Sample records for biocenoses

  1. Nitrogen and amino acids content in lake Drukshyaj plancton organisms biocenoses grown in model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevsh, A.V.; Budrene, S.F.; Yankyavichyus, K.K.


    Biocenoses growth in lake Drukshyaj (from 1984 water reservoir of the Ignalina NPP) collected in July 1985 and grown in 2 various in composition culture media: in medium close in composition of main minerals to water of high capacity reservoir (medium 1) and in medium Fitzjarld (medium 2), has shown that the medium affects the component composition of plancton, as well as dominating types of algae. Phytoplancton was dominating component in biomass in both media. In medium 1 dominate green and diatoms, in medium 2 - blue-green algae. Content of proteins and amino acids in biomass changed depending on duration of biocenoses growth when dominating green and diatoms in biocenoses mass grown in medium 1, it reached maximum on the 15th day, and when dominating blue-green algae in biocenoses biomass grown in medium 2 - on the 30th day

  2. Oceurrence of fungi degrading aniline and its derivatives in biocenoses of wastewater treatment systems

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    Tomasz Słomczyński


    Full Text Available It has been found that numerous yeast-like microorganisms from the genera Geotrichum, Trichmporon, Candida, Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces occurring in wastewater treatment systems biocenoses arę able to utilize aniline, p-nitroaniline and acetanilide as a sole C-source. High active in this respect were strains belonging to the species of Geoirichum candidum, G. sericeum and Candida boidinii.

  3. Comparison of bioindicator eukaryotes of activated sludge biocenoses on two water-treatment plants: a case study

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    Achmadulina Farida Y.


    Full Text Available Activated sludge biocenoses were compared on waste-water treatment plants in the city of Kazan, Russian Federation and the city of Teplice, Czech Republic. Based on Palia-Kovnatski index, Acanthamoeba in Kazan, Epistylis in Teplice, and Acanthamoeba and Centropyxis were dominant genera in both plants. The major subdominant generas identified were Arcella, Opercularia and Aspidisca. This indicates high nitrification ability, high water purification potential and matured activated sludge. Chemical composition of the waste-water was identified as the main factor determining the sludge biocenoses diversity. Higher sludge biodiversity (Shannon, Margalef, and Sorensen indexes was found in Kazan corresponding to more concentrated inflow water.

  4. [Coccidies genus Eimeria as a bioindicator of radioactive pollution of the biocenose]. (United States)

    Pel'gunov, A N


    The data on coccidies of rodents were collected in Chernobil (1989-1991) and in the regions of radioactive pollution in the Bryansk region of Russia (1992-1999). The surface pollution of experimental plots was different and come from 0.11 to 11.8 MBq/m2. 2185 rodent were examined in all. Thirteen types of coccidies p. Eimeria were found out in 525 small animals. The analysis of changes in morphological characters and oocysts sporulation in dependence of the level of radioactive pollution of biocenose was carried out. It was found out that parametric signs (length, width and form index of oocysts) were independent from radioactive pollution. At the some time the radioactive pollution renders a significant influence on the nonparametric signs (different types of capsule deformation and internal texture of oocysts) and the process of sporulation. With the increase of radioactive pollution the part of nonsporulated oocycts increased and the quantity of oocysts, corresponding to the description of given type (normal), decreased. This dependence is well described by the equation of logarithmic regression, that allows to use this indexes in the bioindication of the radioactive pollution of the biocenose.

  5. Characterization of biocenoses in the storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of Mayak PA. Initial descriptive report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryakhin, E.A.; Mokrov, Yu.G.; Tryapitsina, G.A.; Ivanov, I.A.; Osipov, D.I.; Atamanyuk, N.I.; Deryabina, L.V.; Shaposhnikova, I.A.; Shishkina, E.A.; Obvintseva, N.A.; Egoreichenkov, E.A.; Styazhkina, E.V.; Osipova, O.F.; Mogilnikova, N.I.; Andreev, S.S.; Tarasov, O.V.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Trapeznikov, A.V.; Akleyev, A.V.


    As a result of operation of the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, an enterprise for production and separation of weapon-grade plutonium in the Soviet Union, ecosystems of a number of water bodies have been radioactively contaminated. The article presents information about the current state of ecosystems of 6 special industrial storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive waste from Mayak PA: reservoirs R-3, R-4, R-9, R-10, R-11 and R-17. At present the excess of the radionuclide content in the water of the studied reservoirs and comparison reservoirs (Shershnyovskoye and Beloyarskoye reservoirs) is 9 orders of magnitude for 90 Sr and 137 Cs, and 6 orders of magnitude for alpha-emitting radionuclides. According to the level of radioactive contamination, the reservoirs of the Mayak PA could be arranged in the ascending order as follows: R-11, R-10, R-4, R-3, R-17 and R-9. In 2007–2012 research of the status of the biocenoses of these reservoirs in terms of phytoplankton, zooplankton, bacterioplankton, zoobenthos, aquatic plants, ichthyofauna, avifauna parameters was performed. The conducted studies revealed decrease in species diversity in reservoirs with the highest levels of radioactive and chemical contamination. This article is an initial descriptive report on the status of the biocenoses of radioactively contaminated reservoirs of the Mayak PA, and is the first article in a series of publications devoted to the studies of the reaction of biocenoses of the fresh-water reservoirs of the Mayak PA to a combination of natural and man-made factors, including chronic radiation exposure. - Highlights: • The current state of storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive waste of the Mayak Production Association is presented. • Radionuclides contents in water and sediments of the reservoirs of Mayak PA are presented. • The status of the major ecological groups of hydrobionts of the given reservoirs is described.

  6. Biocenoses of benthic foraminifera of the Aveiro Continental Shelf (Portugal: influence of the upwelling events and other shelf processes

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    Maria Virgínia Alves Martins


    Full Text Available This work aims to compare the dimensions and composition of benthic foraminiferal biocenoses (living specimens during two summer sampling events. Forty-four sediment samples were collected on the Aveiro Continental Shelf (Center of Portugal (latitude of 40º30'N-40º50'N, longitude of 8º46'W-9º20'W for granulometry, total organic matter (TOM and living foraminiferal analyses. The sediment samples were collected during summers of 1994 and 1995, on stations located along transects (east-west direction and between the bathymetries of 10-200 m. During the sampling campaigns, measurements of salinity, temperature and density data were recorded in the water column. The results showed that the living assemblages were mainly found in stations located between 20-80 m depth. The abundance of living foraminifera was generally reduced at depths <20 m in the so-called “coastal deposits”, where the sediments are frequently remobilized and transported by the littoral drift. Living benthic foraminiferal densities were also reduced in stations at 80-200 m depth, despite the high sedimentary TOM contents. Results obtained in this work indicate that, in this marine setting, the most determinant factors for the dimension and composition of living foraminifera are not the sediments’ granulometry and organic matter content. In fact, the coastal dynamics, sediment stability, availability of quality food, among other factors, such as the bottom salinity oscillations and their combination, should better explain the abundance of living foraminifera and the biocenoses composition.

  7. Research on the impact of polyhexamethyleneguanidine on the plant component of biocenoses

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    A. V. Lysytsya


    Urtica dioica, Artemisia absinthium, Taraxacum officinale and Poa angustifolia the coefficients of transfer of the preparation from the surface of plants to internal tissues did not exceed 0.01%. And the coefficients of transfer of PHMG from soil to plants were in the range of 0.004–0.008%. We conducted environmental monitoring in Rivne region during 2011–2015. It showed that numerous cases of use of PGMG drugs for disinfection of various agricultural objects did not lead to any noticeable negative consequences for natural biocenoses. Consequently, we can assume that the preparations of PНMG do not pose a serious threat to the vegetative component of ecosystems. Migration of the drug is minimal in food chains in soil and water.


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    M. Schletterer


    Full Text Available Within the joint Russian-Austrian monitoring programme “REFCOND_VOLGA (2006 – 20XX”, monitoring sites were established in the headwaters of the Volga (Tver Region. River Tudovka, a right tributary to the Volga River, was included within this monitoring programme as its catchment is partly protected and has only few anthropogenic activities. The monitoring activities include physico-chemical and hydraulic parameters as well as biota with a focus is on benthic organisms (diatoms and macrozoobenthos. In this work, the longitudinal patterns in community structure are classified in the lowland river Tudovka using a novel feature-based approach taken from signal processing theory. The method first clusters field sampling data into longitudinal classes (upper, middle, lower course. Community features based on the relative frequency of individual species occurring per class are then generated. We apply both generative and discriminative classification methods. The application of generative methods provides data models which predict the probability of a new sample to belong to an existing class. In contrast, discriminative approaches search for differences between classes and allocate new data accordingly. Leveraging both methods allows for the creation of stable classifications. On this basis we show how the community features can be used to predict the longitudinal class. The community features approach also allows for a robust cross-comparison of investigation reaches over time. In cases where suitable long-term data set are available, predictive models using this approach can also be developed.

  9. Coccidies genus Eimeria as bioindicator of radioactive pollution of the biocenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pel'gunov, A.N.


    The effect of ecosystems contamination on morphological changes and sporulation of oocytes of Coccidae r. Eimeria, which are rodent parasites, is analyzed. Coccidae of rodents were collected in Chernobyl (1989-1991) and the Bryansk region of Russia (1992-1999). The surface contamination of experimental plots was varied from 0.11 to 11.8 MBq/m 2 . It was found that parametric sings (size and form index of oocytes) were independent from contamination level. Whereas nonparametric sings (deformations of oocytes shells and internal structure) and sporulatio process depend on contamination levels. The part of nonsporulated oocytes increased with contamination increasing but the the quantity of oocytes corresponding to the description of given type (norm) decreased. The dependence is well described by the logarithmic regression equation that allows to use these indexes for biological indication of ecosystem contamination [ru

  10. Effects of thermal effluents from the Unterweser reactor (KKU) on biocenoses in the Unterweser. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vobach, M.; Feldt, W.


    Between August 1975 and November 1982, the influence of thermal pollution in the biocenosis of the Unterweser from cooling water dischanged by the Unterweser reactor was investigated. The state of the parts of the river not yet stressed by cooling water is compared with conditions after the start-up of the reactor (September 1978). The seasonal cycle of water temperature has not changed after the start-up as compared to the time before. A warming of the river water because of cooling water discharged from the reactor is recognizable in the area immediately surrounding the month of the discharge system. Benthal investigations show the composition of species and number of individuals to be unchanged after the start-up of the reactor. Phytoplankton, too, continues to have its population maximum in May and August. Zooplankton, being present abundantly and in clusters, has retained its original composition of species. Now as before the reactor's start-up, flounder, smelt, stickleback, sprat and gudgeon which between them account for 97 per cent of the total catch, continue to be the five major fish species. Variations in the composition of catch are not to be explained by changes of temperature. The slight temperature increase does not modify the spectrum of species; there is no temperature stimulus. The seasonal cycle of water temperatures, which are important for a diapause, i.e. a slowing in the developmental cycle with a reduced metabolism, thus safeguarding the survival of certain species, do continue to occur. Any observed changes are to be interpreted as expressions of longer-term biological cycles. (orig./BBR) [de

  11. The Role of Ornitofauna in the Ecological Assessment of Turyanchay State Nature Preserve Biocenoses

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    Vahid Farzaliyev


    Full Text Available Floristic composition of the vegetation of the reserve is analyzed in the article. The effect of vegetation on the formation of ornitocomplexes in the territory of reserve and their interaction are interpreted. The role of ornitofauna in the activity, development and health of vegetation here is discussed. For the revelation and assessment of phytosenoses, their stability and changes in the territory of reserve birds as the most appropriate indicators for the ecological monitoring and the concrete species are proposed.

  12. The functional role of microorganisms in soil biocenoses in Ignalina NPP region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdanavichiene, Z.; Budavichiene, I.; Ramanauskiene, Z.


    Studies on group structure of soil microorganisms as well as regularities of changes in cellulotic activity in marsh biotopes of pine and birch forests in the littoral district of lake Drukshiai were carried out. The activity and directness of microorganisms, as well as dissociation rate of cellulose in soil depending on the changes of climatic conditions were evaluated. The effect of climate factors and thermal pollution on the activity of microorganisms and rate of cellulose degradation in soil was revealed in the standard area (Shashkai) near the disposal canal of Ignalina NPP. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Program GICC - AQUABIO. Possible consequences of the climatic change on the aquatic and river french biocenoses. Final report; Programme GICC - AQUABIO. Consequences potentielles du changement climatique sur les biocenoses aquatiques et riveraines francaises. Rapport final

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    Pont, D [Lyon-1 Univ., CNRS UMR 5023, Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Fluviaux, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)


    The consequences of the climatic change can modify the ecosystems. The aim of this research program is to analyze the impacts of the climatic change on the propagation of the exotic species in France in aquatic and river environment, the population of macro invertebrates and fishes in the french rivers and the socio economic challenges. The methodology is based on the simulation from the exploitation of great data bases and the combination of many approaches at different scales. (A.L.B.)

  14. Program GICC - AQUABIO. Possible consequences of the climatic change on the aquatic and river french biocenoses. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pont, D.


    The consequences of the climatic change can modify the ecosystems. The aim of this research program is to analyze the impacts of the climatic change on the propagation of the exotic species in France in aquatic and river environment, the population of macro invertebrates and fishes in the french rivers and the socio economic challenges. The methodology is based on the simulation from the exploitation of great data bases and the combination of many approaches at different scales. (A.L.B.)

  15. Effects of waste heat from Unterweser nuclear power plant on the biocenoses of the lower Weser river. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vobach, M.; Feldt, W.


    After the commissioning of the power station, investigations were carried out on th fish, the fauna of benthos, the phytoplankton and zooplankton of the Lower Weser from November 1978 to November 1982. Furthermore the annual average of headwater discharge rate and the monthly average of water temperature, oxygen content and salt content were determined. This report completes the investigations carried out after the commissioning of the nuclear power station Unterweser (KKU). The effect of sewage effluent heat of the nuclear power station Unterweser on the biocenosis is presented in a third volume after comparing the results of the submitted report with those of the report on the period before the commissioning of the nuclear power station KKU (1). (orig./MG) [de

  16. Disturbances of bird embryo development in fall-out contaminated biocenoses of the Chernobyl NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinskaya, I.A.; Gaber, N.A.


    Special features of bird reproduction in Chernobyl 30-km zone are analyzed. On the areas with higher degree of contamination a decrease of hatching indices, an increase of both embryo death-rate and embryo per cent of inherent disorders have been noticed. The more frequent cases of inherent disorders for different bird species have been considered. The trend to a bird reproduction successfulness decrease has been fixed

  17. V.I. Vernadskiy study of biochemical cycles and role of biocenoses trophic structure in their stabilization under background conditions and at chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezel, V.S.; Bel'skij, E.A.; Bel'skaya, E.A.; Zhujkova, T.V.; Mukhacheva, S.V.; Nesterkov, A.V.


    In the present report the participation of different trophic belonging organisms in biogeochemical cycles at the pollution of the environment by aerogenic emissions of metallurgical enterprises are discussed. Investigation in and around southern taiga of Middle Ural in liable to heavy metals contamination areas was made. Several areas with different level of soil contamination from background uncontaminated (at a distance 20-30 km from emission source) to buffer (4-7 km) and impact (1-2 km) were separated out. Mechanism of chemical elements accumulation by different components of terrestrial ecosystems that the aggregate of trophic levels present: depository environment (soil), producers (plants), consumers of several levels (phytophages, zoophages) was studied. Accumulation of chemical elements was considered in biomass of trophic levels both with content of chemical elements in the soil on a regional background level and by their intensive contamination. The findings enable to evaluate the quantity of chemical elements involved in biogenic cycles by different trophic belonging organisms

  18. Abstracts of papers of International Meeting 'Ecological status of territories polluted by radionuclides'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The collection contains the results of investigations implemented on the territories of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia within the realization of Chernobyl Ecological Science Network: dynamics of radionuclides migration in the environment, state of plant community on the areas polluted by radionuclides, biological changes of biocenoses, metabolic and genetic effects of Chernobyl catastrophe (author)

  19. Thermal pollution of rivers and reservoirs by discharges of heated water from thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, I.


    The problems are discussed of the thermal pollution of rivers and water reservoirs by discharges of heated water from thermal and nuclear power plants. The problems concerned are quantitative and qualitative changes in biocenoses, the disturbance or extinction of flora and fauna, physiological changes in organisms and changes in the hydrochemical regime. (Z.M.)

  20. Bioindication and ecological rate setting with radioecology taken as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivolutskij, D.A.; Tikhomirov, F.A.; Fedorov, E.A.; Smirnov, E.G.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.


    Necessity in ecological rate setting of technogenic contaminations (including radionuclides) in topsoil and soils is substantiated. Bioindication of technogenic contaminations with provision for community of distribution and migration of contaminating substances in topsoil and their effect on organisms, populations and biocenoses is suggested as one of approaches to ecological rate setting. General problems of methodology and objects of ecological rate setting in phytocenoses and zoocenoses are discussed. Basic principles and criteria of rate setting of contaminating substance content in soils are considered with provision for regional soil-climatic conditions and contaminating substance properties


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    Alina - Mihaela Truţă


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to determine the quality of Bratia River. The present paper was based on the bibliographic material as well as the field research carried out during 2016-2017. The research objectives were the following: identification of qualitative and quantitative structure of phytobenthic biocenoses in the established monitoring points; determination of the phytoplankton algae families in the monitoring stations; identification of the structure of benthic biocenoses in the monitoring points; establishing saprobity indices for each species identified and incorporation of the monitoring sections into the appropriate saprobity class; determining the quality of Bratia River according to the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EU. We have identified 54 species in the phytobenthonic samples, grouped in three phyla: Cyanobacteria, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta. We have also identified 47 species in the structure of benthic zoocenosis belonging to 25 families from 8 genera. The main benthic invertebrate groups in the Bratia River were: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Chironomidae, Trichoptera, and Gammaridae. Oboarele Mari and Gămăceşti recorded a high quality ecological status, while Berevoiesti station had a good ecological status.

  2. Bacterial communities in the fruit bodies of ground basidiomycetes (United States)

    Zagryadskaya, Yu. A.; Lysak, L. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.


    Fruit bodies of basidiomycetes at different stages of decomposition serve as specific habitats in forest biocenoses for bacteria and differ significantly with respect to the total bacterial population and abundance of particular bacterial genera. A significant increase in the total bacterial population estimated by the direct microscopic method with acridine orange staining and in the population of saprotrophic bacteria (inoculation of glucose peptone yeast agar) in fruit bodies of basidiomycetes Armillaria mellea and Coprinus comatus was recorded at the final stage of their decomposition in comparison with the initial stage. Gramnegative bacteria predominated in the tissues of fruit bodies at all the stages of decomposition and were represented at the final stage by the Aeromonas, Vibrio, and Pseudomonas genera (for fruit bodies of A. mellea) the Pseudomonas genus (for fruit bodies of C. comatus). The potential influence of bacterial communities in the fruit bodies of soil basidiomycetes on the formation of bacterial communities in the upper soil horizons in forest biocenoses is discussed. The loci connected with the development and decomposition of fruit bodies of basidiomycetes on the soil surface are promising for targeted search of Gram-negative bacteria, the important objects of biotechnology.

  3. Soil nematode community under the non-native trees in the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University

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    Sushchuk Anna


    Full Text Available The particularities of soil nematode communities of the rhizosphere of non-native trees were studied in the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University (Republic of Karelia. Taxonomic diversity, abundance, community structure and ecological indices derived from nematode fauna analysis were used as the evaluation parameters. Nematode fauna included 51 genera, 6 of them were plant parasitic. The dominant eco-trophic group in the nematode community structure of coniferous trees was bacterial feeders; fungal feeders in most cases were observed in the second numbers. The contribution of bacterial feeders was decreased and plant parasites were increased in eco-trophic structure of nematode communities of deciduous trees in compared with coniferous trees. Analysis of ecological indices showed that the state of soil nematode communities reflects complex, structured (stable soil food web in the biocenoses with deciduous trees, and degraded (basal food web – under coniferous trees.

  4. Influence on the long-term fertilizing on radioactivity soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubisic, M.; Stevanovic, D.; Stojanovic, M.; Vuletic, V.; Pantelic, G.


    Researching in this work need to give the answer in which degree application the mineral fertilizers, especially phosphate, contribute to the contamination of a soil because of long-term continually fertilizing (35 years) and differences of adopting from the corn culture and wheat nursing in monocultures. Like control, it is made measuring activity of radionuclides of a soil on experimental variety where wasn't fertilizing during the making the experiment, separately for both cultures. Based on that it is given accent only on chronic contamination of a soil by radionuclides by application mineral fertilizers at once and transport in the system of soil of different biocenoses. Based on measuring activity 40K, 137Cs, 238U, 235U, 226Ra, 232Th, 212Pb it is fortified differences in concentration of the activity of radionuclides of uranium row between the samples of smonica, fertilized and non-fertilized in the longer period. (author) [sr


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    Full Text Available Generally, mountains determine the characteristics of particular areas, because of the island phenomenon they cause. However, the geological origins of mountains are multiple and they are located in different climatic regions. Nevertheless, in all aspects they reflect the basic elements of the local biologic unit. The shapes, climates, diverse water resources, biocenoses and the generated soils are the different components that determine, through their dynamic interaction, the “Mountain” ecosystem. Tectonic subduction processes lead to the development of islands such as Martinique, whose basic structure consists of a series of mountains (among them Mount Pele. Like the topographic divisions, the local micro-climates, water courses, different soils (themselves the consequences of the presence of the mountain itself and successive volcanic eruptions determine, over time, the organization of the diverse vegetal entities.

  6. Earthworm avoidance test for soil assessments. An alternative for acute and reproduction tests

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    Hund-Rinke, K.; Wiechering, H. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Umweltchemie und Oekotoxikologie, Schmallenberg (Germany)


    For ecotoxicological assessments of contaminated or remediated soils pointing to the habitat function of soils for biocenoses, standardized tests with earthworms (acute test, reproduction test) are available among others. Tests used for routine applications should be sensitive and indicate impacts on test organisms after short test periods. The usually applied earthworm tests do not satisfactorily fulfil these criteria. Therefore, in the present work, a behavioural test with earthworms (test criterion: avoidance) was investigated in detail using uncontaminated, artificially contaminated and originally contaminated soils. It was demonstrated that the avoidance behaviour is primarily determined by pollutants, and not by chemical-physical soil properties. The sensitivity of the presented test reaches the sensitivity of established tests. For waste sites, a considerably higher sensitivity was determined. An avoidance behaviour of at least 80% of the worms leaving the soil to be assessed is proposed as a criterion for toxicity. (orig.)

  7. Purification of water polluted with oil and sulfurous closed-ring and aromatic compounds contained in oil and oil products using bacteria relating to thiosphaera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurashov, V.M.; Sakhno, T.V.; Gavrilov, V.S.; Zijatdinov, R.N.


    The intensity of natural purification (self-purification) of reservoirs polluted with oil and oil products is determined by microorganisms. Hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms are constant natural constituent of biocenose in reservoirs. However, as a result of outflows, the oil and oil products concentration exceeds maximum values allowing normal vital functions of microorganisms resulting in breaking micro-biocenose suppression of vital functions of bacteria. In this regard, elective anaerobic microorganisms of Thiosphaera are worthy of notice. We found out that bacteria belonging to Thiosphaera pantotropha decomposed oil at high oil concentrations in water (at oil concentration like 1 liter of oil in 1 liter of water). And this is when aerobic microorganisms lose their vital functions at maximum concentration of 20 g of oil in 1 liter of water. To intensify the process of oil decomposition we emulsified oil with aqueous solutions of salts. Thiosphaera pantotropha are found out to decompose oil in a wide range of ratio between oil and aqueous solutions of salts: from 1:10 to 10:1. The water solutions salinity made from 20 g/l to 80 g/l. It must be noticed that, since the Thiosphaera pantotropha are elective anaerobes and decompose oil both in presence and in absence of oxygen, it is not necessary anymore to conduct the process under strictly anaerobic conditions and to supply additional oxygen. This makes it possible to simplify the process of biodegradation of oil and to make this process practically more feasible and economically more profitable being compared to the processes based on the use of other species of bacteria. We found out that Thiosphaera decompose sulfurous closed-ring and aromatic compounds in oil which are chemically and thermally stable and can be hardly decomposed, and possess extremely poisonous properties, as well. The use of microorganisms of Thiosphaera pantotropha allows to purify waters polluted with oil and oil products both during

  8. Bioaccumulation of some natural radionuclides in short-antenna grasshoppers (Acrididae family, class Ortoptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, M.; Markova, E.; Bogdanova, V.


    The seasonal accumulation of radioactive elements of the uranium-radium order in representatives of larva stages of different species of of Acrididae family has been examined. The monitoring sites are typical of the region and gave a relevant information about the natural background radiation. The process begins in the end of spring when Acrididae enter on the most intensive phase of their functional development and accumulate lots of radioisotopes not only by food but also through respiratory system and whole-body surface. Among the radioisotopes radium has an average biological absorbability, uranium - a very slight one. This fact explains the high values of radium in the ecosystems examined. Despite its low absorbability coefficient 238 U is found to a considerable extent in the investigated organisms. Because of it high mobility in soil compared to Ra 226, uranium 238 accumulates in plants by water and through trophic chain passes into the living organisms. It is found also that Acrididae accumulate later, during autumn and Bi 214. So they are a reliable bio-indicator for the radionuclides U 238, Ra 226, Pb 214 and Bi 214. It has been found that the ionizing radiation at the natural biocenoses is not only an individual irritant but also has an effect of a radioecological factor of the environment. The examinations show redistribution of the natural radionuclides as a result of economic activities

  9. The Robin, Erithacus Rubecula (Passeriformes, Turdidae, as a Component of Heterotrophic Consortia of Forest Cenoses, Northeast Ukraine. Part 2

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    Chaplygina A. B.


    Full Text Available The role of the robin as a determinant of heterotrophic consortia is considered. The robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753, and also by sedges (Carex sp. and grasses (Poaceae, connected with the determinants by fabric links. The robin also belongs to the concentr of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and it is also the main determinant in species composition of the insects inhabiting bird nests. As a result of the taxonomic analysis of invertebrates in the robin nests, it has been found out that the most numerous class was Insecta (9 orders and 27 families, with the dominance of Coleoptera (30.7 %. The nidicolous fauna of the robin (38 species was dominated by zoophages along with parasites and hematophages such as Hippoboscidae (46.4 %. The percentage of phytophages and saprophages among the invertebrate nest inhabitants was somewhat less (21 % each, then followed necrophages (12 %. Zoophages and parasites also dominated according to the number of objects in the nests (42 %; n = 150, the less was the portion of phytophages (34 %, saprophages (18 %, and necrophages (6 %. The highest number of species and objects of zoophages was recorded for climax and mature biocenoses (oak forests in NNP “HL” and pine cenoses in NNP “H””.

  10. Ecological radiation monotoring in NPP region, aims and tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Yu.A.


    Aims and tasks of ecological radiation monitoring in the NPP region are discussed. The aims of monitoring are: to determine possible sequences of NPP radioactive release effects on ecosystems, taking place on the background of chemical and thermal pollution to develop standard of radiation effect on ecosystems; the aims includes also obtaining of information for forecasting and evaluating long-term radiation effects, establishment of factors characterizing the ecosystem state, establishment of a combined effect of radioactive wastes with chemical and thermal ones. Finally, the aim of monitoring consists in providing the natural object conservation in the NPP region under optimal operation conditions. Thus it is necessary to solve the following problems: to observe systematically release, transport and transformation, when transporting radioactive and chemical contaminants in terrestial and aquatic biocenoses, as well as injection and transport in them of waste heat; to observe systematically the natural physico-chemical, chemico-biological processes affecting the injection and transport of contaminants in ecosystem components; to observe systematically the natural and, probably, antropogenic processes; to carry out systematically observations of the ecosystem state in the NPP region and eco-systems-monitors

  11. Water reservoirs - aquatic ecosystems subject to eutrophication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Veronica


    The paper presents some aspects relating to eutrophication of Batca Doamnei and Reconstructia hydropower lakes situated near Piatra Neamt town. The presence of phosphorus salts in the two water reservoirs (ten times the admissible content) is responsible for excessive growth of plants. In Reconstructia lake the diversity of species is also explained by the existence of large amounts of nitrogen salts. The general characteristic of aquatic macrophyte is the resistance to large variations of environmental factors (water level, currents, temperature, turbidity, organic material content), adaptation to water pollution conditions and development of adverse condition resistant forms. Besides Cladophora, a harmful species in fishing waters when growing excessively, others species are favorable to aquatic life and help to the consolidation of complex lake biocenoses, providing support, food and habitation for many small animal species which also favor other species economically valuable. The aquatic macrophytes are true biological filters which maintain the natural auto-purging potential of the waters. Taking into consideration these facts, the direct and indirect effects of plant destruction on the whole ecosystem should be carefully analyzed

  12. Municipal wastewater treatment for effective removal of organic matter and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenevich, E.V.; Zaletova, N.A.; Terentieva, N.A.


    The organic matter, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus, are nutrient substances. Their excess concentrations in water receiving bodies lead to eutrophication, moreover, the nitrogen content in water bodies is standardized according the sanitary-toxicological criterion of harmfulness: NH 4 + -N ≤0,39-2,0 mgl - , NO 3 -N ≤9,1-10 mgl - . The municipal wastewater contain, usually, organic matter estimated by BOD 150-200 mgl - , and COD 300-400 mgl - , the nitrogen compounds 50-60 mgl - , and NH 4 + -N 20-25 mgl - . NO x -N are practically absent. Their presence indicated on discharge of industrial wastewater. The total phosphorus is present in the concentration of 15 mgl - , PO 4 - - P 5-8 mgl - . Activated sludge process has been most widely used in the USSR for municipal wastewater treatment. The activated sludge is biocenoses of heterotrophic and auto trophic microorganisms. They consume nutrient matters, transferring pollution of wastewater by means of enzyme systems in acceptable forms. C, N and P-containing matters are removed from wastewater by biological intake for cell synthesis. Moreover C- containing matters are removed by oxidation to CO 2 and H 2 O. P-containing compounds under definite conditions associate with solid fraction of activated sludge and thus simultaneously removed from wastewater. The removal of nitrogen in addition to biosynthesis is carried out only in the denitrification process, when oxygen of NO x -N is used for oxidation of organic matter and produced gaseous nitrogen escapes into the atmosphere

  13. Evaluation of Potential Biological Threats in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdnyakova, L.; Slavina, N.; Pozdnyakov, S.


    Dilating of biological threats spectrum, EDI diffusion opportunities and routes, unpredictability of outbreaks connected with connatural, technogenic, terrorist factors determines constant monitoring and readiness for operative BPA indication and identification. Scientific analytical approach of existing and probable regional bio-threats evaluation is necessary for adequate readiness system creation and maintenance of medical counteraction tactics to probable biological threats. Basing on the international experience, we carry out analysis of a situation present in Ukraine and routes for the decisions. The basic directions are: - Evaluation of a reality for EDI penetration from abroad and presence of conditions for their further diffusion inside the country. - Revealing of presence and definition of connatural EDI foci biocenoses features and BPAs. - Appropriate level of biological safety and physical protection of bio-laboratories and pathogens collections maintenance. - Gene/molecular and phenotypical definition of EDI circulating strains. - Creation of the circulating EDI gene/ phenotypic characteristics regional data bank. - Ranging of EDI actual for area. - Introduction of GPT, mathematical modeling and forecasting for tactics development in case of technogenic accidents and connatural outbreaks. - Methodical basis and equipment improvement for BPA system indication for well-timed identification of natural, or modified agent. - Education and training The international cooperation in maintenance of biosafety and bioprotection within the framework of scientific programs, grants, exchange of experience, introduction of international standards and rules are among basic factors in the decision for creating system national biosafety for countries not included in EU and the NATO. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak


    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the sources of scientific information on biological functions of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd and their negative effect on biota of fresh water bodies. Findings. A review of works of a variety of scientists showed that the majority of the studied heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cum and Co played an important role in vital functions of freshwater organisms. The significance of other studied heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd is probable or unknown. Besides biological importance, we also know about toxicity of heavy metals – a group of mineral polluting substances, which are the most distributed and dangerous for biota. Their negative effect includes drastic deterioration of conditions for existence of the majority of aquatic organisms, some species disappear, others reduce their number, components of trophic chains are lost, links in ecosystems become broken, and productivity of biocenoses decreases. Practical value. An array of generalized information will be useful for scientists who investigate freshwater ecosystems and effect of toxicants on them, in particular heavy metals.

  15. EOR by stimulated microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarovskaya, L.I.; Altunina, L.K.; Rozhenkova, Z.A.; Bulavin, V.D. [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    A combined microbiological and physico-chemical method for EOR has been developed for flooded West Siberia oil fields with formation temperature of 45{degrees}-95{degrees}C (318-365K). Formation water includes rich and various biocenoses numbering up to 2 x 10{sup 7} cells per ml. Representatives of genera, i.e, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Sarcina, etc. were found to be the most widely distributed microorganisms. The method is based on injection of systems exhibiting high oil displacing capacity and at the same time being an additional nitrous nutrient for endemic populations of microorganisms. Their injection into formation water favors biomass growth by 4-6 orders and promotes syntheses of biosurfactants, biopolymers, acids, etc., and gaseous products. The features of residual oil displacement have been studied on laboratory models using a combined microbiological and physico-chemical method. A curve for the yield of residual oil is presented by two peaks. The first peak is stipulated by the washing action of oil displacement system, and the second one by the effect of metabolites produced at stimulation of biogenic processes. Oil displacement index increases by 15%-30%.

  16. Epigeic spiders of the pastures of northern Wielkopolska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźny, Marek


    Full Text Available The fauna of epigeic spiders (Araneae occurring on three different types of pastures in northern Wielkopolska was analysed. Studies were conducted from May 1992 to October 1993. The 18,995 specimens collected were classified as belonging to 137 species and 17 families. The family Linyphiidae proved the richest in species while Lycosidae was the most abundantly in terms of number of specimens. Zoocenological analysis of spider communities showed their differentiation testifying to differences in the sites studied. The dominants were: 1 Osowo Stare (Site 1: Pardosa palustris, 2 Sycyn Dolny (Site 2: Xerolycosa miniata, P. palustris, Xysticus kochi, 3 Braczewo (Site 3: Erigone dentipalpis, P. palustris. Seasonal changes of dominance of the species at each site were established. A comparison of changes of the species’ dominances in the years 1992 and 1993 disclosed similar values of the individual dominance coefficient at the sites in Osowo Stare and Braczewo. This result indicates the occurrence of the process of stabilization of these biocenoses and a tendency to equilibrium in the environment. The least stable proved to be the site at Sycyn Dolny. Analysis of the seasonal dynamics of epigeic spider communities was also made by determining the mean number of species at each site in the two years of study. The highest number of species was noted in spring. It is interesting to note the appearance of species which are rare or very rare in Poland such as: Lepthyphantes insignis, Ostearius melanopygius, Enoplognatha mordax and Enoplognatha oelandica.

  17. Application of geoecological concept of the alluvial landscape in the creation of nature reserve (case study from Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Machar


    Full Text Available The geoecological concept of the alluvial landscape describes the variability and consecutive character of alluvial ecotopes and biocenoses, which are interrelated in terms of their homeorhetic development, in their dynamic ecological stability. This article deals with application of this landscape concept in the frame of creation of nature reserve as core zone of the Litovelské Pomoraví Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic. Complex protection of the whole floodplain ecosystem, which comprised all components of the fluvial succession series of alluvial habitats, was proposed on the basis of determination of geomorphological type of the river system. Analyses of the floodplain forest stands status within the study area were performed using methods that are normally used in the elaboration of management plans of protected areas within forest land on the basis of data from Forest Management Plan. The area of the proposed NNR was created by the overlay of the special map layers using method gap-analysis in the frame of GIS.

  18. Common data about region of the former Semipalatinsk test site. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Region of the Semipalatinsk test site is situated on left bank shore of the Irtysh river, on joining of three regions (East Kazakstan region, Pavlodar, Karaganda) and is extended from the river to south-western direction on 180 km. Total square of the site is amount 18.5 thousand The territory is presented by flat landscape of dry steppe and semi-desert type passing in south-western direction into hill valley changing by small hill land. There are 5 test sites on territory of the region where places of nuclear explosions were carried out. For all territory is typically presence of river valleys and lake hollows (mainly salty). Today global background from cesium-137 and strontium-90 radionuclides near Semipalatinsk city amounts in average 0,11 Ci/ By the data of ground gamma-survey radiation background is oscillating within limits of 11-25 μR/h. In the same time on the site region there are local sections of radiation contamination with very high background, in particular, in epicenter of the 'Opytnoe Pole' area is up to 15000 μR/h, on disposal area of the Balapan lake is 11000 μR/h, near dam of the Shagan reservoir is up to 7000 μR/h, near portals of some galleries of the Degelen test site is up to 20000-250000 μR/h and others. Geobotanic status of the site territory is extremely heterogeneous and it is insufficiently studied because of inaccessibility of the region for researches during long time of its activity. The 302 types higher vascular plants were defined during last four seasons of field studies, as well as 800 descriptions of biocenoses are made, 1000 herbarium specimens are gathered


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Jakson Amancio Alves


    Full Text Available The present work boards desertification problem in Paraíba who directly is related to degradation produced by the man in the stunted sparse forest and in the environmental terms and fitogeography of this geoecosystem. The domain geoecology of the stunted sparse forests extends for about 1037.517,80 km², under the latitudes between tropics, comprehended between 2º 45’ and 17º 21’ LS.  Its area corresponds to 54% of the region Northeast and to 11% of the brazilian territory; it constitutes the droughts called polygon. In the stunted sparse forest the woody species call the attention for their biological forms and by the dominant position in the formation structure. In magnitude function of these characteristic, that corresponds to the largest problem in desertification cores generation in state of Paraíba. These woody species of rickety postage are the appreciated most for the burning in coal-pits, bakeries oven, etc. they are fácies more drought and degraded of the stunted sparse forests. Another aspect to observe is that to the natural fragility of this ecosystem brings serious consequences for geótopos and for biocenoses, as well as, the devastation practice of great spaces by the burnt for the pasture areas, provoking great unbalance in the ecosystem and contributing with the earth’s degradation process. That work points a series of surveys that emphasize that process in state of Paraíba, as well as, a contribution for contention of their effects.

  20. Impact on the aquatic environment of hydro-peaking in hydroelectric plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabaton, C.; Lauters, F.; Valentin, S.


    There are a number of types of hydroelectric installations on French rivers. Some of these intermittently turbine water stored in dammed reservoirs, in order to use available reserves at the most opportune moment for power generation. These plants, run under 'hydro-peaking' management procedures, cause variations in discharge in river sections downstream of the restitution, on a daily or weekly scale. To answer questions concerning the impact of such variations in discharge on the aquatic environment, EDF launched a research program aimed at describing and better understanding the physical and biological phenomena related to hydro-peaking and assessing the possible impact of this type of plant management on French streams. Seven sites subjects to hydro-peaking were studied on rivers with mean flow rates lower than 20 m 3 /s (which corresponds to over 65 % of EDF hydro-peaking sites). Four themes in particular were examined: hydraulic characterization of hydro-peaking, modifications in thermal regime and water quality, response of benthic invertebrates and response of fish populations to hydro-peaking. For fish as well as for invertebrates, the role of the base discharge - in the absence of peaking flow - and that of the morphology of the river bed (and, in particular, the presence of shelter for fish) during periods of strong discharge were clearly highlighted. Impact assessment requires a precise diagnosis of the state of biocenoses. To carry out such a diagnosis, one must reason in terms of species, life phase (particularly the most sensitive phases) and population structure as well as the type of stream and the faunizone involved. A risk assessment is possible by means of simultaneous study of the morphology of the river bed and the response of the signal generated by hydro-peaking in terms of hydrology and physical characteristics downstream of the restitution. (authors)

  1. Environmentally friendly inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and algae propagation due phthalocyanine agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihova Ambrozova, J.; Bezdekova, E.; Louckova, E.; Nekovarova, J.


    From 2004, in the laboratory of The Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague is being solved the project FT-TA/034 'Environmentally friendly inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and algae propagation in the circulatory cooling systems of nuclear power stations and in other similar technological facilities' to determine effects of phthalocyanine agents. The project bearer is VUOS, Inc. in Rybitvi (Research Institute for Organic Synthesis Inc.), where are the new phthalocyanines synthesized. The aimed goal of the research is environmentally friendly liquidation of bacteria and algae by means of photodynamic generated singlet oxygen through impact of solar radiation in the circulation cooling waters of various technical and technological systems. The principle of the problem outlined is the applying of phthalocyanine agents on samples of pure bacterial, anabaenas and algae cultures to estimate the inhibition effect on the organism exposed. In the course of solution, it is assumed that in such way conducted inhibition of bacteria, anabaenas and algae as well of their proliferation would replace routinely used bactericidal and algicidal preparations, which demand permanent dosing into circulating waters or perhaps from time to time an application of shocking doses. The particular algicidal and bactericidal agents represents in this case in situ emerging singlet oxygen, that is harmless to water biocenoses and whose presence in the water is no reason to ban the outflow of waters treated in such a way into water streams. The goal should be also a direct estimation of the effect those agents on cooling waters samples e. g. from the nuclear power plant systems. The purpose of the tests performance is also elimination of filamentous green algae, emerging in the systems cooling towers. The applied preparations are not toxic and do not burden the living environment, they contain no substances interacting with surface materials of structures in the circulatory cooling circuit

  2. Impact of effluents from Tihange nuclear plant on the Meuse ecosystem: a five year in situ study and experimental approach 1976 -1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clercq-Versele, H. de; Kirchmann, R.


    The aim of present multidisciplinary study, started in 1975, was to evaluate the influence of liquid effluent releases from a PWR-type nuclear reactor on the ecosystem of running water. The Tihange-1 nuclear power plant, along the Meuse river near Liege, has been selected as site for this study, which situates in the general context of the industrial and urban pollution of this region. The in situ biological research dealt with phytoplankton, microphytobenthos and bryophytic populations on the one hand, and with zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and fish on the other hand. The impact of the releases on certain aquatic organisms has been studied with the help of experimental devices (pools and rafts). Laboratory research has been carried out on an alga type representative of Meuse phytoplankton. It could be concluded that a temperature increase of the Meuse water (generally 2 to 3 0 C), although it has no detectable qualitative influence on the various links of the Meuse ecosystem, seems to promote the development of more temperature-tolerant species and to influence biological parameters such as growth and reproduction of aquatic animals. Although the legal limit (namely 0.3 mg/l in the water downstream the releases) is always respected, chlorination of the Meuse water gives rise to a decrease of the photosynthetic activity in aquatic mosses and creates asphyxiation phenomena in fish and crayfish. The utility of certain animal organisms of the Meuse biocenose as bio-indicators of the radionuclides present in the releases, has been confirmed. The alga cultures are also very adequate for the evaluation of the biological availability of some radioisotopes such as tritium. (author)

  3. Bioaccumulation of some natural radionuclides in short-antenna grasshoppers (Acrididae family, class Ortoptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, M.; Markova, E.


    The seasonal accumulation of radioactive elements of uranium-radium line in representatives of larval stages of different species of Acrididae family has been examined. This group of invertebrates is a good bioindicator of radionuclides accumulation and could be used successfully as an ecological evaluation. The monitoring sites are typical for the region of Etropole (where the uranium mine 'Elatsite' is situated) and offer information about the natural radiation background as well as about an eventual radiation pollution. Two years examination has been carried out during spring, summer and autumn on natural grass ecosystem (one of them just above the mentioned uranium mine). The gamma-spectrometric analysis of seventeen samples have shown the presence of U-238, Ra-226, Pb-214 and Bi-214. The minimal detectable activity of these radionuclides was calculated, resp. 0.25Bq, 0.49Bq, 0.07Bq and 0.12Bq. All experimental data for the four radionuclides are reliable considering Currie criterion. The meadow close to the uranium mine has shown maximal radiation background, while the control samples from nearby region have shown no presence of radionuclides. The accumulation of the radionuclides from U-Ra line is seasonal, more expressed in autumn. This fact could be explained by the biological maturity of this species in the end of summer. It has been found that the ionizing radiation in the natural biocenoses is not only an individual irritant, but also has an effect of a radioecological factor of the environment. The examinations show a redistribution of the natural radionuclides resulting from economic activities. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Monitoring of natural revegetation of Semipalatinsk nuclear testing ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanova, B.M.


    It is well known, that monitoring of natural revegetation of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was carried out during period 1994-2002 at test areas (Experimental field, Balapan, Degelen). In this paper the peculiarities of vegetation cover of these test areas are observed. Thus, vegetation cover of Experimental field ground in the epicentre is completely destroyed. At present there are different stages of zonal steppe communities rehabilitation: in zones with γ-irradiation 11000-14000 μR/h the revegetation is not found; on the plots with γ-irradiation 8200-10000 μR/h rare species of Artemisia frigida are found; aggregation of plant (managed from 6000-7000 μR/h is observed; At the γ-irradiation 80-200 μR/h rarefied groups of bunch grass communities similar to the zonal steppe are formed and zonal bunch grass communities developed with 18-25 μR/h. Vegetation cover of Degelen hill tops and near-mouth ground in the results of underground nuclear expulsions are completely destroyed. Here there are three main kinds of vegetation: very stony gallery areas don't almost overgrow; at technogen tops near galleries the single plants, rare field groups and unclosed micro-phyto-biocenoses of weed and adventive species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia dracunculus, Laxctuca serriola, Chorispora sibirica etc.). On the Balapan are the revegetation is limited by high radiation pollution rate. Here cenose rehabilitation is presented by Artemisia marshalliana, Spita sareptana, Festuca valresiaca). In their paper florostic and phyrocoenitic diversity of STS's flora transformation is studied. Pattern distribution and migration of radionuclides in soils and vegetation cover is represented

  5. Danube quality water assessment from the microbiological point of view in Cernavoda nuclear plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundri, Mirela Iuliana


    Herein are analysed the following microbiological parameters: total viable count, total coliforms and faecal coliforms, which represent a standard indicator for water quality. The study has been done during 1998-2002 upon the water in the Danube River and in the channels for cooling water used by Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant condensers. In this area, based on these values of evaluated parameters, the water feature is placed in the quality classes II and III (moderate and critical pollution), in conformity with European Community Directives. Bacterial communities, component part of aquatic biocenoses, are very important for matter and energy flux. Their contribution to self-purification processes of rivers is of great interest related to the water quality assessment. Microorganisms are ideal sensors, because they respond fast to the fluctuation of environmental conditions by specific changes, detectable physiologically and metabolically. The temperature is a major factor, which directly affects the intensity of all microbial processes. Because the microorganisms are interconnected with the other living organisms, the qualitative or quantitative changes of their activity will affect the functions of the whole ecosystem. Bacterial indicators such as total viable count (colony count), total coliforms or faecal coliforms (thermo-tolerant coliforms) are widely applied to the assessment of water quality. Because of their mostly allochthonus origin, these are used as indicators of changes in the natural water conditions; they point out an organic matter or faecal water pollution. Although the water quality can be considered acceptable from the chemical or biological point of view, the bacteriological parameters might be detected in critical concentration. The objectives of this microbiological assessment are analysis of the variation of bacteriological indicators in some sampling points of Cernavoda aquatic ecosystems area, and monitoring the manner of using the water by

  6. The micro-habitat methodology. Application protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaton, C; Valentin, S; Souchon, Y


    A strong need has been felt for guidelines to help various entities in applying the micro-habitat methodology, particularly in impact studies on hydroelectric installations. CEMAGREF and Electricite de France have developed separately two protocols with five major steps: reconnaissance of the river, selection of representative units to be studied in greater depth, morpho-dynamic measurements at one or more rates of discharge and hydraulic modeling, coupling of hydraulic and biological models, calculation of habitat-quality scores for fish, analysis of results. The two approaches give very comparable results and are essentially differentiated by the hydraulic model used. CEMAGREF uses a one-dimensional model requiring measurements at only one discharge rate. Electricite de France uses a simplified model based on measurements at several rates of discharge. This approach is possible when discharge can be controlled in the study area during data acquisition, as is generally the case downstream of hydroelectric installations. The micro-habitat methodology is now a fully operational tool with which to study changes in fish habitat quality in relation to varying discharge. It provides an element of assessment pertinent to the choice of instreaming flow to be maintained downstream of a hydroelectric installation; this information is essential when the flow characteristics (velocity, depth) and the nature of the river bed are the preponderant factors governing habitat suitability for trout or salmon. The ultimate decision must nonetheless take into account any other potentially limiting factors for the biocenoses on the one hand, and the target water use objectives on the other. In many cases, compromises must be found among different uses, different species and different stages in the fish development cycle. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Biological factors of natural and artificial ecosystems stable (unstable) functioning (United States)

    Pechurkin, Nikolai S.

    The problem of sustainable development of humanity on Earth and the problem of supporting human life in space have the same scientific and methodological bases. The key to solve both problems is a long term maintenance of balanced material cycle. As a whole, natural or artificial ecosystems are to be more closed than open, but their elements (links of systems) are to be substantially open in interactions with each other. Prolonged stable interactions of different links have to have unique joint results - closed material cycling or biotic turnover. It is necessary to include, at least, three types of main links into any system to support real material cycling: producers, consumers, reducers. Producer links are now under studies in many laboratories. It is evident that the higher productivity of link, the lower link stability. Especially, it concerns with parasite impact to plants. As usual, artificial ecosystems are more simple (incomplete) than natural ecosystems, sometimes, they have not enough links for prolonged stable functioning. For example, life support system for space flight can be incomplete in consumer link, having only some crew persons, instead of interacting populations of consumers. As for reducer link, it is necessary to "organize" a special coordinated work of microbial biocenoses to fulfill proper cycling. Possible evolution of links, their self development is a matter of special attention for the maintenance of prolonged stable functioning. It's the most danger for systems with populations of quickly reproducing, so-called, R - strategists, according to symbols of logistic equation. From another side, quick reproduction of R - strategists is able to increase artificial ecosystems and their links functioning. After some damages of system, R - strategist's link can be quickly "self repaired" up to level of normal functioning. Some experimental data of this kind and mathematical models are to be discussed in the paper. This work is supported by

  8. Stimulation of biological N2-fixation to accelerate the microbial remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshenko, N.N.; Lushnikov, S.V.


    All remediation projects are comprised at least in accelerating the processes of the self-cleaning and self-restoration of biocenose which is led to increasing the functional activity of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora (HOM). Some of experts are carefully relate to introducing the commercial cultures of active hydrocarbon-consuming microbes into soils. They are afraid of unpredictable behavior of the cultures in soils. That why the stimulation of metabolic activity of indigenous soil microflora seems to be most preferable. In fact, contamination of soil with low nitrogen capacity by oil spills leads to significant deficient of nitrogen for HOM. Nitrogen content limits the soil self-restoration. Inorganic nitrogen fertilizers are supplied to recover the balance. The study of the microbial destruction of petroleum-hydrocarbons in association with biochemical transformation of nitrogen was carried out in lab and field experiments during 2000-2004. Study showed the activity of HOM correlates with rate of microbial fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Activity of biological N 2 -fixation significantly depends on supplying fertilizers (dose, date and kind). General practice of remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils applies high initial doses of nitrogen-fertilizers (0.5-1 t per ha). Such practice leads to inhibition of N 2 -fixation processes, decreasing rate of oil destruction and loosing nitrogen due to activation of microbial denitrification. In opposition to that, the fractioned and advanced supplying mineral nitrogen fertilizers with aluminosilicate is the cost-effective approach to remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Field experiments showed that the approach allows to increase efficiency of treatment up to 70-75% and to decrease operational expenses 2-3 times at least. (authors)

  9. A conceptual approach to the biomonitoring of freshwater: the Ecological Ambience System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel LAFONT


    Full Text Available The concept of ecological ambience (Ecological Ambience System, EASY is based on the idea that biocenoses (BIO are not only related to the input of organic and mineral substances (IN but also to the way they are stored and processed by the ecosystem. Storage, assimilation and self-purification processes ("ecosystem defences": ED are likely to vary among the different functional units (FUs of the ecosystem. The functional units have been defined on the basis of a simple physical description of sites in an ecosystem, because the physical structure of these units is considered as being of prime importance in the ED processes. For example, mineral and organic substances may be preferentially stored in fine-sediment units, whereas the mineralization rate of organic matter is more likely to be highest in coarse permeable sediments. If the stream ecosystem is viewed as a mosaic, its overall ecological defences will depend upon: 1 the self-purification capacity of the different functional units; 2 their relative proportion within the ecosystem. The EASY concept is now used for ecological researches and also has several applications in the biomonitoring of running waters, illustrated by the study of the River Dore. Biological compartments, specific for each functional unit, are related to operational bio-indicators to build up a global harmonisation system for biomonitoring indices. Four main biological compartments were defined with their related bio-indicators: 1 general biological quality (IBGN biotic index, 2 biological sediment quality (IOBS oligochaete index, 3 biological water quality (diatom index IBD and 4 biological fish quality (study of fish communities. The selected bio-indicators were adjusted to an ecological classification model (Typic concept. A weighting system of the general ecological quality at a site based on the percentage cover of fine sediments is proposed. This approach can be developed using several other compartments. Major

  10. Quantitative fidelity of recent freshwater mollusk assemblages from the Touro Passo River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Fidelidade quantitativa de associações de moluscos límnicos recentes na bacia do rio Touro Passo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcemar R. Martello

    contribuições ao conhecimento sobre a fidelidade quantitativa de associações de moluscos recentes em rios subtropicais. Tanatocenoses e biocenoses foram estudadas em seções retilínea e meandrante tendendo a anastomosada, no curso médio do rio Touro Passo, um tributário de 4ª ordem do rio Uruguai, localizado no extremo oeste do Rio Grande do Sul. As amostragens foram realizadas por meio de quadrats de 5 m², cinco em cada seção, amostrando-se um total de 50 m². Também foram feitas amostragens em um ambiente lêntico, com comunicação intermitente com o Touro Passo, objetivando detectar a existência de transporte de comunidades lênticas para o interior do rio. Os resultados obtidos mostram que, apesar da freqüente oscilação do nível da água, a biocenose do Touro Passo apresenta uma alta fidelidade ecológica e sofre pouca influência de espécies de ambientes lênticos. A composição taxonômica e características de estrutura de comunidades, especialmente as espécies dominantes, refletem, ainda, diferenças ecológicas relacionadas às duas seções amostradas, como a maior complexidade de habitats da estação meandrante. Quanto à fidelidade quantitativa, 60% das espécies encontradas vivas também foram encontradas mortas e 47,3% das espécies encontradas mortas também foram encontras vivas em escala de rio. Porém, 72% dos exemplares coletados mortos são representantes de espécies encontradas vivas. Essa percentagem alta pode estar relacionada à boa correlação entre o ranking de dominância das associações vivas e mortas e, conseqüentemente, as espécies dominantes das tanatocenoses podem ser utilizadas para inferir características ecológicas das biocenoses. Todos os índices analisados variaram muito em escala local (quadrat e seus valores são mais aproximados aos de outros, registrados em estudos prévios, apenas quando analisados em escala mais ampla (seção, área total.

  11. Water quality objectives for priority substances aiming at the protection of the aquatic community. Final report; Ableitung von Zielvorgaben fuer prioritaere Stoffe zum Schutz von Oberflaechengewaessern. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrchen, M.; Mueller, M.; Storm, A.


    Beside the emission principle operationalized as best available technology (BAT) the derivation of water quality criteria is a main approach to protect surface waters. Water quality criteria are defined as not legally binding objectives of protection and are no limit values. The quality objectives are derived for pre-defined objectives namely the aquatic community, fishery, sediments and drinking water. It was aim of the project to derive quality objectives for the aquatic community. In principle, the lowest NOEC-value for the most sensitive species out of four trophic levels of the biocenose was used as the basis. In case the entire data set was not available factors were applied with their figures depending on test duration, biological endpoint and size of the data ensemble. The current report mainly presents water quality objectives for plant protection products, but also gives some figures for halogenated compounds as well as the currently discussed nonylphenols and tributyltin compounds. The acquired data allows for a derivation of quality objectives for 11 out of 27 compounds/groups of compounds. Results of the data acquistion as well as of the evaluation are documented in both, an electronic data base with a link to the oekotoxikologische Schnellauskunft (OESA)' and data reports. (orig.) [German] Neben dem Emissionsansatz ist das Prinzip der Formulierung von Gewaessergueteanforderungen - im Sinne eines Immissionsminimierungsprinzips - ein wesentlicher Bestandteil des Schutzes der Oberflaechengewaesser. Waehrend die Gewaessergueteanforderungen zunaechst als Qualitaetsziele beschrieben wurden, wurde dieser Terminus zur Vermeidung des Eindrucks einer rechtlichen Verbindlichkeit - im Sinne von Grenzwerten - in Zielvorgaben umformuliert. Die Zielvorgaben werden schutzzielbezogen abgeleitet, wobei es sich um die Schutzgueter aquatische Lebensgemeinschaft, Berufs- und Sportfischerei und Sedimente sowie Trinkwasserversorgung handelt. Zur Ableitung der

  12. Influence of benthic macro-invertebrate bioturbation on the biogeochemical behaviour of uranium within freshwater sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagauzere, S.


    In freshwater ecosystems, sediments act as an accumulation compartment for metallic pollutants as uranium. Secondary, there can also represent endogenous sources of contamination by resuspension (e.g. flood, bioturbation) or changes of metal speciation that acts upon their bioavailability. Indeed, metallic compounds can be transformed in more or less toxic or inert compounds through physico-chemical (e.g. pH, redox conditions, ionic force) and microbiological variations. These conditions are themselves under the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate activities via bioturbation processes. The main objective of this PhD was to determinate the influence of two benthic macro-invertebrate species (Chironomus riparius and Tubifex tubifex) on the distribution and the transfers of uranium within freshwater sediments. To reach this goal, laboratory experiments were performed in order to (i) assess the effects of uranium on benthic macro-invertebrates, more particularly on their bioturbation activity, (ii) determine the influence of these organisms on uranium behaviour through high resolution physico-chemical measurements (e.g. oxygen optodes, DET gel probes), and (iii) estimate the consequences of these interactions on pelagic organisms via genotoxicity measurements (micronuclei assay and molecular bio-markers analysis on Xenopus laevis). The results demonstrate that bioturbation intensity of macro-invertebrates can be affected in uranium-contaminated sediments, but the two species studied in this work show a relative tolerance. For high uranium concentrations (>100 times the geochemical background level), corresponding however to realistic concentrations in highly contaminated sites, T. tubifex worms are able to maintain a sufficient bioturbation activity that induces a high remobilization of uranium initially associated with sediments to the overlying water (factor 2 to 10). That represents therefore a potential risk for the remaining aquatic biocenose. However, by


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Нulaі


    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the effect of skin secretions in Percidae family of fish (Sander lucioperca, Perca fluviatilis on the cultures of pathogenic E. rhusiopathiae bacteria. Methodology. Filter paper was placed on the skin of live fish; after 1 minute it was removed, and the extraction of water-soluble components in the rate of 0.1 cm3 of water per 1 cm2 area of the paper was carried out. The resulting solutions of the secretions of fish skin glands were sterilized by vacuum filtration through the filters with a pore diameter The test samples contained E. rhusiopathiae cultures and fish skin secretions in 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000 and 1:10000 dilutions. The control samples contained a similar ratio of sterile water and cultures of the experimental bacteria type. The content of E. rhusiopathiae cells in the experimental and control samples was determined after 48 hours, the samples were stored at a temperature of +18... +20 °C. Findings. The presence of water-soluble extracts of skin secretions obtained from Percidae family of freshwater fish in the environment causes an increase in the density of E. rhusiopathiae bacteria cultures. The degree of the detected stimulating effect of E. rhusiopathiae directly depend on the concentration of the secretions of fish skin glands in the experimental samples. Under the conditions of freshwater ecosystems, such fish as S. lucioperca and P. fluviatilis and E. rhusiopathiae bacteria may form biocenotical relations of the trophic, topical and phoric types. Originality. The quantitative data proving the biological activity of skin secretions in Percidae family of fish with regard to E. rhusiopathiae pathogenic bacteria have been obtained for the first time. Practical Value. One of the factors contributing to E. rhusiopathiae bacteria staying in freshwater conditions for a long time can be their biocenotical relations with the components of freshwater biocenoses, including such fish as S. lucioperca and P

  14. Study of Chironomidae Natural Populations of the Former Semipalatinsk Test Site Water Bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimanova, K.G.; Blinov, A.G.; Kiknadze, I.I.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Seisebaev, A.T.; Rakhimbaeva, K.T.


    The open water bodies as a component of the biosphere serve as the accumulators of artificial radionuclides generated during the nuclear explosions; therefore their radioactive contamination needs to be registered. The assessment of the environmental radioactive contamination consequences for the natural populations of organisms living in water bodies is of particular importance. Chironomini (Diptera, Chironomidae) play an important role as they are a significant component of water and air biocenoses and provide the self-cleaning of water bodies and food chains of industrial fish and bird. Chironomini have been chosen to be a model for the UNESCO International Program titled 'Man and Biosphere' and are used as the biologic indicator for ecological studies of anthropogenic influence on water bodies. The study of Chironomini natural mutagenic process and its alteration due to the radioactive contamination of water bodies is of extreme scientific interest and can serve as the indicator of the scale of genetic damage of water organisms. This work presents the data on natural populations of Chironomini of former STS water bodies: Shagan Lake, Balapan Lake, the artificial water body on the Karazhyra Coal Field, the backwater near the Shagan River, Balykty col Lake, etc. The analysis of morphology and caryotype of Camptochironomus sp. S (S - larvae have been sampled from the Semipalatinsk Test Site) showed that this is a new species as compared to studied species (C. tentans, C. pallidivittatus) of Camptochironomus subfamily. The caryotype Camptochironomus sp. S differs sharply from the caryotypes of other Camptochironomus species due to its strong hetero chromatization of centromeric discs. The immediate molecular analysis of genome DNA of Camptochironomus sp. S larvae sampled from Shagan Lake was performed: the total DNA of larvae of this species was obtained, nucleonic sequences of genes of cytochrome B (Cyt B) and cytochrome I (COI) were determined using methods of

  15. Fate and effects of nonylphenol in the filamentous fungus Penicillium expansum isolated from the bottom sediments of the Gulf of Finland (United States)

    Kuzikova, I.; Safronova, V.; Zaytseva, T.; Medvedeva, N.


    Nonylphenol (NP) is the most abundant environmental pollutant that is classified as an endocrine disruptor, and it originates from the degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates, which are widely used as industrial surfactants. It has been referred to in a list of substances of particular risk to the Baltic Sea, in a list of priority hazardous substances in the Water Frame Directive, and in the 3rd draft Working Document on Sludge, developed by the EU. In this study, the fate and effects of NP in the filamentous fungus Penicillium expansum isolated from the bottom sediments of the coastal zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland were investigated in laboratory experiments. This strain was more tolerant to technical nonylphenol (tNP) compared to other types of aquatic organisms, such as fish, protozoa, and algae. The toxicity concentration values of tNP in Penicillium expansum were EC50 20 mg L- 1 and EC90 > 100 mg L- 1. The activity level of hydrolytic enzymes, cellulases and amylases decreased significantly in the tNP treatments. Given the significant role played by terrestrial fungi in the transformation of organic substrate into bottom sediment, such an effect from tNP on fungi could disturb the regulatory mechanisms and balance between the biosynthesis and biodegradation of organic matter in aquatic ecosystems as well as the formation of cenotic relations in aquatic biocenoses. Oxidative stress induced by tNP has been found to increase the synthesis of enzymatic protection factors, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and nonenzymatic factors (melanin-like pigments and extracellular polysaccharides). This research indicated that the malondialdehyde concentration (the biochemical marker of lipid peroxidation) in the cells of the fungus decreased with increasing antioxidation factors. Penicillium expansum was able to decrease the tNP concentration in the culture medium. The removal of tNP was mainly caused by fungal degradation rather than by simple sorption and

  16. Influence of oil pollution to the total biological productivity of the Caspian sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmanov, M.A.


    Full text : As a result of a numerous researches it was defined that among all the species of pollutants polluting water reservoirs, oil and its components has a leading role. In this respect the Caspian Sea is in a special condition, as it exists as an isolated water reservoirs it had a direct relation with oil and oil products earlier than others and more than the rest. For this reason the oil in the Caspian Sea in its turn has become a permanent substrate. The main reservoirs of contamination of environmental medium of the Caspian Sea by oil and oil products are oil industries, oil pipelines, oil processing ventures, oil transportation, oil-gas service and oil drilling. At the same time oil components due to dried lands appear in the sea by river floods that are a heavy showers. Oil is a complex environmental compound of carbohydrogenes and distributed in environmental medium. Its characteristic that no other pollutant as dangerous it hasn't been and cannot be compared with oil according to the range of distribution, amount of pollutant resources and range of pressure to all the compounds of environmental medium. During the involvement of oil in the hydrosphere deep, often inattentive changes of its chemical, physiological and microbiological features and even reconstruction of all the hydrospheric profile take place. Being dynamic and mobile it penetrates toxic metals increasing their emigrational ability, subsides to the bottom and oppresses benthofauna. At the same time oil products in water reservoirs in common negatively influence to the balance of oxygen and position of biocenoses in the surface layers of sea water. In the given information the results of many years and monitoring character of researches about the influence of pollution in the base of total biological productivity of the Caspian Sea are presented (as well as oil pollution). It was defined that in the basins of the North (Makachkala - from Berbash, Bautina, Shevchenko fleet), Middle (Sand

  17. Hydro biological investigations of lake Drukshiai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheikaite, S.; Sinkevichiene, Z.; Marchiulioniene, D.; Astrauskas, A.; Barshiene, J.


    Purposes of this research were to investigate changes in the physical, chemical and tropic conditions of Lake Drukshiai caused by the combined effect of Ignalina NPP and how it effects on structures and function of biocenoses; to estimate the influence of phytocenoses, zoocenoses and bacteriocenoses on the quality of water in Lake Drukshiai; to estimate the eco toxicological state of Lake Drukshiai. According to the complex hydro biological investigations on Lake Drukshiai - Ignalina NPP cooler great changes in planktonic organism community, tendencies of those changes in different ecological zones were evaluated in 1993 - 1997. The amount of species of most dominant planktonic organisms in 1993 - 1997 decreased 2-3 times in comparison with that before Ignalina NPP operation: phytoplankton from 116 to 40 - 50, zooplankton - from 233 to 139. The organic matter increasing tendency was determined in bottom sediments of the lake. The highest amount of it was evaluated in the south - eastern part of the lake. 69 water macrophyte species were found in bottom sediments during the investigation period. 16 species were not found in this lake earlier. Abundance of filamentous green algae was registered.The rates of fish communities successional transformation were ten times in excess of those of the given processes in natural lakes. Moreover the comparison of results on Lake Drukshiai bioindication analysis with changes of comparable bio markers which were obtained from other water systems of Lithuania, Switzerland, Sweden and Poland, including those with active nuclear power plants in their environment was carried out. It was determined that the functional and structural changes in Lake Drukshiai biota are mostly caused by chemical pollution. It was found out that the frequency of cytogenetic damage emerged as a specific radionuclide - caused effect in aquatic organisms inhabiting Lake Drukshiai, is slightly above the background level and is 5 times lower than the same

  18. Seasonal dynamics of surface chlorophyll concentration and sea surface temperature, as indicator of hydrological structure of the ocean (by satellite data) (United States)

    Shevyrnogov, Anatoly; Vysotskaya, Galina

    Continuous monitoring of phytopigment concentrations and sea surface temperature in the ocean by space-borne methods makes possible to estimate ecological condition of biocenoses in critical areas. Unlike land vegetation, hydrological processes largely determine phytoplank-ton dynamics, which may be either recurrent or random. The types of chlorophyll concentration dynamics and sea surface temperature can manifest as zones quasistationary by seasonal dynamics, quasistationary areas (QSA). In the papers of the authors (A. Shevyrnogov, G. Vysotskaya, E. Shevyrnogov, A study of the stationary and the anomalous in the ocean surface chlorophyll distribution by satellite data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 25, No.7-8, pp. 1383-1387, April 2004 & A. P. Shevyrnogov, G. S. Vysotskaya, J. I. Gitelson, Quasistationary areas of chlorophyll concentra-tion in the world ocean as observed satellite data Advances in Space Research, Volume 18, Issue 7, Pages 129-132, 1996) existence of zones, which are quasi-stationary with similar seasonal dynamics of chlorophyll concentration at surface layer of ocean, was shown. Results were obtained on the base of processing of time series of satellite images SeaWiFS. It was shown that fronts and frontal zones coincide with dividing lines between quasi-stationary are-as, especially in areas of large oceanic streams. To study the dynamics of the ocean for the period from 1985 through 2012 we used data on the temperature of the surface layer of the ocean and chlorophyll concentration (AVHRR, SeaWiFS and MODIS). Biota of surface oceanic layer is more stable in comparison with quickly changing surface tem-perature. It gives a possibility to circumvent influence of high-frequency component (for exam-ple, a diurnal cycle) in investigation of dynamics of spatial distribution of surface streams. In addition, an analyses of nonstable ocean productivity phenomena, stood out time series of satellite images, showed existence of areas with

  19. Climate biomonitoring. Assessing climate change and its impacts on the biosphere. New focus of the working group bioindication/assessment of effects; Klima-Biomonitoring: Nachweis des Klimawandels und dessen Folgen fuer die belebte Umwelt. Neuer Schwerpunkt des Arbeitskreises Bioindikation/Wirkungsermittlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Harald [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rammert, Uwe [Landesamt fuer Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und laendliche Raeume Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany); Schroeder, Winfried [Hochschule Vechta (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie; Wolf, Helmut [Hessisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt und Geologie, Wiesbaden (Germany)


    for an assessment of climate change impacts on the biosphere. The relevance of the proposed approach is shown by an overview about the data sources as well as a presentation of first evaluation results. The need for further research and development and proposals for an enhancement of data provision and data exchange are given. Examples for the use and optimization of the method as well as further possibilities of development and ways to close knowledge gaps will be elaborated in further publications. Discussion: This method provides the basis for a description of the changes caused by climate change as well as the development of scenarios and prognoses for a future assessment of climate change impacts. Furthermore, the secondary effects of climate change can be assessed using bioindication, especially the effectiveness of adaptation measures. For some climate bioindicators, the causal link between climate change effects and indicator response are sufficiently proven (e.g. the reaction of spring time plant phenology), other cases still require cause effect studies to separate climate effects from those of other agents. The findings from climate biomonitoring are meant to be the basis for activities in order to develop both adequate strategies for adaptation and measures to avoid or to mitigate the effects of climate change. Also an appropriate advice for politicians, information of the public and the fulfillment of reporting obligations are intended. Conclusions: Climate biomonitoring is shown to be an efficient method to demonstrate climate change impacts in especially sensitive areas of Germany concerning habitats, biocenoses and species distribution. First evaluations have already proven effects of climate change on the biotic environment. Since several years already, plant phenology provides valuable background data. It is possible to supplement these background data by joining them spatially with data from other relevant monitoring programs and other information

  20. Influence of microorganisms on swelling behavior of smectites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viefhaus, Hanna; Schanz, Tom


    Document available in extended abstract form only. Considerable interaction of smectitic clay minerals and water leads to the pronounced seal effect needed for barrier materials in the toxic and nuclear waste storage. Nano-structural processes on the molecular level cause macroscopic material properties such as fluid/ion permeability and volume change/swelling pressure development, that are taken into account when characterizing the barrier material. In situ behavior results from a combination of specific influence factors (e.g. electrolyte concentration, temperature, pH-value) due to the great dependence on the environmental conditions of clay water interaction. Considering this aspect, the origin of change in chemical and physical variables become relevant. Particularly in terms of naturally existing and rapid changing factors such as microbial activity. Due to the biodiversity of microorganisms and their individual diversity of metabolism processes, many species have been studied with respect to the influence on the different soil properties. In this study, the effects created by microbial biocenose have been the object of investigation. This corresponds to natural conditions rather than the isolated species. The present study concerns the swelling behavior of smectitic clay with respect to the influence of induced microbial accumulation. Two types of smectites were studied, Calcigel (Ca 2+ -ions embedded between the silicate layers) and MX80 (Na + -ions embedded). A natural silt was mixed at a ratio of 70:30 for the dry mass with smectites, this provided an amount of microbial portfolio. Using the mixtures, samples were created (20 mm height, 70 mm diameter) with two types of water contents. They exhibited the same dry densities of 1.495 g/cm 3 (Calcigel) and 1.386 g/cm 3 (MX80). Water adsorption was permitted through the contact of the sample with the liquid phase and also unhindered volume change in one dimension. The addition of nutrients to the liquid phase