WorldWideScience

Sample records for biocenoses

  1. Occurrence of fungi degrading aromatic hydrocarbons in activated sludge biocenoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grabińska-Łoniewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A set of 21 strains of yeast-like microorganisms isolated from biocenoses of aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment systems were assayed for their ability to utilize aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole C-source. Basing on the achieved results, the highly biochemically active strains for application in enhancing of wastewaters and exhaust gases purification as well as soil bioremediation were selected.

  2. Review: Microbial biocenoses in pristine aquifers and an assessment of investigative methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldscheider, Nico; Hunkeler, Daniel; Rossi, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    The current knowledge of microbial biocenoses (communities) in pristine aquifers is presented in a review, which also discusses their relevance for questions of groundwater protection. Aquifers are heterogeneous on all scales and structured in a variety of habitats. The void spaces in many aquifers are small. The biocenoses are thus predominantly composed of microorganisms and, often, microinvertebrates. Larger voids and macroorganisms occur in karst cavities. Due to the absence of light, the biocenoses depend on chemical energy resources, which are, however, scarce in non-contaminated groundwater. The microorganisms thus show small cell sizes, low population densities and reduced activity; they developed specific strategies to survive oligotrophic conditions. The review also discusses the impact of contamination on the biocenoses, and the potential use of the biocenoses or specific organisms as indicators for groundwater quality, and the limits of this approach. Bacteria are either planktonic or attached to aquifer material, which requires both fluid and solid phase sampling. Most groundwater bacteria are viable but non-culturable. Consequently, cultivation techniques give an incomplete picture of the biocenoses, while methods from molecular microbiology provide genetic fingerprints of the entire community. Different analytical methods are available to count microorganisms, identify species, characterise microbial diversity, and measure activity.

  3. Abnormal changes in the density of thermal neutron flux in biocenoses near the earth surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, N V; Smirnov, A N; Kolesnikov, M V; Semenov, D S; Frolov, V A; Lapshin, V B; Syroeshkin, A V

    2007-04-01

    We revealed an increase in the density of thermal neutron flux in forest biocenoses, which was not associated with astrogeophysical events. The maximum spike of this parameter in the biocenosis reached 10,000 n/(sec x m2). Diurnal pattern of the density of thermal neutron flux depended only on the type of biocenosis. The effects of biomodulation of corpuscular radiation for balneology are discussed. PMID:18214289

  4. Abnormal changes in the density of thermal neutron flux in biocenoses near the earth surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, N V; Smirnov, A N; Kolesnikov, M V; Semenov, D S; Frolov, V A; Lapshin, V B; Syroeshkin, A V

    2007-04-01

    We revealed an increase in the density of thermal neutron flux in forest biocenoses, which was not associated with astrogeophysical events. The maximum spike of this parameter in the biocenosis reached 10,000 n/(sec x m2). Diurnal pattern of the density of thermal neutron flux depended only on the type of biocenosis. The effects of biomodulation of corpuscular radiation for balneology are discussed.

  5. Some features of formation of biocenoses of Absheron contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text:Gray-brown soils of Absheron peninsula, developing in the arid conditions of the dry subtropical climate subjected to various forms of industrial pollution, among which oil pollution occupy a dominant position. The researches carried out in Azerbaijan on technologically-contaminated gray-brown soils of Absheron, have shown that contaminants of various etiologies form quite different from each other biocenoses. First of all it is connected with change not only the specific physicochemical properties of the soil, but also plant cover and associated with them trophic (nutritional) structure of the soil microbiota and invertebrates. Depending on the chemical properties of pollutants entering the soil, there are formed specific phytocenosis and complexes of invertebrate animals with microorganisms. The creation of these biocenoses occurs by the gradual complication of adaptive mechanisms to these pollutants in individual groups and plant species and soil organisms (3). Oil pollution is always accompanied by the accumulation of toxic, carcinogenic compounds and some radionuclides in the soil. Therefore, phytoremediation of these soils has the important and priority significance (4, 5). To this purpose, there were carried out experiments on the small plots in gray-brown soils, versions of which differed among themselves with different concentrations of contamination by radionuclides. As fitoremediant there were used native plants for the Absheron: wormwood (Artemisia fragrance), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and hog bean (Hyoscyamus niger). Observations have shown that the formation of the initial stages of biocenoses happen with great intensity. Variants with a lower concentration of these components (10-6 M) differed with relatively better development of plants (increased growth and branching of model bushes). With the increase in the concentration of radionuclides (10-4 M) there were noted some deferred response in the development of individual model bushes

  6. Characterization of biocenoses in the storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of Mayak PA. Initial descriptive report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryakhin, E A; Mokrov, Yu G; Tryapitsina, G A; Ivanov, I A; Osipov, D I; Atamanyuk, N I; Deryabina, L V; Shaposhnikova, I A; Shishkina, E A; Obvintseva, N A; Egoreichenkov, E A; Styazhkina, E V; Osipova, O F; Mogilnikova, N I; Andreev, S S; Tarasov, O V; Geras'kin, S A; Trapeznikov, A V; Akleyev, A V

    2016-01-01

    As a result of operation of the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, an enterprise for production and separation of weapon-grade plutonium in the Soviet Union, ecosystems of a number of water bodies have been radioactively contaminated. The article presents information about the current state of ecosystems of 6 special industrial storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive waste from Mayak PA: reservoirs R-3, R-4, R-9, R-10, R-11 and R-17. At present the excess of the radionuclide content in the water of the studied reservoirs and comparison reservoirs (Shershnyovskoye and Beloyarskoye reservoirs) is 9 orders of magnitude for (90)Sr and (137)Cs, and 6 orders of magnitude for alpha-emitting radionuclides. According to the level of radioactive contamination, the reservoirs of the Mayak PA could be arranged in the ascending order as follows: R-11, R-10, R-4, R-3, R-17 and R-9. In 2007-2012 research of the status of the biocenoses of these reservoirs in terms of phytoplankton, zooplankton, bacterioplankton, zoobenthos, aquatic plants, ichthyofauna, avifauna parameters was performed. The conducted studies revealed decrease in species diversity in reservoirs with the highest levels of radioactive and chemical contamination. This article is an initial descriptive report on the status of the biocenoses of radioactively contaminated reservoirs of the Mayak PA, and is the first article in a series of publications devoted to the studies of the reaction of biocenoses of the fresh-water reservoirs of the Mayak PA to a combination of natural and man-made factors, including chronic radiation exposure. PMID:26094572

  7. Postmortem interval (PMI) determined by study sarcophagous biocenoses: three cases from the province of Venice (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto, M; Lafisca, S; Costantini, G

    2001-08-15

    This paper presents and discusses three cases of cadavers found, unburied, in the province of Venice, Northern Italy. In each case, all insect species playing some role in carrion decay processes, both sarcophagous and their predators, found on or in the bodies, were collected and determined. In one case, many larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) were found and are reported, for the first time in Italy, as necrophagous. Experimental breeding of some fly species was also carried out in controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In particular, it was of interest to know how the Neotropical black soldier fly modified its life-cycle to adapt to a temperate climate. It was thus possible to establish the rate of larval growth and timing of pupation, emergence, oviposition and hatching in various external conditions. The postmortem interval (PMI) established by identifying the life-cycle stages of dipterofauna were later confirmed in all cases through police investigations and the results of forensic analyses. PMID:11457605

  8. Biological activity as an indicator of chernozem fertility in different biocenoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhurlova, L. D.; Svistova, I. D.; Shcheglov, D. I.

    2007-06-01

    Meadow chernozemic soil was studied in an idle land-shelterbelt-cropland system. It was found that the long-term agricultural use of chernozems leads to a decrease in the total nitrogen content and to changes in the soil microbial community. The portion of phytopathogenic Fusarium, Aspergillus ustus, Penicillium daleae, and Penicillium rubrum microorganisms in the complex of soil fungi increases, and the phytosanitary state of the soil worsens. The use of biotests made it possible to estimate the role of particular microorganisms in the soil phytotoxicity.

  9. Review : Microbial biocenoses in pristine aquifers and an assessment of investigative methods

    OpenAIRE

    Goldscheider, Nicola; Hunkeler, Daniel; Rossi, Pierre De

    2006-01-01

    Cette revue expose l’état actuel des connaissances concernant les biocénoses microbiennes présentes dans les aquifères oligotrophes. L’impact d’une contamination sur les biocénoses est discuté, ainsi que le potentiel que représentent les communautés ou un organisme spécifique, en tant qu’indicateur de qualité des eaux souterraines. En dernier lieu les méthodes à disposition en microbiologie sont examinées. Les aquifères sont hétérogènes à de nombreuses échelles et sont structurés en une grand...

  10. Program GICC - AQUABIO. Possible consequences of the climatic change on the aquatic and river french biocenoses. Final report; Programme GICC - AQUABIO. Consequences potentielles du changement climatique sur les biocenoses aquatiques et riveraines francaises. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pont, D. [Lyon-1 Univ., CNRS UMR 5023, Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Fluviaux, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2003-11-15

    The consequences of the climatic change can modify the ecosystems. The aim of this research program is to analyze the impacts of the climatic change on the propagation of the exotic species in France in aquatic and river environment, the population of macro invertebrates and fishes in the french rivers and the socio economic challenges. The methodology is based on the simulation from the exploitation of great data bases and the combination of many approaches at different scales. (A.L.B.)

  11. Study on the heavy metals having effect on the water biocenoses in the backwaters at Alpar and Lakitelek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekete, E.

    1984-01-01

    Heavy metals which have an effect on the water biocenosis were determined monthly during 1982 in the Tisza backwaters at Alpar and Lakitelek, Hungary. Copper, cadmium, zinc, chromium, and mercury contents of the water were determined. Organic matter, ammonium, nitrate, pH, sodium and potassium content were determined jointly with the studies of the heavy metals. On the basis of water quality indexes, the water quality of Lakitelek backwater is more stable than that of the Alpar backwater. Correlations were observed between the zinc and copper content and aquatic life. The two backwaters have significant mercury content, which is due to agricultural runoff. It is striking that cadmium does not occur in significant concentrations in the backwaters. Samples originating from the bottom sediments should be included in the studies on heavy metals, to obtain complete information on equilibrium and transport process taking place in the backwaters. 13 references, 12 figures.

  12. Program GICC - AQUABIO. Possible consequences of the climatic change on the aquatic and river french biocenoses. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the climatic change can modify the ecosystems. The aim of this research program is to analyze the impacts of the climatic change on the propagation of the exotic species in France in aquatic and river environment, the population of macro invertebrates and fishes in the french rivers and the socio economic challenges. The methodology is based on the simulation from the exploitation of great data bases and the combination of many approaches at different scales. (A.L.B.)

  13. Effects of thermal effluents from the Unterweser reactor (KKU) on biocenoses in the Unterweser. Pt. 3. Final report. Auswirkungen der Abwasserwaerme des Kernkraftwerkes Unterweser (KKU) auf die Biozoenosen in der Unterweser. T. 3. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vobach, M.; Feldt, W.

    1991-05-01

    Between August 1975 and November 1982, the influence of thermal pollution in the biocenosis of the Unterweser from cooling water dischanged by the Unterweser reactor was investigated. The state of the parts of the river not yet stressed by cooling water is compared with conditions after the start-up of the reactor (September 1978). The seasonal cycle of water temperature has not changed after the start-up as compared to the time before. A warming of the river water because of cooling water discharged from the reactor is recognizable in the area immediately surrounding the month of the discharge system. Benthal investigations show the composition of species and number of individuals to be unchanged after the start-up of the reactor. Phytoplankton, too, continues to have its population maximum in May and August. Zooplankton, being present abundantly and in clusters, has retained its original composition of species. Now as before the reactor's start-up, flounder, smelt, stickleback, sprat and gudgeon which between them account for 97 per cent of the total catch, continue to be the five major fish species. Variations in the composition of catch are not to be explained by changes of temperature. The slight temperature increase does not modify the spectrum of species; there is no temperature stimulus. The seasonal cycle of water temperatures, which are important for a diapause, i.e. a slowing in the developmental cycle with a reduced metabolism, thus safeguarding the survival of certain species, do continue to occur. Any observed changes are to be interpreted as expressions of longer-term biological cycles. (orig./BBR).

  14. UNDERGROUND CONGESTIONS OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN RIVER BELAYA BOTTOMLAND OF REPUBLIC BASHKORTOSTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Galinurov, I.; Safarov, A.; Shajdulina, G.; Magasumova, A.; Khatmullina, R.; Smirnova, T.

    2011-01-01

    In article the results of oil hydrocarbons underground congestions negative influence researches are considered. The oil hydrocarbons which have accumulated in alluvial soils migrate in river waters, polluting bottom sediments and influence on water biocenose. There is a decrease of volatile hydrocarbons content during stream migration from the laminar water environment (underwaters) to the turbulent river environment.

  15. Education of radioecology at Precarpathian national university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The teaching programs of radioecology are defined the contents in a higher school educational institutions. The offered program of studies is based on a 10-year's experience of the authors job in Chernobyl exclusive zone, experimental and full-scale radioecological investigation of marine biocenoses in Institute of biology of the southern seas National Academy of Ukraine. (authors)

  16. Populational dynamics of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linneaus) (Diptera: Muscidae) in three biocenosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Batista, Z; Leite, R C; Oliveira, P R; Lopes, C M L; Borges, L M F

    2005-06-30

    Populational flux of the adult phase of Stomoxys calcitrans was observed in the municipal district of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Three biocenoses were selected for the study: stable agrobiocenosis, pastural agrobiocenosis and eubiocenosis. The occurrence and the populational flux of the insects, using the Magoon trap for their capture, were established. For each trap located in different biocenoses, a crossbred calf (Bos taurusxBos indicus) approximately 6-month-old was used as "live bait," exposed weekly for 48h in the traps. Of the three agrobiocenoses studied, the stable agrobiocenosis contributed the greatest number of specimens of. S. calcitrans captured, corresponding to 96.9% of the total flies of this species collected. S. calcitrans shows seasonal behavior for approximately 6 months (spring and summer being the rainiest months of the year). The population peaked during the months of November and December. During the months of July and August, there was no capture of flies. PMID:15908125

  17. Bioremediation of marine coastal ecosystems: Using artificial reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapkov V. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the biotic community on the artificial reefs in the coastal zone of the northeast Black Sea region has been studied. Colonization stages of the artificial reefs by hydrobionts depended on substance, time and depth of reef construction have been considered. Reef colonization by fouling organisms is a biotic primary succession of the benthic mature community. It has been found that in 2–3 years on an artificial reef species diversity and biomass of aquatic organisms rise sharply and reef biocenose becomes a powerful biofilter involved in the process of environment self-purification. The results of the functioning of the reef biocenose can serve as a basis for using artificial reefs in biological treatment of water in the coastal zone

  18. Effets écologiques de rejets urbains de temps de pluie sur deux cours d'eau periurbains de l'ouest lyonnais et un ruisseau phreatique en plaine d'alsace

    OpenAIRE

    Vivier, A.

    2006-01-01

    This work takes place in a multi-disciplinary research on preservation or restoration/rehabilitation of good ecological status of watercourses, in a need of durable and realistic development. The aim of this work is the knowledge of relations between fluxes of pollutants coming from combined sewer overflows, and the ecological status of several watercourses. Those relations were studied by the examination of physical and chemical parameters, and aquatic interstitial biocenoses (superficial an...

  19. [Study of nasal and tonsillar mucosal microbiocenoses as one of the health indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnutdinova, L M; Usviatsov, B Ia; Soboleva, Iu V; Bukharin, O V

    2009-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative compositions of nasal and tonsillar mucosal biocenoses were studied in healthy individuals and patients with chronic tonsillitis as an ecological criterion for assessing the stability of biocenosis and human health. The qualitative composition of tonsillar mucosal biocenosis turned out to be steady-state both in health and disease. The human nasal mucosa showed itself as an indicator system. Staphylococcal strains with a high persistent potential and polyantibiotic resistance, which may cause an exacerbation of the inflammatory process on translocation to the tonsillar mucosa, were selected on the nasal mucosa of patients with chronic tonsillitis. PMID:19799231

  20. Bacterial communities in the fruit bodies of ground basidiomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagryadskaya, Yu. A.; Lysak, L. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Fruit bodies of basidiomycetes at different stages of decomposition serve as specific habitats in forest biocenoses for bacteria and differ significantly with respect to the total bacterial population and abundance of particular bacterial genera. A significant increase in the total bacterial population estimated by the direct microscopic method with acridine orange staining and in the population of saprotrophic bacteria (inoculation of glucose peptone yeast agar) in fruit bodies of basidiomycetes Armillaria mellea and Coprinus comatus was recorded at the final stage of their decomposition in comparison with the initial stage. Gramnegative bacteria predominated in the tissues of fruit bodies at all the stages of decomposition and were represented at the final stage by the Aeromonas, Vibrio, and Pseudomonas genera (for fruit bodies of A. mellea) the Pseudomonas genus (for fruit bodies of C. comatus). The potential influence of bacterial communities in the fruit bodies of soil basidiomycetes on the formation of bacterial communities in the upper soil horizons in forest biocenoses is discussed. The loci connected with the development and decomposition of fruit bodies of basidiomycetes on the soil surface are promising for targeted search of Gram-negative bacteria, the important objects of biotechnology.

  1. [An example of anthropogeneous succession in the ecosystem of the Verkhnetulomsky Water Reservoir (the Tuloma River Basin, the Kola region)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitenev, V K; Shul'man, B S; Karasev, A B; Ponomarev, S V

    2010-01-01

    The destruction of initial biocenoses in the ecosystem of the Verkhnetulomsky Water Reservoir caused deep succession processes. As a result of the loss of the amphipod group in the benthos, replacement of the trophic links in fishes took place in the biocenosis of the reservoir. Benthos feeders changed over to the feeding on zooplankton and, as a result, became the constituent of the predators'diet. The structure of parasitic systems has changed. The parasites using amphipods as intermediate hosts have been and, on the contrary, the abundance of parasites infesting fishes through feeding of the latter on zooplankton has increased. Among the parasites, Triaenophorus crassus Forel became the cause of the appearance of stable triaenophorosis focus. PMID:21061595

  2. [Significance of hydrobiont persistent properties for symbiotic interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtseva, N V

    2012-01-01

    Significance of symbiotic relations formed by associative symbiosis type for autochthonous and allochthonous microflora of natural water bodies is shown. Generality of symbiotic interaction mechanisms of symbionts in limnetic and halophilous communities provided by secreted factors of natural resistance from the side of the host, and by factors of persistence from the side of symbionts is proven based on a set of examples. Features of operation of lysozyme-antilysozyme, histon-antihiston, hydrogen peroxide-catalase functional systems in symbiotic interactions of autotrophic and heterotrophic components of hydrobiocenosis with dominant and associative microflora are presented. Associative microflora of allochthonous origin was shown to actively use the ecologically formed system of interaction between hydrobionts that facilitates survival of these microorganisms and preservation of their persistent potential, and as a result leads to biocenosis disorders. The knowledge obtained open new possibilities and perspectives of research of sanitary and ecological aspects of vital activity of aquatic biocenoses. PMID:22937711

  3. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF UTILIZATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SEDIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Nikovskaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of information on air-conditioning contaminated with heavy metals sludge municipal wastewater points to the actual ecological and chemical problem and its solution could be implemented within the framework of the biological process involving heterotrophic microorganisms. Information on the spread, toxicity, biochemistry, microbiology, colloidal and chemical properties of sludge sediments of municipal wastewater biological treatment is given in the review. These sediments contain vitamins, amino acids, organic matter, heavy metals (micro- and macroelements. Therefore the most rational approach to sludge wastes utilization is their use as an agricultural fertilizer after partial removal of heavy metals. Hence, the interaction of sludge components with heavy metals, modern methods of their removing from biocolloidal systems and biotechnologies of conversion of sludge wastes into fertilizer based on the enhancing of vital ability of sludge biocenoses are discussed.

  4. [ROLE OF ANIMALS AND HUMAN BEINGS IN THE SPREAD OF TRICHINOSIS IN THE KURSK REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagin, N A; Malysheva, N S; Samofalova, N A; Vlasov, E A

    2015-01-01

    Trichinosis is natural focal invasion in the Kursk Region. Porkworms (Trichinella) circulate in natural biocenoses among wild carnivorous mammals, wild boars, and rodents. Trichinosis cases are recorded in synanthropic animals. Carnivorous mammals form the basis for the parasitic system of trichinosis. The animals are infected with Trichinella through carnivorism, necrophagy, and cannibalism. The transport Trichinella vectors, necrophagous insects, naturally play an insignificant role-in the spread of trichinosis. Trichinella infection in animals occurs more commonly through necrophagia and cannibaism during winter months. Not only animals, but also man, play a great role in the spread of trichinosis. Infested wild and synanthropic aninals inhabiting the Kursk Region may carry the risk for Trichinella infection in the population. PMID:26827582

  5. [PREDICTING OF RISK OF SOIL CONTAMINATION BY DIFFERENT CLASSES OF FUNGICIDES IN SOIL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF UKRAINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshun, M; Dema, O; Kucherenko, O; Ruda, T; Korshun, O; Gorbachevskyi, R; Pelio, I; Antonenko, A

    2016-07-01

    Application of pesticides in modern agriculture is a powerful permanent risk factor for public health and the natural environment. The aim of the study was a comparative hygienic assessment of soil pollution hazards by the most widely used herbicides of different chemical classes (sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, pyrimidinyl (thio) benzoates, semicarbazones). Hygienic field experiment for studying of the dynamics of residual amounts of the test substances in the soil under different climatic zones of Ukraine was conducted. Half life periods (DT50) or herbicides in soil were calculated using the method of mathematical modeling. Ecotoxicological risk of herbicides on ecosystems and ecological communities was determined. It was established that bispyribac-sodium (pyrimidinyl (thio) benzoates) and imidazolinones are persist the longest time in soil and most rapidly degradable is diflufenzopyr (semicarbazone); ecotoxicological risk of the studied herbicides for terrestrial biocenoses of Ukraine by 4-6 orders of magnitude lower than dihlordifeniltrihlormetilmetan (DDT). PMID:27661284

  6. Soil arthropods as test organisms for ecotoxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglisch, I.

    1981-02-01

    The importance of arthropods - organisms which usually grow in masses - for soil biology depends on their capacity to participate in the continuous transformation of organic substances within the relevant biocenosis and thus to take part in the maintenance of the ecological balance. In ecotoxicology, i.e. the science of substances having a detrimental effect on the natural balance of ecosystems, we try to find ways to evaluate risk of substances hazardous to the environment. In principle, biocenoses would offer themselves in their entirety as appropriate test objects for ecotoxicological evaluation of chemicals. Since it will not yet be possible in the near future to carry out this kind of studies, individual organisms proved as representatives of terrestial biotopes have to be chosen for these purposes. Primarily, Collembola, Coleoptera, and Diptera (larvae) are part of the meso- and macrofauna of soil arthropods or soil insects according to the experience made up to now in respect of their importance for soil biology. Representatives of such organisms should be used to develop test procedures to indicate damage even of a subacute, chronic nature or the impairment of their functional performance the maintance of which is a prerequisite for the ecological balance.

  7. [Comparative characterization of the microflora of the upper respiratory tract mucous membranes in bronchial asthma and allergic persistent rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, E E; Baturo, A P; Ulisko, I N

    2005-01-01

    A total of 250 patients with diagnosed bronchial asthma (BA) were examined by microbiological methods. Among them--188 children and 62 adults. In 87 patients the microflora of nasal mucosa was studied, in 40--of pharynx only and in 123 patients--both the nasal and the pharynx. For comparative analysis earlier data obtained in 69 patients with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) were used. The cultures isolated from the nasal mucosa of BA patients were shown to number 18 genera and 42 species, while among those isolated from pharynx mucosa 20 genera and 40 species. Monocultures were isolated from the nasal mucosa only in 23% of the examined patients and from the pharynx mucosa--only in 1.42%. Associations with different numbers of components were isolated from nasal and pharynx mucosa (2 to 6, 2 to 8 respectively). Staphylococcus aureus was regarded as the main species of nasal biocenosis in BA and PAR, as well as pharynx biocenosis in BA. Besides, in BA other Staphylococcus species (schleiferi, caprae, capitis, hominis, etc.), reversely related to the main species, could be isolated from both mucous membranes. Similarities and differences in microflora of biocenoses in both nosological forms, confirming links between PAR and BA, are considered. PMID:15881942

  8. EOR by stimulated microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarovskaya, L.I.; Altunina, L.K.; Rozhenkova, Z.A.; Bulavin, V.D. [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    A combined microbiological and physico-chemical method for EOR has been developed for flooded West Siberia oil fields with formation temperature of 45{degrees}-95{degrees}C (318-365K). Formation water includes rich and various biocenoses numbering up to 2 x 10{sup 7} cells per ml. Representatives of genera, i.e, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Sarcina, etc. were found to be the most widely distributed microorganisms. The method is based on injection of systems exhibiting high oil displacing capacity and at the same time being an additional nitrous nutrient for endemic populations of microorganisms. Their injection into formation water favors biomass growth by 4-6 orders and promotes syntheses of biosurfactants, biopolymers, acids, etc., and gaseous products. The features of residual oil displacement have been studied on laboratory models using a combined microbiological and physico-chemical method. A curve for the yield of residual oil is presented by two peaks. The first peak is stipulated by the washing action of oil displacement system, and the second one by the effect of metabolites produced at stimulation of biogenic processes. Oil displacement index increases by 15%-30%.

  9. Recent historical changes on the Belgian Meuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a nuclear power station was installed on the Meuse in central Belgium, the impact of thermal, radioactive, and chemical waste on the water of the Neuse and on its biocenoses was studied. Three successive periods of development of the channel bed and the flood plain in Belgium have occurred, and their hydrological, physicochemical, and ecological consequences have been examined. Since the last century, the ecosystem of the Meuse has undergone, due to the increasing activity of man, modifications of increasing importance: marked reduction of the water flow, a drastic increase in the suspended material being transported, a degree of eutrophication of the water, and the disturbance of the original floral and faunal communities. The causes of this evolution of the Meuse can be itemized as different types of human interference in descending order of importance: (1) occupation of the catchment area; (2) encroachment on the flood plain; (3) encroachment on the channel bed; (4) destruction of habitats; (5) water pollution; (6) overexploitation of fish-breeding stocks; and (7) introduction of foreign species. Thought should be given to restoring damaged sectors by recreating shallow riverside zones suitable for aquatic macrophytes, for the macroinvertebrates which are linked to them, and for the reproduction of many species of fish. The example of human interference on the Meuse. 47 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  10. [Symbiogenesis as a Model for Reconstructing the Early Stages of Genome Evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provorov, N A; Tikhonovich, I A; Vorobyov, N I

    2016-02-01

    Symbiogenic evolution, which involves transformations of bacteria into the cellular organelles, is represented as a model for reconstructing the early stages of genome evolution, including the origin of DNA genomes from RNA genomes and the emergence of template processes on the basis of self-replicating molecular complexes in the ancestral metabolic systems. The antiquity of RNA genomes is supported by an increased evolutionary stability of ribosomal protein synthesis (translation) with respect to the DNA-dependent template processes (replication, transcription, recombination, and reparation). This stability is demonstrated by analysis of the deeply reduced genomes of symbiotic bacteria and cellular organelles as well as the "minimal" genomes which are common to phylogenetically diverse organisms. Higher evolutionary conservation of template biosynthetic processes with respect to step processes determining the metabolism and development in cells does not support the hypothesis about emergence ofgenomes within the ancestral cellular metabolic systems which are thought to be of abiogenic origin, instead suggesting dualistic origin of life on Earth. We suppose that the genome-free organelles of some eukaryotes (mitosomes, many hydrogenosomes, and some plastids) represent the products of reversion of symbiotic bacteria into ancestral forms which implemented their basic cellular functions using the informational macromolecules of exogenic origin. In the framework of this hypothesis the eukaryotic cells functioning based on the massive transfer of gene products (RNAs, proteins) from cytosol to organelles may represent the analogs of ancestral biocenoses that possessed integral hereditary systems (metagenomes). PMID:27215028

  11. Impact of effluents from Tihange nuclear plant on the Meuse ecosystem: a five year in situ study and experimental approach 1976 -1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present multidisciplinary study, started in 1975, was to evaluate the influence of liquid effluent releases from a PWR-type nuclear reactor on the ecosystem of running water. The Tihange-1 nuclear power plant, along the Meuse river near Liege, has been selected as site for this study, which situates in the general context of the industrial and urban pollution of this region. The in situ biological research dealt with phytoplankton, microphytobenthos and bryophytic populations on the one hand, and with zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and fish on the other hand. The impact of the releases on certain aquatic organisms has been studied with the help of experimental devices (pools and rafts). Laboratory research has been carried out on an alga type representative of Meuse phytoplankton. It could be concluded that a temperature increase of the Meuse water (generally 2 to 30C), although it has no detectable qualitative influence on the various links of the Meuse ecosystem, seems to promote the development of more temperature-tolerant species and to influence biological parameters such as growth and reproduction of aquatic animals. Although the legal limit (namely 0.3 mg/l in the water downstream the releases) is always respected, chlorination of the Meuse water gives rise to a decrease of the photosynthetic activity in aquatic mosses and creates asphyxiation phenomena in fish and crayfish. The utility of certain animal organisms of the Meuse biocenose as bio-indicators of the radionuclides present in the releases, has been confirmed. The alga cultures are also very adequate for the evaluation of the biological availability of some radioisotopes such as tritium. (author)

  12. Fermentation of organic waste - fundamentals and optimization potentials; Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen - Grundlagen und Optimierungspotentiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, M.; Christ, O. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1998-10-01

    For plants of a size of less than 2000 Mg per year, two-stage systems are not to be recommended as they are technically more demanding. It may suffice to install a simple dry-fermentation stage preceding an open composting stack in order to reduce odorous emissions. For large plants for urban catchment areas it is economical to have two-stage processes. Whether separation of hydrolysis and methanization saves substantial costs must be verified in each individual instance, as smaller volumes require higher technical effort and energy input. The separation of biocenoses represents an interesting fermentation concept as the advantages of each biocenosis complement each other and performance can be much enhanced. Optimum choice of a process is only possible considering local conditions. The authors have tried to give a systematized overview of fermentation processes to permit choosing the `appropriate` technique, independently of suppliers. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Fuer Anlagen einer Groesse unter 2.000 Mg im Jahr, sind die technisch aufwendigeren zweistufigen Anlagen nicht zu empfehlen. Es kann daher ausreichend sein, einer offenen Mietenkompostierung ein einfaches Trockenfermentationsverfahren vorzuschalten, um die Geruchsemissionen zu reduzieren. Grosse Anlagen fuer innerstaedtische Einzugsgebiete koennen wirtschaftlich mit zweistufigen oder zweiphasigen Verfahrenstechniken ausgeruestet werden. Ob durch die Trennung von Hydrolyse und Methanisierung wesentliche Kosteneinsparungen zu erzielen sind, ist im Einzelfall zu pruefen, da geringfuegige kleinere Volumina durch entsprechende Regelungsstrategien erkauft werden. Die Trennung der Biozoenosen stellt ein interessantes Vergaerungskonzept dar, da sich die Vorteile beider Biozoenosen ergaenzen und damit wesentliche Leistungssteigerungen zu erzielen sind. Eine optimale Verfahrensauswahl ist nur unter Beruecksichtigung der oertlichen Verhaeltnisse sinnvoll. Es wurde daher versucht, die Moeglichkeiten zur Wahl eines

  13. Monitoring of natural revegetation of Semipalatinsk nuclear testing ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known, that monitoring of natural revegetation of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was carried out during period 1994-2002 at test areas (Experimental field, Balapan, Degelen). In this paper the peculiarities of vegetation cover of these test areas are observed. Thus, vegetation cover of Experimental field ground in the epicentre is completely destroyed. At present there are different stages of zonal steppe communities rehabilitation: in zones with γ-irradiation 11000-14000 μR/h the revegetation is not found; on the plots with γ-irradiation 8200-10000 μR/h rare species of Artemisia frigida are found; aggregation of plant (managed from 6000-7000 μR/h is observed; At the γ-irradiation 80-200 μR/h rarefied groups of bunch grass communities similar to the zonal steppe are formed and zonal bunch grass communities developed with 18-25 μR/h. Vegetation cover of Degelen hill tops and near-mouth ground in the results of underground nuclear expulsions are completely destroyed. Here there are three main kinds of vegetation: very stony gallery areas don't almost overgrow; at technogen tops near galleries the single plants, rare field groups and unclosed micro-phyto-biocenoses of weed and adventive species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia dracunculus, Laxctuca serriola, Chorispora sibirica etc.). On the Balapan are the revegetation is limited by high radiation pollution rate. Here cenose rehabilitation is presented by Artemisia marshalliana, Spita sareptana, Festuca valresiaca). In their paper florostic and phyrocoenitic diversity of STS's flora transformation is studied. Pattern distribution and migration of radionuclides in soils and vegetation cover is represented

  14. Impact on the aquatic environment of hydro-peaking in hydroelectric plants; Impact sur le milieu aquatique de la gestion par eclusees des usines hydroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaton, C.; Lauters, F.; Valentin, S.

    1996-12-31

    There are a number of types of hydroelectric installations on French rivers. Some of these intermittently turbine water stored in dammed reservoirs, in order to use available reserves at the most opportune moment for power generation. These plants, run under `hydro-peaking` management procedures, cause variations in discharge in river sections downstream of the restitution, on a daily or weekly scale. To answer questions concerning the impact of such variations in discharge on the aquatic environment, EDF launched a research program aimed at describing and better understanding the physical and biological phenomena related to hydro-peaking and assessing the possible impact of this type of plant management on French streams. Seven sites subjects to hydro-peaking were studied on rivers with mean flow rates lower than 20 m{sup 3}/s (which corresponds to over 65 % of EDF hydro-peaking sites). Four themes in particular were examined: hydraulic characterization of hydro-peaking, modifications in thermal regime and water quality, response of benthic invertebrates and response of fish populations to hydro-peaking. For fish as well as for invertebrates, the role of the base discharge - in the absence of peaking flow - and that of the morphology of the river bed (and, in particular, the presence of shelter for fish) during periods of strong discharge were clearly highlighted. Impact assessment requires a precise diagnosis of the state of biocenoses. To carry out such a diagnosis, one must reason in terms of species, life phase (particularly the most sensitive phases) and population structure as well as the type of stream and the faunizone involved. A risk assessment is possible by means of simultaneous study of the morphology of the river bed and the response of the signal generated by hydro-peaking in terms of hydrology and physical characteristics downstream of the restitution. (authors). 25 refs.

  15. Quantitative fidelity of recent freshwater mollusk assemblages from the Touro Passo River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Fidelidade quantitativa de associações de moluscos límnicos recentes na bacia do rio Touro Passo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcemar R. Martello

    contribuições ao conhecimento sobre a fidelidade quantitativa de associações de moluscos recentes em rios subtropicais. Tanatocenoses e biocenoses foram estudadas em seções retilínea e meandrante tendendo a anastomosada, no curso médio do rio Touro Passo, um tributário de 4ª ordem do rio Uruguai, localizado no extremo oeste do Rio Grande do Sul. As amostragens foram realizadas por meio de quadrats de 5 m², cinco em cada seção, amostrando-se um total de 50 m². Também foram feitas amostragens em um ambiente lêntico, com comunicação intermitente com o Touro Passo, objetivando detectar a existência de transporte de comunidades lênticas para o interior do rio. Os resultados obtidos mostram que, apesar da freqüente oscilação do nível da água, a biocenose do Touro Passo apresenta uma alta fidelidade ecológica e sofre pouca influência de espécies de ambientes lênticos. A composição taxonômica e características de estrutura de comunidades, especialmente as espécies dominantes, refletem, ainda, diferenças ecológicas relacionadas às duas seções amostradas, como a maior complexidade de habitats da estação meandrante. Quanto à fidelidade quantitativa, 60% das espécies encontradas vivas também foram encontradas mortas e 47,3% das espécies encontradas mortas também foram encontras vivas em escala de rio. Porém, 72% dos exemplares coletados mortos são representantes de espécies encontradas vivas. Essa percentagem alta pode estar relacionada à boa correlação entre o ranking de dominância das associações vivas e mortas e, conseqüentemente, as espécies dominantes das tanatocenoses podem ser utilizadas para inferir características ecológicas das biocenoses. Todos os índices analisados variaram muito em escala local (quadrat e seus valores são mais aproximados aos de outros, registrados em estudos prévios, apenas quando analisados em escala mais ampla (seção, área total.

  16. [Structural variability of the lithorheophile macrobenthos communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoprud, M V

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the abundance of taxa and life forms of lithorheophile macrobenthos and its variability were studied based on 200 quantitative samples from six territories of the Palaearctic (Moscow province, northwestern Caucasus, eastern Carpathians, northern Karelia, South Urals, and Altai mountains). The set of taxa predominant in the communities and their ecology are described. It is found that community structure varies strongly, depending on the characteristics of each region, on the size of the watercourse, and on the season. Six types of biocenoses are recognized by means of the Braun-Blanquet method, each characterized by its peculiar set of predominant life forms and families rather similar in different territories. The differences between these types are related to the size and the hydrological conditions of the watercourse. Biocenosis 1 is typical to smal brooks (up to 0.01-0.1 m3/s), characterised by the predominance of detritophagous animals non-specific to the type of food (Gammarus, Nemoura, Limnephilidae). In biocenosis 2a (large brooks with water flow 0.03-0.3 m3/s and velocity 0.1-0.3 m/s), almost immobile shell scrapers (Ancylus, Silo, Agapetes, Glossosoma) are predominant. Biocenosis 2b (large brooks with velocity 0.3-0.5 m/s) have a more or less balanced set of fundamental lithorheophile life forms. Biocenosis 2c (large mountain brooks with velocity 0.5-1 m/s) is characterised by specialized scrapers of the rapids (Epeorus and Diomesa) and filterers (Simuliidae). In biocenosis 3 (small rivers), sedentary filterers (Hydropsychidae, Simulliidae) are predominant; scrapers also play a significant role. Biocenosis 4 (rivers with water flow more than 3 m3/s, thick incrustations, and silted stones on the bottom) has predominant filterers (Hydropsychidae) and vermiform algophagous animals inside the incrustations (Orthocladius, Psychomyia). Significant variability in community structure unrelated to the environmental factors is revealed

  17. THE OVERLOOKED ECOSYSTEM DRIVING FORCE IN NON-EUTROPHICATED FRESHWATER SYSTEMS: DISSOLVED HUMIC SUBSTANCES-A SHORT REVIEW AND OUTLOOK%非富营养化淡水系统中被忽略的生态系统驱动因素:可溶性腐殖质-简要的回顾与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian E.W.Steinberg

    2006-01-01

    This review starts with the description of the quantitative significance of dissolved organic material in general and dissolved humic substances (HS) in particular in various ecosystems. Despite their high quantities, the knowledge about the role of HS is still very low and full of old, but still recycled paradigms. HS are thought to be inert or at least refractory and too large to be taken up by aquatic organisms. Instead, I present evidence that dissolved HS that mainly derives from the terrestrial environment, are taken up and directly and/or indirectly interfere with freshwater organisms and, thus, structure biocenoses.Relatively well known is in the meantime the fuelling function of allochthonous HS, which, upon irradiation, release fatty acids, which serve as substrates for microbial growth. This is an indirect effect of HS. Microbes, in turn, are food for mixotrophic algae and (heterotrophic) zooplankton. Thus, non-eutrophicated freshwaters are net-heterotrophic, meaning that respiration exceeds primary production. Furthermore, model calculations exemplify that only a very small portion of the terrestrial production is sufficient to cause net-heterotrophy in these freshwater bodies. But, recent papers show also that due to different stoichiometries the maximal plankton biomass production with algae or mixotrophs is higher than with bacteria.Very recently, several direct effects of HS have been elucidated. Among them are: induction of chaperons ( stress shock proteins), induction and modulation of biotransformation enzymes, modulation (mainly inhibition) of photosynthetic oxygen release of aquatic plants, production of an internal oxidative stress, modulation of the offspring numbers in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, feminization of fish and amphibs, interference within the thyroid system, and action as chemical attractant to C. elegans.We are still in the phase of identifying the various physiological, biochemical, and molecular-biological effects

  18. Estudos aplicados à recuperação biológica da Baía de Guanabara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejeune P. H. de Oliveira

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuamos observações sobre as biocenoses litorâneas, na parte oeste do Rio de Janeiro, na Enseada mais poluída, onde está a ilha do Pinheiro. Chegamos à conclusão que há graus de estragos acima dos verificados em publicações anteriores, os 7º, 8º, 9º e 10º graus de estragos, com desaparecimento de todas cinturas vegetais. Anotamos os assoreamentos; devido a aterros artificiais na vizinhança, a lama subiu muito, meio metro em 20 anos, ou seja 2,5 centímetros por ano. Apresentamos as alterações ecológicas resultantes do assoreamento, mostramos a mudança de vários nichos de alguns componentes do manguezal. Fizemos 4 mapas ecológicos, em local que constitui a média representativa do que se passou na Enseada de Inhaúma nesses últimos 5 anos. Chegamos a índices de recuperação de zonações do manguezal, como 60/1 para o Avicennietum; e nenhum para o Laguncularietum, comunidade de "mangues mansos" que está em regressão; Houve regeneração das populações de caranguejos Ucides e Cardisoma que voltaram a habitar a Ilha do Pinheiro. Mostramos uma correlação entre o guaiamu e a aroeira da praia, Schinus. Concluímos que: podem ser usadas as técnicas de recuperação de poluição para esses caranguejos e guaiamus, para a alimentação humana, assim como para peixes apanhados em alagados de manguezais poluídos. O material pescado no Rio de Janeiro, tendo algas do gênero Oscillatoria, apresenta um cheiro de urina pútrida, bem como outros cheiros, mas pode ser recuperado para a alimentação humana. Damos sugestões para se utilizar cercados de vegetação de manguezal contra a poluição em locais apropriados, alagados com camarões e peixes, como usam-se na Ásia. As plantas utilizadas baseiam-se no estudo ecológico que estabelece o nicho apropriado a cada uma delas, resistente á poluição, e que pode combater alguns estragos; entre elas as Iresine e as do gênero Avicennia, pois elas promoveram uma pequena

  19. The number and biomass of microorganisms in ancient buried and recent chernozems under different land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskaya, L. M.; Prikhod'ko, V. E.; Lomakin, D. G.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The size, number, and biomass of bacteria and microscopic fungi were studied in chernozems of different land uses (forest, fallow, pasture, and cropland), in paleosols under mounds of different ages in the territories adjacent to the background recent chernozems; and in the cultural layer of an ancient settlement of the Bronze Age, Early Iron Age, and Early Middle Age (4100-1050 years ago). The method of cascade filtration revealed that bacterial cells had a diameter from 0.1 to 1.85 μm; their average volume varied from 0.2 to 1.1 μm3. Large bacterial cells predominated in the soils of natural biocenoses; fine cells were dominants in the arable soils and their ancient analogues. The bacterial biomass counted by the method of cascade filtration was first found to be 10-380 times greater than that determined by luminescence microscopy. The maximal bacterial biomass (350-700 μg/g) was found in the soils of the birch forest edge (~80-year-old) and under the 80-year-old fallow. In the soils of the 15-20 year-old fallows and pastures, the bacterial biomass was 110-180 μg/g; in the arable soils and soils under the mounds, it was 80-130 and 30-130 μg/g, respectively. The same sequence was recorded in soils for the content of fungal mycelium and spores, which predominated over the bacterial mass. With the increasing age of the buried paleosols from 1100 to 3900 years, the share of the biomass of fungal spores increased in the total fungal and total microbial biomasses. In the cultural layer of the Berezovaya Luka (Altai region) settlement that had been functioning about 4000 years ago, the maximal biomass and number of fungal spores and the average biomass of bacteria and fungal mycelium comparable to that in the studied soils were revealed. In this cultural layer, the organic matter content was low (Corg, 0.4%), and the content of available phosphorus was high (P2O5, 17 mg/g). These facts attest to the significant saturation of this layer with microbial cenoses 4000

  20. Influence of benthic macro-invertebrate bioturbation on the biogeochemical behaviour of uranium within freshwater sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In freshwater ecosystems, sediments act as an accumulation compartment for metallic pollutants as uranium. Secondary, there can also represent endogenous sources of contamination by resuspension (e.g. flood, bioturbation) or changes of metal speciation that acts upon their bioavailability. Indeed, metallic compounds can be transformed in more or less toxic or inert compounds through physico-chemical (e.g. pH, redox conditions, ionic force) and microbiological variations. These conditions are themselves under the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate activities via bioturbation processes. The main objective of this PhD was to determinate the influence of two benthic macro-invertebrate species (Chironomus riparius and Tubifex tubifex) on the distribution and the transfers of uranium within freshwater sediments. To reach this goal, laboratory experiments were performed in order to (i) assess the effects of uranium on benthic macro-invertebrates, more particularly on their bioturbation activity, (ii) determine the influence of these organisms on uranium behaviour through high resolution physico-chemical measurements (e.g. oxygen optodes, DET gel probes), and (iii) estimate the consequences of these interactions on pelagic organisms via genotoxicity measurements (micronuclei assay and molecular bio-markers analysis on Xenopus laevis). The results demonstrate that bioturbation intensity of macro-invertebrates can be affected in uranium-contaminated sediments, but the two species studied in this work show a relative tolerance. For high uranium concentrations (>100 times the geochemical background level), corresponding however to realistic concentrations in highly contaminated sites, T. tubifex worms are able to maintain a sufficient bioturbation activity that induces a high remobilization of uranium initially associated with sediments to the overlying water (factor 2 to 10). That represents therefore a potential risk for the remaining aquatic biocenose. However, by

  1. Focos inveterados de peste no Brasil. A propósito de um pequeno surto da doença ocorrido recentemente no município de Nova Friburgo, Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodrigues Coura

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudando uma microepidemia de peste ocorrida recentemente na localidade denominada Barracão dos Mendes, no município de Nova Friburgo, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, na qual das 8 pessoas acometidas pela doença 2 vieram a falecer, os autores analisam, à luz dos conhecimentos atuais, o problema da persistência dos chamados "focos inveterados" de peste no Brasil, entre os quais situa-se uma área limitada no município fluminense de Teresópolis com a ocorrência de pequenos surtos em 1941, 1952, 1960 e o atual em abril/maio de 1967, na fronteira de Nova Friburgo com aquele município. Após uma introdução em que fazem um esbôço histórico da penetração da peste no continente sul-americano, de acôrdo com conhecimentos vigentes, relembram a invasão das cidades litorâneas brasileiras pela doença, que depois veio a fixar-se no interior do País, onde se mantem em focos de resistência, com surtos de evolução cíclica. Em seguida estudam minuciosamente do ponto de vista clínico e laboratorial os 6 pacientes sobreviventes da recente micro-epidemia, discutindo a situação atual e as perspectivas futuras de pesquisa e controle dos focos residuais da doença no Brasil. Finalmente, dando especial ênfase ao problema da persistência, limitação geográpca e aparente autonomia dos diversos focos de peste no Brasil, consideram-nos perfeitamente dentro da concepção dos "focos naturais circunscritos" de Pavlovsky. Entretanto, acreditam os autores que na dependência de condições ecológicas peculiares e de "estímulos" que regulam a movimentação e interrelações das diversas espécies da fauna componente da biocenose regional. possa haver "irradiação adaptativa", com localização dêsses focos em áreas vizinhas e ocorrência de surtos "salpicados" da doença, aparentemente independentes, porém mantendo-se sempre dentro da mesma área fisiográfica.

  2. Hydro biological investigations of lake Drukshiai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purposes of this research were to investigate changes in the physical, chemical and tropic conditions of Lake Drukshiai caused by the combined effect of Ignalina NPP and how it effects on structures and function of biocenoses; to estimate the influence of phytocenoses, zoocenoses and bacteriocenoses on the quality of water in Lake Drukshiai; to estimate the eco toxicological state of Lake Drukshiai. According to the complex hydro biological investigations on Lake Drukshiai - Ignalina NPP cooler great changes in planktonic organism community, tendencies of those changes in different ecological zones were evaluated in 1993 - 1997. The amount of species of most dominant planktonic organisms in 1993 - 1997 decreased 2-3 times in comparison with that before Ignalina NPP operation: phytoplankton from 116 to 40 - 50, zooplankton - from 233 to 139. The organic matter increasing tendency was determined in bottom sediments of the lake. The highest amount of it was evaluated in the south - eastern part of the lake. 69 water macrophyte species were found in bottom sediments during the investigation period. 16 species were not found in this lake earlier. Abundance of filamentous green algae was registered.The rates of fish communities successional transformation were ten times in excess of those of the given processes in natural lakes. Moreover the comparison of results on Lake Drukshiai bioindication analysis with changes of comparable bio markers which were obtained from other water systems of Lithuania, Switzerland, Sweden and Poland, including those with active nuclear power plants in their environment was carried out. It was determined that the functional and structural changes in Lake Drukshiai biota are mostly caused by chemical pollution. It was found out that the frequency of cytogenetic damage emerged as a specific radionuclide - caused effect in aquatic organisms inhabiting Lake Drukshiai, is slightly above the background level and is 5 times lower than the same

  3. Seasonal dynamics of surface chlorophyll concentration and sea surface temperature, as indicator of hydrological structure of the ocean (by satellite data)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevyrnogov, Anatoly; Vysotskaya, Galina

    Continuous monitoring of phytopigment concentrations and sea surface temperature in the ocean by space-borne methods makes possible to estimate ecological condition of biocenoses in critical areas. Unlike land vegetation, hydrological processes largely determine phytoplank-ton dynamics, which may be either recurrent or random. The types of chlorophyll concentration dynamics and sea surface temperature can manifest as zones quasistationary by seasonal dynamics, quasistationary areas (QSA). In the papers of the authors (A. Shevyrnogov, G. Vysotskaya, E. Shevyrnogov, A study of the stationary and the anomalous in the ocean surface chlorophyll distribution by satellite data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 25, №7-8, pp. 1383-1387, April 2004 & A. P. Shevyrnogov, G. S. Vysotskaya, J. I. Gitelson, Quasistationary areas of chlorophyll concentra-tion in the world ocean as observed satellite data Advances in Space Research, Volume 18, Issue 7, Pages 129-132, 1996) existence of zones, which are quasi-stationary with similar seasonal dynamics of chlorophyll concentration at surface layer of ocean, was shown. Results were obtained on the base of processing of time series of satellite images SeaWiFS. It was shown that fronts and frontal zones coincide with dividing lines between quasi-stationary are-as, especially in areas of large oceanic streams. To study the dynamics of the ocean for the period from 1985 through 2012 we used data on the temperature of the surface layer of the ocean and chlorophyll concentration (AVHRR, SeaWiFS and MODIS). Biota of surface oceanic layer is more stable in comparison with quickly changing surface tem-perature. It gives a possibility to circumvent influence of high-frequency component (for exam-ple, a diurnal cycle) in investigation of dynamics of spatial distribution of surface streams. In addition, an analyses of nonstable ocean productivity phenomena, stood out time series of satellite images, showed existence of areas with

  4. Climate biomonitoring. Assessing climate change and its impacts on the biosphere. New focus of the working group bioindication/assessment of effects; Klima-Biomonitoring: Nachweis des Klimawandels und dessen Folgen fuer die belebte Umwelt. Neuer Schwerpunkt des Arbeitskreises Bioindikation/Wirkungsermittlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Harald [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rammert, Uwe [Landesamt fuer Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und laendliche Raeume Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany); Schroeder, Winfried [Hochschule Vechta (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie; Wolf, Helmut [Hessisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt und Geologie, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    for an assessment of climate change impacts on the biosphere. The relevance of the proposed approach is shown by an overview about the data sources as well as a presentation of first evaluation results. The need for further research and development and proposals for an enhancement of data provision and data exchange are given. Examples for the use and optimization of the method as well as further possibilities of development and ways to close knowledge gaps will be elaborated in further publications. Discussion: This method provides the basis for a description of the changes caused by climate change as well as the development of scenarios and prognoses for a future assessment of climate change impacts. Furthermore, the secondary effects of climate change can be assessed using bioindication, especially the effectiveness of adaptation measures. For some climate bioindicators, the causal link between climate change effects and indicator response are sufficiently proven (e.g. the reaction of spring time plant phenology), other cases still require cause effect studies to separate climate effects from those of other agents. The findings from climate biomonitoring are meant to be the basis for activities in order to develop both adequate strategies for adaptation and measures to avoid or to mitigate the effects of climate change. Also an appropriate advice for politicians, information of the public and the fulfillment of reporting obligations are intended. Conclusions: Climate biomonitoring is shown to be an efficient method to demonstrate climate change impacts in especially sensitive areas of Germany concerning habitats, biocenoses and species distribution. First evaluations have already proven effects of climate change on the biotic environment. Since several years already, plant phenology provides valuable background data. It is possible to supplement these background data by joining them spatially with data from other relevant monitoring programs and other information