WorldWideScience

Sample records for biobased products industry

  1. Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum in Support of the Biobased Products Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Dorgan

    2005-07-31

    The project had a dominant education component. The project involved revising curriculum to educate traditional engineering students in the emerging field of industrial biotechnology. New classes were developed and offered. As a result, the curriculum of the Colorado School of Mines was expanded to include new content. Roughly 100 undergraduates and about 10 graduate students each year benefit from this curricular expansion. The research associated with this project consisted of developing new materials and energy sources from renewable resources. Several significant advances were made, most importantly the heat distortion temperature of polylactide (PLA) was increased through the addition of cellulosic nanowhiskers. The resulting ecobionanocomposites have superior properties which enable the use of renewable resource based plastics in a variety of new applications. Significant amounts of petroleum are thereby saved and considerable environmental benefits also result. Effectiveness and economic feasibility of the project proved excellent. The educational activities are continuing in a sustainable fashion, now being supported by tuition revenues and the normal budgeting of the University. The PI will be teaching one of the newly developed classes will next Fall (Fall 2006), after the close of the DOE grant, and again repeatedly into the future. Now established, the curriculum in biobased products and energy will grow and evolve through regular teaching and revision. On the research side, the new plastic materials appear economically feasible and a new collaboration between the PI’s group and Sealed Air, a major food-packaging manufacturer, has been established to bring the new green plastics to market. Public benefits of the project are noteworthy in many respects. These include the development of a better educated workforce and citizenry capable of providing technological innovation as a means of growing the economy and providing jobs. In particular, the

  2. Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum in Support of the Biobased Products Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Dorgan

    2005-09-30

    The project had a dominant education component. The project involved revising curriculum to educate traditional engineering students in the emerging field of industrial biotechnology. New classes were developed and offered. As a result, the curriculum of the Colorado School of Mines was expanded to include new content. Roughly 100 undergraduates and about 10 graduate students each year benefit from this curricular expansion. The research associated with this project consisted of developing new materials and energy sources from renewable resources. Several significant advances were made, most importantly the heat distortion temperature of polylactide (PLA) was increased through the addition of cellulosic nanowhiskers. The resulting ecobionanocomposites have superior properties which enable the use of renewable resource based plastics in a variety of new applications. Significant amounts of petroleum are thereby saved and considerable environmental benefits also result. The original project objectives had to be modified as a result of DOE funding cuts, the Biomass Program did not receive adequate funding to fully fund its selected projects. Nonetheless, effectiveness and economic feasibility of the project proved excellent. The educational activities are continuing in a sustainable fashion, now being supported by tuition revenues and the normal budgeting of the University. PI Dorgan taught one of the newly developed classes will in the Fall 2006, after the close of the DOE grant, and again repeatedly into the future. Now established, the curriculum in biobased products and energy will grow and evolve through regular teaching and revisions. On the research side, the new plastic materials appear economically feasible and a new collaboration between the PI’s group and Sealed Air, a major food-packaging manufacturer, has been established to bring the new green plastics to market. Public benefits of the project are noteworthy in many respects. These include the

  3. Establishment of a Graduate Certificate Program in Biobased Industrial Products – Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Schlup

    2005-11-04

    A certificate of graduate studies in Biobased Industrial Products is to be established at Kansas State University (KSU) along with the development of a similar program at Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS. At KSU, the program of study will be coordinated through the steering committee of the Agricultural Products Utilization Forum (APUF); the certificate of graduate studies will be awarded through the Graduate School of Kansas State University. This certificate will establish an interdisciplinary program of study that will: (1) ensure participating students receive a broad education in several disciplines related to Biobased Industrial Products, (2) provide a documented course of study for students preferring a freestanding certificate program, and (3) provide a paradigm shift in student awareness away from petroleum-based feedstocks to the utilization of renewable resources for fuels and chemical feedstocks. The academic program described herein will accomplish this goal by: (1) providing exposure to several academic disciplines key to Biobased Industrial Products; (2) improving university/industry collaboration through an external advisory board, distance learning opportunities, and student internships; (3) expanding the disciplines represented on the students' supervisory committee; (4) establishing a seminar series on Biobased Industrial Products that draws upon expert speakers representing several disciplines; and (5) increasing collaboration between disciplines. Numerous research programs emphasizing Biobased Industrial Products currently exist at KSU and PSU. The certificate of graduate studies, the emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration within the students? thesis research, the proposed seminar series, and formation of an industrial advisory board will: (1) provide an interdisciplinary academic experience that spans several departments, four colleges, four research centers, and two universities; (2) tangibly promote collaboration between

  4. 76 FR 3789 - Voluntary Labeling Program for Biobased Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... serious new development of biobased alternatives to fossil-based energy and other products. Additionally... ``renewed'' through innovations and following new industry standards such as sustainable forestry management... biobased products that have not yet been identified for Federal preferred procurement. This is a...

  5. Biobased Packaging - Application in Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wilfred Ruban

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of growing problems of waste disposal and because petroleum is a nonrenewable resource with diminishing quantities, renewed interest in packaging research is underway to develop and promote the use of “bio-plastics.” In general, compared to conventional plastics derived from petroleum, bio-based polymers have more diverse stereochemistry and architecture of side chains which enable research scientists a greater number of opportunities to customize the properties of the final packaging material. The primary challenge facing the food (Meat industry in producing bio-plastic packaging, currently, is to match the durability of the packaging with product shelf-life. Notable advances in biopolymer production, consumer demand for more environmentally-friendly packaging, and technologies that allow packaging to do more than just encompass the food are driving new and novel research and developments in the area of packaging for muscle foods. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 79-82

  6. Environmental impact assessment of bio-based binders: from production to industrial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbinet, Saïcha; Belboom, Sandra; Briard, Vincent; Hampson, Carl; Léonard, Angélique

    2015-01-01

    A binder is used to hold together the fibers forming the mineral wool products (see figure 1). These fibers can be produced from sand and recycled glass for glass wool products (see figure 2) or from rock (volcanic rock, typically basalt or dolomite) for stone wool products. Traditionally, the binders used in mineral wool products are based on phenol-formaldehyde. Due to sanitary and environmental considerations and increased focus on indoor air quality, the producers developed new alternativ...

  7. Synergy between bio-based industry and the feed industry through biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teekens, Amanda M; Bruins, Marieke E; van Kasteren, Johannes Mn; Hendriks, Wouter H; Sanders, Johan Pm

    2016-06-01

    Processing biomass into multi-functional components can contribute to the increasing demand for raw materials for feed and bio-based non-food products. This contribution aims to demonstrate synergy between the bio-based industry and the feed industry through biorefinery of currently used feed ingredients. Illustrating the biorefinery concept, rapeseed was selected as a low priced feed ingredient based on market prices versus crude protein, crude fat and apparent ileal digestible lysine content. In addition it is already used as an alternative protein source in diets and can be cultivated in European climate zones. Furthermore, inclusion level of rapeseed meal in pig diet is limited because of its nutritionally active factors. A conceptual process was developed to improve rapeseeds nutritional value and producing other bio-based building blocks simultaneously. Based on the correlation between market prices of feed ingredients and its protein and fat content, the value of refined products was estimated. Finally, a sensitivity analysis, under two profit scenario, shows that the process is economically feasible. This study demonstrates that using biorefinery processes on feed ingredients can improve feed quality. In conjunction, it produces building blocks for a bio-based industry and creates synergy between bio-based and feed industry for more efficient use of biomass. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26694859

  8. Challenges for bio-based products in sustainable value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardon, L.; Lin, J.W.; De Groote, M.; Ragaert, K.; Kopecka, J.A.; Koster, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns studies related to strategic development of products in which bio-based plastics are or will be applied, referred to as bio-based products. The studies cover (1) current and potential benefits of bio-based products in extended value chains including activities after end-of-life of

  9. Bio-based C-3 Platform Chemical: Biotechnological Production and -Conversion of 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Demands for efficient, greener, economical and sustainable production of chemicals, materials and energy have led to development of industrial biotechnology as a key technology area to provide such products from bio-based raw materials from agricultural-, forestry- and related industrial residues and by-products. For the bio-based industry, it is essential to develop a number of building blocks or platform chemicals for C2-C6 chemicals and even aromatic chemicals. 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3H...

  10. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Clark

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  11. 77 FR 10939 - Driving Innovation and Creating Jobs in Rural America Through Biobased and Sustainable Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... procurement of biobased products to promote rural economic development, create new jobs, and provide new... applicable new contract actions for products and services advance sustainable acquisition, including biobased... Transportation Management) and Executive Order 13514); (ii) include biobased products as part of...

  12. Assessing the Economic Viability of Bio-based Products for Missouri Value-added Crop Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2005-11-30

    While research and development on biobased products has continued strong over the years, parallel attention on the economics and management of such product innovation has been lacking. With the financial support of the Department of Energy, the Economics and Management of Agrobiotechnology Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia has launched a pilot graduate education program that seeks to fill the gap. Within this context, a multi-disciplinary research and teaching program has been structured with an emphasis on new product and innovation economics and management. More specifically, this pilot graduate education program has the following major objectives: (1) To provide students with a strong background in innovation economics, management, and strategy. (2) To diversify the students academic background with coursework in science and technology. (3) To familiarize the student with biobased policy initiatives through interaction with state and national level organizations and policymakers. (4) To facilitate active collaboration with industry involved in the development and production of biobased products. The pilot education program seeks to develop human capital and research output. Although the research is, initially, focused on issues related to the State of Missouri, the results are expected to have national implications for the economy, producers, consumers and environment.

  13. New bioactive and biobased product applications of pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pectin is well known for its bioactive health-promoting properties and use in biobased products. Recent reports have demonstrated that pectin and pectic fractions have potential as prebiotics, prevent pathogenic bacterial adhesion, increase prostate specific antigen doubling time in patients with re...

  14. Health, safety, and ecological implications of using biobased floor-stripping products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massawe, Ephraim; Geiser, Kenneth; Ellenbecker, Michael; Marshall, Jason

    2007-05-01

    Pro Strip. One product, Botanic Gold, had a screening score of 49 out of a possible 50. This score was much higher than the score of 26 achieved by Pro Strip. The other biobased floor strippers had EHS-screening scores of > or =37, which is the average value of solvent-based cleaning solutions. These results indicate that biobased cleaning products capable of floor stripping are potentially better than traditional products with respect to the five EHS parameters used. The cost of switching to biobased floor strippers at their full strength ranged from a minimum of U.S. $15.50 per gallon ($4.10 per liter) for Eco Natural Floor Stripper (WPR) to about $59.00 per gallon ($15.61 per liter) for Botanic Gold. At 25 percent volume by volume (v/v), the recommended dilution ratio for the traditional product, the cost of the Botanic Gold was $14.75 per gallon ($3.90 per liter), or about five times more than that of Pro Strip, which was $2.48 per gallon ($0.65 per liter). Since these figures do not reflect all of the EHS costs, such as disposal and recycling fees, it is likely that use of Botanic Gold could be cost-effective in the long run. The authors therefore recommend that detailed EHS analysis be conducted on this alternative biobased floor stripper. It is also recommended that large field trials be conducted and that janitors' or consumers' perceptions be determined. For detailed assessment of eco-toxicological properties of the biobased floor strippers, investigations of the common additives in the Botanic Gold formulation should be conducted through use of databases on the World Wide Web such as Toxnet. Finally, the current policies, regulations, and standards that promote biobased products should be investigated to determine their strengths and weaknesses. This would encourage a broader public debate about the future of the biobased industry in the context of sustainability. PMID:17506356

  15. Fostering the Bioeconomic Revolution in Biobased Products and Bioenergy: An Environmental Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2001-01-01

    This document is a product of the Biomass Research and Development Board and presents a high-level summary of the emerging national strategy for biobased products and bioenergy. It provides the first integrated approach to policies and procedures that will promote R&D and demonstration leading to accelerated production of biobased products and bioenergy.

  16. Technoeconomic evaluation of bio-based styrene production by engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claypool, Joshua T; Raman, D Raj; Jarboe, Laura R; Nielsen, David R

    2014-08-01

    Styrene is an important commodity chemical used in polymers and resins, and is typically produced from the petrochemical feedstocks benzene and ethylene. Styrene has recently been produced biosynthetically for the first time using engineered Escherichia coli, and this bio-based route may represent a lower energy and renewable alternative to petroleum-derived styrene. However, the economics of such an approach has not yet been investigated. Using an early-stage technoeconomic evaluation tool, a preliminary economic analysis of bio-based styrene from C(6)-sugar feedstock has been conducted. Owing to styrene's limited water solubility, it was assumed that the resulting fermentation broth would spontaneously form two immiscible liquid phases that could subsequently be decanted. Assuming current C(6) sugar prices and industrially achievable biokinetic parameter values (e.g., product yield, specific growth rate), commercial-scale bio-based styrene has a minimum estimated selling price (MESP) of 1.90 USD kg(-1) which is in the range of current styrene prices. A Monte Carlo analysis revealed a potentially large (0.45 USD kg(-1)) standard deviation in the MESP, while a sensitivity analysis showed feedstock price and overall yield as primary drivers of MESP. PMID:24939174

  17. A Circular Bioeconomy with Biobased Products from CO2 Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Modestra, J Annie; Amulya, K; Butti, Sai Kishore; Velvizhi, G

    2016-06-01

    The unprecedented climate change influenced by elevated concentrations of CO2 has compelled the research world to focus on CO2 sequestration. Although existing natural and anthropogenic CO2 sinks have proven valuable, their ability to further assimilate CO2 is now questioned. Thus, we highlight here the importance of biological sequestration methods as alternate and viable routes for mitigating climate change while simultaneously synthesizing value-added products that could sustainably fuel the circular bioeconomy. Four conceptual models for CO2 biosequestration and the synthesis of biobased products, as well as an integrated CO2 biorefinery model, are proposed. Optimizing and implementing this biorefinery model might overcome the limitations of existing sequestration methods and could help realign the carbon balance. PMID:27048926

  18. Bio-based composites from stone groundwood applied to new product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Mutje

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the product design, engineering, and material selection intended for the manufacturing of an eco-friendly chair. The final product is expected to combine design attributes with technical and legal feasibility with the implementation of new bio-based materials. Considering the industrial design, a range of objectives and trends were determined after setting the market requirements, and the final concept was proposed and modeled. The product geometry, production technology, and legal specifications were the input data for product engineering. The material selection was based on the technical requirements. Polypropylene (PP composite materials based on coupled-fiberglass, sized-fiberglass, and coupled-stone ground wood reinforcements were prepared and characterized. Final formulations based on these PP composites are proposed and justified.

  19. 14C determination in different bio-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Arévalo, Francisco-Javier; Gómez Martínez, Isabel; Agulló García, Lidia; Reina Maldonado, María-Teresa; García León, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Radiocarbon determination can be used as a tool to investigate the presence of biological elements in different bio-based products, such as biodiesel blends. These products may also be produced from fossil materials obtaining the same final molecules, so that composition is chemically indistinguishable. The amount of radiocarbon in these products can reveal how much of these biological elements have been used, usually mixed with petrol derived components, free of 14C. Some of these products are liquid and thus the handling at the laboratory is not as straightforward as with solid samples. At Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) we have tested the viability of these samples using a graphitization system coupled to an elemental analyzer used for combustion of the samples, thus avoiding any vacuum process. Samples do not follow any chemical pre-treatment procedure and are directly graphitized. Specific equipment for liquid samples related to the elemental analyzer was tested. Measurement of samples was performed by low-energy AMS at the 1 MV HVEE facility at CNA, paying special attention to background limits and reproducibility during sample preparation.

  20. Biobased packaging catalogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenveld, K.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Bos, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the catalogue is to showcase biobased packaging products and provide an overview of commercially available biobased packaging in 2014. This catalogue is a translation of the Dutch version of the biobased packaging catalogue that was launched September 2014. The raw materials, products

  1. [Engineering of the xylose metabolic pathway for microbial production of bio-based chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixi; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Tao

    2013-08-01

    As the rapid development of economy necessitates a large number of oil, the contradiction between energy supply and demand is further exacerbated by the dwindling reserves of petroleum resource. Therefore, the research of the renewable cellulosic biomass resources is gaining unprecedented momentum. Because xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose in lignocellulose hydrolyzes, high-efficiency bioconversion of xylose becomes one of the vital factors that affect the industrial prospects of lignocellulose application. According to the research progresses in recent years, this review summarized the advances in bioconversion of xylose, which included identification and redesign of the xylose metabolic pathway, engineering the xylose transport pathway and bio-based chemicals production. In order to solve the energy crisis and environmental pollution issues, the development of advanced bio-fuel technology, especially engineering the microbe able to metabolize xylose and produce ethanol by synthetic biology, is environmentally benign and sustainable. PMID:24364352

  2. Production of bio-based materials using photobioreactors with binary cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, Alex S; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Hill, Eric A; Fredrickson, Jim K

    2013-08-27

    A method, device and system for producing preselected products, (either finished products or preselected intermediary products) from biobased precursors or CO.sub.2 and/or bicarbonate. The principal features of the present invention include a method wherein a binary culture is incubated with a biobased precursor in a closed system to transform at least a portion of the biobased precursor to a preselected product. The present invention provides a method of cultivation that does not need sparging of a closed bioreactor to remove or add a gaseous byproduct or nutrient from a liquid medium. This improvement leads to significant savings in energy consumption and allows for the design of photobioreactors of any desired shape. The present invention also allows for the use of a variety of types of waste materials to be used as the organic starting material.

  3. Biomass. Energy carrier and biobased products; Biomasse. Energietraeger und biobasierte Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, W. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene; Groeger, G. (eds.) [BioRegionUlm Foerderverein Biotechnologie e.V., Ulm (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Within the scope of the 3rd Reivensburg Environmental Biotechnology Meeting at 29th June, 2007, at Castle Reivensburg near Guenzburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Challenges according to materials management, land use and power generation in the background of precarious economical situation in the Federal Republic of Germany (H.-G. Petersen); (b) Regenerative raw materials in Germany: Plant sources and potentials (W. Luehs, W. Friedt); (c) Biobased industrial products and bioraffinery systems (B. Kamm, M. Kamm); (d) Potential of biomass materials conversion in chemical industries (R. Busch); (e) Environmental compatible processes and low-priced ecological materials from the processing of biotechnological poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (H. Seliger, H. Haeberlein, R. Kohler, P. Sulzberger); (f) New starch from potatoes - a regenerative raw material (T. Servay); (g) Fuels from renewable energy sources: potential, production, perspectives (M. Specht, U. Zuberbuehler, A. Bandi); (h) Application of biogas as a fuel from the view of a car manufacturer (S. Schrahe); (i) Large-scale production of bioethanol (P. Johne, C. Sauter); (j) Environmental political evaluation of the use of biofuels and politics of biofuels of selected countries (J.M. Henke).

  4. 76 FR 53113 - Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... designated items will benefit from preferred procurement by Federal agencies. Estimate of Burden: Public... rules that are applicable to the public. Notices of hearings #0;and investigations, committee meetings...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement AGENCY:...

  5. Biobased organic acids production by metabolically engineered microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    expanded as organic acids constitute a key group among top building block chemicals that can be produced from renewable resources. Here we review the current status for production of citric acid and lactic acid, and we highlight the use of modern metabolic engineering technologies to develop high......Bio-based production of organic acids via microbial fermentation has been traditionally used in food industry. With the recent desire to develop more sustainable bioprocesses for production of fuels, chemicals and materials, the market for microbial production of organic acids has been further...

  6. Valorization of an industrial organosolv-sugarcane bagasse lignin: Characterization and use as a matrix in biobased composites reinforced with sisal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramires, Elaine C; Megiatto, Jackson D; Gardrat, Christian; Castellan, Alain; Frollini, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, the main focus was the characterization and application of the by-product lignin isolated through an industrial organosolv acid hydrolysis process from sugarcane bagasse, aiming at the production of bioethanol. The sugarcane lignin was characterized and used to prepare phenolic-type resins. The analysis confirmed that the industrial sugarcane lignin is of HGS type, with a high proportion of the less substituted aromatic ring p-hydroxyphenyl units, which favors further reaction with formaldehyde. The lignin-formaldehyde resins were used to produce biobased composites reinforced with different proportions of randomly distributed sisal fibers. The presence of lignin moieties in both the fiber and matrix increases their mutual affinity, as confirmed by SEM images, which showed good adhesion at the biocomposite fiber/matrix interface. This in turn allowed good load transference from the matrix to the fiber, leading to biobased composites with good impact strength (near 500 J m(-1) for a 40 wt% sisal fiber-reinforced composite). The study demonstrates that sugarcane bagasse lignin obtained from a bioethanol plant can be used without excessive purification in the preparation of lignocellulosic fiber-reinforced biobased composites displaying high mechanical properties. PMID:20589841

  7. Application of biobased materials for packing short, medium and long shelf life food products

    OpenAIRE

    Peelman, Nanou; Ragaert, Peter; Vandemoortele, Angelique; Verguldt, Elien; Devlieghere, Frank; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The possible application of several multilayered biobased materials for packing different food products, ranging from short to long shelf life products, was investigated. Several transparent and metalized cellulose based film, a cellulose/PLA based film, a xylan based film and PLA trays with a PLA based film, a PLA/cellulose based film and a PLA/paper based film as topfilm were examined. The investigated food products were tomatoes, steak, French fries, ham sausage, filet de saxe (a raw cured...

  8. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatikul, Lida; Arpornwichanopa, Amornchai; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    A systematic design methodology is developed for producing multiple main products plus side products starting with one or more bio-based renewable source. A superstructure that includes all possible reaction and separation operations is generated through thermodynamic insights and available data........ Economic analysis and net present value are determined to find the best economically and operationally feasible process. The application of the methodology is presented through a case study involving biodiesel and fatty alcohol productions....

  9. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatikul, Lida; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design methodology is developed for producing two main products plus side products starting with one or more bio-based renewable source. A superstructure that includes all possible reaction and separation operations is generated through thermodynamic insights and available data. The ....... Economic analysis and net present value are determined to find the best economically and operationally feasible process. The application of the methodology is presented through a case study involving biodiesel and fatty alcohol productions....

  10. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatikul, Lida; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai; Gani, Rafiqul

    A systematic design methodology is developed for producing two main products plus side products starting with one or more bio-based renewable source. A superstructure that includes all possible reaction and separation operations is generated through thermodynamic insights and available data. The ....... Economic analysis and net present value are determined to find the best economically and operationally feasible process. The application of the methodology is presented through a case study involving biodiesel and fatty alcohol productions....

  11. Sustainability of biobased products. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission of products with sugars as a basic material; Duurzaamheid van biobased producten. Energiegebruik en broeikasgasemissie van producten met suikers als grondstof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, H.; Conijn, S.; Corre, W.; Meesters, K. Martin Patel

    2011-02-15

    This is issue 11 in a series of publications on the use of Agricultural feedstocks and secondary flows in safe and healthy products for the consumer and industrial markets. This study examines how the sustainability of various biobased products that can be made of fermentable sugars relate to each other. A closer look was taken at the use of non renewable energy and the emission of greenhouse gases during the entire production process, including cultivation of crops. Fermentable sugars can be produced from various crops. This study examines five different crops. [Dutch] Dit is aflevering elf in een reeks publicaties over het gebruik van agrogrondstoffen en nevenstromen in veilige en gezonde producten voor consumenten- en industriele markten. In deze studie is onderzocht hoe de duurzaamheid van verschillende biobased producten die uit fermenteerbare suikers kunnen worden gemaakt zich tot elkaar verhouden. Daarbij is gekeken naar het gebruik van niet-hernieuwbare energie en de uitstoot van broeikasgassen tijdens het gehele productieproces, inclusief het telen van de gewassen. Fermenteerbare suikers kunnen uit verschillende gewassen worden gewonnen, in deze studie zijn vijf verschillende gewassen met elkaar vergeleken.

  12. Rhodococcus opacus B4: a promising bacterium for production of biofuels and biobased chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ana Rita; Rocha, Isabel; Alves, Maria Madalena; Pereira, Maria Alcina

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial lipids have relevant applications in the production of renewable fuels and biobased oleochemicals. The genus Rhodococcus is one of the most relevant lipid producers due to its capability to accumulate those compounds, mainly triacylglycerols (TAG), when cultivated on different defined substrates, namely sugars, organic acids and hydrocarbons but also on complex carbon sources present in industrial wastes. In this work, the production of storage lipids by Rhodococcus opacus B4 using glucose, acetate and hexadecane is reported for the first time and its productivity compared with Rhodococcus opacus PD630, the best TAG producer bacterium reported. Both strains accumulated mainly TAG from all carbon sources, being influenced by the carbon source itself and by the duration of the accumulation period. R. opacus B4 produced 0.09 and 0.14 g L(-1) at 24 and 72 h, with hexadecane as carbon source, which was 2 and 3.3 fold higher than the volumetric production obtained by R. opacus PD630. Both strains presented similar fatty acids (FA) profiles in intact cells while in TAG produced fraction, R. opacus B4 revealed a higher variability in fatty acid composition than R. opacus PD630, when both strains were cultivated on hexadecane. The obtained results open new perspectives for the use of R. opacus B4 to produce TAG, in particular using oily (alkane-contaminated) waste and wastewater as cheap raw-materials. Combining TAG production with hydrocarbons degradation is a promising strategy to achieve environmental remediation while producing added value compounds. PMID:27179529

  13. Development Of Sustainable Biobased Products And Bioenergy In Cooperation With The Midwest Consortium For Sustainable Biobased Products And Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Ladisch; Randy Woodson

    2009-03-18

    Collaborative efforts of Midwest Consortium have been put forth to add value to distiller's grains by further processing them into fermentable sugars, ethanol, and a protein rich co-product consistent with a pathway to a biorenewables industry (Schell et al, 2008). These studies were recently published in the enclosed special edition (Volume 99, Issue 12) of Bioresource Technology journal. Part of them have demonstrated the utilization of distillers grains as additional feedstock for increased ethanol production in the current dry grind process (Kim et al., 2008a, b; Dien et al.,2008, Ladisch et al., 2008a, b). Results showed that both liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) were effective for enhancing digestibility of distiller's grains. Enzymatic digestion of distiller's grains resulted in more than 90% glucose yield under standard assay conditions, although the yield tends to drop as the concentration of dry solids increases. Simulated process mass balances estimated that hydrolysis and fermentation of distillers grains can increase the ethanol yield by 14% in the current dry milling process (Kim et al., 2008c). Resulting co-products from the modified process are richer in protein and oil contents than conventional distiller's grains, as determined both experimentally and computationally. Other research topics in the special edition include water solubilization of DDGS by transesterification reaction with phosphite esters (Oshel el al., 2008) to improve reactivity of the DDGS to enzymes, hydrolysis of soluble oligomers derived from DDGS using functionalized mesoporous solid catalysts (Bootsma et al., 2008), and ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol) production from DDGS by solventogenic Clostridia (Ezeji and Blaschek, 2008). Economic analysis of a modified dry milling process, where the fiber and residual starch is extracted and fermented to produce more ethanol from the distillers grains while producing highly

  14. Sustainable Systems Analysis of Production and Transportation Scenarios for Conventional and Bio-based Energy Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, E. M.; Golden, J. S.; Nowacek, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    commerce. To demonstrate the usefulness of the framework, we construct several scenarios as case studies to explore the emerging trends of larger ship deployment and the changing portfolio of energy resources including the increased consumption of bio-based energy. The maritime transportation industry remains heavily reliant on fossil fuels to power transport, while energy, mineral and grain remain the largest bulk commodities shipped. Emerging markets for such commodities, as well as new production methods and locations are considered. We overlay these trends and shifts with ecological areas of concern and biological migration routes. The diversity of governance regimes is also considered to produce a clearer picture of the emerging hot-spots for further study and for the synergies and tradeoffs that must be considered to achieve a sustainable ocean system. References Turner BL, Lambin EF, Reenberg A (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci, (104):20666-20671. UN Trade and Development Board (2013) Recent developments and trends in international maritime transport affecting trade of developing countries, TD/B/C.1/30.

  15. Opportunities, barriers, and strategies for forest bioenergy and bio-based product development in the Southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Chyrel A.; Foster, C. Darwin; Gan, Jianbang [Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A and M University, MS 2138, College Station, TX 77842-2135 (United States); Smith, C. Tattersall [Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, 33 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fox, Susan [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 200 WT Weaver Boulevard, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Focus groups were used to identify opportunities, barriers, and strategies for increased utilization of forest biomass in the Southern United States. The groups were based on the seven critical components in the bioenergy and bio-based products value chain, as identified by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 31 ''Biomass Production for Energy from Sustainable Forestry.'' These components include sustainable biomass production, sustainable forest operations, product delivery logistics, manufacturing and energy production, environmental sustainability, consumer demand, and rural economic development. Participants included handpicked experts from each of the seven component areas. Six common themes emerged from the focus groups. Market creation, infrastructure development, community engagement, incentives, collaboration, and education will all be critical to the successful development of the biomass industry. The forest industry, the energy industry, academia, extension personnel, and rural communities should collaborate together to support research, policy issues, and educational programs that enhance the efficiency of current forest biomass operations and promote the use of forest biomass for bioenergy. (author)

  16. Multi-scale exploration of the technical, economic, and environmental dimensions of bio-based chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Kai H; Herrgård, Markus J

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, bio-based chemicals have gained traction as a sustainable alternative to petrochemicals. However, despite rapid advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, there remain significant economic and environmental challenges. In order to maximize the impact of research investment in a new bio-based chemical industry, there is a need for assessing the technological, economic, and environmental potentials of combinations of biomass feedstocks, biochemical products, bioprocess technologies, and metabolic engineering approaches in the early phase of development of cell factories. To address this issue, we have developed a comprehensive Multi-scale framework for modeling Sustainable Industrial Chemicals production (MuSIC), which integrates modeling approaches for cellular metabolism, bioreactor design, upstream/downstream processes and economic impact assessment. We demonstrate the use of the MuSIC framework in a case study where two major polymer precursors (1,3-propanediol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid) are produced from two biomass feedstocks (corn-based glucose and soy-based glycerol) through 66 proposed biosynthetic pathways in two host organisms (Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The MuSIC framework allows exploration of tradeoffs and interactions between economy-scale objectives (e.g. profit maximization, emission minimization), constraints (e.g. land-use constraints) and process- and cell-scale technology choices (e.g. strain design or oxygenation conditions). We demonstrate that economy-scale assessment can be used to guide specific strain design decisions in metabolic engineering, and that these design decisions can be affected by non-intuitive dependencies across multiple scales. PMID:26116515

  17. Comparing biobased products from oil crops versus sugar crops with regard to non-renewable energy use, GHG emissions and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Harriëtte L.; Meesters, Koen P.H.; Conijn, Sjaak G.; Corré, Wim J.; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-renewable energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use of two biobased products and biofuel from oil crops is investigated and compared with products from sugar crops. In a bio-based economy chemicals, materials and energy carriers will be produced from biomass. Next to side streams, als

  18. Finding the "bio" in biobased products: electrophoretic identification of wheat proteins in processed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, George H; Hurkman, William J; Cao, Trung K; Tanaka, Charlene K; Orts, William J

    2010-04-14

    Verification of the biocontent in biobased or "green" products identifies genuine products, exposes counterfeit copies, supports or refutes content claims, and ensures consumer confidence. When the biocontent includes protein, elemental nitrogen analysis is insufficient for verification since non-protein, but nitrogen-rich, content also may be present. However, the proteins can be extracted, separated by electrophoretic methods, and detected by UV absorption, protein stain, or immunoblotting. We utilized capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) to separate proteins in a gliadin fraction that had been dissolved in aqueous ethanol (70%) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to separate proteins in a gliadin-plus-glutenin fraction that had been dissolved in water containing both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT). We sought to verify the presence of these wheat grain proteins in wheat bread, a wheat flake cereal, wheat beer, and an enclosure for an antique automobile ignition coil reputed to contain wheat gluten. Proteins extracted from commercial wheat, corn, and soy flours served as standards, and proteins from heat-altered wheat served as process condition references. This approach successfully identified wheat proteins in these products especially if the process temperature did not exceed 120 degrees C. Above this temperature attenuation was nearly complete for proteins analyzed by CZE, but wheat-like patterns could still be recognized by one- and two-dimensional PAGE. Immunoblots reacted with grain-specific antibodies confirmed the identities of the cereal component especially when the protein pattern was greatly altered by thermal modification, specific protein adsorption, or protein digestion. In addition to verifying that wheat proteins are present, the complementary use of these methods can reveal whether whole wheat gluten or merely an alcohol-soluble fraction had been used in the specific product and indicate the

  19. Erratum: Transcript and Metabolite Profiling for the Evaluation of Tobacco Tree and Poplar as Feedstock for the Bio-based Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A correction was made to: Transcript and Metabolite Profiling for the Evaluation of Tobacco Tree and Poplar as Feedstock for the Bio-based Industry. There was a spelling error in one of the authors' surname. The author's name was corrected from: Juan Pedro Navarro to: Juan Navarro-Aviñó. PMID:27387492

  20. Pretreatment of spent sulphite liquor via ultrafiltration and nanofiltration for bio-based succinic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateraki, Chrysanthi; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Kookos, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2016-09-10

    Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been employed to evaluate the simultaneous production of lignosulphonates and bio-based succinic acid using the bacterial strains Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Ultrafiltration with membranes of 10, 5 and 3kDa molecular weight cut-off results in significant losses of lignosulphonates (26-50%) in the permeate stream, while nanofiltration using membrane with 500Da molecular weight cut-off results in high retention yields of lignosulphonates (95.6%) in the retentate stream. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures using permeates from ultrafiltrated SSL resulted in similar succinic acid concentration (27.5g/L) and productivity (0.4g/L/h) by both strains. When permeates from nanofiltrated SSL were used, the strain B. succiniciproducens showed the highest succinic acid concentration (33.8g/L), yield (0.58g per g of consumed sugars) and productivity (0.48g/L/h). The nanofiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor could lead to the production of 306.3kg of lignosulphonates and 52.7kg of succinic acid, whereas the ultrafiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor using a 3kDa membrane could result in the production of 237kg of lignosulphonates and 71.8kg of succinic acid when B. succiniproducens is used in both cases. PMID:27374402

  1. Industrial Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASTRAN is an offshoot of the computer-design technique used in construction of airplanes and spacecraft. [n this technique engineers create a mathematical model of the aeronautical or space vehicle and "fly" it on the ground by means of computer simulation. The technique enables them to study performance and structural behavior of a number of different designs before settling on the final configuration and proceeding with construction. From this base of aerospace experience, NASA-Goddard developed the NASTRAN general purpose computer program, which offers an exceptionally wide range of analytic capability with regard to structures. NASTRAN has been applied to autos, trucks, railroad cars, ships, nuclear power reactors, steam turbines, bridges, and office buildings. NASA-Langley provides program maintenance services regarded as vital by many NASTRAN users. NASTRAN is essentially a predictive tool. It takes an electronic look at a computerire$.dedgn and reports how the structure will react under a great many different conditions. It can, for example, note areas where high stress levels will occur-potential failure points that need strengthening. Conversely, it can identify over-designed areas where weight and material might be saved safely. NASTRAN can tell how pipes stand up under strong fluid flow, how metals are affected by high temperatures, how a building will fare in an earthquake or how powerful winds will cause a bridge to oscillate. NASTRAN analysis is quick and inexpensive. It minimizes trial-and-error in the design process and makes possible better, safe, lighter structures affording large-scale savings in development time and materials. Some examples of the broad utility NASTRAN is finding among industrial firms are shown on these pages.

  2. Enzymatic Synthesis of Biobased Polyesters and Polyamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, “green” is a hot topic almost everywhere, from retailers to universities to industries; and achieving a green status has become a universal aim. However, polymers are commonly considered not to be “green”, being associated with massive energy consumption and severe pollution problems (for example, the “Plastic Soup” as a public stereotype. To achieve green polymers, three elements should be entailed: (1 green raw materials, catalysts and solvents; (2 eco-friendly synthesis processes; and (3 sustainable polymers with a low carbon footprint, for example, (biodegradable polymers or polymers which can be recycled or disposed with a gentle environmental impact. By utilizing biobased monomers in enzymatic polymerizations, many advantageous green aspects can be fulfilled. For example, biobased monomers and enzyme catalysts are renewable materials that are derived from biomass feedstocks; enzymatic polymerizations are clean and energy saving processes; and no toxic residuals contaminate the final products. Therefore, synthesis of renewable polymers via enzymatic polymerizations of biobased monomers provides an opportunity for achieving green polymers and a future sustainable polymer industry, which will eventually play an essential role for realizing and maintaining a biobased and sustainable society.

  3. Producing Bio-Based Bulk Chemicals Using Industrial Biotechnology Saves Energy and Combats Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and

  4. Structural change in agriculture induced by innovative biobased technologies, an agent-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Industry and policy makers pursue the development of a biobased economy. The biobased economy emerged first as a promising segment of new biotech applications. But during the last years, the term evolved to cover a much larger concept. It currently has grown to a vision for a new industrial structure where all products, from energy carriers, plastics and food to high value additives and pharmaceuticals, are entirely based on organic matter, thereby annihilating any need for fossil fuels. ...

  5. Life cycle inventory analysis of bio-based polyester production by genetically engineered bacteria from renewable carbon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuge, T.; Akiyama, M.; Doi, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, SORST Group of Japan Science and Technology Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Innovative and Engineered Materials]|[RIKEN Inst., Saitama (Japan). Polymer Chemistry Lab

    2003-07-01

    Since the oil crisis in the 1970s, polydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have been considered to be an environmentally sound substitute for oil because they are biodegradable, leave no waste and are made from renewable resources such as glucose, sucrose and vegetable oils. This study was conducted to predict the production cost of a polydroxyalkanoates (PHA) copolyester using soybean oil as a carbon source. PHAs are used as biodegradable thermoplastics. They are bio-based polymers which can be made from various microorganisms. This simulation study used a recombinant strain of Ralstonia eutropha harboring a PHA synthase gene from Aeromonas caviae. Life cycle inventories of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated and compared with other microbial production of poly3-hydroxybutyrate from glucose as a carbon source. It was determined that life cycle inventories of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of bio-based polymers are significantly lower than those of typical petrochemical polymers. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. Producing Bio-Based Bulk Chemicals Using Industrial Biotechnology Saves Energy and Combats Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, B.G.; de Blok, K; Patel, M.K. (Martin)

    2007-01-01

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechno...

  7. Systems-wide metabolic pathway engineering in Corynebacterium glutamicum for bio-based production of diaminopentane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Stefanie; Jeong, Weol Kyu; Schröder, Hartwig; Wittmann, Christoph

    2010-07-01

    In the present work the Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was engineered into an efficient, tailor-made production strain for diaminopentane (cadaverine), a highly attractive building block for bio-based polyamides. The engineering comprised expression of lysine decarboxylase (ldcC) from Escherichia coli, catalyzing the conversion of lysine into diaminopentane, and systems-wide metabolic engineering of central supporting pathways. Substantially re-designing the metabolism yielded superior strains with desirable properties such as (i) the release from unwanted feedback regulation at the level of aspartokinase and pyruvate carboxylase by introducing the point mutations lysC311 and pycA458, (ii) an optimized supply of the key precursor oxaloacetate by amplifying the anaplerotic enzyme, pyruvate carboxylase, and deleting phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which otherwise removes oxaloacetate, (iii) enhanced biosynthetic flux via combined amplification of aspartokinase, dihydrodipicolinate reductase, diaminopimelate dehydrogenase and diaminopimelate decarboxylase, and (iv) attenuated flux into the threonine pathway competing with production by the leaky mutation hom59 in the homoserine dehydrogenase gene. Lysine decarboxylase proved to be a bottleneck for efficient production, since its in vitro activity and in vivo flux were closely correlated. To achieve an optimal strain having only stable genomic modifications, the combination of the strong constitutive C. glutamicum tuf promoter and optimized codon usage allowed efficient genome-based ldcC expression and resulted in a high diaminopentane yield of 200 mmol mol(-1). By supplementing the medium with 1 mgL(-1) pyridoxal, the cofactor of lysine decarboxylase, the yield was increased to 300 mmol mol(-1). In the production strain obtained, lysine secretion was almost completely abolished. Metabolic analysis, however, revealed substantial formation of an as yet unknown by-product. It was identified as an

  8. Uncertainty in the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Production of Three Biobased Polymer Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, I Daniel; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael

    2016-03-15

    Interest in biobased products has been motivated, in part, by the claim that these products have lower life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than their fossil counterparts. This study investigates GHG emissions from U.S. production of three important biobased polymer families: polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and bioethylene-based plastics. The model incorporates uncertainty into the life cycle emission estimates using Monte Carlo simulation. Results present a range of scenarios for feedstock choice (corn or switchgrass), treatment of coproducts, data sources, end of life assumptions, and displaced fossil polymer. Switchgrass pathways generally have lower emissions than corn pathways, and can even generate negative cradle-to-gate emissions if unfermented residues are used to coproduce energy. PHB (from either feedstock) is unlikely to have lower emissions than fossil polymers once end of life emissions are included. PLA generally has the lowest emissions when compared to high emission fossil polymers, such as polystyrene (mean GHG savings up to 1.4 kg CO2e/kg corn PLA and 2.9 kg CO2e/kg switchgrass PLA). In contrast, bioethylene is likely to achieve the greater emission reduction for ethylene intensive polymers, like polyethylene (mean GHG savings up to 0.60 kg CO2e/kg corn polyethylene and 3.4 kg CO2e/kg switchgrass polyethylene). PMID:26895173

  9. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable plastics waste, and (iii) greenhouse gas emissions caused by combusting fossil fuels. To tackle these sustainability challenges, two strategies have been proposed. First, use bio-based polymers to repl...

  10. More chemistry between green and growth. The opportunities and dilemmas of a bio-based economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bio-based economy is one in which enterprises manufacture non-food products from biomass. Such products include fuel for the transport industry, chemicals, materials, and energy. Biomass is the biological material of living or recently living organisms, either animal or vegetable. With technology becoming more sophisticated, it is growing easier to turn plants, trees, crops, and residual animal waste into biomass. Waste and waste streams are increasingly being used as input in production processes, thereby gaining an economic value of their own. They are giving rise to new, sustainable products with considerable added value that replace products based on non-renewable materials. New bio-based products may offer the Netherlands new economic opportunities. The Dutch can already boast a number of distinct advantages in that respect, thanks to the sophistication of their industrial sector, agro-industry, chemicals and energy industries, and transport and logistics sector - all key sectors in a bio-based economy. However, the growing world population and increasing level of prosperity worldwide, and the environmental and climate problems associated with such growth, are adding to the complexity of policy-making aimed at developing a bio-based economy. The shift from fossil-based to bio-based materials must be part of a comprehensive policy aimed at achieving a sustainable economy.

  11. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated.......The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated....

  12. More chemistry between green and growth. The opportunities and dilemmas of a bio-based economy; Meer chemie tussen groen en groei. De kansen en dilemma's van een biobased economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    A bio-based economy is one in which enterprises manufacture non-food products from biomass. Such products include fuel for the transport industry, chemicals, materials, and energy. Biomass is the biological material of living or recently living organisms, either animal or vegetable. With technology becoming more sophisticated, it is growing easier to turn plants, trees, crops, and residual animal waste into biomass. Waste and waste streams are increasingly being used as input in production processes, thereby gaining an economic value of their own. They are giving rise to new, sustainable products with considerable added value that replace products based on non-renewable materials. New bio-based products may offer the Netherlands new economic opportunities. The Dutch can already boast a number of distinct advantages in that respect, thanks to the sophistication of their industrial sector, agro-industry, chemicals and energy industries, and transport and logistics sector - all key sectors in a bio-based economy. However, the growing world population and increasing level of prosperity worldwide, and the environmental and climate problems associated with such growth, are adding to the complexity of policy-making aimed at developing a bio-based economy. The shift from fossil-based to bio-based materials must be part of a comprehensive policy aimed at achieving a sustainable economy. [Dutch] In dit advies gaat de SER in op mogelijkheden en knelpunten van de biobased economy. In een biobased economy dienen plantaardige en dierlijke biomassa (zoals gewassen, planten, snijafval, mest) als groene grondstoffen om non-food producten mee te maken (denk aan cosmetica, bioplastics, brandstoffen). De SER vindt dat de rijksoverheid stevig moet inzetten op een biobased economy met meer gesloten kringlopen. Dit draagt immers bij aan economische groei en aan een meer duurzame economie (gesloten kringlopen, gunstige arbeidsomstandigheden)

  13. Compatibilized blends and value added products from leather industry waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, Luciana; Di Landro, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Blends based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed proteins (IP), derived from waste products of the leather industry, have been obtained by reactive blending and their chemical physical properties as well as mechanical and rheological behavior were evaluated. The effect of vinyl acetate content and of transesterification agent addition to increase interaction between polymer and bio-based components were considered. These blends represent a new type of biodegradable material and resulted promising for industrial application in several fields such as packaging and agriculture as transplanting or mulching films with additional fertilizing action of IP.

  14. Analysis of need for action for the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) in regard to the lead-market initiative of the European Commission for bio-based products (excluding bioenergy); Analyse des Handlungsbedarfs fuer das Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi) aus der Leitmarktinitiative (LMI) der EU-Kommission fuer biobasierte Produkte ausserhalb des Energiesektors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wydra, Sven; Huesing, Baerbel; Kukk, Piret

    2010-12-15

    Bio-based products are associated with enormous potential of reducing the environ-mental footprints, contributing for better health, substituting fossil raw materials and strengthening the technological leadership and competitiveness of the German and European industry. Today, the potential of bio-based products cannot be realized, be-cause of various barriers: e.g., the partly missing cost competitiveness, low acceptance by the manufacturing industry, time-to-market disadvantages compared to the fossil products, favourable funding of energy usage of biomass compared to the material use of biomass in industry. Therefore, the European Commission has chosen bio-based as one of six target markets for the lead market initiative, which started back in 2007. The lead market initiative should contribute to raise the potential of bio-based product and to increase their competitiveness. The concept of the lead-market initiative is primarily demand-oriented and aims to support especially small and medium size enterprises. The European Commission as well as the Member States are addressed to support this initiative with appropriate measures. Against this background the following questions are analyzed in this study: Which measures are currently implemented in Germany that contribute to the aims of the lead market initiative for bio-based products? Are there significant differences between the various applications (e.g. biochemicals, biolubricants, enzymes, biosolvents)? Are the measures and regulations sufficient and appropriate in regard to small and medium size enterprises? Which actions should be taken by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) and other actors (e.g. other ministries, associations)? How should be the appropriate policy measures designed? (orig.)

  15. Bio-based materials from crambe and carinata industrial oilseed meals

    OpenAIRE

    Newson, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based plastics are considered as a new route for valorisation of oilseed meal from the industrial oil crops Crambe abyssinia (crambe) and Brassica carinata (carinata) as they cannot be used for animal feed or human food. To convert oilseed meals into protein-based plastic films compression moulding was used with varying processing temperature, chemical additives and protein extraction conditions. Twin screw extrusion was utilized to make films from blends of crambe meal and wheat glut...

  16. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.

    1996-01-01

    The possibilities of making xerogel glazings in an industrial way is discussed and a schematic outline of a production line is presented.......The possibilities of making xerogel glazings in an industrial way is discussed and a schematic outline of a production line is presented....

  17. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated....

  18. Cellulose oligomers production and separation for the synthesis of new fully bio-based amphiphilic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billès, Elise; Onwukamike, Kelechukwu N; Coma, Véronique; Grelier, Stéphane; Peruch, Frédéric

    2016-12-10

    Cellulose oligomers are water-soluble, on the contrary to cellulose, which greatly increase their application range. In this study, cellulose oligomers were obtained from the acidic hydrolysis of cellulose with phosphoric acid. The global yield in water-soluble oligomers was around 23% with polymerization degree (DP) ranging from 1 to 12. The cellulose oligomers DP distribution was successfully reduced by differential solubilisation in methanol as one of the goals of this work was to avoid the use of a time-consuming full chromatographic separation. The methanol-soluble oligomers were mainly low DP (≤3). The oligomers of higher molar mass, composed of 42% of cellotetraose and 36% of cellopentaose, were then functionalized and coupled with stearic acid through azide-alkyne click chemistry to obtain amphiphilic compounds. The self-assembly of these new bio-based compounds was finally investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their critical micellar concentration (CMC) was found to be in the same range as alkylmaltosides and alkylglucosides. PMID:27577903

  19. Socio-economic opportunities of the biobased economy in the south-west of the Netherlands. Estimated employment impact in 2020; Sociaaleconomische kansen van de biobased economy in Zuidwest-Nederland. Inschatting werkgelegenheidseffecten in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lieshout, M.; Warringa, G.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H.

    2013-06-15

    This study, commissioned by the Socio-Economic Councils (SER) of the Dutch provinces of Zeeland and Brabant, was carried out in collaboration with a supervisory committee comprising numerous stakeholders in the biobased economy in the south-west of the Netherlands. The motto was 'agro meets chemistry'. Given that it was clear from the outset that the volume of locally available biomass is insufficient for large-scale power generation without inducing serious competition with food production, it was opted to restrict the scope of the 'biobased economy' to production of biobased chemicals and innovative materials. Because of the study's limited scope and duration, gross employment effects were also calculated for Zeeland and West Brabant only. To this end, three factors critical for the growth of the biobased economy and thus for potential employment effects were analysed: the price of fossil feedstocks, the availability of biomass for chemical industry applications, and the availability of capital for investing in innovative biobased processes. To cover the full range of possible developments in the biobased economy, two scenarios were developed: high and low, with in each case employment effects being estimated on the basis of a biomass flow analysis and employment indices [Dutch] Deze studie is uitgevoerd in opdracht van de SER Zeeland en de SER Brabant, in samenwerking met een begeleidingscommissie met brede vertegenwoordiging van stakeholders van de biobased economy in Zuidwest Nederland. De insteek was 'agro meets chemistry'. Aangezien bij aanvang vast stond dat de lokaal beschikbare biomassa onvoldoende is voor grootschalige energieopwekking, zonder ernstige concurrentie met voedselproductie te veroorzaken, is er voor gekozen om de biobased economy te beperken tot de productie van biobased chemie en innovatieve materialen. Verder is gezien de beperkte omvang en doorlooptijd van de studie besloten om

  20. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  1. Production of Bio-Based Chemicals In vivo and In vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Opgenorth, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century the petro chemical industry has provided an abundant and cheap source of hydrocarbons that have impacted and transformed many facets of our lives. Petrochemicals not only provide fuel that revolutionized transportation industry but also provided cheap petrochemical feedstock molecules that form a basis of many textiles, plastics, adhesives, detergents, and lubricants that are indispensable in modern life. Our dependence on the petrochemical industry and the sheer quant...

  2. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel eVanholme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy towards sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green and industrial (white biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  3. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Mey, Marjan; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy. PMID:23761802

  4. Biobased economy. State-of-the-art assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in the biobased economy stems from the possibility to substitute biologically derived materials and processes for the production of goods that will, therefore, result in a reduced use of petroleum and petro-chemistry. Other reasons are the reduction in the energy required in production processes or the more environmentally benign waste treatment channels for the production residues or discarded products at the end of their life cycle. The Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality of The Netherlands has asked Wageningen UR (AFSG and LEI) to examine the contemporary market for biobased products and the potential growth of the biobased economy. This report is based on an analysis of the bio-based composition, actual and possible, as well as the market value of 780 non-food, non-feed products within the PRODCOM listing, which represent the potential for biobased production in NL and the EU25

  5. The circular economy of seaweed as nutrient management instrument for biobased production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne; Seghetta, Michele; Bruhn, Annette;

    A comparative analysis of the environmental and economic performance of seaweed production and biorefinery systems were modelled within the project MAB3 (www.mab3.dk). A framework for integrated sustainability modelling of the circular economy of offshore seaweed production and biorefinery systems...... ongoing and requires expanding the scale of production. Regarding the product portfolio, especially use of seaweed for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics will increase the profitability of the seaweed utilization compared to use for energy, feed and fertilizers. There are not synergies between the economic and...

  6. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian;

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an imp...... chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes.......Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an...... important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine...

  7. Biocatalysts and methods for conversion of hemicellulose hydrolysates to biobased products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, James F

    2015-03-31

    The invention relates to processes and biocatalysts for producing ethanol and other useful products from biomass and/or other materials. Initial processing of lignocellulosic biomass frequently yields methylglucuronoxylose (MeGAX) and related products which are resistant to further processing by common biocatalysts. Strains of Enterobacter asburiae are shown to be useful in bioprocessing of MeGAX and other materials into useful bioproducts such as ethanol, acetate, lactate, and many others. Genetic engineering may be used to enhance production of desired bioproducts.

  8. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    OpenAIRE

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L.

    2009-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding...

  9. Research Extension and Education Programs on Bio-based Energy Technologies and Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Sam [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station; Harper, David [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station; Womac, Al [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station

    2010-03-02

    The overall objectives of this project were to provide enhanced educational resources for the general public, educational and development opportunities for University faculty in the Southeast region, and enhance research knowledge concerning biomass preprocessing and deconstruction. All of these efforts combine to create a research and education program that enhances the biomass-based industries of the United States. This work was broken into five primary objective areas: • Task A - Technical research in the area of biomass preprocessing, analysis, and evaluation. • Tasks B&C - Technical research in the areas of Fluidized Beds for the Chemical Modification of Lignocellulosic Biomass and Biomass Deconstruction and Evaluation. • Task D - Analyses for the non-scientific community to provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of biomass supply, demand, technologies, markets and policies; identify a set of feasible alternative paths for biomass industry development and quantify the impacts associated with alternative path. • Task E - Efforts to build research capacity and develop partnerships through faculty fellowships with DOE national labs The research and education programs conducted through this grant have led to three primary results. They include: • A better knowledge base related to and understanding of biomass deconstruction, through both mechanical size reduction and chemical processing • A better source of information related to biomass, bioenergy, and bioproducts for researchers and general public users through the BioWeb system. • Stronger research ties between land-grant universities and DOE National Labs through the faculty fellowship program. In addition to the scientific knowledge and resources developed, funding through this program produced a minimum of eleven (11) scientific publications and contributed to the research behind at least one patent.

  10. Potential of genetically engineered hybrid poplar for pyrolytic production of bio-based phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraman, Hilal E; Vanholme, Ruben; Borén, Eleonora; Vanwonterghem, Yumi; Djokic, Marko R; Yildiz, Guray; Ronsse, Frederik; Prins, Wolter; Boerjan, Wout; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B

    2016-05-01

    Wild-type and two genetically engineered hybrid poplar lines were pyrolyzed in a micro-pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and a bench scale setup for fast and intermediate pyrolysis studies. Principal component analysis showed that the pyrolysis vapors obtained by micro-pyrolysis from wood of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) and caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) down-regulated poplar trees differed significantly from the pyrolysis vapors obtained from non-transgenic control trees. Both fast micro-pyrolysis and intermediate pyrolysis of transgenic hybrid poplars showed that down-regulation of COMT can enhance the relative yield of guaiacyl lignin-derived products, while the relative yield of syringyl lignin-derived products was up to a factor 3 lower. This study indicates that lignin engineering via genetic modifications of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid and monolignol biosynthetic pathways can help to steer the pyrolytic production of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin-derived phenolic compounds such as guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-vinylguaiacol, syringol, 4-vinylsyringol, and syringaldehyde present in the bio-oil. PMID:26890798

  11. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  12. An approach to describe the agri-food and other bio-based sectors in the European Union. Focus on Spain

    OpenAIRE

    CARDENETE FLORES MANUEL ALEJANDRO; BOULANGER PIERRE; DELGADO LÓPEZ MARÍA DEL CARMEN; FERRARI EMANUELE; M'BAREK Robert

    2012-01-01

    The European agri-food and other bio-based sectors exceed 2 000 billion euros a year in turnover and employ roughly 22 million workers. This paper adopts an inclusive definition of the agri-food and other bio-based sectors that encompasses agriculture, forestry, fisheries, food and pulp and paper production, as well as parts of industries that use natural and renewable resources in their production processes, i.e. the chemical, biotechnological and energy industries. However, the focus is cle...

  13. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattebö, Helge; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Lorentzen, Børge;

    The book discusses the concepts of waste minimization, cleaner technology and industrial ecology, including the experiences with employee participation in preventive environmental activities in companies....

  14. The Biobased Economy. Biofuels, Materials and Chemicals in the Post-oil Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeveld, H.; Sanders, J.; Meeusen, M.

    2010-01-15

    The impending threats of catastrophic climate change and peak oil are driving our society towards increased use of biomass for energy, chemical compounds and other materials - the beginnings of a biobased economy. As alternative development models for the biobased economy emerge, we need to determine potential applications, their perspectives and possible impacts as well as policies that can steer technological and market development in such a way that our objectives are met. Currently, it is still far from clear what will be the most sustainable routes to follow, which technologies should be included, and how their development will affect, and be affected by, research, public opinion and policy and market forces. This groundbreaking work, edited by a group of leading researchers originally from Wageningen Agricultural University in the Netherlands, sets out to unpick the complex systems in play. It provides an illuminating framework for how policy and market players could and should drive the development of a biobased economy that is effective, sustainable, fair and cost efficient. Starting with a state-of-the-art overview of major biobased technologies, including biorefinery and technologies for the production of biofuels, biogas, biomass feedstocks for chemistry and bioplastics, it discusses how different actor groups interact through policy and markets. Information from case studies is used to demonstrate how the potential of the biobased economy in different parts of the world, such as North America, Europe, and emerging economies like China and Brazil can be realised using research, debate, policy and commercial development. The result is an essential resource for all those working in or concerned with biobased industries, their policy or research.

  15. The Biobased Economy. Biofuels, Materials and Chemicals in the Post-oil Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impending threats of catastrophic climate change and peak oil are driving our society towards increased use of biomass for energy, chemical compounds and other materials - the beginnings of a biobased economy. As alternative development models for the biobased economy emerge, we need to determine potential applications, their perspectives and possible impacts as well as policies that can steer technological and market development in such a way that our objectives are met. Currently, it is still far from clear what will be the most sustainable routes to follow, which technologies should be included, and how their development will affect, and be affected by, research, public opinion and policy and market forces. This groundbreaking work, edited by a group of leading researchers originally from Wageningen Agricultural University in the Netherlands, sets out to unpick the complex systems in play. It provides an illuminating framework for how policy and market players could and should drive the development of a biobased economy that is effective, sustainable, fair and cost efficient. Starting with a state-of-the-art overview of major biobased technologies, including biorefinery and technologies for the production of biofuels, biogas, biomass feedstocks for chemistry and bioplastics, it discusses how different actor groups interact through policy and markets. Information from case studies is used to demonstrate how the potential of the biobased economy in different parts of the world, such as North America, Europe, and emerging economies like China and Brazil can be realised using research, debate, policy and commercial development. The result is an essential resource for all those working in or concerned with biobased industries, their policy or research.

  16. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case is to create awareness about a somewhat unfamiliar industry that accounts for over €3 billion in Scandinavia and £5,6 billion in the UK, the Metals recycling industry. The case features a Scandinavian Company and includes several perspectives from managerial disciplines s...

  17. NEW BIO-BASED MATERIAL FOR FOOTWEAR

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, J.; A. Zapatero; Martínez, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    To date, the chemical industry has been using fossil resources to produce Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU). However, recently a bio-based alternative has been developed to produce TPU from renewable sources (plant oils). These environmentally-friendly TPUs can be used by different traditional industries (automotive, furniture, clothing, etc.) and the footwear industry is one of its potential consumers. Thus, the project titled “Thermoplastic polyurethane from renewable sources applied in foot...

  18. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  19. Biobased Lubricant Development - Problems and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobased lubricants are those comprising ingredients derived from natural sources such as those harvested from farms, forests, etc. Biolubricants provide a number of economic, environmental and health benefits over petroleum-based products. Among these are: biodegradability, renewability and non-t...

  20. Current Trends in Biobased Lubricant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobased lubricants are those comprising ingredients derived from natural raw materials such as those harvested from farms, forests, etc. Biolubricants provide a number of benefits over petroleum-based products including: biodegradability, renewability, and non-toxicity. As a result, manufacture ...

  1. A multi-scale, multi-disciplinary approach for assessing the technological, economic and environmental performance of bio-based chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrgård, Markus; Sukumara, Sumesh; Campodonico, Miguel; Zhuang, Kai

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, bio-based chemicals have gained interest as a renewable alternative to petrochemicals. However, there is a significant need to assess the technological, biological, economic and environmental feasibility of bio-based chemicals, particularly during the early research phase. Recently, the Multi-scale framework for Sustainable Industrial Chemicals (MuSIC) was introduced to address this issue by integrating modelling approaches at different scales ranging from cellular to ecological scales. This framework can be further extended by incorporating modelling of the petrochemical value chain and the de novo prediction of metabolic pathways connecting existing host metabolism to desirable chemical products. This multi-scale, multi-disciplinary framework for quantitative assessment of bio-based chemicals will play a vital role in supporting engineering, strategy and policy decisions as we progress towards a sustainable chemical industry. PMID:26614653

  2. Transcript and metabolite profiling for the evaluation of tobacco tree and poplar as feedstock for the bio-based industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Colin; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair; Mortimer, Cara L; Kozlo, Amanda; Fraser, Paul D; Funke, Norma; Cesarino, Igor; Vanholme, Ruben; Boerjan, Wout; Morreel, Kris; Burgert, Ingo; Gierlinger, Notburga; Bulone, Vincent; Schneider, Vera; Stockero, Andrea; Navarro, Juan Pedro; Pudel, Frank; Tambuyser, Bart; Hygate, James; Bumstead, Jon; Notley, Louis; Persson, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    The global demand for food, feed, energy and water poses extraordinary challenges for future generations. It is evident that robust platforms for the exploration of renewable resources are necessary to overcome these challenges. Within the multinational framework MultiBioPro we are developing biorefinery pipelines to maximize the use of plant biomass. More specifically, we use poplar and tobacco tree (Nicotiana glauca) as target crop species for improving saccharification, isoprenoid, long chain hydrocarbon contents, fiber quality, and suberin and lignin contents. The methods used to obtain these outputs include GC-MS, LC-MS and RNA sequencing platforms. The metabolite pipelines are well established tools to generate these types of data, but also have the limitations in that only well characterized metabolites can be used. The deep sequencing will allow us to include all transcripts present during the developmental stages of the tobacco tree leaf, but has to be mapped back to the sequence of Nicotiana tabacum. With these set-ups, we aim at a basic understanding for underlying processes and at establishing an industrial framework to exploit the outcomes. In a more long term perspective, we believe that data generated here will provide means for a sustainable biorefinery process using poplar and tobacco tree as raw material. To date the basal level of metabolites in the samples have been analyzed and the protocols utilized are provided in this article. PMID:24894952

  3. 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, Eva; Andersson, Patrik L; Bidleman, Terry; Boman, Christoffer; Carlin, Danielle J; Collina, Elena; Cormier, Stephania A; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gullett, Brian K; Johansson, Christer; Lucas, Donald; Lundin, Lisa; Lundstedt, Staffan; Marklund, Stellan; Nording, Malin L; Ortuño, Nuria; Sallam, Asmaa A; Schmidt, Florian M; Jansson, Stina

    2016-04-01

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in Umeå, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants. PMID:26906006

  4. Advances in catalytic production of bio-based polyester monomer 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Li, Junke; Tang, Yanjun; Lin, Lu; Long, Minnan

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the production and utilization of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) have become a hot research topic in catalyst field and polyester industry for its special chemical structure and a wide range of raw material source. FDCA is a potential replacement for the terephthalic acid monomer used in the production of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), which opens up a new pathway for obtaining biomass-based polyester to replace or partially replace petroleum based polyester. Here, we mainly reviewed the catalytic pathway for the synthesis of FDCA derived from lignocellulosic biomass or from the related downstream products, such as glucose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Moreover, the utilization of oxidation catalysts, the reaction mechanism, the existing limitations and unsolved challenges were also elaborated in detail. Therefore, we hope this mini review provides a helpful overview and insight to readers in this exciting research area. PMID:26076643

  5. Example of industrial valorisation of derivative products of Castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borg Patrick

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Known since antiquity, Castor Oil has been first used in medicine. Now, even if it remains present in small quantities as an excipient in many pharmaceutical specialties, it finds a lot of applicationsin cosmetics, industrial applications and chemical industry. Castor Oil specificity comes from its high content of ricinoleic acid (up to 85% that combines a double bond and an hydroxyl function in the heart of a 18 carbons linear chain. This particular structure is the key of an unique chemistry developed by ARKEMA that gives by thermal cracking a wide range of compounds with either 7 or 11 carbon atoms. A whole range of innovative chemistries and end use products are generated from these base reaction products. They are used in every-day life, to improve our comfort and safety but also in very specific applications with very high technical requirements. Synthesized from undecylenic acid, 11-amino-undecanoic acid, 100% based on renewable resources, is the precursor to biobased polymers combining high performance and sustainability: Rilsan®, Rilsan Fine Powder®, Pebax Rnew®.

  6. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed. PMID:25163531

  7. DOES INDUSTRIAL CONCENTRATION RAISE PRODUCTIVITY IN FOOD INDUSTRIES?

    OpenAIRE

    Gopinath, Munisamy; Pick, Daniel H.; Li, Yonghai

    2002-01-01

    This manuscript investigates the productivity-industrial concentration relationship in U.S. food industries. We identify a critical level of industrial concentration beyond which its relationship with productivity growth becomes negative. The welfare effects of an increase in concentration - productivity growth and deadweight loss- are computed. Welfare loss from increasing concentration is substantially offset by gains from productivity growth.

  8. Synthesis and Verification of Biobased Terephthalic Acid from Furfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yuya; Kimura, Saori; Kasuya, Ken-Ichi

    2015-02-01

    Exploiting biomass as an alternative to petrochemicals for the production of commodity plastics is vitally important if we are to become a more sustainable society. Here, we report a synthetic route for the production of terephthalic acid (TPA), the monomer of the widely used thermoplastic polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), from the biomass-derived starting material furfural. Biobased furfural was oxidised and dehydrated to give maleic anhydride, which was further reacted with biobased furan to give its Diels-Alder (DA) adduct. The dehydration of the DA adduct gave phthalic anhydride, which was converted via phthalic acid and dipotassium phthalate to TPA. The biobased carbon content of the TPA was measured by accelerator mass spectroscopy and the TPA was found to be made of 100% biobased carbon.

  9. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  10. Multi-scale exploration of the technical, economic, and environmental dimensions of bio-based chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Kai; Herrgard, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The MuSIC framework allows exploration of tradeoffs and interactions between economy-scale objectives (e.g. profit maximization, emission minimization), constraints (e.g. land-use constraints) and process- and cell-scale technology choices (e.g. strain design or oxygenation conditions......). We demonstrate that economy-scale assessment can be used to guide specific strain design decisions in metabolic engineering, and that these design decisions can be affected by non-intuitive dependencies across multiple scales....... factories. To address this issue, we have developed a comprehensive Multi-scale framework for modeling Sustainable Industrial Chemicals production (MuSIC), which integrates modeling approaches for cellular metabolism, bioreactor design, upstream/downstream processes and economic impact assessment. We...

  11. Development of novel multifunctional biobased polymer composites with tailored conductive network of micro-and-nano-fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Siu N.; Ghaffari, Shahriar; Naguib, Hani E.

    2013-04-01

    Biobased/green polymers and nanotechnology warrant a multidisciplinary approach to promote the development of the next generation of materials, products, and processes that are environmentally sustainable. The scientific challenge is to find the suitable applications, and thereby to create the demand for large scale production of biobased/green polymers that would foster sustainable development of these eco-friendly materials in contrast to their petroleum/fossil fuel derived counterparts. In this context, this research aims to investigate the synergistic effect of green materials and nanotechnology to develop a new family of multifunctional biobased polymer composites with promoted thermal conductivity. For instance, such composite can be used as a heat management material in the electronics industry. A series of parametric studies were conducted to elucidate the science behind materials behavior and their structure-toproperty relationships. Using biobased polymers (e.g., polylactic acid (PLA)) as the matrix, heat transfer networks were developed and structured by embedding hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) in the PLA matrix. The use of hybrid filler system, with optimized material formulation, was found to promote the composite's effective thermal conductivity by 10-folded over neat PLA. This was achieved by promoting the development of an interconnected thermally conductive network through structuring hybrid fillers. The thermally conductive composite is expected to afford unique opportunities to injection mold three-dimensional, net-shape, lightweight, and eco-friendly microelectronic enclosures with superior heat dissipation performance.

  12. Bio-Based Polymers with Potential for Biodegradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Garrison

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of renewable starting materials, such as sugars and polysaccharides, vegetable oils, lignin, pine resin derivatives, and proteins, have so far been investigated for the preparation of bio-based polymers. Among the various sources of bio-based feedstock, vegetable oils are one of the most widely used starting materials in the polymer industry due to their easy availability, low toxicity, and relative low cost. Another bio-based plastic of great interest is poly(lactic acid (PLA, widely used in multiple commercial applications nowadays. There is an intrinsic expectation that bio-based polymers are also biodegradable, but in reality there is no guarantee that polymers prepared from biorenewable feedstock exhibit significant or relevant biodegradability. Biodegradability studies are therefore crucial in order to assess the long-term environmental impact of such materials. This review presents a brief overview of the different classes of bio-based polymers, with a strong focus on vegetable oil-derived resins and PLA. An entire section is dedicated to a discussion of the literature addressing the biodegradability of bio-based polymers.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-based Nanomaterials from Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq Wood Bark: an Organic Waste Material from Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology to produce nanomaterials from renewable bio-based materials, like wood bark, has great potential to benefit the wood processing industry. To support this issue, we investigated the production of bio-based nanomaterials using conventional balls milling. Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba(Roxb. Miq wood bark (JWB, an organic waste material from a community forest was subjected to conventional balls milling for 96 h and was converted into bio-based nanomaterial. The morphology and particle size, chemical components, functional groups and crystallinity of the bio-based nanomaterial were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, scanning electron microscopy extended with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The particle-sizes obtained for the JWB bio-based nanomaterial were between 43 nm to 469 nm and the functional groups were detected as cellulose. The chemical components found were carbon, oxygen, chloride, potassium and calcium, except for the sample produced from sieve type T14, which did not contain chloride. The crystalline structure was calcium oxalate hydrate (C2CaO4.H2O with crystalline sizes 21 nm and 15 nm, produced from sieve types T14 and T200 respectively.

  14. Potential of Coproduction of Energy, Fuels and Chemicals from Biobased Renewable Resources. Transition Path 3. Co-production of Energy, Fuels and Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows how in 2030, biobased alternatives can potentially cover up to 30% of the Netherlands' domestic energy and chemicals demand, effectively reducing CO2 emissions. Maximizing the economical potential of biobased alternatives seems the most attractive strategy. The method to compare various routes has been highly simplified and the conclusions of this report are only valid within the limitations of the underlying assumptions. Nevertheless, the Working group WISE BIOMAS of the Platform Biobased Raw Materials feels that the conclusions are valuable for Dutch policy makers and others interested in the use of biobased raw materials. In 2030, biobased alternatives are expected to be sufficiently competitive to fossil-based alternatives, even without subsidies. They are expected to play a significant role in an energy mix comprised of other renewables as well as 'clean' fossil energy sources. Presently, however, the Netherlands needs to step up its stimulation of biobased applications, through substantial investments in R and D programmes, demonstration plants, as well as measures to stimulate implementation. The whole package of tax reductions, local government purchases, etc., as well as direct financial support should amount to approximately 500 million euros per year. The simplified study presented here provides input for more realistic macro-economic scenario analysis taking actual and updated cost-availability relations including second generation biofuels and biochemicals, land use, international trade, etc., into account. Initial discussions with for instance the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (Centraal Plan Bureau or CPB) have taken place, but are not covered in this report. It is urgently suggested to update macro-economic scenarios for securing the best Netherlands' position among the accelerating global development towards biobased resources

  15. Processing biobased polymers using plasticizers: Numerical simulations versus experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplentere, Frederik; Cardon, Ludwig; Six, Wim; Erkoç, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    In polymer processing, the use of biobased products shows lots of possibilities. Considering biobased materials, biodegradability is in most cases the most important issue. Next to this, bio based materials aimed at durable applications, are gaining interest. Within this research, the influence of plasticizers on the processing of the bio based material is investigated. This work is done for an extrusion grade of PLA, Natureworks PLA 2003D. Extrusion through a slit die equipped with pressure sensors is used to compare the experimental pressure values to numerical simulation results. Additional experimental data (temperature and pressure data along the extrusion screw and die are recorded) is generated on a dr. Collin Lab extruder producing a 25mm diameter tube. All these experimental data is used to indicate the appropriate functioning of the numerical simulation tool Virtual Extrusion Laboratory 6.7 for the simulation of both the industrial available extrusion grade PLA and the compound in which 15% of plasticizer is added. Adding the applied plasticizer, resulted in a 40% lower pressure drop over the extrusion die. The combination of different experiments allowed to fit the numerical simulation results closely to the experimental values. Based on this experience, it is shown that numerical simulations also can be used for modified bio based materials if appropriate material and process data are taken into account.

  16. Application of multi-criteria material selection techniques to constituent refinement in biobased composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biobased composites have the potential to replace certain engineered materials. • Woven reinforcement can provide better material properties in biobased composites. • Short fiber filler can provide lower environmental impact in biobased composites. • Per function, different fibers are desired to lower composite environmental impact. - Abstract: Biobased composites offer a potentially low environmental impact material option for the construction industries. Designing these materials to meet both performance requirements for an application and minimize environmental impacts requires the ability to refine composite constituents based on environmental impact and mechanical properties. In this research, biobased composites with varying natural fiber reinforcement in a poly(β-hydroxybutyrate)-co-(β-hydroxyvalerate) matrix were characterized based on material properties through experiments and environmental impact through life cycle assessments. Using experimental results, these biobased composites were found to have competitive flexural properties and thermal conductivity with certain short-chopped glass fiber reinforced plastics. Multi-criteria material selection techniques were applied to weigh desired material properties with greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel demand, and Eco-Indicator ’99 score. The effects of using different reinforcing fibers in biobased composites were analyzed using the developed selection scheme as a tool for choosing constituents. The use of multi-criteria material selection provided the ability to select fiber reinforcement for biobased composites and showed when it would be more appropriate to use a novel biobased composite or a currently available engineered material

  17. Influence of the biobased economy on agricultural markets. Preparation of a modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowicki, P.L.; Van Leeuwen, M.G.A.; Bos, H.L.; Chant, L.J.; Molenveld, K.; Tabeau, A.A.

    2010-06-15

    This report is the conclusion of research undertaken to better understand the impact of the developing biobased economy on agricultural land markets. This has involved understanding the true dimension of the biobased economy, namely the large range of products for which a biobased component exists or could exist, and in this regard the likely evolution in the substitution of elements produced from fossil oil. This research is also a first step to determine whether the overall result of the development of the biobased economy will be positive, negative or neutral for the Dutch economy as a whole.

  18. Bio-Based Coatings for Paper Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhore Kumar Rastogi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The barrier resistance and wettability of papers are commonly controlled by the application of petroleum-based derivatives such as polyethylene, waxes and/or fluor- derivatives as coating. While surface hydrophobicity is improved by employing these polymers, they have become disfavored due to limitations in fossil-oil resources, poor recyclability, and environmental concerns on generated waste with lack of biodegradation. Alternatively, biopolymers including polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and polyesters can be used to formulate new pathways for fully bio-based paper coatings. However, difficulties in processing of most biopolymers may arise due to hydrophilicity, crystallization behavior, brittleness or melt instabilities that hinder a full exploitation at industrial scale. Therefore, blending with other biopolymers, plasticizers and compatibilizers is advantageous to improve the coating performance. In this paper, an overview of barrier properties and processing of bio-based polymers and their composites as paper coating will be discussed. In particular, recent technical advances in nanotechnological routes for bio-based nano- composite coatings will be summarized, including the use of biopolymer nanoparticles, or nanofillers such as nanoclay and nanocellulose. The combination of biopolymers along with surface modification of nanofillers can be used to create hierarchical structures that enhance hydrophobicity, complete barrier protection and functionalities of coated papers.

  19. Productivity, A Priority for Industrial Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietus, Walter S.

    The need for increased industrial productivity has become great in American society. If America is not to be outstripped by foreign competitors, worker productivity must be increased. Industrial arts can play a part in increasing productivity by fostering productive ideas in students. Attempts at work redesign have led to short-term increases in…

  20. COMPETITIVENESS OF POTENTIAL INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    САБАДИРЬОВА, А.Л.; Одеський державний економічний університет; САЛАВЕЛІС, Д.Є.; Одеський державний економічний університет

    2011-01-01

     In the article the considered tendencies of forming of competitiveness of potential of enterprises industrial, factors of competitiveness of potential of enterprises at processing industry on the terms of modern market environment.

  1. Biobased and biodegradable polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kaiyan

    In this dissertation, various noncrosslinked and crosslinked biobased and biodegradable polymer nanocomposites were fabricated and characterized. The properties of these polymer nanocomposites, and their relating mechanisms and corresponding applications were studied and discussed in depth. Chapter 1 introduces the research background and objectives of the current research. Chapter 2 presents the development of a novel low cost carbon source for bacterial cellulose (BC) production and fabrication and characterization of biobased polymer nanocomposites using produced BC and soy protein based resins. The carbon source, soy flour extract (SFE), was obtained from defatted soy flour (SF) and BC yield achieved using SFE medium was high. The results of this study showed that SFE consists of five sugars and Acetobacter xylinum metabolized sugars in a specific order. Chapter 3 discusses the fabrication and characterization of biodegradable polymer nanocomposites using BC and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). These polymer nanocomposites had excellent tensile and thermal properties. Crosslinking of PVA using glutaraldehyde (GA) not only increased the mechanical and thermal properties but the water-resistance. Chapter 4 describes the development and characterization of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) based biodegradable polymer nanocomposites by blending MFC suspension with PVA. Chemical crosslinking of the polymer nanocomposites was carried out using glyoxal to increase the mechanical and thermal properties as well as to make the PVA partially water-insoluble. Chapter 5 reports the development and characterization of halloysite nanotube (HNT) reinforced biodegradable polymer nanocomposites utilizing HNT dispersion and PVA. Several separation techniques were used to obtain individualized HNT dispersion. The results indicated uniform dispersion of HNTs in both PVA and malonic acid (MA) crosslinked PVA resulted in excellent mechanical and thermal properties of the materials, especially

  2. 75 FR 63695 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... product's biobased content and its profile against environmental and health measures and life- cycle costs... evaluating paper products. Life cycle analysis (LCA) practitioners familiar with paper manufacturing have..., manufacturers wishing to make similar ] life-cycle information available may choose to use the ASTM...

  3. Potential food applications of biobased materials. An EU- concerted action project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, V.K.; Udsen, A.M.; Mortensen, G.;

    2001-01-01

    films and coatings to food but novel commercial applications of these are scarce. Based on information currently available on the properties of biobased packaging materials the study identified products in the fresh meat, dairy, ready meal, beverage, fruit and vegetable, snack, frozen food and dry food......The objective of the study was to ascertain the state of the art with regard to the applicability of biobased packaging materials to foods and to identify potential food applications for biobased materials. The study revealed relatively few examples of biobased materials used as primary, secondary...... or tertiary packaging materials for foods. This is due to the fact that published investigations on the use of biobased materials are still scarce, and results obtained remain unpublished because of commercial pressures. The scientific literature contains numerous reports on applications of edible...

  4. Ionic liquid as a promising biobased green solvent in combination with microwave irradiation for direct biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    The wet biomass microalgae of Nannochloropsis sp. was converted to biodiesel using direct transesterification (DT) by microwave technique and ionic liquid (IL) as the green solvent. Three different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-metyhlimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl], 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium methyl sulphate [EMIM][MeSO4] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethane sulfonate [BMIM][CF3SO3]) and organic solvents (hexane and methanol) were used as co-solvents under microwave irradiation and their performances in terms of percentage disruption, cell walls ruptured and biodiesel yields were compared at different reaction times (5, 10 and 15 min). [EMIM][MeSO4] showed highest percentage cell disruption (99.73%) and biodiesel yield (36.79% per dried biomass) after 15 min of simultaneous reaction. The results demonstrated that simultaneous extraction-transesterification using ILs and microwave irradiation is a potential alternative method for biodiesel production. PMID:26851899

  5. Raw materials for paint industry products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brushwell, W.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation as regards raw materials for the United States paint industry is outlined, under the following headings: availability of methanol, chemical products from methanol, alkyd resins, petrochemistry, coal chemistry, and ethanol production by fermentation.

  6. Radiation Doses from some Egyptian industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual dose equivalent from exposures to radionuclides contained in some industrial ores and their waste products, were estimated using collective data from these industrial materials. This study takes in consideration industrial ores and their waste products. The materials studied were iron and steel products, cement manufacture, phosphate fertilizers, phosphoric acid production as well as ores used in ceramic production and waste. An integrated method was used in mathematical assumption form for the purpose of calculating the radiation dose equivalent. The calculated values of the annual radiation doses for workers were found to be significant. These results are discussed in the light of international exposure limits for workers

  7. The Spatial Productivity of Industrial Land

    OpenAIRE

    Louw, Erik; Krabben, Erwin Van Der; Amsterdam, Hans Van

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a theoretical approach to analysing the concept of spatial productivity and the meaning of land as a production factor in regional science. The results of an empirical study of industrial estates in the Netherlands are presented, showing regional differences in the spatial productivity of industrial estates and providing explanations for these differences. It shows that spatial productivity is influenced by urbanisation rates, the share of manufacturin...

  8. Opportunities for bio-based packaging technologies to improve the quality and safety of fresh and further processed muscle foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2006-09-01

    It has been well documented that vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging materials, made from polyethylene- or other plastic-based materials, have been found to improve the stability and safety of raw or further processed muscle foods. However, recent research developments have demonstrated the feasibility, utilization, and commercial application of a variety of bio-based polymers or bio-polymers made from a variety of materials, including renewable/sustainable agricultural commodities, and applied to muscle foods. A variety of these bio-based materials have been shown to prevent moisture loss, drip, reduce lipid oxidation and improve flavor attributes, as well as enhancing the handling properties, color retention, and microbial stability of foods. With consumers demanding more environmentally friendly packaging and a desire for more natural products, bio-based films or bio-polymers will continue to play an important role in the food industry by improving the quality of many products, including fresh or further processed muscle foods. PMID:22062722

  9. Analysis and Design an Industrial Product (Ceramics)

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Gabriel Gresoi; Cristina Elena Protopopescu

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines how and which aspects should be analyzed on a product that sells industrial market due to the special feature of these markets and the close correlation between the concept of quality and value for use, especially for an industrial product.

  10. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  11. 微生物木糖代谢途径改造制备生物基化学品%Engineering of the xylose metabolic pathway for microbial production of bio-based chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维喜; 付晶; 章博; 陈涛

    2013-01-01

    当前,全球经济的高速发展与日益减少的石油资源储备进一步加剧了能源供需矛盾.人类对开发利用可再生的纤维素生物质资源寄予厚望.木糖是木质纤维素水解产物中含量仅次于葡萄糖的一种单糖,因此对木糖高效率生物转化的研究成为影响其工业化前景的关键因素之一.针对近几年的研究,文中综述了生物转化木糖方面的进展,包括木糖代谢途径的鉴定和设计、木糖运输途径的改造、生物基化学品制备.为了解决当前全球面临的能源危机与环境问题,运用合成生物学技术发展新一代生物燃料技术,特别是开发能够代谢木糖高产乙醇的微生物工程菌株是实现可持续发展的重要方式.%As the rapid development of economy necessitates a large number of oil,the contradiction between energy supply and demand is further exacerbated by the dwindling reserves of petroleum resource.Therefore,the research of the renewable cellulosic biomass resources is gaining unprecedented momentum.Because xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose in lignocellulose hydrolyzes,high-efficiency bioconversion of xylose becomes one of the vital factors that affect the industrial prospects of lignocellulose application.According to the research progresses in recent years,this review summarized the advances in bioconversion of xylose,which included identification and redesign of the xylose metabolic pathway,engineering the xylose transport pathway and bio-based chemicals production.In order to solve the energy crisis and environmental pollution issues,the development of advanced bio-fuel technology,especially engineering the microbe able to metabolize xylose and produce ethanol by synthetic biology,is environmentally benign and sustainable.

  12. Study and modification of poly(butylene succinate) properties, a biobased and biodegradable polyester

    OpenAIRE

    Freyermouth, Floriane

    2014-01-01

    Within the frame of sustainable development, biobased and biodegradable polymers are going to play an important role according to economic and environmental perspectives. The polyolefins currently used in packaging and automotive industries will be replaced by biomaterials. The poly(butylene succinate), an “old” aliphatic polyester, has recently regained interest thanks to its biobased and biodegradable potential and mechanical properties similar to polyolefins. However, this polyester is ver...

  13. Bio-based targeted chemical engineering education : Role and impact of bio-based energy and resourcedevelopment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardoa, N.M.; Venselaar, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Avans University of Applied Sciences is redrafting its courses and curricula in view of sustainability. For chemical engineering in particular that implies a focus on 'green' and bio-based processes, products and energy. Avans is situated in the Southwest region of the Netherlands and specifically i

  14. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a signi...

  15. Raw material demand and sourcing options for the development for a bio-based chemical industry in Europe : Part 1 : Estimation of maximum demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective presents an estimation of the future demand for biomass of the chemical industry in Europe, provided that naphtha, the present feedstock of the petrochemical industry, is fully replaced by biomass. Data are based on the Eurostat data on manufactured goods for EU27 in 2007. Two diffe

  16. Methodology for evaluation of industrial CHP production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of the century industry switched from exclusive power consumer into power consumer-producer which is one of the players on the deregulated power market. Consequently, goals of industrial plant optimization have to be changed, making new challenges that industrial management has to be faced with. In the paper is reviewed own methodology for evaluation of industrial power production on deregulated power market. The methodology recognizes economic efficiency of industrial CHP facilities as a main criterion for evaluation. Energy and ecological efficiency are used as additional criteria, in which implicit could be found social goals. Also, methodology recognizes key and limit factors for CHP production in industry. It could be successful applied, by use of available commercial software for energy simulation in CHP plants and economic evaluation. (Authors)

  17. Novel biobased epoxy networks derived from renewable resources : Structure-property relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysanthos, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bio-based polymers derived from renewable resources have become increasingly important as sustainable and eco-efficient products which can replace the products based on petrochemical-derived stocks. The objective of our work was to develop novel bio-based reactive systems suitable for high performance composite materials especially epoxy systems. The most commonly used starting monomer to formulate epoxy networks is the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, DGEBA, derived from bis...

  18. New-Product Strategy and Industry Clockspeed

    OpenAIRE

    Gilvan C. Souza; Barry L. Bayus; Harvey M. Wagner

    2004-01-01

    We study how industry clockspeed, internal firm factors, such as product development, production, and inventory costs, and competitive factors determine a firm's optimal new-product introduction timing and product-quality decisions. We explicitly model market demand uncertainty, a firm's internal cost structure, and competition, using an infinite-horizon Markov decision process. Based on a large-scale numerical analysis, we find that more frequent new-product introductions are optimal under f...

  19. Intra-industry Trade, Product Fragment

    OpenAIRE

    Patarapong INTERAKUMNERD; Techakanont, Kriengkrai

    2015-01-01

    Thailand’s automotive industry has evolved from a small importsubstituting industry to a vibrant exporting one. It has contributed significantly and increasingly to the economy and intra-industry trade in Southeast Asia. The country also has experienced ‘qualitative’ change from simple production to technologically sophisticated activities. The evidence amassed illustrates that firm strategy and collaboration with other actors in the national innovation system were the most important drivers ...

  20. Production of novel microbial biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microorganisms are well known to produce a wide variety of biobased polymers. These biopolymers have found a wide range of commercial uses, including food, feed, and consumer and industrial products. The production and possible uses of several novel biopolymers from both bacteria and fungi will be d...

  1. PRODUCTIVITY BENEFITS OF INDUSTRIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A journal article by: Ernst Worrell1, John A. Laitner, Michael Ruth, and Hodayah Finman Abstract: We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published dat...

  2. Product sophistication, industrial organisation, and location: the UK pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Howells, J

    1985-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results of an analysis of the location and organisation of product innovation and sophistication in the UK pharmaceutical industry. Significant spatial variations in plant product technological sophistication were identified on an urban-size basis, with factories located in smaller urban centres less likely to be of low-technology status. In terms of nonspatial factors it was the organisational characteristics of the companies, rather than the plants themselves...

  3. Product development in the wood industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stendahl, Matti

    2009-01-01

    It is common advice from strategy consultants that companies in the wood industry should increase their rate of innovation in order to survive global competition. Neither consultants nor academics, however, provide much advice on how this is to be achieved. For example, what resources are crucial for product innovation to take place and are current organizational structures suitable for development work? In this study, the product development processes of companies in this industry were exami...

  4. Industrial Products for Beam Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Schmickler, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    In various branches of high technology industry there has been considerable progress in the past years which could be used for beam instrumentation. The subject will be introduced by two short demonstrations: a demonstration of modern audio electronics with 24bit-96kHz ADC, digital signal electronics and application programs under windows on a PC, which allow to change the parameters of the signal treatment. Potential applications are data monitoring at constant sampling frequency, orbit feedbacks (including high power audio amplifiers), noise reduction on beam current transformers... digital treatment of video signals webcams, frame grabbers, CCD-data via USB, all one needs for image acquisitions, in particular interesting for profile measurements. These introductory demonstrations will not last longer than 30 minutes. The remaining time will be used to pass through the audience collecting information into a two dimensional table, which shall contain as row index the accelerator and as column index the t...

  5. Cleaner Production Assessment in Textile Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-zong; LU Shu-yu

    2007-01-01

    Cleaner Production focuses on environmental improvement with economic benefits. Based on the benefit assessment home and abroad, the assessment method and wocess in textile industry is discussed, including maneuverable indicator system, mathematics model. According to corresponding principles of Cleaner Production, representative problems are mentioned. With Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Mathematics, some enterprise is collected to attain the economic, environmental and social benefit of Cleaner Production. The results show that Cleaner Production improves utilization efficiency of resources, energy sources even waste, and creates conditions of Sustainable Development in textile industry.

  6. Industrial Products from Biodiesel Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The continual rise in demand for and cost of petroleum fuels has resulted in an increased demand for alternative fuels. This has resulted in a worldwide surge in the use of biodiesel, a renewable fuel derived from oils and fats, with world production projected to approach 1 billion gallons by the e...

  7. Industrial Products from Biodiesel Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rise in cost of petroleum fuels has caused an increased interest in alternative fuels. This has resulted in a worldwide surge in the use of biodiesel, a renewable fuel derived from oils and fats, with world production projected to approach 1 billion gallons by the end of 2006. This rapid growt...

  8. Industrial Solid Waste Management and Joint Production

    OpenAIRE

    Stenis, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The study illustrates how joint production theory can be applied in estimating the profitability of fractionating industrial solid wastes, a given product and the wastes produced in connection with its manufacture being regarded as a production-planning unit. Two case studies showing how the approach described can be applied both to bulk manufacturing and to the manufacture of technically complicated products are presented. The realism of this approach and the contribution it can make to opti...

  9. Product modelling in the seafood industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    The paper addresses the aspects of Concurrent Engineering (CE) as a means to obtain integrated product development in the seafood industry. It is assumed that the future New Product Development (NPD) in seafood industry companies will shift from being retailer driven and reactive to be more company...... assessments, speed up the process and ensure a constant renewal of the seafood products. The objective, therefore, is to estimate the suitability of the CE, and especially CE through product modelling, in the seafood industry as a means to obtain an integration of the entire chain, i.e., a business and market...... driven and proactive to comply with the increasing competition, in such a way that the fish processor issues new products covering both the current and especially latent future consumer demands. This implies a need for new systematic approaches in the NPD as procedures and tools, which integrate...

  10. The agri-food and other bio-based sectors in Spain. A description based on multiplier analysis

    OpenAIRE

    CARDENETE FLORES MANUEL ALEJANDRO; BOULANGER PIERRE; DELGADO LÓPEZ MARÍA DEL CARMEN; FERRARI EMANUELE; M'BAREK Robert

    2012-01-01

    The turnover of the EU agri-food sector overtops 2,000 billion Euros a year and employs roughly 22 millions workers. The focus of this paper is on the sectors directly linked to agricultural production and the food industry. Having a comprehensive understanding of extended agri-food economic linkages is critical when designing pertinent policies to deliver the full potential of strong EU agri-food and other bio-based sectors. A more disaggregated view is required. This study stars from a Soci...

  11. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Biobased Film Against Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpun Theinsathid

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial packaging, an active packaging concept, can be considered challenging technology that could have a significant impact on food safety of meat and meat products. The feasibility of polylactic acid (PLA-based film was evaluated for its application as a material for antimicrobial film. A bio-based commercial polylactic acid (PLA product, Ecovio®, was used as an environmentally friendly polymer matrix. The PLA based film was incorporated with lactic acid or sodium lactate by extrusion film-blowing process. The antimicrobial activity of films against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium were evaluated. Antimicrobial film incorporated with lactic acid packaging film was found to be highly effective in inhibiting L. monocytogenes. In contrast, no inhibitory activity was observed against E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. This is consistent with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC studies which indicated that undissociated lactic acid was more efficient in inhibiting L. monocytogenes than enterobacteria. This preliminary study shows the potential use of bio-based film as one hurdle technology in combination with good manufacturing practices and adequate storage temperatures. The use of antimicrobial packaging may contribute to improve the safety in minimally processed foods. Further work is required to improve the mechanical properties of the material in order to meet industry requirements.

  12. Assessing eco-innovations in green chemistry:Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a cosmetic product with a bio-based ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    SECCHI Michela; CASTELLANI Valentina; Collina, Elena; MIRABELLA Nadia; SALA SERENELLA

    2014-01-01

    Due to the growing interest in assessing the environmental impacts of cosmetic products, research and development activities try enhancing and promoting eco-innovation solutions in cosmetic industry. This study is aimed at comparing the environmental profile of eco-innovation options in green chemistry using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A case study in which synthetic ingredients are replaced by others derived from natural compounds is presented. A C16-18 triglycerides mixture (INCI name “pa...

  13. Organizational Productivity in Post-Industrial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Dick

    1978-01-01

    The term "post-industrial society" denotes the fact that more than half of a society's economy is devoted to service rather than to the production of goods. Discusses prospects for increasing productivity in service organizations and argues that irrational elements are built into service organizations as a consequence of the nature of the support…

  14. Industrial Technology and the Productivity Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, John W.

    1982-01-01

    The role of industrial technology in addressing productivity encompasses work experience and attitude, quality assurance, research and development, time and motion studies, plant layout and flow diagramming, cost analysis, production process selection, maintenance, computer applications, materials and inventory requirements, safety programming,…

  15. Explaining Spatial Convergence of China's Industrial Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    2011-01-01

    productivity growth–technology gap reaction function. We find that as China's coastal industry has closed the technology gap with the international frontier, labour productivity growth in the coastal region has begun to slow in relation to the interior. This may serve as an early indicator of China's initial...

  16. Drivers for Cleaner Production in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2003-01-01

    This working paper tries to piece together information on regulatory initiatives promoting cleaner production (CP) in Malaysian industry, as well as points of discussion on environmental performance in the sector. It draws upon initial data collection by the team of the research project ‘A Study on...... Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production’, which is coordinated by Institute of Environmental and Resource Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; the objective of this study...... is ‘to formulate, establish and develop a comprehensive "National Cleaner Production Promotion Program" for Malaysia’....

  17. Nutrient use efficiency and plant availability of bio-based phosphorus fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Meers, Erik; Michels, Evi; Ghekiere, Greet; Accoe, Frederik; Lebuf, Viooltje; Tack, Filip

    2012-01-01

    In the transition to a bio-based economy the efficient use of soil phosphate and phosphorus containing synthetic and organic fertilizers, as well as the cradle-to-cradle recycling of phosphorus from waste products has become highly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of potential recovered bio-based phosphorus fertilizers, including struvite, iron phosphate sludge, digestate and animal manure as compared to water soluble synthetic triple super phosphate. To th...

  18. Development of an intelligent bio-based packaging system

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, A; Cerqueira, M. A.; Martins, Joana; Vicente, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    [Extrat] Currently there is a growing interest in the development of eco-efficient bio-based packaging, being active, smart and intelligent packaging the most highlighted among various innovations. Intelligent packaging has the ability to detect and mark, in real time, changes that might occur within the package/in the food product. Their main purpose is to help the consumer decide whether to buy a certain food product, ensuring that when it is bought it has not suffered significant change...

  19. Industrial requirements for interactive product configurators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queva, Matthieu Stéphane Benoit; Probst, Christian W.; Vikkelsøe, Per

    2009-01-01

    The demand for highly customized products at low cost is driving the industry towards Mass Customization. Interactive product configurators play an essential role in this new trend, and must be able to support more and more complex features. The purpose of this paper is, firstly, to identify...... requirements for modern interactive configurators. Existing modeling and solving technologies for configuration are then reviewed and their limitations discussed. Finally, a proposition for a future product configuration system is described....

  20. Product Platform Development in Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Skold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the strategic issues involved in the deployment of product platform development in an industrial network. The move entails identifying the types and characteristics of generically different product platform strategies and clarifying strategic motives and differences. Number of...... platforms and product brands serve as the key dimensions when distinguishing the different strategies. Each strategy has its own challenges and raises various issues to deal with....

  1. Environmental comparison of biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammens, Tijs M; Potting, José; Sanders, Johan P M; De Boer, Imke J M

    2011-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents, that is, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and succinonitrile (SCN). A consequential life cycle assessment was performed, wherein glutamic acid was obtained from sugar beet vinasse. The removed glutamic acid was substituted with cane molasses and ureum. The comparison between the four biobased and petrochemical products showed that for NMP and NVP the biobased version had less impact on the environment, while for ACN and SCN the petrochemical version had less impact on the environment. For the latter two an optimized scenario was computed, which showed that the process for SCN can be improved to a level at which it can compete with the petrochemical process. For biobased ACN large improvements are required to make it competitive with its petrochemical equivalent. The results of this LCA and the research preceding it also show that glutamic acid can be a building block for a variety of molecules that are currently produced from petrochemical resources. Currently, most methods to produce biobased products are biotechnological processes based on sugar, but this paper demonstrates that the use of amino acids from low-value byproducts can certainly be a method as well. PMID:21870885

  2. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  3. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area

  4. Exergetical Evaluation of Biobased Synthesis Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Frenzel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of today’s chemical products are based on crude oil. An attractive and sustainable alternative feedstock is biomass. Since crude oil and biomass differ in various properties, new synthesis pathways and processes have to be developed. In order to prioritize limited resources for research and development (R & D, their economic potential must be estimated in the early stages of development. A suitable measure for an estimation of the economic potential is based on exergy balances. Different structures of synthesis pathways characterised by the chemical exergy of the main components are evaluated. Based on a detailed evaluation of the underlying processes, general recommendations for future bio-based synthesis pathways are derived.

  5. Industrial parks as an innovative vector of industrial production development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyuta, Lyudmyla Yaroslavivna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The urgent problem of industrial parks foundation and their activity organization as an innovative structure to provide industrial production and business development has been considered. Etymological role of industrial parks under present economic conditions, preconditions and main stages of their creation in Ukraine have been described. It’s mentioned that the mechanism of industrial parks foundation as a business development instrument provides the customers number increase, markets extension, partnership building and development. The main subjects of the above-mentioned innovative formation, fundamental and competitive features of IP, conditions and advantages of every project participant investing have been determined. A model of managerial decision making about IP foundation has been built. Key factors of success and efficiency of the above-mentioned entrepreneurship structures have been determined. Law basis, possible financing and state support conditions of IP have been analyzed. Some examples of their foundation in certain regions of Ukraine have been considered. Advantages and disadvantages of these innovative structures have been determined.

  6. Product diversification and labor productivity dispersion in German manufacturing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Söllner, René

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has shown tremendous productivity differences, even within narrowly defined industries. A great host of studies is explainsing this productivity disparity by factors such as idiosyncratic technology shocks, input price differences, management skills, or international trade. Although these explanations are undoubtedly important, the current paper suggests that product diversification strategies of firms can also play an important role. Using a matched producer-product panel ...

  7. Forest Products Industry of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc

    2002-05-01

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc (LATA) conducted an evaluation of the potential impact and value of a portion of the current portfolio of r&d projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technology and the Forest Products Industry of the Future. The mission of the evaluation was to (a) assess the potential impact of the projects to meet the critical goals of the industry as identified in the vision and roadmapping documents. (b) Evaluate the relationship between the current portfolio of projects and the Agenda 202 Implementation Plan. In addition, evaluate the relationship between the portfolio and the newly revised draft technology strategy being created by the industry. (c) Identify areas where current efforts are making significant progress towards meeting industry goals and identify areas where additional work my be required to meet these goals. (d) Make recommendations to the DOE and the Forest Products Industry on possible improvements in the portfolio and in the current methodology that DOE uses to assess potential impacts on its R&D activities.

  8. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively. PMID:27266630

  9. Novel bio-based and biodegradable polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengzhe

    Most plastic materials, including high performance thermoplastics and thermosets are produced entirely from petroleum-based products. The volatility of the natural oil markets and the increasing cost of petroleum have led to a push to reduce the dependence on petroleum products. Together with an increase in environmental awareness, this has promoted the use of alternative, biorenewable, environmentally-friendly products, such as biomass. The growing interest in replacing petroleum-based products by inexpensive, renewable, natural materials is important for sustainable development into the future and will have a significant impact on the polymer industry and the environment. This thesis involved characterization and development of two series of novel bio-based polymer blends, namely polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)/polyamide (PA) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/soy protein. Blends with different concentrations and compatible microstructures were prepared using twin-screw extruder. For PHA/PA blends, the poor mechanical properties of PHA improved significantly with an excellent combination of strength, stiffness and toughness by adding PA. Furthermore, the effect of blending on the viscoelastic properties has been investigated using small-amplitude oscillatory shear flow experiments as a function of blend composition and angular frequency. The elastic shear modulus (G‧) and complex viscosity of the blends increased significantly with increasing the concentration of PHA. Blending PLA with soy protein aims at reducing production cost, as well as accelerating the biodegradation rate in soil medium. In this work, the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the blends were investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and tensile tests.

  10. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs an...

  11. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE. CHAPTER 10. THE PLASTICS AND RESINS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents a detailed analysis of the plastics and resins production industry, which includes operations that convert industrial organic chemicals into solid or liquid polymers. Elements of the analysis include an industry definition, raw materials, products and manufact...

  12. Bio-based polyurethane foams from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzione, M.; Russo, V.; Sorrentino, A.; Tesser, R.; Lavorgna, M.; Oliviero, M.; Di Serio, M.; Iannace, S.; Verdolotti, L.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decades, bio-derived natural materials, such as vegetable oils, polysaccharides and biomass represent a rich source of hydroxyl precursors for the synthesis of polyols which can be potentially used to synthesize "greener" polyurethane foams. Herein a bio-based precursor (obtained from succinic acid) was used as a partial replacement of conventional polyol to synthesize PU foams. A mixture of conventional and bio-based polyol in presence of catalysts, silicone surfactant and diphenylmethane di-isocyanate (MDI) was expanded in a mold and cured for two hours at room temperature. Experimental results highlighted the suitability of this bio-precursor to be used in the production of flexible PU foams. Furthermore the chemo-physical characterization of the resulting foams show an interesting improvement in thermal stability and elastic modulus with respect to the PU foams produced with conventional polyol.

  13. THE INTEGRATED PROCESS OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Chala, O.

    2010-01-01

    In the article the problem of quality management of products is examined on an industrial enterprise. The integrated process of quality management of products is offered. Generalized and complemented list of factors which influence on quality of industrial products.

  14. Preparative electrophoresis of industrial fission product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the development of the continuous electrophoresis technique while studying its application in the preparative electrophoresis of industrial fission product solutions. The apparatus described is original. It was built for the purposes of the investigation and proved very reliable in operation. The experimental conditions necessary to maintain and supervise the apparatus in a state of equilibrium are examined in detail; their stability is an important factor, indispensable to the correct performance of an experiment. By subjecting an industrial solution of fission products to preparative electrophoresis it is possible, according to the experimental conditions, to prepare carrier-free radioelements of radiochemical purity (from 5 to 7 radioelements): 137Cs, 90Sr, 141+144Ce, 91Y, 95Nb, 95Zr, 103+106Ru. (author)

  15. BULLYING AT FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Akyüz, Kadri Cemil; Gedik, Tarık; BALABAN, Yasin; YILDIRIM, İbrahim; Temiz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of exposure to workplace bullying in the forest products industry in Turkey. A total of 2000 questionnaires are given to the employees in the randomly chosen company. Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror (LIPT) scale which consists of 45 categories of acts of bullying was used. The results show that 13.2% of employees were bullying victims during the previous six month and suffer from hostile behaviours at workplace and 19.2% of employees were the w...

  16. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  17. Production Risk, Energy Use Efficiency and Productivity of Korean Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Khayyat, Nabaz T.; Heshmati, Almas

    2014-01-01

    Korea imports all of its primary energy, which leads to high dependency and vulnerability related to its energy supply. Efficiency in the use of energy is a way to reduce dependency and emissions. This study provides empirical results of the stochastic production process in energy use. Special attention is given to the factors that increase the risk or variation of using more of the energy input in production. A dynamic panel model is specified and applied to 25 Korean industrial sectors over...

  18. Sustainable bioethanol production using agro-industrial by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Pardão, J.; Diaz, I; Raposo, Sara; Manso, Teresa; Lima-Costa, Maria Emília

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate a sustainable bioethanol production by a laboratorial isolate strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, along with the use of agro-industrial by-products as carbon source. The effect of several carbon sources and their concentrations was studied using carob pod extract (CPE) and beet molasses (BM) and compared with glucose and sucrose as conventional carbohydrates at different concentrations, 15, 20 and 30 g/l.No significant difference was found between m...

  19. Cascading of Biomass. 13 Solutions for a Sustainable Bio-based Economy. Making Better Choices for Use of Biomass Residues, By-products and Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odegard, I.; Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-08-15

    Smarter and more efficient use of biomass, referred to as cascading, can lead to an almost 30% reduction in European greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared with 2010. As the title study makes clear, cascading of woody biomass, agricultural and industrial residues and other waste can make a significant contribution to a greening of the economy. With the thirteen options quantitatively examined annual emissions of between 330 and 400 Mt CO2 can be avoided by making more efficient use of the same volume of biomass as well as by other means. 75% of the potential CO2 gains can be achieved with just four options: (1) bio-ethanol from straw, for use as a chemical feedstock; (2) biogas from manure; (3) biorefining of grass; and (4) optimisation of paper recycling. Some of the options make multiple use of residues, with biomass being used to produce bioplastics that, after several rounds of recycling, are converted to heat and power at the end of their life, for example. In other cases higher-grade applications are envisaged: more efficient use of recyclable paper and wood waste, in both economic and ecological terms, using them as raw materials for new paper and chipboard rather than as an energy source. Finally, by using smart technologies biomass can be converted to multiple products.

  20. Production of gaseous radiotracers for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V K; Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Jagadeesan, K C; Anand, S; Chitra, S; Rana, Y S; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Tej; Gujar, H G; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes prerequisite tests, analysis and the procedure for irradiation of gaseous targets and production of gaseous radioisotopes i.e. argon-41 ((41)Ar) and krypton-79 ((79)Kr) in a 100MWTh DHRUVA reactor located at Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai, India. The produced radioisotopes will be used as radiotracers for tracing gas phase in industrial process systems. Various details and prequalification tests required for irradiation of gaseous targets are discussed. The procedure for regular production of (41)Ar and (79)Kr, and assay of their activity were standardized. Theoretically estimated and experimentally produced amounts of activities of the two radioisotopes, irradiated at identical conditions, were compared and found to be in good agreement. Based on the various tests, radiological safety analysis and standardization of the irradiation procedure, necessary approval was obtained from the competent reactor operating and safety authorities for regular production of gaseous radiotracers in DHRUVA reactor. PMID:27518216

  1. Production capability of the US uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demand for U3O8 through the late 1990s could be met at the grades and costs represented by the $30 resources, although for the next 3 or 4 years, production will probably be from the lower cost portions of these resources if prices remain low. However, to meet currently projected uranium requirements beyond the year 2000, there will have to be a transition by the mid-1990s to higher cost and lower grade production in order to include supply from the additional increment of resources available between the $30 and $50 levels. Plans and financial commitments required to accomplish such a transition must be initiated y the mid-1980s, since lead times are increasing for exploration and for mill licensing and construction. Engineering planning and feasibility analyses would have to be carried out under a more advanced time frame than previously required. The importance of the potential resources can easily be seen. In meeting the high-case demand during the years 2005 through 2019 more than 50% of the production would be from resources assigned to the $50 probable potential resource category. By about the year 2006, there will have had to be considerable development of the possible, and perhaps, some of the speculative resources to assure continued production expansion; by 2020, more than 50% of the production would depend on the previous successes in finding and developing such resources. The continuation of the current trend in production curtailment and decreasing exploration will significantly lessen the domestic uranium industry's ability to respond quickly to the projected increases in uranium requirements. The industry's future will be unsettled until it preceives clear indications of demand and price incentives that will justify long-term capital investments

  2. Oil Price Uncertainty and Industrial Production

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Pinno; Apostolos Serletis

    2013-01-01

    We estimate a bivariate GARCH-in-Mean VAR with a BEKK variance speciÂ…fication, to investigate whether oil price volatility affects real economic activity. We use the same data set of thirty seven, aggregate and disaggregate, industrial production indices used by Herrera et al. (2011) as a proxy for real output and a post-1973 data sample. We check the robustness of our results by using two proxies for the price of oil, the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil price and the RefiÂ…ners' Â’Acquisi...

  3. Fermentation of bio-based product 2,3-butanediol%2,3-丁二醇的发酵生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋源泉; 许赟珍; 李强; 刘德华

    2011-01-01

    The development of chemical industry is hindered by energy crisis and environment pollution, and a new model of development is urgently to be exploited. Biorefining technology with renewable resources as feedstock is proposed as one possible solution, in which 2,3-butanediol fermentation is one important issue. 2,3-Butanediol, a bulk chemical product, has extensive applications, especially in chemical processes, food, fuel and medicine. The metabolic pathway of 2,3-butanediol is briefly described, and the progress of biotechnological production of 2,3-butanediol is reviewed, including microbial strains, strains mutagenization, genetic modifications and operating conditions (substrates, pH value, aeration, temperature and fermentation mode). Finally, 2,3-butanediol fermentation research directions are proposed.%能源危机和环境污染使得化工行业的发展举步维艰,亟待开发新的发展模式,以可再生能源为原料的生物炼制技术成为可行的途径之一.2,3-丁二醇的发酵生产是现代生物炼制的重要课题之一.2,3-丁二醇作为一种大宗的化学产品具有广泛的应用价值,尤其在化工、食品、燃料、医药等领域.本文简要描述了2,3-丁二醇在微生物体内的代谢途径,着重讨论了2,3-丁二醇的发酵生产,对发酵的菌种种类、菌种诱变和定向改造、各种发酵影响因素(包括底物、pH值、溶氧、温度以及发酵方式)进行了详细的归纳总结,同时展望了2,3-丁二醇发酵生产的研究发展方向.

  4. Analysis of the Industrial Biodiesel Production Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of transesterification is the chemical transformation through which you get biodiesel from vegetable oils. The purpose of this work is to plan carefully all the stages of various biodiesel production processes on the basis of recent results obtained in the experimental research. These results allow defining the proper thermodynamic models to be used, the right interpretation of the phenomena and identifying the parameters which affect the process. The modelling was done with ASPENPLUS (R) defining three possible processes used in industrial purpose. A subsequent sensitivity analysis was done for each process allowing the identification of the optimal configurations. By comparing these solutions it is possible to choose the most efficient one to reduce the costs of the final product.

  5. Constructing Global Production Activity Indices: The Chemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Saswati Mahapatra; Thomas K Swift

    2012-01-01

    This article first presents the challenges involved in constructing consistent, timely, and reliable short-term measures of national, regional, and global industry activity. The chemical industry is used as a case study. Second, this article presents the comparison of the movement or fluctuations in industrial production indices and chemical production indices that aid in determining if production in the chemical industry can be used as a proxy for total production in an economy. The American...

  6. COMPETITION AND PRODUCTIVITY IN THE TURKISH MANUF ACTURING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact ofchanges in the competitive market structure on industry productivity growth. The aim of the paper is to examine the determinants of productivity in Turkish manufacturing industries, by elaborating particularly at the impact o f competition policy on productivity. Using a newly available panel data in Turkish manufacturing industry for the years 1992-2001, it is shown that competition (as measured by lower level of industrial price-cost margin) enhances product...

  7. Camelina sativa: An ideal platform for the metabolic engineering and field production of industrial lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAG) containing modified fatty acids with functionality beyond those found in commercially grown oil seed crops can be used as feedstocks for biofuels and bio-based materials. Over the years, advances have been made in transgenically engineering the production of various modified fatty acids in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the inability to produce large quantities of transgenic seed has limited the functional testing of the modified oil. In contrast, the emerging oil seed crop Camelina sativa possesses important agronomic traits that recommend it as an ideal production platform for biofuels and industrial feedstocks. Camelina possesses low water and fertilizer requirements and is capable of yields comparable to other oil seed crops, particularly under stress conditions. Importantly, its relatively short growing season enables it to be grown as part of a double cropping system. In addition to these valuable agronomic features, Camelina is amenable to rapid metabolic engineering. The development of a simple and effective transformation method, combined with the availability of abundant transcriptomic and genomic data, has allowed the generation of transgenic Camelina lines capable of synthesizing high levels of unusual lipids. In some cases these levels have surpassed what was achieved in Arabidopsis. Further, the ability to use Camelina as a crop production system has allowed for the large scale growth of transgenic oil seed crops, enabling subsequent physical property testing. The application of new techniques such as genome editing will further increase the suitability of Camelina as an ideal platform for the production of biofuels and bio-materials. PMID:26107412

  8. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  9. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Jan

    1999-07-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis.

  10. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Jan

    1999-06-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  11. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  12. Lignin as a renewable aromatic resource for the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselink, R.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Valorization of lignin plays a key role in the further development of lignocellulosic biorefinery processes for biofuels and biobased materials production. Today’s increased demand for alternatives to fossil carbon-based products expands the interest and the need to create added value to the unconverted lignin fraction. The aim of the research was to study the potential of lignin to become a renewable aromatic resource for the chemical industry. Lignin can be considered as an abundantly...

  13. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the textile-mill-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The Congress, in the National Energy Conservation and Policy Act of 1978 (NECPA), directed the Department of Energy to establish materials recovery targets for the metals and metal products, paper and allied products, rubber, and textile-mill-products industries. The targets were developed to provide incentives for using energy-saving recorded materials and to provied a yardstick for measuring progress and improvement in this endeavor. The NECPA indicates that the targets should represent the maximum technically and economically feasible increase in the use of energy-saving recovered materials that each industry can achieve progressively by January 1, 1987. Materials affected by recovered-materials targets include and are limited to aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, iron, steel, paper and associated products, textile-mill, products, and rubber. Using information gathered from the textile-mill-products industry and from other textile-relaed sources, DOE has developed recovered materials targets for that industry. This report presents those targets and their basis and justification. Following an overview of the textile industry, the chapters are: Textile-Mill-Products Industry Operations; Economic Analysis of the Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Governmental and Regulatory Influence on the US Textile Industry; Current Mill Use of Recovered Materials in the Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Limitations on the Use of Recovered Materials in the US Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Materials-Recovery Targets; and Government and Industry Actions That Could Increase the Use of Recovered Materials.

  14. MODERN TOOLS OF PRODUCT PROMOTION OF MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    Tuliakova, I. R.; Chesnokova, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    This article is devoted to the promotion of production of the military-industrial complex. In the new economy require specially coordinated effort to promote products, was no exception and the military-industrial complex. The article notes that the way can be used as tools of industrial marketing, marketing tools and experience.

  15. Industrial protein production crops: new needs and new opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Eliot M; Schmidt, Monica A

    2010-01-01

    There are many diverse uses for industrial proteins with new opportunities for novel uses frequently emerging. Prominent among these uses are enzymes catalyzing the processing of food/feed and for the production of cellulosic biofuels. Other significant industrial protein uses include antibodies and other binding proteins for purification and/or clean-up of industrial product streams. Enabling technology is needed to produce these now expensive industrial proteins could be produced cost-effectively. Plant-based production of industrial enzymes offers the prospect of massive, scalable production, coupled with low production cost especially if a co-product, such as seed oil or starch, subsidizes the primary crop production costs. High-protein seeds whose composition is remodeled to produce industrial proteins can be a cost-effective means to produce industrial proteins. There are both technical and regulatory issues to resolve in order to deploy plants and seeds as industrial protein production platforms and many of these issues may be more easily resolved by developing nonfood crops specifically for use as industrial production platforms. An emerging industrial plant, Camelina, has potential as a protein-production platform subsidized by the seed oil co-product. PMID:21912205

  16. Productivity improvement using industrial engineering tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimizing the number of defects is important to any company since it influence their outputs and profits. The aim of this paper is to study the implementation of industrial engineering tools in a manufacturing recycle paper box company. This study starts with reading the standard operation procedures and analyzing the process flow to get the whole idea on how to manufacture paper box. At the same time, observations at the production line were made to identify problem occurs in the production line. By using check sheet, the defect data from each station were collected and have been analyzed using Pareto Chart. From the chart, it is found that glue workstation shows the highest number of defects. Based on observation at the glue workstation, the existing method used to glue the box was inappropriate because the operator used a lot of glue. Then, by using cause and effect diagram, the root cause of the problem was identified and solutions to overcome the problem were proposed. There are three suggestions proposed to overcome this problem. Cost reduction for each solution was calculated and the best solution is using three hair drier to dry the sticky glue which produce only 6.4 defects in an hour with cost of RM 0.0224.

  17. Clinical laboratories: production industry or medical services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Mario

    2015-06-01

    The current failure to evidence any link between laboratory tests, clinical decision-making and patient outcomes, and the scarcity of financial resources affecting healthcare systems worldwide, have put further pressure on the organization and delivery of laboratory services. Consolidation, merger, and laboratory downsizing have been driven by the need to deliver economies of scale and cut costs per test while boosting productivity. Distorted economics, based on payment models rewarding volume and efficiency rather than quality and clinical effectiveness, have underpinned the entrance of clinical laboratories into the production industry thus forcing them to relinquish their original mission of providing medical services. The sea change in laboratory medicine in recent years, with the introduction of ever newer and ever more complex tests, including 'omics', which impact on clinical decision-making, should encourage clinical laboratories to return to their original mission as long as payments models are changed. Rather than being considered solely in terms of costs, diagnostic testing must be seen in the context of an entire hospital stay or an overall payment for a care pathway: the testing process should be conceived as a part of the patient's entire journey. PMID:25405721

  18. Clean Production of Steel and Refractories in China's Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Tiansen

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the importance of clean production of steel and the relationships amongst sustaining development of steel industry, environment protection and the role of refractories in the clean production of steel. The main achievements and main shortcomings in the clean production of China' s steel industry have been reviewed together with the introduction of the policy supporting system and the future development of clean production in China' s steel industry.

  19. Wood Based Panel Industry in Indonesia: Production and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Makkarennu; Nakayasu, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Forest products industry plays an important role for Indonesia economic through a significant role as domestic product, foreign exchange, and government revenue in the period 1980-2007. The Indonesian wood processing industry experienced both rapid growth and structural change in this period. However, the growth of this industry has decreased in line with the decline log production from natural forests, while the production of logs from plantation forest has not been able to replace it. This ...

  20. Success and Failure Factors for the Adoption of Bio-Based Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogan, Umit Emre

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide insight into the factors that determine the willingness of key market players in the Indian food industry to adopt bio-based plastic packaging. First, the key market players are identified within the important market segments in the specified industry. After the identification of key players, the literature is surveyed in the context of eco-innovations, innovation adoption in emerging countries and Roger’s market adoption theory. In addition, the sustai...

  1. Sustainability aspects of biobased applications : comparison of different crops and products from the sugar platform BO-12.05-002-008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Conijn, J.G.; Corre, W.J.; Patel, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study different uses of biomass are compared. In order to allow for a systematic comparison the study focuses on three different chemicals that can be produced from sugar. In this way it is also, in principle, possible to compare different crops for the production of the same product. The st

  2. Composites and blends from biobased materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, S.S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The program is focused on the development of composites and blends from biobased materials to use as membranes, high value plastics, and lightweight composites. Biobased materials include: cellulose derivative microporous materials, cellulose derivative copolymers, and cellulose derivative blends. This year`s research focused on developing an improved understanding of the molecular features that cellulose based materials with improved properties for gas separation applications. Novel cellulose ester membrane composites have been developed and are being evaluated under a collaborative research agreement with Dow Chemicals Company.

  3. Assessment of generalizing cost indicators volume of industrial production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Ivanenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the state of the industry largely determines the priorities for the development of complementary and service industries, engineering, transport, social and other infrastructure, employment and standard of living of the population, then the solution to the stabilization and development of the economy in market conditions is possible only when creating a competitive industrial production. At the same time an important place among the performance indicators of industrial enterprises occupy a total production cost parameters. The article outlines the procedure for the formation of indicators of gross, product and sales as the main aggregate price indices of industrial output. The study analyzed the relationship between these parameters. The advantages of the use of the net production in the economic analysis of production and sales compared with the gross and marketable products. Out lined directions to use these indicators to analyze the production of industrial enterprises.

  4. Industrial Policy and the East German Productivity Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Klodt, Henning

    1999-01-01

    Catching-up of East German productivity to West German levels has completely faded out since the mid l990s. The remaining productivity gap cannot be attributed to an inferior capital endowment. Instead, it appears to be the result of an inappropriate design of industrial policy which fostered the specialization of East German industry on capital intensive smoke-stack industries. These industries are absorbing a large share of factor inputs, whereas their contribution to aggregate output is ra...

  5. Labour productivity growth and industry structure. The impact of industry structure on productivity growth, export prices and labour compensation.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkkonen , Johanna

    2005-01-01

    In this paper labour productivity growth and its impacts are studied at the industry level. The development of productivity is analysed in 54 industries in 14 EU countries and in the US between 1979 and 2001. The conclusion of the study is that the industry structure that leads to fast productivity growth is connected to falling export prices. The relationship between labour productivity growth and labour compensation growth is relative weak and therefore the majority of the utility resulting...

  6. Government Interventions and Productivity Growth in Korean ManufacturingIndustries

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Wha Lee

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of government industrial policy and trade protection of the manufacturing sector in Korea. Empirical results are provided, using 4-period panel data for the years 1963-83, for 38 Korean industries in which trade protection reduced growth rates of labor productivity and total factor productivity, while industrial policies, such as tax incentives and subsidized credit, were not correlated with total factor productivity growth in the promoted sectors. The evide...

  7. The Determinants of New Product Performance in Malaysian Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Fok-Yew, Oon

    2014-01-01

    The literature on new product development is growing but Malaysia manufacturing industry often lacks these discussions. Therefore, this paper focuses on linking the determinants of an effective product development process and new product performance within manufacturing companies across industries in Malaysia that have certain level of new product development activities taking in their organization. Further, the paper organises the burgeoning new product development literature into four main ...

  8. Early-stage comparative sustainability assessment of new bio-based processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Akshay D; Meesters, Koen; den Uil, Herman; de Jong, Ed; Worrell, Ernst; Patel, Martin K

    2013-09-01

    Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to analyze eight new bio-based process alternatives developed within the CatchBio research consortium in the Netherlands. This assessment relies on a multi-criteria approach, integrating the performance of chemical conversions based on five indicators into an index value. These indicators encompass economics, environmental impact, hazards and risks thereby incorporating elements of green chemistry principles, and techno-economic and life cycle assessments. The analyzed bio-based options target the production of fuels and chemicals through chemical catalysis. For each bio-based process, two R&D stages (current laboratory and expected future) are assessed against a comparable conventional process. The multi-criteria assessment in combination with the uncertainty and scenario analysis shows that the chemical production processes using biomass as feedstock can provide potential sustainability benefits over conventional alternatives. However, further development is necessary to realize the potential benefits from biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes for fuel production. This early stage assessment is intended as an input for R&D decision making to support optimal allocation and utilization of resources to further develop promising bio-based processes. PMID:24078179

  9. Biobased polymers for corrosion protection of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticorrosive biobased polymers were developed in our lab. We isolated an exopolysaccharide produced by a microbe that, when coated on metal substrates, exhibited unique corrosion inhibition. Corrosion is a worldwide problem and impacts the economy, jeopardizes human health and safety, and impedes t...

  10. Application of Specific Features of Industrial Products when Forming and Developing Brands of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsentiuk Stanislav V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses and structures approaches and principles of formulation of industrial products. It offers classification of goods and markets of industrial products by their characteristics and participants. It identifies main participants that make decisions at B2C and B2B markets and characterises their specific features and motivation when making decisions on purchase of products of industrial enterprises. It studies and analyses indicators of development of domestic markets of consumer goods and market of industrial products and dynamics of development of their relation in retrospective view.

  11. Strategies For Turkish Automotive By-Products Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Bütüner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Automotive industry is comprised of the industry which produces vehicles, and the industry which, as dominated by Small and Medium Scale Enterprises, produces parts, modules, and systems of such vehicles according to the technical documentation. Having been established through technical and economic supports of the major manufacturers, and developed in the course of time, the by products industry is involved its activities as a significant potential for the domestic economy at present. In this article, general characteristics of Turkish automative by products industry, its weak aspects, aspects need to be improved, and dominant strategies that need to be considered for the improvement are discussed.

  12. The Australian black coal industry: productivity commission inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    February 1999 saw the release of the final report of the Productivity Commission's inquiry into the Australian black coal industry. The report is a comprehensive examination of the state of play of the Australian coal industry, drawing from the Commission's own research, submissions from a range of stakeholders and the results of a benchmarking study which compared Australia's performance with world's best practice. Essentially, the report finds that recent reforms have improved productivity and some parts of the industry now perform very well. However, the report finds that further changes to federal industry awards and state legislation and regulation could significantly improve the performance of the industry overall

  13. The productivity of industrial land in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Louw, Erik; Bontekoning, Yvonne

    2004-01-01

    In regional science the interest in spatial distribution of productivity is focussed on labour productivity. In our research we focus on another important production factor that is land. By planning local authorities allocate land to different categories of land use. As part of research on the efficiency of this allocation process in the Netherlands, a method is developed to determine the productivity of industrial land (added value per hectare industrial land). To calculate this ‘spatial pro...

  14. Productivity and Firm Turnover in Israeli Industry: 1979-1988

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Griliches; Haim Regev

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of a large panel data set on Israeli industrial firms finds that most of the growth in aggregate productivity comes from productivity changes within firms rather than from entry, exit, or differential growth; that firms which will exit in the future have lower productivity performance several years earlier (the "shadow of death" effect); and that, overall, there was little total factor productivity growth in Israeli industry during 1979-1988 (another "lost decade").

  15. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND VISUALISATION-A PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Taking the actual project of teaching and researching process for example, the relationship between the industrial engineering and product development is discussed. And use the novel visualization technology to support the industrial engineering and product development. How to use the new computer modeling and simulating technologies to support the product development and industrial engineering, is introduced especially. The support includes both domestic products and industrial systems. The visualization and computer technologies take a very important role in some system or multi-direction modeling, those technologies mentioned above can help the industrial engineers study the effect of design on the whole life circle, including the producing steps. So the engineers can avoid making the wrong decision which may cause bad effects on the whole industrial engineering.

  16. Development of the University of Washington Biofuels and Biobased Chemicals Process Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [University of Washington

    2014-02-04

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design and build a bioconversion steam explosion reactor and ancillary equipment such as a high pressure boiler and a fermenter to support the bioconversion process research. This equipment has been in constant use since its installation in 2012. Following are research projects that it has supported: • Investigation of novel chip production method in biofuels production • Investigation of biomass refining following steam explosion • Several studies on use of different biomass feedstocks • Investigation of biomass moisture content on pretreatment efficacy. • Development of novel instruments for biorefinery process control Having this equipment was also instrumental in the University of Washington receiving a $40 million grant from the US Department of Agriculture for biofuels development as well as several other smaller grants. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  17. Industrial mineral powder production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The recent annual output of major industrial mineral powders in the mainland of China has been more than 100 million t, accompanied by active development of such supporting technology as comminution, classification, separation/purification, and surface modification. In particular, the present paper reviews technologies for preparing ultra-fine particles involving dry and wet processing, modification and composition, calcination of kaolin clay, and processing of spherical/acerous industrial minerals.

  18. Productivity Improvement in the Specialized Industrial Clusters: The Case of the Japanese Silk-Reeling Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Arimoto, Yutaka; Nakajima, Kentaro; Okazaki, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    We examine two sources of productivity improvement in the specialized industrial clusters. Agglomeration improves the productivity of each plant through positive externalities, shifting plant-level productivity distribution to the right. Selection expels less productive plants through competition, truncating distribution on the left. By analyzing the data of the early twentieth century Japanese silk-reeling industry, we find no evidence confirming a right shift in the distribution in clusters...

  19. Analysis and Design of an Industrial Product (Ceramics)

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Gabriel GRESOI; Anca Mihaela TEAU; Cristina Elena PROTOPOPESCU

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines how and which aspects should be analyzed on a product that sells industrial market due to the special feature of these markets and the close correlation between the concept of quality and value for use, especially for an industrial product.

  20. Benefits of nitrogen for food, fibre and industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoumann Jensen, L.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Hoek, K.W. van der; Damgaard Poulsen, H.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Pallière, C.; Lammel, J.; Brentrup, F.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Willems, J.; Grinsven, H. van

    2011-01-01

    Nature of the issue • Reactive nitrogen (N r ) has well-documented positive eff ects in agricultural and industrial production systems, human nutrition and food security. Limited N r supply was a key constraint to European food and industrial production, which has been overcome by Nr from the Haber–

  1. Influence of ICTs on workforce productivity in Egyptian industrial organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Elsaadani, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Present study aims to investigate the influence of ICTs dimensions: Information Technology, Management Information System, Office automation, Intranet and Internet on workforce productivity for a group of industrial organizations in Alexandria, Egypt. The study findings revealed that the specified dimensions of ICTs positively affect workforce productivity of industrial organizations in Alexandria, Egypt

  2. Measuring the Canada-U.S. Productivity Gap: Industry Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Someshwar Rao; Jianmin Tang; Weimin Wang

    2004-01-01

    A key objective of economic policy in Canada is to reduce the productivity gap with the United States. The development of appropriate policies to attain this goal requires a thorough understanding of the nature of the gap, including its industry dimensions. Unfortunately, statistical agencies do not currently produce estimates of Canada-U.S. productivity gaps by industry. To fill this data lacuna, Someshwar Rao, Jianmin Tang, and Weimin Wang of Industry Canada in the first article present ben...

  3. Product models for the Construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    1996-01-01

    Different types of product models for the building sector was elaborated and grouped. Some discussion on the different models was given. The "definition" of Product models was given.......Different types of product models for the building sector was elaborated and grouped. Some discussion on the different models was given. The "definition" of Product models was given....

  4. FUTURE MARKETING DRIVERS FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Dasmohapatra

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The forest products industry in North America is increasingly losing its share in its domestic markets. The pressure of low cost manufacturing combined with a slowing economy has painfully caused many mills to close and many workers to lose their jobs in recent years. We ask ourselves whether the forest products industry will be able to survive these gloomy times and what, if any are the factors that would drive the future of the forest products industry. Opening our minds to global markets beyond domestic consumption, targeting products towards changing demographic structure and resulting change in consumer tastes, developing and marketing products with the environmental conscious consumer in mind, product innovations, efficient management of the supply chain, and trade practices and policies will be some of the marketing drivers in the forest products industry in the new era.

  5. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.; Heilmeier, H.; Bringezu, S.

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of non-renewabl

  6. Synthesis of biobased N-methylpyrrolidone by one-pot cyclization and methylation of c-aminobutyric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP) is an industrial solvent that is currently based on fossil resources. In order to prepare it in a biobased way, the possibility to synthesize NMP from -aminobutyric acid (GABA) was investigated, since GABA can be obtained from glutamic acid, an amino acid that is present in

  7. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 1999. Production statistics (1990-1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-third In a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1990-1999 for about 200 countries and areas

  8. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2000. Production statistics (1991-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-third in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1991-2000 for about 200 countries and areas

  9. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2003. Production statistics (1994-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-seventh in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title 'The Growth of World industry' and the next eight editions under the title 'Yearbook of Industrial Statistics'. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1994-2003 for about 200 countries and areas

  10. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2001. Production statistics (1992-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-fifth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1992-2001 for about 200 countries and areas

  11. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2002. Production statistics (1993-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-sixth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title 'The Growth of World industry' and the next eight editions under the title 'Yearbook of Industrial Statistics'. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1993-2002 for about 200 countries and areas

  12. Optimisation of the cooling systems in industry in CHP production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahtila, P.; Hippinen, I.; Ruohonen, P. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Industrial Energy Engineering, Espoo (Finland)) (and others)

    2009-07-01

    By optimisating of cooling systems and their integrating them into heating systems we can achieve a significant reduction in total energy consumption and green house gas emissions. Integrating the production of cooling into the combined heat and power generation, i.e. trigeneration, improves the efficiency combined energy production. The aim of the study is to rationalise the production and the use of heat and cooling by integrating the systems in industry and between industry and local municipalities. (orig.)

  13. Productivity and foreign ownership in the UK car industry

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Many sectors of the UK economy experienced rapid productivity growth over the 1980's. This coincided with an increase in the flow of inward investment. Studies using macro data have linked these two events. This paper investigates what has happened in one industry at the microeconomic level and asks whether foreign-owned establishments in the UK car industry more productive than domestic-owned ones. Production functions are estimated using a new panel data set at the plant level. The findings...

  14. Italian Industrial Production, 1861 1913: A Statistical Reconstruction. J. The Utilities Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Fenoaltea

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the tenth section of Italian Industrial Production, 1861 1913: A Statistical Reconstruction (in progress). It documents the derivation, from the historical sources, of the eight time series that trace the product of the utilities industries, and of the corresponding estimates of value added per unit at 1911 prices. The electric utilities are relatively well documented by data on capacity and utilization; separate series trace the production (and distribution) of thermal power on...

  15. Healthy living in a biobased society

    OpenAIRE

    Domingus, S.; Nieuwenhuizen, van, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    This publication covers a wide array of subjects, ranging from physical chemistry to food microbiology, from water technology to food for the elderly. While the subjects may not initially seem related, they all focus on the same question: How can we lead healthy lives in a biobased society? This vital question unites the underlying disciplines within the Agrotechnology & Food Sciences Group (AFSG) knowledge unit of Wageningen UR (University & Research centre).

  16. Cleaner production technology for the NDT industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses te wastes generated from the conduct of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and operations like NDT film processing and the systems to reduce water pollution and the film system quality control. Discussions on clean technology production concepts and philosophy is also discussed. A case study on cleaner production technology where a process and equipment modifications and a product substitution were implemented is presented. The equipment modification and product substitution eliminated the use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in its cleaning operation. (Author)

  17. An assessment of the opportunities and challenges of a bio-based economy for agriculture and food research in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine the feasibility of using biomass from within the agriculture and food sectors to develop bio-based products such as biofuels, bioplastics, bioadhesives, natural fibres, biolubricants, and biobased platform chemicals. In addition to providing new economic opportunities to farmers and rural communities, the use of biomass as an energy source can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce our reliance on fossil fuels. Since biofuels hold the greatest potential for major impact on both the agricultural economy and on greenhouse gas reduction, this paper includes a special section on the potential role for biofuels, including ethanol, biodiesel, methane and other bioenergy sources. The report focused mainly on research in biological sciences and the application of biorefineries to develop renewable end products from raw materials. The need to develop human capital to meet the growing demands of a bio-based economy was also emphasized. refs., tabs.

  18. BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    AHMED HASSON

    2009-01-01

    It is recognized that tobacco industrial waste is considered as a pollutant to the air, land and groundwater by emitting a large quantities of greenhouse gases, GHG to the atmosphere and toxic components to the groundwater through the land profile. Hydrogen is a source of clean energy. It has become popular for energy as a fuel that would eliminate air pollution problem. It is a fuel which lends itself transport and storage. In this work, tobacco wastes were subjected to different conditions ...

  19. Traceability: a demand of agro industrial chain for special products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Verissimo Foggiatto Silveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of agricultural products with different nutritional features has altered the relationship, the upstream and the downstream of enterprises that produce and commercialize them. Coordination in the Agro Industrial System is demanded, including traceability as a way to guarantee the conformity of products, attending external clients and agricultural industries that require quality certification. This quality tool enables the identification of some details in the productive chain, such as seeds, farming, harvesting, storage, transportation and industrialization of products. Thus, this essay describes the concept of traceability and provides information of special products from a cooperative from Paraná, which has controlled process in the productive chain, demanded by contractual partnerships done with enterprises that provide fertilizers and food processors. It was identified that this cooperative commercializes three products that need traceability: two special kinds of corn and the regular kind of soybean.

  20. Bioconversion technologies of crude glycerol to value added industrial products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Garlapati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude glycerol that is produced as the by-product from biodiesel, has to be effectively utilized to contribute to the viability of biodiesel. Crude glycerol in large amounts can pose a threat to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to convert this crude glycerol into valued added products using biotechnological processes, which brings new revenue to biodiesel producers. Crude glycerol can serve as a feedstock for biopolymers, poly unsaturated fatty acids, ethanol, hydrogen and n-butanol production and as a raw material for different value added industrial products. Hence, in this review we have presented different bioconversion technologies of glycerol to value added industrial products.

  1. Developing the organization's productivity strategy in various sectors of industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Looze, M.P. de; Have, K.T.; Rhijn, J.W. van; Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to present an approach to improve the organisation's productivity which is applicable in every industrial sector. The nucleus of the approach is to develop an optimal productivity strategy in an organization by the application of a uniform static model of productivity (Q4-mod

  2. Internationalization of production at the shipbuilding industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEDES VILA ALONSO

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of the production of the naval factories comes impelled by the possibilities that thenew construction techniques open up to the disintegration of the productive processes. Also, the advances of the technologies of the information and communication reduce the inconveniences of the localization of activities in different centers located in geographically distant areas. Also, the depreciation of the costs of transport subtracts importance to the obstacles of the displacement of the parts of the ship among the different construction points. In spite of it, in the naval sector whose habitual objective market is the world, the internationalization of the production turns out to be a less frequent practice.Then, in this work we pursue to identify the keys that govern the contemporary processes of internationalization in general and those of internationalization of the production in the naval factories in particular, making mention to the experiences undertaken by Spanish shipbuilders.

  3. RELIABILITY,COMPONENT OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BALDEA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The reliability defined through probability, reflects the measurement of the product's quality depending on time. We use the probability parameters as aleatory variables, the density functions of probability, the distribution functions

  4. Medical equipment industry in India: Production, procurement and utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Chakravarthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents information on the medical equipment industry in India-on production, procurement and utilization related activities of key players in the sector, in light of the current policies of liberalization and growth of a "health-care industry" in India. Policy approaches to medical equipment have been discussed elsewhere.

  5. Grid-enabled Workflows for Industrial Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Boniface, M.J.; Ferris, J.; Ghanem, M; Azam, N

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a generic approach for developing and using Grid-based workflow technology for enabling cross-organizational engineering applications. Using industrial product design examples from the automotive and aerospace industries we highlight the main requirements and challenges addressed by our approach and describe how it can be used for enabling interoperability between heterogeneous workflow engines.

  6. Developing engineering design core competences through analysis of industrial products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2011-01-01

    Most product development work carried out in industrial practice is characterised by being incremental, i.e. the industrial company has had a product in production and on the market for some time, and now time has come to design a new and upgraded variant. This type of redesign project requires...... challenge in staging a course module, in which students develop knowledge, understanding and skills, which will prepare them for being able to participate in and contribute to redesign projects in industrial practice. In the course module Product Analysis and Redesign that has run for 8 years we have...... that the engineering designers have core design competences to carry through an analysis of the existing product encompassing both a user-oriented side and a technical side, as well as to synthesise solution proposals for the new and upgraded product. The authors of this paper see an educational...

  7. Investigation of tribological properties of biobased polymers and polymeric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Satyam Kumar

    Worldwide potential demands for replacing petroleum derived raw materials with renewable plant-based ones in the production of valuable polymeric materials and composites are quite significant from the social and environmental standpoints. Therefore, using low-cost renewable resources has deeply drawn the attention of many researchers. Among them, natural oils are expected to be ideal alternative feedstock since oils, derived from plant and animal sources, are found in profusion in the world. The important feature of these types of materials is that they can be designed and tailored to meet different requirements. The real challenge lies in finding applications which would use sufficiently large quantities of these materials allowing biodegradable polymers to compete economically in the market. Lack of material and tribological characterizations have created an awareness to fulfill this essential objective. In order to understand the viability of biobased polymers in structural applications, this thesis work elucidates the study of friction and wear characteristics of polymers and polymeric composites made out of natural oil available profusely in plants and animals. The natural oils used in this study were soybean and tung oil. Various monomeric components like styrene, divinely benzene etc. were used in the synthesis of biobased polymers through Rh-catalyzed isomerization techniques. For the different polymeric composites, spent germ, a byproduct of ethanol production, is used as the filler and an organoclay called montmorillonite is used as the reinforcing agent in the polymer matrix. The effect of crosslinker concentration, filler composition and reinforcement agent concentration was studied under dry sliding. A ball-on-flat tribometer with a probe made out of steel, silicon nitride or diamond was used for most of the experimental work to measure friction and generate wear. The wear tracks were quantified with an atomic force microscope and a contact

  8. Synthesis of bio-based building blocks from vegetable oils: a platform chemicals approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desroches Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review reports the synthesis of various building blocks from vegetable oils in one or two-steps syntheses. Thiol-ene coupling allows to synthesize new biobased reactants with various function and functionality with reaction conditions in agreement with green chemistry principles: it does not use neither solvent nor initiator or need simple purification step, feasible at industrial scale. Esterification and amidification were also used to insert ester or amide groups in fatty chains in order to modifiy properties of thereof synthesized polymers. Building blocks synthesized have various functions and functionality: polyols, polyacids, polyamines and dicyclocarbonates from vegetable oils and from glycerine derivatives. They were used for the synthesis of biobased polyurethanes, polyhydroxyurethanes and epoxy resins.

  9. Sunshine Group Builds High-End Aluminum Product Industrial Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In order to propel development of the aluminum industry to move toward featured,specialized,and ecological directions,Sunlight Sanyuan Aluminum Company plans to expropriate 300 mu of land in Hanjiang District of Putian City,Fujian province,where it plans to construct high-end aluminum product industrial park,introduce the world’s most advanced fully automatic production equipment and technologies for aluminum profile and

  10. Malmquist producticity index: An application of Turkish automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lorcu, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Automotive sector is one of the most important sectors which seen as the locomotive of economy, shares a large extent of the each economic crisis experienced in the area. In this study; automotive and supplier industry firms', which place in Istanbul Chamber of Industry's (ICI) 500 large firms, total factor productivities analyzed with Malmquist total factor productivity index. While 14 companies came up in this study that compassed 2003-2007 periods, the numbers of employees, net assets are ...

  11. NEW ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCTS USED IN LEATHER INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    ROSU Dan; CRUDU Marian; ROSU Liliana; CRUDU Irina-Alexandra; VARGANICI Cristian-Dragos

    2016-01-01

    In today's move to "sustainable production" the leather industry, as well as many other industries is recognized as a polluting one. Traditional chemical operations are polluting because of the levels of inorganic chemical waste. Process chemicals which are not consumed within the reactions necessary to convert collagen to leather are currently discharged to waste. These are usually applied during bulk production, such as inorganic agents from beam house and tanning processes, e.g. lime, sulp...

  12. Industrial use of agricultural products: European prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first discusses how the GATT internal trade agreement has affected Italian and European agricultural practices, especially in that which regards the production of soybean and other vegetable oils. It then assesses how current Italian agricultural policies impact on proposals now being designed to encourage the production of vegetable oils for use as ecological automotive fuel alternatives. The paper cites the need for a greater say by farming associations, and cooperation among fuel oil producers and government bodies in the drafting up of future policies

  13. Towards a Bioeconomy in Europe: National, Regional and Industrial Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo de Besi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Establishing an advanced European bioeconomy is an important step in achieving the transition towards sustainable development and away from fossil fuels. The bioeconomy can be defined as an economy based on the sustainable production and conversion of renewable biomass into a range of bio-based products, chemicals, and energy. Several strategies have been produced in Europe from different perspectives that outline visions, intentions, and recommendations for the transition to a bioeconomy. An analysis of twelve of these strategies was conducted using a meta-analytical framework. This paper outlines the results of this study covering national, regional, and industrial perspectives on the bio-based economy in Europe. The analysis shows that a common direction for the bioeconomy, based on research and technological innovation in the various applications of biotechnology, is developing in Europe. It highlights the important role that the regional level will play in facilitating collaborations between industries and research institutions needed to foster innovation and optimize the use of biomass. The analysis also identifies that the development of European bio-based product markets are needed for bioeconomy expansion. However, the transition needs to have a lifecycle perspective in order to ensure that an economy founded on biomass is sustainable and equitable.

  14. Industrial Upgrading in Global Production Networks: The Case of the Chinese Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yansheng; Xin Xin KONG; Zhang, Miao

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the development of China’s automotive industry. The evidence shows that integration in global production networks has stimulated upgrading of technological capabilities among automotive firms. However, the competitiveness and intra-industry analyses show mixed results. Although intraindustry trade in automotive products has improved since 2000, the trade competitiveness of completely built up vehicles has largely remained in low value added activities. Nevertheless, firm...

  15. PRODUCTION STRUCTURE AND TRENDS IN THE U.S. MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine J. Morrison Paul

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. meat products industries have experienced increasing consolidation. It has been speculated that this has resulted from cost economies, perhaps associated with technical change or trade factors. It has also been asserted that increased concentration in these industries may be allowing the exploitation of market power in the input (livestock) and output (meat product) industries. These issues are addressed for the four digit SIC meat and poultry industries. Findings show that the beef ...

  16. Genetically encoded sensors enable real-time observation of metabolite production

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jameson K.; Church, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in biotechnology are enabling engineers to harness natural processes for the production of valuable new chemicals and materials. Cells engineered for chemical production act as renewable factories and redefine what is possible in industries as diverse as manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, and energy. Despite this potential, long and uncertain timelines for biobased product development hinder progress. Engineering cells for chemical production is challenging because the complexity of bio...

  17. Bio-based alkyds by direct enzymatic bulk polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hiep Dinh

    compared to a corresponding classical reference. In a further development of the system, it has been found possible to use the esters of pentaerythritol and stearic acid in combination with the penta-aze derivative for the preparation of pseudo alkyds containing only pentaerythritol as polyol with high...... traditional method. Bio-based alkyds prepared from a combination of glycerol, and tall oil fatty acids, and azelaic acid by enzymatic polymerization show improved hydrophobicity and lower glass transition temperatures compared to an alkyd prepared from the same raw materials by a classical boiling method. The...... new type of pentaerythritol derivatized with azelaic acid (or penta-aze) was examined and tested for the production of more branched alkyd systems. A photostability test validated the concept, and the method also resulted in alkyds with improved hydrophobicity and lower glass transition temperatures...

  18. CONTRIBUTION TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTS QUALITY IN BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Marić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food industry occupies special place in the processing industry, especially when we talk on the manufacturing of bakery products. Variable products quality on the market initiated the authors of this study to make an attempt, using comparative analysis of methods for quality control that are at most applied in bakery plants and other "convenient" methods to indicate the shortcomings and to argue convenience of using of methods that would improve testing of the quality. That approach could create a base for designing of model of quality improvement the baking industry.

  19. A New Color-Texture Approach for Industrial Products Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay A. Akhloufi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an approach for color-texture classification of industrial products. An extension of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM to color images is proposed. Statistical features are computed from an isotropic Color Co-occurrence Matrix for classification. The following color spaces are used: RGB, HSL and La*b*. New combination schemes for texture analysis are introduced. A comparison with Local Binary Patterns (LBP is also performed. The tests were conducted in a variety of industrial samples. The obtained results are promising and show the possibility of efficiently classifying complex industrial products based on color and texture features.

  20. Supply of the Industrial Products in Romania. A Territorial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grigorescu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The industrial products and services supply was analyzed in the present paper through the statistical indicators of the industrial production, applied for Romania (2005, both at macroeconomic and regional level (on development regions. The first part of the paper presents some of the methodological reglamentations used in determining the “industrial production” statistical indicator, according to the European Union statistical practices (Pack, 2000; *** ìMethodology of short-term business statisticsî, 2006; Peneder, 2001. In the second part of the paper, the authors analyze the main industrial policy previsions in Romania in order to accelerate the process of resource allocation among and within the various sectors, to improve the competitiveness, to attenuate the discrepancies between the economic development level of Romanian regions and to become part of a common European industrial policy. Regional analysis is a domain largely studied by Kangas, Leskinen, Kangas, 2007; Leskinen, Kangas, 2005; Rondinelli, 1996; Banai-Kashani, Reza, 1989.  

  1. Innovations in the Forest Products Industry: The Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegatheswaran RATNASINGAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest products industry is an important socioeconomic sector to many developing countries, both in terms of foreign exchange earnings and employment. In the case of Malaysia, the industry has been one of the fastest growing manufacturing sectors in the country, driven primarily by comparative advantages derived from factor inputs. However, with increasing competition from other cheaper producing nations particularly China and Vietnam, the Malaysian forest products industry is forced to transform and move along the value-chain through innovation and value-addition. Although the government has played a pivotal role in providing a broad policy framework to support value-adding and innovative activities, success on the ground has been limited. The creativity environment, which is plagued with by low-wage economy, coupled with limited network between research, market and industrial enterprises have stifled innovation within the industry. The lack of information and the poor quality human capital has also contributed to the limited innovation within the forest products industry in the country. Against this background, most innovation within the industry is confined to the realms of alternative raw materials, with minimal technological and design variations. Although extensive research and development activities are undertaken, the commercialization potential of the research outputs is limited due to being not market-driven. Inevitably, innovation in the forest products sector must be based on market-needs and must be driven through technological and design change in order to ensure long-term competitiveness.

  2. Supplier Involvement in Product Development for Project Based Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Pratima

    2011-01-01

    There exists an increasing evidence of benefits with involving suppliers in a new product development activity in the mass production companies. Challenges such as, reduction of a product life cycle, technological uncertainties, and increased cost of R&D activity have made it necessary to extend a new product development activity, beyond the firm’s boundary. However, in a project based industries this trend is not predominant and importance of innovation and suppliers, applies to thi...

  3. Industrial Designers¡¦ Attitudes Toward Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Chieh Wu; Yeon-Sheng Yang; Tsung-Han Wang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out the attitudes of designers regarding product design. Subjects practicing product design are the main targets of this study. Factors designers of different attitudes towards product design emphasize in project design are explored, from which types of industrial designers are speicfied in terms of their value point of view in product design. From related literautre, six design-oriented attributes were identified for the measurement of designer¡¦s attitude...

  4. My 2030s. Citizens about the Biobased Economy; My 2030s. Burgers over de Biobased Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, N.; Hulshof, M.; Van der Veen, M.

    2013-02-15

    My 2030s is the first qualitative study of the needs and concerns of citizens about the Biobased Economy, an economy in which fossil fuels are largely substituted by vegetable alternatives. This final report describes the reason and purpose of My 2030s, the course of the public debates and the results of research into ideas of citizens on the Biobased Economy The report concludes with recommendations on how the stakeholders can actively involve citizens in one of the major transitions of the next century [Dutch] My 2030s is het eerste kwalitatieve onderzoek naar de wensen en zorgen van burgers over de Biobased Economy, een economie waarin fossiele grondstoffen grotendeels zijn vervangen door plantaardige alternatieven. Dit eindrapport beschrijft de aanleiding en opzet van My 2030s, het verloop van de publieksdebatten en de resultaten van het onderzoek naar denkbeelden van burgers over de Biobased Economy. Het rapport eindigt met aanbevelingen over hoe de stakeholders burgers actief kunnen betrekken bij een van de belangrijkste transities van de komende eeuw.

  5. Consolidation of the Uranium Production Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As uranium prices fell from the record-high levels of the late 1970s, high-cost, unsubsidized producers the world over began to curtail operations or exit the uranium business entirely. Since 1980, the number of companies actively involved in uranium mining or exploration has decreased markedly. As this exodus has taken place, existing reserves and production operations have become consolidated in the hands of a shrinking number of producers. Some of these are large, vertically integrated nuclear fuel companies that adhere to a very long-term view of the uranium market. To that end, they continue to acquire reserves for that period when most analysts agree the uranium market will recover and prices will rebound to higher levels. For consumers, however, this consolidation of production and reserves into fewer hands could have serious implications in future years

  6. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper tries to assess the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in South Africa by undertaking a cointegration analysis using annual data from 1980 to 2005. We also investigate the causal relationships between the various disaggregate forms of energy consumption and industrial production. Our results imply that industrial production and employment are long-run forcing variables for electricity consumption. Applying the [Toda, H.Y., Yamamoto, T., 1995. Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes. Journal of Econometrics 66, 225-250] technique to Granger-causality, we find bi-directional causality between oil consumption and industrial production. For the other forms of energy consumption, there is evidence in support of the energy neutrality hypothesis. There is also evidence of causality between employment and electricity consumption as well as coal consumption causing employment.

  7. Process for production of industrial gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslennikov, V.M.; Gordin, K.A.; Krivokon, A.A.; Nosach, V.G.; Shpil' rain, E.E.; Zholudov, Y.S.

    1981-08-23

    A method for producing gas containing H/sub 2/ and CO from solid fuel in the presence of steam and a high-temperature heat transfer agent at 1500-2500 K with repeated oxidative gasification of the solid residue. The ash-enriched fuel from the 2nd stage is burned in O/sub 2/-containing gas in the 3rd stage. The ash and CO/sub 2/-containing gas are separated, and the gas is returned to the 2nd stage. In the 1st stage the solid fuel is takenin stoichiometric excess for the reaction with steam, and the oxidizing agent in the 2nd stage - in insufficiency; in the 3rd stage the fuel is burned with gas containing excess O/sub 2/ and at a temperature below the melting point of the ash. As the high-temperature heat transfer agent, a portion of the industrial gas preheated to the initial process temperature is used.

  8. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials in the metals and metal products industries (ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead) are discussed. Data preparation and methodology development and analysis of the technological and economic factors in order to prepare draft targets for the use of recovered materials are covered. Chapter 2 provides an introductory discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33, including industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends for the 5 industries: ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead. Chapter 4 presents the evaluation of recycling targets for those industries. (MCW)

  9. Civil engineering and bio-based materials; Grond-, weg- en waterbouw aan de slag met biobased materialen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijlman, E. [KNN, Groningen (Netherlands); Venema, A. [Centrum voor Energie en Milieukunde IVEM, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    A brief overview is provided of the options, the opportunities and the possible contribution of a bio-based economy to civil engineering in the Netherlands. [Dutch] Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van de mogelijkheden, de kansen in en de mogelijke bijdrage van een biobased economy m.b.t. de Grond-, Weg- en Waterbouw (GWW) sector in Nederland.

  10. Development of Industrial Sterilization of Medical Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is well established on a worldwide basis as being suitable for sterilization of medical products. The penetrating nature of die radiation and the negligible temperature rise resulting from the process make it suitable for pre-packaged equipment. The hermetic sealing of individual items ensures a long shelf life. Most experience has been gained with plastic equipment and only a few drugs have so far been considered suitable for radiation sterilization. The basic features of radiation plant are discussed and the effect of type of installation and the magnitude of the throughput on the cost of the process are outlined. (author)

  11. New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus

    Due to the limited time of the monopoly provided by patent protection that is used for recouping the R&D investment, pharmaceutical companies focus on keeping time-to-market for new products as short as possible. This process is however getting more uncertain, as the outcome of clinical trials is...... system is also developed. It captures the ramp-up phase in a better way, while considering inventory build up, plant validation and limited shelf life. The performance of several ramp-up functions is tested and insights into ramp-up management are presented. The dissertation is concluded with showing the...

  12. Profitability and productivity changes in the Korean electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korean electricity industry saw significant changes following the reform in April 2001. Until the last decade, the industry was monopolized by the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO), a state-owned, vertically integrated company. The 2001 reform divided KEPCO's power generation division into six power generation companies (GENCOs), with the aim of improving efficiency and introducing competition in the electricity industry. In this study, we used capital total factor productivity (KTFP) to analyze profit changes from fixed input capital, and an index number profit decomposition (INPD) to examine the sources of the profit changes. We investigate the industry thoroughly from three points of view: the overall industry over time; the power generation sector by company; and the transmission and distribution sectors of the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). Next, we measured how the profits from productivity growth were distributed to consumers, fuel suppliers, employees, and company owners. The results suggest that a more reasonable price system for both wholesale and consumer prices needs to be implemented prior to the privatization and deregulation of the Korean electricity industry. - Highlights: ► We investigate the industry thoroughly from three points of view. ► Korean electricity industry made profits differently before and after the reform. ► A more reasonable price system should be employed in the electricity market.

  13. Bioactive peptides generated from meat industry by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Leticia; Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    There is a large generation of meat by-products, not only from slaughtering but also in the meat industry from trimming and deboning during further processing. This results in extraordinary volumes of by-products that are primarily used as feeds with low returns or, more recently, to biodiesel generation. The aim of this work was to review the state of the art to generate bioactive peptides from meat industry by-products giving them an added value. Hydrolysis with commercial proteases constit...

  14. Competition and product quality in the supermarket industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsa, David A

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of competition on a supermarket firm's incentive to provide product quality. In the supermarket industry, product availability is an important measure of quality. Using U.S. Consumer Price Index microdata to track inventory shortfalls, I find that stores facing more intense competition have fewer shortfalls. Competition from Walmart—the most significant shock to industry market structure in half a century—decreased shortfalls among large chains by about a third. The risk that customers will switch stores appears to provide competitors with a strong incentive to invest in product quality. PMID:22148133

  15. NO BUG: biobased mosquitoes repellent textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ciera, Lucy Wanjiru; Nierstrasz, Vincent; De Clerck, Karen; Van Langenhove, Lieva

    2011-01-01

    This research work is part of the FP7 No-Bug project (Novel release system and biobased utilities for insect repellent textiles). The main interest of the project is personal protective textiles against insects (mosquitoes) for application not only in tropical areas where vector borne diseases are a major threat to the public health but also in European countries where the presence of mosquitoes can be nuisance. Malaria and dengue fever are well known diseases that cause a lot of deaths in th...

  16. Product Innovation Development in the Companies of Creative Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandas Strazdas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Many authors distinguish product innovation as a key factor for long-term competitiveness. Dominant narrow perception of a product is leading towards incorrect product development process and the consequent result is a bad product. Narrow perception of a product is one of the main paralysing factors affecting the creator in the process of product development, which leads towards a low level of product innovation. As a result, a company is losing its uniqueness, originality, and is not of  interest neither for consumers nor the product developers themselves. This article deals with the product perception problems in the companies of creative industries. The main limiting factors for the perception of a product are analysed in the article as well as possibilities to expand the perception of a product. Five main product development methods: conservative, delegative, holistic, limited open, fully open are described in the article. The choice of the product development methods is especially important for the creative industries companies whose product development process is very intensive. 

  17. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for itaconate production

    OpenAIRE

    Vuoristo, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in sustainable development together with limited amounts of fossil resources have increased the demand for production of chemicals and fuels from renewable resources. The market potential for bio-based products is growing and a transition from petrochemicals to biomass-based chemicals is ongoing. Itaconic acid is a C5-dicarboxylic acid which can be produced by microbial conversion processes. It can be easily polymerized and is an appealing building block for the chemical industry wit...

  18. Electricity consumption, industrial production, and entrepreneurship in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the context of a tri-variate vector autoregressive framework that includes entrepreneurship, this paper examines the link between electricity consumption and industrial production in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Unlike the existing studies, this paper focuses on one sector of the economy and utilises a unique monthly dataset. Empirical analysis based on Johansen's cointegration approach shows that the three variables are cointegrated – i.e., a stable long-run relationship exists among electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Empirical analysis based on data from January 1983 to February 2014 reveals that electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to industrial production and entrepreneurship. Furthermore, entrepreneurship Granger causes electricity consumption, which causes industrial production. As electricity consumption causes industrial output, the growth hypothesis concerning energy consumption and economic growth holds in Singapore's manufacturing sector and policies that restrict electricity production, without electricity imports, are likely to lead to a decline in the manufacturing output. - Highlights: • Using a unique monthly dataset, we focus on Singapore's manufacturing sector. • Electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship are cointegrated. • Electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to the other variables. • Entrepreneurship causes electricity consumption which causes industrial production. • We find that growth hypothesis governs the electricity consumption and real output

  19. Technological Diversity and Future Product Diversity in the Drug Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cantner, Uwe; Plotnikova, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the topic of related R&D and innovation strategies of large firms. We ask what determines the diversity of a firm's product portfolio. More specifically, we try to explain large firms' expansion into new product markets driven by the characteristics of their technological knowledge. Empirically, we study firms in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries, using relevant data on product development and technological knowledge. We find a positive relationship between the d...

  20. Green Product Design: Aspects and practices within the furniture industry

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Malin; Koyumdzhieva, Tsvetelina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to investigate how green product design has been practiced within the Swedish furniture industry. Furthermore, to investigate how green product design can reduce the negative impact on the environment. Theoretical framework - The literature used to serve as a base for this paper includes some aspects concerning Green Supply Chain Management, but fundamentally concerns green or environmentally conscious design, motivators for designing „green‟ products, such as legisl...

  1. THE TOTAL SOLUTION FOR DEVELOPING NEW PRODUCTS OF FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    DRIŞCU Mariana; INDRIE Liliana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new solutions for shoemakers, for developing new products and new markets of footwear industry using the basic function of the system CRISPIN Dynamics CAD SUITE. These are the key issues - this is why CRISPIN Dynamics CAD SUITE has developed a range of quality software products to give the shoemaker a major advantage in shoe-making. This application offer functions for creating realistic looking designs of footwear products and for flattening the styles for developme...

  2. Product development in the European and overseas food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Balogh, Sandor

    2007-01-01

    In the present study various product development trends in the food industry are reviewed with the main focus on convenience, organic and functional foods. Also highlighted are differences between the U.S. and Europe in terms of consumer habits and food supply trends. Through exploring the reasons behind differences in the extent of product innovation, the author illustrates the different role convenience products have in the US and European markets. Also revealed is the relationship linking ...

  3. Do ICTs Affect Workforce Productivity in Egyptian Industrial Organizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elsaadani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the influence of Information Communication Technologies-ICTs’ dimensions (Information Technology (IT, Management Information System (MIS, Office automation (OA, Intranet and Internet on workforce productivity for a group of industrial organizations in Alexandria - Egypt. The population of the study included managers and staff members working in different areas related to ICTs in selected industrial organizations at various managerial levels. A descriptive-statistical combined research study was conducted. Simple random sampling was used for the selection of the participating industrial organization. A questionnaire was used as the data collection method. Expert comments were used to check the validity of study instrument, and the reliability of questions was calculated as 79% using Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. Single variable t-test, Friedman and variance analysis tests were used for the analysis. Study findings revealed that the specified dimensions of ICTs positively affect workforce productivity of industrial organizations in Alexandria - Egypt.

  4. Construction of plasmid-free Escherichia coli for the production of arabitol-free xylitol from corncob hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Buli Su; Zhe Zhang; Mianbin Wu; Jianping Lin; Lirong Yang

    2016-01-01

    High costs and low production efficiency are a serious constraint to bio-based xylitol production. For industrial-scale production of xylitol, a plasmid-free Escherichia coli for arabitol-free xylitol production from corncob hemicellulosic hydrolysate has been constructed. Instead of being plasmid and inducer dependent, this strain relied on multiple-copy integration of xylose reductase (XR) genes into the chromosome, where their expression was controlled by the constitutive promoter P43. In ...

  5. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 1998. Production statistics (1989-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This, the thirty-second in a series of annual compilation of statistics on world industry, contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1989-1998 for about 200 countries and areas

  6. Transnational production of Taiwanese integrated circuit industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chiung-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The trajectory of the Taiwanese economy over past decades has reflected transitions in global geo-economy towards a vertical specialisation of global trade, knowledge-based competition, variation of industrialisation in the Third World, regional trisection of the world economy, etc. Its industry, making remarkable progress based on a long-term national assistance, is involved in the outward direct investment whereby overseas production is arranged. Such strategic actions of industrial capital...

  7. Innovation and Productivity in the Colombian Service Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Miguel Gallego; Hernando Gutiérrez; Rodrigo Taborda

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the ways that innovation and productivity are connected in the Colombian manufacturing and service industry. Using data from the Manufacturing Innovation Survey (2007-2008) and the Service Innovation Survey (2008-2009), the paper addresses two main questions: first, whether patterns of innovations differ among manufacturing and services industries, and second, whether service firms innovate, and, if so, whether their innovation approach differs fr...

  8. Production, composition, and application of coffee and its industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Mussatto, Solange I.; Machado, Ercília M. S.; Martins, Silvia,; J.A. Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and is the second largest traded commodity after petroleum. Due to the great demand of this product, large amounts of residues are generated in the coffee industry, which are toxic and represent serious environmental problems. Coffee silverskin and spent coffee grounds are the main coffee industry residues, obtained during the beans roasting, and the process to prepare “instant coffee”, respectively. Recently, some attempts have been m...

  9. Waste and labor productivity in production planning case Finnish construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Koskenvesa, Anssi; Koskela, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine labor productivity and waste and their role in production planning and control in Finnish construction industry. Three hypothesis are tested: (1) the assumption that labor productivity concerning different construction work disciplines has developed very little in the last 30 years; (2) the amount of waste has stayed on a constant high level on sites in the Finnish construction industry; and (3) labor productivity does not develop because the ini...

  10. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products. PMID:26776601

  11. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  12. Synthesis of bio-based aldehyde from seaweed polysaccharide and its interaction with bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholiya, Faisal; Chaudhary, Jai Prakash; Vadodariya, Nilesh; Meena, Ramavatar

    2016-10-01

    Here, we demonstrate a successful synthesis of bio-based aldehyde namely dialdehyde-carboxymethylagarose (DCMA) using carboxymethyagarose (CMA). Further reaction parameters (i.e. reaction temperature, pH and periodate concentration) were optimized to achieve maximum aldehyde content and product yield. The synthesis of DCMA was confirmed by employing FTIR, (1)H NMR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TGA, DSC, EA and GPC techniques. To investigate the aldehyde functionality, DCMA was allowed to interact with BSA and obtained results were found to be comparable with that of synthetic aldehyde (Formaldehyde). Further interaction of DCMA with BSA was confirmed by using UV-vis, FTIR, fluorescent spectroscopy, CD and DLS analysis. Results of this study revealed that bio-based aldehyde behaves like formaldehyde. This study adds value to abundant marine biopolymers and opens the new research area for polymer researchers. PMID:27312639

  13. Factor prices and productivity growth during the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol; Voth, Hans-Joachim

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents new estimates of total factor productivity growth in Britain for the period 1770–1860. We use the dual technique and argue that the estimates we derive from factor prices are of similar quality to quantity-based calculations. Our results provide further evidence, calculated on the basis of an independent set of sources, that productivity growth during the British Industrial Revolution was relatively slow. The Crafts–Harley view of the Industrial Revolution is thus rein...

  14. Productivity Trends in the Gold Mining Industry in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Smith

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to uncover the factors behind what has been, on average, a strong productivity performance from the Canadian gold mining industry over the past four decades. It is found that real price movements have had a substantial impact on productivity growth in the gold mining industry in Canada. The real price of gold declined steadily throughout the 1990s, squeezing the profits of mines on sites of marginal quality and thereby leading to the closure of the least producti...

  15. Atomistic modeling of bio-based polymeric fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, In-Chul; Rinderspacher, B. Christopher; Andzelm, Jan W.; Cureton, Lashonda T.; La Scala, John

    2013-03-01

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations on the amorphous phase of two bio-based polymers, poly (butylene furanamide) and poly (hexamethylene furanamide). Simulations of corresponding petroleum-based polymers, nylon 4, 6 and nylon 6, 6, were also performed. Glass transition temperatures estimated from a series of simulations were in good agreement with experimental measurements. Stress-strain relationships under uniaxial deformation were also analyzed. Bio-based polymers show higher glass transition temperatures and comparable yield points despite having overall weaker hydrogen bonds compared with their counterparts nylons. This result suggests that the furan ring plays an important role in the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of bio-based polymers.

  16. New prices and profitability of production in the coking by-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barannik, A.G.; Akhtyrchenko, A.M.; Denisova, R.T.; Vecherova, V.V.; Kostenko, V.M.; Knyshenko, L.P.

    1985-01-01

    The profitability of coking by-products plants after 1982 and the production of basic products are analyzed. The introduction of new wholesale prices for coking by-products made it possible for the chemical industry to use accurate accounting methods to determine the profitability of specific products. In several chemical plants (e.g. Enakievskii, Kommunarskii, Avdeevskii, Kemerov, and the Rustavskii metallurgical plant) the profitability of specific products is borderline because of management and production problems. These plants must increase the organizational and technical level of their production and eliminate the unprofitability of a series of products, e.g. coal gas, raw benzene and the products from its rectification, sulfonated coal, chemicals, etc. In order to maintain an average price level for the production of the coking by-products industry, prices on specific items must be corrected.

  17. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Thrane, Ulf;

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded...... as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species...... were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B(2), B(4), and B(6)) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios...

  18. Production Technologies And Exchange Relations In International Industrial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hallén, L; Johanson, J.; Seyed Mohamed, N

    1986-01-01

    Based on interviews with marketers in British, German, and Swedish industrial firms, 237 relationships to customers are investigated with regard to the latent factors adaptation and contact intensity. A Lisrel model is developed, which shows that these factors are present in the total material as well as in two of the three specified technological categories, i.e. in relationships to customers with unit and mass production but not in relationships to customers with process production. Further...

  19. Estimation of Production Technology for Turkish Textile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dağ, Nesrin

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study examines the production technology in Turkish textile manufacturing industry, for the period 1988-2008. It is analyzed whether the production technology can be represented by a cost function or a profit function. A translog cost function is estimated and endogeneity of the output level is analyzed. The estimated translog cost function is also evaluated with hypothesis testing to verify the statistically significance of the independent variables. It is illustrated that th...

  20. Product Innovation and Survival in a High-Tech Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lionel NESTA; Fontana, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between product innovation and firm survival for a sample of 121 firms in a high-tech industry. We find that location near the technological frontier is an important determinant of firm survival. Firms located near the frontier are also more likely to be acquired than to exit by failure if they cannot survive. This suggests that product location in the technology space acts as a signal of firm quality. Possessing a substantial stock of intangible capital, on th...

  1. Energetics of Eco-Industry of Food Concentrates Production

    OpenAIRE

    Burdo O.; Terzsiev S.; Levtrynska Ju.

    2015-01-01

    The determination of eco-industry in food production is formulated. The problems of processes of dehydration, heat balance and prospects of technologies directed energy action are considered. We offer the ways of solving an energy problems in product drying. The hypostases are formulated and the possibilities of laminar and turbulent diffusion to heat transfer mechanisms are analyzed. Increasing of drying speed with barodiffusional flows involvement is demonstrated. The extraction kinetic mod...

  2. Industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the role-plays by nuclear technology to enhance productivity in industry. Some of the techniques, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) - x, gamma, electron and neutron radiography, nuclear gauges, materials characterization are discussed thoroughly

  3. The Experience on Geopolymer Technology in Semi-Industrial Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boura, P.; Ertl, Z.; Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Perná, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2012), s. 300-305. ISSN 2161-6221 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : geopolymer * semi-industrial * production Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials http://davidpublishing.org/journals_show_abstract.html?5272-0

  4. Correlates of Research Productivity for Industrial Education Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kip W.; Jansen, Duane G.

    1992-01-01

    Responses from 318 of 500 industrial education faculty showed that (1) over 70 percent were over 45; and (2) significant correlates of research productivity were networking with other faculty, conducting summer research, internal motivation, and involvement in teaching and advising graduate research students. (SK)

  5. Preface: Biocatalysis and Biotechnology for Functional Foods and Industrial Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth review of biocatalysis and biotechnology with emphasis on functional foods and industrial products. Biocatalysis and biotechnology defined in this book include enzyme catalysis, biotransformation, bioconversi...

  6. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.; Moejes, S.N.; Rossier Miranda, F.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy c

  7. Description of the production process - industrial phase; Descricao do processo produtivo - fase industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter presents the description of the present state-of-art, in this paper called first generation of the productive process of sugar-cane bio ethanol in Brazil, related to the industrial phase involving their improvements and also the aspects related to the second generation technologies, particularly the hydrolysis and gasification of the biomass technologies. The chapter also approaches the aspects referred to the use of sugar cane bagasse and the straw cape, and also the production of electric power surplus.

  8. Waterpipe industry products and marketing strategies: analysis of an industry trade exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Jawad, Mohammed; Nakkash, Rima T; Hawkins, Ben; Akl, Eli A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding product development and marketing strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) has been of vital importance in developing effective tobacco control policy. However, comparatively little is known of the waterpipe tobacco industry, which TTCs have recently entered. This study aimed to gain an understanding of waterpipe tobacco products and marketing strategies by visiting a waterpipe trade exhibition. Methods In April 2014 the first author attended...

  9. The Shibboleth of Productivity: The Exhaustion of Industrial-Age Strategies in Post-Industrial Society

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Block

    1985-01-01

    The universal demand currently to resolve America's economic decline by increasing productivity fatally misconstrues the actual challenge posed by post-industrial society. Automation, rationalization, and technological advances suggest a crisis not of productivity, but of distribution, a false, unnecessary perpetuation of widespread deprivation required only by the scarcity model underpinning market economics. While enforced by vested interests for personal gain, this pseudo-crisis is ironica...

  10. Industrial transformation and green production to reduce environmental emissions:Taking cement industry as a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU¨ Yong-Long; GENG Jing; HE Gui-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Industrial transformation and green production (ITGP) is a new 10-year international research initiative proposed by the Chinese National Committee for Future Earth. It is also an important theme for adapting and responding to global environmental change. Aiming at a thorough examination of the implementation of ITGP in China, this paper presents its objectives, its three major areas, and their progress so far. It also identifies the key elements of its management and proposes new perspectives on managing green transformation. For instance, we introduce a case study on cement industry that shows the positive policy effects of reducing backward production capacity on PCDD/Fs emissions. Finally, to develop different transformation scenarios for a green future, we propose four strategies:1) policy integration for promoting green industry, 2) system innovation and a multidisciplinary approach, 3) collaborative governance with all potential stakeholders, and 4) managing uncertainty, risks, and long-time horizons.

  11. Failure in the Oil Patch: An Examination of the Production and Oil Field Services Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Harlan D. Platt; Marjorie A. Platt

    1989-01-01

    A substantial share of domestic energy supplies is produced by the oil and gas production industry. The oil field services industry provides valuable assistance to these exploration and production companies. The failure rates in both industries have increased recently. Failure rates in the two industries were modeled as a function of general economic conditions, industry financial conditions, and, in the case of the service industry, the failure rate in the production industry. The failure ra...

  12. The forest products industry at an energy/climate crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transformational energy and climate policies are being debated worldwide that could have significant impact upon the future of the forest products industry. Because woody biomass can produce alternative transportation fuels, low-carbon electricity, and numerous other 'green' products in addition to traditional paper and lumber commodities, the future use of forest resources is highly uncertain. Using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), this paper assesses the future of the forest products industry under three possible U.S. policy scenarios: (1) a national renewable electricity standard, (2) a national policy of carbon constraints, and (3) incentives for industrial energy efficiency. In addition, we discuss how these policy scenarios might interface with the recently strengthened U.S. renewable fuels standards. The principal focus is on how forest products including residues might be utilized under different policy scenarios, and what such market shifts might mean for electricity and biomass prices, as well as energy consumption and carbon emissions. The results underscore the value of incentivizing energy efficiency in a portfolio of energy and climate policies in order to moderate electricity and biomass price escalation while strengthening energy security and reducing CO2 emissions. - Research highlights: →Transformational energy and climate policies such as a national renewable electricity standard, a national policy of carbon constraints, and incentives for industrial energy efficiency could have significant impact upon the future of the forest products industry. →Each policy scenario reduces CO2 emissions over time, compared to the business-as-usual forecast, with the carbon constrained policy producing the largest decline. As a package, the three policies together could cut CO2 emissions from the electricity sector by an estimated 41% by 2030. →This study underscores the value of incentivizing energy efficiency in a portfolio of energy and

  13. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production potential: a case of three industries in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Mlilo, Sipho; Broome, Jeff; Lumbroso, Darren

    The combination of water demand management and cleaner production concepts have resulted in both economical and ecological benefits. The biggest challenge for developing countries is how to retrofit the industrial processes, which at times are based on obsolete technology, within financial, institutional and legal constraints. Processes in closed circuits can reduce water intake substantially and minimise resource input and the subsequent waste thereby reducing pollution of finite fresh water resources. Three industries were studied in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe to identify potential opportunities for reducing water intake and material usage and minimising waste. The industries comprised of a wire galvanising company, soft drink manufacturing and sugar refining industry. The results show that the wire galvanising industry could save up to 17% of water by recycling hot quench water through a cooling system. The industry can eliminate by substitution the use of toxic materials, namely lead and ammonium chloride and reduce the use of hydrochloric acid by half through using an induction heating chamber instead of lead during the annealing step. For the soft drink manufacturing industry water intake could be reduced by 5% through recycling filter-backwash water via the water treatment plant. Use of the pig system could save approximately 12 m 3/month of syrup and help reduce trade effluent fees by Z30/m 3 of “soft drink”. Use of a heat exchanger system in the sugar refining industry can reduce water intake by approximately 57 m 3/100 t “raw sugar” effluent volume by about 28 m 3/100 t “raw sugar”. The water charges would effectively be reduced by 52% and trade effluent fees by Z3384/100 t “raw sugar” (57%). Proper equipment selection, equipment modification and good house-keeping procedures could further help industries reduce water intake and minimise waste.

  14. Bio-based polycarbonate as synthetic toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenstein, O.; Agarwal, S.; Greiner, A.

    2016-06-01

    Completely bio-based poly(limonene carbonate) is a thermoplastic polymer, which can be synthesized by copolymerization of limonene oxide (derived from limonene, which is found in orange peel) and CO2. Poly(limonene carbonate) has one double bond per repeating unit that can be exploited for further chemical modifications. These chemical modifications allow the tuning of the properties of the aliphatic polycarbonate in nearly any direction. Here we show synthetic routes to demonstrate that poly(limonene carbonate) is the perfect green platform polymer, from which many functional materials can be derived. The relevant examples presented in this study are the transformation from an engineering thermoplastic into a rubber, addition of permanent antibacterial activity, hydrophilization and even pH-dependent water solubility of the polycarbonate. Finally, we show a synthetic route to yield the completely saturated counterpart that exhibits improved heat processability due to lower reactivity.

  15. Agrification: Agriculture for the industry and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new aspect of agrification is the production of alternative products, which can replace fossil sources. This substitution is necessary in order to replace hazardous materials and to find a solution for the problem of depletion of conventional energy sources and basic materials. Attention is paid to some developments in Germany: agricultural products for the production of energy, and new industrial applications for vegetable filaments. With regard to energy production from agricultrual products one should distinguish between (a) solid energy sources (biomass), f.e. straw, fast-growing wood, elephant's grass, hay and rapeseed, and (b) fluid and gaseous energy sources, f.e. purified and partly refined rapeseed oil, rapeseed oil methyl-ester (RME), ethanol from sugar beet, methanol from straw and hydrogen from straw and/or elephant's grass. 4 figs., 7 refs

  16. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter;

    2013-01-01

    blended into end products to minimise the total operational costs under production and storage capacity limitations. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear model is developed for the problem. The model is applied on a data set collected from a real-life case. The trade-offs between capacity limitations and...... operational costs are analysed, and the effects of different types of cost parameters and capacity limitations on the selection of intermediates and end-product recipes are investigated.......This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates are...

  17. Production of fine zinc borate in industrial scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çakal Gaye Ö.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, zinc borate production in an industrial scale batch reactor was carried out at the optimum process conditions determined in the previous studies performed at the laboratory and pilot scale reactors. The production was done via the heterogeneous reaction of boric acid and zinc oxide. The samples were characterized by chemical analysis, XRD, TGA, SEM and particle size distribution. The final product which was obtained in the industrial scale reactor was 2ZnO.3B2O3.3H2O. The kinetic data for the zinc borate production reaction fit to a modified logistic model where the lag time was taken into account. As observed, the reaction time was influenced by scaling up. There was a lag time of 120 min for the industrial scale production and thus, the reaction completion time was 70 min longer compared to pilot scale. It should be emphasized that the specific reaction rate, k; as well as the average particle size and the hydration temperature of zinc borate are unaffected by scale up.

  18. Benefits of nitrogen for food, fibre and industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Schjoerring, J K; van der Hoek, K W;

    2011-01-01

    . • There is a wide variety in N responses at field level. For cereals, nitrogen productivity, also termed the agronomic efficiency, averages 41 kg grain per kg applied fertilizer N across the EU countries, with significant variation between the member states. Variation reflects differences in crop type......Nature of the issue • Reactive nitrogen (N r ) has well-documented positive effects in agricultural and industrial production systems, human nutrition and food security. Limited N r supply was a key constraint to European food and industrial production, which has been overcome by N r from the Haber......, farm type, cropping practices, area, region, soil fertility and climate. • Farmers have an economic incentive to apply only the economically optimal rate of fertilizer N, but there is no strong incentive to increase N use effi ciency as the economic return on using fertilizer N is very robust...

  19. The potential of the aquatic water fern Azolla within a biobased economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Jongerius, Anna L.; Bijl, Peter K.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J. M.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2014-05-01

    Azolla is a free-floating freshwater fern capable of fixing atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen, the latter of which through its symbiosis with the cyanobacteria Anabaena azollae. It is currently ranked among the fastest growing plants on Earth and occurs in both tropical and temperate freshwater ecosystems. Therefore, it is non-directly competitive with food crops. In addition, Azolla does not require inorganic fertilizers, which makes it a potential and unique source of biomass for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals that are currently derived from fossil (fuel) sources. The biochemical composition of Azolla allows the production of biofuel or biobased chemicals that are of interest to the chemical industry. Of Azolla, two extractable groups of compounds are of particular interest, i.e. the polyphenols (condensed tannins and ester-bound caffeic acid) and the lipids. The antioxidant property of polyphenols and their application to the treatment of cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases has further contributed to the growth of the polyphenol market. In addition, they can be chemically transformed into aromatic platform and specialty chemicals. The composition of the lipid fraction of Azolla is characterized by highly specific compounds consisting of C26-C36 carbon chains all bearing a ω20-hydroxy group. Such compounds produce an oil fraction upon hydrous pyrolysis, or, alternatively, are well suited to be converted to e.g. various specialty chemicals that are hardly available from both natural sources. Indeed, upon chemical conversion these lipids may yield components for fuels, plastics, cosmetics, and lubricants. Another group of interesting compounds within the lipid group are the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The demand for PUFAs has witnessed a significant increase over the last three years, particularly due to their benefits as cholesterol lowering agents. Here we will present some of the thermal and chemical conversions of the

  20. Gamma radiodecontamination of natural products uses in Cuban pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present paper was to carry out the gamma radiodecontamination of industrial productions from there medicinal plant species (C. officinalis, P. incarta and M. recuttia) and two pharmaceuticals forms (S. platensis and bee pollen tabs) which presented high levels of microbiological count. Adequate irradiation doses calculated for each product were used in decontamination. The results obtained showed the effectiveness of the process in the elimination of microbial contamination from theses natural products. No changes in nutritional constituents or physico-chemical properties were observed

  1. Systems of attitudes towards production in the pork industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia; Veflen Olsen, Nina;

    2012-01-01

    production systems was modelled. The analysis was based on data from a cross-national survey involving 1931 participants from Belgium, Denmark, Germany and Poland. The survey questionnaire contained measures of personal value orientations and attitudes towards environment and nature, industrial food...... production, food and the environment, technological progress, animal welfare, local employment and local economy. In addition, the survey included a conjoint task by which participants’ evaluations of the importance of production system attributes were measured. The data were analysed by means of causal...

  2. The Swedish fuel pellets industry: Production, market and standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, Jonas

    2008-03-15

    The production and demand for wood-based fuel pellets has increased considerably both in Sweden and internationally the recent years. Today Sweden is one of the leading nations when it comes to production and use of fuel pellets. Despite the favorable development great challenges wait. The all time high production of saw mill by-products is not enough to satisfy the growing demand for by-products, resulting in increasing raw material prices and competition. Seen in a historic context, the pellet industry has been characterized by fluctuations in supply and demand and uncertainty about how changes in governmental subsidies and the development of competitive substitutes will affect the situation. This study presents a broad overview of the Swedish pellet industry. The study had three purposes; to analyze the business situation for the producers, to examine to what extent product standards and environmental certification instruments were used within the industry, and to make an estimate on future potentials and possibilities for the pellet industry. The study was conducted in the form of a questionnaire survey to the manufacturers of fuel pellets in Sweden and the results are based on answers from 55 % of the producers, accounting for 86 % of the total production capacity. The results indicate a rapidly expanding production capacity and at the same time a strained raw material situation. The production increased with as much as 260 % from 2001 to 2007, and the planned capacity expansion totals 708 000 annual tonnes, or over 40 % of the capacity for 2007. During the same period, the competition for raw materials was getting more intense; one third of the producers experience the raw material situation as the largest threat to the production and the majority of firms have evaluated alternative raw materials in response to the increased competition. Among the alternatives examined are for example roundwood and pulp wood. The majority (47 %) of the production go to small

  3. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy consumed in all the industrial bread chains studied. The par-baked brown bun production chain had the best thermodynamic performance because of the highest rational exergetic efficiency (71.2%), the lowest specific exergy losses (5.4 MJ/kg brown bun), and the almost lowest cumulative exergy losses (4768 MJ/1000 kg of dough processed). However, recycling of bread waste is also exergetically efficient when the total fermented surplus is utilizable. Clearly, preventing material losses (i.e. utilizing raw materials maximally) improves the exergetic efficiency of industrial bread chains. In addition, most of the physical (non-material related) exergy losses occurred at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. Consequently, any additional improvement in industrial bread production should focus on the design of thermodynamically efficient baking and cooling processes, and on the use of technologies throughout the chain that consume the lowest possible physical exergy. - Highlights: • Preventing material losses is the best way to enhance the exergetic efficiency. • Most of the physical exergy losses occur at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. • Par-baking “saves” chemical exergy but consumes an equal amount of physical exergy

  4. PROHYTEC, the French industrial platform for massive hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has decided to launch a mutualized platform devoted to research and technological development on high-temperature processes of hydrogen production coupled with energy sources which do not emit greenhouse gas. This platform is called PROHYTEC (Production Hydrogen Technologies) and will be the French contribution to the demonstration programme part of the European SUSHYPRO agreement. In this context, PROHYTEC will be ambitious, versatile and modular. This platform is built in partnership with local industry leaders in the field and academic partners. Thus PROHYTEC aims at: - assessing the industrial feasibility of such processes; - federating the actors of R and D on topics relative to H2 production; - creating an efficient tool for the continuous formation of professionals as well as for the training of researchers and students. It will be located inside the centre of Cadarache to benefit from the existing facilities (buildings, fluid systems, electric power, area). The planning foreseen is based on the European hydrogen road-map: - 2011: Operational electrical hot source simulating a nuclear reactor with a thermal power of 1 MWth. - 2013: First demonstration of the industrial feasibility of high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) for H2 massive production. - 2015 : Extrapolation to a thermal power ranging from 2 to 5 MWth while keeping the same configuration (i.e. simulation of hydrogen production by HTSE coupled with a nuclear reactor). - >2012: Demonstration of industrial interest of other thermochemical cycles for massive production of H 2 depending on the conclusions of the Hycycles project funded under the 7. Framework Programme (2008-2011). This configuration will require the implementation in PROHYTEC of an intermediate helium circuit at high temperature. A precise schedule is remains to be set up. Some preliminary figures are given in order to illustrate what PROHYTEC will be. (authors)

  5. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 1994. Production and consumption statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This edition of the Yearbook consists of two parts. Part one contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1985-1994 for about 200 countries and areas. Part two presents data by country on apparent consumption of about 200 industrial commodities for 1986-1994

  6. Industrial production in Italy: IRS electric power demand indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Italian electric power demand statistical data for the second quarter of 1993 indicate a continued drop in final use internal demand and reflect this nation's longest post-war recession. This trend is in line with other socio-economic analysis results and observations indicating a lack of consumer confidence, the inability of industrial firms to justify further investment, and the negative impacts of a hold on public spending. The entire recession cycle, even in this final phase of stagnation in which industrial production activity levels are at a minimum, continues to be characterized by reorganization processes targeted towards the reduction of unit work inputs

  7. Environmental Design of Industrial Products (EDIP), anchoring of the life cycle concept in industry and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1999-01-01

    borders and into Europe and Asia. Simplification projects comprise development of a manual for SME's and identification of product families. Industrial applications are exemplified by a product development project at the pump manufacturer Grundfos, and by this company's use of the EDIP-methodology in......The Danish methodology and tools for environmental assessment of products (EDIP) became public available in 1996-97. Following the EDIP-project, projects reflecting methodological developments and simplifications for a broader use have been lanuched, also taking the methodology beyond Danish...

  8. Chinese Health Care Products Industry's Future Strategic Positioning: Elderly Biotechnological Health Care Products Based on TCM

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Liu; Suzhen Zhang; Dazheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    In order to study future strategic positioning of elderly biotechnological health care products from biological extraction technology in Chinese health care products industries, we analyze that the development of high-quality elderly health care products is needed and still remains a challenge due to the rapid growth in biological extraction technology. In this study, with the improvement of people's living standards, health care products has become a major consumer products for elderly, Trad...

  9. RENEWABLE FIBERS AND BIO-BASED MATERIALS FOR PACKAGING APPLICATIONS – A REVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caisa Johansson,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the state-of-the-art of material derived from the forest sector with respect to its potential for use in the packaging industry. Some innovative approaches are highlighted. The aim is to cover recent developments and key challenges for successful introduction of renewable materials in the packaging market. The covered subjects are renewable fibers and bio-based polymers for use in bioplastics or as coatings for paper-based packaging materials. Current market sizes and forecasts are also presented. Competitive mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties along with material availability and ease of processing are identified as fundamental issues for sustainable utilization of renewable materials.

  10. Synthetics, mineral oils, and bio-based lubricants chemistry and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnick, Leslie R

    2005-01-01

    As the field of tribology has evolved, the lubrication industry is also progressing at an extraordinary rate. Updating the author's bestselling publication, Synthetic Lubricants and High-Performance Functional Fluids, this book features the contributions of over 60 specialists, ten new chapters, and a new title to reflect the evolving nature of the field: Synthetics, Mineral Oils, and Bio-Based Lubricants: Chemistry and Technology. The book contains chapters on all major lubricant fluids used in a wide range of applications. For each type of lubricant, the authors discuss the historical develo

  11. Thin Al2O3 barrier coatings grown on bio-based packaging materials by atomic layer deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvikorpi, Terhi

    2011-01-01

    Growing environmental concerns related to the use of synthetic non-biodegradable polymers in the packaging industry have led to the need for new, especially bio-based, materials. Currently, petroleum-based synthetic polymers are widely used due to their relatively low cost and high performance. Biodegradable plastics and fibre-based materials have been proposed as a solution to the waste problems related to these synthetic polymers. Fibre-based packaging materials have many advantages over th...

  12. Products Depend on Creative Potential: A Comment on the Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runco, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Ghassib (2010) presents a provocative view of science as industry. He ties science specifically to a "productivist" industrial model and to knowledge production. If judged based on what is explicit in this article, his theory is useful and logical. There are, however, several concerns as well. Some of these are implied by the title of his article,…

  13. Prospects and challenges for industrial production of seaweed bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafting, Jeff T; Craigie, James S; Stengel, Dagmar B; Loureiro, Rafael R; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Yarish, Charles; Edwards, Maeve D; Critchley, Alan T

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale seaweed cultivation has been instrumental in globalizing the seaweed industry since the 1950s. The domestication of seaweed cultivars (begun in the 1940s) ended the reliance on natural cycles of raw material availability for some species, with efforts driven by consumer demands that far exceeded the available supplies. Currently, seaweed cultivation is unrivaled in mariculture with 94% of annual seaweed biomass utilized globally being derived from cultivated sources. In the last decade, research has confirmed seaweeds as rich sources of potentially valuable, health-promoting compounds. Most existing seaweed cultivars and current cultivation techniques have been developed for producing commoditized biomass, and may not necessarily be optimized for the production of valuable bioactive compounds. The future of the seaweed industry will include the development of high value markets for functional foods, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Entry into these markets will require a level of standardization, efficacy, and traceability that has not previously been demanded of seaweed products. Both internal concentrations and composition of bioactive compounds can fluctuate seasonally, geographically, bathymetrically, and according to genetic variability even within individual species, especially where life history stages can be important. History shows that successful expansion of seaweed products into new markets requires the cultivation of domesticated seaweed cultivars. Demands of an evolving new industry based upon efficacy and standardization will require the selection of improved cultivars, the domestication of new species, and a refinement of existing cultivation techniques to improve quality control and traceability of products. PMID:26986880

  14. DETECTING VERTICAL INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE IN CULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affortunato Francesca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process has always since markedly characterized by the increasing incidence of Intra-Industry Trade. This has been theoretically justified on the grounds of the new approaches emerging in international trade literature, based on imperfect competition and differentiated products. In recent years another distinctive economic feature of European Union is the importance gained by the so called “cultural and creative sectors”, which are often studied and monitored by reports for their great growth potential. We provide here a systematic decomposition of world trade in “cultural/creative goods” for the year 2009 (using harmonised bilateral flows for some 213 products defined as “cultural products” by UNESCO, 2009 into three trade types: inter-industry, intra-industry (IIT in horizontally versus vertically differentiated products. We show that the world trade in cultural goods is significantly characterised by two-way trade of vertically differentiated products. Moreover we specifically focus on the Italian peculiarities in the “cultural trade”: therefore we first work out which ones of the world countries are the “top exporters” of these categories of products and then we compute an indicator of the Italian goods’ quality relative to each of these competitors. Not surprisingly, we find that the most important bilateral IIT intensities in cultural products are observed in Europe. However the presence of developing countries is not unimportant. This can be explained partly to as a consequence of the increasing level of trade integration among some Asian countries and as a consequence of an increasing despecialization of firstly industrialized countries in the production and trading of these products. Finally, with reference to the relative quality of Italian cultural products compared with that of the other top-exporters in these sectors, we find that Italian

  15. Integration of Mobile Manipulators in an Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole; Bøgh, Simon; Schou, Casper;

    2015-01-01

    reports from such a real-world industrial experiment with two mobile manipulators. Design/methodology/approach – In the experiment, autonomous industrial mobile manipulators are integrated into the actual manufacturing environment of the pump manufacturer Grundfos. The two robots together solve the task......Purpose – The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the technology of autonomous mobile manipulation in a real world industrial manufacturing environment. The objective has been to obtain experience in the integration with existing equipment and determine key challenges in maturing...... of producing rotors; a task constituted by several sub-tasks ranging from logistics to complex assembly. With a total duration of 10 days, the experiment includes workspace adaptation, safety regulations, rapid robot instruction and running production. Findings – With a setup time of less than one day...

  16. Risk Management for New Product Development Projects in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porananond, D.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Project risk management provides a guideline for decision making in new product development (NPD projects, reducing uncertainty and increasing success rate. However, the acceptance of formal risk management applications in industry, especially for NPD projects is still in question. A study of a food conglomerate in Thailand found that only 9% of NPD projects used a systematic approach for managing risk. 61% of the projects realised the importance of risk management, while the remaining 30% did not involve risk management at all. This study aims to develop a risk management model for NPD projects in the food industry. The first section of this paper reviews the literature on risk management theory, including international standards for risk and project management (ISO31000 and ISO21500, publications for the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, by a professional organisation the Project Management Institute (PMI, and also academic research. 182 academic papers, published between January 2002 and August 2012 were selected. The second part interviews conducted with eight NPD experts from five of the major food manufacturers in Thailand to examine their risk management practices and problems. Conclusions are made on five topics : classification of research method, project type and industrial segment, distribution of articles by region, tools & techniques for risk management and risk factors in projects. Specific requirements of risk management for NPD projects in the food industry are identified. A risk management model and the concept of risk management applications for the food industry are proposed.

  17. An Explanatory Study of Lean Practices in Job Shop Production/ Special Job Production/ Discrete Production/ Batch Shop Production Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavlesh Kumar Sharma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the study explores the benefits and advantages of Lean Practices or Lean Thinking in Job shop production/ Special job production/ Discrete production/ Batch shop production industries. The Lean Practices have been applied more compatible in Job shop production than in the continuous/ mass production because of several barriers and hurdles in the industrial context that influence the whole processes again and again, this happens due to the lack of knowledge about the wastes during the production of a variety of jobs or discrete manufacturing. This paper provides the guidelines to adopt and mentions to become Lean. In variety of production, it is very difficult to find out all the wastes during the processes from input to desired output, thus Lean techniques may be most suitable to minimize the wastage, time, inventory and assist to improve quality and become economical. These wastes may be managed by means of several Lean principles and techniques available. This paper gives a brief introduction of VSM, in order to recognize the opportunities for the various lean techniques, VSM is the main tool, especially it is used to observe the wastes and time spoilage through knowledge management.

  18. Industrialization and production of neutral beam ion sources for MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing LLNL designs of the 20 and 80kV deuterium fueled Neutral Beam Ion Source Modules (NBSM) have been industrialized and are being produced successfully for the MFTF. Industrialization includes value engineering, production engineering, cost reduction, fixturing, facilitation and procurement of components. Production assembly, inspection and testing is being performed in a large electronics manufacturing plant. Decades of experience in high voltage, high vacuum power tubes is being applied to the procedures and processes. Independent quality and reliability assurance criteria are being utilized. Scheduling of the various engineering, procurement and manufacturing task is performed by the use of a Critical Path Method (CPM) computer code, Innovative, computerized grid alignment methods were also designed and installed specifically for this project. New jointing and cleaning techniques were devised for the NBSMs. Traceability and cost control are also utilized

  19. BUSINESS CLIMATE INDICATOR AS A PREDICTOR OF CROATIAN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Čižmešija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Business and Consumer Surveys (BCS are one of the most frequently used tools to assess economy’s cyclical behavior. Croatia has been conducting the surveys continually since 1995. Nevertheless, there is still a research niche in the Croatian BCS framework that has not been adequately represented. The Joint Harmonised EU Programme of Business and Consumer Surveys suggests Business Climate Indicator (BCI as a composite leading indicator of the economy as a whole. In accordance to the EU methodology, this paper examines managers’ qualitative assessments on five important variables related to their economic environment. Using factor analysis one factor was extracted from those five variables, representing the BCI. It’s predictive properties were analyzed with regards to Croatian industrial production using Granger causality test, impulse response and variance decomposition analysis. Results strongly confirm the precedence of BCI to the changes of Croatian industrial production, validating the importance of its introduction and utilization in Croatian economic cycles analysis.

  20. Fungal Morphology in Industrial Enzyme Production - Modelling and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla, D.; Hagemann, T.; Hansen, K.;

    2015-01-01

    -the collection of the data. An overview of the state of the art techniques for morphology characterization is provided, discussing methods that finally can be employed as the computational power has grown sufficiently in the recent years. Image analysis (IA) clearly benefits most but it also means that methods......Filamentous fungi are widely used in the biotechnology industry for the production of industrial enzymes. Thus, considerable work has been done with the purpose of characterizing these processes. The ultimate goal of these efforts is to be able to control and predict fermentation performance on the...... basis of "standardized" measurements in terms of morphology, rheology, viscosity, mass transfer and productivity. However, because the variables are connected or dependent on each other, this task is not trivial. The aim of this review article is to gather available information in order to explain the...

  1. Potential Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Organic Residues of Agro-Based Industries in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Kailash P. Yadav; Arbindra Timilsina; Rupesh K. Yadawa; Pokhrel, Chandra P.

    2014-01-01

    With the objective of exploring the potential of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic wastes from major agro-based industries in Nepal, four types of major industries using raw materials from agriculture are selected as sources of lignocellulosic residues. They include a sugar industry, a paper industry, a tobacco industry, and a beer industry. Data from secondary/primary sources were used to record organic residues from these industries and estimates were made of potential production o...

  2. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K Thomas; Mullen, Robert T; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds. PMID:26916792

  3. Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalla, Rajai [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Beecher, James [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Caron, Robert [Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, Peachtree Corners, GA (United States); Catchmark, Jeffrey [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Deng, Yulin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Glasser, Wolfgang [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Gray, Derek [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Haigler, Candace [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Jones, Philip [Imerys, Paris (France); Joyce, Margaret [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Kohlman, Jane [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Koukoulas, Alexander [Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, Peachtree Corners, GA (United States); Lancaster, Peter [Weyerhaeuser Company, Longview, WA (United States); Perine, Lori [American Forest and Paper Association, Washington, DC (United States); Rodriguez, Augusto [Georgia-Pacific Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wegner, Theodore [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Zhu, Junyong [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    2005-03-01

    A roadmap for Nanotechnology in the Forest Products Industries has been developed under the umbrella of the Agenda 2020 program overseen by the CTO committee. It is expected that the use of new analytical techniques and methodologies will allow us to understand the complex nature of wood based materials and allow the dramatically enhanced use of the major strategic asset the US has in renewable, recyclable resources based on its well managed Forests.

  4. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND THE DEMAND FOR CULTURAL INDUSTRY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Oana, CHINDRIS-VASIOIU; Madalina-Cristina, TOCAN

    2013-01-01

    Necessity for such papers, in which are analyzed cultural influences issues in the consumer behavior and the practical application of management and marketing in sectors of activity like culture, social sector and other areas, it started to impose in our country as a necessity and requirement of the market. The present paper synthesizes the most important theoretical and practical aspects of consumer behavior study of cultural industry products. First part of the paper presents the motivation...

  5. Risk Management for New Product Development Projects in Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Porananond, D.; Thawesaengskulthai, N.

    2014-01-01

    Project risk management provides a guideline for decision making in new product development (NPD) projects, reducing uncertainty and increasing success rate. However, the acceptance of formal risk management applications in industry, especially for NPD projects is still in question. A study of a food conglomerate in Thailand found that only 9% of NPD projects used a systematic approach for managing risk. 61% of the projects realised the importance of risk management, while the remaining 30% d...

  6. The film industry : sequel production and release lags

    OpenAIRE

    Polido, David Nuno

    2015-01-01

    The theatrical film industry can structurally be divided in three stages: production, distribution and exhibition. In each stage companies face strategic decisions that help determine the success of a given film. This thesis aims to optimize these strategic decisions on two issues: the sequel-making process, concerning producers, and the timing of release in international markets, decided by distributors. Following from these issues, two research questions are established. First, if it’s (...

  7. Production Externalities in the Wood Furniture Industry in Central Java

    OpenAIRE

    Andadari, R.; Groot; Rietveld, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper exploits micro firm level data to examine the impact of spatial clustering and links to foreign buyer networks on firm performance in the wood furniture industry in Central Java, Indonesia. The analysis is based on an annual manufacturing survey. We identify the impact of specialization of the cluster, diversification, and links to foreign buyer networks. For this purpose, a production function framework is developed. The results lend support to the view that clustering of large an...

  8. Product variety and price strategy in the ski manufacturing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Corrocher, Nicoletta; Guerzoni, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The present paper aims at examining the role of variety in the ski manufacturing industry and its relevance in firms' price setting strategies. In particular, it intends to investigate and empirically test two hypotheses concerning the relation between variety and prices. The first concerns the relationship between product quality/complexity and prices. The second refers to the existence of two kinds of varieties having opposite effects on price formation: market-related variety and productio...

  9. Case study: Industrial Portfolio Management for New Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Flemming

    This report describes the content of a case-study, which was carried out in a Scandinavian company. The purpose of the study is to identify and indicate the current company approach to portfolio management (tools, methods, and processes) for new products combined with suggestions for improvement....... The study is based upon explorative interviews with six industry professionals and review of company documents combined with a literature review....

  10. AN INTELLIGENT SENSORY EVALUATION METHOD FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS CHARACTERIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    YANG XU; XIANYI ZENG; LUDOVIC KOEHL

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for sensory evaluation of industrial products with uncertain information. In this approach, sensory data provided by different evaluators are transformed into measures of consistency on fuzzy satisfaction degrees. Based on these measures of consistency, we obtain the aggregated information for all evaluators and all attributes and measure the dissimilarity between evaluators and between used evaluation attributes. The effectiveness of this method has been vali...

  11. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of non-renewable energy resources and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the production of biomass requires agricultural land and is often associated with adverse environmental effects such as eutrophication of surface and ground water. Decision making in favor of or against bio-based and conventional fossil product alternatives therefore often requires weighing of environmental impacts. In this article, we apply distance-to-target weighing methodology to aggregate LCA results obtained in four different environmental impact categories (i.e., non-renewable energy consumption, global warming potential, eutrophication potential, and acidification potential) to one environmental index. We include 45 bio- and fossil-based product pairs in our analysis, which we conduct for Germany. The resulting environmental indices for all product pairs analyzed range from -19.7 to +0.2 with negative values indicating overall environmental benefits of bio-based products. Except for three options of packaging materials made from wheat and cornstarch, all bio-based products (including energy, fuels, and materials) score better than their fossil counterparts. Comparing the median values for the three options of biomass utilization reveals that bio-energy (-1.2) and bio-materials (-1.0) offer significantly higher environmental benefits than bio-fuels (-0.3). The results of this study reflect, however, subjective value judgments due to the weighing methodology applied. Given the uncertainties and controversies associated not only with distance-to-target methodologies in particular but also with weighing approaches in general, the authors strongly recommend using weighing for decision finding only as a

  12. Chinese Health Care Products Industry's Future Strategic Positioning: Elderly Biotechnological Health Care Products Based on TCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study future strategic positioning of elderly biotechnological health care products from biological extraction technology in Chinese health care products industries, we analyze that the development of high-quality elderly health care products is needed and still remains a challenge due to the rapid growth in biological extraction technology. In this study, with the improvement of people's living standards, health care products has become a major consumer products for elderly, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM as a traditional medicine health and health culture, is health care products developed an important theoretical basis and effective material source, development with biological extraction technology can promote future strategic positioning of elderly biotechnological health care products in Chinese health care products industry.

  13. Implementing total productive maintenance in Nigerian manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eti, M.C. [Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt (Nigeria). Mechanical Engineering Department; Ogaji, S.O.T.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom). School of Engineering

    2004-12-01

    Remarkable improvements have occurred recently in the maintenance management of physical assets and productive systems, so that less wastages of energy and resources occur. The requirement for optimal preventive maintenance, using, for instance, just-in-time (JIT) and total quality-management (TQM) techniques, has given rise to what has been called the total productive-maintenance (TPM) approach. This study explores the ways in which Nigerian manufacturing industries can implement TPM as a strategy and culture for improving its performance and suggests self-auditing and bench-marking as desirable prerequisites before TPM implementation. (author)

  14. Designing Integrated Product- Service System Solutions in Manufacturing Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing firms are increasingly evolving towards the design of integrated product-service solutions but servitization literature does not provide specific guidance on how to design these integrated solutions. Building upon ProductService System (PSS) and Service Design (SD) approaches, this...... paper proposes an integrative method that joins PSS’s systems and network approach with the creative, human-centered, value cocreation approach of SD. The paper also describes the development and application of this method to the creation of integrated solutions for the laboratory industry, highlighting...

  15. Semi industrial scale RVNRL preparation, products manufacturing and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Wan Manshol Bin W.

    1998-06-01

    Natural rubber latex vulcanisation by radiation aims towards the preparation of prevulcanised natural rubber latex in the name of RVNRL for use to produce chemical-free and environment-friendly latex products. Scale up RVNRL preparation is proven possible when a semi-commercial latex irradiator was commissioned in MINT in March 1996. The plant is designed to irradiate up to 6 000 cubic meters per annum of natural rubber latex. RVNRL has the required properties and successfully used on industrial scale production of quality gloves and balloons.

  16. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  17. [Example of product development by industry and research solidarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    When the industrial firms develop the product, the research result from research institutions is used or to reflect the ideas from users on the developed product would be significant in order to improve the product. To state the software product which developed jointly as an example to describe the adopted development technique and its result, and to consider the modality of the industry solidarity seen from the company side and joint development. The software development methods have the merit and demerit and necessary to choose the optimal development technique by the system which develops. We have been jointly developed the dose distribution browsing software. As the software development method, we adopted the prototype model. In order to display the dose distribution information, it is necessary to load four objects which are CT-Image, Structure Set, RT-Plan, and RT-Dose, are displayed in a composite manner. The prototype model which is the development technique was adopted by this joint development was optimal especially to develop the dose distribution browsing software. In a prototype model, since the detail design was created based on the program source code after the program was finally completed, there was merit on the period shortening of document written and consist in design and implementation. This software eventually opened to the public as an open source. Based on this developed prototype software, the release version of the dose distribution browsing software was developed. Developing this type of novelty software, it normally takes two to three years, but since the joint development was adopted, it shortens the development period to one year. Shortening the development period was able to hold down to the minimum development cost for a company and thus, this will be reflected to the product price. The specialists make requests on the product from user's point of view are important, but increase in specialists as professionals for product

  18. A capital market's view on Industrial Biotechnology:proper valuation is the key for picking the right investment opportunities in stormy times

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, B.W. (Bernd)

    2009-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology, also known as white biotechnology, is considered to be a revolutionary biotechnology field beside red and green biotechnology. After red (medicine) and green (agriculture), white biotechnology is now gaining momentum. With numerous applications e.g. in biocatalysis and fermentation technology, white biotech companies are able to produce – often from biomass out of agricultural products - biobased chemicals (like vitamins, amino acids or enzymes for textile finishing ...

  19. Bio production of Vanillin from Agro-Industrial Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study describes an environmentally friendly vanillin production processes from agro industrial wastes. Ferulic 'acid is a well-known product of cereal. brans and sugarcane bagasse lignin degradation, ferulic acid and cellulose degradation sugars were used as feedstock for the vanillin bio production by Debaryomyces hansenii. The bioconversion of ferulic into vanillin by Debaryomyces hansenii was affected by the type and amount of ferulic acid. Addition of purified ferulic acid (2 g/l) and using of adapted yeast cells. increase the yield of vanillin and decrease the secondary products. Yeast extract (3 g/l) and glucose (20 g/l) proved to be the best component as co-substrates for bio production of vanillin. Variable aeration conditions were tested by simultaneously vanilIin the ratio of medium to vessel volume and the agitation speed. under excess aeration, oxidation of a, significant portion of vanillin to vanillic acid occur, thus reducing the vanillin yield. Increasing the inoculum size up to 1 g/I and using low doses of gamma irradiation (0.25 kGy) increase the vanillin production. Under optimum conditions vanillin production from ferulic acid by Debaryomyces attained very high level of 1531 mg/1 with a molar yield of 76.5%

  20. RAISE: a Product Supporting Industrial Use of Formal Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Pedersen, J. Storbank; Prehn, Søren

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of RAISE, a product consisting of a method for developing software, an associated formal specification language and tools supporting the method and the language. The method is based on the notion of stepwise refinement and offers the possibility of formal verification....... The specification language incorporates several specification styles in one uniform framework. The product is aimed at industry and is currently being used by several companies......This paper gives an overview of RAISE, a product consisting of a method for developing software, an associated formal specification language and tools supporting the method and the language. The method is based on the notion of stepwise refinement and offers the possibility of formal verification...

  1. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan

    regulation could create innovation in green products and services in the maritime retrofitting industry?” Our case study focus on business models for the development, installation and operation of ballast water management systems in Denmark. We engaged the perspectives of ship-owners, equipment manufacturers...... increasingly developing product-service systems. It is however, argued that product-service systems are not always sustainable, and thus little evidence connect them with green growth. To fill in this gap, we are carrying a case study guided by the following research question: “How the ballast water treatment......The green growth strategies in Western Europe depart from the premises that environmental technologies are strategic for employment creation. Some countries wish to position themselves as world leaders in cleantech innovation and increase their exports and thus address internal unemployment...

  2. CAD/CAM approach to improving industry productivity gathers momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results and planning for the NASA/industry Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) program for improving productivity with CAD/CAM methods are outlined. The industrial group work is being mainly done by Boeing, and progress has been made in defining the designer work environment, developing requirements and a preliminary design for a future CAD/CAM system, and developing CAD/CAM technology. The work environment was defined by conducting a detailed study of a reference design process, and key software elements for a CAD/CAM system have been defined, specifically for interactive design or experiment control processes. Further work is proceeding on executive, data management, geometry and graphics, and general utility software, and dynamic aspects of the programs being developed are outlined

  3. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan; Scheepens, Arno

    2015-01-01

    shed light on this issue, the authors develop a conceptual framework to show how a specific type of business model (Product-Service Systems) could be applied to the context of the maritime industry. With a focus on the Danish maritime industry, the case study addresses two questions: Which business...... models are being used to develop, install and service the ballast water treatment technology? And, How can these business models add value to the ballast water treatment systems in the market? The case shows that different business models are applied depending on whether the installation is on new or......Eco-innovation research pays increasing attention to business models and their contribution to the diffusion of environmental technology into socio-technological systems. The extent to which a business model hampers or promotes certain types of eco-innovations remains an open question. In order to...

  4. Managing salinity in water associated with petrol industry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Guerrero Fajardo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a conceptual design for handling an oilfield’s industrial wastewater; its oblective was to use type-1 fractioned crystallisation within a feasible environmental and technical framework for obtaining the highest percentage of salt.La Gloria, La Gloria Norte and Morichal (all belonging to the Casanare department association stations were used for planning and analysing this handling alternative as they produce high salt-containing industrial effluent.This alternative was focused on treating 30% of the total volume of the associated water so produced. This volume is expected to be 1239 m3/d in 2000 in the oilfields being studied here. The process allows 92% retrieval from present NaCl (0.918 Ton/h, having 97% purity. Evaporation and aeration systems should be set prior to the crystallisation stage as a means of guaranteeing final product quality and making good use of the field’s facilities.

  5. (Industrial Research on Building Production: results and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Alaimo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the most recent management mandate, ISTeA (Italian Society of Science, Technology and engineering of Architecture has devoted its efforts to outlining those topics which are of fundamental importance for the activity of its stakeholders, in line with the road maps of national and Community funding programmes and with the strategic objectives of (Industrial Research which range from the energy-environmental performance of buildings and districts to automation in construction within the context of Smart Cities and Social Innovation. These research programmes need to be planned and negotiated with industrial stakeholders and carried out in partnership with them. This explains why the 2011 ISTeA Conference produced a number of position papers, the 2012 Conference traced the state of the art in the topics identified and the 2013 Conferencedeals with the non-instrumental relationship between Building Production and ICT.

  6. Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, Andrea; Külahoglu, Canan; Tazelaar, Anne O E; Kurz, Samantha; Nierop, Klaas G J; van der Werf, Adrie; Weber, Andreas P M; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2014-05-01

    Due to its phenomenal growth requiring neither nitrogen fertilizer nor arable land and its biomass composition, the mosquito fern Azolla is a candidate crop to yield food, fuels and chemicals sustainably. To advance Azolla domestication, we research its dissemination, storage and transcriptome. Methods for dissemination, cross-fertilization and cryopreservation of the symbiosis Azolla filiculoides-Nostoc azollae are tested based on the fern spores. To study molecular processes in Azolla including spore induction, a database of 37 649 unigenes from RNAseq of microsporocarps, megasporocarps and sporophytes was assembled, then validated. Spores obtained year-round germinated in vitro within 26 d. In vitro fertilization rates reached 25%. Cryopreservation permitted storage for at least 7 months. The unigene database entirely covered central metabolism and to a large degree covered cellular processes and regulatory networks. Analysis of genes engaged in transition to sexual reproduction revealed a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like protein in ferns with special features induced in sporulating Azolla fronds. Although domestication of a fern-cyanobacteria symbiosis may seem a daunting task, we conclude that the time is ripe and that results generated will serve to more widely access biochemicals in fern biomass for a biobased economy. PMID:24494738

  7. Food industry by-products as raw materials in functional food production

    OpenAIRE

    Jozinović, Antun; Šubarić, Drago; Ačkar, Đurđica; Miličević, Borislav; Babić, Jurislav; Jašić, Midhat; Valek Lendić, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Western civilization problems nowadays are overweight, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and different disorders closely linked to unbalanced diet. Since it is extremely difficult to influence nutritional preferences of consumers, food industry is now increasingly developing new products, such as bread, pasta, snack products and other highly consumed products by all groups of consumers enriched with ingredients that are lacking in every day nutrition (fiber, polyphenols, anti...

  8. India's Fertilizer Industry: Productivity and Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's fertilizer sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Our analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the fertilizer sector increased by 2.3% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's fertilizer sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been capital and labor saving. The increase in productivity took place during the era of total control when a retention price system and distribution control was in effect. With liberalization of the fertilizer sector and reduction of subsidies productivity declined substantially since the early 1990s. Industrial policies and fiscal incentives still play a major role in the Indian fertilizer sect or. As substantial energy savings and carbon reduction potential exists, energy policies can help overcome barriers to the adoption of these measures in giving proper incentives and correcting distorted prices.

  9. THE TOTAL SOLUTION FOR DEVELOPING NEW PRODUCTS OF FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRIŞCU Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new solutions for shoemakers, for developing new products and new markets of footwear industry using the basic function of the system CRISPIN Dynamics CAD SUITE. These are the key issues - this is why CRISPIN Dynamics CAD SUITE has developed a range of quality software products to give the shoemaker a major advantage in shoe-making. This application offer functions for creating realistic looking designs of footwear products and for flattening the styles for development in 2D. There are also facilities to re-centre front and back guide lines, change foot (no need to re-digitize and set the correct heel height and roll. It is also possible to create guidelines to match with the last and extend the last for a boot design. The last type can also be changed to a type that allows the entire last surface to be used for a design. The system brings cutting-edge CAD/CAM technology to footwear designers providing benefits through all stages of their product development process. Major benefits include the ability to visualize a design for appraisal and the transfer of the design into CRISPIN 2D pattern development products. This allows increased productivity, shorter lead times, accurate interpretation of 3D designs in 2D and a reduction in the number of samples needed before approval of the design.

  10. NEW ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCTS USED IN LEATHER INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSU Dan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In today's move to "sustainable production" the leather industry, as well as many other industries is recognized as a polluting one. Traditional chemical operations are polluting because of the levels of inorganic chemical waste. Process chemicals which are not consumed within the reactions necessary to convert collagen to leather are currently discharged to waste. These are usually applied during bulk production, such as inorganic agents from beam house and tanning processes, e.g. lime, sulphide, ammonium salts, sulphuric acid and sodium chloride, mineral tanning agents – mainly Cr(III and the less common Al(III, Zr(III, Ti(III, Fe(III salts -, whereas depending on the tanning process and the leather article produced organic chemical waste discharged comprises aldehydic and polyphenolic tanning products, bating enzymes, organic carboxylic acids and excess electrolyte stable synthetic fat liquors. It is rare for chemicals and water to be recovered for re-use from several of these process steps. Moreover, tanners worldwide are required to operate within strict legislative boundaries. Serious drawbacks continuously arise concerning the chrome–tanning process in leather industry and the environmental hazardous consequences of chromium containing effluents. In order to overcome this impediment, a great deal of research has been focused on developing chrome–free tanning methods in the past years, such as titanium tanning. In the present study, Ti–Al tanned bovine leather was characterized by means of SEM microscopy, EDAX elemental analysis, ATR–FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry TGA, and differential scanning calorimetry DSC techniques.

  11. Utilization of Industrial Borax Wastes (BW) for Portland Cement Production

    OpenAIRE

    ELBEYLİ, İffet YAKAR

    2004-01-01

    Industrial borax wastes (BWs) are formed as solid waste during the production of borax from tincal [Na2B4O5(OH)4.8H2O] in Bandırma, Turkey. These wastes cause different environmental problems and lead to economic losses because of high boron oxide (B2O3) content. The primary aim of this study is the removal of B2O3 from BWs and the second aim is the usage of BWs with low boron content in cement as an additive material. For this purpose, the BW was treated with water for removal of b...

  12. Spore production of Beauveria bassiana from agro-industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Herta Stutz Dalla Santa; Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa; Débora Brand; Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to produce Beauveria bassiana by Solid-State Fermentation using agro-industrial residues and optimizing the cultivation conditions. Refused potatoes, coffee husks and sugar-cane bagasse were tested. The blend of refused potatoes and sugar-cane bagasse (60-40%) with particle size in the range of 0.8-2 mm was used in the fermentation experiments. In Erlenmeyer flasks the best spore production was achieved with the following conditions: incubation temperature 26º C; ...

  13. Feed or bioenergy production from agri-industrial residues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    consequences on the food/feed market, or on the carbon balance of the soil. The first are commonly called indirect land-use changes (iLUC), as they cause an increase in the international demand of a food/feed product, finally inducing an expansion of cropland into other ecosystems. Failing to account for these...... consequences may lead to misrepresent the actual environmental impacts. This study quantified, by use of consequential life cycle assessment (cLCA), the environmental impacts associated with a number of bioenergy scenarios involving selected agri-industrial residues. Three relevant conversion pathways were...

  14. Productivity Growth in the Philippines After the Industrial Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Austria, Myrna S.

    1998-01-01

    Past studies have shown that Philippine productivity growth has been low compared to other ASEAN members. This is specifically attributed to the inward-looking industrial policies pursued by the government. The country has embarked on major trade reforms since 1980s through its commitment to WTO, AFTA and APEC and in the 1990’s through the foreign direct investment (FDI) liberalization. How these affect the country’s long-term growth depends on whether the trade reform translates into improve...

  15. Labour Productivity Convergence in 52 Industries: A Panel Data Analysis of Some European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta convergence and the speed of convergence of labour productivity for 52 industries are studied with a panel of data including 13 European countries. We use fixed effect approach to model the heterogeneity across countries. In primary sector and in service sector, the existence of -convergence is found for all industries. In manufacturing sector, convergence is found for all industries except for electronic and computing equipment industries. In general the speed of convergence estimates show slow adjustment. Speed is highest in the capital intensive industries. In primary production the convergence is slowest in agriculture and fastest in fishing industry. In manufacturing sector the convergence is slowest in food, drink and tobacco, and it is fastest in oil refining and nuclear fuel manufacturing industries. By augmenting the productivity models with labour utilization variable speeds up the convergence. Labour utilization is positively related to productivity growth in primary production industries, ICT producing manufacturing industries, and ICT producing services industries.

  16. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules. PMID:26645658

  17. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  18. From product to service orientation in the maritime equipment industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Detlef; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2008-01-01

    of their products in operation. In this paper we present a case study of a shipping equipment manufacturer that is currently shifting business focus from manufacturing towards services delivery. Using a modelling scheme to differentiate and categorise different development tasks within the frame of business......In the shipping industry, operational performance of ships and their equipment is crucial to business. Suppliers of machinery and equipment are aware of this situation and see business development potential in setting up service systems that are dedicated to ensuring the performance...... development towards service oriented business, the case delivers insights into the broader context and product related parameters influencing the options and requirements for service system development....

  19. Energetics of Eco-Industry of Food Concentrates Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of eco-industry in food production is formulated. The problems of processes of dehydration, heat balance and prospects of technologies directed energy action are considered. We offer the ways of solving an energy problems in product drying. The hypostases are formulated and the possibilities of laminar and turbulent diffusion to heat transfer mechanisms are analyzed. Increasing of drying speed with barodiffusional flows involvement is demonstrated. The extraction kinetic model is given in differential form. The prospects of usage directed action principles in target compounds extraction processes are analyzed. The analysis of drying technologies energy efficiency on base new similarity (similarity of energy action is carried out. We demonstrated that impulse electromagnetic field can trigger in basically new effect, which one named mechanodiffusion.

  20. The contribution of heritage product toward Malaysian Tourism Industry: A case of eastern coastal of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Abi Sofian bin Abdul Halim; Azman Bin Che Mat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop the relationship model between creative industry and tourism industry toward the heritage product development. As the tourism industry has become more competitive in Terengganu, creative industry moves forward to improve the marketability in a heritage product. Terengganu has a variety of heritage products that can be promoted to the tourists such as craft, batek, silk, wood carving, mengkuang weaving, music performances and copper products. Creative in...

  1. The contribution of heritage product toward Malaysian Tourism Industry: A case of eastern coastal of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abi Sofian bin Abdul Halim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop the relationship model between creative industry and tourism industry toward the heritage product development. As the tourism industry has become more competitive in Terengganu, creative industry moves forward to improve the marketability in a heritage product. Terengganu has a variety of heritage products that can be promoted to the tourists such as craft, batek, silk, wood carving, mengkuang weaving, music performances and copper products. Creative industry also known as cultural industry becomes important to tourism industry and highly contributes to the GDP in south-east Asian countries. The expansion of market segment in tourism industry in Terengganu also has a relationship with the demand of local heritage product.  State government plans to give extra convergent to tourism industry in context of marketing culture, heritage, and environment. A good market in tourism will enable more application of creativity and innovation in the context of heritage product development.

  2. The contribution of heritage product toward Malaysian Tourism Industry: A case of eastern coastal of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Bin Che Mat

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop the relationship model between creative industry and tourism industry toward the heritage product development. As the tourism industry has become more competitive in Terengganu, creative industry moves forward to improve the marketability in a heritage product. Terengganu has a variety of heritage products that can be promoted to the tourists such as craft, batek, silk, wood carving, mengkuang weaving, music performances and copper products. Creative industry also known as cultural industry becomes important to tourism industry and highly contributes to the GDP in south-east Asian countries. The expansion of market segment in tourism industry in Terengganu also has a relationship with the demand of local heritage product. State government plans to give extra convergent to tourism industry in context of marketing culture, heritage, and environment. A good market in tourism will enable more application of creativity and innovation in the context of heritage product development.

  3. Bio-Based Solvents for Green Extraction of Lipids from Oleaginous Yeast Biomass for Sustainable Aviation Biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Cassandra Breil; Alice Meullemiestre; Maryline Vian; Farid Chemat

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based oleaginous microorganisms are potential candidates and resources for the sustainable production of biofuels. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of several alternative bio-based solvents for extracting lipids from yeasts. We used experimental design and simulation with Hansen solubility simulations and the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) to simulate the solubilization of lipids in each of these solvents. Lipid extracts were analyze...

  4. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  5. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminda Tsouko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  6. Developments in the use of Bacillus species for industrial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallmey, Marcus; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus species continue to be dominant bacterial workhorses in microbial fermentations. Bacillus subtilis (natto) is the key microbial participant in the ongoing production of the soya-based traditional natto fermentation, and some Bacillus species are on the Food and Drug Administration's GRAS (generally regarded as safe) list. The capacity of selected Bacillus strains to produce and secrete large quantities (20-25 g/L) of extracellular enzymes has placed them among the most important industrial enzyme producers. The ability of different species to ferment in the acid, neutral, and alkaline pH ranges, combined with the presence of thermophiles in the genus, has lead to the development of a variety of new commercial enzyme products with the desired temperature, pH activity, and stability properties to address a variety of specific applications. Classical mutation and (or) selection techniques, together with advanced cloning and protein engineering strategies, have been exploited to develop these products. Efforts to produce and secrete high yields of foreign recombinant proteins in Bacillus hosts initially appeared to be hampered by the degradation of the products by the host proteases. Recent studies have revealed that the slow folding of heterologous proteins at the membrane-cell wall interface of Gram-positive bacteria renders them vulnerable to attack by wall-associated proteases. In addition, the presence of thiol-disulphide oxidoreductases in B. subtilis may be beneficial in the secretion of disulphide-bond-containing proteins. Such developments from our understanding of the complex protein translocation machinery of Gram-positive bacteria should allow the resolution of current secretion challenges and make Bacillus species preeminent hosts for heterologous protein production. Bacillus strains have also been developed and engineered as industrial producers of nucleotides, the vitamin riboflavin, the flavor agent ribose, and the supplement poly

  7. Distribution of natural radioisotopes in industrial products of titanium production technological cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of source and decay product nuclides in industrial products of industrial technology is studied to evaluate the radiation factor and examine the possibility of natural uranium and possibility of natural uranium and thorium group radionuclide concentration in separate products and wastes of processes related to ilmenite reprocessing and titanium tetrafluoride production. Determination of gamma-radiating radionuclides is performed by precision gamma spectrometry method, determination of thorium and polonium-210 isotopes - by alpha-spectrometry method using isotope dilution with the participation of polonium-210 and polonium-208. It is ascertained that during ilmenite melting the source radionuclides as well as radium isotopes transfer to a slag fraction, and lead-210 and polonium-210 isotopes get to a dust fraction. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Industrial production of fusion energy will be the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled Fusion may provide mankind with an inexhaustible source of energy. Several highly attractive features are intrinsic to this way of energy production: a high safety level due to the impossibility of non-controlled reaction; low original and induced activities of the fuel, waste and construction materials, the possibility to place power stations close to megalopolises, and negligible terrorist opportunities at fusion enterprises. More than fifty years have been spent by researchers in many countries before the International Fusion Community decided this year to build the first International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER - in Cadarache (France). The reason for such a long development is the very complicated behaviour of high-temperature plasma - a special state of matter that allows nuclei of hydrogen to react, setting free a huge amount of energy due to mass loss. Basic and applied research in high-temperature plasma has influenced a significant number of areas in Science and Technology. There are two approaches to Controlled Fusion based on magnetic and inertial confinement. The magnetic confinement approach at present seems to be closer to the fusion energy production stage. The idea of the tokamak device invented at the Kurchatov Institute fifty years ago turned out to be very productive and allowed us to realize the fusion of Deuterium and Tritium under conditions very close to breakeven. We know a lot about the tokamak plasma today. However, new advances are foreseen to be achieved in contemporary and future experiments. The main activity is shifting now to the problem of plasma-wall interaction, low activation materials and technologies activating resources in an industrial reactor, which would be of commercial interest. Intensive work in this field is foreseen, and the Fast Track Programme formulated by the European Union emphasizes the necessity of promptly solving basic problems of fusion energy production. After the construction of

  9. Biodiesel production using oil from fish canning industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A process was established to produce biodiesel from fish canning industry wastes. • Biodiesel production was enabled by an acid esterification pre-treatment. • Optimization studies showed that the best catalyst concentration was 1 wt.% H2SO4. • There was no advantage when a two-step alkali transesterification was employed. • Waste oil from olive oil bagasse could be used to improve fuel quality. - Abstract: The present study evaluated biodiesel production using oil extracted from fish canning industry wastes, focusing on pre-treatment and reaction conditions. Experimental planning was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid catalyst concentration (1–3 wt.% H2SO4) in the esterification pre-treatment and the amount of methanolic solution (60–90 vol.%) used at the beginning of the further two-step alkali transesterification reaction. The use of a raw-material mixture, including waste oil obtained from olive oil bagasse, was also studied. The results from experimental planning showed that catalyst concentration mostly influenced product yield and quality, the best conditions being 1 wt.% catalyst and 60 vol.% of methanolic solution, to obtain a product yield of 73.9 wt.% and a product purity of 75.5 wt.%. Results from a one-step reaction under the selected conditions showed no advantage of performing a two-step alkali process. Although under the best conditions several of the biodiesel quality parameters were in agreement with standard specifications, a great variation was found in the biodiesel acid value, and oxidation stability and methyl ester content did not comply with biodiesel quality standards. Aiming to improve fuel quality, a mixture containing 80% waste olive oil and 20% of waste fish oil was evaluated. Using such mixture, biodiesel purity increased around 15%, being close to the standard requirements (96.5 wt.%), and the oxidation stability was in agreement with the biodiesel quality standard values (⩾6 h), which are

  10. Wood and cellulose-paper industries; 1 : 2 000 000; Metal production, machinery production, electrical engineering, and motor vehicle production; 1 : 2 000 000; Food industry; 1 : 2 000 000; Chemical and rubber industry; 1 : 2 000 000; Textile and clothing industries; 1 : 2 000 000; Other industrial production; 1 : 2 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of maps, the aim of which was a more detailed presentation of size and spatial distribution of the main industrial branches as a rule divided into sub-branches. The majority of them represent the shares of districts (in the individual industries) in the total production of the particular industry all over Slovakia. The size of centres is represented by the number of workers or by production size in natural indices. (authors)

  11. Kojic Acid Production from Agro-Industrial By-Products Using Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kady, Ismael A.; Abdel Naser A. Zohri; Shimaa R. Hamed

    2014-01-01

    A total of 278 different isolates of filamentous fungi were screened using synthetic medium for respective ability to produce kojic acid. Nineteen, six, and five isolates proved to be low, moderate, and high kojic acid producers, respectively. Levels of kojic acid produced were generally increased when shaking cultivation was used rather than those obtained using static cultivation. A trial for the utilization of 15 agro-industrial wastes or by-products for kojic acid production by the five s...

  12. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    OpenAIRE

    Erminda Tsouko; Constantina Kourmentza; Dimitrios Ladakis; Nikolaos Kopsahelis; Ioanna Mandala; Seraphim Papanikolaou; Fotis Paloukis; Vitor Alves; Apostolis Koutinas

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L)...

  13. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  14. Energy consumption restricted productivity re-estimates and industrial sustainability analysis in post-reform China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact of energy on China's industrial sustainability by using a novel approach to estimate real total factor productivity. The growth accounting indicates that the substantial industrial reforms in China have led to productivity growth. Energy and capital are also important factors driving China's industrial growth. Productivity growth in China's industry is mostly attributable to the high-tech light industrial sectors. - Highlights: ► Productivity has become the most important growth engine in majority of sectors. ► Energy and capital are also important factors promoting China's industrial growth. ► The productivity improvement is more attributable to high-tech light industry. ► The heavy industry performs worse than the light one in terms of productivity

  15. Updates on industrial production of amino acids using Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F; Jorge, João M P; Pérez-García, Fernando; Sgobba, Elvira

    2016-06-01

    L-Amino acids find various applications in biotechnology. L-Glutamic acid and its salts are used as flavor enhancers. Other L-amino acids are used as food or feed additives, in parenteral nutrition or as building blocks for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. L-amino acids are synthesized from precursors of central carbon metabolism. Based on the knowledge of the biochemical pathways microbial fermentation processes of food, feed and pharma amino acids have been developed. Production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which has been used safely for more than 50 years in food biotechnology, and Escherichia coli are constantly improved using metabolic engineering approaches. Research towards new processes is ongoing. Fermentative production of L-amino acids in the million-ton-scale has shaped modern biotechnology and its markets continue to grow steadily. This review focusses on recent achievements in strain development for amino acid production including the use of CRISPRi/dCas9, genome-reduced strains, biosensors and synthetic pathways to enable utilization of alternative carbon sources. PMID:27116971

  16. The oil and gas industry in Alberta: drilling and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlined the impacts of drilling and production on the forest structure and integrity. The cumulative impact of all 11,898 wells drilled in 2000 in Alberta, coupled with previously drilled wells that is of primary concern. It is estimated that an 886 square kilometres area of the boreal forest has been cleared as a result of well drilling, based on an assumption of 1 hectare cleared per well site. No regulations govern the reforestation of the areas once the activities have been terminated, and nothing to regulate the cumulative road densities or pipeline densities. A progressive loss and fragmentation of habitat, increased access, and damage to aquatic systems are all consequences of the drilling and production activities. These activities also lead to the contamination of soil and water. Reductions in air quality are associated with drilling and production activities, mainly through the release of various gases in the atmosphere, such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, both responsible for acid rain deposition. Explicit limits on cumulative densities of well sites, pipelines and access roads are part of best practices that can result in a minimization of the negative environmental impacts. Integrated planning with the forest industry, the development and implementation of new operating practices, and a reduction in the pace of development would also go a long way toward the reduction of the ecological footprint

  17. DETERMINANTS OF AN EFFECTIVE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: TOWARDS A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR PROCESS INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    DIANA CHRONÉER; KRISTINA LAURELL-STENLUND

    2006-01-01

    Organisation and management of the product development process have been an issue in both academia and industry for over three decades. The literature on product development is growing, but Process Industry is often lacking in these discussions. Therefore, this paper focuses on linking the determinants of an effective product development process to Process Industry and the implication this may have on a traditionally very process-oriented industry by nature. Further, the paper organises the b...

  18. The KFB Program on Biobased Fuels for Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KFB supports research and demonstration projects for bio-based transport fuels, alcohols and biogas. The program started in 1991 and will continue through 1997. The program focuses on heavy vehicles, e.g. buses for public transportation. Projects and intermediate results are described in the brochure. Information is also available at the KFB homepage. //www.kfb.se

  19. Development of biobased sandwich structures for mass transit application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munusamy, Sethu Raaj

    Efforts to increase the biobased content in sandwich composites are being investigated to reduce the dependence on synthetically produced or mined, energy-intensive materials for numerous composite applications. Vegetable oil-based polyurethane foams are gaining recognition as good substitutes for synthetic counter parts while utilizing bast fiber to replace fiberglass is also gaining credence. In this study, soy oil-based polyurethane foam was evaluated as a core in a sandwich construction with facesheets of hybridized kenaf and E-glass fibers in a vinyl ester resin matrix to replace traditionally used plywood sheeting on steel frame for mass transit bus flooring systems. As a first step towards implementation, the static performance of the biobased foam was compared to 100% synthetic foam. Secondly, biobased sandwich structures were processed and their static performance was compared to plywood. The biobased sandwich composites designed and processed were shown to hold promise towards replacing plywood for bus flooring applications by displaying an increase of 130% for flexural strength and 135% for flexural modulus plus better indentation values.

  20. Prediction of Dumping a Product in Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.S. GANGA DEVI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy Decision Trees (FDT’s are one of the most popular choices for learning and reasoning from dataset. They have undergone a number of alterations to language and measurement uncertainties. However, they are poor in classification accuracy. In this paper, Neuro -fuzzy decision tree ( a fuzzy decision tree structure with neural like parameter adaptation strategy improves FDT’s classification accuracy and extracts more accuracy human interpretable classification rules. In the forward cycle fuzzy decision tree is constructed and in the feedback cycle, parameters of fuzzy decision tree have been adapted using stochastic gradient descent algorithm by traversing back from leaf to root nodes. In this paper, the system may predict whether a product in dumped or not for the textile industry is explained.

  1. PRACTICE OF GESTALT THEORY IN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkut ERYAYAR

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that Gestalt Theory argues that an organized whole represents more than the sum of its parts. According to this theory, which emerged in studies on visual perception, a whole is made up of many parts each of which cannot reflect the whole on its own. Likewise, an industrial design comprises various parts which create a meaningful and functional whole. The success of a design can be measured against its ability to be perceived the same way as it is designed. In this respect, the inclusion of Gestalt theory principles in the process of design will enable the end product to differ from others and its user to perceive it in the right direction.

  2. Software independence: impact on product development plan in automotive industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Annarumma

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper: Actually, in automotive industries one of the most important activities inproduct design is the evaluation of various events (i.e. crash events using FEM simulation; in this context,software independence, that means to obtain the same simulation results on the same car-model using differentFEM solvers, will be useful for reducing virtual prototyping time and consequently Time To Market.Design/methodology/approach: Development of a software-indipendence translation method is the aim ofthis work, which is an input data translation by a methodology independent of the FE calculation environmentand allows reducing drastically the product development time. This methodology will be developed writing adhoc a routine in Matlab language, that carries back in LS-DYNA environment the cards written in RADIOSSenvironment, helped by TextPad editor and completed by pre-processor Hypermesh.Findings: The translation could be executed using the pre and post-processor Hypermesh and the RADIOSSmodel card manual correction, but this way to operate increases greatly the Time To Market, although today isthe only method used in the most important Italian automotive industry.Research limitations/implications: A Software independence in Virtual Prototyping could help to accelerateseveral processes. The need to reduce costs and to increase quality is nearly obvious.Practical implications: Most of crash simulation models are developed in RADIOSS environment, but the LSDYNAenvironment potentialities exploration has increased the simulations demand using LS-DYNA software;therefore the development of a translation method like that meets this requirement.Originality/value: For product designers, the development of a translation methodology, that allows to carryback in a software environment the Know How developed for another software environment, will be very useful(We’ve to remind that often many design tasks of a project are made in

  3. Biorefinery approach for cassava-based industrial wastes: Current status and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Xie, Li; Yin, Zhixuan; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Zhou, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Cassava, an important food crop, has been extensively employed as raw materials for various agri-industries to produce starch, bioethanol and other biobased products/chemicals. These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues, rich in organic matter and suspended solids, and pose significant environmental issues. Their complex biochemical composition with high organic content endows them with a great potential for bioconversion into value-added products via biorefinery thereby providing economic and environmental sustainability to cassava industries. This state-of-the-art review covers the source, composition and characteristics of cassava industrial wastes and residues, and their bioconversion into value-added products, mainly biofuels (ethanol and butanol), biogas, biosurfactant, organic acids and other valuable biochemicals among others. This paper also outlines future perspectives with respect to developing more effective and efficient bioconversion processes for converting the cassava wastes and residues into high-value products. PMID:27117291

  4. Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassib, Hisham B.

    2010-01-01

    The basic premise of this paper is the fact that science has become a major industry: the knowledge industry. The paper throws some light on the reasons for the transformation of science from a limited, constrained and marginal craft into a major industry. It, then, presents a productivist industrial model of knowledge production, which shows its…

  5. Product Migration Strategies to Product-Service Systems Based on Korean Industrial Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Chan Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Product-service system (PSS is a system of products, service, supporting networks and infrastructure that is designed to be competitive. The concept of PSS is rather new and currently many companies and governmental institute are eager to implement the PSSs as a new business model. In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional model to classify PSS based on three axes. The three axes consist of selling product type, product usage type, and sustainability. The selling product type is classified as physical product, physical product and added services, and product-service system. The product usages type is classified as product-oriented, use-oriented, and result-oriented usage. The sustainability is classified as economy, society and environment. The 3D model is applied to the surveyed Korean industrial practices to identify some typical migration paths from physical product to PSS. Three typical migration paths are identified and the paths are used to suggest Sustainable PSS(SPSS development strategies. Three identified paths are value-extended SPSS, positioning-extended SPSS, and field-extended SPSS.

  6. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  7. Traceability in the pharmaceutical industry: application to radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of tools to promote the traceability of the drugs in the pharmaceutical industry during all the production chain is a necessary requisite. The traceability system is applied to enable the identification of the origin, destination and exact location of the drug. Traceability optimizes the process chain, reduces errors, is a requirement for quality process, promotes safety for the user and assists in pharmacovigilance. The health regulatory agency in Brazil (ANVISA) will implement a tracking system for medicaments with RDC no. 59 of 2009, to control distribution since the producer until the patients in order to prevent the traffic and adulteration of drugs. Thus, this study discusses the importance and impact of the new traceability system proposed by ANVISA in the production and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals from the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN). The radiopharmaceuticals have a difference track when compared with another drug classes. In this context, this RDC would increase the price of the medicines by up to 10%, since it provides deployment of a single stamp supplied by the Mint. Considering that radiopharmaceuticals are not sold to the final consumer (patients), but only for accredited medical clinics and nuclear medicine physicians, and the transport of radiopharmaceuticals is performed by specialized companies licensed by CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission), the use of the stamp to ensure authenticity and prevent falsification should not be appropriated and represents and additional cost for the radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  8. Traceability in the pharmaceutical industry: application to radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Camila; Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B. de; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Katia S. de S., E-mail: czanette@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The development of tools to promote the traceability of the drugs in the pharmaceutical industry during all the production chain is a necessary requisite. The traceability system is applied to enable the identification of the origin, destination and exact location of the drug. Traceability optimizes the process chain, reduces errors, is a requirement for quality process, promotes safety for the user and assists in pharmacovigilance. The health regulatory agency in Brazil (ANVISA) will implement a tracking system for medicaments with RDC no. 59 of 2009, to control distribution since the producer until the patients in order to prevent the traffic and adulteration of drugs. Thus, this study discusses the importance and impact of the new traceability system proposed by ANVISA in the production and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals from the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN). The radiopharmaceuticals have a difference track when compared with another drug classes. In this context, this RDC would increase the price of the medicines by up to 10%, since it provides deployment of a single stamp supplied by the Mint. Considering that radiopharmaceuticals are not sold to the final consumer (patients), but only for accredited medical clinics and nuclear medicine physicians, and the transport of radiopharmaceuticals is performed by specialized companies licensed by CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission), the use of the stamp to ensure authenticity and prevent falsification should not be appropriated and represents and additional cost for the radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  9. Semi-industrial production of methane from textile wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opwis, Klaus; Mayer-Gall, Thomas; Gutmann, Jochen S. [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e.V., Krefeld (DE)] (and others)

    2012-12-15

    The enzymatic desizing of starch-sized cotton fabrics leads to wastewaters with an extremely high chemical oxygen demand due to its high sugar content. Nowadays, these liquors are still disposed without use, resulting in a questionable ecological pollution and high emission charges for cotton finishing manufacturers. In this paper, an innovative technology for the production of energy from textile wastewaters from cotton desizing was developed. Such desizing liquors were fermented by methane-producing microbes to biogas. For this purpose, a semi-industrial plant with a total volume of more than 500 L was developed and employed over a period of several weeks. The robust and trouble-free system produces high amounts of biogas accompanied by a significant reduction of the COD of more than 85%. With regard to growing standards and costs for wastewater treatment and disposal, the new process can be an attractive alternative for textile finishing enterprises in wastewater management, combining economic and ecological benefits. Moreover, the production of biogas from textile wastewaters can help to overcome the global energy gap within the next decades, especially with respect to the huge dimension of cotton pretreatment and, therefore, huge desizing activities worldwide.

  10. Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulko, J. B.

    2003-10-23

    The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

  11. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California's residential marketplace

  12. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Gulten Izmirlioglu; Ali Demirci

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium componen...

  13. Clean Production of Steel and Refractories in China′s Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUTiansen

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the importance of clean production of steel and the relationships amongst sustaining development of steel industry,environment protection and the role of refractories in the clean production of steel. The main achievements and main shortcomings in the clean production of China′s steel industry have been reviewed together with the introduction of the policy supporting system and the future development of clean production in China′s steel industry.

  14. Nuclear energy in industry: application to oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's commitment, via the Kyoto Protocol, to reduce carbon dioxide emissions poses some interesting challenges. New ways of undertaking activities to reduce emissions, while maintaining our standard of living, is the desired end goal. Canada has vast reserves of oil in its tar sands deposits in northern Alberta. These are world scale deposits relative to known conventional oil reserves and will play an important role in the world's economy in years to come. Substantial energy is required to extract the oil and upgrade it into usable products. This energy is currently derived from fossil fuels and releases of carbon dioxide are a consequence. Additionally, hydrogen may be produced as a material component used to upgrade the oil. This hydrogen is currently produced by reforming of methane to remove the hydrogen component which also produces carbon dioxide which is generally discarded. This paper examines a relatively new extraction and processing concept (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) which can use steam and electricity from CANDU reactors and also produces oxygen, and heavy water. These products, in turn, can be used to increase energy production while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The paper focuses on the magnitude of carbon dioxide emission avoidance which is anticipated based on data from current and projected projects. The paper reviews the current status of development of the oil sands industry and projects carbon dioxide emissions which would be expected if current extraction and upgrading techniques are continued. The scope of a project using a CANDU nuclear reactor as an alternate energy source to produce steam and hydrogen for upgrading is outlined. It is concluded that the carbon dioxide emissions that could be avoided by deployment of nuclear energy powered oil sands projects would be a substantial fraction of Canada's emission reduction goals for Kyoto. (author)

  15. Nuclear energy in industry : application to oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's commitment, via the Kyoto Protocol, to reduce carbon dioxide emissions poses some interesting challenges. New ways of undertaking activities to reduce emissions, while maintaining our standard of living, is the desired end goal. Canada has vast reserves of oil in its tar sands deposits in northern Alberta. These are world scale deposits relative to known conventional oil reserves and will play an important role in the world's economy in years to come. Substantial energy is required to extract the oil and upgrade it into usable products. This energy is currently derived from fossil fuels and releases of carbon dioxide are a consequence. Additionally, hydrogen may be produced as a material component used to upgrade the oil. This hydrogen is currently produced by reforming of methane to remove the hydrogen component which also produces carbon dioxide which is generally discarded. This paper examines a relatively new extraction and processing concept (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) which can use steam and electricity from CANDU reactors and also produces oxygen, and heavy water. These products, in turn, can be used to increase energy production while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The paper focuses on the magnitude of carbon dioxide emission avoidance which is anticipated based on data from current and projected projects. The paper reviews the current status of development of the oil sands industry and projects carbon dioxide emissions which would be expected if current extraction and upgrading techniques are continued. The scope of a project using a CANDU nuclear reactor as an alternate energy source to produce steam and hydrogen for upgrading is outlined. It is concluded that the carbon dioxide emissions that could be avoided by deployment of nuclear energy powered oil sands projects would be a substantial fraction of Canada's emission reduction goals for Kyoto. (author)

  16. Toward Globalization of the Forest Products Industry: Some Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Bael, David; Sedjo, Roger A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the hypothesis that changes have been brought about in the forest industry that allow it to participate fully in globalization. The forest industry has undergone profound changes in recent years in large part by new technologies. Whereas traditionally it was primarily an extractive industry that relied on local sources for its basic resource—raw, industrial wood—today, intensively managed planted forests are replacing natural forests as the basic source of the wood resourc...

  17. International Marketing Of Industrial Products In Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, H

    1991-01-01

    Established industrial marketing theories were found to be inadequate to explain the marketing behaviour of European Transnational Corporations in Less Industrialized Countries in Southeast Asia. An institutional approach based on transaction costs was developed instead. The developed transaction cost model for industrial marketing is presented in this paper. It is based on a marketing economics approach that is contrasted to two other major approaches to industrial marketing theory: the micr...

  18. Critics of Ottoman’s industrial production structure (1913 - 15 in component between

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Çiftçi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Values of labor and capital in production with Cobb – Douglas production function and values of factor productivity can be determined. With econometric analysis based on data of Ottomans Industry Census in 1913 and 1915; being a production structure of increasing productivity in Ottomans Industry, high level of production as concentrated - technology compared to that periods, and wage that one of the most important discussion subject in relation between labors and employers were drawn conclusions.

  19. Critics of Ottoman’s Industrial Production Structure (1913 - 15 In Component Between Labor and Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep SEYMEN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Values of labor and capital in production with Cobb – Douglas production function and values of factor productivity can be determined. With econometric analysis based on data of Ottomans Industry Census in 1913 and 1915; being a production structure of increasing productivity in Ottomans Industry, high level of production as concentrated - technology compared to that periods, and wage that one of the most important discussion subject in relation between labors and employers were drawn conclusions.

  20. 76 FR 34715 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Considering Whether an FDA-Regulated Product Involves the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... the Application of Nanotechnology''. This guidance is intended to provide industry with FDA's current... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Considering Whether an FDA-Regulated Product Involves the Application of Nanotechnology; Availability AGENCY: Food and...

  1. TWO-WAY INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND PRODUCTION IN ITALY: A COUNTRY/INDUSTRY SPECIFIC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Economic interactions among high-income developed countries are characterized by high degrees of both intra-industry trade and intra-industry affiliate production and sales. Similar high-income countries both heavily trade with and invest into each other. This paper examines the determinants of Italian intra-industry trade and intra-industry production with most European trading partners using a dataset where variables are different not only between countries but also between sectors of the s...

  2. A Control System for Tobacco Shred Production Line Based on Industrial Ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li; Zheng, Guang; ZHANG, Xinfeng; Liu, Lei; Xi, Lei

    2010-01-01

    The Industrial Ethernet based on IP realizes interconnection of industrial network and information network, and it is the most potential technology in the new industrial net products. In this paper, the defects of the original control system for tobacco shred production line are analyzed, and the new design plan of control system based on EtherNet/IP is presented. The control net adopts redundant 1000M fiber optic ring network that consists of six managed Industrial Ethernet Switches, and the...

  3. Biorefinery: Toward an industrial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octave, Stéphane; Thomas, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Fossil fuel reserves are running out, global warming is becoming a reality, waste recycling is becoming ever more costly and problematic, and unrelenting population growth will require more and more energy and consumer products. There is now an alternative to the 100% oil economy; it is a renewable resource based on agroresources by using the whole plant. Production and development of these new products are based on biorefinery concept. Each constituent of the plant can be extracted and functionalized in order to produce non-food and food fractions, intermediate agro-industrial products and synthons. Three major industrial domains can be concerned: molecules, materials and energy. Molecules can be used as solvent surfactants or chemical intermediates in substitution of petrol derivatives. Fibers can be valorized in materials like composites. Sugars and oils are currently used to produce biofuels like bioethanol or biodiesel, but second-generation biofuels will use lignocellulosic biomass as raw material. Lipids can be used to produce a large diversity of products like solvent, lubricants, pastes or surfactants. Industrial biorefinery will be linked to the creation of new processes based on the twelve principles of green chemistry (clean processes, atom economy, renewable feedstocks...). Biotechnology, especially white biotechnology, will take a major part into these new processes with biotransformations (enzymology, micro-organisms...) and fermentation. The substitution of oil products by biobased products will develop a new bioeconomy and new industrial processes respecting the sustainable development concept. Industrial biorefinery can be developed on the principle that any residues of one can then be exploited as raw material by others in an industrial metabolism. PMID:19332104

  4. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The introductory chapter provides a discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. It discusses these industries in terms of resource characteristics, industry technology, pollution control requirements, market structure, the economics of recycling, and the issues involved in econometrically estimating scrap supply response behavior. It further presents the methodology established by DOE for the metals, textiles, rubber, and pulp and paper industries. The areas in which government policies might have a significant impact on the utilization of primary and secondary metals and on any recycling targets between now and 1987 are noted. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33. The profiles include such topics as industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends. Chapter 4 specifically covers the evaluation of recycling targets for the ferrous, aluminum, copper, zinc, and lead industries. (MCW)

  5. 76 FR 9028 - Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance document provides manufacturers of cellular and gene therapy (CGT) products with recommendations for developing... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products''...

  6. Labour use and productivity in military and non-military related industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Reppy J

    1986-01-01

    Working paper on labour utilization and labour productivity levels in defence industry in the USA and other OECD countries. Discusses occupational mix, labour force participation, and obstacles in data collecting and in the measurement of productivity in this sector and considers Western evaluations of labour productivity in the USSR defence industry.

  7. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology Laid out Objectives and Tasks on Eliminating Backward Production Capacity for 18 Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ In order to implement the plan and requirements set forth by the State Council to further strengthen the work of eliminating backward production capacity,and assign and implement the tasks in 2010,the working conference of the national industrial system on eliminating backward production capacity was held in Beijing on May 27th and 28th,2010.

  8. Sustainability benefits and challenges of inter-organizational collaboration in bio-based business

    OpenAIRE

    Nuhoff-Isakhanyan, Gohar; Emiel F.M. Wubben; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Bio-based businesses are often considered to be sustainable. However, they are also linked to sustainability challenges such as deforestation and soil erosion. Encouraged to exploit innovative solutions and enhance sustainability, organizations engaged in bio-based activities extensively explore collaboration possibilities with external partners. The objective of this paper is to integrate the available knowledge on sustainability of inter-organisational collaborations in bio-based businesses...

  9. "Productivity Change and Mine Dynamics: The Coal Industry in Japan during World War II"

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuji Okazaki

    2012-01-01

    In the 1930s and 1940s, the Japanese coal industry experienced huge fluctuations in production and labor productivity. In this paper, I explore the micro-aspects of labor productivity change in the coal industry during World War II, using mine-level data, compiled from official statistics and original documents of the Coal Control Association (Sekitan Toseikai). The coal industry in this period was characterized by dynamic changes in market structure: a number of mines entered and exited the ...

  10. Spore production of Beauveria bassiana from agro-industrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herta Stutz Dalla Santa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to produce Beauveria bassiana by Solid-State Fermentation using agro-industrial residues and optimizing the cultivation conditions. Refused potatoes, coffee husks and sugar-cane bagasse were tested. The blend of refused potatoes and sugar-cane bagasse (60-40% with particle size in the range of 0.8-2 mm was used in the fermentation experiments. In Erlenmeyer flasks the best spore production was achieved with the following conditions: incubation temperature 26º C; initial pH 6.0; inoculum concentration 10(7 spores.g-1.dw and initial moisture 75%. In the column type reactor using forced aeration under the optimized conditions, the maximum production (1.07x10(10spores.g-1.dw was obtained at the 10th day of fermentation. The respirometric analyses of the fermentation showed a strong correlation between fungal growth and spore production.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir Beauveria bassiana por fermentação no estado sólido em resíduos agro-industriais e otimizar as condições de cultivo. Batata-refugo, polpa de café e bagaço de cana de açúcar foram testados. A mistura de batata-refugo e de bagaço de cana de açúcar (60:40%, com granulometria de 2 a 0,8 mm foi escolhida como melhor substrato/suporte. Em frascos de Erlenmeyer a produção de esporos foi maior com as seguintes condições: pH 6,0; temperatura de incubação de 26º C; taxa de inóculo de 10(7 esporos.g-1 de matéria seca; e umidade inicial de 75%. Em bioreator do tipo coluna com aeração forçada, as condições otimizadas possibilitaram uma produção máxima de esporos no 10º dia de fermentação, obtendo-se 1,07x10(10 esporos.g-1 de matéria seca. A análise respirométrica desta fermentação permitiu correlacionar o desenvolvimento do fungo com a produção de esporos.

  11. Synthesis, properties and applications of bio-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Madhusudhan

    Bio-based feedstock have become very significant as they offer a value proposition in terms of carbon balance and also in terms of endowing biodegradability where needed. Thus a lot of attention is being given to the modification such feedstock for different applications. Soybean oil is one such feedstock. The oil is a triglyceride ester composed of different fatty acids, which are common to other plant oils. Thus soybean oil serves as a platform for plant oils, as modifications of this oil, can in theory be extended to cover other plant oils. Methyl oleate was used as a model fatty acid ester, to synthesize hydroxyesters with ethylene glycol via a two stage oxidative cleavage of the double bonds. Ozone was chosen as the oxidant due to its many advantages. The first stage involved oxidation of the double bond to aldehydes, ozonides and acetals, which were subsequently converted to hydroxyesters (hydroxy values of 220 - 270) in near quantitative yield by treatment with Oxone. This method could be extended to soybean oil to make "polyols" which could find applications in resin syntheses. Silylation was employed as another platform to functionalize soybean oil and fatty acid methyl esters with a reactive silane (vinyltrimethoxy silane). This simple modification produced materials that are cured by atmospheric moisture and are useful as coatings. The silylation was controlled by varying the grafting time, cure temperature and the concentration of the silane. Products with gel content as high as 90% could be achieved. The coating exhibited good adhesion to metal, glass, concrete and paper. Steel panels coated with these coatings exhibited good stability against corrosion in high humidity conditions and moderate stability against a salt spray. The silylation was also successfully utilized to improve the tensile strength of the blend of biodegradable polyester, poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) with talc. A reactive extrusion process was employed to graft vinyl

  12. Kojic Acid Production from Agro-Industrial By-Products Using Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael A. El-Kady

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 278 different isolates of filamentous fungi were screened using synthetic medium for respective ability to produce kojic acid. Nineteen, six, and five isolates proved to be low, moderate, and high kojic acid producers, respectively. Levels of kojic acid produced were generally increased when shaking cultivation was used rather than those obtained using static cultivation. A trial for the utilization of 15 agro-industrial wastes or by-products for kojic acid production by the five selected higher kojic acid producer isolates was made. The best by-product medium recorded was molasses for kojic acid. A. flavus numbers 7 and 24 were able to grow and produce kojic acid on only 12 out of 15 wastes or by-products media. The best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 7 was rice fragments followed by molasses, while the best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 24 was the molasses followed by orange, pea, and rice fragments. An attempt for production of kojic acid using a 1.5 L laboratory fermentor has been made. Aspergillus flavus number 7 was used and grown on molasses medium; maximum level (53.5 g/L of kojic acid was obtained after eight days of incubation.

  13. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Hua Zhu; Frans Krens; Smith, Mark A.; Xueyuan Li; Weicong Qi; van Loo, Eibertus N; Tim Iven; Ivo Feussner; Nazarenus, Tara J.; Dongxin Huai; Taylor, David C; Xue-Rong Zhou; Green, Allan G.; Jay Shockey; K. Thomas Klasson

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil produc...

  14. Biobased Epoxy Nanocomposites Derived from Lignin-Based Monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shou; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2015-07-13

    Biobased epoxy nanocomposites were synthesized based on 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol (dihydroeugenol, DHE), a molecule that has been obtained from the lignin component of biomass. To increase the content of hydroxyl groups, DHE was o-demethylated using aqueous HBr to yield propylcatechol (DHEO), which was subsequently glycidylated to epoxy monomer. Optimal conditions in terms of yield and epoxy equivalent weight were found to be 60 °C with equal NaOH/phenolic hydroxyl molar ratio. The structural evolution from DHE to cured epoxy was followed by (1)H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nano-montmorillonite modified DHEO epoxy exhibited improved storage modulus and thermal stability as determined from dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. This study widens the synthesis routes of biobased epoxy thermosets from lignin-based molecules. PMID:26135389

  15. Industrial Development, Firm Dynamics and Patterns of Productivity Growth: The Case of the Cotton Spinning Industry in Prewar Japan, 1894-1924

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Tetsuji

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between patterns of productivity growth and the development stage of an industry, using firm-level data on the cotton spinning industry in Japan in the late nineteenth century. It is found that patterns of productivity growth depend on the development stage of the industry. In the earlier stage of industrial development, productivity growth of each firm, namely the within effect, was the sole major source of aggregate productivity growth. On the other hand...

  16. "Industrial Development, Firm Dynamics and Patterns of Productivity Growth: The Case of the Cotton Spinning Industry in Prewar Japan, 1894-1924"

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Tetsuji

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between patterns of productivity growth and the development stage of an industry, using firm-level data on the cotton-spinning industry in Japan in the late-nineteenth century. It is found that patterns of productivity growth depend on the development stage of the industry. In the earlier stage of industrial development, the productivity growth of each firm, namely the within effect, was the sole major source of aggregate productivity growth. On the other ...

  17. Liquid crystal bio-based epoxy coating with enhanced performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha A. El-Ghazawy,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tetrafunctional rosin based epoxy was synthesized and cured with either rosin based hardener or conventional phenylene diamine to study the feasibility of producing high performance thermosetting polymer from renewable resource. The chemical structure of the prepared epoxy was confirmed by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1HNMR, UV, total acid number and epoxy equivalent weight. Dynamic mechanical (DMA and thermogravimetric (TGA analyses results indicate that fully biobased epoxy system possesses high glass transition temperature (Tg, high modulus (G` and improved thermal stability.

  18. Catalytic Coupling of Carbon Dioxide with Terpene Scaffolds: Access to Challenging Bio-Based Organic Carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, Giulia; Stuck, Moritz; Martín, Carmen; Belmonte, Marta Martínez; Martin, Eddy; Escudero-Adán, Eduardo C; Kleij, Arjan W

    2016-06-01

    The challenging coupling of highly substituted terpene oxides and carbon dioxide into bio-based cyclic organic carbonates catalyzed by Al(aminotriphenolate) complexes is reported. Both acyclic as well as cyclic terpene oxides were used as coupling partners, showing distinct reactivity/selectivity behavior. Whereas cyclic terpene oxides showed excellent chemoselectivity towards the organic carbonate product, acyclic substrates exhibited poorer selectivities owing to concomitant epoxide rearrangement reactions and the formation of undesired oligo/polyether side products. Considering the challenging nature of these coupling reactions, the isolated yields of the targeted bio-carbonates are reasonable and in most cases in the range 50-60 %. The first crystal structures of tri-substituted terpene based cyclic carbonates are reported and their stereoconnectivity suggests that their formation proceeds through a double inversion pathway. PMID:27159151

  19. Competitiveness Analysis of Processing Industry Cluster of Livestock Products in Inner Mongolia Based on "Diamond Model"

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xing-long; Ren, Ya-tong

    2012-01-01

    Using Michael Porter's "diamond model", based on regional development characteristics, we conduct analysis of the competitiveness of processing industry cluster of livestock products in Inner Mongolia from six aspects (the factor conditions, demand conditions, corporate strategy, structure and competition, related and supporting industries, government and opportunities). And we put forward the following rational recommendations for improving the competitiveness of processing industry cluster ...

  20. Industry regulation, competition, and the dynamics of productivity growth: evidence from China’s iron and steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbai Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the characteristics of the efficient evolution of China’s iron and steel industry against the backdrop of limited openness and regulation and to discuss the important effects of regulatory policy and total factor productivity (TFP of China’s iron and steel industry. The method adopted the Cobb–Douglas production function combined with a semi-parametric method to decompose productivity. This study based on the micro-level dataset of iron and steel enterprises in the database of China’s industrial enterprises between 1998 and 2007 that investigated the intrinsic correlation among corporate entry and exit, market competition of existing enterprises, and TFP growth in the iron and steel industry. The results of the research show that the entry-exit would promote the growth of the aggregate productivity, while the low efficiency of resource allocation would significantly inhibit the TFP growth. The basic conclusion is that, with substantial government intervention in enterprise investments, market competition may not promote optimal resource allocation efficiency in China’s iron and steel industry, but make the allocation less efficient.

  1. 75 FR 33311 - Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... comment on those recommendations. In the Federal Register of May 31, 2007 (72 FR 30388), FDA announced the... Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance for industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products.'' This...

  2. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  3. Basis Weight And Moisture Machine Direction Control System To Reduce Loss Production At Leces Paper Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basis Weight and Moisture Machine Direction Control System have been constructed by using beta absorption and infrared absorption method to reduce loss production of the paper Industry at Leces Paper Industry. Quality Paper Industry product depends on variable Basis Weight and Moisture that has been set up according to the Set Point Target Production Process with the required accuracy ± 2.5 gram/m2 for Basis Weight measurement and ± 0.1% for the moisture. The advantage of this system compared to the sample method is the effective technique of measurement and the ON-LINE control of the production process without disturbing the process production. (author)

  4. Sustainable Industrial Product Systems. Integration of Life Cycle Assessment in Product development and Optimization of Product Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Ole Joergen

    1997-12-31

    This thesis contributes to the development and testing of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) in product development and management in industry. It is based on systems theory and systems engineering. It develops a method for sustainable product development that has been successfully tested in the Nordic project called NEP. The LCA method is also a basis for an optimization model, where life cycle economy and environmental impacts from product systems are optimized with a non-linear model. A more complete mathematical model for LCA, based on the functional requirements on a product system, is also developed. The statistical properties of emission factors are studied using a data set from the Swedish Kraft Mill industry. It is shown that emission factors may be assumed constants in the LCA model, but with rather large variations within a population of Kraft mills. It is shown that there are a few environmental impacts which are important for most types of products under Scandinavian conditions, especially global warming potential, acidification, human toxicity and fossil energy depletion. There are significant differences between the contribution to these impacts from different life cycle stages, where raw material processing and use of products are generally more important than the other stages. Test cases indicate that there are no large conflicts between improvements in environmental impacts and customer requirements. Environmental improvements seem to increase purchase cost of products in some cases, but the life cycle cost of the products seem in most cases to be reduced. It is concluded that there are opportunities for 30-50% improvements in product system, based on relatively simple modifications of the systems. 246 refs., 63 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. A benchmark comparison of East and West German industrial labour productivity in 1954

    OpenAIRE

    Sleifer, Jaap

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a level comparison of the East and West German industrial labour productivity in 1954. According to this estimate, which is based on the quantity approach, the East German industrial labour productivity in 1954 amounted from 61.6 to 64.7 percent of the West German level. For the manufacturing sector only the relative labour productivity amounted from 58 to 60 percent of the West German level. East German relative labour productivity based on value added is somewhat higher ...

  6. Decomposition of productivity considering multi-environmental pollutants in Chinese industrial sector

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Cao, Jing; Managi, Shunsuke

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to calculate and decompose productivity incorporating multi-environmental pollutants in Chinese industrial sectors from 1992 to 2008. We apply a weighted Russell directional distance model to calculate productivity from both the economic and environmental performance. Main findings are, 1) Chinese industrial sectors increased productivity, with the main contributing factors being labor saving prior to 2000. 2) The main contributing factors for productivity growt...

  7. Decomposition of Productivity Considering Multi-environmental Pollutants in Chinese Industrial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Cao, Jing; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to calculate and decompose productivity incorporating multi-environmental pollutants in Chinese industrial sectors from 1992 to 2008. We apply a weighted Russell directional distance model to calculate productivity from both the economic and environmental performance. The main findings are: (1) Chinese industrial sectors increased productivity, with the main contributing factors being labor saving prior to 2000; (2) The main contributing factors for productivity...

  8. Product Customization and Firm Survival: A Longitudinal Study of Laser and Related Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskarabhatla, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the impact of product customization activity on firm survival. Using unique data on laser and 12 related industries between 1997 and 2009, I examine whether, as the submarkets model of industry evolution suggests, firms that undertake product customization activity survive longer. The findings show that, while product customization does enhance firm survival, it does so through two distinct channels. First, as the submarkets model captures, product custo...

  9. Catalysts for biobased fuels. New catalyst formulations for vehicles fuelled by biobased motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, L.J.; Wahlberg, A.M.; Jaeraas, S.G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1997-12-01

    The long-term objective for the project is to develop tailor-made exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty vehicles fuelled by biobased motor fuels operating in urban traffic. In this report an experimental study of catalytic oxidation of ethanol in a laboratory flow reactor is presented. The miniature catalyst samples consisted of monolithic cordierite substrates onto which various combinations of washcoat material and active material were applied. Oxides of Cu and Cu-Mn, as well as different combinations of precious metals were evaluated as active material supported on various washcoat materials. The experimental conditions were chosen in order to simulate the exhaust from a diesel engine fuelled by neat ethanol. Catalyst characterization included measurements of BET surface area and pore size distribution as well as temperature programmed reduction (TPR) analysis. When comparing the TPR profiles with the light-off curves from the ethanol oxidation experiments, we have found an indication of a correlation between activity and reducibility of the catalyst. There also seems to be a correlation between TPR profile and pore size distribution for titania-supported catalysts. When combining two precious metals as active material, a positive synergistic effect has been observed. The light-off temperature (T{sub 50}) is considerably lower for some of these combinations than for the corresponding monometallic catalysts. The base metal oxide catalysts tested were more selective for oxidation of ethanol to carbon dioxide and water than the precious metal catalysts. The results also indicate that the oxidation of nitric oxide to the more hazardous nitrogen dioxide can be suppressed by using a suitable combination of active material and washcoat material 45 refs, 97 figs, 4 tabs

  10. The Evolving Geography of China's Industrial Production: Implications for Pollution Dynamics and Urban Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Siqi Zheng; Cong Sun; Ye Qi; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    China's rapid economic growth has been fueled by industrialization and urbanization. Given its export focus, this industrialization was spatially concentrated in the coastal eastern cities. Over the last decade, a spatial transformation has taken place leading to a deindustrialization of the rich coastal cities and sharp industrial growth in the inland cities. This survey examines recent work that studies the economic geography of industrial production, per-capita income, pollution and qualit...

  11. A contentious business : industrial patents and the production of isotopes, 1930-1960

    OpenAIRE

    Turchetti, Simone

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the role that patents played in the establishment of the isotope industry. In the first part I survey the number of issued patents on the production of isotopes, also arguing that the isotope industry was typified by inadequate patenting activities. Then I examine the factors that hindered these activities by looking at the history of industrial patents in the establishment of the isotope industry. I especially focus on the consequences of the Manhattan Project on patent l...

  12. Labour Productivity Convergence in 52 Industries: A Panel Data Analysis of Some European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    ? -convergence and the speed of convergence of labour productivity for 52 industries are studied with a panel of data including 13 European countries. We use fixed effect approach to model the heterogeneity across countries. In primary sector and in service sector, the existence of ? - convergence is found for all industries. In manufacturing sector, convergence is found for all industries except for electronic and computing equipment industries. In general the speed of convergence estimates ...

  13. Industrial Production of High-carotene-content Carrot Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scientific experiments have shown that β-carotene from fresh carrots and other fruits and vegetables, rather than chemosynthetic ones, could have preventive effects on the lung cancer. This makes β-carotene processing an industry with great prospects.

  14. Vanadium phosphate catalysts for biodiesel production from acid industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Carina; Correia, M Joana Neiva; Carvalho, Renato; Henriques, Carlos; Bordado, João; Dias, Ana Paula Soares

    2013-04-10

    Biodiesel production from high acidity industrial by-products was studied using heterogeneous acid catalysts. These by-products contain 26-39% of free fatty acids, 45-66% of fatty acids methyl esters and 0.6-1.1% of water and are consequently inadequate for direct basic catalyzed transesterification. Macroporous vanadyl phosphate catalysts with V/P=1 (atomic ratio) prepared via sol-gel like technique was used as catalyst and it was possible to produce in one reaction batch a biodiesel contain 87% and 94% of FAME, depending on the by-product used as raw material. The initial FAME content in the by-products had a beneficial effect on the reactions because they act as a co-solvent, thus improving the miscibility of the reaction mixture components. The water formed during esterification process seems to hinder the esters formation, possibly due to competitive adsorption with methanol and to the promotion of the FAME hydrolysis reaction.The observed catalyst deactivation seems to be related to the reduction of vanadium species. However, spent catalysts can be regenerated, even partially, by reoxidation of the reduced vanadium species with air. PMID:22902409

  15. Enzymatic polymerization of biobased polyesters and polyamides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays "green" is a hot topic almost everywhere, from retailers to universities to industries; and achieving green has become a universal perspective. However, polymers are commonly considered not to be “green”, being associated with massive energy consumption and severe pollution problems (e.g. t

  16. Biosolvents for Coatings, Resins and Biobased Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Rathin [Vertec BioSolvents, Inc.

    2009-08-31

    With close collaboration with several industrial coatings manufacturers several solvent blends were developed tested and optimized. These were then piloted in the commercial company’s reactors and systems. Three were successfully tested in commercial applications and two of these - Methotate replacement and a specialty ketone replacement were sold in commercial quantities in 2009. Further sales are anticipated in 2010 and the following years.

  17. Productive Districts of the Music Industry Supply Chain in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Ardizzone Antonella

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the spatial concentration of firms in the Italian music industry supplychain, by two different samples and an ad hoc methodology. Results show a relative strongspatial concentration of firms and revenues for every kind of firm considered in Lombardy,Latium and Emilia Romagna Regions of Italy. Milan can be considered the «Italian capital ofmusic» and, according to revenues, the capital of music publishing, radio broadcasting, recording studios and recording industry. The fo...

  18. Economic Evaluations of Production Technologies in the Australian Sheep Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester, Luke T.; Vere, David T.

    2005-01-01

    The Australian Sheep Industry Cooperative Research Centre (Sheep CRC) commenced operations in February 2002 and will receive federal funding of $19.8 million over its seven-year grant period. As well, the sheep industry is expected to invest over $10 million in Sheep CRC activities over this period, while core and supporting parties will make in-kind contributions totalling about $60 million. The main objective of the Sheep CRC is to develop new technologies that will increase the productivit...

  19. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 51. (e) Definitions of terms used in this section. The following terms that are used in this... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. (a) What is...

  20. Product modeling standards for the building and construction industry : Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, F.P.

    1999-01-01

    For the past ten years most sectors of industry have been developing standards for the electronic sharing and exchange of product model data. While several related industries, such as automotive and shipbuilding manufacturing have been relatively successful in integrating electronic product models i

  1. College of Natural Resources to offer sales training for the forest products industry

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Personal selling is the leading form of promotion used in the forest products industry. Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources will present a sales training course to improve self-management and interpersonal skills in the forest products industry, Oct. 29 through Oct. 30 at the Wood Education Resource Center in Princeton, W.Va.

  2. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an unfair or deceptive act or practice to sell, offer for sale, or advertise an industry product by...,” “California Privet,” “Japanese Barberry,” etc.). (b) It is also an unfair or deceptive act or practice to advertise, sell, or offer for sale an industry product of foreign origin without adequate and...

  3. A benchmark comparison of East and West German industrial labour productivity in 1954

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleifer, Jaap

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a level comparison of the East and West German industrial labour productivity in 1954. According to this estimate, which is based on the quantity approach, the East German industrial labour productivity in 1954 amounted from 61.6 to 64.7 percent of the West German level. For the

  4. 78 FR 21611 - Guidance for Industry on Self-Selection Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Self-Selection Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products.'' This guidance is intended to provide recommendations to industry involved in developing and conducting self-selection studies to support an application for nonprescription drug products. A self-selection study assesses the......

  5. Spore production in Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) samson strains on agro-industrial residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Diogo; Sung, Letizia B.; Novakovich, João Henrique; Marangoni, Paulo R.D.; Zawadneak, Maria Aparecida C.; Dalzoto, Patricia R.; Gabardo, Juarez; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval

    2009-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus has potential for pests control. We aimed to analyze mycelial growth and spore production in P. lilacinus strains in several agro-industrial residues and commercial media. This study suggests alternative nutrient sources for fungi production and that the biotechnological potential of agro-industrial refuses could be employed in byproducts development. PMID:24031361

  6. Industry-Wide Work Rules and Productivity: Evidence from Argentine Union Contract Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarche, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In the early 1990's, the Argentine government promoted a framework for productivity-based negotiations between firms and unions at low levels of organization. The policy weakened the industry-wide collective bargaining system, which sets working conditions for all firms in an industry. This paper employs newly developed quantile regression approaches to investigate the effect of union practices on productivity within the context of the reform. The findings show that (i) industry-wide practice...

  7. Vertical Coordination in the Pork and Broiler Industries: Implications for Pork and Chicken Products

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Stephen W.

    1999-01-01

    Recent changes in structure of the U.S. pork industry reflect, in many ways, past changes in the broiler industry. Production contracts and vertical integration in the broiler industry facilitated rapid adoption of new technology, improved quality control, assured market outlets for broilers, and provided a steady flow of broilers for processing. Affordable, high-quality chicken products have contributed to continual increases in U.S. chicken consumption, which has surpassed pork and beef on ...

  8. Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    abdolhamid ebrahimi; mehdi jafarzadeh; saber bozorgi

    2012-01-01

    One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit p...

  9. The impact of foreign firms on industrial productivity : evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Kiyoyasu; 田中, 清泰

    2015-01-01

    With a newly constructed dataset on foreign firms in Japan for the period 1995-2008 from firm-level surveys, this paper estimates the impact of foreign firms on industrial productivity at the regional level. A Bayesian-model averaging approach is taken to account for model uncertainty resulting from various linkages between foreign firms and domestic industries. The results show that the foreign firms may contribute to industrial efficiency directly through their above-average productivity an...

  10. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  11. Monitoring and evaluation of production processes an analysis of the automotive industry

    CERN Document Server

    Panda, Anton; Pandová, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    This book presents topics on monitoring and evaluation of production processes in the automotive industry. Regulation of production processes is also described in details. The text deals with the implementation and evaluation of these processes during the mass production of components useful in the automotive industry. It evaluates the effects and results achieved after implementation in practice. The book takes into account the different methodologies of the world's automakers and applicable standards, such as standard EN ISO 9001 and the requirements of VDA and ISO/TS 16949. The content is used to those working with the development, production and quality control of new products in the demanding automotive industry. The information provided may also be useful to engineers and technical staff in organizations working with series production and production of spare parts for the automotive and other demanding industries. The content presented was written based on discussions with various companies and organiza...

  12. Development of industrial yeast for second generation bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X.

    2012-01-15

    The cost of lignocellulose-based bioethanol needs to be reduced, in order to commercialize this clean and sustainable fuel substitute for fossil fuels. A microorganism that can completely and efficiently convert all the sugars in lignocellulose into ethanol is one of the prerequisites of a cost-effective production process. In addition, the microorganisms should also have a high tolerance towards the inhibitory compounds present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate, which are formed during the pretreatment of lignocellulose. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is generally regarded as a robust microorganism and can efficiently ferment glucose. But it lacks the ability to ferment xylose which comprises 20-35% of lignocellulose. Naturally xylose-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis is much more sensitive to inhibitors than S. cerevisiae and it requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, a novel xylose fermenting yeast Spathaspora passalidarum displayed fast cell growth and efficient xylose fermentation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, P. stipitis was almost unable to utilize xylose under the same conditions. It is further demonstrated that S. passalidarum converts xylose by means of NADH-preferred xylose reductase (XR) and NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). Thus, the capacity of S. passalidarum to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions is possibly due to a balance between supply and demand of cofactor through this XR-XDH pathway. Only one other XR with NADH preference has been reported so far. Unfortunately, S. passalidarum also has a low tolerance towards inhibitors generated during pretreatment, which prevents immediate use of this yeast in industrial application. S. passalidarum is able to convert the inhibitor furfural to furfuryl alcohol in a synthetic medium when the addition of furfural is low. The enzymes

  13. Enzymatic polymerization of biobased polyesters and polyamides

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays "green" is a hot topic almost everywhere, from retailers to universities to industries; and achieving green has become a universal perspective. However, polymers are commonly considered not to be “green”, being associated with massive energy consumption and severe pollution problems (e.g. the “Plastic Soup”) as a public stereotype. To achieve green polymers, three elements should be entailed: (1) green raw materials, catalysts and solvents; (2) eco-friendly synthesis processes; and (...

  14. Sulfuric acid as a catalyst for ring-opening of biobased bis-epoxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetable oils can be relatively and easily transformed into bio-based epoxides. Because of this, the acid-catalyzed epoxide ring-opening has been explored for the preparation of bio-based lubricants and polymers. Detailed model studies are carried out only with mono-epoxide made from methyl oleate,...

  15. Industrial lasers: from cad design to rapid laser manufactured product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main industrial lasers are the CO2 (carbon dioxide) and lamp pumped Nd:YAG (neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet) lasers operating in the infrared and near infrared regions of the spectrum. These lasers now dominate in industrial environments and, due to their output characteristics, engineering design and large world-wide installed base, are unlikely to be displaced by any other laser sources. High power diode lasers and diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers, however, are becoming more robust and cost effective devices and will make inroads into some CO2 and Nd:YAG application areas in the near future but more importantly they will expand the industrial laser base by creating new application areas. Copyright (2000) Welding Technology Institute of Australia

  16. PECULIARITIES OF THE ELECTROTECHNICAL INDUSTRY AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE PRODUCTION COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU (COSTACHE LUMINITA NICOLETA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrotechnical industry is in the top branch within the industrial development and the technical progress, currently providing a wide range of innovative products and services, and as a result of this dynamic development, the electrotechnical industry has currently become a key industry for many other industrial sectors. Electricity has established itself in most areas of activity due to its easy use, easy distance transport, the fact that it can be turned into other forms of energy and because it is the most suitable for the supply of automation processes. Consequently, given that industry is the key factor for the recovery, modernization and economic revival of the country, we can say that the electrotechnical industry also has a crucial influence on Romania’s social and economic evolution, and this evolution is in its turn the result of the production cost monitoring and control in this sector.

  17. Design of biobased and biodegradable - compostable engineered plastics based on poly(lactide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jeffrey Samuelson

    Poly(lactide) (PLA) is a biobased and biodegradable - compostable plastic that is derived from renewable resources such as corn and sugar cane. It possesses excellent strength and stiffness properties and is recognized as safe for biomedical and food packaging applications. Commercially, it costs $1/lb and is now competitive with petroleum based polymers that have dominated the industry for decades. However, the material has some inherently weak properties that prevent it from certain applications - most notably, its rheological properties, brittleness, and poor high temperature performance. Cost effective modifications of the polymer to enhance these deficiencies could allow for increased applications and further its commercial growth. Multiple synthetic strategies have been developed to address PLA's performance property deficiencies. PLA typically exhibits poor melt strength and does not have the ability to strain harden, partially a result of its highly linear nature. Strain hardening and high melt strength are crucial elements of a material when producing blown films, a large untapped market for PLA. By increasing molecular weight and introducing long-chain branching into the material, these properties can be improved. Epoxy-functionalized PLA (EF-PLA) was synthesized by reacting PLA with a multifunctional epoxy polymer (MEP) using reactive extrusion processing (REX). These modified PLA polymers can function as a rheology modifier for PLA and a compatibilizer for blends with other biopolyesters. The modified PLA showed an increased melt strength and exhibited significant strain hardening, thus making it more suited for blown film applications. Blown films comprised of PLA and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) were produced using EF-PLA as a reactive modifier for rheological enhancement and compatibilization. This resulted in films with better processability (as seen by increased bubble stability) and improved mechanical properties, compared to a

  18. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  19. Recycling cellulases for cellulosic ethanol production at industrial relevant conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Haven, Mai Østergaard; Chylenski, Piotr;

    2013-01-01

    wheat straw. Industrial conditions were used to study the impact of hydrolysis temperature (40 or 50. °C) and residence time on recyclability. Enzyme recycling at 12% DM indicated that hydrolysis at 50. °C, though ideal for ethanol yield, should be kept short or carried out at lower temperature to...

  20. Import Substitution in Regional Industrial Production: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Georgievich Animitsa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the important role of import substitution in the economic security protection of state and its regions, especially in times of crisis, geopolitical and economical instability. The authors argue that the problem of import substitution is not modern, trendy scientific stream. The issue of displacement of import goods by domestic ones was brought up in famous classic theories of mercantilists. The particular emphasis is placed on the analysis and systematization of different scientific approaches, which are utilized by native and foreign scientists to bring out the matter of “import substitution,” to determine its essential characteristics. The authors suggest their own interpretation of the import substitution notion. In the article, the most significant pro and contra arguments in import substitution policy are defined. The regional aspects in the import substitution are approved: case study — organization of industrial import substitution in the Sverdlovsk region. In the article, the authors analyze the subject matter of the Program “Development of Intraregional Industrial Cooperation and Implementation of an Import Substitution in Branches of Industry in the Sverdlovsk Region.” It is resumed, that active policy of import substitution in the industry may become the driver of regional economic development.

  1. Climatic Conditions and Productivity: An Impact Evaluation in Pre-industrial England

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Auray; Aurélien Eyquem; Frédéric Jouneau-Sion

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we bridge economic data and climatic time series to assess the vulnerability of a pre-industrial economy to changes in climatic conditions. We propose an economic model to extract a measure of total productivity from English data (real wages and land rents) in the pre-industrial period. This measure of total productivity is then related to temperatures and precipitations. We find that lower (respectively higher) precipitations (resp. temperatures) enhance productivity. Further,...

  2. 'Dancing With Handcuffs and Shackles': How Product Placement Is Adopted By the Chinese Film Industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This PhD researches the role of product placement in modern Chinese cinema, exploring the shifting discourses and textually-specific practices that are unique to the practice of product placement within the Chinese film industry. Existing studies have focused almost exclusively on the Hollywood film industry, and have analysed product placement in terms of its effectiveness with audiences, and as a potential influence on consumer behaviour, often from a psycho...

  3. Energy consumption and carbon emission-based productivity change and industrialization in post-reform China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shiyi; Amelia U. Santos-Paulino

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the determinants of productivity growth in China. It also analyses the sustainability of the country's industrial growth by estimating sectoral productivity, accounting for energy usage and emission since the start of the market-oriented reforms in the late 1970s. The growth accounting analysis indicates that productivity is the most significant driver of growth. Energy and capital are also important factors promoting China's industrial growth. The substantial productiv...

  4. Operations management in automotive industries from industrial strategies to production resources management, through the industrialization process and supply chain to pursue value creation

    CERN Document Server

    Gobetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This book has proved its worth over the years as a text for courses in Production Management at the Faculty of Automotive Engineering in Turin, Italy, but deserves a wider audience as it presents a compendium of basics on Industrial Management, since it covers all major topics required. It treats all subjects from product development and “make or buy”-decision strategies to the manufacturing systems setting and management through analysis of the main resources needed in production and finally exploring the supply chain management and the procurement techniques. The very last chapter recapitulates the previous ones by analysing key management indicators to pursue the value creation that is the real purpose of every industrial enterprise. As an appendix, a specific chapter is dedicated to the basics of production management where all main relevant definitions, techniques and criteria are treated, including some numerical examples, in order to provide an adequate foundation for understanding the other chapte...

  5. Proposed industrial recoverd materials utilization targets for the textile mill products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Materials recovery targets were established to represent the maximum technically and economically feasible increase in the use of energy-saving materials by January 1, 1987. This report describes targets for the textile industry and describes how those targets were determined. (MCW)

  6. The "IT Productivity Paradox" Revisited: International Comparisons of Information Technology, Work Organisation and Productivity in Service Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Geoff; Wagner, Karin; Finegold, David; Keltner, Brent

    2000-01-01

    Although many authors now regard the 'IT productivity paradox' as an issue which has been resolved at firm level (at least in the US), some puzzles still remain at industry and national economy level. In this article we have explored the relationship between IT investments and relative labour productivity performance through comparisons of matched samples of banking and hotel establishments in the US, Germany and Britain. In both industries a lack of correspondence between country productivit...

  7. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

  8. Industrial Metrology Product Development: Best Practices and Success Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Makarov, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    Innovation is extremely important for companies to gain and sustain competitive advantage in the modern business environment. Nowadays ability to adapt and evolve is crucial for any company willing to survive. The key to effective adaption and evolvement is innovation. New products are commonly seen as an output of innovation whereas new product development process is considered to be a sub-process of innovation.  The thesis focuses on development of a new product in the company the author ha...

  9. Comparative Analysis of Capital Productivity in China's High-Tech Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingWang; AdamSzirmai

    2005-01-01

    While labor productivity is a topic of constant debate and has been studied extensively, far less attention has been devoted to the question of capital productivity. Productive use of physical capital is an important source of economic growth and investment return. This paper presents a comparative study of capital productivity in China's high-tech industry. Using a version of the perpetual inventory method (PIM), new estimates have been made of the physical capital stock by sector. Capital productivity in China's high-tech industry is higher than in total manufacturing, but the gap between them has been shrinking. Comparison with high-tech industries in the US., highlights that China's high-tech industries could play a more important role in the growth of manufacturing and the whole economy.

  10. Hollywood industry: Correlation between film production and political discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Zvijer Nemanja

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the relation between Hollywood industry and political establishment of the USA, particularly US foreign policy and the military intervention as its specific form. Only the biggest and the most significant US military interventions were considered: World War Two, Korean War, Vietnam War, military interventions in Latin America, in the Middle East, Asia, Africa and on Balkan, concerning their treatment in Hollywood movies without analyzing them in broader socio-political co...

  11. Software independence: impact on product development plan in automotive industries

    OpenAIRE

    M. Annarumma; Naddeo, A.; M. Pappalardo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper: Actually, in automotive industries one of the most important activities inproduct design is the evaluation of various events (i.e. crash events) using FEM simulation; in this context,software independence, that means to obtain the same simulation results on the same car-model using differentFEM solvers, will be useful for reducing virtual prototyping time and consequently Time To Market.Design/methodology/approach: Development of a software-indipendence transla...

  12. Information Production, Banking Industry Structure and Credit Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Chiesa, G

    1998-01-01

    Does the removal of intra-state entry barriers increase welfare? Will all banks survive? Will it lead to a consolidation of the banking industry? The experience of credit market deregulation has not been always successful. Credit market liberalisation, via the removal of entry barriers, of limitations of activity and of markets for funding is generally recognised at the origin of banking crises like the American Savings & Loans, the Scandinavian countries’ banking crises at the end of the 80’...

  13. Dry plasma processing for industrial crystalline silicon solar cell production

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper gives an overview on the standard crystalline silicon solar cell manufacturing processes typically applied in industry. Main focus has been put on plasma processes which can replace existing, mainly wet chemical processes within the standard process flow. Finally, additional plasma processes are presented which are suited for higher-efficient solar cells, i.e. for the ?passivated emitter and rear cell? concept (PERC) or the ?heterojun...

  14. Terpenes as renewable monomers for biobased materials

    OpenAIRE

    Norström, Emelie

    2011-01-01

    With the ambition to decrease the utilization of fossil fuels, a development of those raw materials that today only are seen as waste products is necessary. One of those waste products is turpentine. Turpentine is the largest natural source of terpenes in the world today. The main components are the terpenes α-pinene, β-pinene and 3-carene.  In this project, different polymerisation techniques have been evaluated to polymerise limonene with the aim to make a material out of the green raw mate...

  15. Eco-Challenges of Bio-Based Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Grozdanov

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years bio-based polymer composites have been the subject of many scientific and research projects, as well as many commercial programs. Growing global environmental and social concern, the high rate of depletion of petroleum resources and new environmental regulations have forced the search for new composites and green materials, compatible with the environment. The aim of this article is to present a brief review of the most suitable and commonly used biodegradable polymer matrices and NF reinforcements in eco-composites and nanocomposites, with special focus on PLA based materials.

  16. Energy productivity growth in the Dutch Greenhouse Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Ondersteijn, C.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Profitability of Dutch greenhouse firms is largely dependent on energy costs, and policy makers focus on reducing the use of energy by these firms. This article uses Russell measures of TE to develop indicators of energy productivity growth. Results show that energy productivity grew by 2.8% annuall

  17. Industrial Production and Professional Application of Manufactured Nanomaterials-Enabled End Products in Dutch Industries: Potential for Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, C.; Brouwer, D.H.; Tielemans, E.; Pronk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In order to make full use of the opportunities while responsibly managing the risks of working with manufactured nanomaterials (MNM), we need to gain insight into the potential level of exposure to MNM in the industry. Therefore, the goal of this study was to obtain an overview of the po

  18. The Use of Modelling Methods for Product Configuration in Industrial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Bonev, Martin; Haug, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    reported. This article investigates the challenge on how industrial companies model their product CSs. The study is based on interviews of 18 industrial companies using CSs for configuring customer-tailored products. It investigates the relationship between using a structured modelling technique for...... modelling product families relative to less or no formal approaches. Furthermore, the study explores the specific characteristics of configuration set-ups with respect to size and complexity and their effect on product variant management and availability of product knowledge in organizations. The results...... empirically validate the need for a suggested systematic modelling approach for large and complex configuration projects and its positive effect on the overall performance of companies....

  19. Conceptualizing the use of system products and system deliveries in the building industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Thuesen, Christian; Haug, Anders

    This article describes the concepts system products and system deliveries based on the use of product modularization and product configuration. The concepts are outlined and discussed based on examples from both the construction industry and related industry. The description focuses partly on the...... product architecture and partly of the setup of the business processes by using e.g. Configure to Order processes and Engineer to Order processes. Furthermore the potential impacts from using system products and system deliveries are discussed based on the examples included....

  20. Agro-industrial by-products as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A marked imbalance exists in many parts of the world between the number of ruminants and the availability of good quality fodder. The low feeding value of natural pastures, their seasonality of production, and the increasing cost of feed grain, have increased the dependence of ruminant animals on crop residues and by-products of agriculture for their nutrient requirements. Intensive animal production systems suitable for developed temperate regions have not been successful in the developing tropical countries, where appropriate farming systems for livestock production should have an integrated approach, combining both crop and livestock husbandry. Adoption of nutritional principles with a view to eliminating or reducing imbalances and optimizing rumen function have yielded excellent results, illustrating the future potential of fibrous residues and other agricultural by-products in ruminant feeding systems in developing countries. (author)

  1. Sustainability of biomass in a bio-based economy. A quick-scan analysis of the biomass demand of a bio-based economy in 2030 compared to the sustainable supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, J.; Olivier, J.; Notenboom, J. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The conversion of a fossil fuel-based economy into a bio-based economy will probably be restricted in the European Union (EU) by the limited supply of ecologically sustainable biomass. It appears realistic that, for the EU, the sustainable biomass supply will be enough to meet about 10% of the final energy and feedstock consumption in 2030. Under optimistic assumptions, this supply might increase to 20%. EU Member States, in their Renewable Energy Action Plans for 2020, already aim to apply an amount of biomass that already approaches this 10%. Therefore, from a sustainability perspective, there is an urgent need to guarantee ecologically sustainable biomass production. In considering sustainable biomass production, land use is the most critical issue, especially the indirect land-use impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity. The use of waste resources and agricultural and forestry residues, that does not involve additional land use, therefore, would be a sustainable option. Technically, it is possible to use these types of resources for most applications in a bio-based economy. However, it seems unlikely that, by 2030, waste and residue resources will contribute more than three to four per cent to the final energy and feedstock consumption in Europe. Moreover, many waste and residue resources currently already have useful applications; for instance, as feed or soil improvers. These are the main findings of a quick-scan analysis carried out by the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and CE Delft on the sustainability of a bio-based economy. Three priorities can be distinguished in the transition to an ecologically sustainable bio-based economy that aims to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels: (1) develop new technologies, procedures and infrastructure to collect or to produce more biomass without using directly or indirectly valuable natural land; (2) develop technologies to produce hydrocarbons from types of biomass that have potentially

  2. "Acquisitions, Productivity, and Profitability: Evidence from the Japanese Cotton Spinning Industry"

    OpenAIRE

    Serguey Braguinsky; Atsushi Ohyama; Tetsuji Okazaki; Chad Syverson

    2014-01-01

    We explore how changes in ownership and managerial control affect the productivity and profitability of producers. Using detailed operational, financial, management, and ownership data from the Japanese cotton spinning industry at the turn of the last century, we find a more nuanced picture than the straightforward "higher productivity buys lower productivity" story commonly appealed to in the literature. Acquired firms' production facilities were not on average any less physically productive...

  3. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products: Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an elec

  4. Effects of Lean Work Organization and Industrialization on Workflow and Productive Time in Housing Renovation Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijhoef, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents work aimed at improved organization and performance of production in housing renovation projects. The purpose is to explore and demonstrate the potential of lean work organization and industrialized product technology to improve workflow and productive time. The research included

  5. Construction Industry Products Diversification by Implementation of BIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kalinichuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to increase the effectiveness and economic stability of a construction company is product diversification. Intention to diversify construction products can be initiated for such reasons as necessity of capital injection, reducing of risks and costs of production, desire for optimization of delivery system, increasing economic competitiveness, etc. BIM can help to solve assigned tasks by diversification and optimize system operation as a whole. It becomes an actuality especially under conditions of severe competition when the possibility of attaining a work contract is reduced by increased focus.

  6. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  7. Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

  8. Industrial open source solutions for product life cycle management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors go through the open source for product life cycle management (PLM and the efforts done from communities such as the open source initiative. The characteristics of the open source solutions are highlighted as well. Next, the authors go through the requirements for PLM. This is an area where more attention has been given as the manufacturers are competing with the quality and life cycle costs of their products. Especially, the need of companies to try to get a strong position in providing services for their products and thus to make themselves less vulnerable to changes in the market has led to high interest in product life cycle simulation. The potential of applying semantic data management to solve these problems discussed in the light of recent developments. In addition, a basic roadmap is presented as to how the above-described problems could be tackled with open software solutions.

  9. Effect of Gasohol Production on the Sugarcane Industry in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wanida Norasethasopon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect ofgasohol production on sugarcane planting in Thailand. Pure ethanol of99.5 percent concentration is used to replace MTBE (Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether), which is normally used to increase octane number ofgasoline, to blend with gasoline at the rate of 10 percent to produceOctane 95 gasohol. There are several types of raw materials used inethanol production such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, sweet potato, rice, corn, wheat, sweet sorg...

  10. Polyurethane Foam from Industrial Waste of Plywood Production

    OpenAIRE

    Pāže, A; Zandersons, J; Stirna, U; Rižikovs, J; Tardenaka, A; Spince, B

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the possibility of using birch bark, a by-product of plywood production, for preparing polyurethane foam. A birch bark lignocellulose component – inner bark – was liquefied to obtain a polyurethane raw material – polyol mixture. Outer bark, containing valuable biologically active pentacyclic triterpenes (betulin, lupeol, betulinic acid, etc.), after extracting those compounds, was subjected to hydrothermal treatment in alkaline medium, and the other main inner bark component ...

  11. By-products from Fish Processing: Focus on French Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Penven, Anais; Perez-galvez, Raul; Berge, Jean-pascal

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnology advances for marine by-products conversion into products of interest are numerous. In order to give maximum elements of understanding, it is essential to define the framework of this research to understand why and how bioconversion technologies are applicable. It is essential to look beyond the technical and technological advances on the subject and so to take into account the economic, social, political and environmental parameters, which govern all forms of approaches for fish...

  12. Plant Genetic Resources for sustainability of agro industrial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recovery, the characterization and conservation of agro biodiversity are priority objectives of the European Union as part of strategies to preserve resources Genetic considered fundamental for sustainable development, community support, to encourage a balanced economic growth. ENEA has been involved for several years in the development of methodologies aimed at enhancing Local germplasm that can be of aid for the cultivation choices, for innovation of traditional production systems and for better use of the final product.

  13. Productivity in the Mining Industry: Measurement and Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon Topp; Leo Soames; Dean Parham; Harry Bloch

    2008-01-01

    Mining typically accounts for around 5 per cent of Australia's nominal market sector gross domestic product. Long lead times between investment in new capacity in mining and the associated output response can lead to short term movements in mining multifactor productivity (MFP) unrelated to underlying efficiency. Ongoing depletion of Australia's natural resource base is estimated to have had a significant adverse effect on long-term mining MFP. Over the longer-term, MFP impacts of resource de...

  14. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LC...

  15. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LC...

  16. 77 FR 24722 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in... ``Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products.'' The draft guidance, when finalized, will represent FDA's current thinking on the safety assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetic...

  17. 78 FR 19181 - Notice of Request for a New Information Collection: Egg Products Industry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Notice of Request for a New Information Collection: Egg Products Industry Survey AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... free electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups,...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.702 - Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 101-26.702 Section 101-26.702 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND... Defense § 101-26.702 Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc....

  19. Monitoring of industrial products, in the key market of security in modern times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the European Union methodology for keeping a high level of safety standards of industrial products in the general market, while fostering the dynamics of such market. It includes the explanation of how this methodology is applied in Spain particularly through the campaigns of the Ministry of Industry with the assistance of Foundation F2I2. (Author)

  20. 76 FR 58018 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Self-Selection Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Self-Selection Studies for... entitled ``Self-Selection Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products.'' The draft guidance is intended to provide recommendations to industry on the design of self- selection studies for nonprescription...