Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Trejo-Hernández, María R

    2017-07-01

    Improving laccases continues to be crucial in novel biotechnological developments and industrial applications, where they are concerned. This review breaks down and explores the potential of the strategies (conventional and modern) that can be used for laccase enhancement (increased production and upgraded biochemical properties such as stability and catalytic efficiency). The challenges faced with these approaches are briefly discussed. We also shed light on how these strategies merge and give rise to new options and advances in this field of work. Additionally, this article seeks to serve as a guide for students and academic researchers interested in laccases. This document not only gives basic information on laccases, but also provides updated information on the state of the art of various technologies that are used in this line of investigation. It also gives the readers an idea of the areas extensively studied and the areas where there is still much left to be done. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1015-1034, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. A Systems Model of Parkinson's Disease Using Biochemical Systems Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharakurup, Hemalatha; Melethadathil, Nidheesh; Nair, Bipin; Diwakar, Shyam

    2017-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, affects millions of people and has gained attention because of its clinical roles affecting behaviors related to motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although studies on PD from various aspects are becoming popular, few rely on predictive systems modeling approaches. Using Biochemical Systems Theory (BST), this article attempts to model and characterize dopaminergic cell death and understand pathophysiology of progression of PD. PD pathways were modeled using stochastic differential equations incorporating law of mass action, and initial concentrations for the modeled proteins were obtained from literature. Simulations suggest that dopamine levels were reduced significantly due to an increase in dopaminergic quinones and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) relating to imbalances compared to control during PD progression. Associating to clinically observed PD-related cell death, simulations show abnormal parkin and reactive oxygen species levels with an increase in neurofibrillary tangles. While relating molecular mechanistic roles, the BST modeling helps predicting dopaminergic cell death processes involved in the progression of PD and provides a predictive understanding of neuronal dysfunction for translational neuroscience.

  20. Novel biochemical markers of psychosocial stress in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Asberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged psychosocial stress is a condition assessed through self-reports. Here we aimed to identify biochemical markers for screening and early intervention in women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL 1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, epidermal growth factor (EGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total tri-iodothyronine (TT3, total thyroxine (TT4, prolactin, and testosterone were measured in: 195 women on long-term sick-leave for a stress-related affective disorder, 45 women at risk for professional burnout, and 84 healthy women. RESULTS: We found significantly increased levels of MCP-1, VEGF and EGF in women exposed to prolonged psychosocial stress. Statistical analysis indicates that they independently associate with a significant risk for being classified as ill. CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1, EGF, and VEGF are potential markers for screening and early intervention in women under prolonged psychosocial stress.

  1. Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isioma Tongo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE, corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxidative stress. Toads were exposed to 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 g/L for 28 days. Brain AChE activity reduced by 96% in the highest concentration (0.04 g/L compared to the control brain. Similarly, AChE activities in serum, liver, lungs and GIT tissues (88%, 88%, 87, 87% umg-1 protein respectively were also inhibited in the toads. Corticosterone and total protein levels in the tissues decreased compared to the control. The accumulation results obtained showed accumulation in the tissues (liver>serum>brain> lung>GIT, with a direct relationship between tissue concentration and changes in the biochemical indices. The alterations in all the indices were significantly concentration dependent. The biomarkers described in this study could be useful complementary indices in the risk assessment of diazinon pesticide.

  2. Predictive hypotheses are ineffectual in resolving complex biochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Michael

    2018-03-20

    Scientific hypotheses may either predict particular unknown facts or accommodate previously-known data. Although affirmed predictions are intuitively more rewarding than accommodations of established facts, opinions divide whether predictive hypotheses are also epistemically superior to accommodation hypotheses. This paper examines the contribution of predictive hypotheses to discoveries of several bio-molecular systems. Having all the necessary elements of the system known beforehand, an abstract predictive hypothesis of semiconservative mode of DNA replication was successfully affirmed. However, in defining the genetic code whose biochemical basis was unclear, hypotheses were only partially effective and supplementary experimentation was required for its conclusive definition. Markedly, hypotheses were entirely inept in predicting workings of complex systems that included unknown elements. Thus, hypotheses did not predict the existence and function of mRNA, the multiple unidentified components of the protein biosynthesis machinery, or the manifold unknown constituents of the ubiquitin-proteasome system of protein breakdown. Consequently, because of their inability to envision unknown entities, predictive hypotheses did not contribute to the elucidation of cation theories remained the sole instrument to explain complex bio-molecular systems, the philosophical question of alleged advantage of predictive over accommodative hypotheses became inconsequential.

  3. Biochemical and functional abnormalities in hypercholesterolemic rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalal, K.B.; Ebbe, S.; Mazoyer, E.; Carpenter, D.; Yee, T.

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate changes in rabbit platelet lipids induced by a cholesterol rich diet and to explore the possible correlation of these lipid changes with platelet abnormalities. Pronounced biochemical alterations were observed when serum cholesterol levels of 700-1000 mg% were reached. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) platelets contained 37% more neutral lipids and 16% less phospholipids than the controls. Lysolecithin, cholesterol esters and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels were increased in HC platelets, and the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) were decreased. The cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of lipidemic platelets increased from 0.55 +/- 0.011 to 0.89 +/- 0.016 (P less than 0.01) in eight weeks. HC platelets had 90% more arachidonic acid (AA) in the PI than normal platelets. No significant changes in AA of PC were observed. Platelet function was monitored by the uptake and release of [14C]serotonin in platelet rich plasma (PRP), using varying concentrations of collagen as an aggregating agent. The uptake of [14C]serotonin in HC and normal platelets ranged from 78-94%. The percent of [14C]serotonin released from normal and HC platelets was proportional to the concentration of collagen. However, lipidemic platelets were hyperreactive to low concentrations of collagen. Incorporation of 50 microM acetylsalicylic acid into the aggregating medium suppressed the release of [14C]serotonin in normal PRP by more than 90%, but had only a partial effect on lipidemic PRP

  4. Effect of nitrate poisoning on some biochemical parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of potassium nitrate on glucose, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and the possible ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C. Male Wister rats are used as experimental model divided into three groups (each of 6-8 rats and treated for six weeks as follows: Group 1: served as control; Group 2: received 2 % potassium nitrate added to the forage and Group 3: received 2 % potassium nitrate together with 1 % ascorbic acid added to rat's forage. Nitrate treatment in group 2 leads to high significant increase levels of glucose in 3rd, 4th, and 5th weeks, cholesterol level increased significantly in both 4th and 5th weeks, while ALT levels increased in the 4th, 5th and 6th weeks, and AST increased significantly in the 5th and 6th weeks. Addition of ascorbic acid with potassium nitrate, lead to reverse all the parameters nearly to normal. It was concluded that potassium nitrate causes significant toxic effect on some biochemical parameters which was ameliorated by ascorbic acid.

  5. A case study of evolutionary computation of biochemical adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    François, Paul; Siggia, Eric D

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of evolution have a long history, but their relation to biology is questioned because of the perceived contingency of evolution. Here we provide an example of a biological process, adaptation, where simulations are argued to approach closer to biology. Adaptation is a common feature of sensory systems, and a plausible component of other biochemical networks because it rescales upstream signals to facilitate downstream processing. We create random gene networks numerically, by linking genes with interactions that model transcription, phosphorylation and protein–protein association. We define a fitness function for adaptation in terms of two functional metrics, and show that any reasonable combination of them will yield the same adaptive networks after repeated rounds of mutation and selection. Convergence to these networks is driven by positive selection and thus fast. There is always a path in parameter space of continuously improving fitness that leads to perfect adaptation, implying that the actual mutation rates we use in the simulation do not bias the results. Our results imply a kinetic view of evolution, i.e., it favors gene networks that can be learned quickly from the random examples supplied by mutation. This formulation allows for deductive predictions of the networks realized in nature

  6. Mercury-induced biochemical and proteomic changes in rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-An; Chi, Wen-Chang; Huang, Tsai-Lien; Lin, Chung-Yi; Quynh Nguyeh, Thi Thuy; Hsiung, Yu-Chywan; Chia, Li-Chiao; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2012-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a serious environmental pollution threats to the planet. Accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated cellular, biochemical and proteomic changes in rice roots under Hg stress. Root growth rate was decreased and Hg, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lipoxygenase activity were increased significantly with increasing Hg concentration in roots. We revealed a time-dependent alteration in total glutathione content and enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) during Hg stress. 2-D electrophoresis revealed differential expression of 25 spots with Hg treatment of roots: 14 spots were upregulated and 11 spots downregulated. These differentially expressed proteins were identified by ESI-MS/MS to be involved in cellular functions including redox and hormone homeostasis, chaperone activity, metabolism, and transcription regulation. These results may provide new insights into the molecular basis of the Hg stress response in plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Short communication: Biochemically active humic substances in contrasting agricultural managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, E.; Nogales, R.; Doni, S.; Masciandaro, G.; Moreno, B.

    2016-11-01

    Because their crucial role in several soil biochemical cycles and their fast response to changes in soil management, extracellular enzymes activities are widely used as sensitive indicators of ecological change and soil quality. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of soil management on the stable pool of soil carbon cycling enzymes as indicators of essential functions. For this, extracellular β-glucosidase enzymes bounded by humic acids (C higher than 104 Da) were used to compare four long-term contrasting agricultural managements in a rainfed olive orchard representative of semi-arid Mediterranean habitats. The study was conducted for 30 years by designing a random-block of four treatments (nude vs. covered soils) and four replicates. Maintaining cover crops through fall, winter and early spring provoked a more stable and active pool of extracellular β-glucosidase in soils only if spontaneous vegetation was managed with mechanical methods. When herbicides were used during 30 years, the pattern of the molecular composition and activity of humus β-glucosidase complexes were similar in covered and nude soils, although higher activity was retrieved in the former. Tillage management increased carbon mineralization and the level of humic substances and the activity of β-glucosidase humic-bound were quite lower than in the rest of treatments. Given the ecological role of extracellular soil carbon cycling enzymes, the characterization of humus β-glucosidase complexes could be an adequate indicator of sustainability of agricultural management systems. (Author)

  8. Biochemical recovery time scales in elderly patients with osteomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S C; Raut, S

    2004-01-01

    Osteomalacia is not rare in the UK and climatically similar countries, particularly in elderly people and those of Asian descent. Overt clinical osteomalacia is usually treated with a loading dose of vitamin D, followed by a regular supplement. However, little is known of the time taken to reach a stable biochemical state after starting treatment. Such information would shed light on the duration of the bone remineralization phase and guide decisions on the length of follow-up. To address this we conducted a 2-year follow-up study of 42 patients (35 female, mean age 80.8 years) with biopsy proven osteomalacia treated with a standard replacement regimen and general nutritional support. Although normocalcaemia was attained within 4 weeks the mean values continued to rise, to a mid-range plateau at 52 weeks. The phosphate and alkaline phosphatase values also took at least a year to reach a stable mean, with a slight further trend towards the mid-range for the entire 104 weeks. The mean serum albumin also rose throughout the first 52 weeks, indicating an effective response to the general nutritional support measures. Our observations suggest that the dynamic relationship between calcium, phosphate and bone requires at least a year, and probably longer, to reach an equilibrium after treatment for osteomalacia in elderly patients. The findings emphasize the need for close medical and social follow-up in this clinical context. PMID:15520146

  9. Assessment of compost for suppression of Fusarium oxysporum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-08-28

    Aug 28, 2012 ... Biological characteristics including compost inhabiting microbial ... A solid-liquid extraction was carried out then; pH was determined by using AS-501 pH ...... oxysporum in sweet basil. Crop Prot. ... Pesticide Biochem. Physiol.

  10. Effects of an inorganic insecticide (boric acid) against Blattella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ufuoma

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... Data on ovarian .... The overall data suggested an interference of boric acid with the ... solutions as baits for management of German cockroaches .... Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 135C:257-267. Tine S, Aribi N, Soltani N (2011).

  11. WSSV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... 2Quality Assurance and Management Division, Central Institute of Fisheries .... The data obtained from the experiments were subjected to appro- ..... blue crab Calinectus sapidus glucose. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A.

  12. Modulation of biochemical stress initiated by toxicants in diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-07-27

    Jul 27, 2016 ... meat in some parts of Nigeria, such as Owerri in Imo state (Ujowundu et al., ..... containing bromocresol green (BCG) was added to the tubes mixed ...... Xin Z, Waterman DF, Henken RM, Harman RJ (1991) Effects of copper.

  13. Structural and biochemical alterations of human diabetic dermis studied by 3H-lysine incorporation and microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moczar, M.; Allard, R.; Ouzilou, J.; Robert, L.; Pieraggi, M.-T.; Bouissou, H.; Julian, M.

    1976-01-01

    The alteration of the structural organization of dermal connective tissue was studied by light and electron microscopy and by biochemical techniques in normal human and in diabetic patients using skin biopsies. Part of the tissue was used for light and electron microscopy, the rest was incubated in the presence of 3 H-lysine for four hours. The 3 H-lysine labelled biopsies were submitted to a sequential extraction procedure in order to obtain representative macromolecular fractions containing the matrix macromolecules. The extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and radioactivity. Electron microscopy revealed microstructural modifications of the fibroblasts, of the collagen and elastic fibers in the diabetic dermis. The incorporation pattern of 3 H-lysine into the macromolecular fractions was different in the normal and diabetic skin biopsies. The percentage of total radioactivity incorporated increased significantly in the 1M CaCl 2 extractable fraction and in the 6M urea extractable fraction and decreased significantly in the collagenase and elastase extracts in diabetic skin biopsy. These results demonstrate the existence of morphological and biochemical alterations in diabetic connective tissue (dermis) reflecting alterations in the relative rates of synthesis and/or degradation of the intercellular matrix macromolecules as well as of their microarchitectural arrangement

  14. Intraseasonal patterns in coastal plankton biomass off central Chile derived from satellite observations and a biochemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Fabian A.; Spitz, Yvette H.; Batchelder, Harold P.; Correa-Ramirez, Marco A.

    2017-10-01

    Subseasonal (5-130 days) environmental variability can strongly affect plankton dynamics, but is often overlooked in marine ecology studies. We documented the main subseasonal patterns of plankton biomass in the coastal upwelling system off central Chile, the southern part of the Humboldt System. Subseasonal variability was extracted from temporal patterns in satellite data of wind stress, sea surface temperature, and chlorophyll from the period 2003-2011, and from a realistically forced eddy-resolving physical-biochemical model from 2003 to 2008. Although most of the wind variability occurs at submonthly frequencies (< 30 days), we found that the dominant subseasonal pattern of phytoplankton biomass is within the intraseasonal band (30-90 days). The strongest intraseasonal coupling between wind and plankton is in spring-summer, when increased solar radiation enhances the phytoplankton response to upwelling. Biochemical model outputs show intraseasonal shifts in plankton community structure, mainly associated with the large fluctuations in diatom biomass. Diatom biomass peaks near surface during strong upwelling, whereas small phytoplankton biomass peaks at subsurface depths during relaxation or downwelling periods. Strong intraseasonally forced changes in biomass and species composition could strongly impact trophodynamics connections in the ecosystem, including the recruitment of commercially important fish species such as common sardine and anchovy. The wind-driven variability of chlorophyll concentration was connected to mid- and high-latitude atmospheric anomalies, which resemble disturbances with frequencies similar to the tropical Madden-Julian Oscillation.

  15. Effect of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on quality of egg, cholesterol level, production performance, serum total protein and blood biochemical parameters were evaluated in laying hens. A total of 300 commercial Lohmann LSL hens (30 weeks of age were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments which consisted of a normal corn diet containing corn–soy and 2 diets containing 5% and 10% sugar syrup. Each treatment was replicated 5 times (n = 20. Egg production, feed intake, body weight and egg weight of laying hens fed different diets were recorded. The experiment lasted for 20 weeks. The Haugh unit scores of hens fed diets with sugar syrup were significantly increased (P < 0.05 compared with the control treatment. The sugar syrup had no significant effect on liver enzymes, total protein, blood glucose and creatinine in all treatments. The eggs laid by hens fed sugar syrup diets had lower cholesterol level (P < 0.05 compared with those laid by hens fed the control diet. Electrophoresis analysis showed that comparable electrophoretic patterns were noticed between serum proteins of treatment groups. From the results, it can be concluded that sugar syrup diets and corn diets have similar effects on feed intake, body weight, production of eggs and blood biochemical parameters in layer hens, which suggests sugar syrup can be used as an energy source for replacing part of corn in poultry layer diets. Keywords: Cholesterol, Sugar syrup diet, Egg, Egg quality, Protein

  16. Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Benghazi- Libya: A Retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmehdawi RR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine condition affecting women of reproductive age and characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. There are no published data on this syndrome in Libyan patients. Aims and objectives: To assess the frequency of clinical and biochemical features of PCOS in our patient population, and to compare this with data collected in other parts of the world. Subjects and methods: A retrospective analysis of patient records at the endocrine clinic in Benghazi was undertaken. Patient inclusion was according to Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM criteria. Clinical features, associated diseases, family history, hormone levels, and ultrasonography results were analyzed. Results: The mean age of the 318 PCOS patients at presentation was 25.8 years (range 15-44 years, and the majority (67% were 20-29 years old at presentation. Of all patients, 57% were obese (BMI ≥ 30, 93% had oligo- / amenorrhea, 91% were hirsute, and 74% had ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 9% of all PCOS patients and hypertension in 4%. Total serum testosterone was elevated in 26% of the patients, and serum prolactin was elevated in 31%. Thyroid disease was noted among 5.3% of the patients, and a history of diabetes or hypertension among first-degree relatives was seen in (16% and (8% of the patients respectively. Conclusion: Chronic anovulation and hirsutism are the dominant features of PCOS in our patient population. More than half were obese, and the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and thyroid disease in our patients seemed to be underestimated in comparison to other parts of the world.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RELATION TO ULTRASONOGRAPHIC FINDING IN ECTOPIC PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS

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    Dragan Lončar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The implantation of the fertilized egg outside the uterine cavity leads to the development of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is 1/100 births. The most common place of ectopic implantation of the fertilized ovum is the oviduct (98% with predilection for the ampullar part of the Fallopian tube. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive importance of beta-hCG and progesterone concentration compared to ultrasonographic finding in the ectopic pregnancy diagnosis.We examined 24 patients with ectopic pregnancies which we divided according to the days of amenorrhea into two groups: the first group with the total of 28 patients from 16–42 days and another group of 8 patients with amenorrhea longer than 42 days. The control group was comprised of 20 patients with vital intrauterine pregnancy, gestational age of 42-52 days. Blood samples for quantitative determination of hormones were collected on three occasions after 48 hours in the forenoon time in the examined and control group of pregnant women. Ultrasonographic examinations of all pregnant women were carried out immediately after blood sampling, with the trans-vaginal approach using "make loop" option, and measurements with an accuracy of 0.1 mm.Mean values for beta-hCG range from 698-1774 mlU/ml in the first group of pregnant women, and in the second group of 1896 mlU/ml to 4410 mlU/ml with a statistically significant difference compared to the values in the control group (p <0.001. The concentration of progesterone in the first group of women ranging from 41-70 nmol/l, and in the second group of 76-94 nmol/l which is also the statistically significant difference compared to the control group (p<0.002. We have shown that ultrasonographic finding with its parameters reliably predicts the values of biochemical parameters both in normal intrauterine pregnancy and in the case of ectopic pregnancy.Embryo viability and implantation place condition the values of

  18. The influence of the ketogenic diet on the elemental and biochemical compositions of the hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwiej, Joanna; Skoczen, Agnieszka; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Janeczko, Krzysztof; Patulska, Agnieszka; Sandt, Christophe; Simon, Rolf; Ciarach, Malgorzata; Setkowicz, Zuzanna

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that dietary therapies, mainly the ketogenic diet, may be highly effective in the reduction of epileptic seizures. All of them share the common characteristic of restricting carbohydrate intake to shift the predominant caloric source of the diet to fat. Catabolism of fats results in the production of ketone bodies which become alternate energy substrates to glucose. Although many mechanisms by which ketone bodies yield its anticonvulsant effect are proposed, the relationships between the brain metabolism of the ketone bodies and their neuroprotective and antiepileptogenic action still remain to be discerned. In the study, X-ray fluorescence microscopy and FTIR microspectroscopy were used to follow ketogenic diet-induced changes in the elemental and biochemical compositions of rat hippocampal formation tissue. The use of synchrotron sources of X-rays and infrared allowed us to examine changes in the accumulation and distribution of selected elements (P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se) and biomolecules (proteins, lipids, ketone bodies, etc.) with the micrometer spatial resolution. The comparison of rats fed with the ketogenic diet and rats fed with the standard laboratory diet showed changes in the hippocampal accumulation of P, K, Ca, and Zn. The relations obtained for Ca (increased level in CA3, DG, and its internal area) and Zn (decreased areal density in CA3 and DG) were analogous to those that we previously observed for rats in the acute phase of pilocarpine-induced seizures. Biochemical analysis of tissues taken from ketogenic diet-fed rats demonstrated increased intensity of absorption band occurring at 1740 cm(-1), which was probably the result of elevated accumulation of ketone bodies. Moreover, higher absolute and relative (3012 cm(-1)/2924 cm(-1), 3012 cm(-1)/lipid massif, and 3012 cm(-1)/amide I) intensity of the 3012-cm(-1) band resulting from increased unsaturated fatty acids content was found after the treatment

  19. Hematological and biochemical changes in rabbits exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis under experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar M. Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine. One such medicinal plant is Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, which is commonly known as castor. All parts of the plant are important phloem, bark, leaves, flowers, seed and oil. The study was conducted on 15 mature rabbitsof either sex of 1-2 kg body weight and 1-2 years old. The animals were divided into three groups of 5 animals each. Animals of group I were exposed orally to ricin extract at a dose rate of 0.5 mg /kg b.wt. daily for 14 days, while those of group II were exposed orally to aqueous leaves extract 0.5mg /kg b.wt daily for 14 day, mean while those of group III were left as a control group not exposed. The dependent parameters in the study were hemoglobin (Hb concentration, total erythrocytes count, packed cells volume (PCV%, erythrocytes indices mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, Total and differential leucocytes count (TLC and DLC, in addition to some biochemical tests of blood serum which obtained at day 14th post exposure. The results of the study were revealed that the ricin extract and leaf extract exhibited an effects on hematological pictures as the erythrocytes counts, erythrocytes indices, Hb concentration and PCV% decreased and the obvious effects were in the 14th day. Ricin extract was less effects on many dependent parameters in comparison with aqueous leaf extract. Total leucocytes count, neutrophils % was increased in both ricin and leaf extract, and the increasing were higher in the 7th day in Ricin extract group. The lymphocytes% was decreased. While monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils % did not show any significant changes in all groups. Neutrophil /lymphocyte (N/l, and monocyte /lymphocyte (M/l increased in both exposed groups. Cholesterol (Chol, Triglyceride (TGwere increased, while total protein (TPwas decreased, Albumin (Alb, Cortisol

  20. Causal correlation of foliar biochemical concentrations with AVIRIS spectra using forced entry linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence P.; Curran, Paul J.; Kupiec, John A.

    1995-01-01

    A major goal of airborne imaging spectrometry is to estimate the biochemical composition of vegetation canopies from reflectance spectra. Remotely-sensed estimates of foliar biochemical concentrations of forests would provide valuable indicators of ecosystem function at regional and eventually global scales. Empirical research has shown a relationship exists between the amount of radiation reflected from absorption features and the concentration of given biochemicals in leaves and canopies (Matson et al., 1994, Johnson et al., 1994). A technique commonly used to determine which wavelengths have the strongest correlation with the biochemical of interest is unguided (stepwise) multiple regression. Wavelengths are entered into a multivariate regression equation, in their order of importance, each contributing to the reduction of the variance in the measured biochemical concentration. A significant problem with the use of stepwise regression for determining the correlation between biochemical concentration and spectra is that of 'overfitting' as there are significantly more wavebands than biochemical measurements. This could result in the selection of wavebands which may be more accurately attributable to noise or canopy effects. In addition, there is a real problem of collinearity in that the individual biochemical concentrations may covary. A strong correlation between the reflectance at a given wavelength and the concentration of a biochemical of interest, therefore, may be due to the effect of another biochemical which is closely related. Furthermore, it is not always possible to account for potentially suitable waveband omissions in the stepwise selection procedure. This concern about the suitability of stepwise regression has been identified and acknowledged in a number of recent studies (Wessman et al., 1988, Curran, 1989, Curran et al., 1992, Peterson and Hubbard, 1992, Martine and Aber, 1994, Kupiec, 1994). These studies have pointed to the lack of a physical

  1. Biochemical parameters in the blood of grass snakes (Natrix natrix in ecosystems under varying degrees of anthropogenic influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Gasso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The grass snake Natrix natrix (Linnaeus, 1758 is a partly hygrophilous species, distributed throughoutUkraine. This snake may be considered as a test object for environmental biomonitoring. Modern biochemical methods make it possible to obtain new scientific data on the effects of anthropogenic pressure on reptiles. Blood is a sensitive and informative indicator of the condition of an organism as it responds quickly to most changes in exogenous and endogenous factors, and reflects negative influences on both individual and, indirectly, populations. Changes in biochemical parameters may be used as biomarkers of the state of health of reptiles in ecosystems under varying degrees of anthropogenic pressure. Due the increase in anthropogenic influence the development and introduction of new methods of perceptual research, collection of up-to-date information and development of a database of reptile biochemical parameters have become an urgent priority. We collected mature individuals of the grass snake in floodplain ecosystems on the right bank of the Dnieper River in Dnipropetrovsk city. Grass snakes from floodplain habitats on the left bank of theSamaraRiver (O.L. Belgard Prysamarskii International Biosphere Station, Novomoskovsk district, Dnipropetrovsk province were studied as the control specimens. Our study demonstrated statistically significant differences between snakes from the study sites in the amount of albumin, urea and urea nitrogen, and inorganic phosphorus, as well as in alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatise (AP activity. The amount of albumin in the blood serum of specimens from the anthropogenically transformed areas was significantly lower (by 25% than in that of the snakes caught in the control habitats. Decrease of the albumin concentration usually indicates abnormal processes in the kidneys and liver. According to the changes observed in the concentration of albumin, a corresponding increase in the albumin to

  2. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  3. Standard Biological Parts Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M.; Gennari, John H.

    2011-01-01

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate “promoter” parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible. PMID:21390321

  4. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  5. Loose part monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention estimates a place where loose parts occur and structural components as the loose parts in a fluid flow channel of a reactor device, to provide information thereof to a plant operator. That is, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a plurality of detectors disposed to each of equipments constituting fluid channels, (2) an abnormal sound sensing device for sensing signals from the detectors, (3) an estimation section for estimating the place where the loose parts occur and the structural components thereof based on the signals sensed by the abnormal sound sensing section, (4) a memory section for storing data of the plant structure necessary for the estimation, and (5) a display section for displaying the result of the estimation. In such a device, the position where the loose parts collide against the plant structural component and the energy thereof are estimated. The dropping path of the loose parts is estimated from the estimation position. Parts to be loose parts in the path are listed up. The parts on the list is selected based on the estimated energy thereby enabling to determine the loose parts. (I.S.)

  6. Controlled parts management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, C.M.; Hidalgo, S.P.; Martinez, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Controlled Parts Management (CPM) system is based on industry standard practices for managing inventory. CPM is designed to record the movement of any type of inventory in a defined region referred to as an Account or SubAccount. The system is used to track the receiving, processing, storing and transfer of inventory parts. CPM provides information on parts, quantity and the exact location of the inventory. CPM is a barcode-based-part tracking system currently used to track controlled parts that are used in the R and D and testing of weapons; this tracking helps maintain the part pedigree that is required for certification of a weapon or weapon test. CPM includes bar code data collection software programmed into portable bar code readers for automating physical inventory services and remote transaction capture. CPM interfaces to other Engineering systems and supports a 'material content' of a weapons test through the test Bill of Materials and assignment of a unique inventory part in CPM. Additional functionality includes the ability to group or join parts, logically or physically and temporary or permanent, to represent discrete parts, containers, subassemblies and assemblies, and groupings.

  7. [On necessity to modify biochemical methods for detecting organophosphorus componds in chemical weapons extinction objects (review of literature)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofieva, D S; Shmurak, V I; Sadovnikov, S V; Gontcharov, N V

    2015-01-01

    The article covers problems of biochemical methods assessing organophosphorus toxic compounds in objects of chemical weapons extinction. The authors present results of works developing new, more specific and selective biochemical methods.

  8. Serum and urinary biochemical markers for knee and hip-osteoarthritis: a systematic review applying the consensus BIPED criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spil, W.E. van; Groot, J. de; Lems, W.F.; Oostveen, J.C.M.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Molecules that are released into biological fluids during matrix metabolism of articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and synovial tissue could serve as biochemical markers of the process of osteoarthritis (OA). Unfortunately, actual breakthroughs in the biochemical OA marker field are

  9. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values of the Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus in northeastern, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchint Simaraks

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus have been domesticated in rural villages in Thailand for a long time. These birds are important to low-income people who live in the rural part of Thailand. However, health problems have been a major cause limiting their population. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values, which are important for diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms when affected by diseases, are limited. Blood samples from 40 chickens (20 males and 20 females were used for hematological test while another 18 samples (from 10 males and 8 females were analysed for electrolyte and serum biochemical values. The samples were obtained from Khon Kaen, Kalasin, Roi - Et, Maha Sarakham and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces, northeastern region of Thailand. The results revealed the following information: total red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, lymphocyte, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, H:L ratio values of Thai native chickens were 2.26 ± 0.29 × 106 cells/μl, 8.89 ± 1.20 g/dl, 32.18 ± 4.46%, 144.63 ± 18.61 fl, 39.69 ± 4.96 pg, 27.86 ± 3.37 g/dl, 2.04 ± 0.45 × 104 cells/μl, 63.68 ± 9.36%, 23.70 ± 7.21%, 4.20 ± 3.20%, 5.83 ± 3.53%, 2.65 ± 2.09% and 0.40 ± 0.17, respectively. Potassium, sodium and chloride values of Thai native chickens were 5.3 ± 0.8 mmol/l, 155.9 ± 3.1 mmol/l and 116.9 ± 2.7 mmol/l, respectively. Furthermore, serum biochemistry values of Thai native chickens such as total protein, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, calcium and cholesterol were 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dl, 190.2 ± 29.8 mg/dl, 235.9 ± 68.6 U/L, 5.0 ± 1.9 mg/dl, 10.4 ± 1.2 mg/dl and 102.4 ± 30.8 mg/dl, respectively. Besides, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and eosinophil inthe males were significantly higher than in the females Thai indigenous

  10. Craniometaphyseal dysplasia with obvious biochemical abnormality and rickets-like features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Ou; Li, Mei; Xing, Xiao-Ping; Xia, Wei-Bo

    2016-05-01

    Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by progressive sclerosis of the craniofacial bones and metaphyseal widening of long bones, and biochemical indexes were mostly normal. To further the understanding of the disease from a biochemical perspective, we reported a CMD case with obviously abnormal biochemical indexes. A 1-year-old boy was referred to our clinic. Biochemical test showed obviously increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), mild hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Moreover, significant elevated receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) level, but normal β-C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) concentration were revealed. He was initially suspected of rickets, because the radiological examination also showed broadened epiphysis in his long bones. Supplementation with calcium and calcitriol alleviated biochemical abnormality. However, the patient gradually developed osteosclerosis which was inconformity with rickets. Considering that he was also presented with facial paralysis and nasal obstruction symptom, the diagnosis of craniometaphyseal dysplasia was suspected, and then was confirmed by the mutation analysis of ANKH of the proband and his family, which showed a de novo heterozygous mutation (C1124-1126delCCT) on exon 9. Our study revealed that obvious biochemical abnormality and rickets-like features might present as uncommon characteristics in CMD patients, and the calcium and calcitriol supplementation could alleviate biochemical abnormalities. Furthermore, although early osteoclast differentiation factor was excited in CMD patient, activity of osteoclast was still inert. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Study of interfacial phenomena for bio/chemical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hwall

    This work presents the fundamental study of biological and chemical interfacial phenomena and (bio)chemical sensing applications using high frequency resonator arrays. To realize a versatile (bio)chemical sensing system for the fundamental study as well as their practical applications, the following three distinct components were studied and developed: i) detection platforms with high sensitivity, ii) novel innovative sensing materials with high selectivity, iii) analytical model for data interpretation. 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator (muQCR) arrays with a fundamental resonance frequency of 60 ¡V 90 MHz have been used to provide a reliable detection platform with high sensitivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been explored and integrated into the sensing system as a smart chemical sensing material. The use of nanoporous gold (np-Au) enables the combination of the resonator and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for both quantitative and qualitative measurement. A statistical model for the characterization of resonator behavior to study the protein adsorption kinetics is developed by random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach with the integration of an effective surface depletion theory. The investigation of the adsorption kinetics of blood proteins is reported as the fundamental study of biological phenomena using the proposed sensing system. The aim of this work is to study different aspects of protein adsorption and kinetics of adsorption process with blood proteins on different surfaces. We specifically focus on surface depletion effect in conjunction with the RSA model to explain the observed adsorption isotherm characteristics. A number of case studies on protein adsorption conducted using the proposed sensing system has been discussed. Effort is specifically made to understand adsorption kinetics, and the effect of surface on the adsorption process as well as the properties of the adsorbed protein layer. The second half of the

  12. Biochemical Studies in Some Indigenous Dye Yielding Plants of Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joylani D. SAIKHOM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten natural dye yielding and two mordant plants were biochemically analyzed. Though natural dyes are widely used, information about the active principles responsible for dyeing is hardly available. In the present experiment, total chlorophyll, carotinoids, tannins, phenolics, flavonoids and curcumin were determined among the dye yielding plants, while K, S, P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu and Co were determined in the case of mordant plants. In Bixa orellana, used for yellow dyeing, the carotinoid content was 163.11 mg g-1 and in Clerodendrum chinense and Datura stramonium, which were used for green colouring, total chlorophyll content of 10.29 mg and 11.83 mg g-1 was recorded. Curcumin content responsible for orange colouring in Curcuma domestica was 27.7 mg g-1 while flavonoid content in Solanum nigrum and Terminalia chebula, which were used for brown, brown to black dyes was 24.89 and 21.73 mg g-1. Among the plants used for dyeing different colours, Punica granatum and Parkia timoriana were found to contain higher amounts of total phenols and bound phenols by recording 681.2 mg g-1 and 287.6 mg g-1 total phenols and 151.6 mg g-1 and 130.2mg g-1 bound phenols, while higher amounts of orthodihydric phenols and tannins were recorded in Punica granatum and Strobilanthes flaccidifolius by recording 20.11mg g-1 and 9.54mg g-1 orthodihydric phenols and 675.57mg g-1 and 648.12 mg g-1 tannins, respectively. In case of the plants used as mordant, higher contents of Ca, Mg, K, Zn, Fe and Mn were detected in Achyranthes aspera, while higher amounts of P, Fe and Cu were recorded in Garcinia xanthochymus.

  13. Biochemical survey for children of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Chiyoko

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has conducted biochemical survey in children of A-bomb survivors, with the purpose of elucidating whether or not the rate of genetic mutation in genital cells is increased. This paper describes the previous surveys done at protein levels. Two kinds of indicators have been used: (1) 'rare mutation type' reflecting base substitution mutation, base deletion, and insertion; (2) 'mutation type' reflecting the decrease of red cell enzyme activity. According to the DS86 dosimetry system, the children population of A-bomb survivors were examined by dividing into the exposed group (n=11,364) of their parents exposed to 0.01 Sv or more and the control group (n=12,297) of those exposed to less than 0.01 Sv. 'Rare mutation type' was detected using electrophoresis in a total of 1,233 children in both groups. Of these children, 2 in the exposed group and 4 in the control group had a new 'mutation', i.e., mutation that was considered to have occurred in genital cells of their parents. Survey for genetic foci has revealed mutation in 2 children in the exposed group and 4 children in the control group, with the rate of mutation being 0.37 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation and 0.68 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation, respectively. Mutation type reflecting the decrease in red cell enzyme activity was seen in 26 in the exposed group and 21 in the control group. A total of 41 children were found to have been inherited from their parents. In the survey for genetic foci, only one had mutation in the exposed group, with the rate of mutation being 1.7 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation. These findings have revealed no evidence of significant difference in the rate of mutation between the exposed and control groups. Finally, the future genetic surveys at molecular levels are briefly discussed. (N.K.)

  14. Economic evaluation of diagnostic localization following biochemical prostate cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barocas, Daniel A; Bensink, Mark E; Berry, Kristin; Musa, Zahra; Bodnar, Carolyn; Dann, Robert; Ramsey, Scott D

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential cost-effectiveness of using a prostate cancer specific functional imaging technology capable of identifying residual localized disease versus small volume metastatic disease for asymptomatic men with low but detectable prostate specific antigen (PSA) elevation following radical prostatectomy. Markov modeling was used to estimate the incremental impact on healthcare system costs (2012 USD) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of two alternative strategies: (i) using the new diagnostic to guide therapy versus (ii) current usual care-using a combination of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and bone scan to guide therapy. Costs were based on estimates from literature and Medicare reimbursement. Prostate cancer progression, survival, utilities, and background risk of all-cause mortality were obtained from literature. Base-case diagnostic sensitivity (75 percent), specificity (90 percent), and cost (USD 2,500) were provided by our industry partner GE Healthcare. The new diagnostic strategy provided an average gain of 1.83 (95 percent uncertainty interval [UI]: 1.24-2.64) QALYs with added costs of USD 15,595 (95 percent UI: USD -6,330-44,402) over 35 years. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was USD 8,516/QALY (95 percent UI: USD -2,947-22,372). RESULTS were most influenced by the utility discounting rate and test performance characteristics; however, the new diagnostic provided clinical benefits over a wide range of sensitivity and specificity. This analysis suggests a diagnostic technology capable of identifying whether men with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy have localized versus metastatic disease would be a cost-effective alternative to current standard work-up. The results support additional investment in development and validation of such a diagnostic.

  15. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Pedrosa, M.; Varela, A.; Guillamon, E.; Cabellos, B.; Burbano, C.; Gomez-Fernandez, J.; Mercado, E. de; Gomez-Izquierdo, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Muzquiz, M.

    2016-11-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid) was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g). The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g). The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g). Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g). The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean. (Author)

  16. A modular microfluidic architecture for integrated biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Kashan A; Ryu, Kee Suk; Goluch, Edgar D; Nam, Jwa-Min; Liu, Juewen; Thaxton, C Shad; Chiesl, Thomas N; Barron, Annelise E; Lu, Yi; Mirkin, Chad A; Liu, Chang

    2005-07-12

    Microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip (LOC) systems based on a modular architecture are presented. The architecture is conceptualized on two levels: a single-chip level and a multiple-chip module (MCM) system level. At the individual chip level, a multilayer approach segregates components belonging to two fundamental categories: passive fluidic components (channels and reaction chambers) and active electromechanical control structures (sensors and actuators). This distinction is explicitly made to simplify the development process and minimize cost. Components belonging to these two categories are built separately on different physical layers and can communicate fluidically via cross-layer interconnects. The chip that hosts the electromechanical control structures is called the microfluidic breadboard (FBB). A single LOC module is constructed by attaching a chip comprised of a custom arrangement of fluid routing channels and reactors (passive chip) to the FBB. Many different LOC functions can be achieved by using different passive chips on an FBB with a standard resource configuration. Multiple modules can be interconnected to form a larger LOC system (MCM level). We demonstrated the utility of this architecture by developing systems for two separate biochemical applications: one for detection of protein markers of cancer and another for detection of metal ions. In the first case, free prostate-specific antigen was detected at 500 aM concentration by using a nanoparticle-based bio-bar-code protocol on a parallel MCM system. In the second case, we used a DNAzyme-based biosensor to identify the presence of Pb(2+) (lead) at a sensitivity of 500 nM in <1 nl of solution.

  17. Infrared spectra in monitoring biochemical parameters of human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S; Singh, R A; Jain, N

    2012-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is gaining recognition as a promising method. The infrared spectra of selected regions (2000-400cm -1 ) of blood tissue samples are reported. Present study related to the role of spectral peak fitting in the study of human blood and quantitative interpretations of infrared spectra based on chemometrics. The spectral variations are interpreted in terms of the biochemical and pathological processes involved. The mean RNA/DNA ratio of fitted intensities and analytical area as calculated from the transmittance peaks at 1121cm -1 /1020cm -1 is found to be 0.911A.U and 2.00A.U. respectively. The ratio of 1659cm -1 /1544cm -1 (amide-I/amide-II) bands is found to shed light on the change in the DNA content. The ratio of amide-I/amide-II is almost unity (≅1.054) for blood spectra. The deviation from unity is an indication of DNA absorption from the RBC cells. The total phosphate content has found to be 25.09A.U. The level for glycogen/phosphate ratio (areas under peaks 1030cm -1 /1082cm -1 ) is found to be 0.286A.U. The ratio of unsaturated and saturated carbonyl compounds (C=O) in blood samples is in form of esters and the analytical areas under the spectral peaks at 1740cm -1 and 1731cm -1 for unsaturated esters and saturated esters respectively found to be 0.618A.U.

  18. Microbial diversity and biochemical characteristics of Borassus akeassii wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsoba, F; Savadogo, A; Legras, J-L; Zongo, C; Traore, A S

    2016-10-01

    Palm wine produced traditionally and consumed by many people in the South-West of Burkina Faso is subject to alteration. In this study, we carried out a follow-up of two palm wines' fermentation during the 10 days in which palm wines are classically produced and consumed. We monitored biochemical characteristics of fermenting wines as well as followed the microflora kinetics using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The analysis of the acid content and the bacterial population revealed the correlation between the development of Lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid, and total acidity. Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and sequencing results revealed different yeast and bacterial populations for the two palm wines. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae remained the sole yeast species in one fermentation, it was quickly replaced by Clavispora lusitaniae in the second fermentation, which had never been described until now in palm wine. When considering bacteria, the species Corynebacterium sp., Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei and Leuconostoc sp. were detected in both palm wines. But we also detected Acetobacter pasteurianus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in the second fermentation. Our results highlight the evolution of palm wine during the 10 days separating palm tapping and consumption of the fermented wine. The fermentation step is performed within few hours and completed after 24 h. The next days, its acidity increases progressively with the production of lactic and acetic acids by bacteria. The high production of acetic acid is very likely one of the main cause of palm wine degradation during this period. This indicates that the solution to palm wine preservation might be protection against oxygen, as well as the limit of bacterial growth through the use of preservatives. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Life style and biochemical adaptation in Antarctic fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Prisco, Guido

    2000-12-01

    Respiration and metabolism are under investigation in Antarctic fish, in an effort to understand the interplay between ecology and biochemical and physiological processes. Fish of the dominant suborder Notothenioidei are red-blooded, except Channichthyidae (the most phyletically derived family), whose genomes retain transcriptionally inactive DNA sequences closely related to the α-globin gene of red-blooded notothenioids and have lost the β-globin locus. Our structure/function studies on 38 of the 80 red-blooded species are aimed at correlating sequence, multiplicity and oxygen binding with ecological constraints and at obtaining phylogenetic information on evolution. For comparative purposes, this work has been extended to non-Antarctic notothenioids. All sluggish bottom dwellers have a single major hemoglobin (Hb) and often a minor, functionally similar one. Three species of the family Nototheniidae have different life styles. They have uniquely specialised oxygen-transport systems, adjusted to the mode of life of each species. Artedidraconidae have a single Hb, lacking oxygen-binding cooperativity, similar to the ancestral hemoproteins of primitive organisms. The amino acid sequences are currently used in the molecular modelling approach. The study of several enzymes with key roles in metabolism (e.g. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, L-glutamate dehydrogenase, phosphorylase b, carbonic anhydrase) indicate that some aspects of the molecular structure (e.g. molecular mass, number of subunits, amino acid sequence, temperature of irreversible heat inactivation) have been conserved during development of cold adaptation. However, high catalytic efficiency, possibly due to subtle molecular changes, is observed at low temperature.

  20. Biochemical mutations in the children of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Neel, J.V.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic effects of atomic bombs in children of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were studied using two biochemical indicators. Eligible children were classified as those born to parents exposed at up to 2,000 m from the hypocenter (Group I, n=13,052); and those born to either parents exposed at a distance of over 2,500 m or parents who were not in the cities (Group II, n=10,609). Thirty blood proteins were examined by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In Group I, 3 mutations altering electrophoretic mobility of proteins were identified among 667,404 locus tests. This corresponded to a mutation rate of 0.45 x 10 -5 per locus per generation. In Group II, 3 mutations among 466,881 locus tests were seen, yielding a mutation rate for electromorphs of 0.64 x 10 -5 per locus per generation. According to the dose schedule developed in 1965 (T65 DR), average gonal doses of gamma and neutrons were 16.9 and 3.4, respectively, for Hiroshima's fathers; 14.0 and 1.3 for Hiroshima's mothers; 26.2 and 0.3 for Nagasaki's fathers; and 19.7 and 0.1 for Nagasaki's mothers. A screening for variants in 9 erythrocyte enzymes with activity ≤66% of normal value revealed one mutation resulting in the loss of enzyme activity in 60,529 tests for Group I, but none of the mutations in 61,741 tests for Group II. The mutation rates in both groups are thus considered to be 0.60 and 0.64 x 10 -5 , respectively, per locus per generation. (Namekawa, K)