Sample records for biocenosis

  1. Studies on yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms in the denitrification unit biocenosis

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    Elena Sláviková


    Full Text Available It was found that Candida famata, Hansenula californica and Rhodotorula rubra occurred in reactor UASB-type biocenosis in the course of denitrification carried out in the presence of lactic acid as a carbon source. The role of those species in nitrogen removal process was discussed with respect to their physiology.


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    L. N. Mazankova


    Full Text Available 50 children aged from 3 to 67 months with acute intestinal infections receiving antibiotic therapy, were clinically and microbiologically examined using gas-liquid chromatographic test with the measurement of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs in coprofiltrates. The influence on the biocenosis is assessed upon treatment with an-tidiarrhoeal medication Gelatin tannat (Adiarin, which acts by forming a protective film on the surface of intestinal mucosa preventing loss of body fluids and microbial toxins. 20 children in the control group received antibiotics, sorbents, probiotics. The study has proved the clinical effect of Gelatin tannat, resulting in reduction of time to normalization of diarrhea and intoxication for 2 days, and data on the probiotic effect of the drug, similar to that of probiotics in the control group which expands the indications for the use of Gelatin tannat for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.  

  3. A highly diverse, desert-like microbial biocenosis on solar panels in a Mediterranean city. (United States)

    Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Vilanova, Cristina; Peretó, Juli; Codoñer, Francisco M; Ramón, Daniel; Porcar, Manuel


    Microorganisms colonize a wide range of natural and artificial environments although there are hardly any data on the microbial ecology of one the most widespread man-made extreme structures: solar panels. Here we show that solar panels in a Mediterranean city (Valencia, Spain) harbor a highly diverse microbial community with more than 500 different species per panel, most of which belong to drought-, heat- and radiation-adapted bacterial genera, and sun-irradiation adapted epiphytic fungi. The taxonomic and functional profiles of this microbial community and the characterization of selected culturable bacteria reveal the existence of a diverse mesophilic microbial community on the panels' surface. This biocenosis proved to be more similar to the ones inhabiting deserts than to any human or urban microbial ecosystem. This unique microbial community shows different day/night proteomic profiles; it is dominated by reddish pigment- and sphingolipid-producers, and is adapted to withstand circadian cycles of high temperatures, desiccation and solar radiation.

  4. The biotransformation of soil biocenosis by micromycetes under introduction of Fagus sylvatica L. to oak-hornbeam forest (United States)

    Likhanov, Artur; Bilyera, Nataliya; Sedykh, Olena; Melnychuk, Maksym


    Keywords: micromycetes, beech, soil enzymes, illuminance, Penicillium canescens. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is a commercially valuable tree species. As the potential distribution area for beech forest is restricted by Europe, planting of artificial stands is adopted in this region. Beech introduction can alter ecosystem considerably, but the mechanism of this transformation is not clear. We aimed to define abiotic and biotic parameters affecting floor development in beech stands introduced to the oak-hornbeam forest ecosystem ca.50 years ago in Eastern Europe (Ukraine). The daylight illuminace level was similar (2.9-6.5 klx) for both stands. However, grass cover in beech stands did not exceed 0.1-0.5 % even on sites with illuminace level 7.5-8.3 klx. It does not comply with the commonly used suggestion that shading is the main factor causes forest floor absence in the beech stands. We indicated predominantly biotic factors influencing forest floor formation. Thus, particular edaphon represented by micromycetes was able to inhibit plants and microorganisms. We isolated Penicillium canescens strains from soil under beech stands. These fungi utilized beech root exudates and phenol compounds of leaf litter, and produced biologically active substances caused cytostatic and mutagenic effects. They also accelerated (in 2-3.2 times) soil β-glucosidase activity, but had no effect on phosphatase. The biomass of fungi varied under cultivation of Penicillium canescens strains on Czapek medium with the addition of aqueous extracts of beech leaf litter. The biomass of micromycetes increased on 10-15 % at plant phenols concentrations up to 1 mg mL-1. On the contrary, increasing the concentration of phenols up to 4 mg mL-1resulted in a biomass decrease to 40%. The relationship between the concentration of plant phenols and rate of fungal biomass formation indicates that there is probably seasonal regulation of micromycetes activity in the forest biocenosis. The highest

  5. Characterization of biocenosis in the storage-reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' PA

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    Pryakhin, E.; Tryapitsina, G.; Andreyev, S.; Akleyev, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Mokrov, Y.; Ivanov, I. [Mayak PA (Russian Federation)


    A number of storage-reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' Production Association ('Mayak' PA) with different levels of radioactive contamination: reservoir R-17 ('Staroye Boloto'), reservoir R-9 (Lake Karachay), reservoirs of the Techa Cascade R-3 (Koksharov pond), R-4 (Metlinsky pond), R-10 and R-11 is located in Chelyabinsk Oblast (Russia). The operation of these reservoirs began in 1949-1964. Full-scale hydro-biological studies of these reservoirs were started in 2007. The research into the status of biocenosis of these storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' PA was performed in 2007 - 2011. The status of biocenosis was evaluated in accordance with the status of following communities: bacterio-plankton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoo-benthos, macrophytes and ichthyofauna. The status of ecosystems was determined by radioactive and chemical contamination of water bodies. The results of hydro-biological investigations showed that no changes in the status of biota in reservoir R-11 were revealed as compared to the biological parameters of the water bodies of this geographical zone. In terms of biological parameters the status of the ecosystem of the reservoir R-11 is characterized by a sufficient biological diversity, and can be considered acceptable. The ecosystem of the reservoir R-10 maintains its functional integrity, although there were registered negative effects in the zoo-benthos community associated with the decrease in the parameters of the development of pelophylic mollusks that live at the bottom of the water body throughout the entire life cycle. In reservoir R-4 the parameters of the development of phytoplankton did not differ from those in Reservoirs R-11 and R-10; however, a significant reduction in the quantity of Cladocera and Copepoda was registered in the zooplankton community, while in the zoo-benthos there were no small mollusks that live aground throughout the entire life


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    Jacek Kubiak


    Full Text Available The article presents the research results of the content of aluminium in the waters of the largest lakes situated in the reception basin of the Tywa river. The general content of aluminium and its form: dissolved and non-dissolved was examined. The general content of aluminium in those waters varied from 5.3 to 98.9 μg/l, while the content of dissolved aluminium varied from 3.0 to 57.0 and its non-dissolved form from 1.0 to 54.0 μg/l. The average concentration of the content of aluminium in the waters of examined lakes was similar; Dłużec lake – 42.9, Strzeszowskie lake – 39.2, Dołgie lake 45.7, Swobnickie lake 41.4 μg/l. The prevailing form of aluminium in the examined bodies of water was the dissolved form. The greatest amounts of that metal in waters of the examined lakes were present in autumn and spring, and the smallest amounts in summer and winter, the tendency concerned the entire content of aluminium and its non-dissolved form. The dissolved form of aluminium in the waters of examined lakes was present in the largest amounts in winter (on average – 17.4 μg/l, in the smallest amounts in spring (14.0 μg/l, this seasonal diversity – was weakly marked. The existing concentration of aluminium is typical of non-polluted surface waters, and with the stated reaction and the content of sulfurs, carbonates and chlorides in the examined waters, they were not toxic to the biocenosis.

  7. [Gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with duodenogastroesophageal reflux in patients with biliary pathology: the specific features of the course and esophagogastroduodenal microbial biocenosis]. (United States)

    Dzhulai, G S; Sekareva, E V; Chervinets, V M; Mikhailova, E S; Dzhulai, T E


    To study the specific features of the clinical course of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) associated with duodenogastroesophageal reflux (DGER) in patients with chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC) and cholelithiasis (CL), as well as qualitative and quantitative characteristics. The clinical, morphological, motor tonic characteristics of the esophagogastroduodenal area, mucosal microbial biocenosis in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum were studied in detail in 83 patients with GERD that was associated with DGER and ran concurrently with CAC or CL. Impaired duodenal propulsive activity as a concomitance of the signs of gastrostasis and duodenal dyskinesia with dyscoordination of both anthroduodenal and duodenojejunal propulsion and with the development of duodenogastric reflux and DGER, which in turn determine esophageal and gastric pH values is shown to be of importance in CAC and CL, which match GERD. Abnormal microbiocenosis in the upper digestive tract is characterized by the higher quantitative and qualitative content of the mucous microflora. Opportunistic microorganisms exhibit cytotoxic, hemolytic, lecithinase, caseinolytic, urease, and RNAase activities. The found specific features of the course of GERD associated with DGER in patients with biliary tract abnormalities lead us to search for novel therapeutic approaches based on the correction of digestive motor tonic disorders and abnormal microbiocenoses of the mucous flora in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.

  8. Biocenosis de Bivalvia y Polyplacophora del intermareal rocoso en playa Tlacopanocha, Acapulco, Guerrero, México Polyplacophora and Bivalvia biocenosis at rocky intertidal Tlacopanocha beach, Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico

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    Lizeth Galeana-Rebolledo


    Full Text Available El Estado de Guerrero, México, tiene regiones marinas prioritarias para la conservación de su biodiversidad y la información acerca de la diversidad de moluscos es escasa, por lo que es necesario realizar inventarios de especies, estudios de ecología de poblaciones y comunidades. Este estudio se efectuó en el intermareal rocoso de la playa Tlacopanocha. Los objetivos fueron: determinar la riqueza, densidad y diversidad de especies; analizar la composición de especies y estructura de tallas. El área de muestreo fue de 10 m² y la unidad de muestreó fue de 1 m². Se identificaron 35 especies, de las cuales tres son nuevos registros para el intermareal rocoso de Guerrero: las familias mejor representadas en riqueza de especies fueron Ischnochitonidae y Arcidae, y en abundancia Chitonidae y Chamidae; la densidad fue de 31,60 ind m-2. Polyplacophora presentó 42,9% de especies dominantes y Bivalvia 19,0%. Chama corallina presentó la mayor talla en longitud y Chama sordida en ancho. La riqueza de especies de moluscos registrada se considera alta y corresponde a lo esperado para un sustrato rocoso en zona tropical. Polyplacophora presentó alta composición de especies, que podría ser resultado de la adaptación de los organismos a las condiciones dinámicas del intermareal rocoso. Los nuevos registros indican la importancia de los inventarios de especies y también del conocimiento de las poblaciones y comunidades de la fauna marina de Guerrero.The State of Guerrero, Mexico, has priority marine areas for conservation of its biodiversity, but information concerning diversity of mollusks is limited, so it is convenient to carry out species inventories, studies of populations and community ecology. This study was conducted in the intertidal rocky beach Tlacopanocha. The objectives were to determine richness, density and species diversity, analyze the species composition and size structure. The sampling area was 10 m² and the sampling unit was 1 m². 35 species were identified of which three are new records for the intertidal rocky shores of the State of Guerrero. The best represented families in species richness were Ischnochitonidae and Arcidae, and Chamidae, and Chitonidae in abundance; species density was 31.60 ind m-2. Polyplacophora showed 42.9% of dominant species and Bivalvia 19.0%. Chama corallina showed the greatest length and Chama sordida the greatest width. Species richness of mollusks recorded is considered high and in agreement with tropical rocky substrates. Polyplacophora showed high species composition, which could be the result of adaptation of organisms to the dynamic conditions of the rocky intertidal. New records indicate the importance of species inventories and knowledge of the populations and community's dynamics of the Guerrero marine fauna.

  9. Effect of thermal and radioactive waste waters from nuclear power plant on recipient biocenosis

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    Veresikova, M; Csupka, S; Tomanova, E [Krajska Hygienicka Stanica, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)


    During the years 1974 to 1976 the effect was studied of thermal and radioactive effluents from the A-1 nuclear power plant on aquatic microorganisms. The values obtained from the waste water canal and the river Dudvah after the canal discharged into the river were compared with the values found in the Dudvah before the discharge. The correlation between aquatic microorganisms and water temperature was found to be closest in the waste water canal and between microorganisms and /sup 137/Cs content in the Dudvah after sewer emptying. With increasing water temperature the populations of aquatic microorganisms decrease, with the exception of producers whose numbers will increase with rising water temperature. The content of /sup 137/Cs in water had an effect similar to that of water temperature.

  10. Characterization of the cyanobacterial biocenosis of a freshwater reservoir in Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mugnai, M. A.; Turicchia, S.; Margheri, M. C.; Sili, C.; Gugger, M.; Tedioli, G.; Komárek, Jiří; Ventura, S.


    Roč. 148, č. 109 (2003), s. 403-419 ISSN 0342-1120. [Symposium of the International Association for Cyanophyte Research /15./. Barcelona, 03.09.2001-07.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : freshwater reservoir * cyanobacterial diversity * morphology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics


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    S.V. Bel’mer


    Full Text Available Prebiotics play significant role in life support of microorganisms of human gastrointestinal tract, and normal functional state of intestinal biocenosis is sufficient condition for human health. Intestinal microbiocenosis is a component of regulation of proteins and lipids metabolism, vitamins synthesis, detoxication process in intestine, etc. prebiotics include a number of disaccharides (lactulose, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides (inulin, cellulose, etc.. Fructose polymer — inulin — provides growth of bifido- and lactobacteria, improves metabolism and has immunomodulating activity. Formation of intestinal micro biocenosis in infant is provided by prebiotics of breast milk. Further state of micro biocenosis, which is necessary for growth and development of child, is determined by adequate intake of prebiotics from fruits, vegetables and cereals. It is reasonable to use special baby foods fortified with prebiotics (for example, inulin.Key words: prebiotics, intestinal microflora, inulin.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:121-125

  12. Foraminíferos epibióticos en la comunidad Sesil de las raíces de mangle

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    Losada Muñoz Diego


    Full Text Available Se presenta la composición específica de la biocenosis de foraminíferos epibióticos sobre la comunidad de las raíces de mangle rojo (Rhizophora mangle. Tal biocenosis se encuentra dominada por Planorbulina mediterranensis.  Sobre la base de las observaciones realizadas, se plantea un modelo hipotético en el cual la eficiencia de conversión de energía y superación de la competencia por espacio, por parte de los componentes de la comunidad sésil, explican su estructura.

  13. Radiation adaptation as one of the factors for microevolution processes in animals populations

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    V. A. Gaychenko


    Full Text Available Study of the main directions of response populations of individual species and faunistic complexes provides opportunity to address the relationship of adaptations of animals to radiation press by raising the level of epige-netic variability and features of a survival strategy. It is suggested to increase the level of microevolutionary processes in conditions of radioactive contamination biocenosis.



    A.V. Surzhik


    This article presents review of data of influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on intestinal biocenosis. Main attention was given to influence of L. rhamnosus GG on functions of immune system.Key words: probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, immune response.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(2):54-58)


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    I.N. Zakharova


    Full Text Available Normal microflora of gastrointestinal tract provides colonization resistance of intestine, takes part in digestion, synthesis of vitamins and systemic stimulation of immune reactions. Prophylaxis of intestinal microbiocenosis disorders, their timely diagnostics and proper correction are significant for normalization of gastrointestinal function, formation of immune system and harmonious development of a child. There are several approaches to the regulation of intestinal micro biocenosis; the perspective one is diet with functional food containing prebiotic microorganisms. The article analyses data on physiological role of intestinal biocenosis, presents main standards of prebiotic strains. Modern studies show high clinical efficacy of Lactobacillus GG strain. This probiotic can be recommended in production of functional food for infants’ nutrition.Key words: children, intestinal micro flora, probiotics, Lactobacillus GG.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (2: 150–154

  16. Ecological Functions of Landscapes (United States)

    Kiryushin, V. I.


    Ecological functions of landscapes are considered a system of processes ensuring the development, preservation, and evolution of ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. The concept of biogeocenosis can be considered a model that integrates biotic and environmental functions. The most general biogeocenotic functions specify the biodiversity, biotic links, self-organization, and evolution of ecosystems. Close interaction between biocenosis and the biotope (ecotope) is ensured by the continuous exchange of matter, energy, and information. Ecotope determines the biocenosis. The group of ecotopic functions includes atmospheric (gas exchange, heat exchange, hydroatmospheric, climate-forming), lithospheric (geodynamic, geophysical, and geochemical), hydrologic and hydrogeologic functions of landscape and ecotopic functions of soils. Bioecological functions emerge as a result of the biotope and ecotope interaction; these are the bioproductive, destructive, organoaccumulative, biochemical (gas, concentration, redox, biochemical, biopedological), pedogenetic, and energy functions

  17. New Trends and Perspectives in the Evolution of Neurotransmitters in Microbial, Plant, and Animal Cells. (United States)

    Roshchina, Victoria V


    The evolutionary perspective on the universal roles of compounds known as neurotransmitters may help in the analysis of relations between all organisms in biocenosis-from microorganisms to plant and animals. This phenomenon, significant for chemosignaling and cellular endocrinology, has been important in human health and the ability to cause disease or immunity, because the "living environment" influences every organism in a biocenosis relationship (microorganism-microorganism, microorganism-plant, microorganism-animal, plant-animal, plant-plant and animal-animal). Non-nervous functions of neurotransmitters (rather "biomediators" on a cellular level) are considered in this review and ample consideration is given to similarities and differences that unite, as well as distinguish, taxonomical kingdoms.

  18. Bacteria, fungi and arthropod pests collected on modern human mummies

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    F. Palla


    Full Text Available A survey of opportunistic biocenosis (macro and micro organisms associated with a rest of human mummy samples was carried out to characterise the biocenosis and to detect the potential of biodeteriogens. The rests of the human modern mummies come from a hypogeic site. Since mummies are relevant from a historic-artistic-scientific point of view, an aspect of this study was the identification and characterization of the biological systems related with biodeterioration of organic matter. In a first step, different sampling methods, according to the taxa, were applied. Technological procedures were combined in order to have an interdisciplinary approach to the conservation actions for testing future restoration protocols. Specimens were collected, identified and characterized by Microscopy (light, SEM, CLSM and molecular analyses (DNA extraction, in vitro target sequence amplification, sequencing, sequence analysis. The results highlight a rather complex biocenonsis consisting of fungi, cyanobacteria, several insects and other arthropods.


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    Bayraktar V. N.


    Full Text Available The biochemical research of coastal waters, littoral and benthic peloids, biochemical parameters of different species of macrophytes were performed in area of channel connecting the Tiligul estuary and the Black Sea. The research was conducted in various seasons. The concentration of macro - and microelements had changed in different seasons of the year. The diversity of macrophyte species was seasonally varied. It was proved that the anthropogenic load is the primary negative factor for the biocenosis.

  20. Characterization of Salmonella Occurring at High Prevalence in a Population of the Land Iguana Conolophus subcristatus in Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

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    Franco, Alessia; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Lorenzetti, Serena


    swabs from animals (n = 63) in their natural environment on in the island of Santa Cruz. A high prevalence (62/63, 98.4%) was observed with heterogeneity of Salmonella subspecies and serovars, all known to be associated with reptiles and with reptile-associated salomonellosis in humans. Serotyping...... possible exposure of the iguanas and the biocenosis to direct or indirect environmental factors influenced by the use of antimicrobials in agriculture, in human medicine or in veterinary medicine....

  1. Some regularities in invertebrate succession in different microhabitats on pine stumps


    Franch, Joan


    Sixty eight pine stumps felled on known dates from one to sixteen years before the moment of sampling have been studied in the San Juan de la Peña woodland (province of Huesca). Four microhabitats were distinguished: bark, subcortical space, sapwood and heartwood. The object of the study is to compare the invertebrate macrofauna succession of the different microhabitats in order to find regularities among them. The biocenosis has not been completely studied: ipidae, diptera and annelidae are ...


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    R. S. Erzhapova


    Full Text Available At the present time the lake Generalskiy completely went dry, water surface of the lake Maerskiy is a little more than 1 hectare. The bottom of the lake Generalskiy is completely overgrown by woody, shrubby and grassy vegetation. Was formed here biocenosis with their flora and fauna, which is a kind of «island of life» among the surrounding Sands. In the article the systematic list of the vegetation cover are given.

  3. Correlation between aerobic and anaerobic microflora of the urogenital tract at dysbiosis in women of Dnipropetrovsk city


    Yaderna, A.; Golodok, L.; Vinnikov, A.


    The method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in real-time was used to analyze the quantitative characteristics of normal and potentially pathogenic aerobic/facultative-anaerobic and anaerobic biota in the urethra, cervical channel and vagina in healthy women aged 10-40. The biota of all the women under 40 years and some of women older than 40 was mostly represented by lactobacilli. Microbial composition of the biocenosis in some women older than 40 is characterized by reduction in quantity o...

  4. Espacio marino de Alborán


    Gofas, Serge; Goutayer, Juan; Luque, Ángel A.; Salas, Carmen; Templado, José


    [ES] Esta monografía resume los resultados obtenidos durante los estudios realizados en la plataforma insular de la isla de Alborán, en el marco del proyecto LIFE+ INDEMARES. Los objetivos de dichos estudios fueron caracterizar e identificar los principales hábitats y biocenosis o comunidades de esa zona, evaluar su estado de conservación y posibles amenazas, y proponer, sobre la base de la información obtenida, unas medidas de gestión que garanticen la conservación de la biodiversidad, media...

  5. Scientific Rationale and Algorithmization of Sochi Resort Natural and Preformed Physical Therapeutic Factors in the Course of Combined Treatment of Patients with Chronic Vulvovaginitis

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    Kirill V. Gordon


    Full Text Available Chronic vulvovaginitis is the most wide-spread gynecological pathology among women of childbearing age. The chief causations of nonspecific vulvovaginitis are reduction in oestrogen, disturbances in vaginal acidity, intestine dysbacteriosis, local and general immune disturbances. The growth of vagina opportunistic pathogenic flora is closely connected with the increase of bacterial slimes on vagina mucus. Sulphur balneotherapy in the form of general baths and vaginal irrigations, mechanical physiotherapy promotes disruption of bacterial slimes, oestrogen elevation, immune reconstruction and vaginal biocenosis, which has positive effect on patients’ fertility level, frequency of obstetrical and perinatal pathologies.


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    N.I. Ursova


    Full Text Available The article presents modern point of view on the problem of functional constipations in infants. It describes peculiarities of digestion, intestinal micro biocenosis in healthy infants, the ways of its correction. Author indicates principles of choice of defined drugs effective on early stages of postnatal development. The advantages of osmotic laxative — macrogol 4,000 (Forlax in treatment of functional constipations in children are presented.Key words: infants, large intestine, functional disorders, nutrition, laxatives, macrogol, prebiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:63-69

  7. Antibiotic and fermentative activity of bacteria found in water and digestive tract of fish from Lake Drukshiai at Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubianskiene, V.; Jastiuginiene, R.


    The composition and antagonistic activity of microflora found in water and digestive tract of roaches - fish, which prevail in Lake Drukshiai, were investigated. The investigations revealed that unfavourable environmental conditions first of all gave rise to the changes in bacteria composition. It has been found that the bacteria of g. Vibrio, prevailed, their virulentic properties became more intense, antibiotical properties weakened, the prevailing microflora lost its ability to fight with pathogenic microorganisms. An increased lysozymic activity of g. Vibrio bacteria in the intestinal tract of fishes shows their resistance to phagocytosis and ability to stay for a long time in the digestive tract. The high antilysozymic activity of g. Vibrio bacteria in fishes digestive tract shows their ability to inactivate the lysozyme secreted by cells of organism reaction to pathogenic microflora. Antilysozymic and lysozymic activity of g. Vibrio bacteria is supposed to be one of the causes predetermining the predominance of this genus in biocenosis. The predominance of g. Vibrio bacteria in biocenosis of water and fish digestive tract bacteria, the strengthening of their virulentic properties speak for poor microecological conditions in the lake and lower immunological state of fish. 15 refs., 7 figs

  8. On the way to identify microorganisms in drinking water distribution networks via DNA analysis of the gut content of freshwater isopods. (United States)

    Mayer, Michael; Keller, Adrian; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Warnecke, Hans-Joachim


    Pure drinking water is the basis for a healthy society. In Germany the drinking water regulations demand for analysis of water via detection of certain microbiological parameters by cultivation only. However, not all prokaryotes can be detected by these standard methods. How to gain more and better information about the bacteria present in drinking water and its distribution systems? The biofilms in drinking water distribution systems are built by bacteria and therefore represent a valuable source of information about the species present. Unfortunately, these biofilms are badly accessible. We thus exploited the circumstance that a lot of metazoans graze the biofilms, so that the content of their guts partly reflects the respective biofilm biocenosis. Therefore, we collected omnivorous isopods, prepared their guts and examined and characterized their contents based on 16S und 18S rDNA analysis. These molecularbiological investigations provide a profound basis for the characterization of the biocenosis and thereby biologically assess the drinking water ecosystems. Combined with a thorough identification of the species and the knowledge of their habitats, this approach can provide useful indications for the assessment of drinking-water quality and the early detection of problems in the distribution system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear disaster in the Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.A.


    The subject is discussed in chapters, entitled: a big sensation begins; the sensation continues; the Urals disaster; radioactive contamination of lakes, water plants, and fish; mammals in the radioactive contaminated zone of the Urals; identification of the contaminated zone as the Chelyabinsk region and the time of the disaster as Fall-Winter 1957; birds in the radioactive biocenosis and the spread of radioactivity to other countries; soil animals in the Urals contaminated zone; trees in the Urals contaminated zone; field plants in the Urals radioactive zone and research in plant radiogenetics; population genetics research in the radioactive environment; the CIA documents on the Urals nuclear disaster; the causes of the Urals disaster - an attempted reconstruction of the 1957-1958 events. (U.K.)

  10. Effects of waste heat from Unterweser nuclear power plant on the biocenoses of the lower Weser river. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vobach, M.; Feldt, W.


    After the commissioning of the power station, investigations were carried out on th fish, the fauna of benthos, the phytoplankton and zooplankton of the Lower Weser from November 1978 to November 1982. Furthermore the annual average of headwater discharge rate and the monthly average of water temperature, oxygen content and salt content were determined. This report completes the investigations carried out after the commissioning of the nuclear power station Unterweser (KKU). The effect of sewage effluent heat of the nuclear power station Unterweser on the biocenosis is presented in a third volume after comparing the results of the submitted report with those of the report on the period before the commissioning of the nuclear power station KKU (1). (orig./MG) [de


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    T.I. Garashchenko


    Full Text Available The authors have carried on the research of the influence Imudon exerts (during topical application on the run of chronic tonsillitis among 48 children aged between 5 and 10 years old, being dispensary registrants. The sublingual application of a medicine 6 pills daily within 20 days demonstrated the frequency reduction of chronic tonsillitis acerbations by 2.9 times, as well as the reduction of total need in systemic antibacterial treatment by 10 times. Apart from that, the frequency of S. pyogenes group a exposure reduced by 3 times. The researchers noticed the tendency to normalization of pharynx biocenosis. Thus, Imudon may be recommended for the daily courses of treatment to the people, suffering from chronic tonsillitis, palatine tonsil auxesis and recurrent tonsillo-pharyngites.Key words: chronic tonsillitis, children, prevention, bacterial lysates.

  12. Ecología, sistemática y distribución de Foraminíferos Bentónicos entre la desembocadura del río Sinú y Coveñas, Caribe Colombiano

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    Parada Ruffinatti Carmen


    Full Text Available En cuatro ecosistemas diferentes: estuario, laguna costera, zona litoral y zona infralitoral, se identificó una microfauna constituida por 75 taxa, de los cuales un 14.6110estuvo representado en la biocenosis. Se  encontró que Ammonia beccarii es la especie de más amplia distribución en todos los ambientes estudiados.Los grupos faunísticos se relacionaron con algunos parámetros ecológicos.En el ecosistema marino infralitoral se estableció un predominio de género Quinqueloculina en sedimentos arenosos y del genera Nonionella, en sedimentos limo-arcillosos. Quinqueloculina distorqueata Cushman, Q. ferussacii d'Orbigny y Fursenkoina fusiformis (Williamson son reportadas por primera vez en el Caribe.

  13. [Effect of the soil contamination with a potato cyst-forming nematode on the community structure of soil-inhabiting nematodes]. (United States)

    Gruzdeva, L I; Suzhchuk, A A


    Nematode community structure of the potato fields with different infection levels of potato cyst-forming nematode (PCN) such as 10, 30 and 214 cysts per 100 g of soil has been investigated. The influence of specialized parasite on nematode fauna and dominance character of different ecological-trophic groups were described. Parasitic nematode genera in natural meadow biocenosis and agrocenoses without PCN are Paratylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, and Helicotylenchus. It is established, that Paratylenchus nanus was the prevalent species among plant parasites at low infection level. Larvae of Globodera prevailed in the soil with middle and high infection levels and substituted individuals of other genera of parasitic nematodes. The fact of increase in number of hyphal-feeding nematode Aphelenchus avenae was revealed.

  14. Structure, seasonal dynamics and distribution of zooplankton in lake Drukshiai in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheikaite, S.; Pashkauskas, R.


    Investigations on the zooplankton of Lake Drukshiai were carried out in 1994. There were registered 62 taxons of protozoa and 50 taxons of metazoa, and compared with the data of 1979 - 1986 the diversity of species composition decreased 2.1 times. Eurytermic and stenothermic thermophylic species prevailed in the plankton biocenosis. In protozooplankton dominated ciliates of subclasses teolotricha and spirotricha, in metazooplankton -planctonic crustacea (Copopeda and Cladocera). Rotifers (Rotaria) were abundant only in the shallow and heated water outlet area. Seasonal dynamics of protozooplankton indicated one maximum in spring and metazooplankton - in summer. High diferentiation in quantity and biomass of zooplankton in the lake revealed different level of eutrophication of some areas. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  15. Research project on the thermal pollution of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinlein; Becker


    The results of essentially completed and current research and development projects - as far as available in a short time - are explained in the present study, compared and their practicle applicability indicated. The number of publications in the literature index is split up into the single specialist fields as follows: 13% hydrodynamics (propagation caculations, models, measurements); 45% biology-chemistry (effects on micro and macro fauna of waters, on water contents, mathematical models of oxygen balance and biocenosis); 31% hydrometeorology including problems on the thermal economy of the waters as well as special thermal load calculations; 5% heat introduction into ground water; 6% others e.g. use of remote sensing for temperature measurement. The current research projects in the FRG are split up into the following single specialist fields: 16% hydromechanics; 42% biology-chemistry; 24% hydrometeorology including thermal economy; 10% use of ground water; 8% others (almost exclusively problems in connection with the use of remote sensing methods). (orig.) [de

  16. Water bodies typology system: a Chilean case of scientific stakeholders and policy makers dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fuster


    Full Text Available The aim of this project was to obtain a scientists-validated Typology System, which would allow to classify the surface waters bodies in Chile and, therefore, to facilitate the environmental institutional water management in the country. For this, during the years 2009 and 2011, a Typology System for the surface freshwater bodies was developed for Chile based on the methodology described by the Water Framework Directive of the European Union, which was adapted to local features through the knowledge of limnologist experts in the country, as well as policy makers' experience and their management requirements . In a first stage, national ecoregions were developed and abiotic variables were defined to compose the Typology System. The resulted Typology System for lakes and rivers was generated following an a priori and top down approach to difference biocenosis, based on geomorphologic, hydrologic and physic criteria. In a second stage, the proposed Typology System was validated by experts and policy makers, in which process new arrangements were included in the system. The working methodology used for both stages was bibliographic review, interviews to local experts in biocenosis and workshops. It is specially highlighted the participative processes and discussions in which all the agents involved were present, all of which resulted in the creation of a valid system from a scientific point of view and a product that is applicable to the necessities of the environmental institutions of the country. This work represents a successful experience in the improvement of the communication between scientists and politicians in Chile, which is a relevant factor for the elaboration of more efficient and effective environmental policies, integrating not only management and economic issues, but also more technical aspects that can influence in the final success of any long term strategy. For this reason, the replication of this kind of experiences, as well as

  17. Synthesis of Organic Matter of Prebiotic Chemistry at the Protoplanetary Disc (United States)

    Snytnikov, Valeriy; Stoynovskaya, Olga; Rudina, Nina

    We have carried out scanning electron microscopic examination of CM carbonaceous chondrites meteorites Migey, Murchison, Staroe Boriskino aged more than 4.56 billion years (about 50 million years from the beginning of the formation of the Solar system). Our study confirmed the conclusion of Rozanov, Hoover and other researchers about the presence of microfossils of bacterial origin in the matrix of all these meteorites. Since the time of the Solar system formation is 60 - 100 million years, the primary biocenosis emerged in the protoplanetary disc of the Solar system before meteorites or simultaneously with them. It means that prebiological processes and RNA world appeared even earlier in the circumsolar protoplanetary disc. Most likely, this appearance of prebiotic chemistry takes place nowday in massive and medium-massive discs of the observed young stellar objects (YSO) class 0 and I. The timescale of the transition from chemical to biological evolution took less than 50 million years for the Solar system. Further evolution of individual biocenosis in a protoplanetary disc associated with varying physico-chemical conditions during the formation of the Solar system bodies. Biocenosis on these bodies could remove or develop under the influence of many cosmic factors and geological processes in the case of Earth. To complete the primary biosphere formation in short evolution time - millions of years - requires highly efficient chemical syntheses. In industrial chemistry for the efficient synthesis of ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, methanol and other organic species, that are the precursors to obtain prebiotic compounds, catalytic reactors of high pressure are used. Thus (1) necessary amount of the proper catalyst in (2) high pressure areas of the disc can trigger these intense syntheses. The disc contains the solids with the size from nanoparticle to pebble. Iron and magnesium is catalytically active ingredient for such solids. The puzzle is a way to provide hydrogen

  18. Feeding habits of a dormouse population (Myoxus glis of the Asiago Plateau (Venetian Prealps / Abitudini alimentari di una popolazione di Ghiro (Myoxus glis dell'altopiano di Asiago (Prealpi venete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Franco


    Full Text Available Abstract A new and simplified method was used to investigate on the feeding habits of a Dormouse population of the Asiago Plateau, Venetian Prealps; it is based on the volume evaluation of plant and animal components of the stomach contents by stain proceedings and by the identification of the large-sized remains. The population studied has more carnivorous habits than others cited in the literature, and presents an increasing percentage of animal food in stomach contents during: (1 the summer decrease in body weight (linked to an higher energy consumption, (2 sexual activity and (3 the period preceding hibernation. The diet variety is lower and the ground level predation higher than those reported for other populations. This anomalous trophic behaviour is probably a consequence of changed conditions of the biocenosis, originally based on Beech stands and now on artificial pure stands of Norway Spruce, which is not frequently utilized as food. The adaptation to this particular diet is prompt and general, and it must be related to social learning. Riassunto Per studiare il comportamento trofico di una popolazione di Ghiro (Myoxus glis L. dell'Altopiano di Asiago, Prealpi Venete, è stato utilizzato un metodo nuovo e semplificato rispetto ai precedenti, basato sulla valutazione dei volumi della componente animale e vegetale mediante analisi di tipo colorimetrico, e sulla classificazione dei residui di maggiori dimensioni dei contenuti stomacali. La popolazione in esame è risultata di abitudini più carnivore (con differenze tra i maschi e le femmine rispetto a popolazioni studiate da altri autori, presentando una maggiore percentuale di cibo animale nel contenuto stomacale durante la diminuzione estiva in peso corporeo (associata a sua volta ad un elevato consumo energetico, durante l'attività sessuale e prima del letargo. Anche la varietà della dieta e la predazione a livello del suolo sembrano essere

  19. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.


    In times of increasing relevance of alternative energy resources the utilization of geothermal energy and subsurface energy storage gains importance and arouses increasing interest of scientists. The research project “AquiScreen” investigates the operational reliability of geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Microbiological analyses based on fluid and solid phases of geothermal systems are conducted to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on these systems. The presentation focuses on first results obtained from microbiological monitoring of geothermal plants located in two different regions of Germany: the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin in the southern part characterized by different salinities and temperatures. Fluid and filter samples taken during regular plant operation were investigated using genetic fingerprinting based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to characterize the microbial biocenosis of the geothermal aquifer. Sequencing of dominant bands of the fingerprints and the subsequent comparison to 16S rRNA genes from public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes in the deep biosphere. The genetic profiles revealed significant differences in microbiological community structures of geothermal aquifers investigated. Phylogenetic analyses indicate broad metabolical diversity adapted to the specific conditions in the aquifers. Additionally a high amount of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected indicating very specific indigenous biocenosis. However, in all geothermal plants bacteria were detected despite of fluid temperatures from 45° to 120°C. The identified microorganisms are closely related to thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species detectable in hot wells and hot springs, like Thermus scotoductus and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, respectively. Halophilic species were detected in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova


    Full Text Available In the review of modern literature the influence of a bacterial factor, first of all — indigenous microflora — on formation of food tolerance and immune answer of a child as a whole is in detail considered. Formation of a microbiocenosis, food and autogenic tolerance happens under the general laws. In this process the primary colonization of intestines and formation of a microflora variety which, as results of the last researches show, comes to an end by 2–4 years of life of a child has special value. In the review the major factors influencing the formation of a child intestinal microbiota both antenatal and postnatal and for the first years of life, and also their interaction are considered. The influence of a bacterial factor on formation of food tolerance and sensibilization processes, and also mechanisms of this influence is in detail discussed. The data on features of a structure of intestinal microflora at children with food allergy including the results of own researches devoted to microbiocenosis at children with food allergy and to development of tactics of management of children with this pathology are provided. The main directions and possibilities of dietary influence on biocenosis structure at children with this pathology are considered.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vvedensky Alexei Rostislavovich


    Full Text Available The estimation of changes in the ecological situation and bottom topography in the Ob Bay, which may be caused by the construction of the approach channel to the port of Sabetta, was carried out with the help of the developed complex of numerical models. Particular attention was paid to the study of the displacement of the boundaries of the saline water expansion and the sediment accumulation in the channel area. It is established that the possible influence of the approach channel on the hydrologic-hydrochemical characteristics is less than their natural interannual and seasonal variability in the investigated water area. The change in the bottom topography after the construction of the approach channel does not entail a significant change in the regime of hydrologic-hydrochemical parameters of the Ob Bay and, consequently, should not affect the biocenosis. The calculated changes in the bottom topography in the approach channel area will not exceed 2 % of the depth per year and will not become a significant obstacle to the reliable and uninterrupted operation of the Sabetta port.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana ANTONIE


    Full Text Available The disturbance of the equilibrium between the endogenous and exogenous command factors of human origin leads to massive perturbations in the forestry ecosystems affecting all the living beings within the biocenosis and especially the forestry entomologic fauna. Under some circumstances the pest insects from the forestry ecosystem can produce big damages to the trees in the case of maintaining high effectives of these and for many years, too. Our study aimed the monitoring the species Ips typographus L., a forestry pest, which by its action produces important damages to the spruce fir. The research work ran for two years, during 2012-2013, in the area of Raşinari Forestry District, Sibiu County. The work method was to install at the skirt of the forest the traps with pheromones bait in the researched area. There were collected a number of 4,146 samples of which in 2012 were captured 1,973 individuals and in 2013 were captured 2,173 individuals. There was established a growth of the pest population in the studied biotope, this being the same as at the national level. As a consequence there are imposed further studies in order to find the most proper solutions regarding stopping the dissemination of the insect into new territories and maintaining the density of the population of the pest beyond the economic level of damage.

  3. Double stage dry-wet-fermentation - start-up of a pilot biogas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, Jeannette; Busch, Gunter; Burkhardt, Marko


    The Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU) has developed a double stage dry-wet fermentation process for fast and safe anaerobic degradation. Originally designed for treatment of organic wastes, this process allows using a wide variety of solid biodegradable materials. The dividing of hydrolysis and methanation in this process, allows an optimization of the different steps of biogas generation separately. The main advantages of the process are the optimum process control, an extremely stable process operation and a high gas productivity and quality. Compared to conventional processes, the retention times within the percolation stage (hydrolysis) are reduced considerably. In cooperation with the engineering and consulting company GICON, the technology was qualified further to an industrial scale. In 2007 a pilot plant, and, simultaneously, an industrial plant were built by GICON based on this double stage technology. Based on practical experience from the operation of laboratory fermentation plants, the commissioning of the pilot plant was planned, controlled and monitored by our institution. The start-up of a biogas plant of this type focuses mainly on the inoculation the of methane reactor. The growth of microbial populations and generation of a stable biocenosis within the methane reactor is essential and affects the duration of starting period as well as the methanation efficiency a long time afterwards. This paper concerns with start-up of a pilot biogas plant and discusses particular occurrences and effects during this period. (author)

  4. High performance biological methanation in a thermophilic anaerobic trickle bed reactor. (United States)

    Strübing, Dietmar; Huber, Bettina; Lebuhn, Michael; Drewes, Jörg E; Koch, Konrad


    In order to enhance energy efficiency of biological methanation of CO 2 and H 2 , this study investigated the performance of a thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic trickle bed reactor (ATBR) (58.1L) at ambient pressure. With a methane production rate of up to 15.4m 3 CH4 /(m 3 trickle bed ·d) at methane concentrations above 98%, the ATBR can easily compete with the performance of other mixed culture methanation reactors. Control of pH and nutrient supply turned out to be crucial for stable operation and was affected significantly by dilution due to metabolic water production, especially during demand-orientated operation. Considering practical applications, inoculation with digested sludge, containing a diverse biocenosis, showed high adaptive capacity due to intrinsic biological diversity. However, no macroscopic biofilm formation was observed at thermophilic conditions even after 313days of operation. The applied approach illustrates the high potential of thermophilic ATBRs as a very efficient energy conversion and storage technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mesophilic anaerobic stabilization of sewage sludge. Mesophile anaerobe Klaerschlammstabilisierung mit aerober Folgebehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, U.


    Sludges treated in two stages in experiments - 7 days of anaerobic treatment and 2 days of aerobic-thermophilic treatment - can be judged to be completely stabilized because of the stabilization parameters BOD/sub 5//COD ratio and respiratory activity. The degradation results obtained are comparable to or better than those of the 20-day digestion (reference process). For all aerobic processes under investigation a clear temperature increase in the aerobic reactor was measured because of the exothermal metabolic processes of the aerobic biocenosis. There was a temperature rise of 15/sup 0/C in the tests in the aerobic reactor even after longer digestion times of 15 and 20 days. The results of the epidemics and hygiene investigations show that a secondary aerobic-thermophilic stage after the mesophilic digestion with adequate marginal conditions - germ retention time of 23 hours in the aerobic reactor at process temperatures higher than 50/sup 0/C as well as charging in batch quantities - leads to a safe and complete decontamination. Under these process and operation conditions all salmonellae were killed and the number of the enterobacteriaceae in 1 g of sludge was always less than 1.000. (orig./EF).

  6. Psychrophilic Biomass Producers in the Trophic Chain of the Microbial Community of Lake Untersee, Antarctica (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.


    The study of photosynthetic microorganisms from the Lake Untersee samples showed dispersed distribution of phototrophs within 80 m water column. Lake Untersee represents a unique ecosystem that experienced complete isolation: sealed by the Anuchin Glacier for many millennia. Consequently, its biocenosis has evolved over a significant period of time without exchange or external interaction with species from other environments. The major producers of organic matter in Lake Untersee are represented by phototrophic and chemolithotrophic microorganisms. This is the traditional trophic scheme for lacustrine ecosystems on Earth. Among the phototrophs, diatoms were not found, which differentiates this lake from other known ecosystems. The dominant species among phototrophs was Chlamydomonas sp. with typical morphostructure: green chloroplasts, bright red round spot, and two polar flagella near the opening. As expected, the physiology of studied phototrophs was limited by low temperature, which defined them as obligate psychrophilic microorganisms. By the quantity estimation of methanogenesis in this lake, the litho-autotrophic production of organic matter is competitive with phototrophic production. However, pure cultures of methanogens have not yet been obtained. We discuss the primary producers of organic matter and the participation of our novel psychrophilic homoacetogen into the litho-autotrophic link of biomass production in Lake Untersee.

  7. [The efficacy of the combined rehabilitative treatment of the patients presenting with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diseases of the hepatobiliary system]. (United States)

    Cherchinian, A S


    A total of 80 patients presenting with exogenous constitutional obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diseases of the hepatobiliary system (including chronic non-calculous cholecystitis and fatty hepatosis) were enrolled to participate in the present study. The basal treatment consisted of the adequate reducing diet, remedial gymnastics, massage, reflexo-acupuncture, the application of galvanic muds, and controlled intake of chofitol. It was supplemented with magnetic laser irradiation of selected abdominal regions, and electrical stimulation of femoral, dorsal, and abdominal muscles. It was shown that the combination of the above procedures and physical factors significantly improves the overall outcome of the treatment. The patients suffering intestinal dysbacteriosis were prescribed the intake of probiotic Nor Narine together with Jermuk mineral water; they were found to benefit from such treatment due to normalization of intestinal biocenosis and improvement of their general condition. The clinical and paraclinical data obtained in this study give evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of certain physical factors and especially their combination used for the medical rehabilitation of the patients presenting with constitutional obesity, metabolic syndrome, and digestive disorders. Moreover, the well-apparent positive results were documented from the combined treatment with magnetic laser radiation and therapeutic muds.

  8. The multifunctional artificial reef and its role in the defence of the Mediterranean coast. (United States)

    López, I; Tinoco, H; Aragonés, L; García-Barba, J


    Multifunctional artificial reefs (MFAR) are being implemented around the world, due to their ability to provide an environment where a sports-economic-recreational use and environmental improvement is implemented, and are also elements of coastal defence. However, a lot of failures have been recorded, possibly due to disregarded local factors in the formulations used, and there is no method that has encompassed all these factors, in order to take them into account in its design. The aim of this paper was to provide the coastal engineer with a method that would be used for the design of such reefs. To do this, the Babilonia beach of Guardamar del Segura, Alicante (Spain), was chosen because it is a fully anthropised area (with houses in the Maritime-Terrestrial Public Domain, marina, channelling and river mouth) with continuous regression, in which all the elements considered in this study, were treated. Based on the performance obtained in studies and projects worldwide, the climatic characteristics, biocenosis, sediment transport, settlements and liquefaction and the evolution of the coastline, were analysed. The multidisciplinary study carried out showed that with the implementation of a MFAR, the problem was reversed. Furthermore, the area was provided with a playful-economic use, and could be used 60% of the time, by surfers whose skill level were low to intermediate, without forgetting that the diversity of the marine ecosystem in the area was increased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Remobilisation of uranium from contaminated freshwater sediments by bioturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagauzere, S.; Bonzom, J.M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France). Lab. d' Ecotoxicologie des Radionucleides; Motelica-Heino, M. [Orleans Univ. (France). ISTO; Viollier, E. [Paris Diderot Univ., Paris (France). Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris; Stora, G. [Aix-Marseille Univ., Marseille (France). Mediterranean Inst. of Oceanography (MIO)


    Benthic macro-invertebrate bioturbation can influence the remobilisation of uranium (U) initially associated with freshwater sediments, resulting in a high release of this pollutant through the overlying water column. Given the potential negative effects on aquatic biocenosis and the global ecological risk, it appears crucial to improve our current knowledge concerning the biogeochemical behaviour of U in sediments. The present study aimed to assess the biogeochemical modifications induced by Tubifex tubifex (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae) bioturbation within the sediment in order to explain such a release of U. To reach this goal, U distribution between solid and solute phases of a reconstructed benthic system (i.e. in mesocosms) inhabited or not by T. tubifex worms was assessed in a 12-day laboratory experiment. Thanks notably to fine-resolution (mm-scale) measurements (e.g. ''diffusive equilibrium in thin-films'' DET gel probes for porewater, bioaccumulation in worms) of U and main chemical species (iron, sulfate, nitrate and nitrite), this work (i) confirmed that the removal of bottom sediment particles to the surface through the digestive tract of worms greatly favoured oxidative loss of U in the water column, and (ii) demonstrated that both U contamination and bioturbation of T. tubifex substantially influenced major microbial-driven biogeochemical reactions in sediments (e.g. stimulation of denitrification, sulfate reduction and iron dissolutive reduction). This study provides the first demonstration of biogeochemical modifications induced by bioturbation in freshwater U-contaminated sediments.

  10. Distribution and ecology of Dreissena polymorpha (pallas) and Dreissena bugensis (andrusov) in the upper Volga basin (United States)

    Shcherbina, G. Kh; Buckler, D.R.


    This paper presents data on contemporary distribution patterns of two species of Dreissenidae, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the Quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis), and their role in ecosystem processes in the Ivan'kovo, Uglich, Rybinsk, and Gorky Reservoirs of the Upper Volga River basin. The role of zebra mussel was also studied in experimental mesocosms of 15 m3. Maximum abundance and species diversity of macroinvertebrates, especially of leeches, polychaetes, crustaceans, and heterotopic insects, were attained in the portions of reservoirs where Dreissenidae were present and in experimental mesocosms where zebra mussel biomass was the highest. In the mesocosm studies, the presence of zebra mussel druses (colonies) provided shelter for macroinvertebrates, reducing their vulnerability to predation by perch (Perca fluviatills) larvae and yearlings, thereby increasing macroinvertebrate species diversity. It was shown that in addition to its role in aquatic biocenosis (ecological community) formation and water purification, Dreissenidae are important food objects for benthophagous fishes, especially roach (Rutilus rutilus). Examination of intestines of benthophagous fishes showed that the length of Dreissenidae ranged from 5 to 20 mm in roach; from 4 to 14 mm in silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna), and from 2 to 10 mm in bream (Abramis brama). The largest mussels consumed were Quagga mussels up to 30 mm, noted in the predatory cyprinid, ide (Leuciscus idus). Copyright ?? 2006 by ASTM International.

  11. Diversity as a measure of water pollution and an aid for biological water analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, S.R.; Sharma, A.K.; Goel, D.P.


    Five aquatic ecosystems, Yamuna river, Krishna river Eastern Kalinadi, Kadrabad drain and Peacock lake have been studied with reference to disversity and physico-chemical characteristics and biological indices; a list of species have been selected with reference to polluted, mildly polluted or unpolluted water conditions. Though it is difficult to call any species strictly indicator species, certain species of Bacillariophyceae, bottom biota and Entomostraca can be regarded as indicative species; the quantitative distributions of the species of different groups have been analysed statistically. Margalef's Community Diversity Index (d), Shannon Weaver Function, coefficient of rank correlation and partial and multiple correlation coefficient were calculated as to find out the order of precedence in different taxonomical groups and the linear regression against BOD and the whole biocenosis were calculated, which indicate the relation as diversity d=6.7854-0.0080 BOD+-0.9695 where r/sup 2/=B=0.7365. Similarly, multiple linear regressions were also calculated using diversity against BOD, pH and temperature for each aquatic ecosystem. All these observations indicate that diversity of organisms can be used to measure the water pollution intensity.

  12. [The detection of occurrence rate of genes coding capability to form pili binding in auto-strains of Escherichia coli]. (United States)

    Ivanova, E I; Popkova, S M; Dzhioev, Iu P; Rakova, E B; Dolgikh, V V; Savel'kaeva, M V; Nemchenko, U M; Bukharova, E V; Serdiuk, L V


    E. coli is a commensal of intestine of the vertebrata. The exchange of genetic material of different types of bacteria between themselves and with other representatives of family of Enterobacteriaceae in intestinal ecosystem results in development of types of normal colibacillus with genetic characteristics of pathogenicity that can serve as a theoretical substantiation to attribute such strains to pathobionts. The entero-pathogenic colibacillus continues be an important cause of diarrhea in children in developing countries. The gene responsible for formation of pili binding is a necessary condition for virulence of entero-pathogenic colibacillus. The polymerase chain reaction was applied to examine 316 strains of different types of E. coli (normal, with weak enzyme activity and hemolytic activity) isolated from healthy children and children with functional disorders of gastro-intestinal tract for presence of genes coding capability to form pill binding. The presence of this gene in different biochemical types of E. coli permits to establish the fact of formation of reservoir of pathogenicity in indigent microbiota of intestinal biocenosis.

  13. Water quality of Danube Delta systems: ecological status and prediction using machine-learning algorithms. (United States)

    Stoica, C; Camejo, J; Banciu, A; Nita-Lazar, M; Paun, I; Cristofor, S; Pacheco, O R; Guevara, M


    Environmental issues have a worldwide impact on water bodies, including the Danube Delta, the largest European wetland. The Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) implementation operates toward solving environmental issues from European and national level. As a consequence, the water quality and the biocenosis structure was altered, especially the composition of the macro invertebrate community which is closely related to habitat and substrate heterogeneity. This study aims to assess the ecological status of Southern Branch of the Danube Delta, Saint Gheorghe, using benthic fauna and a computational method as an alternative for monitoring the water quality in real time. The analysis of spatial and temporal variability of unicriterial and multicriterial indices were used to assess the current status of aquatic systems. In addition, chemical status was characterized. Coliform bacteria and several chemical parameters were used to feed machine-learning (ML) algorithms to simulate a real-time classification method. Overall, the assessment of the water bodies indicated a moderate ecological status based on the biological quality elements or a good ecological status based on chemical and ML algorithms criteria.

  14. Genetic 'fingerprints' to characterise microbial communities during organic overloading and in large-scale biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleyboecker, A.; Lerm, S.; Vieth, A.; Wuerdemann, H. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Bio-Geo-Engineering, Potsdam (Germany); Miethling-Graff, R. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Agraroekologie; Wittmaier, M. [Institut fuer Kreislaufwirtschaft, Bremen (Germany)


    Since fermentation is a complex process, biogas reactors are still known as 'black boxes'. Mostly they are not run at their maximum loading rate due to the possible failure in the process by organic overloading. This means that there are still unused capacities to produce more biogas in less time. Investigations of different large-scale biogas plants showed that fermenters are operated containing different amounts of volatile fatty acids. These amounts can vary so much that one of two digestors, both possessing the same VFA concentration, does not produce gas anymore while the other is still at work. A reason for this phenomenon might be found in the composition of the microbial communities or in differences in the operation of the plants. To gain a better understanding of the 'black box', structural changes in microbial communities during controlled organic overloading in a laboratory and biocenosis of large-scale reactors were investigated. A genetic fingerprint based on 16S rDNA (PCR-SSCP) was used to characterise the microbial community. (orig.)

  15. Assessment of Kerch Bay environmental pollution using neuroglial proteins of ground fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Sukharenko


    Full Text Available The modern ecology situation in waters of the Kerch Strait requires assessment of disturbances in biotopes and monitoring of the degree of impact of industrial pollutants on ecosystem. Deposit of oil products after the 2007 year ships’ accidents might have considerable impact on the water biocenosis area. The investigation of cytoskeleton marker of astrocytes glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in brain of the bullhead (Neogobius fluviatilis, which is the typical representative of the commercial ground fish of the Kerch Strait, has been carried out. The results of comparative analysis of GFAP content in the brain of fish from the Kerch Bay near-shore waters and fish from conditionally clear area of Vorskla river shows the reliable (2.18 times increasing of GFAP in the area of industrial pollution. Rising GFAP content indicates the astrogliosis development as a result of metabolic disturbances which can be induced by higher content of oil products in the near-bottom biotopes of the Kerch Bay. Increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in the brain of fish from the Kerch Bay. The results provided with regard to violations of the state of astrocyte cytoskeleton and oxidative stress in the brain of bullhead from the Kerch Bay prove the sublethal biology effect of industrial pollutants in hydrobionts from this area. Results of this investigation also indicate the necessity of continuous ecology monitoring and comprehensive study of hydrobiont populations in the industrial regions and ecological disaster zones.

  16. Chemical and biological monitoring of MIOR on the pilot area of Vyngapour oil field, West Sibera, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arinbasarov, M.U.; Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.


    The pilot area of the Vyngapour oil field allotted for MIOR tests contains three injection and three producing wells. These wells were treated in summer 1993 and 1994. Before, during, and after MIOR treatments on the pilot area the chemical compounds of injected and formation waters were studied, as well as the amount and species of microorganisms entering the stratum with the injected water and indigenous bacteria presented in bottomhole zones of the wells. The results of monitoring showed that the bottomhole zone of the injection well already had biocenosis of heterotrophic, hydrocarbon-oxidizing, methanogenic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were besides permanently introduced into the reservoir during the usual waterflooding. The nutritious composition activated vital functions of all bacterial species presented in the bottomhole zone of the injection well. The formation waters from producing wells showed the increase of the content of nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions by the end of MIOR. The amount of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in formation waters of producing wells increased by one order. The chemical and biological monitoring revealed the activation of the formation microorganisms, but no transport of food industry waste bacteria through the formation from injection to producing wells was found.

  17. Microbiological monitoring of carbon dioxide storage in a subsurface saline aquifer in Ketzin/Germany within the scope of CO2SINK (United States)

    Wandrey, M.; Morozova, D.; Zemke, K.; Lerm, S.; Scherf, A.-K.; Vieth, A.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Group


    Within the scope of the EU project CO2SINK ( a research facility in Ketzin (Germany, west of Berlin) is operated to store CO2 in a saline subsurface aquifer (Würdemann et al., EGU General Assembly 2009). In order to examine the influence of CO2 storage on the environment a comprehensive monitoring program is applied at this site including molecular and microbiological investigations. With the injection of CO2 into the geological formation chemical and physical reservoir characteristics are changed. This may influence the composition and activities of the deep biosphere at the storage horizon. Mineral precipitation, dissolution and corrosion of reservoir casing may be consequences, influencing permeability and long-term stability of the reservoir. The objective of the microbial monitoring program is the characterisation of the microbial community (biocenosis) in fluid samples, as well as in samples from reservoir and cap rock before and during CO2storage using molecular biological methods. 16S rRNA taxonomic studies, Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), and RealTime PCR are used to examine the composition of the biocenosis. First results of fluid sampling revealed that the microbial community of the saline aquifer is dominated by haloalkaliphilic fermentative bacteria and extremophilic organisms, coinciding with reduced conditions, high salinity and pressure. RealTime RT-PCR of selected genes and the creation and analysis of cDNA libraries will allow the prediction of microbial metabolic activities. In addition, the analysis of organic and inorganic components of the samples will add to the knowledge of possible metabolic shifts during CO2 storage. In order to simulate the storage conditions in situ, long term laboratory experiments in high pressure incubators have been set up using original rock cores from Ketzin. Since DNA and RNA analysis techniques are very sensitive, contamination entries from the adjacent environment have to be excluded

  18. Characterization of Salmonella occurring at high prevalence in a population of the land iguana Conolophus subcristatus in Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. (United States)

    Franco, Alessia; Hendriksen, Rene S; Lorenzetti, Serena; Onorati, Roberta; Gentile, Gabriele; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Aarestrup, Frank M; Battisti, Antonio


    The aim of the study was to elucidate the association between the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella and a population of land iguana, Colonophus subcristatus, endemic to Galápagos Islands in Ecuador. We assessed the presence of Salmonella subspecies and serovars and estimated the prevalence of the pathogen in that population. Additionally, we investigated the genetic relatedness among isolates and serovars utilising pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on XbaI-digested DNA and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials. The study was carried out by sampling cloacal swabs from animals (n = 63) in their natural environment on in the island of Santa Cruz. A high prevalence (62/63, 98.4%) was observed with heterogeneity of Salmonella subspecies and serovars, all known to be associated with reptiles and with reptile-associated salomonellosis in humans. Serotyping revealed 14 different serovars among four Salmonella enterica subspecies: S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 48), S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2), S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (n = 1), and S. enterica subsp. houtenae (n = 7). Four serovars were predominant: S. Poona (n = 18), S. Pomona (n = 10), S. Abaetetuba (n = 8), and S. Newport (n = 5). The S. Poona isolates revealed nine unique XbaI PFGE patterns, with 15 isolates showing a similarity of 70%. Nine S. Pomona isolates had a similarity of 84%. One main cluster with seven (88%) indistinguishable isolates of S. Abaetetuba was observed. All the Salmonella isolates were pan-susceptible to antimicrobials representative of the most relevant therapeutic classes. The high prevalence and absence of clinical signs suggest a natural interaction of the different Salmonella serovars with the host species. The interaction may have been established before any possible exposure of the iguanas and the biocenosis to direct or indirect environmental factors influenced by the use of antimicrobials in agriculture

  19. Characterization of Salmonella Occurring at High Prevalence in a Population of the Land Iguana Conolophus subcristatus in Galápagos Islands, Ecuador (United States)

    Franco, Alessia; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Lorenzetti, Serena; Onorati, Roberta; Gentile, Gabriele; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Battisti, Antonio


    The aim of the study was to elucidate the association between the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella and a population of land iguana, Colonophus subcristatus, endemic to Galápagos Islands in Ecuador. We assessed the presence of Salmonella subspecies and serovars and estimated the prevalence of the pathogen in that population. Additionally, we investigated the genetic relatedness among isolates and serovars utilising pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on XbaI-digested DNA and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials. The study was carried out by sampling cloacal swabs from animals (n = 63) in their natural environment on in the island of Santa Cruz. A high prevalence (62/63, 98.4%) was observed with heterogeneity of Salmonella subspecies and serovars, all known to be associated with reptiles and with reptile-associated salomonellosis in humans. Serotyping revealed 14 different serovars among four Salmonella enterica subspecies: S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 48), S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2), S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (n = 1), and S. enterica subsp. houtenae (n = 7). Four serovars were predominant: S. Poona (n = 18), S. Pomona (n = 10), S. Abaetetuba (n = 8), and S.Newport (n = 5). The S. Poona isolates revealed nine unique XbaI PFGE patterns, with 15 isolates showing a similarity of 70%. Nine S. Pomona isolates had a similarity of 84%. One main cluster with seven (88%) indistinguishable isolates of S. Abaetetuba was observed. All the Salmonella isolates were pan-susceptible to antimicrobials representative of the most relevant therapeutic classes. The high prevalence and absence of clinical signs suggest a natural interaction of the different Salmonella serovars with the host species. The interaction may have been established before any possible exposure of the iguanas and the biocenosis to direct or indirect environmental factors influenced by the use of antimicrobials in agriculture

  20. The use of biotopes in assessing the environmental quality of tidal estuaries in Europe (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Jean-Paul


    In Europe, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) (European Commission 2000) - and the recently proposed EU Marine Strategy Directive - have established a framework for the protection of groundwater, inland surface waters, estuarine (transitional) waters and coastal waters. TheWFD has several objectives: to prevent water ecosystem deterioration, to protect and to enhance the status of water resources but the most important aspect is to achieve a 'Good Ecological Status' (GES) for all waters, by 2015. In essence, the WFD requires a water body to be compared against a reference condition and then its ecological status designated - if the water body does not meet good or high ecological status, i.e. it is in moderate, poor or bad ecological status, then remedial measures have to be taken (e.g. pollution has to be removed). Many indices were developed from benthic work and are often thought fit for purpose. Based on the successional model proposed by Pearson and Rosenberg (1978), most of these indices were effectively established for soft sediment benthos. However, those developed in the framework of the WFD were derived from work on the subtidal. They are difficult to use in the intertidal and in transitional waters. As they were derived from work on organic pollution, there is no or little evident link with chemical and physical pollution. Ecomorphology brings together a biological approach and a sedimentological approach to estuarine ecology. It considers the use of the biotope and related concepts (biocenosis, bio-facies, ecotone, habitat…) as a basis to a novel approach to environmental quality assessment. It addresses the problem of the estuarine quality paradox in recognising the role of nutrients and organic matter in biogeochemical cycles. The discussion shows the complementarity of biotopes with the Sato-Umi and the ecohydrolgy approaches.

  1. Assessment of impact of culture conditions on capability of wastewater's microorganisms to flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il'inskiy V. V.


    Full Text Available Wastewater is one of the significant sources of pollution of the aquatic ecosystems of the Kola North. Sewage coming to the ground waters, surface waters and near shore marine basin have a complex negative impact on the biocenosis of water objects. Considering the fact that basin self-purification process in climatic environment of the Far North is slow, it seems to be current problem to research influence of external factors on the native microorganisms involved in the biological transformation of most pollutants. Along with oxygenizing activity microorganisms are able to accumulate pollutant in the cells and to form floccules. As a result, microorganisms fix the dissolved contaminants that may be mechanically derived from water. Using the data on the chemical makeup of some urban and domestic sewage, nutrient media have been developed where microorganisms isolated from effluents have been cultivated. As major characteristics of the cultivation media affecting the intensity and direction of metabolic processes in microorganisms, the ratios C / N, C / P and N / P have been chosen. Intensity growth of bacteria in experimental nutrient media has been studied and the flocculating activity of bacterial suspensions has been determined. The rate of these microorganisms (Pseudomonas spp. and cultures of bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family average has been 70∙103 and 117∙103 cells/h respectively. The growth rate of each culture on different composition nutrient media has varied within three orders, and has correlated with the relative content of phosphates in the nutrient media. The flocculating potential does not depend on the ratio of biogenic elements C / N, C / P and N / P. Both cultures have shown the ability to precipitate suspended matter at the level of 50 % or more after cultivation on nutrient media similar in composition to habitat conditions.

  2. Extended abstracts for an international conference on the development of the North and problems of recultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, K.R. [ed.


    Ecological problems in many regions on Earth are the result of increasing technological pressure on the environment. These problems concern many of us and cause mankind to unite in order to search for means to protect the environment. Scientists, especially are responsible for the protection of the biosphere. The objective of this conference was to discuss the results of studies on the present condition of the environment in the Far North where the industrial pressure is increasing. The participants of this conference also offered and suggested various necessary measures for the protection of the region and restoration of its disturbed sites. The specific structural characteristics of the environment of the Far North, tundra and northern taiga, cause its fragility and vulnerability to anthropogenic impact. The destruction of the thin, weak layer of soil and vegetation cover changes the thermal balance and thus causes the development of erosion process, which in their turn increase the zone of the direct technogenous destruction. Self restoration processes in this harsh climate usually are slow. The preservation of the ecological integrity in the Far North is essential for the stability of the biosphere of the planet. The specifics of the natural conditions must be taken into account so that man will be able to develop the means of intensive agro-technology that can speed up the process of restoration of the biocenosis in the damaged areas. The extended abstracts of the conference reports that constitute this volume contain both theoretical discussions of problems of recultivation as well as accounts of experimental studies and applied explorations.

  3. Correction of Intestinal Microbiocenosis Violations in Children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Yaroshevskaya


    Full Text Available The article focuses on an actual problem of trea­ting functional bowel diseases with clinical signs of dysbiosis in children. Objective of the study is assessment of effectiveness of comprehensive therapy with modern symbiotic containing strains Lactobacollus rhamnosus GG and fructooligosaccharides in irritable bowel syndrome children. Materials and methods. The study involves 35 children with irritable bowel syndrome and clinical manifestations of intestinal dysbiosis on the basis of subjective and objective symptoms, character of stool, coprogram and microbiological analysis of feces. Treatment efficacy is assessed taking into account the dynamics of the main symptoms of the disease (impaired stool, flatulence, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, normalization of coprogram indicators, results of the control microbiological analysis of feces. Objectification of the clinical manifestations of the disease is performed at baseline and before discharge of the child from hospital. Results. As a result of the developed schemes of treatment, the abdominal pain syndrome and symptoms of intestinal dyspepsia were quickly stopped. In children with skin manifestation of allergy, their severity has decreased. The clinical manifestations of the digestive disorders syndrome decreased, indicators of coprogram improved. A significant positive dynamics of fecal microbial composition is marked. More than a half of the patients achieve normalization of the quantitative composition of bifid bacteria and lactobacilli; the number of E.coli with altered enzymatic properties reduced, opportunistic and fungal flora was eliminated. The tolerability of prescribed treatment in all patients is good. Conclusions. Correction of intestinal biocenosis occupies an important place in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome children. The study shows a high efficacy and safety of the combination of Lactobacollus rhamnosus GG and fructooligosaccharides in the comprehensive

  4. Effects of thermal effluents from the Unterweser reactor (KKU) on biocenoses in the Unterweser. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vobach, M.; Feldt, W.


    Between August 1975 and November 1982, the influence of thermal pollution in the biocenosis of the Unterweser from cooling water dischanged by the Unterweser reactor was investigated. The state of the parts of the river not yet stressed by cooling water is compared with conditions after the start-up of the reactor (September 1978). The seasonal cycle of water temperature has not changed after the start-up as compared to the time before. A warming of the river water because of cooling water discharged from the reactor is recognizable in the area immediately surrounding the month of the discharge system. Benthal investigations show the composition of species and number of individuals to be unchanged after the start-up of the reactor. Phytoplankton, too, continues to have its population maximum in May and August. Zooplankton, being present abundantly and in clusters, has retained its original composition of species. Now as before the reactor's start-up, flounder, smelt, stickleback, sprat and gudgeon which between them account for 97 per cent of the total catch, continue to be the five major fish species. Variations in the composition of catch are not to be explained by changes of temperature. The slight temperature increase does not modify the spectrum of species; there is no temperature stimulus. The seasonal cycle of water temperatures, which are important for a diapause, i.e. a slowing in the developmental cycle with a reduced metabolism, thus safeguarding the survival of certain species, do continue to occur. Any observed changes are to be interpreted as expressions of longer-term biological cycles. (orig./BBR) [de

  5. A site study of the multiple effects of thermal releases on the aquatic life in an estuarine area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgese, D.; Dinelli, G.; Guzzi, L.; Smedile, E.


    The estuarine area of a river represents a typical site where different factors have to be considered when trying to assess the actual impact on the aquatic life of industrial thermal releases. These factors may be physical (river flow, sea currents, tides, residence time of waters in marshes and lagoons), biological (bio-mass production, mutual organic matter exchange between fresh and sea waters) and economic such as the commercial importance of fishing. In this respect the siting of a large power station in the Po river delta may cause serious problems for the conservation of the existing ecosystem. Thus a multidisciplinary approach with a view to predicting the final thermal impact of a power station on the environment seems fully justified despite its complexity. Therefore a detailed research programme has been established in order to study the following main points: (a) structure of the plant and animal populations; (b) primary production and bacterial activity; (c) physical and chemical characteristics of estuarine waters; (d) coastal characterization; (e) thermal effects on the biocenosis entering the condenser of existing plants operating under similar conditions. Together with conventional experimental techniques, airborne infra-red (IR) and multi-spectra (MS) surveys are planned as, according to preliminary investigations, they provide essential information for the recognition of water flow patterns and aquatic plant growth. The behaviour of the particular ecosystem will be simulated using mathematical models defined on a system theory approach, where the descriptive functions and rate constants come from experimental studies conducted in situ and with laboratory tests. In fact results of preliminary airborne scanning IR and MS surveys combined with biological studies confirm the need for systematic research on the Po river delta. (author)

  6. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco


    benthic biocenosis as relevant spatial unit, and the ESI calculation for Civitavecchia coastal areas, are reported.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Guseynov


    Full Text Available Aim. We present the data on the biological resources of the Caspian Sea, based on the analysis of numerous scientific sources published between years of 1965 and 2011. Due to changes in various biotic and abiotic factors we find it important to discuss the state of the major groups of aquatic biocenosis including algae, crayfish, shrimp, pontogammarus, fish and Caspian seal. Methods. Long-term data has been analyzed on the biology and ecology of the main commercial fish stocks and their projected catches for qualitative and quantitative composition, abundance and biomass of aquatic organisms that make up the food base for fish. Results and discussion. It has been found that the widespread commercial invertebrates in the Caspian Sea are still poorly studied; their stocks are not identified and not used commercially. There is a great concern about the current state of the main commercial fish stocks of the Caspian Sea. A critical challenge is to preserve the pool of biological resources and the restoration of commercial stocks of Caspian fish. For more information about the state of the marine ecosystem in modern conditions, expedition on Caspian Sea should be carried out to study the hydrochemical regime and fish stocks, assessment of sturgeon stocks, as well as the need to conduct sonar survey for sprat stocks. Conclusions. The main condition for preserving the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea and its unique biological resources is to develop and apply environmentally-friendly methods of oil, issuing concerted common fisheries rules in various regions of theCaspian Sea, strengthening of control for sturgeon by all Caspian littoral states. The basic principle of the protection of biological resources is their rational use, based on the preservation of optimal conditions of their natural or artificial reproduction. 

  8. Characterization of Salmonella occurring at high prevalence in a population of the land iguana Conolophus subcristatus in Galápagos Islands, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Franco

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to elucidate the association between the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella and a population of land iguana, Colonophus subcristatus, endemic to Galápagos Islands in Ecuador. We assessed the presence of Salmonella subspecies and serovars and estimated the prevalence of the pathogen in that population. Additionally, we investigated the genetic relatedness among isolates and serovars utilising pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE on XbaI-digested DNA and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials. The study was carried out by sampling cloacal swabs from animals (n = 63 in their natural environment on in the island of Santa Cruz. A high prevalence (62/63, 98.4% was observed with heterogeneity of Salmonella subspecies and serovars, all known to be associated with reptiles and with reptile-associated salomonellosis in humans. Serotyping revealed 14 different serovars among four Salmonella enterica subspecies: S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 48, S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2, S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (n = 1, and S. enterica subsp. houtenae (n = 7. Four serovars were predominant: S. Poona (n = 18, S. Pomona (n = 10, S. Abaetetuba (n = 8, and S. Newport (n = 5. The S. Poona isolates revealed nine unique XbaI PFGE patterns, with 15 isolates showing a similarity of 70%. Nine S. Pomona isolates had a similarity of 84%. One main cluster with seven (88% indistinguishable isolates of S. Abaetetuba was observed. All the Salmonella isolates were pan-susceptible to antimicrobials representative of the most relevant therapeutic classes. The high prevalence and absence of clinical signs suggest a natural interaction of the different Salmonella serovars with the host species. The interaction may have been established before any possible exposure of the iguanas and the biocenosis to direct or indirect environmental factors influenced by the use of antimicrobials in

  9. Microbial composition in a deep saline aquifer in the North German Basin -microbiologically induced corrosion and mineral precipitation affecting geothermal plant operation and the effects of plant downtime (United States)

    Lerm, Stephanie; Westphal, Anke; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Alawi, Mashal; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke


    The microbial composition in fluids of a deep saline geothermal used aquifer in the North German Basin was characterized over a period of five years. The genetic fingerprinting techniques PCR-SSCP and PCR-DGGE revealed distinct microbial communities in fluids produced from the cold and warm side of the aquifer. Direct cell counting and quantification of 16S rRNA genes and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes by real-time PCR proved different population sizes in fluids, showing higher abundance of Bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in cold fluids compared to warm fluids. Predominating SRB in the cold well probably accounted for corrosion damage to the submersible well pump, and iron sulfide precipitates in the near wellbore area and topside facility filters. This corresponded to a lower sulfate content in fluids produced from the cold well as well as higher content of hydrogen gas that was probably released from corrosion, and maybe favoured growth of hydrogenotrophic SRB. Plant downtime significantly influenced the microbial biocenosis in fluids. Samples taken after plant restart gave indications about the processes occurring downhole during those phases. High DNA concentrations in fluids at the beginning of the restart process with a decreasing trend over time indicated a higher abundance of microbes during plant downtime compared to regular plant operation. It is likely that a gradual drop in temperature as well as stagnant conditions favoured the growth of microbes and maturation of biofilms at the casing and in pores of the reservoir rock in the near wellbore area. Furthermore, it became obvious that the microorganisms were more associated to particles then free-living. This study reflects the high influence of microbial populations for geothermal plant operation, because microbiologically induced precipitative and corrosive processes adversely affect plant reliability. Those processes may favourably occur during plant downtime due to enhanced

  10. Digestive Disorders in Children with Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Radutna


    Full Text Available Introduction. The most notable problem of the widespread use of antibiotics is the changes in microbial ecology, imbalance of intestinal biocenosis, the appearance of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms with pathogenic properties and due to this the pathological changes in the intestine that cause symptoms of digestive disorders in patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Objective. To identify the symptoms of malabsorption in order to improve early diagnosis of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. Materials and methods. The object of the study were 116 patients treated with antibiotics, aged 6 months to 18 years. The examination of children included clinical, biochemical, bacteriological, immunoenzyme, immunochromatographic, instrumental, mathematical methods. Results. In the development of diarrhea in patients with negative test on clostridial toxins, such cases were qualified as idiopathic antibiotic-associated diarrhea, with positive — like intestinal Clostridium difficile infection. The study revealed significant differences in scatological indices between the children with acute idiopathic and antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by clostridial infection. During microscopic and biochemical studies of feces, we have revealed symptomatic signs of impaired digestion and absorption of fats and carbohydrates, which manifested by clinical symptoms of malabsorption. All children with antibiotic-associated diarrhea are characterized by increased concentrations of carbohydrates in feces. Signs of digestive disorders with the development of malabsorption of lipids were detected n children with antibiotic-associated diarrhea, primarily caused by Clostridium difficile infection. Conclusions. Maldigestion and lipid and carbohydrate absorption, as well as symptoms of inflammation in the intestines (leukocytes, occult blood, mucus are the markers of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and can be used for its early diagnosis

  11. The ways of controlling microbiota of the higher plant link in LSS (United States)

    Tirranen, L. S.; Gitelson, I. I.

    The ways of controlling microbiota of the higher plant link have been considered, as the sterile plant growth in closed ecological human life support systems is impossible. One of the ways of controlling the link microbial community - building sterile intrasystem barriers between the system links - is problematic and dangerous. An accidental breach of microorganisms through the barrier can lead to disastrous consequences - either unrestrained reproduction of microbes including pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic species or, on the contrary, elimination of species most valuable for the given microbial community. Another way of control is maintaining suitable conditions for human and plant habitat, creating some constructive system properties directed at microbial exchange weakening. The use of catalytic furnace for oxidizing organic impurities in system atmosphere, UV processing of air and plants in the phytotron before and in the beginning of the experiments promoted decrease of microorganism amount in the link. To restrict the distribution of microorganisms of the higher plant link in other system links the module for yield processing being under constant suction was isolated. To prevent the introduction of microorganisms into the system we applied the UV processing of all objects transferred to the system and continuous atmosphere overpressure inside the system. It is important to detect the ultimate amount of microorganism indicator groups in the higher plant link biocenosis. It would indicate the microbial pollution of the link and be the signal for regulation of its microbial population or processing technologies in the studied objects. There were two 4-month experiments with the "human - higher plants" closed ecosystem carried out. There was no progressive deterioration for plants, decrease of wheat yield to zero and rapid growth of microorganisms in the higher plant link after making all listed arrangements. Microbiological analyses of the studied

  12. Gamma background irradiation. Standards and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloslavov, V.


    The systematic deviation of the results of measuring the power of air dose absorbed from the natural gamma background radiation in Bulgaria is inadmissibly large and variable. This in turn augments the dispersion of results as well as the mean value relative to worldwide data, to an implausible level, hardly attributable to the variegated geographical relief of the country. Thus in practice local anthropogenic increases hardly lend themselves to detection and demonstration. In the Radiation Protection Standards (RPS-92) in effect in Bulgaria, and in other documents concerning the same radiation factors as well, the maximum allowable limits for the population as a whole are clearly specified on the basis of worldwide expertise along this line. As a rule these limits are being exceeded by the actually measured values, and for this reason the cited documents contain a clause stipulating that these limits do not refer to the natural radiation background and therefore the latter may be virtually ignored. Thus the basic risk factor for the population goes beyond control at levels commensurable with the officially established limits, its twofold increase inclusive. The maximum allowable limit becomes undefinable. Bearing in mind the fact that in compliance with the cited RPS-92 elimination of the technogenic ionizing radiation sources incorporated in the environment prior to 1992 is 'freezed', it is evident that exposure of the population to anthropogenic radiation becomes legally allowable in a much wider range than the one specified by world legislators. One may anticipate radiation induced health noxae for the population directly or by anthropogenic radiation stress on biocenosis. A relatively large part of the population is susceptible to the effect of low radiation doses. Presumably this contingent will augment as a result of eventual fluctuations. The casual relationship which is difficult to establish should be given due consideration in the analysis of the causes


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Saval'eva


    Full Text Available The article reveals the results of the immunity humoral chain investigation in patients with the chronic generalized periodontitis (CGP, severity level I-II, in combination with parasitosis. The purpose of the investigation is to verify the role and place of humoral immunity in CGP pathology in patients with parasitosis. Materials and methods. Immunologic investigations were conducted among 540 patients with the chronic generalized periodontitis, severity level I-II, on the background of parasitic invasions (gisrdiasis, enterobiasis, toxocarosis – (principle groups. The experimental group consisted of 90 CGP patients, severity level I-II, without parasitic invasions. The control group consisted of 30 people without the parodontium pathology and the chronic pathology of other organs and systems, who were considered practically healthy during the investigation. Humoral immunity condition in CGP patients was estimated by the content level of antibodies against etiological inflectional agents in the blood serum and the common antigenic determinant (CAD of microbes, antimicrobial IgG- antibodies affinity, by the content of IgА. IgМ, IgЕ, CIC, complement activity. Results and conclusions. It is noted that increasing of IgE, CIC and complement levels in blood are the peculiarity of immune structures in the organism of CGP patients with parasitosis, compared with CGP patients without parasitosis. While investigating the qualitative characteristics of the produced antimicrobial antibodies, it was found that in CGP patients, I-II severity level, with parasitosis the antibodies affinity was significantly lower than in CGP patients without parasitosis. Weak antibody immune response to the microbial factor and low produced antimicrobial antibodies affinity, apparently, explain the impossibility for the patient to neutralize and eliminate the bacteria, populating the periodontal pockets, as well as to maintain normal mouth cavity biocenosis. The obtained

  14. Crystalline phase-dependent eco-toxicity of titania nanoparticles to freshwater biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kun; Qian, Jin; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Liu, Jingjing; Tian, Xin; Lu, Bianhe; Shen, Mengmeng


    The potential toxic impacts of different crystal phases of titania nanoparticles (TNPs) on freshwater biofilms, especially under ultraviolet C irradiation (UVC), are unknown. Here, adverse impacts of three phases (anatase, rutile, and P25, 50 mg L −1 respectively) with UVC irradiation (An-UV, Ru-UV, and P25-UV) on freshwater biofilms were conducted. Characterization experiments revealed that rutile TNPs had a higher water environment stability than anatase and P25 TNPs, possessing a stronger photocatalytic activity under UVC irradiation. Phase-dependent inhibition of cell viability and significant decreases of four- and five-fold in algal biomass at 12 h of exposure were observed compared with unexposed biofilms. Moreover, phase-dependent oxidative stress resulted in remarkably significant reductions (P < 0.01) of the photosynthetic yields of the biofilms, to 40.32% (P25-UV), 48.39% (An-UV), and 46.77% (Ru-UV) of the plateau value obtained in the unexposed biofilms. A shift in community composition that manifested as a strong reduction in diatoms, indicating cyanobacteria and green algae were more tolerant than diatoms when exposed to TNPs. In terms of the toxic mechanisms, rutile TNPs resulted in apoptosis by inducing excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, whereas P25 and anatase TNPs tended to catalyze enormous acellular ROS lead to cell necrosis under UVC irradiation. - Highlights: • Phase-dependent response of freshwater biofilms to three TNPs was studied with UVC. • Rutile is more stable yet P25 and anatase own better photooxidation level in water. • Decrease in Chl-a and φM and a shift in algae bio-cenosis were phase-dependent. • Phase-dependent stress induced cellular or acellular ROS to reduce cells viability. • Rutile tend to induced apoptosis yet P25 and anatase prefer to cause cell necrosis. - Crystalline-dependent eco-toxicity of TNPs to freshwater biofilms show allotrope of nanoparticles must be considered


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    Мария Сергеевна Воронцова


    Full Text Available Isthmic-cervical insufficiency (ICI is one of the most common causes of spontaneous premature births. In II trimester of pregnancy in the structure of miscarriages, the share of ICI accounts for about 40 % of cases. The purpose – evaluate the effectiveness of the complex method of correction of isthmic-cervical insufficiency. Materials and methods. A simple, open, prospective, randomized study was performed on the basis of the City Clinical Perinatal Center in Omsk. Under observation, there were 60 patients aged 18-40 years in gestation period of 13-33 weeks 6 days with a proven diagnosis of «isthmic-cervical insufficiency». The main group included 30 patients who received treatment with a new combined method: the obstetric pessary «CVK», which differs from the analogues by a more anatomical ellipsoidal form and an increased number of perforations to improve the outflow of vaginal secretions in combination with intravaginal injection of micronized progesterone in a dosage of 100 mg 2 times a day and a drug normalizing the biocenosis of the vagina, as a lyophilized culture of lactobacilli L. casei rhamnosus Doderleini in a dosage of 340 mg, 1 capsule intravaginally at night 2 times a week. The comparison group consisted of 30 patients who received treatment: obstetric silicone pessary + micronized progesterone at a dosage of 200 mg per day intravaginally. The outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth were evaluated. Results. The total number of premature births in the main group was 4 (13.3 % compared to 12 (40 % in the comparison group (p = 0,023. Based on the results of the study, a statistically significant reduction in patients with recurrent vaginal flora (p = 0,0001 was obtained and, due to a decrease in this indicator, a general decrease in the number of women with complications of pregnancy was registered (p = 0,019. The conclusion. The proposed method of correction of isthmic-cervical insufficiency is more effective

  16. Synthesis of Biomass and Utilization of Plant Wastes in a Physical Model of a Biological Life Support System (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Lisovsky, G. M.; Kudenko, Yu A.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gribovksaya, I. V.; Tirranen, L. S.; Zolotukkhin, I. G.; Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    Biological life support systems (LSS) with highly closed intrasystem mass ex change mass ex change hold much promise for long-term human life support at planetary stations (Moon, Mars, etc.). The paper considers problems of biosynthesis of higher plants' biomass and "biological incineration" of plant wastes in a working physical model of biological LSS. The plant wastes are "biologically incinerated" in a special heterotroph block involving Californian worms, mushrooms and straw. The block processes plant wastes (straw, haulms) to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) on which plants (wheat, radish) are grown. Gas ex change in such a system consists of respiratory gas ex change of SLS and photosynthesis and respiration of plants. Specifics of gas ex change dynamics of high plants -SLS complex has been considered. Relationship between such a gas ex change and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and age of plants has been established. SLS fertility has been shown to depend on its thickness and phase of maturity. The biogenic elements (potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen) in Liebig minimum have been found to include nitrogen which is the first to impair plants' growth in disruption of the process conditions. The SLS microflora has been found to have different kinds of ammonifying and denitrifying bacteria which is indicative of intensive transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds. The number of physiological groups of microorganisms in SLS was, on the whole, steady. As a result, organic substances -products of ex change of plants and microorganisms were not accumulated in the medium, but mineralized and assimilated by the biocenosis. Experiments showed that the developed model of a man-made ecosystem realized complete utilization of plant wastes and involved them into the intrasystem turnover. In multiple recycle of the mat ter (more than 5 cycles) under the irradiance intensity of 150 W/m2 PAR and the SLS mass (dry weight) of 17.7 -19.9 kg/m2 average total harvest of

  17. Transformation of soil and vegetable conditions at oil production territories (United States)

    Gatina, Evgeniia


    On the territory of modern oil production soil, vegetation, ecosystem conditions of the environment are significantly transformed. Researches have been conducted on the oil production territories located in a boreal coniferous forest natural zone from 2005 to 2015. Standard geobotanical and soil methods are used. Mechanical destruction of a plant cover, change of the water conditions, intake of oil products and salty waters in ecosystems, pollution of the atmosphere are considered as the major technology-related factors defining transformation of land ecosystems at operation of the oil field. Under the mechanical destruction of a plant cover the pioneer plant communities are formed. These communities are characterized by most reduced specific wealth with prevalence of types of meadow groups of plants and presence of types of wetland groups of plants. The biodiversity of biocenosis which are affected linear infrastructure facilities of oil production territories and change of the water conditions, decreases. It is observed decrease in species wealth, simplification of structure of communities. Under the salting of soils in ecosystems there is a decrease species diversity of communities to prevalence nitrophilous and meadow plant species. At the increased content of organic substances in the soils that is a consequence of intake of oil products, is characteristic increase in specific richness of communities, introduction of types of wetland and oligotrophic groups of plants in forest communities. Influence depends on distance to an influence source. In process of removal from a source of atmospheric pollution in forest communities there is a decrease in species diversity and complication of structure of community. It is caused by introduction of types of meadow groups of plants in ecotone sites of the forest communities located near a source of influence and restoration of structural features of forest communities in process of removal from an influence source

  18. Results of microbiological Investigations of Orbital Station MIR Environment (United States)

    Novikova, N.

    equipment which gather anthropogenic organic compounds and air condensate enough to allow full vegetative cycle and reproduction of heterotrophic microorganisms, mold fungi Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium sp. in the first place, - quantitative and structural dynamics of microflora on long-operating space vehicles is not linear and presents a wave-form cycle of alternating phases of biocenosis activation and stagnation controlled as by internal biological mechanisms of self-regulation, so by external cosmophysical factors.

  19. Genetic processes in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchma, Oleksandra


    As immobile organisms, plants have to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions and make use of different adaptive mechanisms to survive and reproduce successfully under stress. It is often difficult to detect the organism s or population s response to stress factors due to slow changes of environmental conditions or delayed reactions of plants. From this point of view, the investigation of reactions under extreme environmental change offer unique opportunities to study adaptation mechanisms. Areas with a strong anthropogenic impact on the environment represent ideal places for research on adaptation or selection processes. For many decades, ionizing radiation is well known as a strong damaging and stress factor. Radiation exposure causes heavy damages of the DNA. This leads to a decrease in fitness in the present generation and inheritable mutations which reveal their effects in later generations. On the other hand, radiation exposure activates adaptation processes to ensure survival. The investigation of the influence of radiation at different levels of life organization from the DNA level to the population level can help to elucidate response mechanisms to changing environments. After the accident in 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the surrounding territories were contaminated with high amounts of radioactive material. The exclusion zone became a natural laboratory for the investigation of effects of radiation on the biocenosis. Pinus sylvestris is one of the most wildly used species in radiation research due to its very high sensitivity to radiation exposure and dominance in forest ecosystems of the exclusion zone. Nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and AFLP markers were investigated in order to study mutation rates and selection processes under the influence of radiation in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) of different age and irradiation conditions collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone and control areas. The results of this study show that a

  20. Heavy metals in earthworms of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Pt. 2. Ecotoxicological assessment of soil; Schwermetalle in Regenwuermern Baden-Wuerttembergs. T. 2. Oekotoxikologische Bewertung des Bodens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahtkens, K.; Trenck, K.T. von der [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg (LUBW), Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Goal and Scope. The heavy metal burden of the soil and of earth-worms from representative long-term forest observation plots has been measured since 1984 as one component of the media-embracing environmental monitoring network of the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. These investigations are aimed at elucidating and assessing adverse effects of pollutants on the soil biocenosis. Methods. So-called characteristic curves for the metals Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were developed for the assessment. Earthworm toxicity data and background values in soil served as criteria. This procedure facilitates a comparative assessment of different pollutants. The mobility of the metals, which greatly influences their bioavailability and toxicity, was taken into account for the effects assessment. Results and Conclusion. Besides inventorying the heavy metals (Part 1), the question of threshold values for toxic reactions as well as for accumulation was raised. The metal concentrations were assessed in the soil with regard to its habitat function. The ecotoxicological assessment revealed that the heavy metal burden of the investigated plots lies within the background- or precautionary range, well below the screening value established here to indicate the effect threshold in earthworms. This result means that a pollution of the forest observation plots with the metals cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc is low or absent. Only the distribution of the lead content is centered slightly above background (but clearly below the toxicity threshold). This slight lead burden of the soil of the observation plots can be explained by emissions from motor vehicles. Investigations at sites that are contaminated with either chromium or copper or cadmium showed that an accumulation of these metals in the body of the worms can be observed only above a threshold concentration of several hundred micrograms of mobile metal per kilogram in the upper layer of the soil. Recommendations and Perspectives. The

  1. Lactobacillus for Vaginal Microflora Correction

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    Saule Saduakhasova


    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the significant progress made in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, there is still a high rate of vaginal dysbiosis in Kazakh women. The use of antibiotics in the treatment of vaginal dysbiosis contributes to the elimination of pathogens as well as microflora, which can lead to a decrease in local immunity and more favorable conditions for infection spread. The most physiologically safe and promising method for the restoration of vaginal biocenosis is the use of probiotics administered by a vaginal route.Methods. We have allocated 64 of cultures of Lactobacillus from the vaginal epithelium of healthy women of reproductive age and women with diagnosed bacterial vaginosis (BV. Identification of cultures was performed by PCR analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA.  Evaluation of biological significance was determined by the following criteria: high antagonistic activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella ozaenae, and Staphylococcus aureus; and production of hydrogen peroxide, resistance to antibiotics, adhesive activity. We studied the symbiotic relationship of selected biologically active of cultures to each other and received options for consortiums with  properties of  probiotics through co-cultivation.Results. Results of genotyping  showed that the isolated lactobacilli belong to the seven species: L. fermentum, L. salivarius, L. gasseri, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. plantarum, and L. delbrueskii. L. fermentum, L. salivarius, L. gasseri, and L. jensenii occur in women with suspected BV. The highest percentage of occurrence in the vagina of healthy women was L. fermentum (28%. Most strains of lactobacilli possess high inhibitory activity for all test-strains, except Candida albicans (37.5%. 56% of studied cultures revealed high adhesion to human erythrocytes. All lactobacillus strains were resistant to metronidazole, 80% to kanamycin, 57%  to vancomycin, and


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    Yanishen I. V.,


    quantitative composition of the biocenosis. It is established that the microflora of the alveolar ridge in patients with edentulous consisted of associations of yeasts from 2-5 representatives of the microbial world. It is established that in patients of the experimental group on the 7th day of withdrawal 3-component microbial associations has decreased in 1.3 times, whereas the 4-component associations were recorded in 1.4 times more often compared with the initial period of observation. For patients with adhesive frequency of detection of 2-component microbial associations 30-the day of the research was 1.3 times higher than prior to the setting of the prosthesis. Identify 5 component associations for 30-the day, has decreased in 2 times. In patients without adhesive (control group 4-component microbial associations in the mouth after a week of adaptation to the prosthesis were detected in 1.6 times, and 30 days – in 2 times more often than to prosthetics. The weight 5 component associations through the week remained at the initial level, while after 30 days has increased in 1,5 times. The structure microbiocenosis the mucous of the oral cavity patients with edentulism are represented 13 genera of bacteria and morilioid fungi of the genus Candida, allocated in secondary amounts by lg (2,5±0,19 to lg (5,4±0,17 CFU/g. When adhesive between denture base and mucosa of the alveolar ridge frequency of withdrawal and the density of microbial colonization in the adaptation period were not statistically different. But the density of the microbial population among the control group increased 1.5 times for Enterococcus spp, 1.4 for the Klebsiella spp and 1.6 times for yeast fungi Candida spp. Found a significant decrease in microbial density of the representatives of the resident microflora in 1.4 times for Neisseria spp, 1.6-fold for Lactobacillus spp (p<0.05. Conclusion. The results of these studies indicate significant changes of qualitative and quantitative structure of

  3. Notes on the insect fauna on two species of astrocaryum (palmae, cocoeae, bactridinae in peruvian amazonia, with emphasis on potential pests of cultivated palms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available NOTES SUR LA FAUNE ENTOMOLOGIQUE DE DEUX ESPÈCES D'ASTROCARYUM (PALMAE, COCOEAE, BACTRIDINAE DE L'AMAZONIE PÉRUVIENNE, ET MISE EN ÉVIDENCE DE RAVAGEURS POTENTIELS DES PALMIERS CULTIVÉS. La faune entomologique des palmiers Astrocaryum chanta et Astrocaryum carnosum a été étudiée dans deux sites différents de l'Amazonie péruvienne : région de Jenaro Herrera sur le bas Ucayali pour la première espèce, et région d'Uchiza sur le haut Huallaga pour la seconde. Cette faune est extrêmement diversifiée. Elle comprend de nombreuses espèces d'insectes connues comme ravageurs des palmiers cultivés, ainsi que d'autres espèces de phytophages dont les plantes hôtes n'étaient pas encore connues. De nombreuses autres espèces d'insectes, prédateurs ou de niveau trophique mal défini, font aussi partie de la biocénose des palmiers étudiés. Astrocaryum chanta et Astrocaryum carnosum sont considérés comme foyers d'infestation en ravageurs pour les plantations industrielles de palmiers en Amazonie péruvienne. NOTAS SOBRE LA FAUNA DE INSECTOS DE DOS ESPECIES DE ASTROCARYUM (PALMAE, COCOEAE, BACTRIDINAE EN LA AMAZONIA PERUANA, CON ÉNFASIS EN LAS PLAGAS POTENCIALES DE LAS PALMERAS CULTIVADAS. La fauna de insectos de las palmas Astrocaryum chonta y Astrocaryum carnosum se ha estudiado en dos lugares diferentes de la Amazonia peruana: en la región de Jenaro Herrera, bajo Ucayali para la primera especie, y en la región de Uchiza, alto Huallaga para la segunda. Esta fauna es extremadamente diversificada. Incluye numerosas especies de insectos conocidos como depredadores de las palmas cultivadas, así como otras especies de fitófagos cuyas plantas hospedantes aún no eran conocidas. Numerosas especies de otros insectos, depredadores o de un nivel trófico mal definido, forman parte también de la biocenosis de las palmas estudiadas. Astrocaryum chonta y Astrocaryum carnosum son considerados como focos de infestación de depredadores para las

  4. Linee guida per la gestione della Volpe in Italia

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    Silvano Toso


    Full Text Available La plasticità ecologica della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes fa di questa specie il Carnivoro più diffuso e più adattabile al mondo. Proprio per la sua diffusione la Volpe è oggetto di un intenso prelievo sia venatorio, sia finalizzato a contenerne l'impatto predatorio ed allo sfruttamento commerciale della pelliccia. In Italia esiste una forte pressione dei cacciatori perché si realizzino programmi di controllo delle popolazioni di questo predatore, al fine di ridurne l'impatto sulle specie d'interesse cinegetico. Gli effetti del contenimento della Volpe sulla dinamica delle popolazioni di specie preda sono stati oggetto di numerosi studi, ma i risultati di tali ricerche non sono univoci; se in alcuni casi si è infatti verificato, in seguito a decrementi delle popolazioni di Volpe, un incremento di consistenza e successo riproduttivo delle specie preda, in altri casi non si è registrato alcun significativo effetto demografico. Ancora meno chiaro è quale sia la soglia di contrazione delle popolazioni di Volpe necessaria per ottenere un effetto significativo sulle popolazioni delle specie preda, considerato che questo Carnivoro ha un potenziale riproduttivo elevato ed un'organizzazione sociale che determina la rapida rioccupazione dei territori lasciati liberi. La legislazione italiana in materia di controllo è, rispetto ad altri paesi europei ed extraeuropei, particolarmente rigida: la legge n. 157/92 identifica infatti un obiettivo generale di mantenimento delle popolazioni dei predatori a livelli adeguati ad assicurare una funzione regolatrice delle biocenosi. La stessa norma impone inoltre che ogni intervento di abbattimento di predatori finalizzato al contenimento dei danni da essi arrecati sia autorizzato dalla Regione o dalla Provincia competente, sulla base di un parere tecnico dell'INFS che è chiamato a verificare l'inapplicabilità di metodi incruenti di prevenzione dei danni, la selettività delle tecniche di abbattimento e la

  5. Reaction of fresh water zooplankton community to chronic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, D.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. [FSUE Mayak PA (Russian Federation)


    The characteristic features of ecological community as a whole and cenosis of zooplankton organisms as part of it determine the intensity of the processes of self-purification of water and the formation of a particular body of water. Identifying features of the structure and composition of the zooplankton community of aquatic ecosystems exposed to different levels of radiation exposure, it is necessary to identify patterns of changes in zooplankton and hydro-biocenosis as a whole. Industrial reservoirs, the storage of liquid low-level radioactive waste 'Mayak' for decades, have high radiation load. A large range of levels of radioactive contamination (total volume beta-activity in water varies from 2.2x10{sup 3} to 2.3x10{sup 7} Bq/l, total volume alpha-activity - from 2.6x10{sup -1} to 3.1x10{sup 3} Bq/l) provides a unique opportunity to study ecosystems in a number of reservoirs with increasing impact of radiation factor. We studied five reservoirs that were used as the storage of low-and intermediate-level liquid radioactive waste pond and one comparison water body. In parallel with zooplankton sampling water samples were collected for hydro-chemical analysis. 41 indicators were analysed in order to assess the water chemistry. To determine the content of radionuclides in the various components of the ecosystem samples were collected from water, bottom sediments and plankton. Sampling of zooplankton for the quantitative analysis was performed using the method of weighted average auto bathometer. Apshteyn's plankton net of the surface horizon was used for qualitative analysis of the species composition of zooplankton. Software package ERICA Assessment Tool 2012 was used for the calculation of the absorbed dose rate. Species diversity and biomass of zooplankton, the share of rotifers in the number of species, abundance and biomass decrease with the increase of the absorbed dose rate and salinity. The number of species in a sample decreases with the


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    R. Z. Usmanov


    Full Text Available Abstract. The changes in the intensity of biological processes in the vegetation and productivity of forage grasses depending on the degree of soil salinity of the North-West Caspian Lowland were studied. Salination factors are specific. They are formed because of their adaptive nature, providing for species the opportunity to get the certain position in the relevant biocenosis. As a result each species produces its own strategy of life. Development of saline processes of soil in the growth and development of the plant mass, biological and agronomic salt resistance is clearly seen. Biological salt resistance is characterized by the ability to maintain the viability of the plant body at the upper limit of salinity. Agronomical salt resistance is determined by the value of crop and productivity. Adaptive possibilities of different plant species with different biological characteristics were also examined.Subject, objective of the work. Productivity of vegetation of semidesert ecosystems and dynamics under the influence of salinity forage grass pasture phytocenoses of the North-West Caspian Lowland were studied.Test method. We studied fodder crops: wheat grass long (Elytrigia elongata, ctenoid wheatgrass (Agropirum cristatum and alfalfa (Medicago sativa. The crop from each significant area was weighed; it was taken from the average sample weighed in at 1 kg in a gauze bag for drying at a temperature of 60–65 °C in airing cupboard where brought to constant weight. Accounting for phytomass was carried by laying mowing area 8–10 times. Dimensions of mowing fields are 0.25 m2, that ensured coverage of all dominant plants.Results. At mid-saline meadow-chestnut soil of the North-West Caspian Lowland wheatgrass long gives the highest yield of green mass – 18,1 tons per hectare of dry weight average for 2003–2010. Alfalfa crop is in the second place, that is less than bluegrass by 18.0 % (2.9 tons per hectare. The least yield of these crops is

  7. Development of Triad approach based system for ecological risk assessment for contaminated areas of Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Kydralieva, Kamilia; Uzbekov, Beksultan; Khudaibergenova, Bermet; Terekhova, Vera; Jorobekova, Sharipa


    substances), 2) ecological parameters (assessing changes in microorganism's community structure and functions, bioindication); and 3) toxicological bioassays (utilizing classical endpoints such as survival and reproduction rates, genotoxicity). The output will be consisted of 3 indexes: 1) Environmental Risk Index, quantifying the level of biological damage at population-community level, 2) Biological Vulnerability Index, assessing the potential threats to biological equilibria, and 3) Genotoxicity Index, screening genotoxic effects. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) will be used to integrate a set of environmental Triad data to be obtained during the project, which will be carried out in order to estimate the potential risk from soil contamination of the highly anthropized areas of Kadzhi-Say, which have been impacted by deposition of heavy metals. The basis of the development under this research is studies with a particular focus concerning the biocenosis mapping of Kyrgyz soils (Mamytova et al., 2003, 2010), investigations on interaction of humic substances with soil contaminants (Jorobekova, Kydralieva, Khudaibergenova, 2004; Khudaibergenova, 2005, 2007), and in addition, technical approach for ecotoxicological assessment of soils (Terekhova, 2007, 2011). Soil ecotoxicological estimation has been studied with a battery of tests using test-organisms of many trophic levels. Currently, bioindication of soils with various humus states is under study (Senesi, Yakimenko 2007; Yakimenko, et al., 2008).

  8. Inspiring our future citizens and scientists: follow the Blue Paths (Percorsi nel Blu)! (United States)

    Mioni, Erika; Stroobant, Mascha; Merlino, Silvia; Traverso, Roberto


    project of Biological Sciences, carried out in a pilot school of La Spezia (ISA 2 "2 Giugno"), and that since several years involves students aged 4 to 18 years (and their families) in a long-term training program for environmental awareness and marine scientific research. The project is aimed at monitoring marine biocenosis (flora and fauna) from the upper and middle shore, using and integrating the Reef-Check Protocol (C.E.M. Coastal Environment Monitoring Protocol) with a new approach that motivates students to science, continuously over the years and bringing them closer to the work of Marine Scientists, raising awareness on biodiversity loss and the pollution within a specific area such as that of the Pelagos Sanctuary in the North Tyrrhenian and Ligurian Seas. Blue Paths (Percorsi nel Blu) is, hence, an example of education with a wider communication spectrum (not focused only to form a single class of students, but a whole community) and made possible thanks to a network of partners (including technology clusters, Institutions, Museums, Research Centers, Marine Protected Areas etc.). The presence of the network has allowed the enhancement of the Project under different points of view, including: - transformation in a participatory research project (the scientific results obtained by students are real products of research) of citizen science; - increase of educational opportunities (peer education, intergenerational education, tutoring); - increased visibility thanks to the participation in European projects for the Science Communication (European Researchers' Night project funded by the European Commission under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie actions); - enrichment of students' curriculum thanks to an adequate and real acquisition of key skills for future careers that can also inspire their actions as future citizens.


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    Sklyar, А.I.


    Full Text Available Introduction. Viral hepatitis is one of the global challenges for modern medicine. Among them, hepatitis B (GB remains one of the most widespread viral diseases of the present day. According to the WHO estimates, more than 1/3 of the world's population (2 billion people has serological evidence of current or transmitted HBV infection, of which 350 million are chronically infected. Separate studies have identified the state of the colon biocenosis in patients with acute hepatitis and found that dysbiotic lesions of varying degrees are found in patients with viral hepatitis in 73.3% - 96% of cases [6-8]. Disturbances of the quantitative and qualitative composition of the microflora reduce the detoxification function of the intestine and increase the toxic load on the liver, which, in turn, negatively affects the development of the basic pathological process. The aim of the work was to determine the degree of dysbiotic changes in the microflora of the large intestine and to evaluate the effectiveness of their correction with a symbiotic drug in patients with acute hepatitis B. Materials and methods. To perform the task, 108 patients with acute hepatitis B, aged 18-69 being on hospital treatment at Kharkiv Regional Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases, have been examined. The diagnosis has been set on the basis of clinical anamnestic, epidemiological, laboratory and instrumental data. The etiological verification of the diagnosis has been performed by detecting specific serological markers of hepatitis B (HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc IgM, by the ELISA method. The diagnosis of GHB and its clinical and pathogenetic variants of the course, form and degree of severity have been determined according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Security Problems Health (ICD-10, version 2006. According to the purpose of study the patients have been divided into groups as follows: group A - the main one, where patients have