WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioassays electronic resource

  1. Worldwide bioassay data resources for plutonium/americium internal dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Bertelli, L.; Little, T.; Guilmette, R.; Riddell, T.; Filipy, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Biokinetic models are the scientific underpinning of internal dosimetry. These models describe how materials of interest taken into the body by various routes (for example inhalation) are transported through the body, allowing the modelling of bioassay measurements and the estimation of radiation dose. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) publishes biokinetic models for use in internal dosimetry. These models represent the consensus judgement of a committee of experts, based on human and animal data. Nonetheless, it is important to validate biokinetic models using directly applicable data, in a scientifically transparent manner, especially for internal dosimetry research purposes (as opposed to radiation protection), as in epidemiology studies. Two major goals would be to determine individual variations of model parameters for the purpose of assessing this source of uncertainty in internal dose calculations, and to determine values of workplace specific parameters (such as particle solubility in lung fluids) for different representative workplaces. Furthermore, data on the observed frequency of intakes under various conditions can be used in the interpretation of bioassay data. All of the above may be couched in the terminology of Bayesian statistical analysis and amount to the determination of the Bayesian prior probability distributions needed in a Bayesian interpretation of bioassay data. The authors have direct knowledge of several significant databases of plutonium/americium bioassay data (including autopsy data). The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the worldwide community with these resources and to invite others who may know of other such databases to participate with us in a publication that would document the content, form, and the procedures for seeking access to these databases. These databases represent a tremendous scientific resource in this field. Examples of databases known to the authors include: the

  2. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  3. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  4. Mimicking Daphnia magna bioassay performance by an electronic tongue for urban water quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsanov, Dmitry, E-mail: d.kirsanov@gmail.com [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sensor Systems LLC, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zagrebin, Anatoly; Ignatieva, Natalia; Rybakin, Vladimir [Institute of Limnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • -Daphnia magna bioassay can be simulated with multisensor system. • Urban water toxicity can be predicted from potentiometric ET data. • Independent test set validation confirms statistical significance of the results. - Abstract: Toxicity is one of the key parameters of water quality in environmental monitoring. However, being evaluated as a response of living beings (as their mobility, fertility, death rate, etc.) to water quality, toxicity can only be assessed with the help of these living beings. This imposes certain restrictions on toxicity bioassay as an analytical method: biotest organisms must be properly bred, fed and kept under strictly regulated conditions and duration of tests can be quite long (up to several days), thus making the whole procedure the prerogative of the limited number of highly specialized laboratories. This report describes an original application of potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue) when the set of electrochemical sensors was calibrated against Daphnia magna death rate in order to perform toxicity assessment of urban waters without immediate involvement of living creatures. PRM (partial robust M) and PLS (projections on latent structures) regression models based on the data from this multisensor system allowed for prediction of toxicity of unknown water samples in terms of biotests but in the fast and simple instrumental way. Typical errors of water toxicity predictions were below 20% in terms of Daphnia death rate which can be considered as a good result taking into account the complexity of the task.

  5. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  6. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  7. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  8. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  9. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  10. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  11. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  12. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  13. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  14. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  15. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  16. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  17. An Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no Detrimental Effect on the Predatory Mite Neoseiulus barkeri: Evidence from Laboratory Bioassay and Scanning Electron Microscopic Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyong; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Endong; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2014-01-01

    Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×107 mL−1conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×107 conidia mL−1 of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite. PMID:24454744

  18. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Wu

    Full Text Available Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7 mL(-1conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7 conidia mL(-1 of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  19. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  20. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  1. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  2. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  3. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  4. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  5. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  6. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  7. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  8. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  9. Bioassay guideline 2: guidelines for tritium bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This guideline is one of a series under preparation by the Federal-Provincial Working Group on Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring Criteria. In this report tritium compounds have been grouped into four categories for the purpose of calculating Annual Limits on Intake and Investigation Levels: tritium gas, tritiated water, tritium-labelled compounds and nucleic acid precursors

  10. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  11. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  12. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  13. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  14. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  15. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  16. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  17. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  18. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  19. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  20. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  1. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  2. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  3. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  4. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  5. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  6. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  7. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  8. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  9. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  10. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  11. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  12. Bioassay guideline 1: general guidlines for bioassay programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This guideline is the first of a series of documents which elaborate criteria for bioassay programs, to be presented as recommendations to the Atomic Energy Control Board. It specifies which workers require routine bioassays, the accuracy and frequency of measurements, the dose levels at which specific actions must be taken, and the documentation required

  13. Bioassay programs for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report discusses the rationale for the establishment of bioassay programs as a means of protection for radiation workers in the nuclear industry. The bioassay program of the Radiation Protection Bureau is described for the years 1966-1978 and plans for future changes are outlined. (auth)

  14. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  15. Fluorescence lifetime based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is a robust intrinsic property and material constant of fluorescent matter. Measuring this important physical indicator has evolved from a laboratory curiosity to a powerful and established technique for a variety of applications in drug discovery, medical diagnostics and basic biological research. This distinct trend was mainly driven by improved and meanwhile affordable laser and detection instrumentation on the one hand, and the development of suitable FLT probes and biological assays on the other. In this process two essential working approaches emerged. The first one is primarily focused on high throughput applications employing biochemical in vitro assays with no requirement for high spatial resolution. The second even more dynamic trend is the significant expansion of assay methods combining highly time and spatially resolved fluorescence data by fluorescence lifetime imaging. The latter approach is currently pursued to enable not only the investigation of immortal tumor cell lines, but also specific tissues or even organs in living animals. This review tries to give an actual overview about the current status of FLT based bioassays and the wide range of application opportunities in biomedical and life science areas. In addition, future trends of FLT technologies will be discussed.

  16. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  17. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  18. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  19. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  20. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  1. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  2. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  3. Applied in vitro radio bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaburo, J.C.G.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    1992-11-01

    The aim of this publication is to show the concepts and in vitro bioassay techniques as well as experimental procedures related with internal contamination evaluation. The main routes of intake, metabolic behavior, and the possible types of bioassay samples that can be collected for radionuclides analysis are described. Both biological processes and the chemical and physical behavior of the radioactive material of interest are considered and the capabilities of analytical techniques to detect and quantify the radionuclides are discussed. Next, the need of quality assurance throughout procedures are considered and finally a summary of the techniques applied to the internal routine monitoring of IPEN workers is given. (author)

  4. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  5. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  6. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  7. Bioassay and Scanning Electron Microscopic Observations Reveal High Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana, on the Onion Maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wu, Shengyong; Xing, Zhenlong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Lei, Zhongren

    2016-12-01

    When flies were dipped in 1 × 10 8 conidia/ml conidia suspensions and then kept in the incubator (22 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 5% RH), scanning electron microscope observations revealed that, at 2 h, the majority of adhering Beauveria bassiana conidia were attached to either the wing surface or the interstitial area between the macrochaetae on the thorax and abdomen of the onion maggot adults. Germ tubes were being produced and had oriented toward the cuticle by 18 h. Penetration of the insect cuticle had occurred by 36 h, and by 48 h, germ tubes had completely penetrated the cuticle. Fungal mycelia had emerged from the insect body and were proliferating after 72 h. The superficial area and structure of the wings and macrochaetae may facilitate the attachment of conidia and enable effective penetration. The susceptibility of adults to 12 isolates, at a concentration of 1 × 10 7 conidia/ml, was tested in laboratory experiments. Eight of the more potent strains caused in excess of 85% adult mortality 8 d post inoculation, while the median lethal time (LT 50 ) of these strains was bassiana strains are highly virulent to onion maggot adults and should be considered as potential biocontrol agents against the adult flies. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  9. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0057] Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions of uranium conversion facilities where the possibility of exposure...

  10. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  11. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  12. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  13. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  14. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  15. Studies on Erythropoietin Bioassay Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kyoung Sam; Ro, Heung Kyu; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-09-15

    It is the purpose of this paper to design the most preferable method of erythropoietin bioassay in Korea. Bioassay utilizing polycythemic mice are currently in general use for the indirect determination of erythropoietin. Assay animals are usually prepared either by transfusion or by exposure to reduced oxygen tension in specially constructed chamber. We prepared the polycythemic mice by the specially constructed hypobaric chamber. We observed weights and hematocrits of the mice in the hypobaric chamber, then hematocrits and 72 hours {sup 59}Fe red cell uptake ratio of the polycythemic mice induced by hypoxia after removal from the hypobaric chamber. We designed the method of erythropoietin bioassay according to the results obtained by above experiments. Then we measured the 72 hours {sup 59}Fe red cell uptake ratio of the polycythemic mice with normal saline, normal plasma and anemic plasma according to the method we designed. The results are followed:1) The hematocrits of the mice in hypobaric chamber increased to 74% in 11 days. It is preferable to maintain the pressure of the chamber to 400 mmHg for first 4 days then 300 mmHg for last 10 days to reduce the death rate and time consuming in hypobaric chamber. 2) After removal from the hypobaric chamber, the 72 hours {sup 59}Fe red cell uptake ratio decreased rapidly and maintained the lowest level from the fourth day to tenth day. 3) We design the method of erythropoietin bioassay according to the results of above experiment and to the half life of erythropoietin. 4) The Korean product {sup 59}Fe is mixture of {sup 55}Fe and {sup 59}Fe. And the {sup 59}Fe red cell uptake ratio in normal mice was far less with Korean product {sup 59}Fe than with pure {sup 59}Fe of foreign product. So it is desirable to use pure {sup 59}Fe in this method of erythropoietin bioassay. 5) Considering the cost, the technique, the time consuming and the sensitivity it is the most preferable method of erythropoietin bioassay in Korea

  16. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  17. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  18. Exposure dose assessment using bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Shinichi

    1994-01-01

    Bioassay involves following steps: sampling, pre-treatment, chemical separation and counting of radioactivity. As bioassay samples, urines are usually used, although faecal analysis may be required in some occasions for example to assess intake of non-transferable radioactive materials. Nasal smear is a useful indicator of an inhalation case. Exhalation air is used to estimate the intake of tritiated water. Sample pre-treatment includes evaporation for concentration, wet ashing, dry ashing and co-precipitation. After adding small amount of nitric acid, the sample can be concentrated by 1/10 of initial volume, which may be used to identify γ-emitters. As the pre-treatment of urine, wet ashing is used for example for analysis of Pu, and co-precipitation is used for example for analysis of Sr. Dry ashing by electric furnace is usually adopted for faecal samples. Methods of chemical separation depend on the radionuclide(s) to be analysed. The detection limit depends also on radionuclide, and for example typical detection limits are 0.4Bq / l (volume of urine sample) for 89 Sr or 90 Sr, and 0.01 Bq / l with urine and 0.01 Bq per sample with faeces for 238 Pu, 239 Pu or 241 Am. Simpler methods can be used for some radionuclides: For example, radioactivity concentration of tritium can be determined by liquid scintillation counting of urine or condensed water from exhaled air, and natural uranium in urine can be quantified by using fluorometric method. In some circumstances, gross-α or gross-β analyses are useful for quick estimation. To estimate intakes by inhalation or by ingestion from bioassay results and to assess the committed dose equivalent, commonly available bases are the relevant publications by the ICRP and domestic guides and manuals that conform to the radiation protection regulations. (author)

  19. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  20. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  1. Interpretation of thorium bioassay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliao, L.M.Q.C.; Azeredo, A.M.G.F.; Santos, M.S.; Melo, D.R.; Dantas, B.M.; Lipsztein, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison have been made between bioassay data of thorium-exposed workers from two different facilities. The first of these facilities is a monazite sand extraction plant. Isotopic equilibrium between 232 Th and 238 Th was not observed in excreta samples of these workers. The second facility is a gas mantle factory. An isotopic equilibrium between 232 Th and 228 Th was observed in extra samples. Whole body counter measurements have indicated a very low intake of thorium through inhalation. As the concentration of thorium in feces was very high it was concluded that the main pathway of entrance of the nuclide was ingestion, mainly via contamination through dirty hands. The comparison between the bioassay results of workers from the two facilities shows that the lack of Th isotopic equilibrium observed in the excretion from the workers at the monazite sand plant possibly occurred due to an additional Th intake by ingestion of contaminated fresh food. This is presumably because 228 Ra is more efficiently taken up from the soil by plants, in comparison to 228 Th or 232 Th, and subsequently, 228 Th grows in from its immediate parent, 228 Ra. (author) 5 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  3. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  4. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  5. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  6. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  7. Rapid bioassay for oil-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J. [ALS Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Oosterbroek, L. [HydroQual, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described a study conducted to develop a rapid bioassay for soils contaminated with oil. The bioassay method was designed for a weight of evidence (WoE) approach and eco-contact guideline derivation protocol. Microtox bioassays were conducted on cyclodextrin extracts of soil quantified by solvent extraction and gas chromatography. The method was demonstrated using straight {beta}-cyclodextrin soil extracts and activated {beta}-cyclodextrin soil extracts. An analysis of the methods showed that the activation step weakens or breaks the cyclodextrin and polycyclic hydrocarbon (PHC) inclusion complex. The released PHC became toxic to the microtox organism. Results from the bioassays were then correlated with earthworm reproduction bioassay results. tabs., figs.

  8. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  10. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  11. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  12. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  13. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  14. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  15. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  16. Bioassay for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschaeche, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings are composed of fine sand that contains, among other things, some uranium (U/sup 238/ primarily), and all of the uranium daughters starting with /sup 230/Th that are left behind after the usable uranium is removed in the milling process. Millions of pounds of tailings are and continue to be generated at uranium mills around the United States. Discrete uranium mill tailings piles exist near the mills. In addition, the tailings materials were used in communities situated near mill sites for such purposes as building materials, foundations for buildings, pipe runs, sand boxes, gardens, etc. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) is a U.S. Department of Energy Program designed with the intention of removing or stabilizing the mill tailings piles and the tailings used to communities so that individuals are not exposed above the EPA limits established for such tailings materials. This paper discusses the bioassay programs that are established for workers who remove tailings from the communities in which they are placed

  17. BioAssay templates for the semantic web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Clark

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Annotation of bioassay protocols using semantic web vocabulary is a way to make experiment descriptions machine-readable. Protocols are communicated using concise scientific English, which precludes most kinds of analysis by software algorithms. Given the availability of a sufficiently expressive ontology, some or all of the pertinent information can be captured by asserting a series of facts, expressed as semantic web triples (subject, predicate, object. With appropriate annotation, assays can be searched, clustered, tagged and evaluated in a multitude of ways, analogous to other segments of drug discovery informatics. The BioAssay Ontology (BAO has been previously designed for this express purpose, and provides a layered hierarchy of meaningful terms which can be linked to. Currently the biggest challenge is the issue of content creation: scientists cannot be expected to use the BAO effectively without having access to software tools that make it straightforward to use the vocabulary in a canonical way. We have sought to remove this barrier by: (1 defining a BioAssay Template (BAT data model; (2 creating a software tool for experts to create or modify templates to suit their needs; and (3 designing a common assay template (CAT to leverage the most value from the BAO terms. The CAT was carefully assembled by biologists in order to find a balance between the maximum amount of information captured vs. low degrees of freedom in order to keep the user experience as simple as possible. The data format that we use for describing templates and corresponding annotations is the native format of the semantic web (RDF triples, and we demonstrate some of the ways that generated content can be meaningfully queried using the SPARQL language. We have made all of these materials available as open source (http://github.com/cdd/bioassay-template, in order to encourage community input and use within diverse projects, including but not limited to our own

  18. Bioassay criteria for environmental restoration workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) work at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford Site posed questions concerning when to perform bioassay monitoring of workers for potential intakes of radioactivity. Application of criteria originally developed for use inside radionuclide processing facilities to ER work resulted in overly restrictive bioassay requirements. ER work typically involves site characterization or, excavating large quantities of potentially contaminated soil, rather than working with concentrated quantities of radioactivity as in a processing facility. An improved approach, tailored to ER work, provided soil contamination concentrations above which worker bioassay would be required. Soil concentrations were derived assuming acute or chronic intakes of 2% of an Annual Limit on Intake (ALI), or a potential committed effective dose equivalent of 100 mrem, and conservative dust loading of air from the work. When planning ER work, the anticipated soil concentration and corresponding need for bioassay could be estimated from work-site historical records. Once site work commenced, soil sampling and work-place surveys could be used to determine bioassay needs. This approach substantially reduced the required number of bioassay samples with corresponding reductions in analytical costs, schedules, and more flexible work-force management. (Work supported by the US Department of Energy under contract DOE-AC06-76RLO 1830.)

  19. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  20. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  1. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  2. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  3. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  4. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  5. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  6. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  7. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  8. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  9. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  11. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  13. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  14. In vitro bioassays to evaluate complex chemical mixtures in recycled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ai; Escher, Beate I.; Leusch, Frederic D.L.; Tang, Janet Y.M.; Prochazka, Erik; Dong, Bingfeng; Snyder, Erin M.; Snyder, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    With burgeoning population and diminishing availability of freshwater resources, the world continues to expand the use of alternative water resources for drinking, and the quality of these sources has been a great concern for the public as well as public health professionals. In vitro bioassays are increasingly being used to enable rapid, relatively inexpensive toxicity screening that can be used in conjunction with analytical chemistry data to evaluate water quality and the effectiveness of water treatment. In this study, a comprehensive bioassay battery consisting of 36 bioassays covering 18 biological endpoints was applied to screen the bioactivity of waters of varying qualities with parallel treatments. Samples include wastewater effluent, ultraviolet light (UV) and/or ozone advanced oxidation processed (AOP) recycled water, and infiltrated recycled groundwater. Based on assay sensitivity and detection frequency in the samples, several endpoints were highlighted in the battery, including assays for genotoxicity, mutagenicity, estrogenic activity, glucocorticoid activity, aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity, oxidative stress response, and cytotoxicity. Attenuation of bioactivity was found to be dependent on the treatment process and bioassay endpoint. For instance, ozone technology significantly removed oxidative stress activity, while UV based technologies were most efficient for the attenuation of glucocorticoid activity. Chlorination partially attenuated genotoxicity and greatly decreased herbicidal activity, while groundwater infiltration efficiently attenuated most of the evaluated bioactivity with the exception of genotoxicity. In some cases, bioactivity (e.g., mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and arylhydrocarbon receptor) increased following water treatment, indicating that transformation products of water treatment may be a concern. Furthermore, several types of bioassays with the same endpoint were compared in this study, which could help guide the selection

  15. In vitro bioassays to evaluate complex chemical mixtures in recycled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ai; Escher, Beate I; Leusch, Frederic D L; Tang, Janet Y M; Prochazka, Erik; Dong, Bingfeng; Snyder, Erin M; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-09-01

    With burgeoning population and diminishing availability of freshwater resources, the world continues to expand the use of alternative water resources for drinking, and the quality of these sources has been a great concern for the public as well as public health professionals. In vitro bioassays are increasingly being used to enable rapid, relatively inexpensive toxicity screening that can be used in conjunction with analytical chemistry data to evaluate water quality and the effectiveness of water treatment. In this study, a comprehensive bioassay battery consisting of 36 bioassays covering 18 biological endpoints was applied to screen the bioactivity of waters of varying qualities with parallel treatments. Samples include wastewater effluent, ultraviolet light (UV) and/or ozone advanced oxidation processed (AOP) recycled water, and infiltrated recycled groundwater. Based on assay sensitivity and detection frequency in the samples, several endpoints were highlighted in the battery, including assays for genotoxicity, mutagenicity, estrogenic activity, glucocorticoid activity, arylhydrocarbon receptor activity, oxidative stress response, and cytotoxicity. Attenuation of bioactivity was found to be dependent on the treatment process and bioassay endpoint. For instance, ozone technology significantly removed oxidative stress activity, while UV based technologies were most efficient for the attenuation of glucocorticoid activity. Chlorination partially attenuated genotoxicity and greatly decreased herbicidal activity, while groundwater infiltration efficiently attenuated most of the evaluated bioactivity with the exception of genotoxicity. In some cases, bioactivity (e.g., mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and arylhydrocarbon receptor) increased following water treatment, indicating that transformation products of water treatment may be a concern. Furthermore, several types of bioassays with the same endpoint were compared in this study, which could help guide the selection

  16. A specific bioassay for the inhibition of flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J

    1972-06-01

    A bioassay for the inhibition of flowering involving the in vitro culture of excised, partially-induced, apices of Viscaria candida is described. This bioassay has been used to detect flowering inhibition in extracts from Kalanchoe blossfeldiana.

  17. 7 Vascular Hydrophytes for Bioassay.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    4 water (see Table 1). tool. The greater extension growth of macrophyte shoots in water from downstream of STWs (Fig. 1) was supported by both chemical analysis, which showed increased phosphate concentration (Table 1), and by conventional Selenastrum bioassay in which higher cell concentrations were achieved.

  18. Bioassay of naturally occurring allelochemicals for phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leather, G R; Einhellig, F A

    1988-10-01

    The bioassay has been one of the most widely used tests to demonstrate allelopathic activity. Often, claims that a particular plant species inhibits the growth of another are based entirely on the seed germination response to solvent extracts of the suspected allelopathic plant; few of these tests are of value in demonstrating allelopathy under natural conditions. The veracity of the bioassay for evaluating naturally occurring compounds for phytotoxicity depends upon the physiological and biochemical response capacity of the bioassay organism and the mechanism(s) of action of the allelochemicals. The possibility that more than one allelochemical, acting in concert at very low concentrations, may be responsible for an observed allelopathic effect makes it imperative that bioassays be extremely sensitive to chemical growth perturbation agents. Among the many measures of phytotoxicity of allelochemicals, the inhibition (or stimulation) of seed germination, radicle elongation, and/or seedling growth have been the parameters of choice for most investigations. Few of these assays have been selected with the view towards the possible mechanism of the allelopathic effect.

  19. Micro-organism distribution sampling for bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Purpose of sampling distribution is to characterize sample-to-sample variation so statistical tests may be applied, to estimate error due to sampling (confidence limits) and to evaluate observed differences between samples. Distribution could be used for bioassays taken in hospitals, breweries, food-processing plants, and pharmaceutical plants.

  20. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  2. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  3. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  4. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  5. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  6. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  7. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  8. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  9. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  11. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  12. The Intersection of CMOS Microsystems and Upconversion Nanoparticles for Luminescence Bioimaging and Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Wei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic fluorophores and quantum dots are ubiquitous as contrast agents for bio-imaging and as labels in bioassays to enable the detection of biological targets and processes. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs offer a different set of opportunities as labels in bioassays and for bioimaging. UCNPs are excited at near-infrared (NIR wavelengths where biological molecules are optically transparent, and their luminesce in the visible and ultraviolet (UV wavelength range is suitable for detection using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology. These nanoparticles provide multiple sharp emission bands, long lifetimes, tunable emission, high photostability, and low cytotoxicity, which render them particularly useful for bio-imaging applications and multiplexed bioassays. This paper surveys several key concepts surrounding upconversion nanoparticles and the systems that detect and process the corresponding luminescence signals. The principle of photon upconversion, tuning of emission wavelengths, UCNP bioassays, and UCNP time-resolved techniques are described. Electronic readout systems for signal detection and processing suitable for UCNP luminescence using CMOS technology are discussed. This includes recent progress in miniaturized detectors, integrated spectral sensing, and high-precision time-domain circuits. Emphasis is placed on the physical attributes of UCNPs that map strongly to the technical features that CMOS devices excel in delivering, exploring the interoperability between the two technologies.

  13. The ICRP working party on bioassay interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, F.A.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Birchall, A.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years there have been many developments in modelling the behaviour of radionuclides in the human body. The current generation of models are designed to be more 'realistic' than the previous generation of simple compartment models. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) uses these models to produce dose coefficients and recognises that there is a need to give more guidance on how these models can be used to interpret bioassay data. A working party has been set up to address the issue. This paper describes some of the problems, some approaches to solving the problems and the progress of the ICRP working party. (author)

  14. Bioassay method for Uranium in urine by Delay Neutron counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman; Purwanto; Sukarman-Aminjoyo

    1996-01-01

    A bioassay method for uranium in urine by neutron counting has been studied. The aim of this research is to obtain a bioassay method for uranium in urine which is used for the determination of internal dose of radiation workers. The bioassay was applied to the artificially uranium contaminated urine. The weight of the contaminant was varied. The uranium in the urine was irradiated in the Kartini reactor core, through pneumatic system. The delayed neutron was counted by BF3 neutron counter. Recovery of the bioassay was between 69.8-88.8 %, standard deviation was less than 10 % and the minimum detection was 0.387 μg

  15. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  16. Bioassay method for Uranium in urine by Delay Neutron counting; Metoda Bioassay Uranium dalam urin dengan pencacahan Netron Kasip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratman,; Purwanto,; Sukarman-Aminjoyo, [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-04-15

    A bioassay method for uranium in urine by neutron counting has been studied. The aim of this research is to obtain a bioassay method for uranium in urine which is used for the determination of internal dose of radiation workers. The bioassay was applied to the artificially uranium contaminated urine. The weight of the contaminant was varied. The uranium in the urine was irradiated in the Kartini reactor core, through pneumatic system. The delayed neutron was counted by BF3 neutron counter. Recovery of the bioassay was between 69.8-88.8 %, standard deviation was less than 10 % and the minimum detection was 0.387 {mu}g.

  17. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  18. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  19. Bioassay of procoagulant albumin in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosset, A; Liu, L; Parker, C J; Rodgers, G M

    1994-09-01

    Procoagulant albumin (P-Al) is present in normal human plasma and increases monocyte and endothelial cell expression of tissue factor activity. To develop a bioassay for P-Al, we partially purified plasma from healthy volunteers and several patient groups using BaCl2 and (NH4)2SO4 precipitation. The samples were assayed for tissue factor (TF) inducing activity, expressed as a percentage increase compared to a serum-free media control. Over six months, the assay was reproducible in stored samples and in serial samples from normal volunteers. The plasma P-Al activities of 35 volunteers averaged 141 +/- 8.2% (SEM). There was no diurnal variation. There was no difference in the P-Al activity after a 12 hour fast and 2 hours after a large meal in 4 healthy volunteers. There was no increase in activity (r = 0.16) with the subject's age. The average activity from 16 poorly-controlled diabetics was 131 +/- 11% (SEM). No alteration in activity was seen with samples from patients with uremia, liver dysfunction, hemophilia, thrombotic events, or adenocarcinoma. These results indicate that P-Al activity can be bioassayed in individual patient samples; however, pathologic states associated with abnormal P-Al-induced tissue factor activity presently remain unidentified.

  20. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  1. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  2. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  3. Are bioassays useful tools to assess redox processes and biodegradation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Pedersen, Philip Grinder; Ludvigsen, L.

    2002-01-01

    sensitive hydrochemical or geochemical parameters, levels of hydrogen, and redox potential. However, all these approaches have to be evaluated against TEAP-bioassays as the most direct measure. We assessed successfully ongoing microbial-mediated redox processes by TEAP-bioassays in degradation studies...... of aromatic and chlorinated aliphatic compounds in landfill leachate plumes, and of pesticides in aquifers with various redox conditions....

  4. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  5. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  6. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  7. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  8. Circular Bioassay Platforms for Applications in Microwave-Accelerated Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Clement, Travis C; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-12-02

    In this paper, we present the design of four different circular bioassay platforms, which are suitable for homogeneous microwave heating, using theoretical calculations (i.e., COMSOL™ multiphysics software). Circular bioassay platforms are constructed from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for optical transparency between 400-800 nm, has multiple sample capacity (12, 16, 19 and 21 wells) and modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to be used in microwave-accelerated bioassays (MABs). In addition, a small monomode microwave cavity, which can be operated with an external microwave generator (100 W), for use with the bioassay platforms in MABs is also developed. Our design parameters for the circular bioassay platforms and monomode microwave cavity during microwave heating were: (i) temperature profiles, (ii) electric field distributions, (iii) location of the circular bioassay platforms inside the microwave cavity, and (iv) design and number of wells on the circular bioassay platforms. We have also carried out additional simulations to assess the use of circular bioassay platforms in a conventional kitchen microwave oven (e.g., 900 W). Our results show that the location of the circular bioassay platforms in the microwave cavity was predicted to have a significant effect on the homogeneous heating of these platforms. The 21-well circular bioassay platform design in our monomode microwave cavity was predicted to offer a homogeneous heating pattern, where inter-well temperature was observed to be in between 23.72-24.13°C and intra-well temperature difference was less than 0.21°C for 60 seconds of microwave heating, which was also verified experimentally.

  9. Plasmonically amplified fluorescence bioassay with microarray format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogalic, S.; Hageneder, S.; Ctortecka, C.; Bauch, M.; Khan, I.; Preininger, Claudia; Sauer, U.; Dostalek, J.

    2015-05-01

    Plasmonic amplification of fluorescence signal in bioassays with microarray detection format is reported. A crossed relief diffraction grating was designed to couple an excitation laser beam to surface plasmons at the wavelength overlapping with the absorption and emission bands of fluorophore Dy647 that was used as a label. The surface of periodically corrugated sensor chip was coated with surface plasmon-supporting gold layer and a thin SU8 polymer film carrying epoxy groups. These groups were employed for the covalent immobilization of capture antibodies at arrays of spots. The plasmonic amplification of fluorescence signal on the developed microarray chip was tested by using interleukin 8 sandwich immunoassay. The readout was performed ex situ after drying the chip by using a commercial scanner with high numerical aperture collecting lens. Obtained results reveal the enhancement of fluorescence signal by a factor of 5 when compared to a regular glass chip.

  10. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  11. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  12. Evaluating the efficacy of biological and conventional insecticides with the new 'MCD bottle' bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Waite, Jessica L; Thomas, Matthew B

    2014-12-16

    Control of mosquitoes requires the ability to evaluate new insecticides and to monitor resistance to existing insecticides. Monitoring tools should be flexible and low cost so that they can be deployed in remote, resource poor areas. Ideally, a bioassay should be able to simulate transient contact between mosquitoes and insecticides, and it should allow for excito-repellency and avoidance behaviour in mosquitoes. Presented here is a new bioassay, which has been designed to meet these criteria. This bioassay was developed as part of the Mosquito Contamination Device (MCD) project and, therefore, is referred to as the MCD bottle bioassay. Presented here are two experiments that serve as a proof-of-concept for the MCD bottle bioassay. The experiments used four insecticide products, ranging from fast-acting, permethrin-treated, long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) that are already widely used for malaria vector control, to the slower acting entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, that is currently being evaluated as a prospective biological insecticide. The first experiment used the MCD bottle to test the effect of four different insecticides on Anopheles stephensi with a range of exposure times (1 minute, 3 minutes, 1 hour). The second experiment is a direct comparison of the MCD bottle and World Health Organization (WHO) cone bioassay that tests a subset of the insecticides (a piece of LLIN and a piece of netting coated with B. bassiana spores) and a further reduced exposure time (5 seconds) against both An. stephensi and Anopheles gambiae. Immediate knockdown and mortality after 24 hours were assessed using logistic regression and daily survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Across both experiments, fungus performed much more consistently than the chemical insecticides but measuring the effect of fungus required monitoring of mosquito mortality over several days to a week. Qualitatively, the MCD bottle and WHO cone performed comparably

  13. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  14. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  15. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  16. Collection and control of tritium bioassay samples at Pantex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairrow, N.L.; Ivie, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Pantex is the final assembly/disassembly point for US nuclear weapons. The Pantex internal dosimetry section monitors radiation workers once a month for tritium exposure. In order to manage collection and control of the bioassay specimens efficiently, a bar code system for collection of samples was developed and implemented to speed up the process and decrease the number of errors probable when transferring data. In the past, all the bioassay data from samples were entered manually into a computer database. Transferring the bioassay data from the liquid scintillation counter to each individual's dosimetry record required as much as two weeks of concentrated effort

  17. Bioassays for the determination of nitrification inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunditz, Camilla

    1999-07-01

    Requirements for nitrogen reduction in wastewater treatment plants were introduced in Sweden in the early 1990's. This was a governmental move to reduce the nitrogen discharges to the Baltic and Kattegat in order to prevent eutrophication. The nitrification process in wastewater treatment plants is performed by nitrifying bacteria. These are susceptible to inhibition and it is of great importance that the influent water does not contain toxic compounds. Therefore, there is a need for assays for the determination of nitrification inhibition. This thesis describes the development and applications of such bioassays. Pure cultures of Nitrosomonas sp. and Nitrobacter sp. were isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant. These cultures were used as test organisms in the development of bioassays for nitrification inhibition measurements. The assays are based on two different principles; cell suspensions of the bacteria, performed in test tubes, and mediated amperometric biosensors with the bacteria immobilised. Ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation are studied separately without interference from other organisms, which makes it easier to interpret the results. The cell suspension assays were applied to samples of industrial and municipal wastewater. The Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter assays showed to have different inhibition patterns. A large percentage of the Swedish municipal wastewater treatment plants were found to receive inhibitory influent water, but the inhibition level was generally low. Compared to an assay based on activated sludge, the screening method, the pure culture assays found more samples of influent water strongly inhibitory or stimulating. The highest correlation was found between the screening method and the Nitrosomonas assay. The Nitrobacter assay was found to be the most sensitive method. Assessment of toxicity of a number of chemical substances was studied using the biosensors, together with the cell suspension assays

  18. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  19. Reporter gene bioassays in environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, S; Belkin, S; Schmid, R D

    2000-01-01

    In parallel to the continuous development of increasingly more sophisticated physical and chemical analytical technologies for the detection of environmental pollutants, there is a progressively more urgent need also for bioassays which report not only on the presence of a chemical but also on its bioavailability and its biological effects. As a partial fulfillment of that need, there has been a rapid development of biosensors based on genetically engineered bacteria. Such microorganisms typically combine a promoter-operator, which acts as the sensing element, with reporter gene(s) coding for easily detectable proteins. These sensors have the ability to detect global parameters such as stress conditions, toxicity or DNA-damaging agents as well as specific organic and inorganic compounds. The systems described in this review, designed to detect different groups of target chemicals, vary greatly in their detection limits, specificity, response times and more. These variations reflect on their potential applicability which, for most of the constructs described, is presently rather limited. Nevertheless, present trends promise that additional improvements will make microbial biosensors an important tool for future environmental analysis.

  20. Annotating Human P-Glycoprotein Bioassay Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrazil, Barbara; Pinto, Marta; Vasanthanathan, Poongavanam; Williams, Antony J; Balderud, Linda Zander; Engkvist, Ola; Chichester, Christine; Hersey, Anne; Overington, John P; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2012-08-01

    Huge amounts of small compound bioactivity data have been entering the public domain as a consequence of open innovation initiatives. It is now the time to carefully analyse existing bioassay data and give it a systematic structure. Our study aims to annotate prominent in vitro assays used for the determination of bioactivities of human P-glycoprotein inhibitors and substrates as they are represented in the ChEMBL and TP-search open source databases. Furthermore, the ability of data, determined in different assays, to be combined with each other is explored. As a result of this study, it is suggested that for inhibitors of human P-glycoprotein it is possible to combine data coming from the same assay type, if the cell lines used are also identical and the fluorescent or radiolabeled substrate have overlapping binding sites. In addition, it demonstrates that there is a need for larger chemical diverse datasets that have been measured in a panel of different assays. This would certainly alleviate the search for other inter-correlations between bioactivity data yielded by different assay setups.

  1. Bioassay Phantoms Using Medical Images and Computer Aided Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X. Geroge

    2011-01-01

    A radiation bioassay program relies on a set of standard human phantoms to calibrate and assess radioactivity levels inside a human body for radiation protection and nuclear medicine imaging purposes. However, the methodologies in the development and application of anthropomorphic phantoms, both physical and computational, had mostly remained the same for the past 40 years. We herein propose a 3-year research project to develop medical image-based physical and computational phantoms specifically for radiation bioassay applications involving internally deposited radionuclides. The broad, long-term objective of this research was to set the foundation for a systematic paradigm shift away from the anatomically crude phantoms in existence today to realistic and ultimately individual-specific bioassay methodologies. This long-term objective is expected to impact all areas of radiation bioassay involving nuclear power plants, U.S. DOE laboratories, and nuclear medicine clinics.

  2. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of Bioassays for the Ecotoxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María D.; Babín, Mar; Tarazona, José V.

    The use of bioassays for soil characterization is receiving significant attention as a complementary tool to chemical analysis. Bioassays consist of direct toxicity assays of environmental samples that are transferred to the laboratory and analyzed for toxicity against selected organisms. Such soil samples contain the combination of the different pollutants present in situ and enable factors such as the bioavailability of contaminants or the interactions (synergic and antagonic) between them to be simultaneously studied.

  4. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  5. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  6. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  7. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  8. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  9. Evaluation and modeling of the parameters affecting fluoride toxicity level in aquatic environments by bioassay method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Shamsollahi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride exists in various forms in nature and water resources. , The rising level of fluoride in water resources due to discharge of industrial effluents can cause toxicity in aquatic organisms. To prevent toxicity, it is necessary to determine maximum fluoride toxicity as well as effluent discharge limits. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum fluoride toxicity and the factors affecting fluoride toxicity to provide a model in order to determine the effluent discharge limits. Methods: Daphnia magna bioassay in the absence of confounding factors was used to determine the maximum level of fluoride toxicity. Then, bioassay was repeated in the presence of the confounding factors (hardness, temperature and exposure time to determine their effects. Results: In the absence of intervening factors, fluoride LC50 levels determined after 24, 48 and 72 hours exposure were 4.9, 46.5 and 38.7 mg/l, respectively.. Also, the influence of confounding factors on LC50 values was reported significant by Minitab software. Conclusion: Increasing the water hardness reduced fluoride toxicity, and increasing the water temperature and exposure time increased fluoride toxicity in aquatic environments. Therefore, while determining the wastewater discharge limit in terms of fluoride concentration, it is essential to take the effect of confounding factors on fluoride toxicity into account in order to prevent toxicity in the open water resources.

  10. Redox-flexible NADH oxidase biosensor: A platform for various dehydrogenase bioassays and biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serban, Simona; El Murr, Nabil

    2006-01-01

    A generic amperometric bioassay based on the enzymatic oxidation catalysed by the stable NADH oxidase (NAox) from Thermus thermophilus has been developed for NADH measurements. The NAox uses O 2 as its natural electron acceptor and produces H 2 O 2 in a two-electron process. Electrochemical and spectrophotometric experiments showed that the NAox used in this work, presents a very good activity towards its substrate and, in contrary to previously mentioned NADH oxidases, does not require the addition of any exogenous flavin cofactor neither to promote nor to maintain its activity. In addition, the NAox used also works with artificial electron acceptors like ferrocene derivatives. O 2 was successfully replaced by redox mediators such as hydroxymethyl ferrocene (FcCH 2 OH) for the regeneration of the active enzyme. Combining the NAox with the mediator and the horseradish peroxidase we developed an original, high sensitive 'redox-flexible' NADH amperometric bioassay working in a large window of applied potentials in both oxidation and reduction modes. The biosensor has a continuous and complementary linearity range permitting to measure NADH concentrations starting from 5 x 10 -6 M in reduction until 2 x 10 3 M in oxidation. This redox-flexibility allows choosing the applied potential in order to avoid electrochemical interferences. The association of the 'redox-flexible' concept with NADH dependent enzymes opens a novel strategy for dehydrogenases based bioassays and biosensors. The great number of dehydrogenases available makes the concept applicable for numerous substrates to analyse. Moreover it allows the development of a wide range of biosensors on the basis of a generic platform. This gives several advantages over the previous manufacturing techniques and offers a general and flexible scheme for the fabrication of biosensors presenting high sensitivities, wide calibration ranges and less affected by electrochemical interferences

  11. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John

    2008-09-01

    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  12. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  13. [Investigation on pattern and methods of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on dao-di herbs and bioassay - bioassay for Coptis chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2011-05-01

    Establishment of bioassay methods is the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis Franch. as an example, the establishment process and application of the bioassay methods (including bio-potency and bio-activity fingerprint) were explained from the aspects of methodology, principle of selection, experimental design, method confirmation and data analysis. The common technologies were extracted and formed with the above aspects, so as to provide technical support for constructing pattern and method of the quality control for Chinese materia medica based on the dao-di herbs and bioassay.

  14. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  15. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ

    2011-12-01

    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  16. The effect of pesticide residue on caged mosquito bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J A S; Greer, Mike; Coughlin, Jamie

    2006-09-01

    Wind tunnel experiments showed that secondary pickup of insecticide residue by mosquitoes in cage bioassays had a significant effect on mortality. Cage bioassays using adult Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) investigated the effect of exposure time to a contaminated surface. Cages were dosed in a wind tunnel using the LC50 for naled (0.124 mg a.i./ml) and an LC25 (0.0772 mg a.i./ml) for naled. Half of the bioassay mosquitoes were moved directly into clean cages with the other half remaining in the sprayed, hence contaminated, cage. Treatment mortality was assessed at 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 1,440 min postapplication. Cage contamination had a significant effect on mosquito mortality for both the LC25 and LC50 between 15 and 30 min postapplication.

  17. Internal dosimetry performing dose assessments via bioassay measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Internal Dosimetry Department at the Y-12 Plant maintains a state-of-the-art bioassay program managed under the guidance and regulations of the Department of Energy. The two major bioassay techniques currently used at Y-12 are the in vitro (urinalysis) and in vivo (lung counting) programs. Fecal analysis (as part of the in vitro program) is another alternative; however, since both urine and fecal analysis provide essentially the same capabilities for detecting exposures to uranium, the urinalysis is the main choice primarily for aesthetic reasons. The bioassay frequency is based on meeting NCRP 87 objectives which are to monitor the accumulation of radioactive material in exposed individuals, and to ensure that significant depositions are detected

  18. Bioassays for risk assessment of coal conversion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacht, S.; Sinder, C.; Pfeifer, F.; Klein, J. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Traditional as well as biotechnological processing coal leads to complex mixtures of products. Besides chemical and physical characterization, which provides the information for product application, there is a need for bioassays to monitor properties that are probably toxic, mutagenic or cancerogenic. Investigations carried out focused on the selection, adaptation and validation of bioassays for the sensitive estimation of toxic effects. Organisms like bacteria, Daphnia magna and Scenedesmus subspicatus, representing different complexities in the biosphere, were selected as test systems for ecotoxicological and mutagenicity studies. The results obtained indicate that bioassays are, in principle, suitable tools for characterization and evaluation of coal-derived substances and bioconversion products. Using coal products, coal-relevant model compounds and bioconversion products, data for risk assessment are presented. (orig.)

  19. Manual on theory and practical aspects of bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuraini Hambali.

    1985-06-01

    This manual is set to provide necessary basic guidance on theory and practical aspects of bioassay specially for the newcomer in this field and the man in the laboratory. The first part is a brief information on the entry of radionuclides into the body, the metabolism and the programs of bioassay. All other factors to be considered in assessing internal contamination in man have also been brought up. In the second part, various procedures of radiochemical separations, detection and measurements are abstracted from journals and other revisions. Some methods have been attempted and to be followed where appropriate. (author)

  20. An examination of the analysis of radiostrontiums in bioassay applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linauskas, S.H.; Leon, J.W.

    1993-05-01

    Radiostrontiums are among the most radiologically significant radionuclides in the nuclear reactor environment due to their relatively high fission yield, long physical half-life, volatility and mobility in the workplace, and long retention times in tissues such as bone. Effective bioassay programs include analytical processes that consider prospective monitoring requirements provided by screening measurements, as well as the retrospective monitoring requirements provided by screening measurements following an intake. Chromatography using crown ethers as well as the use of spectrometry techniques with advanced liquid-scintillation counters or solid-state surface-barrier detectors appear to have significant benefits for Sr bioassay programs. (author). 90 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  1. An examination of the analysis of radiostrontiums in bioassay applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linauskas, S H; Leon, J W

    1993-05-01

    Radiostrontiums are among the most radiologically significant radionuclides in the nuclear reactor environment due to their relatively high fission yield, long physical half-life, volatility and mobility in the workplace, and long retention times in tissues such as bone. Effective bioassay programs include analytical processes that consider prospective monitoring requirements provided by screening measurements, as well as the retrospective monitoring requirements provided by screening measurements following an intake. Chromatography using crown ethers as well as the use of spectrometry techniques with advanced liquid-scintillation counters or solid-state surface-barrier detectors appear to have significant benefits for Sr bioassay programs. (author). 90 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  3. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  4. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  5. Initial sample extract stock concentration affects in vitro bioassay-based toxicological risk characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montano, M.; Loffmann, L.; Murk, A.J.; Gutleb, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bioassays have become an alternative for sediment risk profiling, including potential compliance with sediment quality criteria (SQC). In vitro functional bioassays have evolved through standardization and validation towards a confident toxicological hazard estimate of sediments. Sample

  6. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  7. A statistical treatment of bioassay pour fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barengoltz, Jack; Hughes, David

    A bioassay is a method for estimating the number of bacterial spores on a spacecraft surface for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with planetary protection (PP) requirements (Ref. 1). The details of the process may be seen in the appropriate PP document (e.g., for NASA, Ref. 2). In general, the surface is mechanically sampled with a damp sterile swab or wipe. The completion of the process is colony formation in a growth medium in a plate (Petri dish); the colonies are counted. Consider a set of samples from randomly selected, known areas of one spacecraft surface, for simplicity. One may calculate the mean and standard deviation of the bioburden density, which is the ratio of counts to area sampled. The standard deviation represents an estimate of the variation from place to place of the true bioburden density commingled with the precision of the individual sample counts. The accuracy of individual sample results depends on the equipment used, the collection method, and the culturing method. One aspect that greatly influences the result is the pour fraction, which is the quantity of fluid added to the plates divided by the total fluid used in extracting spores from the sampling equipment. In an analysis of a single sample’s counts due to the pour fraction, one seeks to answer the question: What is the probability that if a certain number of spores are counted with a known pour fraction, that there are an additional number of spores in the part of the rinse not poured. This is given for specific values by the binomial distribution density, where detection (of culturable spores) is success and the probability of success is the pour fraction. A special summation over the binomial distribution, equivalent to adding for all possible values of the true total number of spores, is performed. This distribution when normalized will almost yield the desired quantity. It is the probability that the additional number of spores does not exceed a certain value. Of course

  8. Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of nutritional potentials of almond fruit waste as an alternative feedstuff for livestock. ... AFW using day-old cockerels and considering performance parameters showed that treated AFW improved feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio even better ...

  9. Preliminary results of testing bioassay analytical performance standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Robinson, A.V.; Hadley, R.T.

    1983-08-01

    The analytical performance of both in vivo and in vitro bioassay laboratories is being studied to determine the capability of these laboratories to meet the minimum criteria for accuracy and precision specified in the draft ANSI Standard N13.30, Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay. This paper presents preliminary results of the first round of testing

  10. US Army Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry: The RBD software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ward, R.C.; Maddox, L.B.

    1993-01-01

    The RBD (Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry) software package was developed for the U. S. Army Material Command, Arlington, Virginia, to demonstrate compliance with the radiation protection guidance 10 CFR Part 20 (ref. 1). Designed to be run interactively on an IBM-compatible personal computer, RBD consists of a data base module to manage bioassay data and a computational module that incorporates algorithms for estimating radionuclide intake from either acute or chronic exposures based on measurement of the worker's rate of excretion of the radionuclide or the retained activity in the body. In estimating the intake,RBD uses a separate file for each radionuclide containing parametric representations of the retention and excretion functions. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent. For a given nuclide, if measurements exist for more than one type of assay, an auxiliary module, REPORT, estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. Bioassay data and computed results (estimates of intake and committed dose equivalent) are stored in separate data bases, and the bioassay measurements used to compute a given result can be identified. The REPORT module creates a file containing committed effective dose equivalent for each individual that can be combined with the individual's external exposure

  11. Soil bioassays as tools for sludge compost quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Sola, Laura; Ramirez, Wilson; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Composting is a waste management technology that is becoming more widespread as a response to the increasing production of sewage sludge and the pressure for its reuse in soil. In this study, different bioassays (plant germination, earthworm survival, biomass and reproduction, and collembolan survival and reproduction) were assessed for their usefulness in the compost quality assessment. Compost samples, from two different composting plants, were taken along the composting process, which were characterized and submitted to bioassays (plant germination and collembolan and earthworm performance). Results from our study indicate that the noxious effects of some of the compost samples observed in bioassays are related to the low organic matter stability of composts and the enhanced release of decomposition endproducts, with the exception of earthworms, which are favored. Plant germination and collembolan reproduction inhibition was generally associated with uncomposted sludge, while earthworm total biomass and reproduction were enhanced by these materials. On the other hand, earthworm and collembolan survival were unaffected by the degree of composting of the wastes. However, this pattern was clear in one of the composting procedures assessed, but less in the other, where the release of decomposition endproducts was lower due to its higher stability, indicating the sensitivity and usefulness of bioassays for the quality assessment of composts.

  12. Assessment of acrylamide toxicity using a battery of standardised bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovko, Mira; Vidaković-Cifrek, Željka; Cvetković, Želimira; Bošnir, Jasna; Šikić, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Acrylamide is a monomer widely used as an intermediate in the production of organic chemicals, e.g. polyacrylamides (PAMs). Since PAMs are low cost chemicals with applications in various industries and waste- and drinking water treatment, a certain amount of non-polymerised acrylamide is expected to end up in waterways. PAMs are non-toxic but acrylamide induces neurotoxic effects in humans and genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. In order to evaluate the effect of acrylamide on freshwater organisms, bioassays were conducted on four species: algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, duckweed Lemna minor and water flea Daphnia magna according to ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) standardised methods. This approach ensures the evaluation of acrylamide toxicity on organisms with different levels of organisation and the comparability of results, and it examines the value of using a battery of low-cost standardised bioassays in the monitoring of pollution and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. These results showed that EC50 values were lower for Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata than for Daphnia magna and Lemna minor, which suggests an increased sensitivity of algae to acrylamide. According to the toxic unit approach, the values estimated by the Lemna minor and Daphnia magna bioassays, classify acrylamide as slightly toxic (TU=0-1; Class 1). The results obtained from algal bioassays (Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) revealed the toxic effect of acrylamide (TU=1-10; Class 2) on these organisms.

  13. Microplate Bioassay for Determining Substrate Selectivity of "Candida rugosa" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-zhen; Fang, Bai-shan

    2012-01-01

    Substrate selectivity of "Candida rugosa" lipase was tested using "p"-nitrophenyl esters of increasing chain length (C[subscript 1], C[subscript 7], C[subscript 15]) using the high-throughput screening method. A fast and easy 96-well microplate bioassay was developed to help students learn and practice biotechnological specificity screen. The…

  14. Soil plate bioassay: an effective method to determine ecotoxicological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda, R; Roca-Pérez, L; Marimón, L

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metals have become one of the most serious anthropogenic stressors for plants and other living organisms. Having efficient and feasible bioassays available to assess the ecotoxicological risks deriving from soil pollution is necessary. This work determines pollution by Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in two soils used for growing rice from the Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Spain). Both were submitted to a different degree of anthropic activity, and their ecotoxicological risk was assessed by four ecotoxicity tests to compare their effectiveness: Microtox test, Zucconi test, pot bioassay (PB) and soil plate bioassay (SPB). The sensitivity of three plant species (barley, cress and lettuce) was also assessed. The results reveal a different degree of effectiveness and level of inhibition in the target organisms' growth depending on the test applied, to such an extent that the one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences only for the plate bioassay results, with considerable inhibition of root and shoot elongation in seedlings. Of the three plant species selected, lettuce was the most sensitive species to toxic effects, followed by cress and barley. Finally, the results also indicate that the SPB is an efficient, simple and economic alternative to other ecotoxicological assays to assess toxicity risks deriving from soil pollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  16. Bioassay for aquatic ecosystems review and classification; Rassegna dei principali test di ecotossicologia acquatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanci, Antonella; Rosa, Silvia [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    Bioassay play a crucial role in assessing the actual or potential impacts of anthropogenic agents on the natural environment. In this technical report, literature on bioassays for aquatic ecosystems has been reviewed and classified. Problems associated with the choice and application of bioassays are discussed.

  17. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  18. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  19. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  20. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  1. Bioassay-based risk assessment of hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, K.C.; Brown, K.W.; He, L.Y. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Microbial bioassays have been used to assess the genotoxic hazard at more than 30 different hazardous waste sites. Environmental samples were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol, and the resulting residue tested using GC/MS analysis as well as the Salmonella Microsomal and E. coli Prophage Induction assays. At a munitions wastewater contaminated site, there was no correlation between mutagenicity in bacteria, and the risk as estimated from chemical analysis data of trinitrotoluene. Samples 202 and 204 from a coal gasification site contained 72 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg benzo(a)pyrene, whereas the mutagenic responses of these samples were 231 net revertants/mg and 902 revertants/mg, respectively. The data suggest that microbial bioassays provide a valuable tool for monitoring the interactions of the components of a complex mixture.

  2. Improving global laboratory capabilities for emergency radionuclide bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.; Jourdain, J.; Kramer, G. H.

    2012-01-01

    During a radiological or nuclear emergency, first-responders and the general public may be internally contaminated with the radionuclide(s) involved. A timely radionuclide bioassay provides important information about contamination, for subsequent dose assessment and medical management. Both technical and operational gaps are discussed in this paper. As many people may need to be assessed in a short period of time, any single laboratory may find its capabilities insufficient. Laboratories from other regions or other countries may be called upon for assistance. This paper proposes a road-map to improve global capabilities in emergency radionuclide bioassay, suggesting a phased approach for establishing a global laboratory network. Existing international collaboration platforms could provide the base on which to build such a network. (authors)

  3. A Rapid and Simple Bioassay Method for Herbicide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Qing Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, has been used in bioassay detection of a variety of toxic compounds such as pesticides and toxic metals, but mainly using liquid culture systems. In this study, an algal lawn--agar system for semi-quantitative bioassay of herbicidal activities has been developed. Sixteen different herbicides belonging to 11 different categories were applied to paper disks and placed on green alga lawns in Petri dishes. Presence of herbicide activities was indicated by clearing zones around the paper disks on the lawn 2-3 days after application. The different groups of herbicides induced clearing zones of variable size that depended on the amount, mode of action, and chemical properties of the herbicides applied to the paper disks. This simple, paper-disk-algal system may be used to detect the presence of herbicides in water samples and act as a quick and inexpensive semi-quantitative screening for assessing herbicide contamination.

  4. The use of cultivars of Raphanus sativus for cytokinin bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Six cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus were tested for their usefulness in radish cytokinin bioassay by the method of Letham (1971. The best cultivar was found to be 'Sopel Lodu' which responds well to both zeatin and 2iP over a wide range of concentrations. The fresh weight of cotyledons increased at most by 71.5% (if treated with zeatin or 101.0% (if treated with 2iP compared to untreated cotyledons. This cultivar is also sensitive to the partially purified cytokinin-like fraction isolated from the pine (Pinus silvestris cambial region. The cultivar 'Sopel Lodu' is therefore proposed to be a suitable plant for cytokinin bioassays.

  5. The IMBA suite: integrated modules for bioassay analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchall, A.; Jarvis, N.S.; Peace, M.S.; Riddell, A.E.; Battersby, W.P

    1998-07-01

    The increasing complexity of models representing the biokinetic behaviour of radionuclides in the body following intake poses problems for people who are required to implement these models. The problem is exacerbated by the current paucity of suitable software. In order to remedy this situation, a collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels, Westlakes Research Institute and the National Radiological Protection Board has started with the aim of producing a suite of modules for estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements using the new ICRP models. Each module will have a single purpose (e.g. to calculate respiratory tract deposition) and will interface with other software using data files. The elements to be implemented initially are plutonium, uranium, caesium, iodine and tritium. It is intended to make the software available to other parties under terms yet to be decided. This paper describes the proposed suite of integrated modules for bioassay analysis, IMBA. (author)

  6. Log bioassay of residual effectiveness of insecticides against bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1982-01-01

    Residual effectiveness of nine insecticides applied to bark was tested against western, mountain, and Jeffrey pine beetles. Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees were treated and logs cut from them 2 to 13 months later, and bioassayed with the three beetles. The insecticides were sprayed at the rate of 1 gal (3.8 l) per 40- or 80-ft² (3.6 or 7.2 m²) bark surface at varying...

  7. Eubacterium brachy - Reactivity in In Vitro Bone Resorptive Bioassay,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-10

    Center Washington, D. C . 20307 If Eubacterium brachy - Reactivity in In Vitro Bone Resorptive Bioassay 1. ABSTRACT Recent studies have demonstrated an...Relative distribution of bacteria at clinically healthy and periodontally diseased sites in humans. J Clin Periodontal 5:115, 1978. 3. Evian, C ...applied foreign protein into rat gingiva. J Periodont Res 6:89, 1971. 21. Gaffer, A., Coleman, E.J., and Marcussen, H.W.: Penetration of dental plaque

  8. Activities of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters in various bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Rajesh, Sanjay K; Kumar, Vikas; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus

    2012-04-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds contain 30-35% oil, which can be converted to high quality biodiesel. However, Jatropha oil is toxic, ascribed to the presence of phorbol esters (PEs). In this study, isolated phorbol ester rich fraction (PEEF) was used to evaluate the activity of PEs using three aquatic species based bioassays (snail (Physa fontinalis), brine shrimp (Artemeia salina), daphnia (Daphnia magna)) and microorganisms. In all the bioassays tested, increase in concentration of PEs increased mortality with an EC(50) (48 h) of 0.33, 26.48 and 0.95 mg L(-1) PEs for snail, artemia and daphnia, respectively. The sensitivity of various microorganisms for PEs was also tested. Among the bacterial species tested, Streptococcus pyogenes and Proteus mirabilis were highly susceptible with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 215 mg L(-1) PEs; and Pseudomonas putida were also sensitive with MIC of 251 mg L(-1) PEs. Similarly, Fusarium species of fungi exhibited EC(50) of 58 mg L(-1) PEs, while Aspergillus niger and Curvularia lunata had EC(50) of 70 mg L(-1). The snail bioassay was most sensitive with 100% snail mortality at 1 μg of PEs mL(-1). In conclusion, snail bioassay could be used to monitor PEs in Jatropha derived products such as oil, biodiesel, fatty acid distillate, kernel meal, cake, glycerol or for contamination in soil or other environmental matrices. In addition, PEs with molluscicidal/antimicrobial activities could be utilized for agricultural and pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The 10th Annual Bioassays and Bioanalytical Method Development Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mark; Tudan, Christopher; Koltchev, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    The 10th Annual Bioassays and Bioanalytical Method Development Conference was hosted in Boston, MA, USA on 20-22 October 2014. This meeting brought together scientists from the biopharmaceutical and life sciences industries, the regulatory agency and academia to share and discuss current trends in cell-based assays and bioanalysis, challenges and ideas for the future of the bioassays and bioanalytical method development. The experiences associated with new and innovative technologies were evaluated as well as their impact on the current bioassays methodologies and bioanalysis workflow, including quality, feasibility, outsourcing strategies and challenges, productivity and compliance. Several presentations were also provided by members of the US FDA, sharing both scientific and regulatory paradigms including a most recent update on the position of the FDA with specific aspects of the draft Bioanalytical Method Validation guidance following its review of the industry's responses. The meeting was jointly coincided with the 15th Annual Immunogenicity for Biotherapeutics meeting, allowing for attendees to also familiarize themselves with new and emerging approaches to overcome the effect of immunogenicity, in addition to investigative strategies.

  10. A Bioassay System Using Bioelectric Signals from Small Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terawaki, Mitsuru; Soh, Zu; Hirano, Akira; Tsuji, Toshio

    Although the quality of tap water is generally examined using chemical assay, this method cannot be used for examination in real time. Against such a background, the technique of fish bioassay has attracted attention as an approach that enables constant monitoring of aquatic contamination. The respiratory rhythms of fish are considered an efficient indicator for the ongoing assessment of water quality, since they are sensitive to chemicals and can be indirectly measured from bioelectric signals generated by breathing. In order to judge aquatic contamination accurately, it is necessary to measure bioelectric signals from fish swimming freely as well as to stably discriminate measured signals, which vary between individuals. However, no bioassay system meeting the above requirements has yet been established. This paper proposes a bioassay system using bioelectric signals generated from small fish in free-swimming conditions. The system records signals using multiple electrodes to cover the extensive measurement range required in a free-swimming environment, and automatically discriminates changes in water quality from signal frequency components. This discrimination is achieved through an ensemble classification method using probability neural networks to solve the problem of differences between individual fish. The paper also reports on the results of related validation experiments, which showed that the proposed system was able to stably discriminate between water conditions before and after bleach exposure.

  11. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  12. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  13. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  14. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  15. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  16. Fluorescence-Based Bioassays for the Detection and Evaluation of Food Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nishi, Kentaro; Isobe, Shin-Ichiro; Zhu, Yun; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2015-01-01

    We summarize here the recent progress in fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials by focusing on fluorescent dyes used in bioassays and applications of these assays for food safety, quality and efficacy. Fluorescent dyes have been used in various bioassays, such as biosensing, cell assay, energy transfer-based assay, probing, protein/immunological assay and microarray/biochip assay. Among the arrays used in microarray/biochip assay, fluorescence-based mi...

  17. Comparison of five bioassay techniques for assessing sediment-bound contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlf, Wolfgang; Calmano, Wolfgang; Erhard, Judith; Förstner, Ulrich

    1989-01-01

    Biological response could not be predicted based on chemical concentration of the sediment contaminants. Bioassays integrate the response of test organisms to contaminants and nutrients. Comparative results of five acute bioassays indicated that Neubauer phytoassay was the most sensitive. The mircobial biomass and algal growth tests indicated a response to the availability of contaminants and nutrients. These results suggest the usefulness of a diversity of bioassays in toxicity testing of se...

  18. Comparison of solid-phase bioassays and ecoscores to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils.

    OpenAIRE

    Lors , Christine; Ponge , Jean-François; Martínez Aldaya , Maite; Damidot , Denis

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the co...

  19. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III) or Cd (II) whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II) and Zn (II) were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II) concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products. PMID:23098077

  20. Interpretation of bioassay data from nuclear fuel fabrication workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D.; Xavier, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, workers are exposed to different compounds of enriched uranium. Although in this kind of facility the main route of intake is inhalation, ingestion may occur in some situations. The interpretation of the bioassay data is very complex, since it is necessary taking into account all the different parameters, which is a big challenge. Due to the high cost of the individual monitoring programme for internal dose assessment in the routine monitoring programmes, usually only one type of measurement is assigned. In complex situations like the one described in this paper, where several parameters can compromise the accuracy of the bioassay interpretation it is need to have a combination of techniques to evaluate the internal dose. According to ICRP 78 (1997), the general order of preference in terms of accuracy of interpretation is: body activity measurement, excreta analysis and personal air sampling. Results of monitoring of working environment may provide information that assists in interpretation on particle size, chemical form and solubility, time of intake. A group of seventeen workers from controlled area of the fuel fabrication facility was selected to evaluate the internal dose using all different available techniques during a certain period. The workers were monitored for determination of uranium content in the daily urinary and faecal excretion (collected over a period of 3 consecutive days), chest counting and personal air sampling. The results have shown that at least two types of sensitivity techniques must be used, since there are some sources of uncertainties on the bioassay interpretation, like mixture of uranium compounds intake and different routes of intake. The combination of urine and faeces analysis has shown to be the more appropriate methodology for assessing internal dose in this situation. (author)

  1. Efficient algal bioassay based on short-term photosynthetic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, J.M.; Stewart, A.J.; O'Neill, R.V.; Gardner, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure is described for measuring the effects of toxicants on algal photosynthesis (carbon-14 bicarbonate (H 14 CO 3 )uptake) in 4-h experiments. The results for individual aromatic compounds and the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a synthetic oil are presented as examples of applications of the bioassay. The toxicity of the WSF varied among the seven algal species tested, and the responses of some species were pH-dependent. With Selenastrum capricornutum as the test organism, the bioassay results were unaffected by variations in pH from 7.0 to 9.0, light intensity from 40 to 200 μeinsteins m -2 s -1 , culture density up to 0.5 mg chlorophyll a per litre, and agitation up to 100 rpm. The photosynthesis bioassay is simpler and faster (4 h versus 4 to 14 days), uses smaller culture volumes, and requires less space than static culture-growth tests. One person can conveniently test four materials per day, and the entire procedure, including preparation, exposure, and analysis, takes less than two days. The short incubation time reduces bottle effects such as pH changes, accumulation of metabolic products, nutrient depletion, and bacterial growth. Processes that remove or alter the test materials are also minimized. The data presented here indicate that algal photosynthesis is inhibited at toxicant concentrations similar to those that cause acute effects in aquatic animals. A model of a pelagic ecosystem is used to demonstrate that even temporary (seven-day) inhibition of algal photosynthesis can have a measurable impact on other trophic levels, particularly if the other trophic levels are also experiencing toxic effects. 25 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  2. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiki Mohammad Shohel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III or Cd (II whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II and Zn (II were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products.

  3. Lanthanide-doped upconverting phosphors for bioassay and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huichen; Sun, Shiqi

    2012-10-01

    Lanthanide-doped fluorescent materials have gained increasing attention in recent years due to their unique luminescence properties which have led to their use in wide-ranging fields including those of biological applications. Aside from being used as agents for in vivo imaging, lanthanide-doped fluorescent materials also present many advantages for use in bioassays and therapy. In this review, we summarize the applications of lanthanide-doped up-converting phosphors (UCPs) in protein and gene detection, as well as in photodynamic and gene therapy in recent years, and outline their future potential in biological applications. The current report could serve as a reference for researchers in relevant fields.

  4. BIOSAY: a computer program to store and report bioassay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.E.; Parlagreco, J.R.

    1978-12-01

    BIOSAY is a computer program designed to manipulate bioassay data. Using BIOSAY, the Dosimetry Group can generate a report suitable for an individual's dosimetry record. A second copy of this report may be mailed to the individual who provided the sample or the area health physicist for review. BIOSAY also contains a data sorting option which allows all the results for particular individuals, or groups of individuals with common attributes, to be separated from the data base. The computer code is written in a conversational tone with aids which make it usable by even casual users of the computer system

  5. Field and Bioassay Indicators for Internal Dose Intervention Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2007-01-01

    Guidance is presented that is used at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site to identify the potential need for medical intervention in response to intakes of radioactivity. The guidance, based on ICRP Publication 30 models and committed effective dose equivalents of 20 mSv and 200 mSv, is expressed as numerical workplace measurements and derived first-day bioassay results for large intakes. It is used by facility radiation protection staff and on-call dosimetry support staff during the first few days following an intake

  6. Herbicide impact on Hormosira banksii gametes measured by fluorescence and germination bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, Cliff R. [Institute for Water and Environmental Resource Management, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, Westbourne Street, Gore Hill, 2065 NSW (Australia); Gunthorpe, Leanne [Primary Industries Research Victoria (PIRVic), VIC (Australia); Ralph, Peter J. [Institute for Water and Environmental Resource Management, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, Westbourne Street, Gore Hill, 2065 NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: peter.ralph@uts.edu.au

    2006-03-15

    The innovative bioassay described here involves chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements of gametes from the macroalgae, Hormosira banksii, where gametes (eggs) were exposed to Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil. Response was assessed as percent inhibition from control of effective quantum yield ({delta}F/Fm') of photosystem II, herein referred to as % PSII Inhibition. This was measured with the dual-channelled pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer, ToxY-PAM. The fluorescence bioassay was run simultaneously with an established H. banksii germination bioassay to compare sensitivity, precision, and time-to-result. The fluorescence bioassay gave highly sensitive results evidenced by EC{sub 5}s (% PSII Inhibition) for Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil being three, four and three orders of magnitude (respectively) lower than EC{sub 5}s generated from the germination bioassays. Precision of the fluorescence bioassay was demonstrated with low coefficient of variations (<30%) for all three toxicants. With regard to time, the fluorescence bioassay gave results within 6 h, as opposed to more than 50 h for the germination bioassay. - Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements form the basis of a macroalgal bioassay with many advantages over germination-based methods.

  7. Herbicide impact on Hormosira banksii gametes measured by fluorescence and germination bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seery, Cliff R.; Gunthorpe, Leanne; Ralph, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    The innovative bioassay described here involves chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements of gametes from the macroalgae, Hormosira banksii, where gametes (eggs) were exposed to Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil. Response was assessed as percent inhibition from control of effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm') of photosystem II, herein referred to as % PSII Inhibition. This was measured with the dual-channelled pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer, ToxY-PAM. The fluorescence bioassay was run simultaneously with an established H. banksii germination bioassay to compare sensitivity, precision, and time-to-result. The fluorescence bioassay gave highly sensitive results evidenced by EC 5 s (% PSII Inhibition) for Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil being three, four and three orders of magnitude (respectively) lower than EC 5 s generated from the germination bioassays. Precision of the fluorescence bioassay was demonstrated with low coefficient of variations (<30%) for all three toxicants. With regard to time, the fluorescence bioassay gave results within 6 h, as opposed to more than 50 h for the germination bioassay. - Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements form the basis of a macroalgal bioassay with many advantages over germination-based methods

  8. Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair; Reid, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous reports have indicated that hydrophobic organic compound bioaccessibility in sediment and soil can be determined by extraction using aqueous hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solutions. This study establishes the compatibility of HPCD with Selenastrum capricornutum and assesses whether its presence influences the toxicity of reference toxicants. Algal growth inhibition (72 h) showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference at HPCD concentrations up to and including 20 mM. HPCD presence did not influence the toxicity of the inorganic reference toxicant (ZnSO 4 ), with IC50 values of 0.82 μM and 0.85 μM, in the presence and absence of HPCD (20 mM), respectively. However, HPCD presence (20 mM) reduced the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicides diuron and isoproturon. These reductions were attributed to inclusion complex formation between the toxicants and the HPCD cavity. Liberation of complexed toxicants, by sample manipulation prior to toxicity assessment, is proposed to provide a sensitive, high throughput, bioassay that reflects compound bioaccessibility. - Compatibility of the biomimetic HPCD extraction method with algal cell growth inhibition bioassays to assess toxicity of reference toxicants and environmental relevant herbicides

  9. Progress in herbicide determination with the thylakoid bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapmann, S; Etxebarria, N; Schnabl, H; Grobecker, K H

    1998-01-01

    Chloroplast thylakoids are used as biological units to determine herbicides in different kinds of water samples as well as in aqueous extracts of compost, soil or food samples. The thylakoid bioassay shows clearly inhibition of fluorescence yield in the presence of photosystem II specific herbicides. Due to this method the ecotoxicological effect of samples with unknown pollutants can be tested fast and cost effective. It has been proven that all photosynthetic active compounds are recorded at the same time because only additive interactions occur. Therefore, the contamination level can be expressed as cumulative parameter for photosystem II active substances. Application was improved clearly by the addition of the radical scavenger sodium ascorbate to the isolation media and by a higher concentration of the measuring medium. A new data evaluation method is described yielding in a lower detection limit of 0.4 microg diuron/1. The guidelines for the quality of water for human consumption with an allowable concentration of pesticides in groups is 0,5 microg/1 and can be controlled with the thylakoid bioassay without performing any preconcentration steps.

  10. Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk

    2009-01-15

    Numerous reports have indicated that hydrophobic organic compound bioaccessibility in sediment and soil can be determined by extraction using aqueous hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solutions. This study establishes the compatibility of HPCD with Selenastrum capricornutum and assesses whether its presence influences the toxicity of reference toxicants. Algal growth inhibition (72 h) showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference at HPCD concentrations up to and including 20 mM. HPCD presence did not influence the toxicity of the inorganic reference toxicant (ZnSO{sub 4}), with IC50 values of 0.82 {mu}M and 0.85 {mu}M, in the presence and absence of HPCD (20 mM), respectively. However, HPCD presence (20 mM) reduced the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicides diuron and isoproturon. These reductions were attributed to inclusion complex formation between the toxicants and the HPCD cavity. Liberation of complexed toxicants, by sample manipulation prior to toxicity assessment, is proposed to provide a sensitive, high throughput, bioassay that reflects compound bioaccessibility. - Compatibility of the biomimetic HPCD extraction method with algal cell growth inhibition bioassays to assess toxicity of reference toxicants and environmental relevant herbicides.

  11. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  12. Self-Paced Interactive Multimedia Courseware: A Learning Support Resource for Enhancing Electronic Theses and Dissertations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…

  13. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  14. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  15. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  16. The use of bioassays to assess the toxicity of sediment in an acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure of river sediment from 7 sampling sites to these bioassays provided an eco-toxicological estimation of the acute toxicity and chronic toxicity emanating from the contaminated sediments. Physico-chemical analyses revealed higher levels of sediment contamination closer to the mine. The bioassays displayed a ...

  17. Validation of a Novel Bioassay for Low-level Perchlorate Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    was not attractive, since these reduce PMS2 , and it was thought they would interfere with the stoichiometry of NADH and perchlorate in the bioassay...these reduce PMS2 directly, and would interfere with the stoichiometry of NADH and perchlorate in the bioassay. Thus the only approach that could be

  18. Sample preparation for combined chemical analysis and bioassay application in water quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, A.; Schriks, M.; Brand, W; Bäuerlein, P.S.; van der Kooi, M.M.E.; van Doorn, R.H.; Emke, E.; Reus, A.; van der Linden, S.; de Voogt, P.; Heringa, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of in vitro bioassays and chemical screening can provide a powerful toolbox to determine biologically relevant compounds in water extracts. In this study, a sample preparation method is evaluated for the suitability for both chemical analysis and in vitro bioassays. A set of 39

  19. The CALUX bioassay: current status of its application to screening food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Goeyens, L.; Carbonnelle, S.; Loco, van J.; Beernaert, H.; Baeyens, W.; Traag, W.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Jacobs, G.; Schoeters, G.

    2006-01-01

    The CALUX bioassay is at present the best screening method for dioxins and dioxin-like (dl) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food and feed, and the only assay used in routine monitoring and during larger incidents. Furthermore, the use of bioassays in addition to chemical reference methods allows

  20. Selection of gonadotrophin surge attenuating factor phage antibodies by bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsa-Leslie, Tarja; Mason, Helen D; Harris, William J; Fowler, Paul A

    2005-09-26

    We aimed to combine the generation of "artificial" antibodies with a rat pituitary bioassay as a new strategy to overcome 20 years of difficulties in the purification of gonadotrophin surge-attenuating factor (GnSAF). A synthetic single-chain antibody (Tomlinson J) phage display library was bio-panned with partially purified GnSAF produced by cultured human granulosa/luteal cells. The initial screening with a simple binding immunoassay resulted in 8 clones that were further screened using our in-vitro rat monolayer bioassay for GnSAF. Initially the antibodies were screened as pooled phage forms and subsequently as individual, soluble, single-chain antibody (scAbs) forms. Then, in order to improve the stability of the scAbs for immunopurification purposes, and to widen the range of labelled secondary antibodies available, these were engineered into full-length human immunoglobulins. The immunoglobulin with the highest affinity for GnSAF and a previously described rat anti-GnSAF polyclonal antiserum was then used to immunopurify bioactive GnSAF protein. The two purified preparations were electrophoresed on 1-D gels and on 7 cm 2-D gels (pH 4-7). The candidate GnSAF protein bands and spots were then excised for peptide mass mapping. Three of the scAbs recognised GnSAF bioactivity and subsequently one clone of the purified scAb-derived immunoglobulin demonstrated high affinity for GnSAF bioactivity, also binding the molecule in such as way as to block its bioactivity. When used for repeated immunopurification cycles and then Western blot, this antibody enabled the isolation of a GnSAF-bioactive protein band at around 66 kDa. Similar results were achieved using the rat anti-GnSAF polyclonal antiserum. The main candidate molecules identified from the immunopurified material by excision of 2-D gel protein spots was human serum albumin precursor and variants. This study demonstrates that the combination of bioassay and phage display technologies is a powerful tool in the

  1. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  2. The BIDAS: bioassay data analysis software for evaluating radionuclide intake and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Young; Lee, Jong Il; Chang, Si Young

    2003-01-01

    The BIDAS (BIoassay Data Analysis Software) computer code was developed for the interpretation of bioassay measurements in terms of the intake and dose using the International Commission on Radiological Protection's(ICRP's) currently recommended respiratory tract, GI-tract and biokinetic models to describe the behavior of the radioactive materials within the body. The code consists of a data base module to the manage bioassay data, a data base module containing the predicted bioassay quantities of each radionuclide, and a computational module to the estimate radionuclide intake and dose from either an acute or a chronic exposure based on the measured bioassay quantities. This paper describes the features of the code as well as the results of the BIDAS validation

  3. Plant genotoxicity: a molecular cytogenetic approach in plant bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluszynska, Jolanta; Juchimiuk, Jolanta

    2005-06-01

    It is important for the prevention of DNA changes caused by environment to understand the biological consequences of DNA damages and their molecular modes of action that lead to repair or alterations of the genetic material. Numerous genotoxicity assay systems have been developed to identify DNA reactive compounds. The available data show that plant bioassays are important tests in the detection of genotoxic contamination in the environment and the establishment of controlling systems. Plant system can detect a wide range of genetic damage, including gene mutations and chromosome aberrations. Recently introduced molecular cytogenetic methods allow analysis of genotoxicity, both at the chromosomal and DNA level. FISH gives a new possibility of the detection and analysis of chromosomal rearrangements in a great detail. DNA fragmentation can be estimated using the TUNEL test and the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay).

  4. Neotropical electric fishes (Gymnotiformes as model organisms for bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric fishes (Gymnotiformes inhabit Central and South America and form a relatively large group with more than 200 species. Besides a taxonomic challenge due to their still unresolved systematic, wide distribution and the variety of habitats they occupy, these fishes have been intensively studied due to their peculiar use of bioelectricity for electrolocation and communication. Conventional analysis of cells, tissues and organs have been complemented with the studies on the electric organ discharges of these fishes. This review compiles the results of 13 bioassays developed during the last 50 years, which used the quickness, low costs and functionality of the bioelectric data collection of Gymnotiformes to evaluate the effects of environmental contaminants and neuroactive drugs.

  5. Bioassay techniques for {sup 55}Fe in urine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cregan, S P; Leon, J W; Linauskas, S H

    1993-11-01

    Solvent extraction, ion chromatography and several rapid screening methods were developed and evaluated for {sup 55}Fe bioassay applications. Isopropyl ether and TNOA column extractions had radiochemical recoveries exceeding 90%. These were very reproducible with a coefficient of variation less than 5%. Screening techniques investigated included direct counting of ashed urine solids, and Fe(OH){sub 3}. precipitated from urine. The sensitivities (2-50 Bq/d urine) of the screening methods were usually limited by the effective urine volume that could be counted in a liquid scintillation counter. The reference isopropyl ether and chromatography methods could easily achieve sensitivities well below the 1 Bq/d urine output target. (author). 49 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  6. Bioassay techniques for 55Fe in urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cregan, S.P.; Leon, J.W.; Linauskas, S.H.

    1993-11-01

    Solvent extraction, ion chromatography and several rapid screening methods were developed and evaluated for 55 Fe bioassay applications. Isopropyl ether and TNOA column extractions had radiochemical recoveries exceeding 90%. These were very reproducible with a coefficient of variation less than 5%. Screening techniques investigated included direct counting of ashed urine solids, and Fe(OH) 3 . precipitated from urine. The sensitivities (2-50 Bq/d urine) of the screening methods were usually limited by the effective urine volume that could be counted in a liquid scintillation counter. The reference isopropyl ether and chromatography methods could easily achieve sensitivities well below the 1 Bq/d urine output target. (author). 49 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Toxicity assessment using different bioassays and microbial biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sedky H A; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Hussein, Mohamed A M; Abskharon, Romany; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity assessment of water streams, wastewater, and contaminated sediments, is a very important part of environmental pollution monitoring. Evaluation of biological effects using a rapid, sensitive and cost effective method can indicate specific information on ecotoxicity assessment. Recently, different biological assays for toxicity assessment based on higher and lower organisms such as fish, invertebrates, plants and algal cells, and microbial bioassays have been used. This review focuses on microbial biosensors as an analytical device for environmental, food, and biomedical applications. Different techniques which are commonly used in microbial biosensing include amperometry, potentiometry, conductometry, voltammetry, microbial fuel cells, fluorescence, bioluminescence, and colorimetry. Examples of the use of different microbial biosensors in assessing a variety of environments are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  9. Seroprevalensi Toxoplasma gondii pada Kambing dan Bioassay Patogenitasnya pada Kucing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Yunik Novita Dewi Dewi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The study aimed to determine seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in goats sloughtered at Kampung Jawa, Denpasar, Bali and to evaluate their pathogenicities through bioassay in cats.One hundred serums and meats of goats were collected. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody was determined using Indirect Haemaglutination (IHA test. The pathogenicity bioassay of Toxoplasma gondii was carried out through inoculating the meats of goats which had seropositive of Toxoplasma gondii to the cats. The pathogenicity was evaluated using the intensity of oocyte sheding from the cats. The result showed that the seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis was 46%. There was not significant difference between pathogenicity of Toxoplasma gondii in cat inoculated with meat of goat which had a high and low titer of antibody against Toxoplasma gondii. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  10. Evolving BioAssay Ontology (BAO): modularization, integration and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyruwan, Saminda; Vempati, Uma D; Küçük-McGinty, Hande; Visser, Ubbo; Koleti, Amar; Mir, Ahsan; Sakurai, Kunie; Chung, Caty; Bittker, Joshua A; Clemons, Paul A; Brudz, Steve; Siripala, Anosha; Morales, Arturo J; Romacker, Martin; Twomey, David; Bureeva, Svetlana; Lemmon, Vance; Schürer, Stephan C

    2014-01-01

    The lack of established standards to describe and annotate biological assays and screening outcomes in the domain of drug and chemical probe discovery is a severe limitation to utilize public and proprietary drug screening data to their maximum potential. We have created the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) project (http://bioassayontology.org) to develop common reference metadata terms and definitions required for describing relevant information of low-and high-throughput drug and probe screening assays and results. The main objectives of BAO are to enable effective integration, aggregation, retrieval, and analyses of drug screening data. Since we first released BAO on the BioPortal in 2010 we have considerably expanded and enhanced BAO and we have applied the ontology in several internal and external collaborative projects, for example the BioAssay Research Database (BARD). We describe the evolution of BAO with a design that enables modeling complex assays including profile and panel assays such as those in the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS). One of the critical questions in evolving BAO is the following: how can we provide a way to efficiently reuse and share among various research projects specific parts of our ontologies without violating the integrity of the ontology and without creating redundancies. This paper provides a comprehensive answer to this question with a description of a methodology for ontology modularization using a layered architecture. Our modularization approach defines several distinct BAO components and separates internal from external modules and domain-level from structural components. This approach facilitates the generation/extraction of derived ontologies (or perspectives) that can suit particular use cases or software applications. We describe the evolution of BAO related to its formal structures, engineering approaches, and content to enable modeling of complex assays and integration with other ontologies and

  11. 9 CFR 147.16 - Procedure for the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment). 147.16 Section 147.16 Animals and Animal Products... the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment). This procedure has been shown... publications: (a) Bigland, C. H. and A. J. DaMassa, “A Bio-Assay for Mycoplasma Gallisepticum.” In: United...

  12. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  13. Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, Christine [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, 930 Boulevard Lahure, BP 537, 59505 Douai Cedex (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ponge@mnhn.fr [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Martinez Aldaya, Maite [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Damidot, Denis [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France)

    2011-10-15

    Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox) and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Highlights: > Comparison of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays on contaminated soils, using ecoscores. > Complementarity of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays for the evaluation of environmental hazards. > Proposal for a restricted battery of 5 most sensitive tests. > Use of this restricted battery for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils give similar results in terms of toxicity but are complementary for the evaluation of environmental hazards by ecoscores.

  14. Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-Francois; Martinez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox) and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Highlights: → Comparison of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays on contaminated soils, using ecoscores. → Complementarity of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays for the evaluation of environmental hazards. → Proposal for a restricted battery of 5 most sensitive tests. → Use of this restricted battery for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils give similar results in terms of toxicity but are complementary for the evaluation of environmental hazards by ecoscores.

  15. Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Yi; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Yan-ling; Shan, Li-mei; Li, Bao-cai; Fang, Fang; Jin, Cheng; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new bioassay was optimized to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. ► Characterizing total toxicity is its unique advantage over chemical analysis methods. ► The application of this bioassay promotes the safe use of Aconitum herbs in clinic. - Abstract: Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs.

  16. [Application of bioassay in quality control of Chinese materia medica-taking Radix Isatidis as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Ren, Yongshen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Li, Hanbing; Feng, Xue; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2010-10-01

    Bioassay, which construct the characteristics consistents with Chinese medical science, is the core mode and methods for the quality control of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Radix Isatidis as an example, the contribution, status and application of bioassay in the quality control of Chinese materia medica were introduced in this article, and two key issue (the selection of reference and measurement methods) in the process of establishing bioassay were also explained. This article expects to provide a reference for the development and improvement of the bioassay of Chinese materia medica in a practical manipulation level.

  17. Review of literature on bioassay methods for estimating radionuclides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, M.V.R.; Surya Narayana, D.S.; Jeevanram, R.K.; Sundarajan, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bioassay methods of certain important radionuclides encountered in the nuclear fuel cycle operations, viz., thorium, uranium, sup(239)Pu, sup(241)Am, sup(90)Sr, sup(99)Tc, sup(106)Ru, sup(137)Cs are reviewed, with special emphasis on urinalysis. Since the preconcentration is an important prerequisite for bioassay, various preconcentration methods are also discussed. Brief account of various instruments both nuclear and analytical used in the bioassay programme is included. The sensitivities of the methods cited in the literature vis-a-vis the derived recording levels indicated in ICRP recommendations are compared. Literature surveyed up to 1990 is tabulated. (author). 96 refs., 1 fig ., 3 tabs

  18. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  19. Methotrexate intercalated layered double hydroxides with the mediation of surfactants: Mechanism exploration and bioassay study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Chao-Fan; Tian, De-Ying; Li, Shu-Ping, E-mail: lishuping@njnu.edu.cn; Li, Xiao-Dong

    2015-12-01

    Methotrexatum intercalated layered double hydroxides (MTX/LDHs) hybrids were synthesized by the co-precipitation method and three kinds of nonionic surfactants with different hydrocarbon chain lengths were used. The resulting hybrids were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD and FTIR investigations manifest the successful intercalation of MTX anions into the interlayer of LDHs. TEM graphs indicate that the morphology of the hybrids changes with the variation of the chain length of the surfactants, i.e., the particles synthesized using polyethylene glycol (PEG-7) present regular disc morphology with good monodispersity, while samples with the mediation of alkyl polyglycoside (APG-14) are heavily aggregated and samples with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-10) exhibit irregular branches. Furthermore, the release and bioassay experiments show that monodisperse MTX/LDHs present good controlled-release and are more efficient in the suppression of the tumor cells. - Highlights: • Surfactants could be used to modify the dispersing state of MTX/LDHs hybrids. • Surfactants have great effect on the morphology of MTX/LDHs hybrids. • MTX/LDHs with good monodisperse degree are more efficient in the suppression of the tumor cells.

  20. Bioassay of Phenol and its Intermediate Products Using Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Maleki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is one of the most common compounds found in many industrial effluents such as petroleum refining and petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, paint and dye industries, organic chemicals manufacturing, etc. The contamination of bodies of water with phenol is a serious problem in terms of environmental considerations due to its high toxicity. In this study, toxicity of phenol and its degradation mixtures by sonochemical, photochemical, and photosonochemical processes were investigated. Toxicity assay tests were carried out using Daphnia magna as a bio-indicator. The sonochemical and photochemical experiments were carried out using a bath sonicator (500 W working at 35 and 130 kHz frequencies and with a 400 W medium pressure mercury lamp, respectively. Experiments were performed at initial concentrations of 100 mg L-1. Bioassay tests showed that phenol was toxic to D.magna and so resulted in quite low LC50 values. Comparison of toxicity units (TU between phenol and effluent toxicity showed that TU value for photosonochemical effluent was lower than that obtained for phenol, photochemical effluent, and sonochemical effluent. It was found that the toxicity unit of photochemical effluent was lower than that obtained for sonochemical effluent. According to the D.magna acute toxicity test, it is concluded that photosonolysis and photolysis are capable of decreasing the toxicity of by-products formed during the degradation of phenol aqueous solutions. Photosonic and photolytic processes can, therefore, be recommended as a potential approach to the treatment of phenolic wastewater.

  1. Bioassay-based risk assessment of complex mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, K.C.; Safe, S.H. [Texas A& M Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Randerath, K.; Randerath, E. [College Station and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    To compare the standard chemical-based risk assessment with in vitro genotoxicity assays, two complex environmental mixtures from a wood preserving site were analyzed in the Salmonella/microsome and E. coli prophage induction assays. Using GC/MS, sample 003 was found to contain relatively low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) and elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), while sample 005 had higher levels of PNAs and relatively low levels of PCDDs. The complex mixtures were sequentially extracted with methylene chloride and methanol for analysis in Salmonella, or extracted with 1:1 hexane: acetone mixture for analysis in the prophage induction assay. At a dose of 1.0 mg/plate in Salmonella strain TA98 with metabolic activation, the methanol extract of sample 003 induced 197 net revertants, while sample 005 induced 436 net revertants. In the prophage induction assay, with activation, the hexane:acetone extract of sample 003 induced a fold increase that was slightly lower than that observed with sample 005. The estimated incremental carcinogenic risk for dermal adsorption and ingestion was 1.5E-3 for sample 003, while for sample 005 the estimated risk was 1.5E-2. Thus, the sample which induced the maximum response in both bioassays also had the highest estimated cancer risk. However, the frequency of PNA-DNA adducts in both skin and liver tissues was appreciably higher with sample 005 than with sample 003.

  2. Bioassay-based risk assessment of complex mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, K.C.; Huebner, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The baseline risk assessment often plays an integral role in various decision-making processes at Superfund sites. The present study reports on risk characterizations prepared for seven complex mixtures using biological and chemical analysis. Three of the samples (A, B, and C) were complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extracted from coal tar; while four samples extracted from munitions-contaminated soil contained primarily nitroaromatic hydrocarbons. The chemical-based risk assessment ranked sample C as least toxic, while the risk associated with samples A and B was approximately equal. The microbial bioassay was in general agreement for the coal tar samples. The weighted activity of the coal tar extracts in Salmonella was 4,960 for sample C, and 162,000 and 206,000 for samples A and B, respectively. The bacterial mutagenicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene contaminated soils exhibited an indirect correlation with chemical-based risk assessment. The aqueous extract of sample 004 induced 1,292 net revertants in Salmonella, while the estimated risk to ingestion and dermal adsorption was 2E-9. The data indicate that the chemical-based risk assessment accurately predicted the genotoxicity of the PAHs, while the accuracy of the risk assessment for munitions contaminated soils was limited due to the presence of metabolites of TNT degradation. The biological tests used in this research provide a valuable compliment to chemical analysis for characterizing the genotoxic risk of complex mixtures

  3. Detection of organic compounds with whole-cell bioluminescent bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Close, Dan; Smartt, Abby; Ripp, Steven; Sayler, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Natural and manmade organic chemicals are widely deposited across a diverse range of ecosystems including air, surface water, groundwater, wastewater, soil, sediment, and marine environments. Some organic compounds, despite their industrial values, are toxic to living organisms and pose significant health risks to humans and wildlife. Detection and monitoring of these organic pollutants in environmental matrices therefore is of great interest and need for remediation and health risk assessment. Although these detections have traditionally been performed using analytical chemical approaches that offer highly sensitive and specific identification of target compounds, these methods require specialized equipment and trained operators, and fail to describe potential bioavailable effects on living organisms. Alternatively, the integration of bioluminescent systems into whole-cell bioreporters presents a new capacity for organic compound detection. These bioreporters are constructed by incorporating reporter genes into catabolic or signaling pathways that are present within living cells and emit a bioluminescent signal that can be detected upon exposure to target chemicals. Although relatively less specific compared to analytical methods, bioluminescent bioassays are more cost-effective, more rapid, can be scaled to higher throughput, and can be designed to report not only the presence but also the bioavailability of target substances. This chapter reviews available bacterial and eukaryotic whole-cell bioreporters for sensing organic pollutants and their applications in a variety of sample matrices.

  4. Luminescent Lanthanide Reporters for High-Sensitivity Novel Bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anstey, Mitchell R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Fruetel, Julia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Buckley, Heather L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Arnold, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Biological imaging and assay technologies rely on fluorescent organic dyes as reporters for a number of interesting targets and processes. However, limitations of organic dyes such as small Stokes shifts, spectral overlap of emission signals with native biological fluorescence background, and photobleaching have all inhibited the development of highly sensitive assays. To overcome the limitations of organic dyes for bioassays, we propose to develop lanthanide-based luminescent dyes and demonstrate them for molecular reporting applications. This relatively new family of dyes was selected for their attractive spectral and chemical properties. Luminescence is imparted by the lanthanide atom and allows for relatively simple chemical structures that can be tailored to the application. The photophysical properties offer unique features such as narrow and non-overlapping emission bands, long luminescent lifetimes, and long wavelength emission, which enable significant sensitivity improvements over organic dyes through spectral and temporal gating of the luminescent signal.Growth in this field has been hindered due to the necessary advanced synthetic chemistry techniques and access to experts in biological assay development. Our strategy for the development of a new lanthanide-based fluorescent reporter system is based on chelation of the lanthanide metal center using absorbing chromophores. Our first strategy involves "Click" chemistry to develop 3-fold symmetric chelators and the other involves use of a new class of tetrapyrrole ligands called corroles. This two-pronged approach is geared towards the optimization of chromophores to enhance light output.

  5. Analyzing bioassay data using Bayesian methods-A primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Schillaci, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The classical statistics approach used in health physics for the interpretation of measurements is deficient in that it does not allow for the consideration of needle in a haystack effects, where events that are rare in a population are being detected. In fact, this is often the case in health physics measurements, and the false positive fraction is often very large using the prescriptions of classical statistics. Bayesian statistics provides an objective methodology to ensure acceptably small false positive fractions. The authors present the basic methodology and a heuristic discussion. Examples are given using numerically generated and real bioassay data (Tritium). Various analytical models are used to fit the prior probability distribution, in order to test the sensitivity to choice of model. Parametric studies show that the normalized Bayesian decision level k α -L c /σ 0 , where σ 0 is the measurement uncertainty for zero true amount, is usually in the range from 3 to 5 depending on the true positive rate. Four times σ 0 rather than approximately two times σ 0 , as in classical statistics, would often seem a better choice for the decision level

  6. Analyzing bioassay data using Bayesian methods -- A primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Schillaci, M.E.; Martz, H.F.; Little, T.T.

    2000-06-01

    The classical statistics approach used in health physics for the interpretation of measurements is deficient in that it does not take into account needle in a haystack effects, that is, correct identification of events that are rare in a population. This is often the case in health physics measurements, and the false positive fraction (the fraction of results measuring positive that are actually zero) is often very large using the prescriptions of classical statistics. Bayesian statistics provides a methodology to minimize the number of incorrect decisions (wrong calls): false positives and false negatives. The authors present the basic method and a heuristic discussion. Examples are given using numerically generated and real bioassay data for tritium. Various analytical models are used to fit the prior probability distribution in order to test the sensitivity to choice of model. Parametric studies show that for typical situations involving rare events the normalized Bayesian decision level k{sub {alpha}} = L{sub c}/{sigma}{sub 0}, where {sigma}{sub 0} is the measurement uncertainty for zero true amount, is in the range of 3 to 5 depending on the true positive rate. Four times {sigma}{sub 0} rather than approximately two times {sigma}{sub 0}, as in classical statistics, would seem a better choice for the decision level in these situations.

  7. Comparison of solid-phase bioassays and ecoscores to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Martínez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2010-08-01

    Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the concentration of 3-ring PAHs. When four soils were combined, behavioural tests using the springtail Folsomia candida showed higher ecoscores, i.e. they were most sensitive to soil contamination. However, despite overall higher sensitivity of behavioural tests, which could be used for cheap and rapid assessment of soil toxicity, especially at low levels of contamination, some test endpoints were more sensitive than others, and this may differ from a soil to another, pointing to the need for a battery of bioassays when more itemized results are expected. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomonitoring of cyanotoxins in two tropical reservoirs by cladoceran toxicity bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio; Soares, Maria Carolina S; de Freitas Magalhães, Valeria; Azevedo, Sandra M F O

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluates the potential for the use of cladocerans in biomonitoring of cyanobacterial toxins. Two zooplankton species (Daphnia gessneri and Moina micrura) were cultivated in the laboratory for use in acute (48 h) and chronic (10 days) bioassays. Water samples were collected from two reservoirs and diluted in mineral water at four concentrations. Survivorship in the acute bioassays was used to calculate LC50, and survivorship and fecundity in chronic bioassays were used to calculate the intrinsic population growth rate (r) and the EC50. Analysis of phytoplankton in the water samples from one reservoir revealed that cyanobacteria were the dominant group, represented by the genera Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, and Microcystis. Results of bioassays showed adverse effects including death, paralysis, and reduced population growth rate, generally proportional to the reservoir water concentration. These effects may be related to the presence of cyanobacteria toxins (microcystins or saxitoxins) in the water.

  9. Comparative susceptibility of bemisia tabaci to imidacloprid in field- and laboratory-based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci biotype B is a resistance-prone pest of protected and open agriculture. Systemic uptake bioassays used in resistance monitoring programs have provided important information on susceptibility to neonicotinoid insecticides, but have remained decoupled from field performance. Simultaneou...

  10. Phototoxicity activity of Psoralea drupacea L. using Atremia salina bioassay system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani

    2011-07-01

    Conclusion: The result showed that P. drupacea methanolic extract and chloroform fraction have phototoxicity in A. salina bioassay system and their toxic effect is related to phototoxic constituents such as psoralen.

  11. Integration of laboratory bioassays into the risk-based corrective action process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.; Messina, F.; Clark, J.

    1995-01-01

    Recent data generated by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and others indicate that residual hydrocarbon may be bound/sequestered in soil such that it is unavailable for microbial degradation, and thus possibly not bioavailable to human/ecological receptors. A reduction in bioavailability would directly equate to reduced exposure and, therefore, potentially less-conservative risk-based cleanup soil goals. Laboratory bioassays which measure bioavailability/toxicity can be cost-effectively integrated into the risk-based corrective action process. However, in order to maximize the cost-effective application of bioassays several site-specific parameters should be addressed up front. This paper discusses (1) the evaluation of parameters impacting the application of bioassays to soils contaminated with metals and/or petroleum hydrocarbons and (2) the cost-effective integration of bioassays into a tiered ASTM type framework for risk-based corrective action

  12. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  13. Hierarchical responses to organic contaminants in aquatic ecotoxicological bioassays: from microcystins to biodegradation

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, Katia

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis I explore the ecotoxicological responses of aquatic organisms at different hierarchical levels to organic contaminants by means of bioassays. The bioassays use novel endpoints or approaches to elucidate the effects of exposure to contaminants and attempt to give mechanistic explanations that could be used to interpret effects at higher hierarchical scales. The sensitivity of population growth rate in the cyanobacteria species Microcystis aeruginosa to the herbicide glyp...

  14. Issues in weighting bioassay data for use in regressions for internal dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, D.J.

    1992-11-01

    For use of bioassay data in internal dose assessment, research should be done to clarify the goal desired, the choice of method to achieve the goal, the selection of adjustable parameters, and on the ensemble of information that is available. Understanding of these issues should determine choices of weighting factors for bioassay data used in regression models. This paper provides an assessment of the relative importance of the various factors

  15. Development and validation of microbial bioassay for quantification of Levofloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant A. Dafale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple, sensitive, precise and cost-effective one-level agar diffusion (5+1 bioassay for estimation of potency and bioactivity of Levofloxacin in pharmaceutical preparation which has not yet been reported in any pharmacopoeia. Among 16 microbial strains, Bacillus pumilus ATCC-14884 was selected as the most significant strain against Levofloxacin. Bioassay was optimized by investigating several factors such as buffer pH, inoculums concentration and reference standard concentration. Identification of Levofloxacin in commercial sample Levoflox tablet was done by FTIR spectroscopy. Mean potency recovery value for Levofloxacin in Levoflox tablet was estimated as 100.90%. A validated bioassay method showed linearity (r2=0.988, precision (Interday RSD=1.05%, between analyst RSD=1.02% and accuracy (101.23%, RSD=0.72%. Bioassay was correlated with HPLC using same sample and estimated potencies were 100.90% and 99.37%, respectively. Results show that bioassay is a suitable method for estimation of potency and bioactivity of Levofloxacin pharmaceutical preparations. Keywords: Levofloxacin, Antibiotic resistance, Microbiological bioassay, HPLC, Pharmacopoeia

  16. A rapid bioassay for detecting saxitoxins using a Daphnia acute toxicity test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrao-Filho, Aloysio da S., E-mail: aloysio@ioc.fiocruz.b [Laboratorio de Avaliacao e Promocao da Saude Ambiental, Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21045-900 (Brazil); Soares, Maria Carolina S., E-mail: mcarolsoares@gmail.co [Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-900 (Brazil); Freitas de Magalhaes, Valeria, E-mail: valeria@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Ecofisiologia e Toxicologia de Cianobacterias, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21949-900 (Brazil); Azevedo, Sandra M.F.O., E-mail: sazevedo@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Ecofisiologia e Toxicologia de Cianobacterias, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21949-900 (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    Bioassays using Daphnia pulex and Moina micrura were designed to detect cyanobacterial neurotoxins in raw water samples. Phytoplankton and cyanotoxins from seston were analyzed during 15 months in a eutrophic reservoir. Effective time to immobilize 50% of the exposed individuals (ET{sub 50}) was adopted as the endpoint. Paralysis of swimming movements was observed between approx0.5-3 h of exposure to lake water containing toxic cyanobacteria, followed by an almost complete recovery of the swimming activity within 24 h after being placed in control water. The same effects were observed in bioassays with a saxitoxin-producer strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii isolated from the reservoir. Regression analysis showed significant relationships between ET{sub 50}vs. cell density, biomass and saxitoxins content, suggesting that the paralysis of Daphnia in lake water samples was caused by saxitoxins found in C. raciborskii. Daphnia bioassay was found to be a sensitive method for detecting fast-acting neurotoxins in natural samples, with important advantages over mouse bioassays. - A new Daphnia bioassay, as an alternative to the mouse bioassay, is able to detect effects of fast-acting, potent neurotoxins in raw water.

  17. A rapid bioassay for detecting saxitoxins using a Daphnia acute toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrao-Filho, Aloysio da S.; Soares, Maria Carolina S.; Freitas de Magalhaes, Valeria; Azevedo, Sandra M.F.O.

    2010-01-01

    Bioassays using Daphnia pulex and Moina micrura were designed to detect cyanobacterial neurotoxins in raw water samples. Phytoplankton and cyanotoxins from seston were analyzed during 15 months in a eutrophic reservoir. Effective time to immobilize 50% of the exposed individuals (ET 50 ) was adopted as the endpoint. Paralysis of swimming movements was observed between ∼0.5-3 h of exposure to lake water containing toxic cyanobacteria, followed by an almost complete recovery of the swimming activity within 24 h after being placed in control water. The same effects were observed in bioassays with a saxitoxin-producer strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii isolated from the reservoir. Regression analysis showed significant relationships between ET 50 vs. cell density, biomass and saxitoxins content, suggesting that the paralysis of Daphnia in lake water samples was caused by saxitoxins found in C. raciborskii. Daphnia bioassay was found to be a sensitive method for detecting fast-acting neurotoxins in natural samples, with important advantages over mouse bioassays. - A new Daphnia bioassay, as an alternative to the mouse bioassay, is able to detect effects of fast-acting, potent neurotoxins in raw water.

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  19. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  20. An ion quencher operated lamp for multiplexed fluorescent bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Taiping; Sun, Huanhuan; He, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Xiaoqin; He, Dinggeng; Bu, Hongchang; Qiao, Zhenzhen; Wang, Kemin

    2018-02-01

    A novel and adjustable lamp based on competitive interaction among dsDNA-SYBR Green I (SGI), ion quencher, and analyte was designed for bioanalysis. The "filament" and switch of the lamp could be customized by employing different dsDNA and ion quencher. The poly(AT/TA) dsDNA was successfully screened as the most effective filament of the lamp. Two common ions, Hg 2+ and Fe 3+ , were selected as the model switch, and the corresponding ligand molecules cysteine (Cys) and pyrophosphate ions (PPi) were selected as the targets. When the fluorescence-quenched dsDNA/SGI-ion complex was introduced into a target-containing system, ions could be bound by competitive molecules and separate from the complex, thereby lighting the lamp. However, no light was observed if the biomolecule could not snatch the metal ions from the complex. Under the optimal conditions, sensitive and selective detection of Cys and PPi was achieved by the lamp, with practical applications in fetal bovine serum and human urine. This ion quencher regulated lamp for fluorescent bioassays is simple in design, fast in operation, and is more convenient than other methods. Significantly, as many molecules could form stable complexes with metal ions selectively, this ion quencher operated lamp has potential for the detection of a wide spectrum of analytes. Graphical abstract A novel and adjustable lamp on the basis of competitive interaction among dsDNA-SYBR Green I, ions quencher and analyte was designed for bioanalysis. The filament and switch of lamp could be customized by employing different dsDNA and ions quencher.

  1. Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2014-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Development of Androgen- and Estrogen-Responsive bio-assays, members of a panel of human cell line-based highly selective steroid-responsive bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, E.; Jansen, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    We have established highly sensitive and specific androgen and estrogen reporter cell lines which we have named AR (androgen receptor) and ERα (estrogen receptor alpha) CALUX® (Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression), respectively. Both bioassays are member of a panel of CALUX reporter cell

  3. Development of androgen-and estrogen-responsive bioassays, members of a panel of human cell line-based highly selective steroid-responsive bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, E.; Jansen, H.J..; Riteco, J.A.C.; Brouwer, A.

    2005-01-01

    We have established highly sensitive and specific androgen and estrogen reporter cell lines which we have named AR (androgen receptor) and ERα (estrogen receptor alpha) CALUX® (Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression), respectively. Both bioassays are member of a panel of CALUX reporter cell

  4. Ranking Medical Terms to Support Expansion of Lay Language Resources for Patient Comprehension of Electronic Health Record Notes: Adapted Distant Supervision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinying; Jagannatha, Abhyuday N; Fodeh, Samah J; Yu, Hong

    2017-10-31

    Medical terms are a major obstacle for patients to comprehend their electronic health record (EHR) notes. Clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that link EHR terms to lay terms or definitions allow patients to easily access helpful information when reading through their EHR notes, and have shown to improve patient EHR comprehension. However, high-quality lay language resources for EHR terms are very limited in the public domain. Because expanding and curating such a resource is a costly process, it is beneficial and even necessary to identify terms important for patient EHR comprehension first. We aimed to develop an NLP system, called adapted distant supervision (ADS), to rank candidate terms mined from EHR corpora. We will give EHR terms ranked as high by ADS a higher priority for lay language annotation-that is, creating lay definitions for these terms. Adapted distant supervision uses distant supervision from consumer health vocabulary and transfer learning to adapt itself to solve the problem of ranking EHR terms in the target domain. We investigated 2 state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms (ie, feature space augmentation and supervised distant supervision) and designed 5 types of learning features, including distributed word representations learned from large EHR data for ADS. For evaluating ADS, we asked domain experts to annotate 6038 candidate terms as important or nonimportant for EHR comprehension. We then randomly divided these data into the target-domain training data (1000 examples) and the evaluation data (5038 examples). We compared ADS with 2 strong baselines, including standard supervised learning, on the evaluation data. The ADS system using feature space augmentation achieved the best average precision, 0.850, on the evaluation set when using 1000 target-domain training examples. The ADS system using supervised distant supervision achieved the best average precision, 0.819, on the evaluation set when using only 100 target

  5. Evaluation of the toxicity of two soils from Jales Mine (Portugal) using aquatic bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Susana; Ferreira, Abel L G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A

    2005-10-01

    Soil contamination can be one path for streams and groundwater contamination. As a complement of chemical analysis and total contaminants determination, bioassays can provide information on the bioavailable fraction of chemical compounds, focusing on the retention and habitat function of soils. In this study the evaluation of the toxicity of two soils from the abandoned Jales Mine (Portugal) regarded both functions. The buffer capacity of soils was tested with bioassays carried out using the cladoceran Daphnia magna and the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The habitat function of soils was evaluated with the reproduction bioassay with the collembolan Folsomia candida. The Microtox solid-phase test was performed with V. fischeri using soil as test medium, and soil elutriates were extracted to perform the Microtox basic test, and an immobilization and reproduction bioassay with D. magna. The marine bacteria showed high sensitivity to the soil with low heavy metal content (JNC soil) and to JNC soil elutriates, while the soil with highest heavy metal content (JC soil) or soil elutriates exposure did not cause any toxic effect. In the bioassays with D. magna, organisms showed sensitivity to JNC and also to JC soil elutriates. Both mobilization and reproduction features were inhibited. The bioassay with F. candida did not reflect any influence of the contaminants on their reproduction. Although JNC soil presented lower heavy metal contents, elutriates showed different patterns of contamination when compared to JC soil and elutriates, which indicates different retention and buffer capacities between soils. Results obtained in this study underlined the sensitivity and importance of soil elutriate bioassays with aquatic organisms in the evaluation strategy in soil ERA processes.

  6. The limits of two-year bioassay exposure regimens for identifying chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, James; Jacobson, Michael F; Davis, Devra Lee

    2008-11-01

    Chemical carcinogenesis bioassays in animals have long been recognized and accepted as valid predictors of potential cancer hazards to humans. Most rodent bioassays begin several weeks after birth and expose animals to chemicals or other substances, including workplace and environmental pollutants, for 2 years. New findings indicate the need to extend the timing and duration of exposures used in the rodent bioassay. In this Commentary, we propose that the sensitivity of chemical carcinogenesis bio-assays would be enhanced by exposing rodents beginning in utero and continuing for 30 months (130 weeks) or until their natural deaths at up to about 3 years. Studies of three chemicals of different structures and uses-aspartame, cadmium, and toluene-suggest that exposing experimental animals in utero and continuing exposure for 30 months or until their natural deaths increase the sensitivity of bioassays, avoid false-negative results, and strengthen the value and validity of results for regulatory agencies. Government agencies, drug companies, and the chemical industry should conduct and compare the results of 2-year bioassays of known carcinogens or chemicals for which there is equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity with longer-term studies, with and without in utero exposure. If studies longer than 2 years and/or with in utero exposure are found to better identify potential human carcinogens, then regulatory agencies should promptly revise their testing guidelines, which were established in the 1960s and early 1970s. Changing the timing and dosing of the animal bioassay would enhance protection of workers and consumers who are exposed to potentially dangerous workplace or home contaminants, pollutants, drugs, food additives, and other chemicals throughout their lives.

  7. Benchmarking organic micropollutants in wastewater, recycled water and drinking water with in vitro bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Allinson, Mayumi; Altenburger, Rolf; Bain, Peter A; Balaguer, Patrick; Busch, Wibke; Crago, Jordan; Denslow, Nancy D; Dopp, Elke; Hilscherova, Klara; Humpage, Andrew R; Kumar, Anu; Grimaldi, Marina; Jayasinghe, B Sumith; Jarosova, Barbora; Jia, Ai; Makarov, Sergei; Maruya, Keith A; Medvedev, Alex; Mehinto, Alvine C; Mendez, Jamie E; Poulsen, Anita; Prochazka, Erik; Richard, Jessica; Schifferli, Andrea; Schlenk, Daniel; Scholz, Stefan; Shiraishi, Fujio; Snyder, Shane; Su, Guanyong; Tang, Janet Y M; van der Burg, Bart; van der Linden, Sander C; Werner, Inge; Westerheide, Sandy D; Wong, Chris K C; Yang, Min; Yeung, Bonnie H Y; Zhang, Xiaowei; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of organic micropollutants and their transformation products occur in water. Although often present at low concentrations, individual compounds contribute to mixture effects. Cell-based bioassays that target health-relevant biological endpoints may therefore complement chemical analysis for water quality assessment. The objective of this study was to evaluate cell-based bioassays for their suitability to benchmark water quality and to assess efficacy of water treatment processes. The selected bioassays cover relevant steps in the toxicity pathways including induction of xenobiotic metabolism, specific and reactive modes of toxic action, activation of adaptive stress response pathways and system responses. Twenty laboratories applied 103 unique in vitro bioassays to a common set of 10 water samples collected in Australia, including wastewater treatment plant effluent, two types of recycled water (reverse osmosis and ozonation/activated carbon filtration), stormwater, surface water, and drinking water. Sixty-five bioassays (63%) showed positive results in at least one sample, typically in wastewater treatment plant effluent, and only five (5%) were positive in the control (ultrapure water). Each water type had a characteristic bioanalytical profile with particular groups of toxicity pathways either consistently responsive or not responsive across test systems. The most responsive health-relevant endpoints were related to xenobiotic metabolism (pregnane X and aryl hydrocarbon receptors), hormone-mediated modes of action (mainly related to the estrogen, glucocorticoid, and antiandrogen activities), reactive modes of action (genotoxicity) and adaptive stress response pathway (oxidative stress response). This study has demonstrated that selected cell-based bioassays are suitable to benchmark water quality and it is recommended to use a purpose-tailored panel of bioassays for routine monitoring.

  8. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  9. Assessing arsenic bioavailability through the use of bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, E.; Nadimpalli, M.; Hull, M.; Schreiber, M. E.; Vikesland, P.

    2009-12-01

    Various methods have been used to characterize the bioavailability of a contaminant, including chemical extractions from soils, toxicity tests, bioaccumulation measurements, estimation from soil properties, in vitro/in vivo tests, and microbial biossays. Unfortunately, these tests are all unique (i.e. they measure bioavailability through different mechanisms) and it is difficult to compare measurements collected using one method to those collected from another. Additionally, there are fundamental aspects of bioavailability research that require further study. In particular, changes in bioavailability over time are not well understood, as well as what the geochemical controls are on changes in bioavailability. In addition, there are no studies aimed at the integration of bioavailability measurements and potential geochemical controls. This research project seeks to find a standard set of assays and sensors that can be used to assess arsenic bioavailability at any field site, as well as to use these tools and techniques to better understand changes in, and controls on, arsenic bioavailability. The bioassays to be utilized in this research are a bioluminescent E. coli assay and a Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) assay. Preliminary experiments to determine the suitability of the E. coli and C. fluminea assays have been completed. The E. coli assay can be utilized to analyze As(III) and As(V) with a linear standard curve between 5 and 200 ppb for As(III) and 100 ppb and 5 ppm for As(V); no bioluminescent response above background was elicited in the presence of Roxarsone, an organoarsenical. The C. fluminea assay is capable of bioaccumulating As(III), As(V), Roxarsone, and MSMA, with As(III) being the most readily accumulated, followed by As(V), Roxarsone and MSMA, respectively. Additional research will include assessing bioavailability of various arsenic species adsorbed to natural colloidal materials (i.e. clays, iron oxides, NOM) to the E. coli and C. fluminea assays

  10. Structuring a risk-based bioassay program for uranium usage in university laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Johnne Talia

    Bioassay programs are integral in a radiation safety program. They are used as a method of determining whether individuals working with radioactive material have been exposed and have received a resulting dose. For radionuclides that are not found in nature, determining an exposure is straightforward. However, for a naturally occurring radionuclide like uranium, it is not as straightforward to determine whether a dose is the result of an occupational exposure. The purpose of this project is to address this issue within the University of Nevada, Las Vegas's (UNLV) bioassay program. This project consisted of two components that studied the effectiveness of a bioassay program in determining the dose for an acute inhalation of uranium. The first component of the plan addresses the creation of excretion curves, utilizing MATLAB that would allow UNLV to be able to determine at what time an inhalation dose can be attributed to. The excretion curves were based on the ICRP 30 lung model, as well as the Annual Limit Intake (ALI) values located in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's 10CFR20 which is based on ICRP 30 (International Commission on Radiological Protection). The excretion curves would allow UNLV to be able to conduct in-house investigations of inhalation doses without solely depending on outside investigations and sources. The second component of the project focused on the creation of a risk based bioassay program to be utilized by UNLV that would take into account bioassay frequency that depended on the individual. Determining the risk based bioassay program required the use of baseline variance in order to minimize the investigation of false positives among those individuals who undergo bioassays for uranium work. The proposed program was compared against an evaluation limit of 10 mrem per quarter, an investigational limit of 125 mrem per quarter, and the federal/state requirement of 1.25 rem per quarter. It was determined that a bioassay program whose bioassay

  11. Comparison of solid-phase bioassays and ecoscores to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-Francois; Martinez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the concentration of 3-ring PAHs. When four soils were combined, behavioural tests using the springtail Folsomia candida showed higher ecoscores, i.e. they were most sensitive to soil contamination. However, despite overall higher sensitivity of behavioural tests, which could be used for cheap and rapid assessment of soil toxicity, especially at low levels of contamination, some test endpoints were more sensitive than others, and this may differ from a soil to another, pointing to the need for a battery of bioassays when more itemized results are expected. - The avoidance test using the soil springtail Folsomia candida is globally more sensitive to PAH contamination than acute and chronic toxicity bioassays using plants and animals but a battery of tests could reveal better in detail.

  12. Comparison of solid-phase bioassays and ecoscores to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, Christine [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, 930 Boulevard Lahure, BP 537, 59505 Douai Cedex (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ponge@mnhn.f [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Martinez Aldaya, Maite [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Damidot, Denis [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France)

    2010-08-15

    Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the concentration of 3-ring PAHs. When four soils were combined, behavioural tests using the springtail Folsomia candida showed higher ecoscores, i.e. they were most sensitive to soil contamination. However, despite overall higher sensitivity of behavioural tests, which could be used for cheap and rapid assessment of soil toxicity, especially at low levels of contamination, some test endpoints were more sensitive than others, and this may differ from a soil to another, pointing to the need for a battery of bioassays when more itemized results are expected. - The avoidance test using the soil springtail Folsomia candida is globally more sensitive to PAH contamination than acute and chronic toxicity bioassays using plants and animals but a battery of tests could reveal better in detail.

  13. Natural products phytotoxicity A bioassay suitable for small quantities of slightly water-soluble compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbos, D L; Spencer, G F

    1990-02-01

    A large variety of secondary metabolites that can inhibit germination and/or seedling growth are produced by plants in low quantities. The objective of this study was to develop a bioassay capable of reliably assessing reductions in germination percentage and seedling length of small-seeded plant species caused by exposure to minute quantities of these compounds. The germination and growth of alfalfa (Medicago saliva), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) were evaluated against six known phytotoxins from five chemical classes; cinmethylin (a herbicidal cineole derivative) was selected as a comparison standard. Each phytotoxin, dissolved in a suitable organic solvent, was placed on water-agar in small tissue culture wells. After the solvent evaporated, imbibed seeds were placed on the agar; after three days, germination percentages and seedling lengths were measured. Compared to a commonly used filter paper procedure, this modified agar bioassay required smaller quantities of compound per seed for comparable bioassay results. This bioassay also readily permitted the measurement of seedling length, a more sensitive indicator of phytotoxicity than germination. Seedling length decreased sigmoidally as the toxin concentration increased logarithmically. Phytotoxicity was a function of both compound and plant species. Cinmethylin, a grass herbicide, reduced the length of annual ryegrass seedlings by 90-100%, whereas that of alfalfa and velvetleaf was inhibited slightly. The agar bioassay facilitated the rapid and reliable testing of slightly water-soluble compounds, requiring only minute quantities of each compound to give reproducible results.

  14. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  15. Development by flow cytometry of bioassays based on chlorella for environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrescu C-M,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In ecotoxicological assessments, bioassays (ecotoxicity tests or biotests are one of the main tools, defined as methods which use living cells, tissues, organism or communities to assess exposure-related effects of chemicals. The increasing complexity of environmental degradation requires an increase in the capacity of scientific approach in monitoring and notification as early as possible risks. Our own objective concerns the detection of aquatic environment pollution in Romania and particularly in the Danube basin. For assessing aquatic environment pollution degree or for assessing cytotoxicity or ecotoxicity of pollutants (heavy metals, nanoparticles, pesticides, etc. we developed news experimental bioassays based on the use of viability and apoptosis biomarkers of Chlorella cells by flow cytometry. Our proposed bioassays could be rapid and very sensitive tests for in laboratory aquatic risk assessment and biomonitoring.

  16. Methodology for estimation of 32P in bioassay samples by Cerenkov counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankhede, Sonal; Sawant, Pramilla D.; Yadav, R.K.B.; Rao, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive phosphorus ( 32 P) as phosphate is used to effectively reduce bone pain in terminal cancer patients. Several hospitals in India carry out this palliative care procedure on a regular basis. Thus, production as well as synthesis of 32 P compounds has increased over the years to meet this requirement. Monitoring of radiation workers handling 32 P compounds is important for further strengthening of radiological protection program at processing facility. 32 P being a pure beta emitter (β max = 1.71 MeV, t 1/2 = 14.3 d), bioassay is the preferred individual monitoring technique. Method standardized at Bioassay Lab, Trombay, includes estimation of 32 P in urine by co-precipitation with ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) followed by gross beta counting. In the present study, feasibility of Cerenkov counting for detection of 32 P in bioassay samples was explored and the results obtained were compared with the gross beta counting technique

  17. Comparison of liquid chromatographic and bioassay procedures for determining depletion of intramuscularly injected tylosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, W A; Harris, E W; Steele, N C

    1985-01-01

    Crossbred pigs weighing 80-110 kg were injected intramuscularly in the ham with 8.8 mg/kg tylosin. Animals were slaughtered in groups of 3 at intervals of 4 h, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 days after injection, and samples of blood, injected muscle, uninjected muscle, liver, and kidney were analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) and by bioassay using Sarcina lutea as the test organism. The LC method was far more sensitive with a detection limit of less than 0.1 ppm, while the detection limit by bioassay was about 0.5 ppm in tissue. Results by bioassay and LC sometimes differed considerably for tissue samples. Residues in all tissues were below the tolerance limit of 0.2 ppm at 24 h, except in the injected muscle in one animal. Residues were not detected in any tissue of any animal at 48 h after treatment.

  18. Requirements for radiation emergency urine bioassay techniques for the public and first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Vlahovich, Slavica; Dai, Xiongxin; Richardson, Richard B; Daka, Joseph N; Kramer, Gary H

    2010-11-01

    Following a radiation emergency, the affected public and the first responders may need to be quickly assessed for internal contamination by the radionuclides involved. Urine bioassay is one of the most commonly used methods for assessing radionuclide intake and radiation dose. This paper attempts to derive the sensitivity requirements (from inhalation exposure) for the urine bioassay techniques for the top 10 high-risk radionuclides that might be used in a terrorist attack. The requirements are based on a proposed reference dose to adults of 0.1 Sv (CED, committed effective dose). In addition, requirements related to sample turnaround time and field deployability of the assay techniques are also discussed. A review of currently available assay techniques summarized in this paper reveals that method development for ²⁴¹Am, ²²⁶Ra, ²³⁸Pu, and ⁹⁰Sr urine bioassay is needed.

  19. A rapid and inexpensive bioassay to evaluate the decontamination of organophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claborn, David M; Martin-Brown, Skylar A; Sagar, Sanjay Gupta; Durham, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An inexpensive and rapid bioassay using adult red flour beetles was developed for use in assessing the decontamination of environments containing organophosphates and related chemicals. A decontamination protocol was developed which demonstrated that 2 to 3 applications of 5% bleach solution were required to obtain nearly complete decontamination of malathion. The bioassay was also used to screen common household cleaners as potential decontaminating agents, but only 5% bleach was effective at improving survival of insects on steel plates treated with 25% malathion. A toxic degradation product (malaoxon) was detected using gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry; this toxin affected the decontamination efficacy and resulted in continued toxicity to the beetles until subsequent decontaminations. The bioassay provides evidence to support the use of red flour beetles as a sensitive, less expensive method for determining safety levels of environments contaminated with malathion and other toxins, and may have application in the study of chemical warfare agents.

  20. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, H J; Van Griethuysen, C; Koelmans, A A

    2008-01-01

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics.

  1. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  2. Implementation of bioassay methods to improve assessment of incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeh, U.; Hoellriegl, V.; Li, W.B.; Roth, P.; Wahl, W.; Andrasi, A.; Zombori, P.; Bouvier, C.; Carlan de, L.; Franck, D.; Ritt, J.; Fischer, H.; Schmitzer, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Internal exposure to uranium and thorium can principally be assessed from external radiation measurements, exhalation measurements, or the assay of these elements excreted in urine or feces. Since both 232 Th and 238 U emit only photon radiations of low energy and with low emission probabilities, their detection limits by in vivo counting are of the order of kBq even when sophisticated devices are used. Consequently, usually bioassay methods are used for the incorporation monitoring of workers. Alpha spectrometry is the commonly applied technique, usually employed to measure 232 Th and 238 U in urine or fecel samples. For accurate analysis of body contents, 24 hours collections of urine or feces are usually used. The fecal activity, however, resembles predominantly the intake by ingestion of these nuclides during the last few days whereas the urinary excretion is more closely related to the body content of the nuclides. However, urinary excretion is also varying with the actual intake of 232 Th and/or 238 U. The measurement of these nuclides in urine by alpha-spectrometry requires tedious and time-consuming chemical work-up to prepare the samples for spectrometric analysis. Therefore, the number of analyses, which can be carried out is quite low and the results are available only after a time lag of several days. Additionally, under certain conditions the alpha-spectrometry is not sensitive enough. Other methods that have been developed may be confined to the availability of certain devices being difficult to access (e.g. nuclear reactors for radiochemical neutron activation analysis). Much better suitable as routine method is the application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for measurements of 232 Th and 238 U concentrations in urine. For elemental analyses, ICP-MS can already be considered as commonly used method. The present work which was carried out in the framework of an EU project (IDEA: Internal Dosimetry - Enhancements in

  3. Review of Bioassays for Monitoring Fate and Transport ofEstrogenic Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CGCampbell@lbl.gov

    2004-01-30

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are recognizedcontaminants threatening water quality. Despite efforts in sourceidentification, few strategies exist for characterization or treatment ofthis environmental pollution. Given that there are numerous EDCs that cannegatively affect humans and wildlife, general screening techniques likebioassays and biosensors provide an essential rapid and intensiveanalysis capacity. Commonly applied bioassays include the ELISA and YESassays, but promising technologies include ER-CALUXa, ELRA, Endotecta,RIANA, and IR-bioamplification. Two biosensors, Endotecta and RIANA, arefield portable using non-cellular biological detection strategies.Environmental management of EDCs in water requires integration ofbiosensors and bioassays for monitoring and assessment.

  4. Resolutions of ICRP models with BIOKMOD: Application for the bioassays evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, G.

    2005-01-01

    Biokmod is a tool box developed using Mathematic for solving compartmental modes. It gives analytic and numeric solutions. Biokmod solves the current ICRP models including Acute, constant, continuous variable, multi-inputs and random intakes. All parameters (deposition factors, rate transfer coefficients, fractional rate of absorption, etc.) can be modified by users. It can be also applied for evaluating unknown intakes fitting bioassay experimental data and for evacuating uncertainties in the ICRP models. There is a web version (BiokmodWeb) at http://www3.enusa.es//webMathematica/public/biokmode.html. In this article we describe the application of Biokmod for evaluating Bioassays. (Author) 8 refs

  5. A versatile electrowetting-based digital microfluidic platform for quantitative homogeneous and heterogeneous bio-assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwe, Nicolas; Witters, Daan; Ceyssens, Frederik; Vermeir, Steven; Verbruggen, Bert; Puers, Robert; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) lab-on-a-chip systems have already proven their potential within a broad range of bio-assays. Nevertheless, research on the analytical performance of those systems is limited, yet crucial for a further breakthrough in the diagnostic field. Therefore, this paper presents the intrinsic possibilities of an EWOD lab-on-a-chip as a versatile platform for homogeneous and heterogeneous bio-assays with high analytical performance. Both droplet dispensing and splitting cause variations in droplet size, thereby directly influencing the assay's performance. The extent to which they influence the performance is assessed by a theoretical sensitivity analysis, which allows the definition of a basic framework for the reduction of droplet size variability. Taking advantage of the optimized droplet manipulations, both homogeneous and heterogeneous bio-assays are implemented in the EWOD lab-on-a-chip to demonstrate the analytical capabilities and versatility of the device. A fully on-chip enzymatic assay is realized with high analytical performance. It demonstrates the promising capabilities of an EWOD lab-on-a-chip in food-related and medical applications, such as nutritional and blood analyses. Further, a magnetic bio-assay for IgE detection using superparamagnetic nanoparticles is presented whereby the nanoparticles are used as solid carriers during the bio-assay. Crucial elements are the precise manipulation of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles with respect to dispensing and separation. Although the principle of using nano-carriers is demonstrated for protein detection, it can be easily extended to a broader range of bio-related applications like DNA sensing. In heterogeneous bio-assays the chip surface is actively involved during the execution of the bio-assay. Through immobilization of specific biological compounds like DNA, proteins and cells a reactive chip surface is realized, which enhances the bio-assay performance. To demonstrate

  6. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  7. Standardization of a fluconazole bioassay and correlation of results with those obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, J H; Hanson, L H; Amantea, M A; Stevens, D A; Bennett, J E

    1991-01-01

    An improved bioassay for fluconazole was developed. This assay is sensitive in the clinically relevant range (2 to 40 micrograms/ml) and analyzes plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid specimens; bioassay results correlate with results obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioassay and HPLC analyses of spiked plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid samples (run as unknowns) gave good agreement with expected values. Analysis of specimens from patients gave equivalent results by both HPLC and bioassay. HPLC had a lower within-run coefficient of variation (less than 2.5% for HPLC versus less than 11% for bioassay) and a lower between-run coefficient of variation (less than 5% versus less than 12% for bioassay) and was more sensitive (lower limit of detection, 0.1 micrograms/ml [versus 2 micrograms/ml for bioassay]). The bioassay is, however, sufficiently accurate and sensitive for clinical specimens, and its relative simplicity, low sample volume requirement, and low equipment cost should make it the technique of choice for analysis of routine clinical specimens. PMID:1854166

  8. High-throughput mosquito and fly bioassay system for natural and artificial substrates treated with residual insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert L; Wynn, W Wayne; Britch, Seth C; Allan, Sandra A; Walker, Todd W; Geden, Christopher J; Hogsette, Jerome A; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2013-03-01

    A high-throughput bioassay system to evaluate the efficacy of residual pesticides against mosquitoes and muscid flies with minimal insect handling was developed. The system consisted of 4 components made of readily available materials: 1) a CO2 anaesthetizing chamber, 2) a specialized aspirator, 3) a cylindrical flat-bottomed glass bioassay chamber assembly, and 4) a customized rack.

  9. UTILITY OF A FULL LIFE-CYCLE COPEPOD BIOASSAY APPROACH FOR ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED CONTAMINANT MIXTURES. (R825279)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractWe compared a 21 day full life-cycle bioassay with an existing 14 day partial life-cycle bioassay for two species of meiobenthic copepods, Microarthridion littorale and Amphiascus tenuiremis. We hypothesized that full life-cycle tests would bette...

  10. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  11. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Yu Bon [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Xing, Guan Hua [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); China National Environmental Monitoring Center, 100012, Beijing (China); Wu, Sheng Chun [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Murphy, Margaret B. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 430072, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs.

  12. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B.; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs

  13. Comparison of mouse and swine bioassays for determination of soil arsenic relative bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of soil arsenic (As) relative bioavailability (RBA) is essential to accurately assess human exposure to As contaminated soils via the incidental ingestion pathway. A variety of animal bioassays have been developed to estimate As RBA in contaminated soils and dusts, wit...

  14. Development of K-bioassay for the efficient potassium fertilization of citrus tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Jang Kual [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Hae Ryong [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Duk Young; Kim, Chang Myung; Lim, Han Cheol; Moon, Do Kyung [Cheju Citrus Research Institute, Cheju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sung Jun [Cheju National Univerisity, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-31

    a Similar to the {sup 42} K uptake, {sup 86} Rb uptake by the roots of Hordeum distichum grown in the hydroponic culture was negatively correlated with the concentration of K supplied previously, showing that {sup 86} Rb can be used for the K-bioassay. {sup 86} Rb having longer half life(18.86 day) than {sup 42} K(12.36 hr) allowed the use of larger number of root samples. {sup 86} Rb uptake of 3 years old Citrus unshiu Marc. grown in water culture decreased drastically with the increase of K concentration of the culture solution, thus demonstrating that the nutrition status of K for citrus trees can be diagnosed by K-bioassay using {sup 86} Rb tracer. {sup 86} Rb uptake by the excised roots of Hordeum distichum correlated with the exchangeable K in soil. The amount of exchangeable K in soil for the optimal plant growth can be determined by its relationship. {sup 42} K- and {sup 86} Rb-uptake by the Hordeum distichum roots were markedly inhibited by 5 x 10{sup -3} M KCN in the bioassay solution, indicating that uptake is metabolically controlled. There was no significant relationship between K content in citrus leaves and K concentration in the water-culture medium. It is concluded that K-bioassay is a potentially useful tool for determining of K requirement in citrus trees. (author)

  15. Sensitivity and Specificity of Bioassay of Estrogenicity on Mammary Gland and Uterus of Female Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škarda, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2002), s. 407-412 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/99/0843; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : Bioassay * Estrogenicity * Mammary gland Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2002

  16. Bioassays for Evaluating Water Quality: Screening for total bioactivity to assess water safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassays are a potential solution for assessing complex samples since they screen for total bioactivity for a given pathway or mode of action (MOA), such as estrogen receptor activation, in the samples. Overall, they can account for the three challenges listed above, and can sim...

  17. Ecotoxicological assessment of metal-polluted urban soils using bioassays with three soil invertebrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santarufo, L.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Maisto, G.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the quality of urban soils by integrating chemical and ecotoxicological approaches. Soils from five sites in downtown Naples, Italy, were sampled and characterized for physical-chemical properties and total and water-extractable metal concentrations. Bioassays with

  18. Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakley, N.; Norton, D.; Stinson, M.; Boyer, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAX level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher

  19. APPLICATION OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF A LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm acute toxicity, plant seed germination/root elongation (SG/RE) and plant genotoxicity bioassays were employed to evaluate the remediation of a lead-contaminated soil. The remediation involved removal of heavy metals by a soil washing/soil leaching treatment process. A p...

  20. Strategies for Transferring Mixtures of Organic Contaminants from Aquatic Environments into Bioassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Annika; Mayer, Philipp; Schäfer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    and monitoring of such mixtures, a variety of cell-based in vitro and low-complexity in vivo bioassays based on algae, daphnids or fish embryos are available. A very important and sometimes unrecognized challenge is how to combine sampling, extraction and dosing to transfer the mixtures from the environment...

  1. BIOASSAY STUDIES OF METAL(II) COMPLEXES OF 2,2'-(ETHANE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    diyldiimino)diacetic acid (EDDA) were prepared and characterized. Coordination complexes of the EDDA ... corresponding amines with alkyl halide to bear diammines of the same class with different substituents. ... Bioassay studies of metal(II) complexes of 2,2'-(ethane-1,2-diyldiimino)diacetic acid. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop.

  2. Bioassay-guided studies on the cytotoxic and in vitro trypanocidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports a bioassay-guided study to search for possible biological activity (cytotoxic and trypanocidal) in two Ugandan medicinal plants. The methodology adopted was the so-called ping-pong approach, involving phytochemical purification (column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography), ...

  3. Bioassay directed identification of natural aryl hydrocarbon-receptor agonists in marmalade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ede, van K.I.; Li, A.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus fruit and citrus fruit products, like grapefruit, lemon and marmalade were shown to contain aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, as detected with the DR CALUX® bioassay. This is of interest regarding the role of the Ah-receptor pathway in the adverse effects of dioxins, PCBs and other

  4. Experience with NQA-1 quality assurance standards applied to in vitro bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.

    1991-10-01

    On June 1, 1990, the large (about 4000 samples per year) excreta bioassay program at the Hanford Site ceased abruptly when the contract with the bioassay laboratory was terminated. An intense, high-priority effort was begun to replace the services on an interim basis until a new contract could be procured. Despite the urgency to get the excreta bioassay program going again, the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program was constrained to use only labs that could meet stringent quality assurance (QA) requirements, even during the interim period. The QA requirements were based on NQA-1 with selected additions from the Environmental Protection Agency's QAMS 005/80 (EPA 1983) and the American Society for Testing and Materials' C 1009-83 (ASTM 1984). This constraint was driven both by legal reasons and by the Hanford Site contractors and workers not wanting the quality of the data to be sacrificed. Finding labs that could (1) handle the large throughput, (2) meet the technical requirements, and (3) pass the QA audit proved more difficult than first anticipated. This presentation focuses on the QA requirements that the labs had to meet and how those very broad requirements were applied specifically to excreta bioassay. 5 refs

  5. Effect of the Changes of Respiratory Tract Model on the Uranium Bioassay Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Taeeun; Noh, Siwan; Kim, Meeryeong; Lee, Jaiki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongil; Kim, Jang Lyul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The HRTM, however, was revised based on the recent experimental data in OIR (Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides) draft report of ICRP. The changes of respiratory tract model are predicted to directly affect bioassay data like retention and excretion functions. Lung retention function is especially important to internal exposure assessment for workers related to fuel manufacturing because the place could be contaminated by uranium. In addition, faecel samples are recommended to be used for in-vitro bioassay of uranium because of very slow excretion via urine. More reliable assessments for the workers in fuel manufacturing could be achieved by recalculation of bioassay data for uranium and the comparing study using original and revised HRTM. In this study, therefore, the lung retention and faecal excretion functions for inhalation of UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were recalculated using revised HRTM and the results were compared with those of original HRTM. In this study the lung retention and faecal excretion functions for inhalation of UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were calculated based on original and revised HRTM. The results show that the revised HRTM increases lung retention and uptakes to alimentary tract which cause the more faecal excretion. The results in this study confirm the effect of the changes of respiratory tract model on the uranium bioassay data although the more study is needed to apply to practical fields.

  6. Kinetic microplate bioassays for relative potency of antibiotics improved by partial Least Square (PLS) regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Fabiane Lacerda; Saviano, Alessandro Morais; Almeida, Túlia de Souza Botelho; Lourenço, Felipe Rebello

    2016-05-01

    Microbiological assays are widely used to estimate the relative potencies of antibiotics in order to guarantee the efficacy, safety, and quality of drug products. Despite of the advantages of turbidimetric bioassays when compared to other methods, it has limitations concerning the linearity and range of the dose-response curve determination. Here, we proposed to use partial least squares (PLS) regression to solve these limitations and to improve the prediction of relative potencies of antibiotics. Kinetic-reading microplate turbidimetric bioassays for apramacyin and vancomycin were performed using Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), respectively. Microbial growths were measured as absorbance up to 180 and 300min for apramycin and vancomycin turbidimetric bioassays, respectively. Conventional dose-response curves (absorbances or area under the microbial growth curve vs. log of antibiotic concentration) showed significant regression, however there were significant deviation of linearity. Thus, they could not be used for relative potency estimations. PLS regression allowed us to construct a predictive model for estimating the relative potencies of apramycin and vancomycin without over-fitting and it improved the linear range of turbidimetric bioassay. In addition, PLS regression provided predictions of relative potencies equivalent to those obtained from agar diffusion official methods. Therefore, we conclude that PLS regression may be used to estimate the relative potencies of antibiotics with significant advantages when compared to conventional dose-response curve determination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 'Dose per unit content' functions: A robust tool for the interpretation of bioassay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovski, V.; Bonchuk, Y.; Ratia, G.

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the influence of the consequences of the lack of primary bioassay information and to elaborate approaches which could improve the reliability of dose assessments. The aggregated time-dependent functions 'dose per unit organ (excretion) content' z(t) have been proposed in this study as a convenient and reliable tool for bioassay. The analysis of the variation of z with changes of AMAD has demonstrated the existence of areas of the relative invariance of z, which permits the selection of one (reference) function z for the whole area of stability. Within the framework of such an approach an arbitrary set of bioassay data can be approximated by the linear combination F(t) S i E/ i z(t-t i ), whereI> F(t) function of time t, which approximates the observed bioassay time trend; t i = time shift of the acute intake i; E i effective dose, associated with the acute intake i (the two last parameters are results of the approximation procedure). (author)

  8. Experience with NQA-1 quality assurance standards applied to in vitro bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    On June 1, 1990, the large (about 4,000 samples per year) excreta bioassay program at the Hanford Site ceased abruptly when the contract with the bioassay laboratory was terminated. An intense, high-priority effort was begun to replace the services on an interim basis until a new contract could be procured. Despite the urgency to get the excreta bioassay program going again, the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program was constrained to use only labs that could meet stringent quality assurance (QA) requirements, even during the interim period. The QA requirements were based on NQA-1 with selected additions from the Environmental Protection Agency's QAMS 005/80 (EPA 1983) and the American Society for Testing and Materials' C 1009-83 (ASTM 1984). This constraint was driven both by legal reasons and by the Hanford Site contractors and workers not wanting the quality of the data to be sacrificed. Finding labs that could (1) handle the large throughput, (2) meet the technical requirements, and (3) pass the QA audit proved more difficult than first anticipated. This presentation focuses on the QA requirements that the labs had to meet and how those very broad requirements were applied specifically to excreta bioassay

  9. Androgen Bioassay for the Detection of Nonlabeled Androgenic Compounds in Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Elliot R; McGrath, Kristine C Y; Li, XiaoHong; Heather, Alison K

    2018-01-01

    Both athletes and the general population use nutritional supplements. Athletes often turn to supplements hoping that consuming the supplement will help them be more competitive and healthy, while the general population hopes to improve body image or vitality. While many supplements contain ingredients that may have useful properties, there are supplements that are contaminated with compounds that are banned for use in sport or have been deliberately adulterated to fortify a supplement with an ingredient that will produce the advertised effect. In the present study, we have used yeast cell and mammalian cell androgen bioassays to characterize the androgenic bioactivity of 112 sports supplements available from the Australian market, either over the counter or via the Internet. All 112 products did not declare an androgen on the label as an included ingredient. Our findings show that six out of 112 supplements had strong androgenic bioactivity in the yeast cell bioassay, indicating products spiked or contaminated with androgens. The mammalian cell bioassay confirmed the strong androgenic bioactivity of five out of six positive supplements. Supplement 6 was metabolized to weaker androgenic bioactivity in the mammalian cells. Further to this, Supplement 6 was positive in a yeast cell progestin bioassay. Together, these findings highlight that nutritional supplements, taken without medical supervision, could expose or predispose users to the adverse consequences of androgen abuse. The findings reinforce the need to increase awareness of the dangers of nutritional supplements and highlight the challenges that clinicians face in the fast-growing market of nutritional supplements.

  10. New in vitro reporter gene bioassays for screening of hormonal active compounds in the environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Kateřina; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2010), s. 839-847 ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/0408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : endocrine disruptors * in vitro bioassays * reporter gene assays Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.280, year: 2010

  11. Development and application of bioassays for a site-specific risk assessment of contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rila, J.-P.

    2008-01-01

    Soil risk assessment based on generic approaches is accompanied by a large number of uncertainties. In site-specific risk assessment aimed at identifying the actual effects on the ecosystem by using e.g. bioassays in soil elutriates and taking into account land-use these uncertainties can be largely

  12. A rapid bioassay for detecting saxitoxins using a Daphnia acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio da S; Soares, Maria Carolina S; de Magalhães, Valéria Freitas; Azevedo, Sandra M F O

    2010-06-01

    Bioassays using Daphnia pulex and Moina micrura were designed to detect cyanobacterial neurotoxins in raw water samples. Phytoplankton and cyanotoxins from seston were analyzed during 15 months in a eutrophic reservoir. Effective time to immobilize 50% of the exposed individuals (ET50) was adopted as the endpoint. Paralysis of swimming movements was observed between approximately 0.5-3 h of exposure to lake water containing toxic cyanobacteria, followed by an almost complete recovery of the swimming activity within 24 h after being placed in control water. The same effects were observed in bioassays with a saxitoxin-producer strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii isolated from the reservoir. Regression analysis showed significant relationships between ET50 vs. cell density, biomass and saxitoxins content, suggesting that the paralysis of Daphnia in lake water samples was caused by saxitoxins found in C. raciborskii. Daphnia bioassay was found to be a sensitive method for detecting fast-acting neurotoxins in natural samples, with important advantages over mouse bioassays. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Area Waters: A Bioassay Procedure for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A graphical method for determining the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for a body of water is described. In this bioassay, students collect a sample of water from a designated site, transport it to the laboratory, and evaluate the amount of oxygen consumed by naturally occurring bacteria during a 5-day incubation period. An accuracy check,…

  14. Olfactoryresponse of the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to methyl salicylate in laboratory bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The response of Typhlodromus pyri, a key predator of grapevine rust mite (Calepitrimerus vitis), to MeSA was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer in laboratory bioassays. Six doses ranging from 200 to 0.002 µg of diluted MeSA were tested. Significantly higher proportions of T. pyri preferred MeSA at ...

  15. Paper-based chromatic toxicity bioassay by analysis of bacterial ferricyanide reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol-Vila, F; Vigués, N; Guerrero-Navarro, A; Jiménez, S; Gómez, D; Fernández, M; Bori, J; Vallès, B; Riva, M C; Muñoz-Berbel, X; Mas, J

    2016-03-03

    Water quality assessment requires a continuous and strict analysis of samples to guarantee compliance with established standards. Nowadays, the increasing number of pollutants and their synergistic effects lead to the development general toxicity bioassays capable to analyse water pollution as a whole. Current general toxicity methods, e.g. Microtox(®), rely on long operation protocols, the use of complex and expensive instrumentation and sample pre-treatment, which should be transported to the laboratory for analysis. These requirements delay sample analysis and hence, the response to avoid an environmental catastrophe. In an attempt to solve it, a fast (15 min) and low-cost toxicity bioassay based on the chromatic changes associated to bacterial ferricyanide reduction is here presented. E. coli cells (used as model bacteria) were stably trapped on low-cost paper matrices (cellulose-based paper discs, PDs) and remained viable for long times (1 month at -20 °C). Apart from bacterial carrier, paper matrices also acted as a fluidic element, allowing fluid management without the need of external pumps. Bioassay evaluation was performed using copper as model toxic agent. Chromatic changes associated to bacterial ferricyanide reduction were determined by three different transduction methods, i.e. (i) optical reflectometry (as reference method), (ii) image analysis and (iii) visual inspection. In all cases, bioassay results (in terms of half maximal effective concentrations, EC50) were in agreement with already reported data, confirming the good performance of the bioassay. The validation of the bioassay was performed by analysis of real samples from natural sources, which were analysed and compared with a reference method (i.e. Microtox). Obtained results showed agreement for about 70% of toxic samples and 80% of non-toxic samples, which may validate the use of this simple and quick protocol in the determination of general toxicity. The minimum instrumentation

  16. The Use of Quality Benchmarking in Assessing Web Resources for the Dermatology Virtual Branch Library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH)

    OpenAIRE

    Boulos, MN Kamel; Roudsari, AV; Gordon, C; Gray, JA Muir

    2001-01-01

    Background In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health . They aim at creating online kno...

  17. Responses of lone star tick (acari: ixodidae) nymphs to the repellent deet applied in acetone and ethanol solutions in vitro bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavioral bioassays remain a standard tool in the discovery, development, and registration of repellents. Although tick repellent bioassays tend to be rather uncomplicated, several factors can influence their outcomes. Typically repellent bioassays use a solvent, such as acetone or ethanol, to disp...

  18. Analysing traces of autoinducer-2 requires standardization of the Vibrio harveyi bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchez, Ramiro; Lemme, André; Thiel, Verena; Schulz, Stefan; Sztajer, Helena; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2007-01-01

    Autoinducer-2 (furanosyl borate diester) is a biologically active compound whose role as a universal bacterial signalling molecule is currently under intense investigation. Because of its instability and the low concentrations of it found in biological samples, its detection relies at present on a bioassay that measures the difference in the timing of the luminescence of the Vibrio harveyi BB170 sensor strain with and without externally added AI-2. Here we systematically investigated which parameters affected the fold induction values of luminescence obtained in the bioassay and developed a modified protocol. Our experiments showed that growth and luminescence of V. harveyi BB170 are strongly influenced by trace elements. In particular, addition of Fe(3+) within a certain concentration range to the growth medium of the preinoculum culture improved the reproducibility and reduced the variance of the bioassay. In contrast, trace elements and vitamins introduced directly into the bioassay caused inhibitory effects. The initial density and luminescence of the sensor strain are very important and the values required for these parameters were defined. Borate interferes with the detection of AI-2 by giving false positive results. The response of V. harveyi BB170 to chemically synthesized AI-2 in the bioassay is nonlinear except over a very small concentration range; it is maximum over three orders of magnitude and shows inhibition above 35 microM. Based on the modified protocol, we were able to detect AI-2 in the absence of inhibitors with maximum fold induction values for the positive control (chemically synthesized AI-2) of >120 with a standard deviation of approximately 30% in a reliable and reproducible way.

  19. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  20. Impact of Spodoptera frugiperda neonate pretreatment conditions on Vip3Aa19 insecticidal protein activity and laboratory bioassay variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Karen F; Spencer, Terence A; Camargo Gil, Carolina; Siegfried, Blair D; Walters, Frederick S

    2016-04-01

    Variation in response to insecticidal proteins is common upon repetition of insect bioassays. Understanding this variation is a prerequisite to detecting biologically important differences. We tracked neonate Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) susceptibility to Vip3Aa19 over 17 generations using standardized bioassay methods. Five larval pretreatment conditions and one bioassay condition were tested to determine whether susceptibility was affected. These included: storage time; prefeeding; storage at reduced temperature; storage at reduced humidity; colony introgression of field-collected individuals. Extremes of photoperiod during the bioassay itself were also examined. LC50 values for two strains of S. frugiperda varied 6.6-fold or 8.8-fold over 17 generations. Storage time and humidity had no impact on Vip3Aa19 susceptibility, whereas prefeeding significantly reduced subsequent mortality (by 27%). Storage at reduced temperature increased mortality for one colony (from 45.6 to 73.0%) but not for the other. Introgression of field-collected individuals affected susceptibility at the first generation but not for subsequent generations. A 24 h bioassay photophase significantly reduced susceptibility (by 26%) for both colonies. Certain pretreatment and bioassay conditions were identified that can affect S. frugiperda Vip3Aa19 susceptibility, but innate larval heterogeneity was also present. Our observations should help to increase the consistency of insecticidal protein bioassay results. © 2015 Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. [Investigation on pattern of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on famous-region drug and bioassay--the work reference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2011-05-01

    Selection and standardization of the work reference are the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis. as an example, the manufacture process of the famous-region drugs extraction was explained from the aspects of original identification, routine examination, component analysis and bioassay. The common technologies were extracted, and the selection and standardization procedures of the work reference for the bioassay of Chinese materia medica were drawn up, so as to provide technical support for constructing a new mode and method of the quality control of Chinese materia medica based on the famous-region drugs and bioassay.

  2. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) as standard fish in bioassays and their reaction to potential reference toxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.

    1976-02-01

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were compared for their suitability as standard bioassay fish. Both species showed the same variability of bioassay results when tested with four toxicants. Fathead minnows are recommended on the basis of their small size and on their capability for use in complete life cycle tests. On the basis of minimum variability of bioassay results, sodium chloride was superior for use as a reference toxicant. Both sodium chloride and pentachlorophenol seemed capable of detecting abnormal fish. On the basis of seven listed criteria either sodium chloride or pentachlorophenol would be acceptable as a reference toxicant.

  3. Brine shrimp bioassay: importance of correct taxonomic identification of Artemia (Anostraca) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruebhart, David R; Cock, Ian E; Shaw, Glen R

    2008-08-01

    Despite the common use of the brine shrimp bioassay in toxicology, there is confusion in the literature regarding citation of the correct taxonomic identity of the Artemia species used. The genus Artemia, once thought to be represented by a single species Artemia salina, is now known to be composed of several bisexual species as well as parthenogenetic populations. Artemia franciscana is the best studied of the Artemia species and is considered to represent the vast majority of studies in which Artemia is used as an experimental test organism. We found that in studies referring to the use of A. salina, the zoogeography of the cyst harvest site indicated that the species used was actually A. franciscana. Those performing bioassays with Artemia need to exercise diligence in assigning correct species identification, as the identity of the test organism is an important parameter in assuring the validity of the results of the assay.

  4. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Postalli Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa and mammal (HTC cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  5. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando Postalli; Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Guedes, Carmen Luisa Barbosa; Jordão, Berenice Quinzani

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN) testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus) hepatoma cells (HTC) were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa) and mammal (HTC) cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  6. Methods for conducting bioassays using embryos and larvae of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnel, Paul A; Middaugh, Douglas P; Schwarck, Nathan T; Farren, Heather M; Haley, Richard K; Hoover, Richard A; Elphick, James; Tobiason, Karen; Marshall, Randall R

    2011-02-01

    The rapid decrease of several stocks of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi, in Puget Sound, Washington, has led to concerns about the effects of industrial and nonpoint source contamination on the embryo and larval stages of this and related forage fish species. To address these concerns, the state of Washington and several industries have funded efforts to develop embryo and larval bioassay protocols that can be used by commercial laboratories for routine effluent testing. This article presents the results of research to develop herring embryo and larval bioassay protocols. Factors evaluated during protocol development included temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), light intensity, photoperiod, larval feeding regimes, use of brine and artificial sea salts, gonad sources, collection methods, and egg quality.

  7. Biomagnification of bioassay derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P.D.; Ankley, G.T.; Best, D. A.; Crawford, R.; DeGalan, N.; Giesy, J.P.; Kubiak, T.J.; Ludwig, J. P.; Newsted, J.L.; Tillitt, D. E.; Verbrugge, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years contamination of the Great Lakes ecosystem with planar chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) has attracted considerable concern due to their known reproductive and teratogenic effects. The H4IIE bioassay has been standardized as a means of measuring the biological potency of a PCH mixture as 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ). Using this bioassay we have investigated the biomagnification of TCDD-EQ in a semi-closed ecosystem. The biomagnification of TCDD-EQ is demonstrated and results indicate that the food chain is the major pathway for TCDD-EQ through this ecosystem. The H4IIE assay system is demonstrated to be a viable integrative measure of the total concentration of TCDD-EQ in different trophic levels.

  8. Isolation of Fungi from Heterodera glycines and in vitro Bioassays for Their Antagonism to Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S L; Huettel, R N; Sayre, R M

    1990-10-01

    Twenty fungi were assayed in vitro for antagonism to eggs of Heterodera glycines. Eight of the fungi were isolated from cysts or eggs of H. glycines during the current study, one was isolated from Panagrellus redivivus, and eleven were obtained from other researchers or collections. The bioassays were conducted on eggs from nematodes that had been grown monoxenically on excised root tips. Phoma chrysanthemicola, one strain of Verticillium chlamydosporium, and one strain of V. lecanii caused a decrease (P Trichoderma polysporum infected live eggs but enhanced (P Fusarium sp., Neocosmospora vasinfecta, Scytalidium fulvum, Trichoderma harzianum (two strains), V. chlamydosporium (one strain), V. lecanii (three strains), and an unidentified fungus did not measurably affect egg viability, even though hyphae of five of these fungi were seen in live eggs. The bioassay provides a useful step in the selection of a biological control agent for this major nematode pest.

  9. Rapid bioassay method for estimation of 90Sr in urine samples by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankhede, Sonal; Chaudhary, Seema; Sawant, Pramilla D.

    2018-01-01

    Radiostrontium (Sr) is a by-product of the nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium in nuclear reactors and is an important radionuclide in spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. Rapid bioassay methods are required for estimating Sr in urine following internal contamination. Decision regarding medical intervention, if any can be based upon the results of urinalysis. The present method used at Bioassay Laboratory, Trombay is by Solid Extraction Chromatography (SEC) technique. The Sr separated from urine sample is precipitated as SrCO 3 and analyzed gravimetrically. However, gravimetric procedure is time consuming and therefore, in the present study, feasibility of Liquid Scintillation Counting for direct detection of radiostrontium in effluent was explored. The results obtained in the present study were compared with those obtained using gravimetric method

  10. High-throughput tri-colour flow cytometry technique to assess Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in bioassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiendrebeogo, Regis W; Adu, Bright; Singh, Susheel K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unbiased flow cytometry-based methods have become the technique of choice in many laboratories for high-throughput, accurate assessments of malaria parasites in bioassays. A method to quantify live parasites based on mitotracker red CMXRos was recently described but consistent...... distinction of early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum from uninfected red blood cells (uRBC) remains a challenge. METHODS: Here, a high-throughput, three-parameter (tri-colour) flow cytometry technique based on mitotracker red dye, the nucleic acid dye coriphosphine O (CPO) and the leucocyte marker CD45...... for enumerating live parasites in bioassays was developed. The technique was applied to estimate the specific growth inhibition index (SGI) in the antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) assay and compared to parasite quantification by microscopy and mitotracker red staining. The Bland-Altman analysis...

  11. Intake retention functions and their applications to bioassay and the estimation of internal radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; French, C.S.; La Bone, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a way of obtaining and gives applications of intake retention functions. These functions give the fraction of an intake of radioactive material expected to be present in a specified bioassay compartment at any time after a single acute exposure or after onset of a continuous exposure. The intake retention functions are derived from a multicompartmental model and a recursive catenary kinetics equation that completely describe the metabolism of radioelements from intake to excretion, accounting for the delay in uptake from compartments in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and the recycling of radioelements between systemic compartments. This approach, which treats excretion as the 'last' compartment of all catenary metabolic pathways, avoids the use of convolution integrals and provides algebraic solutions that can be programmed on hand held calculators or personal computers. The estimation of intakes and internal radiation doses and the use of intake retention functions in the design of bioassay programs are discussed along with several examples

  12. The application of bioassays as indicators of petroleum-contaminated soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, Grazyna; Nałecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Ulfig, Krzysztof; Brigmon, Robin L

    2005-04-01

    Bioremediation has proven successful in numerous applications to petroleum contaminated soils. However, questions remain as to the efficiency of bioremediation in lowering long-term soil toxicity. In the present study, the bioassays Spirotox, Microtox, Ostracodtoxkit F, umu-test with S-9 activation, and plant assays were applied, and compared to evaluate bioremediation processes in heavily petroleum contaminated soils. Six higher plant species (Secale cereale L., Lactuca sativa L., Zea mays L., Lepidium sativum L., Triticum vulgare L., Brassica oleracea L.) were used for bioassay tests based on seed germination and root elongation. The ecotoxicological analyses were made in DMSO/H2O and DCM/DMSO soil extracts. Soils were tested from two biopiles at the Czechowice oil refinery, Poland, that have been subjected to different bioremediation applications. In biopile 1 the active or engineered bioremediation process lasted four years, while biopile 2 was treated passively or non-engineered for eight months. The test species demonstrated varying sensitivity to soils from both biopiles. The effects on test organisms exposed to biopile 2 soils were several times higher compared to those in biopile 1 soils, which correlated with the soil contaminants concentration. Soil hydrocarbon concentrations indeed decreased an average of 81% in biopile 1, whereas in biopile 2 TPH/TPOC concentrations only decreased by 30% after eight months of bioremediation. The bioassays were presented to be sensitive indicators of soil quality and can be used to evaluate the quality of bioremediated soil. The study encourages the need to combine the bioassays with chemical monitoring for evaluation of the bioremediation effectiveness and assessing of the contaminated/remediated soils.

  13. Mouse bioassay to assess oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic compounds: Hydroxytamoxifen, Diethylstilbestrol and Genistein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Köhlerová, Eva; Škarda, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2004), s. 209-217 ISSN 0931-184X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/0406; GA AV ČR IBS5045302; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : bioassay * anti-oestrogens * oestrogenicity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 0.471, year: 2004

  14. Seasonally and regionally determined indication potential of bioassays in contaminated river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscherová, Klára; Dusek, Ladislav; Sídlová, Tereza; Jálová, Veronika; Cupr, Pavel; Giesy, John P; Nehyba, Slavomír; Jarkovský, Jirí; Klánová, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-03-01

    River sediments are a dynamic system, especially in areas where floods occur frequently. In the present study, an integrative approach is used to investigate the seasonal and spatial dynamics of contamination of sediments from a regularly flooded industrial area in the Czech Republic, which presents a suitable model ecosystem for pollutant distribution research at a regional level. Surface sediments were sampled repeatedly to represent two different hydrological situations: spring (after the peak of high flow) and autumn (after longer period of low flow). Samples were characterized for abiotic parameters and concentrations of priority organic pollutants. Toxicity was assessed by Microtox test; genotoxicity by SOS-chromotest and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-yeast test; and the presence of compounds with specific mode of action by in vitro bioassays for dioxin-like activity, anti-/androgenicity, and anti-/estrogenicity. Distribution of organic contaminants varied among regions and seasonally. Although the results of Microtox and genotoxicity tests were relatively inconclusive, all other specific bioassays led to statistically significant regional and seasonal differences in profiles and allowed clear separation of upstream and downstream regions. The outcomes of these bioassays indicated an association with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as master variables. There were significant interrelations among dioxin-like activity, antiandrogenicity and content of organic carbon, clay, and concentration of PAHs and PCBs, which documents the significance of abiotic factors in accumulation of pollutants. The study demonstrates the strength of the specific bioassays in indicating the changes in contamination and emphasizes the crucial role of a well-designed sampling plan, in which both spatial and temporal dynamics should be taken into account, for the correct interpretations of information in risk assessments.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bioavailability in industrial and agricultural soils: Linking SPME and Tenax extraction with bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meixia; Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Xiaojun; Allinson, Graeme; Rookes, James; Cahill, David

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in industrial and agricultural soils using chemical methods and a bioassay, and to study the relationships between the methods. This was conducted by comparing the quantities of PAHs extracted from two manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils and an agricultural soil with low level contamination by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and Tenax-TA extraction with the quantities taken up by the earthworm (Eisenia fetida). In addition, a biodegradation experiment was conducted on one MGP soil (MGP-A) to clarify the relationship between PAH removal by biodegradation and the variation in PAH concentrations in soil pore water. Results demonstrated that the earthworm bioassay could not be used to examine PAH bioavailability in the tested MGP soils; which was the case even in the diluted MGP-A soils after biodegradation. However, the bioassay was successfully applied to the agricultural soil. These results suggest that earthworms can only be used for bioassays in soils with low toxicity. In general, rapidly desorbing concentrations extracted by Tenax-TA could predict PAH concentrations accumulated in earthworms (R 2 =0.66), while SPME underestimated earthworm concentrations by a factor of 2.5. Both SPME and Tenax extraction can provide a useful tool to predict PAH bioavailability for earthworms, but Tenax-TA extraction was proven to be a more sensitive and precise method than SPME for the prediction of earthworm exposure in the agricultural soil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Bioassays with terrestrial and aquatic species as monitoring tools of hydrocarbon degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bori, Jaume; Vallès, Bettina; Ortega, Lina; Riva, Maria Carme

    2016-09-01

    In this study chemical analyses and ecotoxicity tests were applied for the assessment of a heavily hydrocarbon-contaminated soil prior and after the application of a remediation procedure that consisted in the stimulation of soil autochthonous populations of hydrocarbon degraders in static-ventilated biopiles. Terrestrial bioassays were applied in mixtures of test soils and artificial control soil and studied the survival and reproduction of Eisenia fetida and the avoidance response of E. fetida and Folsomia candida. Effects on aquatic organisms were studied by means of acute tests with Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, and Daphnia magna performed on aqueous elutriates from test soils. The bioremediation procedure led to a significant reduction in the concentration of hydrocarbons (from 34264 to 3074 mg kg(-1), i.e., 91 % decrease) and toxicity although bioassays were not able to report a percentage decrease of toxicity as high as the percentage reduction. Sublethal tests proved the most sensitive terrestrial bioassays and avoidance tests with earthworms and springtails showed potential as monitoring tools of hydrocarbon remediation due to their high sensitivity and short duration. The concentrations of hydrocarbons in water extracts from test soils were 130 and 100 μg L(-1) before and after remediation, respectively. Similarly to terrestrial tests, most aquatic bioassays detected a significant reduction in toxicity, which was almost negligible at the end of the treatment. D. magna survival was the most affected by soil elutriates although toxicity to the crustacean was associated to the salinity of the samples rather than to the concentration of hydrocarbons. Ecotoxicity tests with aqueous soil elutriates proved less relevant in the assessment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils due to the low hydrosolubility of hydrocarbons and the influence of the physicochemical parameters of the aquatic medium.

  17. Cryopreserved semen in ecotoxicological bioassays: sensitivity and reliability of cryopreserved Sparus aurata spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrocini, Adele; D'Adamo, Raffaele; Del Prete, Francesco; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Rinna, Francesca; Silvestri, Fausto; Sorrenti, Gerarda; Vitiello, Valentina; Sansone, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using cryopreserved S. aurata semen in spermiotoxicity tests. Cryopreservation is a biotechnology that can provide viable gametes and embryos on demand, rather than only in the spawning season, thus overcoming a limitation that has hindered the use of some species in ecotoxicological bioassays. Firstly, the sperm motility pattern of cryopreserved semen was evaluated after thawing by means of both visual and computer-assisted analyses. Motility parameters in the cryopreserved semen did not change significantly in the first hour after thawing, meaning that they were maintained for long enough to enable their use in spermiotoxicity tests. In the second phase of the research, bioassays were performed, using cadmium as the reference toxicant, in order to evaluate the sensitivity of cryopreserved S. aurata semen to ecotoxicological contamination. The sensitivity of the sperm motility parameters used as endpoints (motility percentages and velocities) proved to be comparable to what has been recorded for the fresh semen of other aquatic species (LOECs from 0.02 to 0.03 mg L(-1)). The test showed good reliability and was found to be rapid and easy to perform, requiring only a small volume of the sample. Moreover, cryopreserved semen is easy to store and transfer and makes it possible to perform bioassays in different sites or at different times with the same batch of semen. The proposed bioassay is therefore a promising starting point for the development of toxicity tests that are increasingly tailored to the needs of ecotoxicology and environmental quality evaluation strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional diagnostics for thyrotropin hormone receptor autoantibodies: bioassays prevail over binding assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytton, Simon David; Schluter, Anke; Banga, Paul J

    2018-06-01

    Autoantibodies to the thyrotropin hormone receptor (TSH-R) are directly responsible for the hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease and mediate orbital manifestations in Graves' orbitopathy (otherwise known as thyroid eye disease). These autoantibodies are heterogeneous in their function and collectively referred to as TRAbs. Measurement of TRAbs is clinically important for diagnosis of a variety of conditions and different commercial assays with high sensitivity and specificity are available for diagnostic purposes. This review provides overwhelming evidence that the TRAbs detected in binding assays by mainly the automated electrochemical luminescence immunoassays (ECLIA) do not distinguish TRAbs that stimulate the TSH-R (called TSIs or TSAbs) and TRAbs that just inhibit the binding of TSH without stimulating the TSH-R (called TBAbs). However, TSAbs and TBAbs have divergent pathogenic roles, and depending which fraction predominates cause different clinical symptoms and engender different therapeutic regimen. Therefore, diagnostic distinction of TSAbs and TBAbs is of paramount clinical importance. To date, only bioassays such as the Mc4 TSH-R bioassay (Thyretain TM , Quidel) and the Bridge assay (Immulite 2000, Siemens) can measure TSAbs, with only the former being able to distinguish between TSAbs and TBAbs. On this note, it is strongly recommended to only use the term TSI or TSAb when reporting the results of bioassays, whereas the results of automated TRAb binding assays should be reported as TRAbs (of undetermined functional significance). This review aims to present a technical and analytical account of leading commercial diagnostic methods of anti-TSH-R antibodies, a metaanalysis of their clinical performance and a perspective for the use of cell based TSH-R bioassays in the clinical diagnostics of Graves' disease.

  19. Bioassay method for toxicity studies of insecticide formulations to Tuta absoluta (meyrick, 1917)

    OpenAIRE

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho; Morais, Elisangela Gomes Fidelis de; Silva, Nilson Rodrigues; Silva, Geverson Aelton Rezende da; Lopes, Mayara Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Chemical control is the main method for controlling the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Reported techniques for the evaluation of insecticide toxicity to the tomato leafminer are not in agreement with field conditions and do not allow us to verify whether doses used in the field are efficient for control. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a bioassay methodology to study the toxicity of insecticide formulations to T. absoluta that repre...

  20. Bioassay method for toxicity studies of insecticide formulations to tuta absoluta (meyrick, 1917).

    OpenAIRE

    GALDINO, T. V. da S.; PICANÇO, M. C.; MORAIS, E. G. F. de; SILVA, N. R.; SILVA, G. A. R da; LOPES, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical control is the main method for controlling the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Reported techniques for the evaluation of insecticide toxicity to the tomato leafminer are not in agreement with field conditions and do not allow us to verify whether doses used in the field are efficient for control. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a bioassay methodology to study the toxicity of insecticide formulations to T. absoluta that repre...

  1. Bioassay using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian Light Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: A 96-hour bioassay was conducted using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian light crude oil sample on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 mls of water soluble fractions (WSF) of the oil were added to 1000 litres of de-chlorinated tap water to form 0, 25, 50 , 75 and 100 parts per million ...

  2. Genotoxicity monitoring of industrial wastes using plant bioassays and management through vermitechnology: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartaj Ahmad Bhat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this review was to summarize and present a comprehensive account of the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of various industrial wastes/sludges using some well-known plant bioassays followed by their bioremediation using vermitechnology. Industries are the main origin of discharges of various types of chemical wastes and are the main causes of environmental degradation. The direct application of industrial sludges could also harm the local biota. The genotoxicity of industrial sludges is assessed using various plant bioassays (for example Allium cepa, Vicia faba and these bioassays are comparatively more sensitive and cost-effective compared to other in-vitro genotoxicity bioassays. In addition, the materials used for toxicity evaluation are easily available and are being routinely used for the monitoring of environmental pollution. In most studies, the increases in root length and mitotic index, as well as the decrease in chromosomal aberrations in post vermicomposted sludges/wastes indicate that earthworms have the ability to reduce the ecotoxicogenetic effects of sludges/wastes. Post vermicompost is considered an excellent material of a homogenous nature as it has reduced levels of contaminants and holds more nutrients over a longer time without affecting the environment. The biotransformation potential of earthworms and their ability to detoxify most of the heavy metals in industrial sludges is because of their strong metabolic system and the involvement of diverse intestinal microflora and chloragocytic cells that reduce toxic forms to nontoxic forms. This unique ability of earthworms confirms the effectiveness of vermitechnology in reducing the toxicity of industrial wastes. Keywords: Allium cepa, Earthworm, Industrial sludge, Toxicity, Vermicomposting

  3. Development of a chick bioassay for determination of infectivity of viral pathogens in poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A F M F; Walkden-Brown, S W; Groves, P J; Wells, B

    2013-01-01

    To develop a chicken bioassay to detect infective viral pathogens in poultry litter and to determine the effects of type of chicken and age of exposure, as well as the effect of simulated litter transportation, on the level of viral infectivity detected. A 5 × 2 × 2 factorial design, plus negative controls. Five chicken litters, including two with deliberate contamination (one transported and one not), two chicken types (specific-pathogen-free (SPF) Leghorns and Cobb broilers) and two ages at initial exposure (days 1 and 8). Two replicates of each treatment combination. The 10 chickens in each of 22 isolators were either exposed (20 isolators) or not (2 isolators) to 8 L of previously used or deliberately contaminated poultry litter in two deep scratch trays. At day 35 post-exposure, sera were assayed for antibodies against chicken anaemia virus (CAV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and fowl adenovirus (FAV). Spleen samples were tested for Marek's disease virus (MDV) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The bioassay detected CAV, IBDV and FAV, but not NDV, IBV or MDV, in chickens exposed to infected litters. Infection in SPF chickens was detected with greater sensitivity than in the broiler chickens. Sensitivity increased with age at exposure in broiler but not SPF chickens. Simulated transportation for 24 h had little effect on pathogen detection. A bioassay based on the exposure of day-old SPF chickens to poultry litter and measurement of seroconversion at day 35 post-exposure is a useful semi-quantitative assay for viral infectivity in poultry litter, with overnight transportation of litter having little effect on the level of viral infectivity detected. This bioassay has applications in research on litter treatment protocols. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Estimation of uranium in bioassay samples of occupational workers by laser fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suja, A.; Prabhu, S.P.; Sawant, P.D.; Sarkar, P.K.; Tiwari, A.K.; Sharma, R.

    2010-01-01

    A newly established uranium processing facility has been commissioned at BARC, Trombay. Monitoring of occupational workers at regulars intervals is essential to assess intake of uranium by the workers in this facility. The design and engineering safety features of the plant are such that there is very low probability of uranium getting air borne during normal operations. However, the leakages from the system during routine maintenance of the plant may result in intake of uranium by workers. As per the new biokinetic model for uranium, 63% of uranium entering the blood stream gets directly excreted in urine. Therefore, bioassay monitoring (urinalysis) was recommended for these workers. A group of 21 workers was selected for bioassay monitoring to assess the existing urinary excretion levels of uranium before the commencement of actual work. For this purpose, sample collection kit along with an instruction slip was provided to the workers. Bioassay samples received were wet ashed with conc. nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to break down the metabolized complexes of uranium and it was co-precipitated with calcium phosphate. Separation of uranium from the matrix was done using ion exchange technique and final activity quantification in these samples was done using laser fluorimeter (Quantalase, Model No. NFL/02). Calibration of the laser fluorimeter is done using 10 ppb uranium standard (WHO, France Ref. No. 180000). Verification of the system performance is done by measuring concentration of uranium in the standards (1 ppb to 100 ppb). Standard addition method was followed for estimation of uranium concentration in the samples. Uranyl ions present in the sample get excited by pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm, and on de-excitation emit fluorescence light (540 nm) intensity which is measured by the PMT. To estimate the uranium in the bioassay samples, a known aliquot of the sample was mixed with 5% sodium pyrophosphate and fluorescence intensity was measured

  5. Recombinant cell bioassays for the detection of (gluco) corticosteroids and endocrine-disrupting potencies of several enviromental PCB contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, T.F.H.; Helsdingen, J.R.; Hamers, A.R.M.; Brouwer, B.A.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Sensitive and robust bioassays for glucocorticoids are very useful for the pharmaceutical industry, environmental scientists and veterinary control. Here, a recombinant yeast cell was constructed that expresses the human glucocorticoid receptor alpha and a green fluorescent reporter protein in

  6. Continuous flow bioassay method to evaluate the effects of outboard motor exhausts and selected aromatic toxicants on fish. [Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenniman, G. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago); Hartung, R.; Weber, W.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A continuous flow bioassay system was designed to measure the effects of outboard motor exhaust (OME) emissions and selected volatile and evaporative aromatic toxicants on goldfish (Carassius auratus). Continuous flow bioassays were run for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 720 h to determine lethal concentrations for 50 percent of individuals (LC 50's) for leaded OME, non-leaded OME, toluene, xylene, and 1,3,5 trimethylbenzene, the three individual compounds having been identified as significant aromatic components of OME. The 96 h LC-50's for these substances were found to be 171, 168, 23, 17, and 13 ppm, respectively. The values of 171 and 168 ppm for the two OME's are given in terms of gallons of fuel burned per million gallons of water. The continuous flow bioassay method was demonstrated to be a more reliable indicator of the effects of OME pollutants on aquatic organisms than is the static bioassay method.

  7. How Students Learn: Ways of Thinking about "Good Learning" in HE. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, one of a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. The topic of this first issues paper is a conceptual framework that can help members of a project (information resource)…

  8. In Vitro Androgen Bioassays as a Detection Method for Designer Androgens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison K. Heather

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Androgens are the class of sex steroids responsible for male sexual characteristics, including increased muscle mass and decreased fat mass. Illicit use of androgen doping can be an attractive option for those looking to enhance sporting performance and/or physical appearance. The use of in vitro bioassays to detect androgens, especially designer or proandrogens, is becoming increasingly important in combating androgen doping associated with nutritional supplements. The nutritional sports supplement market has grown rapidly throughout the past decade. Many of these supplements contain androgens, designer androgens or proandrogens. Many designer or proandrogens cannot be detected by the standard highly-sensitive screening methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry because their chemical structure is unknown. However, in vitro androgen bioassays can detect designer and proandrogens as these assays are not reliant on knowing the chemical structure but instead are based on androgen receptor activation. For these reasons, it may be advantageous to use routine androgen bioassay screening of nutraceutical samples to help curb the increasing problem of androgen doping.

  9. Application of the CALUX bioassay for epidemiological study. Analyses of Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. van; Debacker, N.; Sasse, A. [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels (BE)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The CALUX bioassay is a promising screening method for the detection of dioxin-like compounds. The observed good sensitivity, low number of false negative results as well as the good correlations with the GC-HRMS TEQ-values in case of feed and food analyses allow this method to climb in the first assessment methods' scale. The low amount of sample needed in addition to those latest advantages suggest that the CALUX bioassay could be a good screening method for epidemiological studies. The Belgian epidemiological study concerning the possible effect of the dioxin incident on the body burden of the Belgian population was an opportunity to test this method in comparison to the gold reference one: the GC-HRMS. The first part of this abstract presents epidemiological parameters (sensibility, specificity,) of the CALUX bioassay using CALUX TEQ-values as estimators of the TEQ-values of the 17 PCDD/Fs. The second part examines epidemiological determinants observed for CALUX and GCHRMS TEQ-values.

  10. Intercomparison programs - a tool for the implementation of a quality assurance program in bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Sueli A. de; Sousa, Wanderson O.; Juliao, Ligia M.Q.C.; Santos, Maristela S.; Fernandes, Paulo C.P.

    2009-01-01

    In vitro bioassay laboratories need to have means to demonstrate that they are technically competent, operate an effective quality system, and are able to generate technically valid calibration and test results. The reliability of the results of measurements has a high influence on the reliability of the dose assessment. Inter-laboratory tests are one of the tools for assessing the analytical consistency of in vitro bioassay laboratories. The intercomparison exercises provide an opportunity to compare radiochemistry techniques for in vitro analysis of biological samples. The in vitro Laboratory of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria has therefore participated in the intercomparison exercises sponsored by PROCORAD, ARCAL and IAEA since 1998. The intercomparison exercises comprise measurements of gamma and beta emitters in urine samples and alpha emitters in urine and faecal samples. This paper presents the performance of the IRD in vitro bioassay laboratory in the past intercomparisons. The results demonstrate that in vitro laboratory is able to generate technically valid results, which also guarantee the support for a quality assurance program and accreditation by competent organism in Brazil. (author)

  11. Development of bacteria-based bioassays for arsenic detection in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Elizabeth; Schreiber, Madeline; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2009-06-01

    Arsenic contamination of natural waters is a worldwide concern, as the drinking water supplies for large populations can have high concentrations of arsenic. Traditional techniques to detect arsenic in natural water samples can be costly and time-consuming; therefore, robust and inexpensive methods to detect arsenic in water are highly desirable. Additionally, methods for detecting arsenic in the field have been greatly sought after. This article focuses on the use of bacteria-based assays as an emerging method that is both robust and inexpensive for the detection of arsenic in groundwater both in the field and in the laboratory. The arsenic detection elements in bacteria-based bioassays are biosensor-reporter strains; genetically modified strains of, e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In response to the presence of arsenic, such bacteria produce a reporter protein, the amount or activity of which is measured in the bioassay. Some of these bacterial biosensor-reporters have been successfully utilized for comparative in-field analyses through the use of simple solution-based assays, but future methods may concentrate on miniaturization using fiberoptics or microfluidics platforms. Additionally, there are other potential emerging bioassays for the detection of arsenic in natural waters including nematodes and clams.

  12. Fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kentaro; Isobe, Shin-Ichiro; Zhu, Yun; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2015-10-13

    We summarize here the recent progress in fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials by focusing on fluorescent dyes used in bioassays and applications of these assays for food safety, quality and efficacy. Fluorescent dyes have been used in various bioassays, such as biosensing, cell assay, energy transfer-based assay, probing, protein/immunological assay and microarray/biochip assay. Among the arrays used in microarray/biochip assay, fluorescence-based microarrays/biochips, such as antibody/protein microarrays, bead/suspension arrays, capillary/sensor arrays, DNA microarrays/polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based arrays, glycan/lectin arrays, immunoassay/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based arrays, microfluidic chips and tissue arrays, have been developed and used for the assessment of allergy/poisoning/toxicity, contamination and efficacy/mechanism, and quality control/safety. DNA microarray assays have been used widely for food safety and quality as well as searches for active components. DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling may be useful for such purposes due to its advantages in the evaluation of pathway-based intracellular signaling in response to food materials.

  13. Fluorescence-Based Bioassays for the Detection and Evaluation of Food Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nishi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We summarize here the recent progress in fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials by focusing on fluorescent dyes used in bioassays and applications of these assays for food safety, quality and efficacy. Fluorescent dyes have been used in various bioassays, such as biosensing, cell assay, energy transfer-based assay, probing, protein/immunological assay and microarray/biochip assay. Among the arrays used in microarray/biochip assay, fluorescence-based microarrays/biochips, such as antibody/protein microarrays, bead/suspension arrays, capillary/sensor arrays, DNA microarrays/polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based arrays, glycan/lectin arrays, immunoassay/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-based arrays, microfluidic chips and tissue arrays, have been developed and used for the assessment of allergy/poisoning/toxicity, contamination and efficacy/mechanism, and quality control/safety. DNA microarray assays have been used widely for food safety and quality as well as searches for active components. DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling may be useful for such purposes due to its advantages in the evaluation of pathway-based intracellular signaling in response to food materials.

  14. A new approach for bioassays based on frequency- and time-domain measurements of magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oisjöen, Fredrik; Schneiderman, Justin F; Astalan, Andrea Prieto; Kalabukhov, Alexey; Johansson, Christer; Winkler, Dag

    2010-01-15

    We demonstrate a one-step wash-free bioassay measurement system capable of tracking biochemical binding events. Our approach combines the high resolution of frequency- and high speed of time-domain measurements in a single device in combination with a fast one-step bioassay. The one-step nature of our magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) based assay reduces the time between sample extraction and quantitative results while mitigating the risks of contamination related to washing steps. Our method also enables tracking of binding events, providing the possibility of, for example, investigation of how chemical/biological environments affect the rate of a binding process or study of the action of certain drugs. We detect specific biological binding events occurring on the surfaces of fluid-suspended MNPs that modify their magnetic relaxation behavior. Herein, we extrapolate a modest sensitivity to analyte of 100 ng/ml with the present setup using our rapid one-step bioassay. More importantly, we determine the size-distributions of the MNP systems with theoretical fits to our data obtained from the two complementary measurement modalities and demonstrate quantitative agreement between them. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of animal and algal bioassays for reliable saxitoxin ecotoxicity and cytotoxicity risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, François; Matias, Marcelo Seleme; Melegari, Silvia Pedroso; Pinto, Catia Regina Silva de Carvalho; Creppy, Edmond Ekué; Popovic, Radovan; Matias, William Gerson

    2011-05-01

    Contamination of water bodies by saxitoxin can result in various toxic effects in aquatic organisms. Saxitoxin contamination has also been shown to be a threat to human health in several reported cases, even resulting in death. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity of animal (Neuro-2A) and algal (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) bioassays to saxitoxin effect. Neuro-2A cells were found to be sensitive to saxitoxin, as shown by a 24 h EC50 value of 1.5 nM, which was obtained using a cell viability assay. Conversely, no saxitoxin effect was found in any of the algal biomarkers evaluated, for the concentration range tested (2-128 nM). These results indicate that saxitoxin may induce toxic effects in animal and human populations at concentrations where phytoplankton communities are not affected. Therefore, when evaluating STX risk of toxicity, algal bioassays do not appear to be reliable indicators and should always be conducted in combination with animal bioassays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of acute and chronic sediment bioassays with the harpacticoid copepod Quinquelaophonte sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Tristan J; Glover, Chris N; Keesing, Vaughan; Northcott, Grant L; Gaw, Sally; Tremblay, Louis A

    2014-01-01

    Reliable environmentally realistic bioassay methodologies are increasingly needed to assess the effects of environmental pollution. This study describes two estuarine sediment bioassays, one acute (96 h) and one chronic (14 d), with the New Zealand harpacticoid copepod Quinquelaophonte sp. utilising behavioural and reproductive endpoints. Spiked sediments were used to expose Quinquelaophonte sp. to three reference compounds representing important categories of estuarine chemical stressors: zinc (a metal), atrazine (a pesticide), and phenanthrene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon). Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR) were used to further characterise species responses. Acute sediment (sandy and low total organic content) 96 h EC50 values for the sublethal inhibition of mobility for zinc, atrazine and phenanthrene were 137, 5.4, and 2.6 µg/g, respectively. The chronic EC50 values for inhibition of reproduction (total offspring) were 54.5, 0.0083, and 0.067 µg/g for zinc, atrazine, and phenanthrene, respectively. For phenanthrene, a potentially novel mode of action was identified on reproduction. Quinquelaophonte sp. was found to be more sensitive than several other estuarine species indicating choice of test organism is important to characterising the effects of environmentally relevant levels of contamination. The bioassay sediment results demonstrate the sensitivity and suitability of Quinquelaophonte sp. as a tool for the assessment use of estuarine health. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Determination of an Environmental Background Level of Sr-90 in Urine for the Hanford Bioassay Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Cheryl L.; Rivard, James W.

    2009-01-01

    During the decommissioning and maintenance of some of the facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, workers have potential for a 90Sr intake. However, because of worldwide radioactive fallout, 90Sr is present in our environment, and can be detectable in routine urine bioassay samples. It is important for the Hanford Site bioassay program to discern an occupational intake from a non-occupational environmental one. A detailed study of the background 90Sr in the urine of unexposed Hanford workers was performed. A survey of the Hanford Site bioassay database found 128 Hanford workers who were hired between 1997 and 2002 and who had a very low potential for an occupational exposure prior to the baseline strontium urinalysis. Each urinalysis sample represented excretion during an approximate 24-hr period. The arithmetic mean value for the 128 pre-exposure baselines was 3.6 ± 5.1 mBq d-1. The 90Sr activities in urine varied from -12 to 20 mBq. The 99th percentile result was 16.4 mBqd-1, which was interpreted to mean that 1% of Hanford workers not occupationally exposed to strontium might exceed 16.4 mBq d-1.

  18. Assessing the genotoxicity of urban air pollutants using two in situ plant bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarini, M.; Fatigoni, C.; Dominici, L.; Maestri, S. [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy); Ederli, L.; Pasqualini, S. [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, I-06121 (Italy); Monarca, S. [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy); Moretti, M., E-mail: massimo.moretti@unipg.i [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Genotoxicity of urban air has been analysed almost exclusively in airborne particulates. We monitored the genotoxic effects of airborne pollutants in the urban air of Perugia (Central Italy). Two plant bioindicators with different genetic endpoints were used: micronuclei in meiotic pollen mother cells using Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and DNA damage in nuclei of Nicotiana tabacum leaves using comet assay (Nicotiana-comet). Buds of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 and young N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants were exposed for 24 h at three sites with different pollution levels. One control site (indoor control) was also used. The two bioassays showed different sensitivities toward urban pollutants: Trad-MCN assay was the most sensitive, but DNA damage in N. tabacum showed a better correlation with the pollutant concentrations. In situ biomonitoring of airborne genotoxins using higher plants combined with chemical analysis is thus recommended for characterizing genotoxicity of urban air. - Plant bioassays used to explore in situ the correlation between air pollution and genotoxicity.

  19. Development of bacteria-based bioassays for arsenic detection in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diesel, Elizabeth; Schreiber, Madeline [Virginia Tech, Department of Geosciences, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Meer, Jan Roelof van der [University of Lausanne, Department of Fundamental Microbiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    Arsenic contamination of natural waters is a worldwide concern, as the drinking water supplies for large populations can have high concentrations of arsenic. Traditional techniques to detect arsenic in natural water samples can be costly and time-consuming; therefore, robust and inexpensive methods to detect arsenic in water are highly desirable. Additionally, methods for detecting arsenic in the field have been greatly sought after. This article focuses on the use of bacteria-based assays as an emerging method that is both robust and inexpensive for the detection of arsenic in groundwater both in the field and in the laboratory. The arsenic detection elements in bacteria-based bioassays are biosensor-reporter strains; genetically modified strains of, e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In response to the presence of arsenic, such bacteria produce a reporter protein, the amount or activity of which is measured in the bioassay. Some of these bacterial biosensor-reporters have been successfully utilized for comparative in-field analyses through the use of simple solution-based assays, but future methods may concentrate on miniaturization using fiberoptics or microfluidics platforms. Additionally, there are other potential emerging bioassays for the detection of arsenic in natural waters including nematodes and clams. (orig.)

  20. Noninvasive quantitation of human liver steatosis using magnetic resonance and bioassay methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Assignies, Gaspard; Ruel, Martin; Khiat, Abdesslem; Lepanto, Luigi; Kauffmann, Claude; Tang, An [Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Departement de Radiologie, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Chagnon, Miguel [Universite de Montreal (UDEM), Departement de Mathematiques et de Statistique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gaboury, Louis [Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Departement d' Anatomo-Pathologie, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Boulanger, Yvan [Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Departement de Radiologie, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Hopital Saint-Luc du CHUM, Departement de Radiologie, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose was to evaluate the ability of three magnetic resonance (MR) techniques to detect liver steatosis and to determine which noninvasive technique (MR, bioassays) or combination of techniques is optimal for the quantification of hepatic fat using histopathology as a reference. Twenty patients with histopathologically proven steatosis and 24 control subjects underwent single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (MRS; 3 voxels), dual-echo in phase/out of phase MR imaging (DEI) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) examinations of the liver. Blood or urine bioassays were also performed for steatosis patients. Both MRS and DEI data allowed to detect steatosis with a high sensitivity (0.95 for MRS; 1 for DEI) and specificity (1 for MRS; 0.875 for DEI) but not DWI. Strong correlations were found between fat fraction (FF) measured by MRS, DEI and histopathology segmentation as well as with low density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol concentrations. A Bland-Altman analysis showed a good agreement between the FF measured by MRS and DEI. Partial correlation analyses failed to improve the correlation with segmentation FF when MRS or DEI data were combined with bioassay results. Therefore, FF from MRS or DEI appear to be the best parameters to both detect steatosis and accurately quantify fat liver noninvasively. (orig.)

  1. Experimental and Computational Characterization of Biological Liquid Crystals: A Review of Single-Molecule Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungsoo Na

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative understanding of the mechanical behavior of biological liquid crystals such as proteins is essential for gaining insight into their biological functions, since some proteins perform notable mechanical functions. Recently, single-molecule experiments have allowed not only the quantitative characterization of the mechanical behavior of proteins such as protein unfolding mechanics, but also the exploration of the free energy landscape for protein folding. In this work, we have reviewed the current state-of-art in single-molecule bioassays that enable quantitative studies on protein unfolding mechanics and/or various molecular interactions. Specifically, single-molecule pulling experiments based on atomic force microscopy (AFM have been overviewed. In addition, the computational simulations on single-molecule pulling experiments have been reviewed. We have also reviewed the AFM cantilever-based bioassay that provides insight into various molecular interactions. Our review highlights the AFM-based single-molecule bioassay for quantitative characterization of biological liquid crystals such as proteins.

  2. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, H.J. de [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands); Centre for Ecosystem Studies, Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: marieke.delange@wur.nl; Griethuysen, C. van; Koelmans, A.A. [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics. - Change in AVS is a good proxy for sediment disturbance and combined with SEM it can be used as a suitable predictor for biotic effects of sediment contamination.

  3. Assessing the genotoxicity of urban air pollutants using two in situ plant bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarini, M.; Fatigoni, C.; Dominici, L.; Maestri, S.; Ederli, L.; Pasqualini, S.; Monarca, S.; Moretti, M.

    2009-01-01

    Genotoxicity of urban air has been analysed almost exclusively in airborne particulates. We monitored the genotoxic effects of airborne pollutants in the urban air of Perugia (Central Italy). Two plant bioindicators with different genetic endpoints were used: micronuclei in meiotic pollen mother cells using Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and DNA damage in nuclei of Nicotiana tabacum leaves using comet assay (Nicotiana-comet). Buds of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 and young N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants were exposed for 24 h at three sites with different pollution levels. One control site (indoor control) was also used. The two bioassays showed different sensitivities toward urban pollutants: Trad-MCN assay was the most sensitive, but DNA damage in N. tabacum showed a better correlation with the pollutant concentrations. In situ biomonitoring of airborne genotoxins using higher plants combined with chemical analysis is thus recommended for characterizing genotoxicity of urban air. - Plant bioassays used to explore in situ the correlation between air pollution and genotoxicity.

  4. Building bio-assays with magnetic particles on a digital microfluidic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Tadej; Pérez-Ruiz, Elena; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2015-09-25

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) has emerged as a promising liquid handling technology for a variety of applications, demonstrating great potential both in terms of miniaturization and automation. DMF is based on the manipulation of discrete, independently controllable liquid droplets, which makes it highly reconfigurable and reprogrammable. One of its most exclusive advantages, compared to microchannel-based microfluidics, is its ability to precisely handle solid nano- and microsized objects, such as magnetic particles. Magnetic particles have become very popular in the last decade, since their high surface-to-volume ratio and the possibility to magnetically separate them from the matrix make them perfect suitable as a solid support for bio-assay development. The potential of magnetic particles in DMF-based bio-assays has been demonstrated for various applications. In this review we discuss the latest developments of magnetic particle-based DMF bio-assays with the aim to present, identify and analyze the trends in the field. We also discuss the state-of-the art of device integration, current status of commercialization and issues that still need to be addressed. With this paper we intend to stimulate researchers to exploit and unveil the potential of these exciting tools, which will shape the future of modern biochemistry, microbiology and biomedical diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  6. Use of a modified microplate bioassay method to investigate antibacterial activity in the Peruvian medicinal plant Peperomia galioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfield, Richard D; Scarano, Frank J; Heitzman, Mary E; Kondo, Miwako; Hammond, Gerald B; Neto, Catherine C

    2004-10-01

    A versatile microplate bioassay for quick and sensitive determination of antibacterial activity was developed for use in screening medicinal plants and identification of their active principles. This assay can be used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations for small quantities of organic or water-soluble plant extracts. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the stem and leaves of Peperomia galioides using this method found fractions containing grifolin and grifolic acid, which inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  7. In vitro bioassays for detecting dioxin-like activity--application potentials and limits of detection, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichbaum, Kathrin; Brinkmann, Markus; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Hecker, Markus; Giesy, John P; Engwall, Magnus; van Bavel, Bert; Hollert, Henner

    2014-07-15

    Use of in vitro assays as screening tool to characterize contamination of a variety of environmental matrices has become an increasingly popular and powerful toolbox in the field of environmental toxicology. While bioassays cannot entirely substitute analytical methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the increasing improvement of cell lines and standardization of bioassay procedures enhance their utility as bioanalytical pre-screening tests prior to more targeted chemical analytical investigations. Dioxin-receptor-based assays provide a holistic characterization of exposure to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) by integrating their overall toxic potential, including potentials of unknown DLCs not detectable via e.g. GC-MS. Hence, they provide important additional information with respect to environmental risk assessment of DLCs. This review summarizes different in vitro bioassay applications for detection of DLCs and considers the comparability of bioassay and chemical analytically derived toxicity equivalents (TEQs) of different approaches and various matrices. These range from complex samples such as sediments through single reference to compound mixtures. A summary of bioassay derived detection limits (LODs) showed a number of current bioassays to be equally sensitive as chemical methodologies, but moreover revealed that most of the bioanalytical studies conducted to date did not report their LODs, which represents a limitation with regard to low potency samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxicity of hydrogen sulfide to goldfish (Carassius auratus L. ) as influenced by temperature, oxygen, and bioassay techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Bioassays were conducted to test the effect of temperature and oxygen on H/sub 2/S toxicity to goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) and to investigate some factors that influence bioassay results. Relation of H/sub 2/S toxicity to temperature is negatively logarithmic over the range of 6.5-25 C. The mean 96-hr TL50 at 6 C was 530 ..mu..g/liter and at 25 C was 4 ..mu..g/liter. At temperatures of 14, 20, and 26 C, most acute mortality from H/sub 2/S ended by 11 days and the 11-day TL50's at these temperatures were significantly different. In bioassays with and without prior oxygen acclimation, decreasing oxygen concentrations increased H/sub 2/S toxicity. In the former, mean TL50's were 62 and 48 ..mu..g/liter H/sub 2/S at oxygen concentrations of 6 and 1.5 mg/liter, respectively, and in the latter, 71 and 53 ..mu..g/liter H/sub 2/S at the same oxygen concentrations. Variability in bioassay results was not affected by test temperatures of 14, 20, and 26 C, and in most cases 1 week of temperature acclimation was adequate. Stocks of fish responded differently after 11 days of bioassay, although differences were not detected after 4 days of bioassay. 27 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Application of electronic learning tools for training of specialists in the field of information technologies for enterprises of mineral resources sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Катунцов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty, the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan.

  10. An operational utility assessment [electronic resource]: measuring the effectiveness of the Joint Concept Technology Demonstration (JCTD), Joint Forces Protection Advance Security System (JFPASS)

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Mark; Mayor, Jeffrey D.; Symmes, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Planning modern military operations requires an accurate intelligence assessment of potential threats, combined with a detailed assessment of the physical theater of operations. This information can then be combined with equipment and manpower resources to set up a logistically supportable operation that mitigates as much of the enemy threat as possible. Given such a daunting challenge, military planners often turn to intelligent software agents to support their...

  11. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  12. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  13. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  14. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  15. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. A novel method for standardized application of fungal spore coatings for mosquito exposure bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenhorst, Marit; Knols, Bart G J

    2010-01-20

    Interest in the use of fungal entomopathogens against malaria vectors is growing. Fungal spores infect insects via the cuticle and can be applied directly on the insect to evaluate infectivity. For flying insects such as mosquitoes, however, application of fungal suspensions on resting surfaces is more realistic and representative of field settings. For this type of exposure, it is essential to apply specific amounts of fungal spores homogeneously over a surface for testing the effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Contemporary methods such as spraying or brushing spore suspensions onto substrates do not produce the uniformity and consistency that standardized laboratory assays require. Two novel fungus application methods using equipment developed in the paint industry are presented and compared. Wired, stainless steel K-bars were tested and optimized for coating fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates. Different solvents and substrates were evaluated. Two types of coating techniques were compared, i.e. manual and automated coating. A standardized bioassay set-up was designed for testing coated spores against malaria mosquitoes. K-bar coating provided consistent applications of spore layers onto paper substrates. Viscous Ondina oil formulations were not suitable and significantly reduced spore infectivity. Evaporative Shellsol T solvent dried quickly and resulted in high spore infectivity to mosquitoes. Smooth proofing papers were the most effective substrate and showed higher infectivity than cardboard substrates. Manually and mechanically applied spore coatings showed similar and reproducible effects on mosquito survival. The standardized mosquito exposure bioassay was effective and consistent in measuring effects of fungal dose and exposure time. K-bar coating is a simple and consistent method for applying fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates and can produce coating layers with accurate effective spore concentrations. The mosquito bioassay

  17. A novel method for standardized application of fungal spore coatings for mosquito exposure bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in the use of fungal entomopathogens against malaria vectors is growing. Fungal spores infect insects via the cuticle and can be applied directly on the insect to evaluate infectivity. For flying insects such as mosquitoes, however, application of fungal suspensions on resting surfaces is more realistic and representative of field settings. For this type of exposure, it is essential to apply specific amounts of fungal spores homogeneously over a surface for testing the effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Contemporary methods such as spraying or brushing spore suspensions onto substrates do not produce the uniformity and consistency that standardized laboratory assays require. Two novel fungus application methods using equipment developed in the paint industry are presented and compared. Methods Wired, stainless steel K-bars were tested and optimized for coating fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates. Different solvents and substrates were evaluated. Two types of coating techniques were compared, i.e. manual and automated coating. A standardized bioassay set-up was designed for testing coated spores against malaria mosquitoes. Results K-bar coating provided consistent applications of spore layers onto paper substrates. Viscous Ondina oil formulations were not suitable and significantly reduced spore infectivity. Evaporative Shellsol T solvent dried quickly and resulted in high spore infectivity to mosquitoes. Smooth proofing papers were the most effective substrate and showed higher infectivity than cardboard substrates. Manually and mechanically applied spore coatings showed similar and reproducible effects on mosquito survival. The standardized mosquito exposure bioassay was effective and consistent in measuring effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Conclusions K-bar coating is a simple and consistent method for applying fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates and can produce coating layers

  18. Using a macroalgal δ15N bioassay to detect cruise ship waste water effluent inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldy, James

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Green macroalgae exposed to nutrient solutions exhibited changes in tissue 15 N signatures. → Macroalgae exhibited no fractionation with NO 3 and slight fractionation with NH 4 . → Algae exposed to cruise ship waste water had increased tissue δ 15 N indicating a heavy N source. → Field bioassays exhibited decreased δ 15 N indicating isotopically light riverine δ 15 N-NO 3 was likely the dominant N source. → Algal bioassays could not detect a δ 15 N cruise ship waste water signal in this system. - Abstract: Green macroalgae bioassays were used to determine if the δ 15 N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in a small harbor. Opportunistic green macroalgae (Ulva spp.) were collected, cultured under nutrient depleted conditions and characterized with regard to N content and δ 15 N. Samples of algae were used in controlled incubations to evaluate the direction of isotope shift from exposure to CSWWE. Algae samples exposed to CSWWE exhibited an increase of 1-2.5 per mille in δ 15 N values indicating that the CSWWE had an enriched isotope signature. In contrast, algae samples exposed to field conditions exhibited a significant decrease in the observed δ 15 N indicating that a light N source was used. Isotopically light, riverine nitrogen derived from N 2 -fixing trees in the watershed may be a N source utilized by algae. These experiments indicate that the δ 15 N CSWWE signature was not detectable under the CSWWE loading conditions of this experiment.

  19. Bioassay requirements for 125I and 131I in medical, teaching and research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The more widespread use of radioactive isotopes of iodine (collectively referred to as radioiodines) as a research tool, coupled with their diagnostic and therapeutic uses in nuclear medicine, has resulted in an increased number of personnel who are exposed to these radioisotopes and who therefore should be monitored for internal radioiodine contamination. This document describes the minimum acceptable features of a bioassay programme which the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) requires to be available in institutions holding a prescribed substance licence authorising the use of significant quantities of 125 I or 131 I or both. A licensee may submit details of his own proposed bioassay programme to the AECB for approval. If such a programme fails to be approved, the programme described below shall be adhered to. This document does not deal with individuals who are likely to maintain a significant chronic thyroid burden of radioiodine. It is assumed that the radioiodine taken into the body is in a soluble, inorganic form (I 2 , iodide or iodate) or in an organic form (e.g. methyl iodide) which is metabolised in the body with a resultant release of iodide. Radioiodinated organic compounds which are not catabolised to iodide in the body to any significant degree are not the subject of this document, since the metabolism of the radioiodine will be dictated by the metabolism of the compound. This means that individuals whose only exposure to radioiodine is in the form of prepared radioiodinated compounds such as antigens and antibodies (e.g. individuals using radio immuno assay kits in which the antigen or antibody is supplied as radioiodinated material) are not required to participate in this bioassay programme for radioiodine

  20. Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in doping control using mammalian reporter gene bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Corine J; Sterk, Saskia S; van de Heijning, Monique P M; Brouwer, Abraham; Stephany, Rainer W; van der Burg, Bart; Sonneveld, Edwin

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are a class of steroid hormones related to the male hormone testosterone. They are frequently detected as drugs in sport doping control. Being similar to or derived from natural male hormones, AAS share the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) as common mechanism of action. The mammalian androgen responsive reporter gene assay (AR CALUX bioassay), measuring compounds interacting with the AR can be used for the analysis of AAS without the necessity of knowing their chemical structure beforehand, whereas current chemical-analytical approaches may have difficulty in detecting compounds with unknown structures, such as designer steroids. This study demonstrated that AAS prohibited in sports and potential designer AAS can be detected with this AR reporter gene assay, but that also additional steroid activities of AAS could be found using additional mammalian bioassays for other types of steroid hormones. Mixtures of AAS were found to behave additively in the AR reporter gene assay showing that it is possible to use this method for complex mixtures as are found in doping control samples, including mixtures that are a result of multi drug use. To test if mammalian reporter gene assays could be used for the detection of AAS in urine samples, background steroidal activities were measured. AAS-spiked urine samples, mimicking doping positive samples, showed significantly higher androgenic activities than unspiked samples. GC-MS analysis of endogenous androgens and AR reporter gene assay analysis of urine samples showed how a combined chemical-analytical and bioassay approach can be used to identify samples containing AAS. The results indicate that the AR reporter gene assay, in addition to chemical-analytical methods, can be a valuable tool for the analysis of AAS for doping control purposes.

  1. Evaluation of internal exposure of nuclear medicine staff through in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, E.A.; Araujo, F.; Sousa, W.O.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rebelo, A.M.O.; Corbo, R. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, HU-UFRJ, Av. Brigadeiro Trompowsky, s/n, ILHA do Fundao, CEP 21945-560, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    The manipulation of a wide variety of unsealed sources in Nuclear Medicine results in a significant risk of internal exposure of the workers. {sup 131}I should be highlighted among the most frequently used radionuclides because of its large application for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. The increasing use of radionuclides for medical purposes creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Currently in Brazil, there are {approx}300 nuclear medicine centres in operation but individual monitoring is still restricted to the control of external exposure. This work presents the development of in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques aimed to quantify incorporation of radionuclides used in Nuclear Medicine. It is also presented the results of a preliminary survey of internal exposure of a group of workers involved in the preparation of therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I. Workers were monitored with a gamma camera available in the Nuclear Medicine Service of the University Hospital of Rio de Janeiro and at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Whole-Body Counter (IRDWBC). The in vivo detection systems were calibrated with a neck-thyroid phantom developed in IRD. Urine samples from radiopharmacy workers were collected after preparation and administration of therapeutic doses (10-250 mCi) of {sup 131}I and measured with a HPGe detection system available in the Bioassay Laboratory of IRD. The results show that the bioassay methods developed in this work present enough sensitivity for routine monitoring of nuclear medicine workers. All workers monitored in this survey presented positive results for {sup 131}I in urine samples and two workers presented detectable activities in thyroid when measured at the IRD-WBC. The highest committed effective dose per preparation was estimated to be 17 {mu}Sv. (authors)

  2. Guidance document for prepermit bioassay testing of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.L.; Harrison, F.L.

    1990-11-01

    In response to the mandate of Public Law 92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972, as amended, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a program to promulgate regulations and criteria to control the ocean disposal of radioactive wastes. The EPA seeks to understand the mechanisms for biological response of marine organisms to the low levels of radioactivity that may arise from the release of these wastes as a result of ocean-disposal practices. Such information will play an important role in determining the adequacy of environmental assessments provided to the EPA in support of any disposal permit application. Although the EPA requires packaging of low-level radioactive waste to prevent release during radiodecay of the materials, some release of radioactive material into the deep-sea environment may occur when a package deteriorates. Therefore, methods for evaluating the impact on biota are being evaluated. Mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated at the expected low environmental levels that might occur if radioactive materials were released from the low-level waste packages. Therefore, traditional bioassay systems are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects on biota in the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) has had an ongoing program to examine sublethal responses to radiation at the cellular level, using cytogenetic end points. This technical guidance report represents prepermit bioassay procedures that potentially may be applicable to the assessment of effects from a mixture of radionuclides that could be released from a point source at the ocean bottom. Methodologies along with rationale and a discussion of uncertainty are presented for the sediment benthic bioassay protocols identified in this report

  3. GHSI emergency radionuclide bioassay laboratory network - summary of the second exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Quayle, Debora; Sadi, Baki; Bartizel, Christine; Battisti, Paolo; Boettger, Axel; Bouvier, Celine; Paquet, Francois; CapoteCuellar, Antonio; Carr, Zhanat; Hammond, Derek; Hartmann, Martina; Heikkinen, Tarja; Jones, Robert L.; Kim, Eunjoo; Koga, Roberto; Kukhta, Boris; Mitchell, Lorna; Morhard, Ryan; Rulik, Petr; Sergei, Aleksanin; Sierra, Inmaculada; Oliveira Sousa, Wandersonde; Szabo, Gyula

    2017-01-01

    The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) established a laboratory network within the GHSI community to develop collective surge capacity for radionuclide bioassay in response to a radiological or nuclear emergency as a means of enhancing response capability, health outcomes and community resilience. GHSI partners conducted an exercise in collaboration with the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network and the IAEA Response and Assistance Network, to test the participating laboratories (18) for their capabilities in in vitro assay of biological samples, using a urine sample spiked with multiple high-risk radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 106 Ru, 137 Cs, and 239 Pu). Laboratories were required to submit their reports within 72 h following receipt of the sample, using a pre-formatted template, on the procedures, methods and techniques used to identify and quantify the radionuclides in the sample, as well as the bioassay results with a 95% confidence interval. All of the participating laboratories identified and measured all or some of the radionuclides in the sample. However, gaps were identified in both the procedures used to assay multiple radionuclides in one sample, as well as in the methods or techniques used to assay specific radionuclides in urine. Two-third of the participating laboratories had difficulties in determining all the radionuclides in the sample. Results from this exercise indicate that challenges remain with respect to ensuring that results are delivered in a timely, consistent and reliable manner to support medical interventions. Laboratories within the networks are encouraged to work together to develop and maintain collective capabilities and capacity for emergency bioassay, which is an important component of radiation emergency response. (authors)

  4. Guidance document for prepermit bioassay testing of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.L.; Harrison, F.L.

    1990-11-01

    In response to the mandate of Public Law 92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972, as amended, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a program to promulgate regulations and criteria to control the ocean disposal of radioactive wastes. The EPA seeks to understand the mechanisms for biological response of marine organisms to the low levels of radioactivity that may arise from the release of these wastes as a result of ocean-disposal practices. Such information will play an important role in determining the adequacy of environmental assessments provided to the EPA in support of any disposal permit application. Although the EPA requires packaging of low-level radioactive waste to prevent release during radiodecay of the materials, some release of radioactive material into the deep-sea environment may occur when a package deteriorates. Therefore, methods for evaluating the impact on biota are being evaluated. Mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated at the expected low environmental levels that might occur if radioactive materials were released from the low-level waste packages. Therefore, traditional bioassay systems are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects on biota in the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) has had an ongoing program to examine sublethal responses to radiation at the cellular level, using cytogenetic end points. This technical guidance report represents prepermit bioassay procedures that potentially may be applicable to the assessment of effects from a mixture of radionuclides that could be released from a point source at the ocean bottom. Methodologies along with rationale and a discussion of uncertainty are presented for the sediment benthic bioassay protocols identified in this report.

  5. Fast and accurate semantic annotation of bioassays exploiting a hybrid of machine learning and user confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alex M; Bunin, Barry A; Litterman, Nadia K; Schürer, Stephan C; Visser, Ubbo

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics and computer aided drug design rely on the curation of a large number of protocols for biological assays that measure the ability of potential drugs to achieve a therapeutic effect. These assay protocols are generally published by scientists in the form of plain text, which needs to be more precisely annotated in order to be useful to software methods. We have developed a pragmatic approach to describing assays according to the semantic definitions of the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) project, using a hybrid of machine learning based on natural language processing, and a simplified user interface designed to help scientists curate their data with minimum effort. We have carried out this work based on the premise that pure machine learning is insufficiently accurate, and that expecting scientists to find the time to annotate their protocols manually is unrealistic. By combining these approaches, we have created an effective prototype for which annotation of bioassay text within the domain of the training set can be accomplished very quickly. Well-trained annotations require single-click user approval, while annotations from outside the training set domain can be identified using the search feature of a well-designed user interface, and subsequently used to improve the underlying models. By drastically reducing the time required for scientists to annotate their assays, we can realistically advocate for semantic annotation to become a standard part of the publication process. Once even a small proportion of the public body of bioassay data is marked up, bioinformatics researchers can begin to construct sophisticated and useful searching and analysis algorithms that will provide a diverse and powerful set of tools for drug discovery researchers.

  6. Fast and accurate semantic annotation of bioassays exploiting a hybrid of machine learning and user confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Clark

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics and computer aided drug design rely on the curation of a large number of protocols for biological assays that measure the ability of potential drugs to achieve a therapeutic effect. These assay protocols are generally published by scientists in the form of plain text, which needs to be more precisely annotated in order to be useful to software methods. We have developed a pragmatic approach to describing assays according to the semantic definitions of the BioAssay Ontology (BAO project, using a hybrid of machine learning based on natural language processing, and a simplified user interface designed to help scientists curate their data with minimum effort. We have carried out this work based on the premise that pure machine learning is insufficiently accurate, and that expecting scientists to find the time to annotate their protocols manually is unrealistic. By combining these approaches, we have created an effective prototype for which annotation of bioassay text within the domain of the training set can be accomplished very quickly. Well-trained annotations require single-click user approval, while annotations from outside the training set domain can be identified using the search feature of a well-designed user interface, and subsequently used to improve the underlying models. By drastically reducing the time required for scientists to annotate their assays, we can realistically advocate for semantic annotation to become a standard part of the publication process. Once even a small proportion of the public body of bioassay data is marked up, bioinformatics researchers can begin to construct sophisticated and useful searching and analysis algorithms that will provide a diverse and powerful set of tools for drug discovery researchers.

  7. Bioassay of circulating luteinizing hormone in the rhesus monkey: comparison with radioimmunoassay during physiological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufau, M.L.; Hodgen, G.D.; Goodman, A.L.; Catt, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    The concentration of biologically active LH in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum was measured by a highly sensitive bioassay based upon testosterone production by dispersed rat interstitial cells. The sensitivity of the in vitro bioassay was equal to or higher than that of radioimmunoassay, with detection limits of 0.1 mIU of human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) or 10 ng of a Rhesus pituitary gonadotropin preparation (LER-1909-2). Parallel dose-response curves were obtained for hMG and Rhesus monkey pituitary gonadotropin. The method permits bioassay of LH in 20--100 μl of serum from adult male monkeys, and from female monkeys during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Bioactive LH concentrations could be assayed in 0.25 to 5 μl of serum from mid-cycle, postmenopausal, and castrated female monkeys. Serum LH was undetectable in two hypophysectomized adult female monkeys and six intact immature animals, and was 13 +- 6 (SD) mIU/ml in adult male monkeys. In adult females, follicular phase LH levels ranged from 17 to 169 mIU/ml, with a mean of 76 +- 52 mIU/ml. The midcycle LH peak was 1738 +- 742 mIU/ml and the luteal phase values ranged from 6-47 mIU/ml, with a mean of 35 +- 5 mIU/ml. Serum LH concentrations ranged from 100 to 900 mIU/ml in two menopausal females, and from 590--1480 mIU/ml in castrated females. Treatment of castrated female monkeys with estrogen plus progesterone produced an initial two-fold rise in sepum LH within 3 days, followed by a gradual decline to one-fourth to one-tenth of the initial levels after 10 days of treatment. Serum LH was suppressed to undetectable levels during the third week, and remained so for the duration of the 60-day treatment period

  8. Toxicity of Single and Mixed Contaminants in Seawater Measured with Acute Toxicity Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Fernandez-Alba

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of organic pollutants commonly detected in seawater have been evaluated by acute toxicity bioassays. Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and Selenastrum capricornotum were selected to test toxic effects of individual compounds and mixtures of these compounds, obtaining EC50 values in the range of 0.001 to 28.9 mg/l. In the case of mixtures, synergistic toxic responses were seen for a clear majority of the cases (>60%. Mixtures containing methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE exhibit accelerated processes that result in a change in concentration required to produce a toxic effect; for example, in the case of mixtures containing MTBE and Diuron and Dichlofluanid.

  9. 'In-vivo' and bioassay results from two contrasting cases of plutonium-239 inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.; Bains, M.E.D.; Fraser, D.C.

    1969-06-01

    'In-vivo' and bioassay measurements following two incidents involving plutonium-239 inhalation are described and contrasted. Incident 1, involving the inhalation of insoluble plutonium oxide, resulted in a lung content of about 20 nCi after the initial clearance. Urine excretion was negligible and the estimation of exposure was based on 'in-vivo' data and faecal excretion. Incident,2, involving the inhalation of soluble plutonium, proved negligible and the estimation of exposure, based on urinary excretion, was 0.6 nCi. (author)

  10. A Bayesian approach to the analysis of quantal bioassay studies using nonparametric mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczyk, Kassandra; Kottas, Athanasios

    2014-03-01

    We develop a Bayesian nonparametric mixture modeling framework for quantal bioassay settings. The approach is built upon modeling dose-dependent response distributions. We adopt a structured nonparametric prior mixture model, which induces a monotonicity restriction for the dose-response curve. Particular emphasis is placed on the key risk assessment goal of calibration for the dose level that corresponds to a specified response. The proposed methodology yields flexible inference for the dose-response relationship as well as for other inferential objectives, as illustrated with two data sets from the literature. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  11. Analysis of polonium-210 in food products and bioassay samples by isotope-dilution alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhichao; Wu Zhongyu

    2009-01-01

    A rapid and reliable radiochemical method coupled with a simple and compact plating apparatus was developed, validated, and applied for the analysis of 210 Po in variety of food products and bioassay samples. The method performance characteristics, including accuracy, precision, robustness, and specificity, were evaluated along with a detailed measurement uncertainty analysis. With high Po recovery, improved energy resolution, and effective removal of interfering elements by chromatographic extraction, the overall method accuracy was determined to be better than 5% with measurement precision of 10%, at 95% confidence level.

  12. Analysis of polonium-210 in food products and bioassay samples by isotope-dilution alpha spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhichao; Wu, Zhongyu

    2009-05-01

    A rapid and reliable radiochemical method coupled with a simple and compact plating apparatus was developed, validated, and applied for the analysis of (210)Po in variety of food products and bioassay samples. The method performance characteristics, including accuracy, precision, robustness, and specificity, were evaluated along with a detailed measurement uncertainty analysis. With high Po recovery, improved energy resolution, and effective removal of interfering elements by chromatographic extraction, the overall method accuracy was determined to be better than 5% with measurement precision of 10%, at 95% confidence level.

  13. Use of 236Pu and 242Pu as a radiochemical tracer for estimation of Pu in bioassay samples by fission track analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Pramilla D.; Prabhu, Supreetha P.; Kalsi, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    236 Pu and 242 Pu are routinely used as radiochemical yield monitors in India for bioassay monitoring of occupational workers by alpha spectrometry. Fission Track Analysis (FTA) is also being standardized for trace level determination of Pu in bioassay samples. The present study, reports the utility of 236 Pu and 242 Pu as radiochemical tracers in estimation of Pu in bioassay samples by FTA technique. The advantages of using 236 Pu tracer in FTA over 242 Pu as well as the interference caused due to presence of 241 Pu in the bioassay samples of occupational workers handling power reactor grade Pu is discussed. (author)

  14. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  15. Single-core magnetic markers in rotating magnetic field based homogeneous bioassays and the law of mass action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoff, Jan, E-mail: j.dieckhoff@tu-bs.de [Institut fuer Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Schrittwieser, Stefan; Schotter, Joerg [Molecular Diagnostics, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Remmer, Hilke; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank [Institut fuer Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    In this work, we report on the effect of the magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) concentration on the quantitative detection of proteins in solution with a rotating magnetic field (RMF) based homogeneous bioassay. Here, the phase lag between 30 nm iron oxide single-core particles and the RMF is analyzed with a fluxgate-based measurement system. As a test analyte anti-human IgG is applied which binds to the protein G functionalized MNP shell and causes a change of the phase lag. The measured phase lag changes for a fixed MNP and a varying analyte concentration are modeled with logistic functions. A change of the MNP concentration results in a nonlinear shift of the logistic function with the analyte concentration. This effect results from the law of mass action. Furthermore, the bioassay results are used to determine the association constant of the binding reaction. - Highlights: • A rotating magnetic field based homogeneous bioassay concept was presented. • Here, single-core iron oxide nanoparticles are applied as markers. • The impact of the particle concentration on the bioassay results is investigated. • The relation between particle concentration and bioassay sensitivity is nonlinear. • This finding can be reasonably explained by the law of mass action.

  16. Establishing principal soil quality parameters influencing earthworms in urban soils using bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankard, Peter K.; Bundy, Jacob G.; Spurgeon, David J.; Weeks, Jason M.; Wright, Julian; Weinberg, Claire; Svendsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Potential contamination at ex-industrial sites means that, prior to change of use, it will be necessary to quantify the extent of risks to potential receptors. To assess ecological hazards, it is often suggested to use biological assessment to augment chemical analyses. Here we investigate the potential of a commonly recommended bioassay, the earthworm reproduction test, to assess the status of urban contaminated soils. Sample points at all study sites had contaminant concentrations above the Dutch soil criteria Target Values. In some cases, the relevant Intervention Values were exceeded. Earthworm survival at most points was high, but reproduction differed significantly in soil from separate patches on the same site. When the interrelationships between soil parameters and reproduction were studied, it was not possible to create a good model of site soil toxicity based on single or even multiple chemical measurements of the soils. We thus conclude that chemical analysis alone is not sufficient to characterize soil quality and confirms the value of biological assays for risk assessment of potentially contaminated soils. - Bioassays must be applied for the risk assessment complexly-polluted sites to complement chemical analysis of soils

  17. Estimation of uranium in bioassay samples of occupational workers by laser fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suja, A.; Prabhu, S.P.; Sawant, P.D.; Sarkar, P.K.; Tiwari, A.K.; Sharma, R.

    2012-01-01

    A newly established uranium processing facility has been commissioned at BARC, Trombay. Monitoring of occupational workers is essential to assess intake of uranium in this facility. A group of 21 workers was selected for bioassay monitoring to assess the existing urinary excretion levels of uranium before the commencement of actual work. Bioassay samples collected from these workers were analyzed by ion-exchange technique followed by laser fluorimetry. Standard addition method was followed for estimation of uranium concentration in the samples. The minimum detectable activity by this technique is about 0.2 ng. The range of uranium observed in these samples varies from 19 to 132 ng/L. Few of these samples were also analyzed by fission track analysis technique and the results were found to be comparable to those obtained by laser fluorimetry. The urinary excretion rate observed for the individual can be regarded as a 'personal baseline' and will be treated as the existing level of uranium in urine for these workers at the facility. (author)

  18. Screening the Toxicity of Selected Personal Care Products Using Embryo Bioassays: 4-MBC, Propylparaben and Triclocarban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Torres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several emerging pollutants, including Personal Care Products (PCPs, have been detected in aquatic ecosystems, in the ng/L or µg/L range. Available toxicological data is limited, and, for certain PCPs, evidence indicates a potential risk for the environment. Hence, there is an urgent need to gather ecotoxicological data on PCPs as a proxy to improve risk assessment. Here, the toxicity of three different PCPs (4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor (4-MBC, propylparaben and triclocarban was tested using embryo bioassays with Danio rerio (zebrafish and Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin. The No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC for triclocarban was 0.256 µg/L for sea urchin and 100 µg/L for zebrafish, whereas NOEC for 4-MBC was 0.32 µg/L for sea urchin and 50 µg/L for zebrafish. Both PCPs impacted embryo development at environmentally relevant concentrations. In comparison with triclocarban and 4-MBC, propylparaben was less toxic for both sea urchin (NOEC = 160 µg/L and zebrafish (NOEC = 1000 µg/L. Overall, this study further demonstrates the sensitivity of embryo bioassays as a high-throughput approach for testing the toxicity of emerging pollutants.

  19. Efficiency Calibration of Phantom Family for Use in Direct Bioassay of Radionuclide in the Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Seok; Ha, Wi Ho; Kim, Hyun Ki; Park, Gyung Deok; Lee, Jai Ki

    2008-01-01

    A major source of uncertainties of in vivo bioassay using a whole body counter calibrated against a body phantom containing known radioactivities is variation of counting geometry caused by the differences in body size of the subject from that of the phantom. Phantoms such as the BOMAB phantom are based on the body size of the reference man and usually single phantom is used in usual calibration of the counter. This is because it is difficult to apply a set of phantoms having different sizes. In order to reduce the potential errors due to variation of counting geometry, use of a set of phantoms having different body-shapes have been attempted. The efficiency files are stored in the computer analyzing the measurement data and a suitable one is retrieved for the specific subject. Experimental or computational approach can be employed in generation of the efficiency files. Carlan et al. demonstrated that Monte Carlo simulations can provide acceptable efficiencies by use of the IGOR phantom family. The body size of the individual subject undergoing in vivo bioassay should be determined by an appropriate method

  20. Comparative study of Graves' ophthalmopathy by ultrasonography, computed tomography, and fish bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, K.; Schoener, W.; Juengst, D.; Karl, H.J.; Maier-Hauff, K.; Rothe, R.

    1979-01-01

    In 35 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) thyroid function was tested by T 3 -RIA, T 4 -RIA, TBI, TRH-test, thyroid scanning, and determination of thyroid autoantibodies. Additional ultrasonography (A-scan), computed tomography (CT) of the orbit, and the determination of an exophthalmogenic serum activity in fish bioassay was performed. Typical alterations for GO were observed in 26 cases with ultrasonography. CT showed an enlargement of medial and/or lateral rectus muscles in 24 of 33 patients, and in 17 cases a region of high density in the apex of the muscle cone. The density of retrobulbar fat after i.v. injection of contrast medium did not differ significantly from that observed in normal men. Characteristic signs of GO were not detected in only 2 cases using both methods together. Exophthalmogenic serum activity was found in the IgG fraction of serum protein. The incidence rate was high (69%), but for diagnostic purpose the fish bioassay cannot be recommended. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 BRE [de

  1. [Quality evaluation of rhubarb dispensing granules based on multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng; Zhang, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Ding-Kun; Wu, Shan-Na; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-07-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the quality of Chinese formula granules by combined use of multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay. The rhubarb dispensing granules were used as the model drug for demonstrative study. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was adopted for simultaneously quantitative determination of the 10 anthraquinone derivatives (such as aloe emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside) in rhubarb dispensing granules; purgative biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on compound diphenoxylate tablets-induced mouse constipation model; blood activating biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on in vitro rat antiplatelet aggregation model; SPSS 22.0 statistical software was used for correlation analysis between 10 anthraquinone derivatives and purgative biopotency, blood activating biopotency. The results of multi-components simultaneous quantitative analysisshowed that there was a great difference in chemical characterizationand certain differences inpurgative biopotency and blood activating biopotency among 10 batches of rhubarb dispensing granules. The correlation analysis showed that the intensity of purgative biopotency was significantly correlated with the content of conjugated anthraquinone glycosides (Panalysis and bioassay can achieve objective quantification and more comprehensive reflection on overall quality difference among different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Bioassay-Guided Isolated Compounds from Morinda officinalis Inhibit Alzheimer’s Disease Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kyoung Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the side effects of synthetic drugs, the therapeutic potential of natural products for Alzheimer’s disease (AD has gained interest. Morinda officinalis has demonstrated inhibitory effects on geriatric diseases, such as bone loss and osteoporosis. However, although AD is a geriatric disease, M. officinalis has not been evaluated in an AD bioassay. Therefore, M. officinalis extracts and fractions were tested for AD-related activity, including inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, and advanced glycation end-product (AGE formation. A bioassay-guided approach led to isolation of 10 active compounds, eight anthraquinones (1–8, one coumarin (9, and one phytosterol (10, from n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of M. officinalis. The five anthraquinones (4–8 were stronger inhibitors of AChE than were other compounds. Compounds 3 and 9 were good inhibitors of BChE, and compounds 3 and 8 were good inhibitors of BACE1. Compounds 1–5 and 7–9 were more active than the positive control in inhibiting AGE formation. In addition, we first suggested a structure-activity relationship by which anthraquinones inhibit AChE and BACE1. Our findings demonstrate the preventive and therapeutic efficacy of M. officinalis for AD and its potential use as a natural alternative medicine.

  3. DOSEXPRT: A bioassay dosimetry code for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1992-04-01

    The bioassay code DOSEXPRT was developed for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to provide compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480, Chapter 11. DOSEXPRT computes the intake of a radionuclide in any year (considering both acute and chronic intakes) from in vivo measurements of the retained activity and/or measurements of the activity in excreta. The committed effective and organ doses for the intake are computed as well as the effective and organ doses expected to be received in each calendar year out to 50 years beyond the year of intake. The bioassay records used as input for DOSEXPRT are extracted from the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Occupational Health Information System (OHIS). DOSEXPRT implements a set of algorithms with parameters governing the translocation, retention, and excretion of the nuclide contained in data files specific to the nuclide. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent for the intakes in the year. Annual organ and effective doses are computed using additional dose-rate files that contain data on the dose rate at various times following a unit intake. If measurements are presented for more than one assay for a given nuclide, DOSEXPRT estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. DOSEXPRT is accessed off the OHIS MENU No. 4 and designed to be run as a batch processor, but can also be run interactively for testing purposes.

  4. DOSEXPRT: A bioassay dosimetry code for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1992-04-01

    The bioassay code DOSEXPRT was developed for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to provide compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480, Chapter 11. DOSEXPRT computes the intake of a radionuclide in any year (considering both acute and chronic intakes) from in vivo measurements of the retained activity and/or measurements of the activity in excreta. The committed effective and organ doses for the intake are computed as well as the effective and organ doses expected to be received in each calendar year out to 50 years beyond the year of intake. The bioassay records used as input for DOSEXPRT are extracted from the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Occupational Health Information System (OHIS). DOSEXPRT implements a set of algorithms with parameters governing the translocation, retention, and excretion of the nuclide contained in data files specific to the nuclide. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent for the intakes in the year. Annual organ and effective doses are computed using additional dose-rate files that contain data on the dose rate at various times following a unit intake. If measurements are presented for more than one assay for a given nuclide, DOSEXPRT estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. DOSEXPRT is accessed off the OHIS MENU No. 4 and designed to be run as a batch processor, but can also be run interactively for testing purposes.

  5. Bioassay standardization for the detection of allelopathic compounds and environmental toxicants using lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Salomão Simões

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess different experimental conditions to determine a protocol for bioassays based on seed germination and early seedling growth using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids as indicator species. This protocol aims to provide support for the standardization of assays of various chemicals such as allelochemicals and environmental toxicants. The following tests were performed: time of germination, temperature, light, solution volume and Petri dish size. For each test (except for time of germination, the influence of the conditions investigated was determined by the endpoints germination percentage, germination speed index, root length, seedling fresh weight and total dry weight. The results showed that variations in the methods altered the results. It is recommended that bioassays using L. sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids be carried out for a minimum period of four days for assessments of both germination and initial growth and that the experimental conditions include a temperature of 20°C, 90-mm Petri dishes or larger, 0.1 mL cypsela solution, and continuous light or 12-hour photoperiod.

  6. Bioassay and characterization of soil microorganisms involved in the biodegradation of the fungicide, metalaxyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive bioassay was developed to detect low concentrations of metalaxyl in soils. The quantitative estimation of metalaxyl in soils was based on a significant positive relationship between the radial growth of Phytophthora boehmeriae and the log concentration of the fungicide in the agar. The isolate of P. boehmeriae was chosen for its sensitivity to metalaxyl as manifested in a linear growth response on cornmeal agar over a range of 2 to 30 ng/ml. The sensitivity and quantitative nature of the bioassay was confirmed by comparison with data obtained by using 14 C-metalaxyl. Metabolism of metalaxyl was detected in three of five avocado soils that had repeated applications of the fungicide over 2-5 yr. The average disappearance of metalaxyl was 28 days, and in the most active soils was 14 days. The composition and level of the microbial populations of soils, either active or inactive in the breakdown of metalaxyl, did not differ. Fungal and bacterial microflora recovered from these two soils by use of either selective media or filtration techniques were capable of metabolizing metalaxyl over a 45-day period

  7. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC50 of 6.88 μg/ml and 3.58 μg/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC50 of 2.96 ± 0.14 μg/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds. PMID:22174990

  8. Identification and characterization of antifungal compounds using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae reporter bioassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Tebbets

    Full Text Available New antifungal drugs are urgently needed due to the currently limited selection, the emergence of drug resistance, and the toxicity of several commonly used drugs. To identify drug leads, we screened small molecules using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae reporter bioassay in which S. cerevisiae heterologously expresses Hik1, a group III hybrid histidine kinase (HHK from Magnaporthe grisea. Group III HHKs are integral in fungal cell physiology, and highly conserved throughout this kingdom; they are absent in mammals, making them an attractive drug target. Our screen identified compounds 13 and 33, which showed robust activity against numerous fungal genera including Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp. and molds such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae. Drug-resistant Candida albicans from patients were also highly susceptible to compounds 13 and 33. While the compounds do not act directly on HHKs, microarray analysis showed that compound 13 induced transcripts associated with oxidative stress, and compound 33, transcripts linked with heavy metal stress. Both compounds were highly active against C. albicans biofilm, in vitro and in vivo, and exerted synergy with fluconazole, which was inactive alone. Thus, we identified potent, broad-spectrum antifungal drug leads from a small molecule screen using a high-throughput, S. cerevisiae reporter bioassay.

  9. In vitro bioassays reveal that additives are significant contributors to the toxicity of commercial household pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Merwe, Jason P; Neale, Peta A; Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2018-06-01

    Pesticides commonly used around households can contain additives of unknown concentrations and toxicity. Given the likelihood of these chemicals washing into urban waterways, it is important to understand the effects that these additives may have on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of commercially available household pesticides to that of the active ingredient(s) alone. The toxicity of five household pesticides (three herbicides and two insecticides) was investigated using a bacterial cytotoxicity bioassay and an algal photosynthesis bioassay. The commercial products were up to an order of magnitude more toxic than the active ingredient(s) alone. In addition, two commercial products with the same listed active ingredients in the same ratio had a 600× difference in potency. These results clearly demonstrate that additives in commercial formulations are significant contributors to the toxicity of household pesticides. The toxicity of pesticides in aquatic systems is therefore likely underestimated by conventional chemical monitoring and risk assessment when only the active ingredients are considered. Regulators and customers should require more clarity from pesticide manufacturers about the nature and concentrations of not only the active ingredients, but also additives used in commercial formulations. In addition, monitoring programmes and chemical risk assessments schemes should develop a structured approach to assessing the toxic effects of commercial formulations, including additives, rather than simply those of the listed active ingredients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Use of a germination bioassay to test compost maturity in Tekelan Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Zaman, Badrus; Purwono

    2018-02-01

    Livestock waste from cattle farms in Tekelan village, Getasan Subdistrict, Semarang Regency can be grouped into three types, namely solid waste, slurry and waste water. Solid waste (cow dung) was processed into compost, while slurry and waste water were used to make liquid fertilizer. This compost was used as a component of planting media in horticultural crops and potted plants production. We evaluated the toxicity (phytochemical and ecotoxicological) test of compost by using germination index (GI). Vigna radiata seeds are sown on filter paper dampened with compost extract for different times. GI was calculated by relative germination (G) and relative radical length (L). The germination index (GI) = G / G0 x L / L0 x 100, where G0 and L0 are values obtained by distilled water as a control. The results showed that germination bioassay and radical length using aquades and groundwater in Tekelan village did not affect the radical length of Vigna radiata . Technically, groundwater in Tekelan village can be used as a germination bioassay control. The cow dung compost substrate appears to have a major influence on compost toxicity. Mature compost was produced on day 14 with a GI of 104.03.

  11. Verifying Identities of Plant-Based Multivitamins Using Phytochemical Fingerprinting in Combination with Multiple Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yeni; Ahn, Yoon Hee; Yoo, Jae Keun; Park, Kyoung Sik; Kwon, Oran

    2017-09-01

    Sales of multivitamins have been growing rapidly and the concept of natural multivitamin, plant-based multivitamin, or both has been introduced in the market, leading consumers to anticipate additional health benefits from phytochemicals that accompany the vitamins. However, the lack of labeling requirements might lead to fraudulent claims. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a strategy to verify identity of plant-based multivitamins. Phytochemical fingerprinting was used to discriminate identities. In addition, multiple bioassays were performed to determine total antioxidant capacity. A statistical computation model was then used to measure contributions of phytochemicals and vitamins to antioxidant activities. Fifteen multivitamins were purchased from the local markets in Seoul, Korea and classified into three groups according to the number of plant ingredients. Pearson correlation analysis among antioxidant capacities, amount phenols, and number of plant ingredients revealed that ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay results had the highest correlation with total phenol content. This suggests that FRAP and DPPH assays are useful for characterizing plant-derived multivitamins. Furthermore, net effect linear regression analysis confirmed that the contribution of phytochemicals to total antioxidant capacities was always relatively higher than that of vitamins. Taken together, the results suggest that phytochemical fingerprinting in combination with multiple bioassays could be used as a strategy to determine whether plant-derived multivitamins could provide additional health benefits beyond their nutritional value.

  12. Evaluating the performance of the ORTECR DetectiveTM for emergency urine bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.; Ko, R.; Moodie, G.; Kramer, G. H.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the ORTEC R Detective TM as a field deployable tool for emergency urine bioassay of 137 Cs, 60 Co, 192 Ir, 169 Yb and 75 Se was evaluated against ANSI N13.30. The tested activity levels represent 10 % RL (reference level) and 1 % RL defined by [Li C., Vlahovich S., Dai X., Richardson R. B., Daka J. N. and Kramer G. H. Requirements for radiation emergency urine bioassay techniques for the public and first responders. Health Phys (in press, 99(5), 702-707 (2010)]. The tests were conducted for both single radionuclide and mixed radionuclides at two geometries, one conventional geometry (CG) and one improved geometry (IG) which improved the MDAs (minimum detectable amounts) by a factor of 1.6-2.7. The most challenging radionuclide was 169 Yb. The measurement of the mixture radionuclides for 169 Yb at the CG did not satisfy the ANSI N13.30 requirements even at 10 % RL. At 1 % RL, 169 Yb and 192 Ir were not detectable at either geometry, while the measurement of 60 Co in the mixed radionuclides satisfied the ANSI N13.30 requirements only at the IG. (authors)

  13. Relative proportions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons differ between accumulation bioassays and chemical methods to predict bioavailability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L., E-mail: j.l.gomezeyles@reading.ac.u [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Department of Soil Science, Reading RG6 6DW, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E. [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Department of Soil Science, Reading RG6 6DW, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Chemical methods to predict the bioavailable fraction of organic contaminants are usually validated in the literature by comparison with established bioassays. A soil spiked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was aged over six months and subjected to butanol, cyclodextrin and tenax extractions as well as an exhaustive extraction to determine total PAH concentrations at several time points. Earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and rye grass root (Lolium multiflorum) accumulation bioassays were conducted in parallel. Butanol extractions gave the best relationship with earthworm accumulation (r{sup 2} <= 0.54, p <= 0.01); cyclodextrin, butanol and acetone-hexane extractions all gave good predictions of accumulation in rye grass roots (r{sup 2} <= 0.86, p <= 0.01). However, the profile of the PAHs extracted by the different chemical methods was significantly different (p < 0.01) to that accumulated in the organisms. Biota accumulated a higher proportion of the heavier 4-ringed PAHs. It is concluded that bioaccumulation is a complex process that cannot be predicted by measuring the bioavailable fraction alone. - The ability of chemical methods to predict PAH accumulation in Eisenia fetida and Lolium multiflorum was hindered by the varied metabolic fate of the different PAHs within the organisms.

  14. A bioassay for the detection of benzimidazoles reveals their presence in a range of environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence S Crofts

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobamides are a family of enzyme cofactors that include vitamin B12 (cobalamin and are produced solely by prokaryotes. Structural variability in the lower axial ligand has been observed in cobamides produced by diverse organisms. Of the three classes of lower ligands, the benzimidazoles are uniquely found in cobamides, whereas the purine and phenolic bases have additional biological functions. Many organisms acquire cobamides by salvaging and remodeling cobamides or their precursors from the environment. These processes require free benzimidazoles for incorporation as lower ligands, though the presence of benzimidazoles in the environment has not been previously investigated. Here, we report a new purification method and bioassay to measure the total free benzimidazole content of samples from microbial communities and laboratory media components. The bioassay relies on the calcofluor-bright phenotype of a bluB mutant of the model cobalamin-producing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. The concentrations of individual benzimidazoles in these samples were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Several benzimidazoles were detected in subpicomolar to subnanomolar concentrations in host-associated and environmental samples. In addition, benzimidazoles were found to be common contaminants of laboratory media components. These results suggest that benzimidazoles present in the environment and in laboratory media have the potential to influence microbial metabolic activities.

  15. High performance wash-free magnetic bioassays through microfluidically enhanced particle specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechstein, Daniel J B; Lee, Jung-Rok; Ooi, Chin Chun; Gani, Adi W; Kim, Kyunglok; Wilson, Robert J; Wang, Shan X

    2015-06-30

    Magnetic biosensors have emerged as a sensitive and versatile platform for high performance medical diagnostics. These magnetic biosensors require well-tailored magnetic particles as detection probes, which need to give rise to a large and specific biological signal while showing very low nonspecific binding. This is especially important in wash-free bioassay protocols, which do not require removal of particles before measurement, often a necessity in point of care diagnostics. Here we show that magnetic interactions between magnetic particles and magnetized sensors dramatically impact particle transport and magnetic adhesion to the sensor surfaces. We investigate the dynamics of magnetic particles' biomolecular binding and magnetic adhesion to the sensor surface using microfluidic experiments. We elucidate how flow forces can inhibit magnetic adhesion, greatly diminishing or even eliminating nonspecific signals in wash-free magnetic bioassays, and enhancing signal to noise ratios by several orders of magnitude. Our method is useful for selecting and optimizing magnetic particles for a wide range of magnetic sensor platforms.

  16. Bioassay of Lake Onego bottom sediments toxicity based on their chemical composition and deepwater macrozoobenthos state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinkina Nataliya Michailovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioassay of the toxicity of bottom sediments sampled in different areas of Lake Onega was carried out by crustaceans biotesting (Ceriodaphnia affinis Lillijeborg. It was shown that in the most areas of Lake Onega there are non-toxic bottom sediments. Toxic bottom sediments were found in Kondopogskaya Bay, intensively polluted with pulp-and-paper mill wastewaters. For the first time in the deep central part of Lake Onega the area was revealed where the toxic bottom sediments contain a high content of iron, manganese and other trace elements typical for the central areas of the lake. The mapping of the bottom of Lake Onega was accomplished, and three zones were identified based on the analysis of the data concerning the chemical composition of bottom sediments, bioassay toxicity data and the results of the deepwater macrozoobenthos assessment. For each zone the parameters of the main groups of benthos (Amphipoda, Oligochaeta, Chironomidae were defined. The first zone is located in the area of intensive anthropogenic influence (Kondopogskaya Bay, Petrozavodskaya Bay, Povenets Bay, Kizhi Skerries. The second zone is located mostly in the deep part of Petrozavodskaya Bay, where the most intensive development of amphipods is observed. The third area is identified for the first time: it is located in the central deep part of Lake Onega, where the communities of macrozoobenthos are limited by a natural toxic factor.

  17. Intemational collaborative study on the preparation of 1st international standard for rhTSH for bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ying; Shen Hongzheng; Yu Ting; Xu Ligen

    2007-01-01

    The history of the international collaborative studies on the preparation of standards of TSH for bioassay and immunoassay was reviewed. The result of collaborative study on the 1st international standard for thyroid-stimulating hormone, recombinant, human, for bioassay was reported in detail in this article. Based on the results of this collaborative study, it is proposed that the candidate standard be established as the international standard for rhTSH for bioassay, and be assigned an activity of 9.5 IU per ampoule. The national standard preparation of TSH for immunoassay was also reassayed, revealing the potency to be 0.557 mIU/ampoule, i.e. 92. 8% of the labelled value of 0.600mIU/ampoule, a reasonable consistency. (authors)

  18. Optimization and field use of a bioassay to monitor sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis sensitivity to emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Jillian D; Stryhn, Henrik; Burka, John F; Hammell, K Larry

    2008-04-01

    A bioassay for sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis sensitivity towards emamectin benzoate (EMB) was validated for field use. A probit regression model with natural responsiveness was used for the number of affected (moribund or dead) sea lice in bioassays involving different concentrations of EMB. Bioassay optimization included an evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of sea lice responsiveness to EMB and an evaluation of gender-related differences in susceptibility. Adoption of a set of bioassay response criteria improved the concordance (evaluated using the concordance correlation coefficient) between raters' assessments and the model estimation of EC50 values (the 'effective concentration' leading to a response of 50% of the lice not prone to natural response). An evaluation of gender-related differences in EMB susceptibility indicated that preadult stage female sea lice exhibited a significantly larger sensitivity towards EMB in 12 of 19 bioassays compared to preadult males. In order to evaluate sea lice sensitivity to EMB in eastern Canada, the intensive salmon farming area in the Bay of Fundy in southwestern New Brunswick was divided into 4 distinct regions based on industry health management practices and hydrographics. A total of 38 bioassays were completed from 2002 to 2005 using populations of preadult stage sea lice collected from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar farms within the 4 described regions. There was no significant overall effect of region or year on EC50 values; however, analysis of variance indicated a significant effect of time of year on EC50 values in 2002 and a potential effect in 2004 to 2005. Although the range of EC50 values obtained in this 3 yr study did not appear sufficient to affect current clinical success in the control of sea lice, the results suggest a seasonal- or temperature-associated variation in sensitivity to EMB. This will need to be considered if changes in EMB efficacy occur in the future.

  19. Real-world health outcomes in adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the United States: a population study using electronic health records to examine patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, medication use, and healthcare resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Foster, Shonda A; Comer, Brian S; Lin, Chen-Yen; Malatestinic, William; Burge, Russel; Goldblum, Orin

    2018-06-28

    Little is known regarding real-world health outcomes data among US psoriasis patients, but electronic health records (EHR) that collect structured data at point-of-care may provide opportunities to investigate real-world health outcomes among psoriasis patients. Our objective was to investigate patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, patterns of medication use (duration, switching, and/or discontinuation), healthcare resource utilization, and medication costs using real-world data from psoriasis patients. Data for adults (≥18-years) with a dermatology provider-given diagnosis of psoriasis from 9/2014-9/2015 were obtained from dermatology practices using a widely used US dermatology-specific EHR containing over 500,000 psoriasis patients. Disease severity was captured by static physician's global assessment and body surface area. Patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was assessed by a pre-defined question. Treatment switching and duration were documented. Reasons for discontinuations were assessed using pre-defined selections. Healthcare resource utilization was defined by visit frequency and complexity. From 82,621 patients with psoriasis during the study period, patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was investigated in 2200 patients. The proportion of patients reporting "strongly agree" when asked if their treatment was effective was highest for biologics (73%) and those reporting treatment adherence (55%). In 16,000 patients who received oral systemics and 21,087 patients who received biologics, median treatment duration was longer for those who received biologics (160 vs. 113 days, respectively). Treatment switching was less frequent among patients on systemic monotherapies compared to those on combination therapies. The most common reason for discontinuing biologics was loss of efficacy; the most common reason for discontinuing orals was side effects. In 28,754 patients, higher disease severity was associated with increased healthcare resource

  20. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  1. Contaminated sediments and bioassay responses of three macroinvertebrates, the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Haas, de E.M.; Maas, H.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Bioassays are widely used to estimate ecological risks of contaminated sediments. We compared the results of three whole sediment bioassays, using the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus, and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo. We used sediments from sixteen locations in

  2. In vivo genotoxicity of furan in F344 rats at cancer bioassay doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Wei; Petibone, Dayton M.; Latendresse, John R.; Pearce, Mason G.; Muskhelishvili, Levan; White, Gene A.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Mittelstaedt, Roberta A.; Shaddock, Joseph G.; McDaniel, Lea P.; Doerge, Daniel R.; Morris, Suzanne M.; Bishop, Michelle E.; Manjanatha, Mugimane G.; Aidoo, Anane; Heflich, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Furan, a potent rodent liver carcinogen, is found in many cooked food items and thus represents a human cancer risk. Mechanisms for furan carcinogenicity were investigated in male F344 rats using the in vivo Comet and micronucleus assays, combined with analysis of histopathological and gene expression changes. In addition, formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease III (EndoIII)-sensitive DNA damage was monitored as a measure of oxidative DNA damage. Rats were treated by gavage on four consecutive days with 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg bw furan, doses that were tumorigenic in 2-year cancer bioassays, and with two higher doses, 12 and 16 mg/kg. Rats were killed 3 h after the last dose, a time established as producing maximum levels of DNA damage in livers of furan-treated rats. Liver Comet assays indicated that both DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines and pyrimidines increased in a near-linear dose-responsive fashion, with statistically significant increases detected at cancer bioassay doses. No DNA damage was detected in bone marrow, a non-target tissue for cancer, and peripheral blood micronucleus assays were negative. Histopathological evaluation of liver from furan-exposed animals produced evidence of inflammation, single-cell necrosis, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. In addition, genes related to apoptosis, cell-cycle checkpoints, and DNA-repair were expressed at a slightly lower level in the furan-treated livers. Although a mixed mode of action involving direct DNA binding cannot be ruled out, the data suggest that furan induces cancer in rat livers mainly through a secondary genotoxic mechanism involving oxidative stress, accompanied by inflammation, cell proliferation, and toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Furan is a potent rodent liver carcinogen and represents a human cancer risk. ► Furan induces DNA damage in rat liver at cancer bioassay doses. ► Furan induces oxidative stress, inflammation and cell proliferation in rat liver. ► Expression of

  3. Human sperm bioassay has potential in evaluating the quality of cumulus-oocyte complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, A M; Rizk, B; Huff, C; Helvacioglu, A; Thorneycroft, I H

    1996-01-01

    Human sperm bioassay is routinely used as a quality control check for the culture media. This is one of the three bioassays chosen by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) for interlaboratory proficiency testing to assess the standards of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and andrology laboratories. This study utilized sperm bioassay to assess the quality of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved in IVF procedures COCs, harvested from the female partner of IVF couples, undergoing identical ovarian stimulation protocols, were individually inseminated with the sperm of the corresponding male partner. Sperm motility in sperm-COC cocultures were compared. Cocultures were established by inseminating the 103 COCs, retrieved from 18 IVF couples with 1 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(5) sperm of the corresponding male partners of the couples. In all 18 cases, the sperm were prepared identically using the Percoll wash method. The cocultures were maintained for 48 h but the oocytes were removed immediately after the fertilization check (approximately 16 h). The motility of sperm in the cocultures and in the insemination stocks were noted and 17 of 18 sperm stocks used for insemination had similar high preinsemination motility (90.2 +/- 5.0%). At 48 h the sperm motility had significantly decreased in the cocultures compared to the insemination stocks; 52.7 +/- 19.9% versus 67.2 +/- 10.4%. There was no difference in the motility among the small, medium, and large COCs (56.4 +/- 24.6%, 52.5 +/- 17.9%, and 50.8 +/- 20.9%, respectively). In 45% of IVF cases, the motility in cocultures varied widely, falling below as well as above that of their corresponding insemination stocks. Furthermore, the sperm motility varied among the cocultures in both pregnant and nonpregnant patients but the extent of variation appears to be greater in the latter. The inter-COC coculture sperm motility variation most likely is due to the differences in the quality of cumulus-oocyte complexes.

  4. Coupling of In Vitro Bioassays with Planar Chromatography in Effect-Directed Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stefan C; Egetenmeyer, Nicole; Schulz, Wolfgang

    Modern analytical test methods increasingly detect anthropogenic organic substances and their transformation products in water samples and in the environment. The presence of these compounds might pose a risk to the aquatic environment. To determine a possible (eco)toxicological risk, aquatic samples are tested using various bioassays, including sub-organismic assays such as the luminescent bacteria inhibition test, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition test, and the umu-test. The effect-directed analysis (EDA) combines physicochemical separation methods with biological (in vitro) tests. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has proved to be particularly well suited for the separation of organic compounds and the subsequent analysis of effects by the application of the biotests directly on the surface of the HPTLC plate. The advantage of using HPTLC in comparison to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for EDA is that the solvent which is used as a mobile phase during chromatography is completely evaporated after the separation and therefore can no longer influence the applied bioassays.A prioritization during the complex identification process can be achieved when observed effects are associated with the separated zones in HPTLC. This increases the probability of identifying the substance responsible for an adverse effect from the multitude of organic trace substances in environmental samples. Furthermore, by comparing the pattern of biological effects of a separated sample, it is possible to track and assess changes in biological activity over time, over space, or in the course of a process, even without identifying the substance. HPTLC has already been coupled with various bioassays.Because HPTLC is a very flexible system, various detection techniques can be used and combined. In addition to the UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence measurements, TLC can also be coupled with a mass spectrometer (MS) for compound identification. In addition

  5. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  6. Symposium on Short-Term Genetic Bioassays in the Evaluation of Complex Environmental Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Sandhu, Shahbeg; Lewtas, Joellen; Claxton, Larry; Strauss, Gary; Nesnow, Stephen

    1985-01-01

    With this proceedings of the fourth symposium on complex mixtures, we continue to revise and extend our knowledge of genetic methods for the evaluation of chemical mixtures in the environment. The early chapters of this volume are devoted to new bioassay techniques that are directly applicable to the monitoring of environments contaminated with genotoxic chemicals. Microbiological methods have been further refined to meet the special needs of atmospheric monitoring so that very small samples may now be efficiently tested. New in situ methods utilizing green plants actually avoid many of the usual difficulties of sample collection and preparation and offer special advantages in monitoring wastewater, sludges, and hazardous wastes. Insects also are being employed very effectively in the evaluation of gaseous air pollutants in controlled laboratory investigations. Increased emphasis has been placed on a comprehensive assessment of the potential of complex mixtures t9 cause various kinds of genetic damage. New as...

  7. High throughput octal alpha/gamma spectrometer for low level bioassay estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, B.D.; Shirke, S.H.; Suri, M.M.; Vaidya, P.P.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of a high throughput octal alpha spectrometry system specially developed for the estimation of low levels of actinides in bioassay and environmental samples. The system processes simultaneously the outputs coming from eight independent detectors. It can be configured to simultaneously record low level alpha and gamma spectra. The high throughput is achieved by using a prioritised multiplexer router. The prioritised multiplexing and routing coupled with fast 8K ADC (conversion time 20 μsec) allow simultaneous acquisition of multiple spectra without any significant loss in counts. The dual (8K, 24bit) port memory facilitates easy online viewing of spectrum buildup. A menu driven user friendly software makes the operating system convenient to use. A specially developed software provides built-in routines for processing the spectra and estimating the isotopic activity. The interactive mode of software provides easy identification of isotopes compatible with the separation chemistry of different actinides. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs

  8. Mixture effects in samples of multiple contaminants - An inter-laboratory study with manifold bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Rolf; Scholze, Martin; Busch, Wibke; Escher, Beate I; Jakobs, Gianina; Krauss, Martin; Krüger, Janet; Neale, Peta A; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Almeida, Ana Catarina; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Brion, François; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollert, Henner; Novák, Jiří; Schlichting, Rita; Serra, Hélène; Shao, Ying; Tindall, Andrew; Tolefsen, Knut-Erik; Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Williams, Tim D; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Chemicals in the environment occur in mixtures rather than as individual entities. Environmental quality monitoring thus faces the challenge to comprehensively assess a multitude of contaminants and potential adverse effects. Effect-based methods have been suggested as complements to chemical analytical characterisation of complex pollution patterns. The regularly observed discrepancy between chemical and biological assessments of adverse effects due to contaminants in the field may be either due to unidentified contaminants or result from interactions of compounds in mixtures. Here, we present an interlaboratory study where individual compounds and their mixtures were investigated by extensive concentration-effect analysis using 19 different bioassays. The assay panel consisted of 5 whole organism assays measuring apical effects and 14 cell- and organism-based bioassays with more specific effect observations. Twelve organic water pollutants of diverse structure and unique known modes of action were studied individually and as mixtures mirroring exposure scenarios in freshwaters. We compared the observed mixture effects against component-based mixture effect predictions derived from additivity expectations (assumption of non-interaction). Most of the assays detected the mixture response of the active components as predicted even against a background of other inactive contaminants. When none of the mixture components showed any activity by themselves then the mixture also was without effects. The mixture effects observed using apical endpoints fell in the middle of a prediction window defined by the additivity predictions for concentration addition and independent action, reflecting well the diversity of the anticipated modes of action. In one case, an unexpectedly reduced solubility of one of the mixture components led to mixture responses that fell short of the predictions of both additivity mixture models. The majority of the specific cell- and organism

  9. Estimation of 244Cm intake by bioassay measurements following a contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thein, M.; Bogard, J.S.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1990-01-01

    An employee was contaminated with radioactive material consisting primarily of 244 Cm and 246 Cm as a consequence of handling a curium nitrate solution at a reprocessing facility. In vivo gamma analysis and in vitro (urine and fecal) bioassay measurements were performed. A sample of the curium solution from the workplace was obtained to confirm that the nitrate was the chemical form and to identify the isotopes of curium present. The mass ratio of 244 Cm/ 246 Cm was determined to be 91 to 7. Observed excretion rates were consistent with available information on curium. The results of the in vivo and in vitro measurements are presented and intake estimates for the incident are developed. (author) 11 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Ecotoxicological assessment of metal-polluted urban soils using bioassays with three soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Maisto, Giulia

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the quality of urban soils by integrating chemical and ecotoxicological approaches. Soils from five sites in downtown Naples, Italy, were sampled and characterized for physical-chemical properties and total and water-extractable metal concentrations. Bioassays with Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida were performed to assess toxicity of the soils, using survival, reproduction and growth as the endpoints. Metal bioaccumulation in the animals was also measured. The properties and metal concentrations of the soils strongly differed. Metal bioaccumulation was related with total metal concentrations in soil and was highest in E. crypticus, which was more sensitive than E. andrei and F. candida. Responses of the three species to the investigated soils seemed due to both metal contamination and soil properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Luciferase-Specific Coelenterazine Analogues for Optical Contamination-Free Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Ryo; Abe, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Shigeru; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji; Kim, Sung Bae

    2017-04-19

    Spectral overlaps among the multiple optical readouts commonly cause optical contamination in fluorescence and bioluminescence. To tackle this issue, we created five-different lineages of coelenterazine (CTZ) analogues designed to selectively illuminate a specific luciferase with unique luciferase selectivity. In the attempt, we found that CTZ analogues with ethynyl or styryl groups display dramatically biased bioluminescence to specific luciferases and pHs by modifying the functional groups at the C-2 and C-6 positions of the imidazopyradinone backbone of CTZ. The optical contamination-free feature was exemplified with the luciferase-specific CTZ analogues, which illuminated anti-estrogenic and rapamycin activities in a mixture of optical probes. This unique bioluminescence platform has great potential for specific and high throughput imaging of multiple optical readouts in bioassays without optical contamination.

  12. Early-stage bioassay for monitoring radioactive contamination in living livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Sawano, Kaita; Kishimoto, Miori; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2012-12-01

    Soil samples from the ground surface and feces and blood from a mixed-breed male pig were collected on April 10, 2011 at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The radioactivity of each sample was measured using a Ge semiconductor detector. Despite the fact that the pig had been fed non-contaminated imported feed, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the feces, and (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the blood clots. Because it is considerably difficult to measure radioactive contamination in the edible muscle of living livestock, bioassays are an option for the screening of radioactive contamination in living livestock to ensure food safety.

  13. Guide to the bioassay of uranium at uranium mine-mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    As a result of occupational exposure, uranium may be taken into the body by inhalation, ingestion or absorption through skin wounds. The organs at risk are the lung, kidney, and bones. Analysis of urine samples for uranium is recommended on a regular monthly basis, before and after a rest period, and it is suggested that a worker be removed from a working area if a level above 300 μg/l is found before a rest period, or 150 μg/l after a rest period. Background information on the development of a bioassay program is given, and a recommended program for uranium mine and mill facilities is included. (L.L.)

  14. Theobroma cacao: Review of the Extraction, Isolation, and Bioassay of Its Potential Anti-cancer Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Hin, Taufiq Yap Yun; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years; an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert anti-cancer effects have become an important area of health- and biomedicine-related research. This review provides an updated overview of T. cacao in terms of its potential anti-cancer compounds and their extraction, in vitro bioassay, purification, and identification. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques described and reviews the processes for future perspectives of analytical methods from the viewpoint of anti-cancer compound discovery. PMID:27019680

  15. A new bioassay for the inspection and identification of TBT-containing antifouling paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueuné, Hervé; Thouand, Gérald; Durand, Marie-José

    2009-11-01

    Since the 1960s tributyl (TBT)-based antifouling paints are widely applied to protect ship's hulls from biofouling. Due to its high toxicity to aquatic ecosystem most of the countries (28 nations in 2008) signed the AFS convention to control the use of harmful antifouling systems on ships. Nevertheless there is currently no simple method to control the presence of organotin in paint. In this study, we propose a bioassay based on the use of a recombinant bioluminescent bacteria to detect directly in paint the presence of TBT. We also propose a simple device as an inspection system to control the absence of organotin in the ship's hull paint. The presence of organotin could be revealed in less than three hours.

  16. Use of a cytochemical bioassay for determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in clinical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler, K.D.; Hashimoto, T.; Zur Muehlen, A. von

    1977-01-01

    Recently a highly sensitive cytochemical bioassay (CBA) for the determination of human TSH has been developed. We could show that this assay is specific for TSH and measurements done on plasma of normal euthyroid persons agree well with radioimmunological findings. Due to the extreme sensitivity of the CBA we were able to detect low but measurable TSH levels in patients with primary hyperthyroidism, which were not increased by TRH treatment before therapeutic treatment. After therapeutic treatment, TRH application was able to stimulate additional biologically active TSH release which, however, barely reached the lowest limit of detection by RIA. In certain pathological cases we were able to detect elevated plasma TSH levels, which were active immunologically but inactive biologically. (orig.) [de

  17. Isolation of bioactive allelochemicals from sunflower (variety Suncross-42) through fractionation-guided bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Tehmina; Bajwa, Rukhsana

    2010-11-01

    Plants are rich source of biologically active allelochemicals. However, natural product discovery is not an easy task. Many problems encountered during this laborious practice can be overcome through the modification of preliminary trials. Bioassay-directed isolation of active plant compounds can increase efficiency by eliminating many of the problems encountered. This strategy avoids unnecessary compounds, concentrating on potential components and thus reducing the cost and time required. In this study, a crude aqueous extract of sunflower leaves was fractionated through high performance liquid chromatography. The isolated fractions were checked against Chenopodium album and Rumex dentatus. The fraction found active against two selected weeds was re-fractionated, and the active components were checked for their composition. Thin layer chromatography isolated a range of phenolics, whereas the presence of bioactive terpenoids was confirmed through mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  18. Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulin Bioassay Using Cultured Human Thyroid Cells; A Simplified Micromethod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Chung, June Key; Cho, Bo Youn; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Moon Ho; Ahn, Il Min; Ahn, Hee Kwon

    1985-01-01

    The activation of adenylate cyclase of human thymocytes in primary cell culture and the release of c-AMP into the medium are used to detect b-TSH and TSAb in sera of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Sera of patients are used directly as a part of cell culture without immunoglobulin precipitation. In the above TSI bioassay, TSAb pooled serum show c-AMP concentration between that of 1 mU/ml and 10 mU/ml b-TSH but normal control pooled serum doesn't show any detectable c-AMP response. Ninety five percent of untreated Graves' patients shows TSAb activity above normal range, 20% of Hashimoto's and 363/0 of euthyroid Graves' patients show detectable TSAb activity.

  19. Digitized molecular diagnostics: reading disk-based bioassays with standard computer drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunchao; Ou, Lily M L; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2008-11-01

    We report herein a digital signal readout protocol for screening disk-based bioassays with standard optical drives of ordinary desktop/notebook computers. Three different types of biochemical recognition reactions (biotin-streptavidin binding, DNA hybridization, and protein-protein interaction) were performed directly on a compact disk in a line array format with the help of microfluidic channel plates. Being well-correlated with the optical darkness of the binding sites (after signal enhancement by gold nanoparticle-promoted autometallography), the reading error levels of prerecorded audio files can serve as a quantitative measure of biochemical interaction. This novel readout protocol is about 1 order of magnitude more sensitive than fluorescence labeling/scanning and has the capability of examining multiplex microassays on the same disk. Because no modification to either hardware or software is needed, it promises a platform technology for rapid, low-cost, and high-throughput point-of-care biomedical diagnostics.

  20. Enumeration of Antibacterial Activity of Few Medicinal Plants by Bioassay Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Uma Reddy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of some common locally available plants, in order to estimate the biological potential of these herbs. The alcoholic extract of Tagetes erecta L (Asteraceae, Argemone mexicana L (Papavaraceae, Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae and Tylophora indica (Burm.f. Merr. (Asclepiadaceae were evaluated for antibacterial activity using broth dilution bioassay method. It is clear from the results that, the extracts of these plants acts as a good source of antibiotics against various bacterial pathogens tested and exhibited broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. These plant extracts were shown to be moderate to maximum inhibitory effect against different bacterial forms such as Salmonella typhii, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, where as, mild to moderate activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. The results of these studies revealed most valuable information and also support the continued sustainable use of these plants in traditional systems of medicine.

  1. An algorithm for robust non-linear analysis of radioimmunoassays and other bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normolle, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    The four-parameter logistic function is an appropriate model for many types of bioassays that have continuous response variables, such as radioimmunoassays. By modelling the variance of replicates in an assay, one can modify the usual parameter estimation techniques (for example, Gauss-Newton or Marquardt-Levenberg) to produce parameter estimates for the standard curve that are robust against outlying observations. This article describes the computation of robust (M-) estimates for the parameters of the four-parameter logistic function. It describes techniques for modelling the variance structure of the replicates, modifications to the usual iterative algorithms for parameter estimation in non-linear models, and a formula for inverse confidence intervals. To demonstrate the algorithm, the article presents examples where the robustly estimated four-parameter logistic model is compared with the logit-log and four-parameter logistic models with least-squares estimates. (author)

  2. Correlation and comparison of Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay with radioimmunoassay for human prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, M.G.; Spirtos, N.J.; Moghissi, K.S.; Magyar, D.M.; Hayes, M.F.; Gala, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    Serum samples from groups of men and women with normal and elevated prolactin (PRL) levels were assayed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and by Nb 2 lymphoma cell bioassay (BA) for the presence of PRL. Because the Nb 2 lymphoma cells respond to both PRL and growth hormone, BA for PRL activity was carried out before and after neutralization of growth hormone in the serum samples. There were excellent correlations between RIA and BA both in euprolactinemic and hyperprolactinemic subjects. On an absolute basis, RIA and BA values were similar in the euprolactinemic group (6.6 +/- 0.8 versus 6.2 +/- 1.0), whereas in the hyperprolactinemic group, RIA values were significantly higher than the BA results. The two assay systems also appeared to correlate better in women who were hyperprolactinemic, with obvious menstrual cycle disturbances, than in hyperprolactinemic women without menstrual cycle disturbances

  3. The Canadian National Calibration Reference Center for Bioassay and in-vivo Monitoring: A program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.; Zamora, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian National Calibration Reference Center for Bioassay and in-vivo Monitoring is part of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of Health. The Reference Center operates a variety of different intercomparison programs that are designed to confirm that workplace monitoring results are accurate and provide the necessary external verification required by the Canadian regulators. The programs administered by the Reference Center currently include urinalysis intercomparisons for tritium, natural uranium, and 14 C, and in-vivo programs for whole-body, thorax, and thyroid monitoring. The benefits of the intercomparison programs to the participants are discussed by example. Future programs that are planned include dual spiked urine sample which contain both tritium and 14 C and the in-vivo measurement of 99m Tc. 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Evaluation of oxidation techniques for preparing bioassay and environmental samples for liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.H.

    1979-10-01

    In environmental and biological monitoring for carbon-14 and tritium, the presence of color and chemical quenching agents in the samples can degrade the efficiency of liquid scintillation counting. A series of experiments was performed to evaluate the usefulness, under routine conditions, of first oxidizing the samples to improve the counting by removing the color and quenching agents. The scintillation counter was calibrated for the effects of quenching agents on its counting efficiency. Oxidizing apparatus was tested for its ability to accurately recover the 14 C and 3 H in the samples. Scintillation counting efficiences were compared for a variety of oxidized and unoxidized environmental and bioassay samples. The overall conclusion was that, for routine counting, oxidation of such samples is advantageous when they are highly quenched or in solid form

  5. Rapid Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Antibacterial Clerodane Type Diterpenoid from Dodonaea viscosa (L. Jaeq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khurram

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts are complex matrices and, although crude extracts are widely in use, purified compounds are pivotal in drug discovery. This study describes the application of automated preparative-HPLC combined with a rapid off-line bacterial bioassay, using reduction of a tetrazolium salt as an indicator of bacterial metabolism. This approach enabled the identification of fractions from Dodonaea viscosa that were active against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, which, ultimately, resulted in the identification of a clerodane type diterpenoid, 6β-hydroxy-15,16-epoxy-5β, 8β, 9β, 10α-cleroda-3, 13(16, 14-trien-18-oic acid, showing bacteriostatic activity (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 64–128 µg/mL against test bacteria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antibacterial activity of this metabolite from D. viscosa.

  6. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Cytotoxic Isocryptoporic Acids from Cryptoporus volvatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work constitutes a contribution to the phytochemical investigation of Cryptoporus volvatus aiming to search for effective cytotoxic constituents against tumor cell lines in vivo. Bioassay-guided separation of the ethylacetate extract of C. volvatus afforded four new isocryptoporic acid (ICA derivatives, ICA-B trimethyl ester (1, ICA-E (2, ICA-E pentamethyl ester (3, and ICA-G (4, together with nine known cryptoporic acids. These isocryptoporic acids are isomers of the cryptoporic acids with drimenol instead of albicanol as the terpenoid fragment; their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences (UV, IR, HRMS, and NMR and comparison with literature values. All isolates show certain cytotoxic activities against five tumor cell lines. Among them, compound 4 showed an comparable activity to that of the positive control cis-platin, while other compounds exhibited weak cytotoxic activities.

  7. Analysis, separation, and bioassay of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from comfrey (Symphytum officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couet, C E; Crews, C; Hanley, A B

    1996-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been linked to liver and lung cancers and a range of other deleterious effects. As with many natural toxicants, major problems arise in determining the effects of the different members of the class and the importance of various forms of ingestion. In this study we have investigated the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey (Symphytum officinale), determined the levels in different parts of the plant and in herbal remedies, separated the alkaloids into two main groups--the principal parent alkaloids and the corresponding N-oxides--and, finally, carried out a simple bioassay based upon the mutagenic capability of the separated compounds in a human cell line. We conclude that the part of the plant ingested is important in terms of alkaloid challenge and that the effect of two of the major groups of alkaloids individually is different from that of alkaloids in the whole plant extract.

  8. Comparison of ICRP Publication 30 lung model-based predictions with measured bioassay data for airborne natural UO2 exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thind, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper a comparison is made between the build-up of U thorax burdens and the predicted total lung (lung and lymph) burden, based on the lung model provided in ICRP Publication 30 for a group of 29 atomic radiation workers at a Canadian fuel fabrication facility. A similar comparison is made between the predicted ratio of the total lung burden to urinary excretion and the ratio obtained from bioassay data. The study period for the comparison is 5 y. The inhalation input for the lung model calculations was derived from air-sampling data and the choice of particle size activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was guided by particle size measurements made at representative work locations. The pulmonary clearance half-times studied were 100, 250 and 500 d. For the purpose of this comparison, averaged exposure and averaged bioassay data for the group were used. This comparison indicates that for the conditions of this facility, the assumption of a 500-d pulmonary clearance half-time and a particle size of 1 micron (AMAD) may be too conservative. It is suggested that measurements of air concentrations and particle size used as input parameters for the ICRP Publication 30 lung model may be used to calculate bioassay parameters which may then be tested against bioassay data obtained as part of an operational health physics program, thereby giving a useful step towards defining a derived air concentration value for U in the workplace

  9. Responses in sediment bioassays used in the Netherlands: can observed toxicity be explained by routinely monitored priority pollutants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahr, J.; Maas-Diepeveen, J.L.; Stuijfzand, S.C.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Drueke, J.M.; Luecker, S.; Espeldoorn, A.

    2003-01-01

    In order to identify the cause of toxicity in sediments and suspended matter, a large number of samples with different degrees of contamination was taken at various locations in The Netherlands. Standard acute bioassays were carried out with the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the rotifer Brachionus

  10. Sediment toxicity assessment in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) using Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) fertilization and embryo bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi Ghirardini, A; Arizzi Novelli, A; Tagliapietra, D

    2005-09-01

    The capacity of two toxicity bioassays (fertilization and embryo toxicity tests) to discriminate sediment toxicity using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus was tested in five stations with different levels of pollution in the Lagoon of Venice. Two stations were located in estuarine sites, two in the industrial zone, and one in a site at the top of our quality gradient (reference). Elutriate was chosen as sediment matrix to assess the potential effects of bioavailable pollutants in the water column as a consequence of sediment resuspension (dredging and dumping, fishing gear, etc.). An experimental design based on Quality Assurance/Quality Control procedures (QA/QC) was adopted in order to set the methodological basis for an effective use of these bioassays in monitoring programs. Results revealed both higher embriotoxicity than spermiotoxicity in all stations and the efficacy of combined use of both toxicity bioassays in discriminating differing pollution/bioavailability between stations and periods. The good representativeness of the integrated sampling scheme and the standardization of all experimental phases yielded high precision of results. Clear Toxicity Fingerprints were evidenced for the investigated sites through the combined use of both bioassays. A good fit between ecotoxicological data and chemical contamination levels was found, except for unnatural sediment texture.

  11. Translating bioassay results to field population responses using a Leslie-matrix model for the marine amphipod Corophium volutator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Kater, B.J.; Jak, R.G.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Bioassays can be used for the assessment of sediment contamination. The response is classified based on a statistical scale indicating a certain effect percentage being significantly different from the controls (e.g. mortality classes of 0¿10%, 10¿20% etc.). The ecological relevance of this

  12. Real-time PCR for the early detection and quantification of Coxiella burnetii as an alternative to the murine bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Gerald B; Loveless, Bonnie M; Norwood, David; Craw, Philip; Waag, David; England, Marilyn; Lowe, John R; Courtney, Bernard C; Pitt, M Louise; Kulesh, David A

    2009-01-01

    Real-time PCR was used to analyze archived blood from non-human primates (NHP) and fluid samples originating from a well-controlled Q fever vaccine efficacy trial. The PCR targets were the IS1111 element and the com1 gene of Coxiella burnetii. Data from that previous study were used to evaluate real-time PCR as an alternative to the use of sero-conversion by mouse bioassay for both quantification and early detection of C. burnetii bacteria. Real-time PCR and the mouse bioassay exhibited no statistical difference in quantifying the number of microorganisms delivered in the aerosol challenge dose. The presence of C. burnetii in peripheral blood of non-human primates was detected by real-time PCR as early after exposure as the mouse bioassay with results available within hours instead of weeks. This study demonstrates that real-time PCR has the ability to replace the mouse bioassay to measure dosage and monitor infection of C. burnetii in a non-human primate model.

  13. Evaluation of the toxic effects of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper using a battery of four bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Lee, Pyeong-Koo [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Geologic Environment Div.; Kong, In Chul [Yeungnam Univ., Kyungbuk (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-09-15

    The sensitivities of four different kinds of bioassays to the toxicities of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper were compared. The different bioassays exhibited different sensitivities, i.e., they responded to different levels of toxicity of each of the different metals. However, with the exception of the {alpha}-glucosidase enzyme activity, arsenite was the most toxic compound towards all the tested organisms, exhibiting the highest toxic effect on the seeds of Lactuca, with an EC{sub 50} value of 0.63 mg/L. The sensitivities of Lactuca and Raphanus were greater than the sensitivities of two other kinds of seeds tested. Therefore, these were the seeds appropriate for use in a seed germination assay. A high revertant mutagenic ratio (5:1) of Salmonella typhimurium was observed with an arsenite concentration of 0.1 {mu}g/plate, indicative of a high possibility of mutagenicity. These different results suggested that a battery of bioassays, rather than one bioassay alone, is needed as a more accurate and better tool for the bioassessment of environmental pollutants. (orig.)

  14. A fish-feeding laboratory bioassay to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Micah J; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-11

    Marine chemical ecology is a young discipline, having emerged from the collaboration of natural products chemists and marine ecologists in the 1980s with the goal of examining the ecological functions of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. The result has been a progression of protocols that have increasingly refined the ecological relevance of the experimental approach. Here we present the most up-to-date version of a fish-feeding laboratory bioassay that enables investigators to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. Organic metabolites of all polarities are exhaustively extracted from the tissue of the target organism and reconstituted at natural concentrations in a nutritionally appropriate food matrix. Experimental food pellets are presented to a generalist predator in laboratory feeding assays to assess the antipredatory activity of the extract. The procedure described herein uses the bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum, to test the palatability of Caribbean marine invertebrates; however, the design may be readily adapted to other systems. Results obtained using this laboratory assay are an important prelude to field experiments that rely on the feeding responses of a full complement of potential predators. Additionally, this bioassay can be used to direct the isolation of feeding-deterrent metabolites through bioassay-guided fractionation. This feeding bioassay has advanced our understanding of the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine invertebrates on Caribbean coral reefs and may inform investigations in diverse fields of inquiry, including pharmacology, biotechnology, and evolutionary ecology.

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of the bioassay of estrogenicity in mammary gland and seminal vesicles of male mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škarda, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2002), s. 267-276 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/99/0843; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Keywords : bioassay * estrogenicity * mammary gland Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2002

  16. Cleavable DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon: A novel efficient signal translator for sensitive fluorescence anisotropy bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pan; Yang, Bin

    2016-01-15

    Due to its unique features such as high sensitivity, homogeneous format, and independence on fluorescent intensity, fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assay has become a hotspot of study in oligonucleotide-based bioassays. However, until now most FA probes require carefully customized structure designs, and thus are neither generalizable for different sensing systems nor effective to obtain sufficient signal response. To address this issue, a cleavable DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon was successfully engineered for signal amplified FA bioassay, via combining the unique stable structure of molecular beacon and the large molecular mass of streptavidin. Compared with single DNA strand probe or conventional molecular beacon, the DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon exhibited a much higher FA value, which was potential to obtain high signal-background ratio in sensing process. As proof-of-principle, this novel DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon was further applied for FA bioassay using DNAzyme-Pb(2+) as a model sensing system. This FA assay approach could selectively detect as low as 0.5nM Pb(2+) in buffer solution, and also be successful for real samples analysis with good recovery values. Compatible with most of oligonucleotide probes' designs and enzyme-based signal amplification strategies, the molecular beacon can serve as a novel signal translator to expand the application prospect of FA technology in various bioassays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing the response of CALUX and CAFLUX cell bioassays for quantitative detection of dioxin-like compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHAO, Bin; BASTON, David S.; KHAN, Elaine; SORRENTINO, Claudio; DENISON, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Reporter genes produce a protein product in transfected cells that can be easily measured in intact or lysed cells and they have been extensively used in numerous basic and applied research applications. Over the past 10 years, reporter gene assays have been widely accepted and used for analysis of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related dioxin-like compounds in various types of matrices, such as biological, environmental, food and feed samples, given that high-resolution instrumental analysis techniques are impractical for large-scale screening analysis. The most sensitive cell-based reporter gene bioassay systems developed are the mechanism-based CALUX (Chemically Activated Luciferase Expression) and CAFLUX (Chemically Activated Fluorescent Expression) bioassays, which utilize recombinant cell lines containing stably transfected dioxin (AhR)-responsive firefly luciferase or enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter genes, respectively. While the current CALUX and CAFLUX bioassays are very sensitive, increasing their lower limit of sensitivity, magnitude of response and dynamic range for chemical detection would significantly increase their utility, particularly for those samples that contain low levels of dioxin-like HAHs (i.e., serum). In this study, we report that the addition of modulators of cell signaling pathways or modification of cell culture conditions results in significant improvement in the magnitude and overall responsiveness of the existing CALUX and CAFLUX cell bioassays. PMID:21394221

  18. Proof of concept for a novel insecticide bioassay based on sugar feeding by adult Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stell, F M; Roe, R M; Arellano, C; Kennedy, L; Thornton, H; Saavedra-Rodriguez, K; Wesson, D M; Black, W C; Apperson, C S

    2013-09-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the principal vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Disease management is largely based on mosquito control achieved by insecticides applied to interior resting surfaces and through space sprays. Population monitoring to detect insecticide resistance is a significant component of integrated disease management programmes. We developed a bioassay method for assessing insecticide susceptibility based on the feeding activity of mosquitoes on plant sugars. Our prototype sugar-insecticide feeding bioassay system was composed of inexpensive, disposable components, contained minimal volumes of insecticide, and was compact and highly transportable. Individual mosquitoes were assayed in a plastic cup that contained a sucrose-permethrin solution. Trypan blue dye was added to create a visual marker in the mosquito's abdomen for ingested sucrose-permethrin solution. Blue faecal spots provided further evidence of solution ingestion. With the sugar-insecticide feeding bioassay, the permethrin susceptibility of Ae. aegypti females from two field-collected strains was characterized by probit analysis of dosage-response data. The field strains were also tested by forced contact of females with permethrin residues on filter paper. Dosage-response patterns were similar, indicating that the sugar-insecticide feeding bioassay had appropriately characterized the permethrin susceptibility of the two strains. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. A miniature bioassay for testing the acute phytotoxicity of photosystem II herbicides on seagrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Photosystem II (PSII herbicides have been detected in nearshore tropical waters such as those of the Great Barrier Reef and may add to the pressure posed by runoff containing sediments and nutrients to threatened seagrass habitats. There is a growing number of studies into the potential effects of herbicides on seagrass, generally using large experimental setups with potted plants. Here we describe the successful development of an acute 12-well plate phytotoxicity assay for the PSII herbicide Diuron using isolated Halophila ovalis leaves. Fluorescence images demonstrated Diuron affected the entire leaf surface evenly and responses were not influenced by isolating leaves from the plant. The optimum exposure duration was 24 h, by which time the inhibition of effective quantum yield of PSII (∆F/F(m' was highest and no deterioration of photosystems was evident in control leaves. The inhibition of ∆F/F(m' by Diuron in isolated H. ovalis leaves was identical to both potted and hydroponically grown plants (with leaves remaining attached to rhizomes, indicating similar reductions in photosynthetic activity in these acute well-plate assays. The sensitivity of the assay was not influenced by irradiance (range tested 40 to 400 μmol photons m(-2 s(-1. High irradiance, however, caused photo-oxidative stress in H. ovalis and this generally impacted in an additive or sub-additive way with Diuron to damage PSII. The bioassay using isolated leaves is more rapid, uses far less biological material and does not rely on specialised aquarium facilities in comparison with assays using potted plants. The development and validation of this sensitive bioassay will be useful to reliably screen and monitor the phytotoxicity of existing and emerging PSII herbicides and contribute to risk assessments and water quality guideline development in the future.

  20. A Miniature Bioassay for Testing the Acute Phytotoxicity of Photosystem II Herbicides on Seagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam D.; Collier, Catherine J.; Flores, Florita; Mercurio, Phil; O’Brien, Jake; Ralph, Peter J.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) herbicides have been detected in nearshore tropical waters such as those of the Great Barrier Reef and may add to the pressure posed by runoff containing sediments and nutrients to threatened seagrass habitats. There is a growing number of studies into the potential effects of herbicides on seagrass, generally using large experimental setups with potted plants. Here we describe the successful development of an acute 12-well plate phytotoxicity assay for the PSII herbicide Diuron using isolated Halophila ovalis leaves. Fluorescence images demonstrated Diuron affected the entire leaf surface evenly and responses were not influenced by isolating leaves from the plant. The optimum exposure duration was 24 h, by which time the inhibition of effective quantum yield of PSII (∆F/Fm’) was highest and no deterioration of photosystems was evident in control leaves. The inhibition of ∆F/Fm’ by Diuron in isolated H. ovalis leaves was identical to both potted and hydroponically grown plants (with leaves remaining attached to rhizomes), indicating similar reductions in photosynthetic activity in these acute well-plate assays. The sensitivity of the assay was not influenced by irradiance (range tested 40 to 400 μmol photons m-2 s-1). High irradiance, however, caused photo-oxidative stress in H. ovalis and this generally impacted in an additive or sub-additive way with Diuron to damage PSII. The bioassay using isolated leaves is more rapid, uses far less biological material and does not rely on specialised aquarium facilities in comparison with assays using potted plants. The development and validation of this sensitive bioassay will be useful to reliably screen and monitor the phytotoxicity of existing and emerging PSII herbicides and contribute to risk assessments and water quality guideline development in the future. PMID:25674791

  1. Effects of sporophyll storage on giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Agardh) bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gully, J.R.; Bottomley, J.P.; Baird, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    The giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Agardh) is a US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)-approved west coast marine species for chronic toxicity monitoring and compliance in the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). The protocol allows field-collected sporophylls to be stored for up to 24 h at 9 to 12 C prior to use. However, the effects of sporophyll storage on the bioassay results have not been fully investigated, particularly with kelp collected from beds south of Point Conception, CA, USA. Therefore, 13 matched-pair reference toxicant bioassays using fresh and stored sporophylls collected from a subtidal kelp bed near Laguna Beach, CA, USA, were performed and compared. The results indicate that a lower percentage of spores germinate and the germ tube lengths are reduced when stored sporophylls are used. The intratest precision of the germination endpoint decreased as evidenced by significant increases in the percent minimum significant difference (%MSD) statistic. The intertest precision also decreased in the germination endpoint as demonstrated by significant increases in the coefficient of variation (CV) values at four effect levels. Conversely, a significant reduction in the CVs was observed in the germ tube length data, possibly as a consequence of the decrease in germ tube length associated with storage. Finally, significant decreases in mean effect concentrations in the germination endpoint in tests using stored sporophylls indicated that storage increased the sensitivity of the spores to the toxic effects of CuCl{sub 2}. The toxicological sensitivity and intratest precision of the germ tube length endpoint were not significantly affected by storage of the sporophylls. The effects of sporophyll storage resulted in a high frequency of invalid tests, lower statistical power, less effective quality assurance standards, and apparent bias in the observed toxicity of CuCl{sub 2}.

  2. A novel bioassay for the activity determination of therapeutic human brain natriuretic peptide (BNP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP is an important peptide-based therapeutic drug indicated for the treatment of acute heart failure. Accurate determination of the potency of therapeutic rhBNP is crucial for the safety and efficacy of the drug. The current bioassay involves use of rabbit aortic strips, with experiments being complicated and time-consuming and markedly variable in results. Animal-less methods with better precision and accuracy should be explored. We have therefore developed an alternative cell-based assay, which relies on the ability of BNP to induce cGMP production in HEK293 cells expressing BNP receptor guanylyl cyclase-A. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An alternative assay based on the measurement of BNP-induced cGMP production was developed. Specifically, the bioassay employs cells engineered to express BNP receptor guanylyl cyclase-A (GCA. Upon rhBNP stimulation, the levels of the second messager cGMP in these cells drastically increased and subsequently secreted into culture supernatants. The quantity of cGMP, which corresponds to the rhBNP activity, was determined using a competitive ELISA developed by us. Compared with the traditional assay, the novel cell-based assay demonstrated better reproducibility and precision. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The optimized cell-based assay is much simpler, more rapid and precise compared with the traditional assay using animal tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a novel and viable alternative assay for rhBNP potency analysis.

  3. Bioassay-guided supercritical fluid extraction of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibiting substances in Plantago major L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenholm, A; Göransson, U; Bohlin, L

    2013-02-01

    Selective extraction of plant materials is advantageous for obtaining extracts enriched with desired constituents, thereby reducing the need for subsequent chromatography purification. Such compounds include three cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory substances in Plantago major L. targeted in this investigation: α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) (18:3 ω-3) and the triterpenic acids ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. To investigate the scope for tuning the selectivity of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using bioassay guidance, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane as solvent as a reference technique, to optimise yields of these substances. Extraction parameters were varied to optimise extracts' COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratios. The crude extracts were purified initially using a solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up procedure and the target compounds were identified with GC-MS, LC-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS² using GC-FID for quantification. α-LNA was preferentially extracted in dynamic mode using unmodified carbon dioxide at 40°C and 172 bar, at a 0.04% (w/w) yield with a COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratio of 1.5. Ursolic and oleanolic acids were dynamically extracted at 0.25% and 0.06% yields, respectively, with no traces of (α-LNA) and a COX-2/COX-1-inhibitory effect ratio of 1.1 using 10% (v/v) ethanol as polar modifier at 75°C and 483 bar. The Soxhlet extracts had ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and αLNA yields up to 1.36%, 0.34% and 0.15%, respectively, with a COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratio of 1.2. The target substances can be extracted selectively by bioassay guided optimisation of SFE conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Developing a quick and inexpensive in vitro (non-animal) bioassay for mascara irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, H; Montagnes, D J S

    2014-04-01

    Mascara is a mild irritant that causes a range of medical problems. Animal models to predict ocular irritation have, however, been questioned at a number of levels, and there is a continued need to develop in vitro testing methods. We assess changes in an easily quantifiable attribute, ciliated protozoan growth rate, as a sensitive, sublethal measure. Specifically, we test six, randomly chosen, commercial mascara products against a control (as treatments) and reveal through ANOVA (n = 6, α = 0.05) significant differences in the specific growth rate to treatments (for both protozoa). We provide evidence that two easily cultured protozoa (Paramecium caudatum, Blepharisma japonicum) should be considered as models to assess ocular irritancy (and possibly cosmetics in general) and establish the groundwork for such studies to be applied at a more commercial level. We do this by developing a bioassay for mascara toxicity and indicate the low cost (after equipment is purchased, on the order of $100s) and the ease of performing such tests (able to be conducted by undergraduate students), as a consideration for their future commercial application. We first examined dose dependence of responses, revealing that there was a need to conduct preliminary work to determine appropriate levels for sublethal responses. We then show that some products resulted in mortality at high concentrations, others decreased growth rate by >50% (compared with the control), whereas others had no significant effect, compared with the control. We have provided a novel, quick and inexpensive means to assess mascara; the next step is to validate these ciliate bioassays by comparison with animal testing and epidemiological studies, which is beyond the scope of this fundamental 'proof-of-concept' study. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  6. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: roel.smolders@ua.ac.be; Bervoets, L. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  7. Assessment of N and P in organic fertilizer using the missing element technique and a microbial bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, E.; Ramirez, C.

    2002-01-01

    Assessment of N and P in organic fertilizers using the missing element technique and a microbial bioassay.Through a greenhouse bioassay, using sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) as a test plant, and a microbial assay the availability of N and P in 6 substrates was determined, namely: soil alone and in combination with several organic amendments 10% W/W of chicken manure (CM), compost (C), bocashi (B), vermicompost (V) and coffe hulls (Br). In the microbial assay a complete randomized design with 6 replicates was used; the microbial biomass (BM) was determined 2 days after the glucose amendment of each treatment. In both bioassays a 2 X 2 factorial (N and P fertilization) was establish and the following combinations resulted: +N, +P, +P+N and -P-N (control). For the greenhouse experiment, a complete randomized design with 4 replicates was used. Above-ground plant material of sorghum was harvested 34 days after showing to determine plant dry weight (PS) and content of N and P. Both assays showed a response to the soil amendment with N and P. Soil treatments with CM, C and B showed the highest values of PS and BM. Soil treatment with CM amended with N, P or both did not showed a response in PS or BM, in C and B there was a response to N addition but not to P. In treatments with V and Br, the lowest values for PS and BM were obtained, and there was a growth response to N and P. Both bioassays were able to pinpoint N and P defficiencies in the soil as well in some of the mixtures of soil with organic amendments. A high correlation was encountered between the greenhouse assay and the microbial bioassay (r= 0.86, P=0.0001). Therefore, the microbial bioassay can be a cheaper alternative to the plant bioassay not only to evaluate the nutritional quality of compost but also to identify nutrient deficiencies in soils as well as in substrates amended with organic fertilizers. (Author) [es

  8. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  9. Integrating bioassays and analytical chemistry as an improved approach to support safety assessment of food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrand, Julien; Marin-Kuan, Maricel; Bezencon, Claudine; Frank, Nancy; Guérin, Violaine; Koster, Sander; Latado, Hélia; Mollergues, Julie; Patin, Amaury; Piguet, Dominique; Serrant, Patrick; Varela, Jesus; Schilter, Benoît

    2017-10-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) contain chemicals which can migrate into food and result in human exposure. Although it is mandatory to ensure that migration does not endanger human health, there is still no consensus on how to pragmatically assess the safety of FCM since traditional approaches would require extensive toxicological and analytical testing which are expensive and time consuming. Recently, the combination of bioassays, analytical chemistry and risk assessment has been promoted as a new paradigm to identify toxicologically relevant molecules and address safety issues. However, there has been debate on the actual value of bioassays in that framework. In the present work, a FCM anticipated to release the endocrine active chemical 4-nonyphenol (4NP) was used as a model. In a migration study, the leaching of 4NP was confirmed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. This was correlated with an increase in both estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities as measured with bioassays. A standard risk assessment indicated that according to the food intake scenario applied, the level of 4NP measured was lower, close or slightly above the acceptable daily intake. Altogether these results show that bioassays could reveal the presence of an endocrine active chemical in a real-case FCM migration study. The levels reported were relevant for safety assessment. In addition, this work also highlighted that bioactivity measured in migrate does not necessarily represent a safety issue. In conclusion, together with analytics, bioassays contribute to identify toxicologically relevant molecules leaching from FCM and enable improved safety assessment.

  10. Investigation of independence in inter-animal tumor-type occurrences within the NTP rodent-bioassay database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Seilkop, S. [Analytical Sciences, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Statistically significant elevation in tumor incidence at multiple histologically distinct sites is occasionally observed among rodent bioassays of chemically induced carcinogenesis. If such data are to be relied on (as they have, e.g., by the US EPA) for quantitative cancer potency assessment, their proper analysis requires a knowledge of the extent to which multiple tumor-type occurrences are independent or uncorrelated within individual bioassay animals. Although difficult to assess in a statistically rigorous fashion, a few significant associations among tumor-type occurrences in rodent bioassays have been reported. However, no comprehensive studies of animal-specific tumor-type occurrences at death or sacrifice have been conducted using the extensive set of available NTP rodent-bioassay data, on which most cancer-potency assessment for environmental chemicals is currently based. This report presents the results of such an analysis conducted on behalf of the National Research Council`s Committee on Risk Assessment for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Tumor-type associations among individual animals were examined for {approximately}2500 to 3000 control and {approximately}200 to 600 treated animals using pathology data from 62 B6C3F1 mouse studies and 61 F/344N rat studies obtained from a readily available subset of the NTP carcinogenesis bioassay database. No evidence was found for any large correlation in either the onset probability or the prevalence-at-death or sacrifice of any tumor-type pair investigated in control and treated rats and niece, although a few of the small correlations present were statistically significant. Tumor-type occurrences were in most cases nearly independent, and departures from independence, where they did occur, were small. This finding is qualified in that tumor-type onset correlations were measured only indirectly, given the limited nature of the data analyzed.

  11. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  12. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  13. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  14. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  15. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  16. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  17. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  18. A review of metal (Pb and Zn) sensitive and pH tolerant bioassay organisms for risk screening of metal-contaminated acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, E.Emily V.; Dave, Göran; Murimboh, John D.

    2013-01-01

    To improve risk estimates at the screening stage of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA), short duration bioassays tailored to undisturbed soil cores from the contaminated site could be useful. However, existing standardized bioassays use disturbed soil samples and often pH sensitive organisms. This is a problem as naturally acidic soils are widespread. Changing soil properties to suit the test organism may change metal bioavailability, leading to erroneous risk estimates. For bioassays in undisturbed soil cores to be effective, species able to withstand natural soil properties must be identified. This review presents a critical examination of bioassay species' tolerance of acidic soils and sensitivity to metal contaminants such as Pb and Zn. Promising organisms include; Dendrobaena octaedra, Folsomia candida, Caenorhabditis elegans, Oppia nitens, Brassica rapa, Trifolium pratense, Allium cepa, Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum. The MetSTICK test and the Bait lamina test were also identified as suitable microorganism tests. -- Highlights: •Risk screening of metal contaminated soils should consider metal bioavailability. •Metal bioavailability is dependent on soil properties such as pH. •Many standardized bioassay organisms are sensitive to acidic soils. •This review identifies acid tolerant and metal sensitive bioassays and species. •The identified tests can improve risk screening of acidic metal contaminated soil. -- This review identifies bioassay species able to withstand naturally acidic soils while being sensitive to metal contaminants

  19. ACToR - Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, Richard; Richard, Ann; Dix, David; Houck, Keith; Elloumi, Fathi; Martin, Matthew; Cathey, Tommy; Transue, Thomas R.; Spencer, Richard; Wolf, Maritja

    2008-01-01

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a database and set of software applications that bring into one central location many types and sources of data on environmental chemicals. Currently, the ACToR chemical database contains information on chemical structure, in vitro bioassays and in vivo toxicology assays derived from more than 150 sources including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), state agencies, corresponding government agencies in Canada, Europe and Japan, universities, the World Health Organization (WHO) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). At the EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology, ACToR helps manage large data sets being used in a high-throughput environmental chemical screening and prioritization program called ToxCast TM

  20. Effect-based trigger values for in vitro bioassays: Reading across from existing water quality guideline values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2015-09-15

    Cell-based bioassays are becoming increasingly popular in water quality assessment. The new generations of reporter-gene assays are very sensitive and effects are often detected in very clean water types such as drinking water and recycled water. For monitoring applications it is therefore imperative to derive trigger values that differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable effect levels. In this proof-of-concept paper, we propose a statistical method to read directly across from chemical guideline values to trigger values without the need to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolations. The derivation is based on matching effect concentrations with existing chemical guideline values and filtering out appropriate chemicals that are responsive in the given bioassays at concentrations in the range of the guideline values. To account for the mixture effects of many chemicals acting together in a complex water sample, we propose bioanalytical equivalents that integrate the effects of groups of chemicals with the same mode of action that act in a concentration-additive manner. Statistical distribution methods are proposed to derive a specific effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalent concentration (EBT-BEQ) for each bioassay of environmental interest that targets receptor-mediated toxicity. Even bioassays that are indicative of the same mode of action have slightly different numeric trigger values due to differences in their inherent sensitivity. The algorithm was applied to 18 cell-based bioassays and 11 provisional effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalents were derived as an illustrative example using the 349 chemical guideline values protective for human health of the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. We illustrate the applicability using the example of a diverse set of water samples including recycled water. Most recycled water samples were compliant with the proposed triggers while wastewater effluent would not have been compliant with a few