WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioassay electronic resource

  1. ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. M. Panneerselvam

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Human Resource Management is an essence the revolution of human resource functions to management and employees. These functions are typically used via intranet and web technology. This helps the organization to improve their standards where they can able to review and forward. All those documents can be viewed within a fraction of second with help of client and server links. The phenomenon of E- HRM deserves closer and more fundamental roots to HR activity. The E-HRM develops and b...

  2. Worldwide bioassay data resources for plutonium/americium internal dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Bertelli, L.; Little, T.; Guilmette, R.; Riddell, T.; Filipy, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Biokinetic models are the scientific underpinning of internal dosimetry. These models describe how materials of interest taken into the body by various routes (for example inhalation) are transported through the body, allowing the modelling of bioassay measurements and the estimation of radiation dose. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) publishes biokinetic models for use in internal dosimetry. These models represent the consensus judgement of a committee of experts, based on human and animal data. Nonetheless, it is important to validate biokinetic models using directly applicable data, in a scientifically transparent manner, especially for internal dosimetry research purposes (as opposed to radiation protection), as in epidemiology studies. Two major goals would be to determine individual variations of model parameters for the purpose of assessing this source of uncertainty in internal dose calculations, and to determine values of workplace specific parameters (such as particle solubility in lung fluids) for different representative workplaces. Furthermore, data on the observed frequency of intakes under various conditions can be used in the interpretation of bioassay data. All of the above may be couched in the terminology of Bayesian statistical analysis and amount to the determination of the Bayesian prior probability distributions needed in a Bayesian interpretation of bioassay data. The authors have direct knowledge of several significant databases of plutonium/americium bioassay data (including autopsy data). The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the worldwide community with these resources and to invite others who may know of other such databases to participate with us in a publication that would document the content, form, and the procedures for seeking access to these databases. These databases represent a tremendous scientific resource in this field. Examples of databases known to the authors include: the

  3. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  4. Mimicking Daphnia magna bioassay performance by an electronic tongue for urban water quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsanov, Dmitry, E-mail: d.kirsanov@gmail.com [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sensor Systems LLC, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zagrebin, Anatoly; Ignatieva, Natalia; Rybakin, Vladimir [Institute of Limnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • -Daphnia magna bioassay can be simulated with multisensor system. • Urban water toxicity can be predicted from potentiometric ET data. • Independent test set validation confirms statistical significance of the results. - Abstract: Toxicity is one of the key parameters of water quality in environmental monitoring. However, being evaluated as a response of living beings (as their mobility, fertility, death rate, etc.) to water quality, toxicity can only be assessed with the help of these living beings. This imposes certain restrictions on toxicity bioassay as an analytical method: biotest organisms must be properly bred, fed and kept under strictly regulated conditions and duration of tests can be quite long (up to several days), thus making the whole procedure the prerogative of the limited number of highly specialized laboratories. This report describes an original application of potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue) when the set of electrochemical sensors was calibrated against Daphnia magna death rate in order to perform toxicity assessment of urban waters without immediate involvement of living creatures. PRM (partial robust M) and PLS (projections on latent structures) regression models based on the data from this multisensor system allowed for prediction of toxicity of unknown water samples in terms of biotests but in the fast and simple instrumental way. Typical errors of water toxicity predictions were below 20% in terms of Daphnia death rate which can be considered as a good result taking into account the complexity of the task.

  5. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  6. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  7. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  8. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  9. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  10. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out ... New approaches in acquisition, accessing, selection, preservation and choices on whether to operate digital, or combine traditional print and digital resources in the library have to be worked out and adopted.

  11. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    electronic resources, electronic books, electronic learning, electronic journals, as well as electronic archive among others is intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and sectors of the society. Electronic information resources (EIRS) as reported by Meitz (2004), are "Library materials produced in electronic format.

  12. The calculating rating of electronic resources

    OpenAIRE

    MUMINOV BAHODIR.BOLTAYEICH

    2016-01-01

    The rating of electron resources is devoted to count by theories, directions in this work. The calculating model of rating of ER by entering and exiting directions on bases of used widely PageRank is produced for calculating the rating of web pages in Google searching system. The rating of ER is taken into account for calculating the ratings of entering direction and the calculating exiting direction is accomplished by equitable distribution of ER. And also the calculating rating ER among kin...

  13. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-07-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  14. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  15. Utilization of electronic information resources in Ramat Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... printer, and audio-visuals are equally available. Student have unlimited accessibility in the utilization of electronic resources, students frequently utilized electronic information resources in Ramat Library. It is recommended, among others, that registered students should utilize and access electronic information resources ...

  16. Impact of electronic resources use on academic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated that use of electronic resources had a positive impact on students' academic performance. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that more emphasis should be laid on the acquisition of electronic resources so as to give room for wider and multiple access to information resources in order to ...

  17. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  18. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Wu

    Full Text Available Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7 mL(-1conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7 conidia mL(-1 of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  19. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyong; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Endong; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2014-01-01

    Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7) mL(-1)conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7) conidia mL(-1) of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  20. The Evolution of Selection Activities for Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Trisha L.

    1997-01-01

    Selection of electronic resources--CD-ROMs, dial access databases, electronic journals, and World Wide Web products--requires a more extensive set of criteria than do print resources. Discusses two factors influencing collection development of electronic products: technology options and licensing issues, and outlines how traditional selection…

  1. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  2. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, e-resources are not always accessible, lack of supporting structures (connection, downloading, printing limits) and too many resources.

  3. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  4. The impact of electronic information resource use on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  5. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

  6. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    Abstract. This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  7. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  8. Use of electronic resources by undergraduates in two selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to know the extent of use of electronic resources and identify the type of electronic resources used by undergraduates in universities in Nigeria. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The study population includes all undergraduate students in the faculty of engineering in Niger Delta ...

  9. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S

    2015-10-01

    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  10. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    of implementing training programmes to encourage the use of the e-library. Findings: Training sessions increase the usage of library e-resources significantly; however, the effect seems to be short-lived and training sessions alone may not increase the overall long-term usage. Originality/value: The present paper...

  11. Integrating Electronic Resources into the Library Catalog: A Collaborative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gail; Aldana, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Describes a project at the University of Mississippi Libraries to catalog purchased electronic resources so that access to these resources is available only via the Web-based library catalog. Discusses collaboration between cataloging and systems personnel; and describes the MARC catalog record field that contains the information needed to locate…

  12. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  13. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  14. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  15. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  16. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  17. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  18. USE OF VIDEO IN MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Denisenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread introduction of electronic educational resources in the educational process requires the development of a scientific basis for all aspects related to their creation and use. These modern means are designed not just to convey to learners the required course material, but also to create conditions for its most effective study. This is possible in conditions of reasonable approach to the presentation of educational material on the screen. The article is devoted to consideration of the problem of presenting educational material in electronic educational resources. Visuals are powerful didactic tool that enhances the perception and understanding of educational information. Particular attention is paid to the use of such a powerful medium like video. Investigated the role and importance of video in the learning process, their educational opportunities and benefits. Shows types of video and their use in electronic educational resources. Grounded requirements for training videos. The recommendations are given on the use of video in combination with other media in electronic educational resources. Adduced the example a real electronic multimedia educational resource and shows the possibility of using video.

  19. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  20. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  1. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  2. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  3. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  4. Printed And Electronic Resources Utilization By Agricultural Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the use of printed and electronic resources by agricultural science students in three Nigerian universities. A two-part questionnaire was designed to elicit necessary information from the respondents selected for the study. One thousand three hundred (1300) respondents from faculties of Agriculture in ...

  5. Electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the state of electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in Southern part of Nigeria, highlighting the prospects and the challenges. The study was an empirical research which adopted the descriptive survey as the design. The questionnaire was used to collect data from the ...

  6. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, E- journals, CD-ROMs, AGORA, and ... to finance and geographical location. Furthermore, in developed countries like United Kingdom, students get access to .... databases, web sources and audio-video tapes. Furthermore, studies also ...

  7. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  8. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services in A.B.U & UNIBEN MTN Net Libraries. ... Lastly, management of the MTN Net Libraries should conduct user studies annually in order to have feedback from users on how well the library is meeting their information needs. The results of the survey should ...

  9. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  10. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is based on an empirical study that examined the association between gender and the use of electronic information resources among postgraduate students at the University of Dar es salaam, Tanzania. The study was conducted in December 2005 and integrated both qualitative and quantitative research ...

  11. Use of electronic information resources among the undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at finding out the use of electronic information resources among undergraduate students in the Federal University of Technology, Akure. The study is based on descriptive survey design method and the population consists of 16,962 undergraduate students across different schools at the Federal University ...

  12. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  13. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  14. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  15. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  16. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S

    2016-01-01

    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  17. TO QUESTION OF QUALITY EXAMINATION OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the examination of quality of electronic educational resources (EER) for secondary schools. It was defined conceptual apparatus, described the object of examination, clarified certain aspects of the functions of examination, determined the basic tasks of expertise, summarized the principles of expertise (scientific, personalization, active involvement in the learning process), described the requirements to the participants...

  18. Analysis of empty responses from electronic resources in infobutton managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jie; Hulse, Nathan C; Tao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Infobuttons provide context-aware educational materials to both providers and patients and are becoming an important element in modern electronic health records (EHR) and patient health records (PHR). However, the content from different electronic resources (e-resource) as responses from infobutton manager has not been fully analyzed and evaluated. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically analyzing responses from infobutton manager. A tool is implemented to retrieve and analyze responses from infobutton manager. To test the tool, we extracted and sampled common and uncommon concepts from EHR usage data in Intermountain Healthcare's enterprise data warehouse. From the output of the tool, we evaluate infobutton performance by multiple categories, including against the most and less common used concepts, grouped by different modules in patient portal, by different e-resources, and by type of access (standardized Health Level Seven (HL7) vs not). Based on the results of our evaluation, we provide suggestions for further enhancements of infobuttons to the current implementation, including suggesting accessing priorities of e-resources and encouraging the use of the HL7 standard.

  19. Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T H; Cabrera, G L; Chen, R; Gill, B S; Sandhu, S S; Vandenberg, A L; Salamone, M F

    1994-10-16

    Four coded chemicals, azidoglycerol (AG), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), sodium azide (NaN3), and maleic hydrazide (MH), were tested with the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay by five independent laboratories from five different countries. The purpose of this international collaborative study was to evaluate four plant bioassays, of which the Trad-MCN assay was one, for their sensitivity, efficiency and reliability. The study was carried out under the sponsorship of the International Programme on Chemical Safety. All laboratories adhered to a standard Trad-MCN protocol which suggested that three replicate tests be conducted with each chemical. The results reported by all laboratories, although not equal, showed good agreement among the laboratories. In fact, all five laboratories obtained positive results with MH and MNU, while four of the five laboratories achieved positive results with NaN3. AG was tested in only three laboratories. Two reported negative results, while one reported positive results but only at a single high dose. The data from this study suggest that under normal conditions, the Trad-MCN bioassay is an efficient and reliable short-term bioassay for clastogens. It is suitable for the rapid screening of chemicals, and also is specially qualified for in situ monitoring of ambient pollutants.

  20. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  1. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case......-case scenario, only 47% of the total materials in RVCs are ultimately recycled. While this low material recovery is mainly due to the lower plastic recycling rate, other market realities and the complex material flows in the recycling chain also contribute to it. The study provides a robust methodological...... approach for assessing the EoL performance based on the knowledge of a product and its complex recycling chain. The lessons learned can be used to support both the design and EoL processing of products with similar features, which carry a high potential for resource recovery, especially at the initial...

  2. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  3. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  4. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  5. TO QUESTION OF QUALITY EXAMINATION OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the examination of quality of electronic educational resources (EER for secondary schools. It was defined conceptual apparatus, described the object of examination, clarified certain aspects of the functions of examination, determined the basic tasks of expertise, summarized the principles of expertise (scientific, personalization, active involvement in the learning process, described the requirements to the participants of EER expertise, grounded EER accordance to didactic and methodological requirements, described an algorithm of preparation for  the examination object to determine compliance with the requirements of didactic. It is established that the assessment is aimed to the receipt from the experts of corresponding data and acceptance on their basis of competent decisions about expedience of the use in general educational establishments.

  6. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  7. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  8. Fluorescence lifetime based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is a robust intrinsic property and material constant of fluorescent matter. Measuring this important physical indicator has evolved from a laboratory curiosity to a powerful and established technique for a variety of applications in drug discovery, medical diagnostics and basic biological research. This distinct trend was mainly driven by improved and meanwhile affordable laser and detection instrumentation on the one hand, and the development of suitable FLT probes and biological assays on the other. In this process two essential working approaches emerged. The first one is primarily focused on high throughput applications employing biochemical in vitro assays with no requirement for high spatial resolution. The second even more dynamic trend is the significant expansion of assay methods combining highly time and spatially resolved fluorescence data by fluorescence lifetime imaging. The latter approach is currently pursued to enable not only the investigation of immortal tumor cell lines, but also specific tissues or even organs in living animals. This review tries to give an actual overview about the current status of FLT based bioassays and the wide range of application opportunities in biomedical and life science areas. In addition, future trends of FLT technologies will be discussed.

  9. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

  10. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  11. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  12. Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

  13. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  14. A Colorimetric Bioassay for Perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinnickel, M. L.; Smith, S.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Recognition of perchlorate (ClO4-) as a widespread contaminant across the United States and its potential adverse affects towards human health has motivated the EPA to place ClO4- on its contaminant candidate list for drinking water supplies. While a federal MCL has not yet been set, a recommended public health goal of 1 ppb (μg.L-1) was established by the US EPA in 2002. To date, methods of detection require use of sensitive ion chromatographic equipment that are expensive, time consuming, and require highly trained personnel for use. Our studies are focused on the development of a highly sensitive, simple, and robust colorimetric bioassay based on the primary enzyme involved in microbial ClO4- reduction, the perchlorate reductase (Pcr). A previously published assay used reduced methyl viologen (MV, the dye is reduced with sodium hydrosulfite) as an electron donor to demonstrate Pcr activity. The assay directly correlates the amount of MV oxidized with the amount of ClO4- reduced by assuming a transfer of four electrons. To test this assumption, we compared actual concentrations of MV oxidized to ClO4- reduced in this assay. ClO4- concentrations were determined using a Dionex ICS-500 ion chromatography system, while MV concentrations were determined using a standard curve generated at 578 nm. Comparisons between the two revealed that twelve molecules of MV were oxidized for each molecule of ClO4- reduced. The oxidation of these additional eight MV molecules is explained by the interaction of the dye with chlorite (the product of the Pcr reaction) and other contaminants that could be present in the enzyme prep. This unsettling result indicated this assay would be problematic for the detection of ClO4- in soil, which has many chemicals that could react with MV. To improve upon this assay, we have tried to reduce ClO4- using less reactive dyes and reductants. The reductants ascorbic acid, NADH, and dithiothreitol drive Pcr catalyzed ClO4- reduction, however, they

  15. Use of Internet and Electronic Resources amongst Postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings indicate that the study group has regular access to the internet , and preferred using free online resources from Google and Wikipedia to institutionally subscribed academic online resources in databases such as HINARI, EBSCO Host, Questia , JSTOR and High Beam.This shows that technology alone cannot help ...

  16. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  17. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  18. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  19. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    reported using free Internet resources including the search engines, while only a small proportion uses scholarly databases. For example, 22% of researchers reported using the. African Journals Online (AJOL) while 7% use Gale databases (see Table 2 for details). Additionally, the frequency of use also varied significantly ...

  20. Challenges associated with cataloguing of electronic resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to identify challenges associated with the cataloguing of e resources in some selected university libraries in south –south Nigeria. The descriptive survey design involving the use of questionnaire as the research instrument was adopted. The population comprised of cataloguers in five selected ...

  1. Applied in vitro radio bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaburo, J.C.G.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    1992-11-01

    The aim of this publication is to show the concepts and in vitro bioassay techniques as well as experimental procedures related with internal contamination evaluation. The main routes of intake, metabolic behavior, and the possible types of bioassay samples that can be collected for radionuclides analysis are described. Both biological processes and the chemical and physical behavior of the radioactive material of interest are considered and the capabilities of analytical techniques to detect and quantify the radionuclides are discussed. Next, the need of quality assurance throughout procedures are considered and finally a summary of the techniques applied to the internal routine monitoring of IPEN workers is given. (author)

  2. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  3. Growing an Electronic Library: Resources, Utility, Marketing and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, David; Dugdale, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of the ResIDe Electronic Library at the University of the West of England, Bristol. Analyzes potential of the system to increase economy, efficiency and effectiveness in library services and relates it to how the needs of sponsors and students can be met. (Author/LRW)

  4. MODELING OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING RESOURCES: THE INTEGRATED AND DIFFERENTIATED APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Results on modeling of quality management system of electronic information resources on the basis of the analysis of its elements functioning with use of the integrated and differentiated approaches are presented. Application of such model is illustrated on an example of calculation and optimization of parameters of a quality management system at the organization of the co-ordinated work of services of monitoring, an estimation of quality and support of electronic learning resources.

  5. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  6. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  7. Video Killed the Radio Star: Language Students' Use of Electronic Resources-Reading or Viewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate language students' use of print and electronic resources for their research papers required in research techniques class, focusing on which reading strategies they used while reading these resources. The participants of the study were 90 sophomore students enrolled in the research techniques class offered at…

  8. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  9. Studies on Erythropoietin Bioassay Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kyoung Sam; Ro, Heung Kyu; Lee, Mun Ho

    1975-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to design the most preferable method of erythropoietin bioassay in Korea. Bioassay utilizing polycythemic mice are currently in general use for the indirect determination of erythropoietin. Assay animals are usually prepared either by transfusion or by exposure to reduced oxygen tension in specially constructed chamber. We prepared the polycythemic mice by the specially constructed hypobaric chamber. We observed weights and hematocrits of the mice in the hypobaric chamber, then hematocrits and 72 hours 59 Fe red cell uptake ratio of the polycythemic mice induced by hypoxia after removal from the hypobaric chamber. We designed the method of erythropoietin bioassay according to the results obtained by above experiments. Then we measured the 72 hours 59 Fe red cell uptake ratio of the polycythemic mice with normal saline, normal plasma and anemic plasma according to the method we designed. The results are followed:1) The hematocrits of the mice in hypobaric chamber increased to 74% in 11 days. It is preferable to maintain the pressure of the chamber to 400 mmHg for first 4 days then 300 mmHg for last 10 days to reduce the death rate and time consuming in hypobaric chamber. 2) After removal from the hypobaric chamber, the 72 hours 59 Fe red cell uptake ratio decreased rapidly and maintained the lowest level from the fourth day to tenth day. 3) We design the method of erythropoietin bioassay according to the results of above experiment and to the half life of erythropoietin. 4) The Korean product 59 Fe is mixture of 55 Fe and 59 Fe. And the 59 Fe red cell uptake ratio in normal mice was far less with Korean product 59 Fe than with pure 59 Fe of foreign product. So it is desirable to use pure 59 Fe in this method of erythropoietin bioassay. 5) Considering the cost, the technique, the time consuming and the sensitivity it is the most preferable method of erythropoietin bioassay in Korea using hypobaric chamber to induce the polycythemia.

  10. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  11. Use of poisons information resources and satisfaction with electronic products by Victorian emergency department staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Stephen; Fountain, John S; Reith, David M; Braitberg, George; Cruickshank, Jaycen

    2014-10-01

    ED staff use a range of poisons information resources of varying type and quality. The present study aims to identify those resources utilised in the state of Victoria, Australia, and assess opinion of the most used electronic products. A previously validated self-administered survey was conducted in 15 EDs, with 10 questionnaires sent to each. The survey was then repeated following the provision of a 4-month period of access to Toxinz™, an Internet poisons information product novel to the region. The study was conducted from December 2010 to August 2011. There were 117 (78%) and 48 (32%) responses received from the first and second surveys, respectively, a 55% overall response rate. No statistically significant differences in professional group, numbers of poisoned patients seen or resource type accessed were identified between studies. The electronic resource most used in the first survey was Poisindex® (48.68%) and Toxinz™ (64.1%) in the second. There were statistically significant (P poisons information but would do so if a reputable product was available. The order of poisons information sources most utilised was: consultation with a colleague, in-house protocols and electronic resources. There was a significant difference in satisfaction with electronic poisons information resources and a movement away from existing sources when choice was provided. Interest in increased use of mobile solutions was identified. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  12. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  13. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  14. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    2002-01-01

    We describe an electronic guidebook, Sotto Voce, that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each other's guidebook activity. We have conducted three studies of visitors using electronic guidebooks in a historic house: one study with open air audio played through speakers and two studies with eavesdropped audio. An analysis of visitor interaction in these studies suggests that eavesdropped audio provides more social and interactive learning resources than open air aud...

  15. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  16. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  17. Awareness and use of electronic resources at a university campus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looks into the use of electronic resources by the faculty members of College of Technology Education, Kumasi of the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Sixty-two copies of a questionnaire were sent to the entire faculty and 31 were returned which gave a response rate of 50%. The responses showed very ...

  18. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  19. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  20. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  1. Directions of use of electronic resources at training to computer science of students of a teacher training college

    OpenAIRE

    Светлана Анатольева Баженова

    2009-01-01

    Article is devoted questions of use of electronic resources at training to computer science in a teacher training college, principles of pedagogical expediency of use of electronic resources at training are specified computer science and positive aspects of such use for different forms of work of the student and the teacher are allocated.

  2. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  3. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  4. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  5. Bioassays for monitoring insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audra L E; Tindall, Kelly; Leonard, B Rogers

    2010-12-30

    Pest resistance to pesticides is an increasing problem because pesticides are an integral part of high-yielding production agriculture. When few products are labeled for an individual pest within a particular crop system, chemical control options are limited. Therefore, the same product(s) are used repeatedly and continual selection pressure is placed on the target pest. There are both financial and environmental costs associated with the development of resistant populations. The cost of pesticide resistance has been estimated at approximately $ 1.5 billion annually in the United States. This paper will describe protocols, currently used to monitor arthropod (specifically insects) populations for the development of resistance. The adult vial test is used to measure the toxicity to contact insecticides and a modification of this test is used for plant-systemic insecticides. In these bioassays, insects are exposed to technical grade insecticide and responses (mortality) recorded at a specific post-exposure interval. The mortality data are subjected to Log Dose probit analysis to generate estimates of a lethal concentration that provides mortality to 50% (LC(50) of the target populations and a series of confidence limits (CL's) as estimates of data variability. When these data are collected for a range of insecticide-susceptible populations, the LC(50) can be used as baseline data for future monitoring purposes. After populations have been exposed to products, the results can be compared to a previously determined LC(50) using the same methodology.

  6. Two-generation saccharin bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, D L

    1983-04-01

    The controversy regarding the safety of saccharin for human consumption started shortly after its discovery over 100 years ago and has yet to subside appreciably. The consumption of saccharin, particularly in North America, began to escalate when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration set new standards of identity which allowed foods containing artificial sweeteners to be promoted as "nonnutritive" or "noncaloric" sweeteners for use by the general public. In 1969, when cyclamates were banned, at least 10 single-generation feeding studies were undertaken with saccharin to more accurately assess the potential toxicological consequences resulting from the anticipated increase in its consumption. None of these studies resulted in any overt regulatory action. Subsequently, the introduction of the two-generation chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity bioassay added a new tool to the toxicologist's arsenal. Three two-generation studies using saccharin have since been conducted. The results from these studies clearly show that when rats were exposed to diets containing 5 or 7.5% sodium saccharin from the time of conception to death, an increased frequency of urinary bladder cancers was found, predominantly in the males. While some study results suggested that impurities in commercial saccharin or the presence of urinary tract calculi may have been responsible for the observed bladder tumors, it now appears that these possibilities are highly unlikely. The mechanism by which saccharin elicited the bladder tumors using the two-generation experiment has not been ascertained.

  7. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  8. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  9. BioAssay templates for the semantic web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Clark

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Annotation of bioassay protocols using semantic web vocabulary is a way to make experiment descriptions machine-readable. Protocols are communicated using concise scientific English, which precludes most kinds of analysis by software algorithms. Given the availability of a sufficiently expressive ontology, some or all of the pertinent information can be captured by asserting a series of facts, expressed as semantic web triples (subject, predicate, object. With appropriate annotation, assays can be searched, clustered, tagged and evaluated in a multitude of ways, analogous to other segments of drug discovery informatics. The BioAssay Ontology (BAO has been previously designed for this express purpose, and provides a layered hierarchy of meaningful terms which can be linked to. Currently the biggest challenge is the issue of content creation: scientists cannot be expected to use the BAO effectively without having access to software tools that make it straightforward to use the vocabulary in a canonical way. We have sought to remove this barrier by: (1 defining a BioAssay Template (BAT data model; (2 creating a software tool for experts to create or modify templates to suit their needs; and (3 designing a common assay template (CAT to leverage the most value from the BAO terms. The CAT was carefully assembled by biologists in order to find a balance between the maximum amount of information captured vs. low degrees of freedom in order to keep the user experience as simple as possible. The data format that we use for describing templates and corresponding annotations is the native format of the semantic web (RDF triples, and we demonstrate some of the ways that generated content can be meaningfully queried using the SPARQL language. We have made all of these materials available as open source (http://github.com/cdd/bioassay-template, in order to encourage community input and use within diverse projects, including but not limited to our own

  10. Comparing Electronic Human Resource Management Systems Efficiency In Production Organization amp Service Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today the organizations used information technology in performing human resource department affairs and this is called as electronic human resource management EHRM. In fact as the competitive complexity increases the need for implementing EHRM in production and service businesses increases too. This paper is written in order to specify the importance of implementing EHRM in production and service organizations and also to evaluate efficiency rate and the importance degree in these two ones. In this paper first the topics literature and the most important aspects of implementing these systems will be reviewed and after categorizing these views the hierarchal model will be proposed by applying AHP method. The result of analyzing this model by EXPERT CHOICE software shows that implementing EHRM in both kinds of organizations has the same importance however there is a large difference between them in implementing aspects.

  11. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  12. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  13. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  14. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  15. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  16. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Use of Electronic Resources by M.Sc. Chemistry Students at Arts Science and Commerce College Chopda Dist-Jalgaon

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Paithankar Rajeev; R., Mr.Kamble V.R.

    2017-01-01

    The libraries and information services has been changed due to the development of information and communication technology. Electronics resources role is very important as information repositories are use of information for various purposes like academic, research, teaching and learning process. E-resources gives solutions of the traditional libraries as like all data storage in digital format, users can access library without boundaries through internet so e-resources popularity is very cont...

  18. Making the Right Connections: Perceptions of Human Resource/Personnel Directors Concerning Electronic Job-Search Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Joan C.; North, Alexa B.; Arjomand, H. Lari

    1997-01-01

    Examines methods used to search for entry-level managerial positions and assesses how human resource and personnel directors in Georgia perceive these methods. Findings indicate that few of the directors use electronic technology to fill such positions, but they view positively those applicants who use electronic job searching methods. (RJM)

  19. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  20. New Rotifer Bioassays for Aquatic Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    AD-A258 002 AD NEW ROTIFER BIOASSAYS FOR AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY FINAL REPORT TERRY W. SNELL JULY 15, 1991 Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND...Incluce Securiy Cawhca•r• on) New Rotifer Bioassays for Aquatic Toxicology 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Terry W. Snell 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. riME COVERED...rotifers. I. A test for brackish and marine environments with Brachionus plicatilis. Aquatic Toxicology . 14: 65-80. Snell, T. W. and G. Persoone. 1989

  1. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND USAGE OF THE ELECTRONIC VIDEO RESOURCES FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav M. Hlynsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theoretical foundation, the creation and implementation of the electronic educational video resources (EEVR in the example of the development and the usage of the collection of video tutorials in event-driven programming theme, which is studied in the framework of the subject "Informatics" by students of many specialties. It offers some development of the existing conceptual and categorical apparatus concerning EEVR development. It is alleged that the video tutorials allow you to automate the process of learning, redistribute instructional time for the benefit of students' independent work, to provide classroom release time for the teaching of the theoretical issues of the course that is aimed at improving the fundamental nature of training. Practical recommendations for the development of the effective EEVR, which may be useful for the authors of e-learning courses for students of different forms of training are proposed.

  3. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  4. Genetic-algorithm-based optimization of a fuzzy logic resource manager for electronic attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F., III; Rhyne, Robert D., II

    2000-04-01

    A fuzzy logic based expert system has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack (EA) resources in real-time over many dissimilar platforms. The platforms can be very general, e.g., ships, planes, robots, land based facilities, etc. Potential foes the platforms deal with can also be general. This paper describes data mining activities related to development of the resource manager with a focus on genetic algorithm based optimization. A genetic algorithm requires the construction of a fitness function, a function that must be maximized to give optimal or near optimal results. The fitness functions are in general non- differentiable at many points and highly non-linear, neither property providing difficulty for a genetic algorithm. The fitness functions are constructed using insights from geometry, physics, engineering, and military doctrine. Examples are given as to how fitness functions are constructed including how the fitness function is averaged over a database of military scenarios. The use of a database of scenarios prevents the algorithm from having too narrow a range of behaviors, i.e., it creates a more robust solution.

  5. Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of electronic media use. These levels of use indicate the students' awareness of the role and benefits of electronic media use. Regarding the factors that influence the students' se of electronic resources we found that the student's use of electronic resources had significant strong positive relationships with the provision of electronic resources by the academic institution. It had significant moderate positive relationships with the resources characteristics and the course requirement, and had significant weak relationships with the instructor's support and the student's characteristics. We explained these relationships as resulting from the influence of the surrounding community. Regarding the students' opinions about the use of electronic resources, we found that the student's opinion of electronic resources has significant strong positive relationships with student's use of electronic resources, level of this use, the academic institution available facilities, student's characteristics and resources characteristics. It does not have significant relationships with the instructor's support or the course requirement. We explained these relationships depending on activity theory and its integration with ecological psychology.

  6. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  7. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    English in Australia, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Contains seven short resources''--units, lessons, and activities on the power of observation, man and his earth, snakes, group discussion, colloquial and slang, the continuous story, and retelling a story. (DD)

  8. 7 Vascular Hydrophytes for Bioassay.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Hatakeyama S., Fukushima S., Kasai F. and. Shiraishi H. (1994). Assessment of herbicide effects on algal production in the Kokai River. (Japan) using a model stream and Selenastrum bioassay. Ecotoxicology3: 143–156. Kang J-Y. and Goulder R. (1996). Epiphytic bacteria downstream of sewage-works outfalls. Wat. Res.

  9. SCREENING AND BIOASSAY-GUIDED ISOLATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... from the leaves and stem-root of the plant were sequentially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ... Keywords: Bioassay-guided isolation, antimicrobial activity, Laggera mollis, clinical isolates, extracts. INTRODUCTION ... technology (Das et al., 2009). The powdered leaf/stem-root ...

  10. A specific bioassay for the inhibition of flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J

    1972-06-01

    A bioassay for the inhibition of flowering involving the in vitro culture of excised, partially-induced, apices of Viscaria candida is described. This bioassay has been used to detect flowering inhibition in extracts from Kalanchoe blossfeldiana.

  11. THE FACTOR-CRITERIA MODEL OF ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL GAME RESOURCES IN MATHEMATICS FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana M. Melnyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proves the need for a comprehensive assessment of electronic educational game resources in mathematics for the primary school students; gives the definition of “the factor-criteria model of the electronic educational game resources (EEGR”. It also describes the created model, which consists of requirements for the content, methodological and program parts of the electronic resources for primary school; identifies the factors and the criteria to each of them. It was proposed to assess the ratios within the group of factors and each group of criteria according to the arithmetic progression. The presented model can be a convenient tool both for primary school teachers and EEGR developers. It can also be a basis for a unified state comprehensive system of assessment of the EEGR.

  12. In vitro bioassays to evaluate complex chemical mixtures in recycled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ai; Escher, Beate I; Leusch, Frederic D L; Tang, Janet Y M; Prochazka, Erik; Dong, Bingfeng; Snyder, Erin M; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-09-01

    With burgeoning population and diminishing availability of freshwater resources, the world continues to expand the use of alternative water resources for drinking, and the quality of these sources has been a great concern for the public as well as public health professionals. In vitro bioassays are increasingly being used to enable rapid, relatively inexpensive toxicity screening that can be used in conjunction with analytical chemistry data to evaluate water quality and the effectiveness of water treatment. In this study, a comprehensive bioassay battery consisting of 36 bioassays covering 18 biological endpoints was applied to screen the bioactivity of waters of varying qualities with parallel treatments. Samples include wastewater effluent, ultraviolet light (UV) and/or ozone advanced oxidation processed (AOP) recycled water, and infiltrated recycled groundwater. Based on assay sensitivity and detection frequency in the samples, several endpoints were highlighted in the battery, including assays for genotoxicity, mutagenicity, estrogenic activity, glucocorticoid activity, arylhydrocarbon receptor activity, oxidative stress response, and cytotoxicity. Attenuation of bioactivity was found to be dependent on the treatment process and bioassay endpoint. For instance, ozone technology significantly removed oxidative stress activity, while UV based technologies were most efficient for the attenuation of glucocorticoid activity. Chlorination partially attenuated genotoxicity and greatly decreased herbicidal activity, while groundwater infiltration efficiently attenuated most of the evaluated bioactivity with the exception of genotoxicity. In some cases, bioactivity (e.g., mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and arylhydrocarbon receptor) increased following water treatment, indicating that transformation products of water treatment may be a concern. Furthermore, several types of bioassays with the same endpoint were compared in this study, which could help guide the selection

  13. In vitro bioassays to evaluate complex chemical mixtures in recycled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ai; Escher, Beate I.; Leusch, Frederic D.L.; Tang, Janet Y.M.; Prochazka, Erik; Dong, Bingfeng; Snyder, Erin M.; Snyder, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    With burgeoning population and diminishing availability of freshwater resources, the world continues to expand the use of alternative water resources for drinking, and the quality of these sources has been a great concern for the public as well as public health professionals. In vitro bioassays are increasingly being used to enable rapid, relatively inexpensive toxicity screening that can be used in conjunction with analytical chemistry data to evaluate water quality and the effectiveness of water treatment. In this study, a comprehensive bioassay battery consisting of 36 bioassays covering 18 biological endpoints was applied to screen the bioactivity of waters of varying qualities with parallel treatments. Samples include wastewater effluent, ultraviolet light (UV) and/or ozone advanced oxidation processed (AOP) recycled water, and infiltrated recycled groundwater. Based on assay sensitivity and detection frequency in the samples, several endpoints were highlighted in the battery, including assays for genotoxicity, mutagenicity, estrogenic activity, glucocorticoid activity, aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity, oxidative stress response, and cytotoxicity. Attenuation of bioactivity was found to be dependent on the treatment process and bioassay endpoint. For instance, ozone technology significantly removed oxidative stress activity, while UV based technologies were most efficient for the attenuation of glucocorticoid activity. Chlorination partially attenuated genotoxicity and greatly decreased herbicidal activity, while groundwater infiltration efficiently attenuated most of the evaluated bioactivity with the exception of genotoxicity. In some cases, bioactivity (e.g., mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and arylhydrocarbon receptor) increased following water treatment, indicating that transformation products of water treatment may be a concern. Furthermore, several types of bioassays with the same endpoint were compared in this study, which could help guide the selection

  14. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  15. Brine Shrimp Bioassays: A Useful Technique in Biological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Stanley A.; Maness, Ian B.

    2004-01-01

    A technique to measure the potency of leaf compounds against herbivores with the use of a bioassay is described. Bioassays are useful in classes where students have career plans like medicine in which bioassays can be used as tools for screening plants for possible medicinal potency.

  16. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  17. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  18. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  20. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  1. Challenges for international students in using electronic resources in the Learning Centre : a case study of Oslo University College

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Anisur

    2011-01-01

    Joint Master Degree in Digital Library Learning (DILL) The purpose of this study is to find out the challenges facing by international students in using electronic resources in the OUC learning center. This research has used a qualitative approach and purposive, a non-probability techniques used for sampling of this study. A semi-structured face-to-face interviews method is used for the collection of data. The interview questions were open ended and the discourse analysis metho...

  2. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  3. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  4. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  5. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J

    2017-09-05

    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  6. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  7. Applications of bioassay for fission and activation products - Sept. 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This guide identifies the bases that will be used by the NRC staff in evaluating the need for license provisions to require bioassay programs in installations where employees may be subject to internal radiation exposure from the inhalation or ingestion of fission or neutron activation products. It also describes methods acceptable to the NRC staff for determining the persons to be included in a bioassay program, the sampling and measurement techniques to be used, the frequency of bioassay measurements to be made, actions to be taken based on designated levels of internal radioactivity, estimations of internal dose to be calculated from bioassay measurements, and record systems to be maintained appropriate to such bioassay programs

  8. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  9. Supporting Learning and Information Sharing in Natural Resource Management with Technologies for Electronic Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Leila; McLean, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    Community participation is central to achieving sustainable natural resource management. A prerequisite to informed participation is that community and stakeholder groups have access to different knowledge sources, are more closely attuned to the different issues and viewpoints, and are sufficiently equipped to understand and maybe resolve complex…

  10. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  11. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  12. Survey of the use of electronic information resources by students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For libraries to continue to lead in this industry generally and academic libraries in particular, deliberate effort must be made to bring the IT education to every potential user of the libraries. This however must be done based on available data. This is what this study sought to provide- a survey of the use of electronic ...

  13. Bringing Up Gopher: Access to Local & Remote Electronic Resources for University Library Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melvin Marlo; And Others

    Some of the administrative and organizational issues in creating a gopher, specifically a library gopher for university libraries, are discussed. In 1993 the Electronic Collections Task Force of the New Mexico State University library administration began to develop a library-based gopher system that would enable users to have unlimited access to…

  14. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  15. Data Resource Profile: Cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaxas, Spiros C; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic heath record sources: examples include linkages between the longitudinal primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the national registry of acute coronary syndromes (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), hospitalization and procedure data from Hospital Episode Statistics and cause-specific mortality and social deprivation data from the Office of National Statistics. Current cohort analyses involve a million people in initially healthy populations and disease registries with ∼105 patients. (ii) Linkages of bespoke investigator-led cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) to registry data (e.g. Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), providing new means of ascertaining, validating and phenotyping disease. (iii) A common data model in which routine electronic health record data are made research ready, and sharable, by defining and curating with meta-data >300 variables (categorical, continuous, event) on risk factors, CVDs and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. (iv) Transparency: all CALIBER studies have an analytic protocol registered in the public domain, and data are available (safe haven model) for use subject to approvals. For more information, e-mail s.denaxas@ucl.ac.uk PMID:23220717

  16. Resource-efficient conception of waste electrical and electronic equipment collection groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gries, Nadja von; Wilts, Claas Henning

    2014-01-01

    Critical metals are in great demand by the electrical and electronics industry, so waste electrical and eletronic equipment represents a significant source of secondary raw materials. Owing to low recycling rates and the concomitant supply risks associated with critical metals, the closure of the material cycles is highly relevant to the German economy. Losses of these metals occur from collection until their material recovery, along the entire disposal chain of waste electrical and electroni...

  17. Bioassays for the determination of nitrification inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunditz, Camilla

    1999-07-01

    Requirements for nitrogen reduction in wastewater treatment plants were introduced in Sweden in the early 1990's. This was a governmental move to reduce the nitrogen discharges to the Baltic and Kattegat in order to prevent eutrophication. The nitrification process in wastewater treatment plants is performed by nitrifying bacteria. These are susceptible to inhibition and it is of great importance that the influent water does not contain toxic compounds. Therefore, there is a need for assays for the determination of nitrification inhibition. This thesis describes the development and applications of such bioassays. Pure cultures of Nitrosomonas sp. and Nitrobacter sp. were isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant. These cultures were used as test organisms in the development of bioassays for nitrification inhibition measurements. The assays are based on two different principles; cell suspensions of the bacteria, performed in test tubes, and mediated amperometric biosensors with the bacteria immobilised. Ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation are studied separately without interference from other organisms, which makes it easier to interpret the results. The cell suspension assays were applied to samples of industrial and municipal wastewater. The Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter assays showed to have different inhibition patterns. A large percentage of the Swedish municipal wastewater treatment plants were found to receive inhibitory influent water, but the inhibition level was generally low. Compared to an assay based on activated sludge, the screening method, the pure culture assays found more samples of influent water strongly inhibitory or stimulating. The highest correlation was found between the screening method and the Nitrosomonas assay. The Nitrobacter assay was found to be the most sensitive method. Assessment of toxicity of a number of chemical substances was studied using the biosensors, together with the cell suspension assays

  18. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  19. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  20. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  1. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski Stanislaw; Kaminski Piotr; Kaminska Dorota; Trzcinski Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size ...

  2. Annotating Human P-Glycoprotein Bioassay Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrazil, Barbara; Pinto, Marta; Vasanthanathan, Poongavanam; Williams, Antony J; Balderud, Linda Zander; Engkvist, Ola; Chichester, Christine; Hersey, Anne; Overington, John P; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2012-08-01

    Huge amounts of small compound bioactivity data have been entering the public domain as a consequence of open innovation initiatives. It is now the time to carefully analyse existing bioassay data and give it a systematic structure. Our study aims to annotate prominent in vitro assays used for the determination of bioactivities of human P-glycoprotein inhibitors and substrates as they are represented in the ChEMBL and TP-search open source databases. Furthermore, the ability of data, determined in different assays, to be combined with each other is explored. As a result of this study, it is suggested that for inhibitors of human P-glycoprotein it is possible to combine data coming from the same assay type, if the cell lines used are also identical and the fluorescent or radiolabeled substrate have overlapping binding sites. In addition, it demonstrates that there is a need for larger chemical diverse datasets that have been measured in a panel of different assays. This would certainly alleviate the search for other inter-correlations between bioactivity data yielded by different assay setups.

  3. Bioassay Phantoms Using Medical Images and Computer Aided Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. X. Geroge Xu

    2011-01-28

    A radiation bioassay program relies on a set of standard human phantoms to calibrate and assess radioactivity levels inside a human body for radiation protection and nuclear medicine imaging purposes. However, the methodologies in the development and application of anthropomorphic phantoms, both physical and computational, had mostly remained the same for the past 40 years. We herein propose a 3-year research project to develop medical image-based physical and computational phantoms specifically for radiation bioassay applications involving internally deposited radionuclides. The broad, long-term objective of this research was to set the foundation for a systematic paradigm shift away from the anatomically crude phantoms in existence today to realistic and ultimately individual-specific bioassay methodologies. This long-term objective is expected to impact all areas of radiation bioassay involving nuclear power plants, U.S. DOE laboratories, and nuclear medicine clinics.

  4. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based bioassay for assessing pesticide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estève, Karine; Poupot, C; Dabert, P; Mietton-Peuchot, M; Milisic, V

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates the toxic effect of three pesticides (Azoxystrobin, Cymoxanil, and Diuron) on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the development of a new bioassay based on inhibition of S. cerevisiae metabolic activity at the level of adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, as compared with two different toxicity tests based on inhibition of Daphnia magna mobility (NF EN ISO 6341) and inhibition of Vibrio fisheri activity (NF EN ISO 11348). The S. cerevisiae bioassay is cheaper and 96 times faster than the D. magna toxicity bioassay, but has lower sensitivity. It is as fast as the V. fisheri bioassay and more sensitive. Thus, this new toxicity test can be proposed for rapid detection of pesticide residues in environmental samples as a complement to the more expensive and time-consuming D. magna toxicity test.

  5. Bioassay Phantoms Using Medical Images and Computer Aided Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X. Geroge

    2011-01-01

    A radiation bioassay program relies on a set of standard human phantoms to calibrate and assess radioactivity levels inside a human body for radiation protection and nuclear medicine imaging purposes. However, the methodologies in the development and application of anthropomorphic phantoms, both physical and computational, had mostly remained the same for the past 40 years. We herein propose a 3-year research project to develop medical image-based physical and computational phantoms specifically for radiation bioassay applications involving internally deposited radionuclides. The broad, long-term objective of this research was to set the foundation for a systematic paradigm shift away from the anatomically crude phantoms in existence today to realistic and ultimately individual-specific bioassay methodologies. This long-term objective is expected to impact all areas of radiation bioassay involving nuclear power plants, U.S. DOE laboratories, and nuclear medicine clinics.

  6. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  7. Electronic learning and open educational resources in the health sciences in ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanu, Rmk; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Opare-Sem, O; Nkyekyer, K; Donkor, P; Lawson, A; Engleberg, N C

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether a group of Ghanaian students are able to easily use electronic learning material and whether they perceive this method of learning as acceptable. The University of Ghana Medical School (UGMS) and the School of Medical Sciences (SMS), Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and fifty third year medical students at SMS and nineteen fifth year medical students at UGMS METHODS: Two e-learning materials were developed, one on the polymerase chain reaction and the other on total abdominal hysterectomy and these were distributed to selected medical students. Two weeks after the distribution of the programmes, a one-page, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the target groups of students at the two institutions. Ninety three percent (139) of respondents at KNUST and 95% (18) at UG report having access to a computer for learning purposes. All of the UG students viewed the TAH programme; 82% (130) of the KNUST students viewed the PCR animations. All students who viewed the programmes at both institutions indicated that the e-learning pro-grammes were "more effective" in comparison to other methods of learning. Computer ownership or availability at both medical schools is sufficient to permit the distribution and viewing of e-learning materials by students and the medical students considered both programmes to be very helpful.

  8. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device function and longevity at autopsy: an underestimated resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sunil K; Crain, Barbara; Flickinger, Katie; Calkins, Hugh; Rickard, John; Cheng, Alan; Berger, Ronald; Tomaselli, Gordon; Marine, Joseph E

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility and safety of postmortem cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED; pacemaker or defibrillator) retrieval for reuse has been shown. To date, studies indicate a low yield of reusable postmortem CIEDs (17%-30%). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a higher rate of reusable CIEDs would be identified upon postmortem retrieval when an institutional protocol for systematic and routine acquisition, interrogation, reprogramming, and manufacturer analysis was used. Over a 6-year period, all subjects referred for autopsy underwent concomitant CIED pulse generator retrieval and enrollment in the Johns Hopkins Post-Mortem CIED Registry. CIEDs were interrogated, reprogrammed, and submitted for manufacturer analysis. In total, 84 autopsies had CIEDs (37 pacemakers, 47 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators). CIEDs were implanted 2.84 ± 2.32 years before death, with 30% implanted 60% of pacemakers and >50% of defibrillators demonstrated normal functional status with projected longevities >7 years on average. Formation of a national hospital-based "CIED donor network" would facilitate larger scale charitable efforts in underserved countries. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation and modeling of the parameters affecting fluoride toxicity level in aquatic environments by bioassay method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Shamsollahi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride exists in various forms in nature and water resources. , The rising level of fluoride in water resources due to discharge of industrial effluents can cause toxicity in aquatic organisms. To prevent toxicity, it is necessary to determine maximum fluoride toxicity as well as effluent discharge limits. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum fluoride toxicity and the factors affecting fluoride toxicity to provide a model in order to determine the effluent discharge limits. Methods: Daphnia magna bioassay in the absence of confounding factors was used to determine the maximum level of fluoride toxicity. Then, bioassay was repeated in the presence of the confounding factors (hardness, temperature and exposure time to determine their effects. Results: In the absence of intervening factors, fluoride LC50 levels determined after 24, 48 and 72 hours exposure were 4.9, 46.5 and 38.7 mg/l, respectively.. Also, the influence of confounding factors on LC50 values was reported significant by Minitab software. Conclusion: Increasing the water hardness reduced fluoride toxicity, and increasing the water temperature and exposure time increased fluoride toxicity in aquatic environments. Therefore, while determining the wastewater discharge limit in terms of fluoride concentration, it is essential to take the effect of confounding factors on fluoride toxicity into account in order to prevent toxicity in the open water resources.

  10. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  11. Sensitivity bioassays of the Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and Pimephales promelasin a series of samples of effluent and reference toxicant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Saona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the toxicological sensitivity quantified by the 50% lethal dose of acute toxicity bioassays of Cnesterodon decemmaculatusand Pimephales promelasin benchmark exposure to toxic industrial effluents, wastewater effluents and reference toxicants. At the same time, the toxicological sensitivity of C. decemmaculatusrelated to the size was assayed. Both species were analyzed with 16 bioassays mated by the same substance or compound and a good agreement rL= 0.75 was observed. No significant differences in the overall analysis for effluents and potassium dichromate appeared in toxicological analysis of sensitivity to size. In contrast, significant difference in sensitivity was observed in assays with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Previous studies of the acute bioassays of C. decemmaculatusas well as the results obtained in this work accredit the use of this species in the ecotoxicological evaluation.This work contributes to generate specific ecotoxicological tools employing a native species (C. decemmaculatus and provides comparative information with an internationally accepted species used in reference bioassays (P. promelas. Progress of these studies as a priority research area will contribute to consolidate analytical tools, to develop professional skills and to strengthen institutions that manage the water resources in Uruguay.

  12. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters ET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  13. Soil bioassays and the {sup 129}I problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Iodine-129 is a very long-lived radionuclide associated with spent nuclear fuel. Because {sup 129}I has a 10{sup 7}-year half-life, is very mobile in the environment and is a biologically essential element, it is the most limiting radionuclide affecting disposal of spent fuel. Traditionally, the potential impacts of {sup 129}I have been estimated for human receptors, with the implicit assumption that all other organisms are less at risk. Risk is the operative word, the objective for protection of humans is to protect individuals, whereas the objective for other biota is usually to protect populations. Here, {sup 129}I poses an interesting problem: the half-life is so long it is barely radioactive. Thus, the chemical toxicity may be more limiting than the radiological impact. A series of soil bioassays were employed, including a life-cycle plant (Brassica rapa) bioassay, a modified earthworm survival bioassay, a microarthropod colonization/survival bioassay, and a series of more common soil and aquatic bioassays. Chemical toxicity was indicated at soil concentrations as low as 5 mg kg{sup {minus}1}. At these levels, radiological impact on non-human biota would not be expected, and therefore the chemical toxicity effects are more critical. However, human food-chain model estimates show these levels, as pure {sup 129}I, would be unacceptable for human radiological exposure, so that for {sup 129}I, protection of the human environment should also be protective of non-human biota.

  14. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  15. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  16. Rationalization of bioassay for radiation protection management in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Hattori, Takatoshi

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the objective is the rationalization of the technique of radiation protection management for internal irradiation, and we improved on utility of bioassay method. The major results obtained are as follows: 1. We develop the computing code which can analyze the behavior of excretion of radioactive nuclides and estimate the effective dose equivalent. And, we proposed the direct evaluation method of the effective dose equivalent of internal irradiation using the curve of the excretion. 2. We develop the Tiolet Monitor which can monitor the intake of 54 Mn, 137 Cs, etc. Practical screening level of Toilet Monitor is investigated as usable. 3. Any kinds of correction factors of bioassay data are investigated. 4. Practical usage of the bioassay system for management of internal irradiation protection is proposed. (author)

  17. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  18. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caprio, Kimberley

    1997-01-01

    ... No. 5AB-0052, "Audit of the Management and Administration of Research Projects Funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency," will discuss the adequacy of the Defense Advanced Research...

  19. An emergency bioassay method for actinides in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiongxin; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila

    2011-08-01

    A rapid bioassay method has been developed for the sequential measurements of actinides in human urine samples. The method involves actinide separation from a urine matrix by co-precipitation with hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO), followed by anion exchange and extraction chromatography column purification, and final counting by alpha spectrometry after cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. The minimal detectable activities for the method were determined to be 20 mBq L(-1) or less for plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes, with an 8-h sample turn-around time. Spike tests showed that this method would meet the requirements for actinide bioassay following a radiation emergency.

  20. Categorization of worker bioassay programs based on intake potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.A.; McFee, M.C.; La Bone, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    The routine bioassay program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has undergone considerable change in the last ten years. The causes of this change may be traced to changes in personnel and regulations during this time. Prior to the 1980's, the workforce was relatively small, stable, and experienced. Bioassay programs were administered in the field by Health Protection personnel who were very familiar with all the personnel in their facility and the potential problems that could occur in those facilities. The radiation protection regulations had not changed drastically in 20 years, and they were based on readily understood quantities such as the quantity of radioactive material in the body

  1. Manual on theory and practical aspects of bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuraini Hambali.

    1985-06-01

    This manual is set to provide necessary basic guidance on theory and practical aspects of bioassay specially for the newcomer in this field and the man in the laboratory. The first part is a brief information on the entry of radionuclides into the body, the metabolism and the programs of bioassay. All other factors to be considered in assessing internal contamination in man have also been brought up. In the second part, various procedures of radiochemical separations, detection and measurements are abstracted from journals and other revisions. Some methods have been attempted and to be followed where appropriate. (author)

  2. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuagbe, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  3. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  4. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  5. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  6. 圖書館事業專欄/Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University/Nerisa Kamar

    OpenAIRE

    Nerisa Kamar

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learnin...

  7. Bioassays as one of the Green Chemistry tools for assessing environmental quality: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczerzak, M; Namieśnik, J; Kudłak, B

    2016-09-01

    For centuries, mankind has contributed to irreversible environmental changes, but due to the modern science of recent decades, scientists are able to assess the scale of this impact. The introduction of laws and standards to ensure environmental cleanliness requires comprehensive environmental monitoring, which should also meet the requirements of Green Chemistry. The broad spectrum of Green Chemistry principle applications should also include all of the techniques and methods of pollutant analysis and environmental monitoring. The classical methods of chemical analyses do not always match the twelve principles of Green Chemistry, and they are often expensive and employ toxic and environmentally unfriendly solvents in large quantities. These solvents can generate hazardous and toxic waste while consuming large volumes of resources. Therefore, there is a need to develop reliable techniques that would not only meet the requirements of Green Analytical Chemistry, but they could also complement and sometimes provide an alternative to conventional classical analytical methods. These alternatives may be found in bioassays. Commercially available certified bioassays often come in the form of ready-to-use toxkits, and they are easy to use and relatively inexpensive in comparison with certain conventional analytical methods. The aim of this study is to provide evidence that bioassays can be a complementary alternative to classical methods of analysis and can fulfil Green Analytical Chemistry criteria. The test organisms discussed in this work include single-celled organisms, such as cell lines, fungi (yeast), and bacteria, and multicellular organisms, such as invertebrate and vertebrate animals and plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microplate Bioassay for Determining Substrate Selectivity of "Candida rugosa" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-zhen; Fang, Bai-shan

    2012-01-01

    Substrate selectivity of "Candida rugosa" lipase was tested using "p"-nitrophenyl esters of increasing chain length (C[subscript 1], C[subscript 7], C[subscript 15]) using the high-throughput screening method. A fast and easy 96-well microplate bioassay was developed to help students learn and practice biotechnological specificity screen. The…

  9. Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of nutritional potentials of almond fruit waste as an alternative feedstuff for livestock. ... AFW using day-old cockerels and considering performance parameters showed that treated AFW improved feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio even better ...

  10. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  11. Soil bioassays as tools for sludge compost quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Sola, Laura; Ramirez, Wilson; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Composting is a waste management technology that is becoming more widespread as a response to the increasing production of sewage sludge and the pressure for its reuse in soil. In this study, different bioassays (plant germination, earthworm survival, biomass and reproduction, and collembolan survival and reproduction) were assessed for their usefulness in the compost quality assessment. Compost samples, from two different composting plants, were taken along the composting process, which were characterized and submitted to bioassays (plant germination and collembolan and earthworm performance). Results from our study indicate that the noxious effects of some of the compost samples observed in bioassays are related to the low organic matter stability of composts and the enhanced release of decomposition endproducts, with the exception of earthworms, which are favored. Plant germination and collembolan reproduction inhibition was generally associated with uncomposted sludge, while earthworm total biomass and reproduction were enhanced by these materials. On the other hand, earthworm and collembolan survival were unaffected by the degree of composting of the wastes. However, this pattern was clear in one of the composting procedures assessed, but less in the other, where the release of decomposition endproducts was lower due to its higher stability, indicating the sensitivity and usefulness of bioassays for the quality assessment of composts.

  12. US Army Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry: The RBD software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ward, R.C.; Maddox, L.B.

    1993-01-01

    The RBD (Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry) software package was developed for the U. S. Army Material Command, Arlington, Virginia, to demonstrate compliance with the radiation protection guidance 10 CFR Part 20 (ref. 1). Designed to be run interactively on an IBM-compatible personal computer, RBD consists of a data base module to manage bioassay data and a computational module that incorporates algorithms for estimating radionuclide intake from either acute or chronic exposures based on measurement of the worker's rate of excretion of the radionuclide or the retained activity in the body. In estimating the intake,RBD uses a separate file for each radionuclide containing parametric representations of the retention and excretion functions. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent. For a given nuclide, if measurements exist for more than one type of assay, an auxiliary module, REPORT, estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. Bioassay data and computed results (estimates of intake and committed dose equivalent) are stored in separate data bases, and the bioassay measurements used to compute a given result can be identified. The REPORT module creates a file containing committed effective dose equivalent for each individual that can be combined with the individual's external exposure

  13. Soil plate bioassay: an effective method to determine ecotoxicological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda, R; Roca-Pérez, L; Marimón, L

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metals have become one of the most serious anthropogenic stressors for plants and other living organisms. Having efficient and feasible bioassays available to assess the ecotoxicological risks deriving from soil pollution is necessary. This work determines pollution by Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in two soils used for growing rice from the Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Spain). Both were submitted to a different degree of anthropic activity, and their ecotoxicological risk was assessed by four ecotoxicity tests to compare their effectiveness: Microtox test, Zucconi test, pot bioassay (PB) and soil plate bioassay (SPB). The sensitivity of three plant species (barley, cress and lettuce) was also assessed. The results reveal a different degree of effectiveness and level of inhibition in the target organisms' growth depending on the test applied, to such an extent that the one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences only for the plate bioassay results, with considerable inhibition of root and shoot elongation in seedlings. Of the three plant species selected, lettuce was the most sensitive species to toxic effects, followed by cress and barley. Finally, the results also indicate that the SPB is an efficient, simple and economic alternative to other ecotoxicological assays to assess toxicity risks deriving from soil pollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. US Army Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry: The RBD software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K. F.; Ward, R. C.; Maddox, L. B.

    1993-01-01

    The RBD (Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry) software package was developed for the U. S. Army Material Command, Arlington, Virginia, to demonstrate compliance with the radiation protection guidance 10 CFR Part 20 (ref. 1). Designed to be run interactively on an IBM-compatible personal computer, RBD consists of a data base module to manage bioassay data and a computational module that incorporates algorithms for estimating radionuclide intake from either acute or chronic exposures based on measurement of the worker's rate of excretion of the radionuclide or the retained activity in the body. In estimating the intake,RBD uses a separate file for each radionuclide containing parametric representations of the retention and excretion functions. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent. For a given nuclide, if measurements exist for more than one type of assay, an auxiliary module, REPORT, estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. Bioassay data and computed results (estimates of intake and committed dose equivalent) are stored in separate data bases, and the bioassay measurements used to compute a given result can be identified. The REPORT module creates a file containing committed effective dose equivalent for each individual that can be combined with the individual's external exposure.

  15. Initial sample extract stock concentration affects in vitro bioassay-based toxicological risk characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montano, M.; Loffmann, L.; Murk, A.J.; Gutleb, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bioassays have become an alternative for sediment risk profiling, including potential compliance with sediment quality criteria (SQC). In vitro functional bioassays have evolved through standardization and validation towards a confident toxicological hazard estimate of sediments. Sample

  16. Strategies for Transferring Mixtures of Organic Contaminants from Aquatic Environments into Bioassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Annika; Mayer, Philipp; Schäfer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    into bioassays, while conserving (or re-establishing) their chemical composition at adjustable levels for concentration-effect assessment. This article outlines various strategies for quantifiable transfer from environmental samples including water, sediment, and biota into bioassays using total extraction...

  17. Bioassay for aquatic ecosystems review and classification; Rassegna dei principali test di ecotossicologia acquatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanci, Antonella; Rosa, Silvia [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    Bioassay play a crucial role in assessing the actual or potential impacts of anthropogenic agents on the natural environment. In this technical report, literature on bioassays for aquatic ecosystems has been reviewed and classified. Problems associated with the choice and application of bioassays are discussed.

  18. Bioassay-based risk assessment of hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, K.C.; Brown, K.W.; He, L.Y. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Microbial bioassays have been used to assess the genotoxic hazard at more than 30 different hazardous waste sites. Environmental samples were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol, and the resulting residue tested using GC/MS analysis as well as the Salmonella Microsomal and E. coli Prophage Induction assays. At a munitions wastewater contaminated site, there was no correlation between mutagenicity in bacteria, and the risk as estimated from chemical analysis data of trinitrotoluene. Samples 202 and 204 from a coal gasification site contained 72 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg benzo(a)pyrene, whereas the mutagenic responses of these samples were 231 net revertants/mg and 902 revertants/mg, respectively. The data suggest that microbial bioassays provide a valuable tool for monitoring the interactions of the components of a complex mixture.

  19. The electronic Trauma Health Record: design and usability of a novel tablet-based tool for trauma care and injury surveillance in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Eiman; Schuurman, Nadine; Nicol, Andrew J; Matzopoulos, Richard; Cinnamon, Jonathan; Taulu, Tracey; Ricker, Britta; Garbutt Brown, David Ross; Navsaria, Pradeep; Hameed, S Morad

    2014-01-01

    Ninety percent of global trauma deaths occur in under-resourced or remote environments, with little or no capacity for injury surveillance. We hypothesized that emerging electronic and web-based technologies could enable design of a tablet-based application, the electronic Trauma Health Record (eTHR), used by front-line clinicians to inform trauma care and acquire injury surveillance data for injury control and health policy development. The study was conducted in 3 phases: 1. Design of an electronic application capable of supporting clinical care and injury surveillance; 2. Preliminary feasibility testing of eTHR in a low-resource, high-volume trauma center; and 3. Qualitative usability testing with 22 trauma clinicians from a spectrum of high- and low-resource and urban and remote settings including Vancouver General Hospital, Whitehorse General Hospital, British Columbia Mobile Medical Unit, and Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The eTHR was designed with 3 key sections (admission note, operative note, discharge summary), and 3 key capabilities (clinical checklist creation, injury severity scoring, wireless data transfer to electronic registries). Clinician-driven registry data collection proved to be feasible, with some limitations, in a busy South African trauma center. In pilot testing at a level I trauma center in Cape Town, use of eTHR as a clinical tool allowed for creation of a real-time, self-populating trauma database. Usability assessments with traumatologists in various settings revealed the need for unique eTHR adaptations according to environments of intended use. In all settings, eTHR was found to be user-friendly and have ready appeal for frontline clinicians. The eTHR has potential to be used as an electronic medical record, guiding clinical care while providing data for injury surveillance, without significantly hindering hospital workflow in various health-care settings. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published

  20. Application and Interpretation of Bioassay and Biomonitoring: A Planning Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-13

    earthworm ( Eisenia foetida ) bioassay should be conducted on the air- dried dredged material or sediment to allow for the evaluation of the effects of...Methodology Earthworms, Eisenia foetida , were placed in a reduced; highly contaminated, sediment from a freshwater harbor as a screening test prior to the...earthworm, Eisen!a foetida . The most consequential environmental effects of persistent contaminants are expected to be found at the level of the soil

  1. Novel bioassay using Bacillus megaterium to detect tetracycline in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumini, Melisa; Nagel, Orlando G; Molina, Pilar; Althaus, Rafael L

    2016-01-01

    Tetracyclines are used for the prevention and control of dairy cattle diseases. Residues of these drugs can be excreted into milk. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a microbiological method using Bacillus megaterium to detect tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and tetracycline) in milk. In order to approximate the limits of detection of the bioassay to the Maximum Residue Limit (100μg/l) for milk tetracycline, different concentrations of chloramphenicol (0, 1000, 1500 and 2000μg/l) were tested. The detection limits calculated were similar to the Maximum Residue Limits when a bioassay using B. megaterium ATCC 9885 spores (2.8×10(8)spores/ml) and chloramphenicol (2000μg/l) was utilized. This bioassay detects 105μg/l of chlortetracycline, 100μg/l of oxytetracycline and 134μg/l of tetracycline in 5h. Therefore, this method is suitable to be incorporated into a microbiological multi-residue system for the identification of tetracyclines in milk. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay for detection of carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T H

    2001-01-01

    The Tradescantia-Micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay is one of the tests used in the International Program on Plant bioassays (IPPB) under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Using chromosome damage as the indicator of the carcinogenic properties of environmental agents, the Trad-MCN bioassay is a quick and efficient tool for screening carcinogens in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. Test results can be obtained within 24-48 hr after the exposure either on site or in the laboratory. The international standard protocol of this test was published in 1994 and a list of test results of carcinogens and clastogens compiled from publications in the last 23 years will be presented. Under the IPPB/UNEP, more than 40 institutes including public health, medical and cancer research in the major countries of the world are carrying on the monitoring task on genotoxicity of polluted air, water and soil. At the same time, the Trad-MCN can be used in a global scale to detect carcinogens as a preventive measure of cancer.

  3. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  4. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  5. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiki Mohammad Shohel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III or Cd (II whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II and Zn (II were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products.

  6. Interpretation of bioassay data from nuclear fuel fabrication workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D.; Xavier, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, workers are exposed to different compounds of enriched uranium. Although in this kind of facility the main route of intake is inhalation, ingestion may occur in some situations. The interpretation of the bioassay data is very complex, since it is necessary taking into account all the different parameters, which is a big challenge. Due to the high cost of the individual monitoring programme for internal dose assessment in the routine monitoring programmes, usually only one type of measurement is assigned. In complex situations like the one described in this paper, where several parameters can compromise the accuracy of the bioassay interpretation it is need to have a combination of techniques to evaluate the internal dose. According to ICRP 78 (1997), the general order of preference in terms of accuracy of interpretation is: body activity measurement, excreta analysis and personal air sampling. Results of monitoring of working environment may provide information that assists in interpretation on particle size, chemical form and solubility, time of intake. A group of seventeen workers from controlled area of the fuel fabrication facility was selected to evaluate the internal dose using all different available techniques during a certain period. The workers were monitored for determination of uranium content in the daily urinary and faecal excretion (collected over a period of 3 consecutive days), chest counting and personal air sampling. The results have shown that at least two types of sensitivity techniques must be used, since there are some sources of uncertainties on the bioassay interpretation, like mixture of uranium compounds intake and different routes of intake. The combination of urine and faeces analysis has shown to be the more appropriate methodology for assessing internal dose in this situation. (author)

  7. Restructuring the syllabus for MD Pharmacology: Retrospection of bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Mulkalwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Career prospects in Pharmacology are witnessing a sea change due to fast and unanticipated development in the field of clinical research. Numerous openings exist now in academia, pharmaceutical industry, Clinical Research Organizations (CRO or as regulatory consultants, experimental pharmacologists, etc. In short, there are various options to choose from, depending on one′s interest. It′s high time we ponder now over the training programme for post-graduate students in Pharmacology. It needs to be revised keeping in mind the job prospects & uniqueness of the MD Pharmacology degree. Aim: To take suggestions of experienced pharmacologists on the present syllabus for MD Pharmacology and their opinion on continuation of Bioassay experiment which is currently an important part of it . Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was given to 30 experienced pharmacologists to seek their opinion on MD Pharmacology syllabus & continuation of Bioassay as a part of MD practical. Results: Out of 30 participants, 29 (96.6% did not use their knowledge of Bioassay during their 10 years of post MD career, whether in pharmaceutical industry or in academics. Only 5 of them (16.6% feel that experiment on bioassay should be continued in the current state. 76.7% of them wish it to be modified to a Dose Response Curve ( DRC . 6.71% feel that it should be totally scrapped. All the participants feel the need of revising current MD Pharmacology syllabus. Current syllabus is inclined more towards preparing good academicians but it lacks the proper training for creating good clinical research professionals. Medical writing, writing necessary documents for clinical trials including regulatory documents, writing an article for medical journals, marketing communication, product monograph and patient information of a clinical trial could be incorporated. They should be aware of the regulatory requirements for conducting studies on investigational drugs

  8. Lanthanide-doped upconverting phosphors for bioassay and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huichen; Sun, Shiqi

    2012-10-01

    Lanthanide-doped fluorescent materials have gained increasing attention in recent years due to their unique luminescence properties which have led to their use in wide-ranging fields including those of biological applications. Aside from being used as agents for in vivo imaging, lanthanide-doped fluorescent materials also present many advantages for use in bioassays and therapy. In this review, we summarize the applications of lanthanide-doped up-converting phosphors (UCPs) in protein and gene detection, as well as in photodynamic and gene therapy in recent years, and outline their future potential in biological applications. The current report could serve as a reference for researchers in relevant fields.

  9. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  10. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  11. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  12. Herbicide impact on Hormosira banksii gametes measured by fluorescence and germination bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, Cliff R. [Institute for Water and Environmental Resource Management, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, Westbourne Street, Gore Hill, 2065 NSW (Australia); Gunthorpe, Leanne [Primary Industries Research Victoria (PIRVic), VIC (Australia); Ralph, Peter J. [Institute for Water and Environmental Resource Management, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, Westbourne Street, Gore Hill, 2065 NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: peter.ralph@uts.edu.au

    2006-03-15

    The innovative bioassay described here involves chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements of gametes from the macroalgae, Hormosira banksii, where gametes (eggs) were exposed to Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil. Response was assessed as percent inhibition from control of effective quantum yield ({delta}F/Fm') of photosystem II, herein referred to as % PSII Inhibition. This was measured with the dual-channelled pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer, ToxY-PAM. The fluorescence bioassay was run simultaneously with an established H. banksii germination bioassay to compare sensitivity, precision, and time-to-result. The fluorescence bioassay gave highly sensitive results evidenced by EC{sub 5}s (% PSII Inhibition) for Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil being three, four and three orders of magnitude (respectively) lower than EC{sub 5}s generated from the germination bioassays. Precision of the fluorescence bioassay was demonstrated with low coefficient of variations (<30%) for all three toxicants. With regard to time, the fluorescence bioassay gave results within 6 h, as opposed to more than 50 h for the germination bioassay. - Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements form the basis of a macroalgal bioassay with many advantages over germination-based methods.

  13. Herbicide impact on Hormosira banksii gametes measured by fluorescence and germination bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seery, Cliff R.; Gunthorpe, Leanne; Ralph, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    The innovative bioassay described here involves chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements of gametes from the macroalgae, Hormosira banksii, where gametes (eggs) were exposed to Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil. Response was assessed as percent inhibition from control of effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm') of photosystem II, herein referred to as % PSII Inhibition. This was measured with the dual-channelled pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer, ToxY-PAM. The fluorescence bioassay was run simultaneously with an established H. banksii germination bioassay to compare sensitivity, precision, and time-to-result. The fluorescence bioassay gave highly sensitive results evidenced by EC 5 s (% PSII Inhibition) for Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil being three, four and three orders of magnitude (respectively) lower than EC 5 s generated from the germination bioassays. Precision of the fluorescence bioassay was demonstrated with low coefficient of variations (<30%) for all three toxicants. With regard to time, the fluorescence bioassay gave results within 6 h, as opposed to more than 50 h for the germination bioassay. - Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements form the basis of a macroalgal bioassay with many advantages over germination-based methods

  14. Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk

    2009-01-15

    Numerous reports have indicated that hydrophobic organic compound bioaccessibility in sediment and soil can be determined by extraction using aqueous hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solutions. This study establishes the compatibility of HPCD with Selenastrum capricornutum and assesses whether its presence influences the toxicity of reference toxicants. Algal growth inhibition (72 h) showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference at HPCD concentrations up to and including 20 mM. HPCD presence did not influence the toxicity of the inorganic reference toxicant (ZnSO{sub 4}), with IC50 values of 0.82 {mu}M and 0.85 {mu}M, in the presence and absence of HPCD (20 mM), respectively. However, HPCD presence (20 mM) reduced the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicides diuron and isoproturon. These reductions were attributed to inclusion complex formation between the toxicants and the HPCD cavity. Liberation of complexed toxicants, by sample manipulation prior to toxicity assessment, is proposed to provide a sensitive, high throughput, bioassay that reflects compound bioaccessibility. - Compatibility of the biomimetic HPCD extraction method with algal cell growth inhibition bioassays to assess toxicity of reference toxicants and environmental relevant herbicides.

  15. Progress in herbicide determination with the thylakoid bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapmann, S; Etxebarria, N; Schnabl, H; Grobecker, K H

    1998-01-01

    Chloroplast thylakoids are used as biological units to determine herbicides in different kinds of water samples as well as in aqueous extracts of compost, soil or food samples. The thylakoid bioassay shows clearly inhibition of fluorescence yield in the presence of photosystem II specific herbicides. Due to this method the ecotoxicological effect of samples with unknown pollutants can be tested fast and cost effective. It has been proven that all photosynthetic active compounds are recorded at the same time because only additive interactions occur. Therefore, the contamination level can be expressed as cumulative parameter for photosystem II active substances. Application was improved clearly by the addition of the radical scavenger sodium ascorbate to the isolation media and by a higher concentration of the measuring medium. A new data evaluation method is described yielding in a lower detection limit of 0.4 microg diuron/1. The guidelines for the quality of water for human consumption with an allowable concentration of pesticides in groups is 0,5 microg/1 and can be controlled with the thylakoid bioassay without performing any preconcentration steps.

  16. SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    3] Recently, the emergence of the novel 2009 influenza A ( H1N1 ) virus and the SARS coronavirus have demonstrated how rapidly pathogens can spread...standards in both minimum data sets for disease surveillance and routine diagnosis and care. Analysis & Visualization. As previously discussed, the...g002 SAGES Electronic Disease Surveillance PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 3 May 2011 | Volume 6 | Issue 5 | e19750 for pandemic influenza as well as

  17. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  18. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  19. A Bioassay for Determining Resistance Levels in Tarnished Plant Bug Populations to Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory bioassay was developed and used to test field populations of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), for resistance development to the neonicitinoid insecticides imidacloprid (Trimax®) and thiamethoxam (Centric®). The bioassay determined LC50 values by feeding...

  20. Profiling animal toxicants by automatically mining public bioassay data: a big data approach for computational toxicology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available In vitro bioassays have been developed and are currently being evaluated as potential alternatives to traditional animal toxicity models. Already, the progress of high throughput screening techniques has resulted in an enormous amount of publicly available bioassay data having been generated for a large collection of compounds. When a compound is tested using a collection of various bioassays, all the testing results can be considered as providing a unique bio-profile for this compound, which records the responses induced when the compound interacts with different cellular systems or biological targets. Profiling compounds of environmental or pharmaceutical interest using useful toxicity bioassay data is a promising method to study complex animal toxicity. In this study, we developed an automatic virtual profiling tool to evaluate potential animal toxicants. First, we automatically acquired all PubChem bioassay data for a set of 4,841 compounds with publicly available rat acute toxicity results. Next, we developed a scoring system to evaluate the relevance between these extracted bioassays and animal acute toxicity. Finally, the top ranked bioassays were selected to profile the compounds of interest. The resulting response profiles proved to be useful to prioritize untested compounds for their animal toxicity potentials and form a potential in vitro toxicity testing panel. The protocol developed in this study could be combined with structure-activity approaches and used to explore additional publicly available bioassay datasets for modeling a broader range of animal toxicities.

  1. Sample preparation for combined chemical analysis and bioassay application in water quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, A.; Schriks, M.; Brand, W; Bäuerlein, P.S.; van der Kooi, M.M.E.; van Doorn, R.H.; Emke, E.; Reus, A.; van der Linden, S.; de Voogt, P.; Heringa, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of in vitro bioassays and chemical screening can provide a powerful toolbox to determine biologically relevant compounds in water extracts. In this study, a sample preparation method is evaluated for the suitability for both chemical analysis and in vitro bioassays. A set of 39

  2. Combined effects of copper and food on the midge Chironomus riparius in whole sediment bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.M.; Paumen, M.L.; Koelmans, A.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Effects observed in whole-sediment bioassays must be seen as the joint effect of all sediment characteristics. In whole-sediment bioassays. however. adverse effects oil test organisms are usually attributed to the presence of contaminants and effects of food are often ignored. The aim of this study

  3. A partnership model for implementing electronic health records in resource-limited primary care settings: experiences from two nurse-managed health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Patricia; White, Mary P; Hamilton, Andrew; Pohl, Joanne M; Tanner, Clare; Onifade, Tiffiani J; Zheng, Kai

    2011-01-01

    To present a partnership-based and community-oriented approach designed to ease provider anxiety and facilitate the implementation of electronic health records (EHR) in resource-limited primary care settings. The approach, referred to as partnership model, was developed and iteratively refined through the research team's previous work on implementing health information technology (HIT) in over 30 safety net practices. This paper uses two case studies to illustrate how the model was applied to help two nurse-managed health centers (NMHC), a particularly vulnerable primary care setting, implement EHR and get prepared to meet the meaningful use criteria. The strong focus of the model on continuous quality improvement led to eventual implementation success at both sites, despite difficulties encountered during the initial stages of the project. There has been a lack of research, particularly in resource-limited primary care settings, on strategies for abating provider anxiety and preparing them to manage complex changes associated with EHR uptake. The partnership model described in this paper may provide useful insights into the work shepherded by HIT regional extension centers dedicated to supporting resource-limited communities disproportionally affected by EHR adoption barriers. NMHC, similar to other primary care settings, are often poorly resourced, understaffed, and lack the necessary expertise to deploy EHR and integrate its use into their day-to-day practice. This study demonstrates that implementation of EHR, a prerequisite to meaningful use, can be successfully achieved in this setting, and partnership efforts extending far beyond the initial software deployment stage may be the key.

  4. Evaluation of eugenol toxicity in bioassays with test-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Santos Gueretz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fish in both natural and farming conditions are exposed to stress of capture, handling, transport or treatment that provoke low zootechnical performance. Anesthetics like eugenol obtained from clove oil have been used strategically not only in freshwater but also in marine and estuarine fish in order to reduce the stress. Apart from the eugenol indication as anesthetic and its low toxicity for animals, its environment action is not clear. Bioassays or ecotoxicity tests with indicator organisms are used to evaluate the mode of action of the pollutants in the environment. The aim of this study was to test the acute toxicity of eugenol using the microcrustacean Daphnia magna and the bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri, and also its chronic toxicity for the algae Desmodesmus subspicatus. Eugenol in the concentrations of 50, 75 and 100mg L-1 were toxic to tested indicator organisms.

  5. Toxicity assessment using different bioassays and microbial biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sedky H A; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Hussein, Mohamed A M; Abskharon, Romany; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity assessment of water streams, wastewater, and contaminated sediments, is a very important part of environmental pollution monitoring. Evaluation of biological effects using a rapid, sensitive and cost effective method can indicate specific information on ecotoxicity assessment. Recently, different biological assays for toxicity assessment based on higher and lower organisms such as fish, invertebrates, plants and algal cells, and microbial bioassays have been used. This review focuses on microbial biosensors as an analytical device for environmental, food, and biomedical applications. Different techniques which are commonly used in microbial biosensing include amperometry, potentiometry, conductometry, voltammetry, microbial fuel cells, fluorescence, bioluminescence, and colorimetry. Examples of the use of different microbial biosensors in assessing a variety of environments are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioassay techniques for 55Fe in urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cregan, S.P.; Leon, J.W.; Linauskas, S.H.

    1993-11-01

    Solvent extraction, ion chromatography and several rapid screening methods were developed and evaluated for 55 Fe bioassay applications. Isopropyl ether and TNOA column extractions had radiochemical recoveries exceeding 90%. These were very reproducible with a coefficient of variation less than 5%. Screening techniques investigated included direct counting of ashed urine solids, and Fe(OH) 3 . precipitated from urine. The sensitivities (2-50 Bq/d urine) of the screening methods were usually limited by the effective urine volume that could be counted in a liquid scintillation counter. The reference isopropyl ether and chromatography methods could easily achieve sensitivities well below the 1 Bq/d urine output target. (author). 49 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Comprehensive integration of homogeneous bioassays via centrifugo-pneumatic cascading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Neus; Gorkin, Robert; Linares, Ana V; Burger, Robert; Ducrée, Jens

    2013-02-21

    This work for the first time presents the full integration and automation concept for a range of bioassays leveraged by cascading a centrifugo-pneumatic valving scheme to sequentially move several liquids through shared channel segments for multi-step sample preparation into the detection zone. This novel centrifugo-pneumatic liquid handling significantly simplifies system manufacture by obviating the need for complex surface functionalization procedures or hybrid material integration, as it is common in conventional valving methods such as capillary burst valves or sacrificial valves. Based on the centrifugo-pneumatic valving scheme, this work presents a toolkit of operational elements implementing liquid loading/transfer, metering, mixing and sedimentation in a microstructured polymer disc. As a proof of concept for the broad class of homogeneous bioassays, the full integration and automation of a colorimetric nitrate/nitrite test for the detection of clinically relevant nitric oxide (NO) in whole blood is implemented. First, 40 μL of plasma is extracted from a 100 μL sample of human blood, incubated for one hour with the enzymatic mixture (60 μL), and finally reacted with 100 μL of colorimetric (Greiss) reagents. Following just a single loading phase at the beginning of the process, all of these steps are automated through the centrifugo-pneumatic cascade with a high level of flow control and synchronization. Our system shows good correlation with controls up to 50 μM of nitrate, which adequately covers the healthy human range (4 to 45.3 μM).

  8. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  9. Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-Francois; Martinez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox) and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Highlights: → Comparison of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays on contaminated soils, using ecoscores. → Complementarity of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays for the evaluation of environmental hazards. → Proposal for a restricted battery of 5 most sensitive tests. → Use of this restricted battery for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils give similar results in terms of toxicity but are complementary for the evaluation of environmental hazards by ecoscores.

  10. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  11. Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Yi; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Yan-ling; Shan, Li-mei; Li, Bao-cai; Fang, Fang; Jin, Cheng; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new bioassay was optimized to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. ► Characterizing total toxicity is its unique advantage over chemical analysis methods. ► The application of this bioassay promotes the safe use of Aconitum herbs in clinic. - Abstract: Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs.

  12. Review of literature on bioassay methods for estimating radionuclides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, M.V.R.; Surya Narayana, D.S.; Jeevanram, R.K.; Sundarajan, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bioassay methods of certain important radionuclides encountered in the nuclear fuel cycle operations, viz., thorium, uranium, sup(239)Pu, sup(241)Am, sup(90)Sr, sup(99)Tc, sup(106)Ru, sup(137)Cs are reviewed, with special emphasis on urinalysis. Since the preconcentration is an important prerequisite for bioassay, various preconcentration methods are also discussed. Brief account of various instruments both nuclear and analytical used in the bioassay programme is included. The sensitivities of the methods cited in the literature vis-a-vis the derived recording levels indicated in ICRP recommendations are compared. Literature surveyed up to 1990 is tabulated. (author). 96 refs., 1 fig ., 3 tabs

  13. 圖書館事業專欄/Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University/Nerisa Kamar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerisa Kamar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learning. These strategies include use of posters, notices, brochures, telephone calls, Current Awareness Services (CAS, workshops and seminars, and decentralization of services, among others. It concludes with a discussion of cost effective use of these strategies in research and teaching.

    頁次:89-93

  14. Methotrexate intercalated layered double hydroxides with the mediation of surfactants: Mechanism exploration and bioassay study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Chao-Fan; Tian, De-Ying; Li, Shu-Ping, E-mail: lishuping@njnu.edu.cn; Li, Xiao-Dong

    2015-12-01

    Methotrexatum intercalated layered double hydroxides (MTX/LDHs) hybrids were synthesized by the co-precipitation method and three kinds of nonionic surfactants with different hydrocarbon chain lengths were used. The resulting hybrids were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD and FTIR investigations manifest the successful intercalation of MTX anions into the interlayer of LDHs. TEM graphs indicate that the morphology of the hybrids changes with the variation of the chain length of the surfactants, i.e., the particles synthesized using polyethylene glycol (PEG-7) present regular disc morphology with good monodispersity, while samples with the mediation of alkyl polyglycoside (APG-14) are heavily aggregated and samples with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-10) exhibit irregular branches. Furthermore, the release and bioassay experiments show that monodisperse MTX/LDHs present good controlled-release and are more efficient in the suppression of the tumor cells. - Highlights: • Surfactants could be used to modify the dispersing state of MTX/LDHs hybrids. • Surfactants have great effect on the morphology of MTX/LDHs hybrids. • MTX/LDHs with good monodisperse degree are more efficient in the suppression of the tumor cells.

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  16. Development and characteristics of an adhesion bioassay for ectocarpoid algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evariste, Emmanuelle; Gachon, Claire M M; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

    2012-01-01

    Species of filamentous brown algae in the family Ectocarpaceae are significant members of fouling communities. However, there are few systematic studies on the influence of surface physico-chemical properties on their adhesion. In the present paper the development of a novel, laboratory-based adhesion bioassay for ectocarpoid algae, at an appropriate scale for the screening of sets of experimental samples in well-replicated and controlled experiments is described. The assays are based on the colonization of surfaces from a starting inoculum consisting of multicellular filaments obtained by blending the cultured alga Ectocarpus crouaniorum. The adhesion strength of the biomass after 14 days growth was assessed by applying a hydrodynamic shear stress. Results from adhesion tests on a set of standard surfaces showed that E. crouaniorum adhered more weakly to the amphiphilic Intersleek® 900 than to the more hydrophobic Intersleek® 700 and Silastic® T2 coatings. Adhesion to hydrophilic glass was also weak. Similar results were obtained for other cultivated species of Ectocarpus but differed from those obtained with the related ectocarpoid species Hincksia secunda. The response of the ectocarpoid algae to the surfaces was also compared to that for the green alga, Ulva.

  17. Evaluation of biotoxicity of textile dyes using two bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Hassan; El-Rahim, Wafaa M Abd; Khalafallah, M

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of eight textile dyes was evaluated using two bioassays namely: Ames test and seed germination test. The Ames test is widely used for the evaluation of hazardous mutagenic effect of different chemicals, as a short-term screening test for environmental impact assessment. The eight-textile dyes and Eithidium bromide dye (as positive control) were tested with five "his" Salmonella typhimurium strains: TA 100; TA 98; TA 1535; TA 1537; TA 1538. Using six concentrations of each dye (2.5 microg/ml, 4.5 microg/ml, 9 microg/ml, 13.5 microg/ml, 18 microg/ml, and 22.5 microg/ml) revealed that, most of the dyes were mutagenic for the test strains used in this study. The high concentrations of dye eliminated microbial colonies due to the high frequency of mutation causing lethal effect on the cells. In this work the phytotoxicity of different soluble textile dyes was estimated by measuring the relative changes in seed germination of four plants: clover, wheat, tomato and lettuce. The changes in shooting percentages and root length as affected by dye were also measured. Seed germination percent and shoot growth as well as root length were recorded after 6 days of exposure to different concentrations of textile dyes in irrigation water. The results show that high concentrations of dyes were more toxic to seed germination as compared with the lower concentrations. However, the low concentrations of the tested dyes adversely affected the shooting percent significantly.

  18. Bioassay-based risk assessment of complex mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, K.C.; Safe, S.H. [Texas A& M Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Randerath, K.; Randerath, E. [College Station and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    To compare the standard chemical-based risk assessment with in vitro genotoxicity assays, two complex environmental mixtures from a wood preserving site were analyzed in the Salmonella/microsome and E. coli prophage induction assays. Using GC/MS, sample 003 was found to contain relatively low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) and elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), while sample 005 had higher levels of PNAs and relatively low levels of PCDDs. The complex mixtures were sequentially extracted with methylene chloride and methanol for analysis in Salmonella, or extracted with 1:1 hexane: acetone mixture for analysis in the prophage induction assay. At a dose of 1.0 mg/plate in Salmonella strain TA98 with metabolic activation, the methanol extract of sample 003 induced 197 net revertants, while sample 005 induced 436 net revertants. In the prophage induction assay, with activation, the hexane:acetone extract of sample 003 induced a fold increase that was slightly lower than that observed with sample 005. The estimated incremental carcinogenic risk for dermal adsorption and ingestion was 1.5E-3 for sample 003, while for sample 005 the estimated risk was 1.5E-2. Thus, the sample which induced the maximum response in both bioassays also had the highest estimated cancer risk. However, the frequency of PNA-DNA adducts in both skin and liver tissues was appreciably higher with sample 005 than with sample 003.

  19. Analyzing bioassay data using Bayesian methods-A primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Schillaci, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The classical statistics approach used in health physics for the interpretation of measurements is deficient in that it does not allow for the consideration of needle in a haystack effects, where events that are rare in a population are being detected. In fact, this is often the case in health physics measurements, and the false positive fraction is often very large using the prescriptions of classical statistics. Bayesian statistics provides an objective methodology to ensure acceptably small false positive fractions. The authors present the basic methodology and a heuristic discussion. Examples are given using numerically generated and real bioassay data (Tritium). Various analytical models are used to fit the prior probability distribution, in order to test the sensitivity to choice of model. Parametric studies show that the normalized Bayesian decision level k α -L c /σ 0 , where σ 0 is the measurement uncertainty for zero true amount, is usually in the range from 3 to 5 depending on the true positive rate. Four times σ 0 rather than approximately two times σ 0 , as in classical statistics, would often seem a better choice for the decision level

  20. Luminescent Lanthanide Reporters for High-Sensitivity Novel Bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anstey, Mitchell R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Fruetel, Julia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Buckley, Heather L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Arnold, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Biological imaging and assay technologies rely on fluorescent organic dyes as reporters for a number of interesting targets and processes. However, limitations of organic dyes such as small Stokes shifts, spectral overlap of emission signals with native biological fluorescence background, and photobleaching have all inhibited the development of highly sensitive assays. To overcome the limitations of organic dyes for bioassays, we propose to develop lanthanide-based luminescent dyes and demonstrate them for molecular reporting applications. This relatively new family of dyes was selected for their attractive spectral and chemical properties. Luminescence is imparted by the lanthanide atom and allows for relatively simple chemical structures that can be tailored to the application. The photophysical properties offer unique features such as narrow and non-overlapping emission bands, long luminescent lifetimes, and long wavelength emission, which enable significant sensitivity improvements over organic dyes through spectral and temporal gating of the luminescent signal.Growth in this field has been hindered due to the necessary advanced synthetic chemistry techniques and access to experts in biological assay development. Our strategy for the development of a new lanthanide-based fluorescent reporter system is based on chelation of the lanthanide metal center using absorbing chromophores. Our first strategy involves "Click" chemistry to develop 3-fold symmetric chelators and the other involves use of a new class of tetrapyrrole ligands called corroles. This two-pronged approach is geared towards the optimization of chromophores to enhance light output.

  1. A rapid fecal bioassay method for Pu/Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Duong, T.; Leon, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Fecal radiobioassay is a sensitive tool to estimate intake of radionuclides, especially for insoluble or poorly absorbed actinides. To increase efficiency and reduce turnaround time, improvements were introduced in the sample digestion step of a fecal bioassay method to rapidly detect Pu and Am. The acid- and microwave-digestion of the spiked fecal samples (5-10 g) were effectively completed in 1 h. The turnaround time for the sample analysis was minimized to 6 h. The average recoveries for Pu and Am were 35% and 60% for artificial fecal samples, respectively. Much better recoveries for Pu and Am were obtained for natural fecal samples. Observed relative biases for Pu and Am were marginally in the range of -0.25 to +0.50. The relative precision values for both radionuclides were, however, within the performance index of 0.4. This rapid fecal method is a potential candidate for an acceptable quantitative radiobioassay and screening method for the suspected Pu/Am exposures. (author)

  2. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  3. Integration of laboratory bioassays into the risk-based corrective action process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.; Messina, F.; Clark, J.

    1995-01-01

    Recent data generated by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and others indicate that residual hydrocarbon may be bound/sequestered in soil such that it is unavailable for microbial degradation, and thus possibly not bioavailable to human/ecological receptors. A reduction in bioavailability would directly equate to reduced exposure and, therefore, potentially less-conservative risk-based cleanup soil goals. Laboratory bioassays which measure bioavailability/toxicity can be cost-effectively integrated into the risk-based corrective action process. However, in order to maximize the cost-effective application of bioassays several site-specific parameters should be addressed up front. This paper discusses (1) the evaluation of parameters impacting the application of bioassays to soils contaminated with metals and/or petroleum hydrocarbons and (2) the cost-effective integration of bioassays into a tiered ASTM type framework for risk-based corrective action

  4. Phototoxicity activity of Psoralea drupacea L. using Atremia salina bioassay system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani

    2011-07-01

    Conclusion: The result showed that P. drupacea methanolic extract and chloroform fraction have phototoxicity in A. salina bioassay system and their toxic effect is related to phototoxic constituents such as psoralen.

  5. Beoordeling van gereinigde grond. IV. Toepassing van bioassays met planten en regenwormen op referentiegronden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel CAM; Dirven-van Breemen EM; Kamerman JW

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of the project "Evaluation of decontaminated soil", the applicability of bioassays with earthworms and plants for the quality assessment of decontaminated soil is investigated. In order to establish a reference system for "normal" levels of metals in

  6. Water quality bioassay using selected protozoa. I. [Paramecium candatum; Amoeba proteus; Euglena gracilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The suitability of certain species of protozoa as indicators of water quality has been determined. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to standardize a bioassay procedure for water quality using either Paramecium caudatum, Amoeba proteus, or Euglena gracilis as the indicator organism. The bioassay, which consists of exposing the organisms to a known concentration of pollutant under laboratory conditions, followed by microscopic observation to establish the time of death, affords a reliable, convenient and inexpensive way to monitor for water quality.

  7. Development and validation of microbial bioassay for quantification of Levofloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant A. Dafale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple, sensitive, precise and cost-effective one-level agar diffusion (5+1 bioassay for estimation of potency and bioactivity of Levofloxacin in pharmaceutical preparation which has not yet been reported in any pharmacopoeia. Among 16 microbial strains, Bacillus pumilus ATCC-14884 was selected as the most significant strain against Levofloxacin. Bioassay was optimized by investigating several factors such as buffer pH, inoculums concentration and reference standard concentration. Identification of Levofloxacin in commercial sample Levoflox tablet was done by FTIR spectroscopy. Mean potency recovery value for Levofloxacin in Levoflox tablet was estimated as 100.90%. A validated bioassay method showed linearity (r2=0.988, precision (Interday RSD=1.05%, between analyst RSD=1.02% and accuracy (101.23%, RSD=0.72%. Bioassay was correlated with HPLC using same sample and estimated potencies were 100.90% and 99.37%, respectively. Results show that bioassay is a suitable method for estimation of potency and bioactivity of Levofloxacin pharmaceutical preparations. Keywords: Levofloxacin, Antibiotic resistance, Microbiological bioassay, HPLC, Pharmacopoeia

  8. A rapid bioassay for detecting saxitoxins using a Daphnia acute toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrao-Filho, Aloysio da S.; Soares, Maria Carolina S.; Freitas de Magalhaes, Valeria; Azevedo, Sandra M.F.O.

    2010-01-01

    Bioassays using Daphnia pulex and Moina micrura were designed to detect cyanobacterial neurotoxins in raw water samples. Phytoplankton and cyanotoxins from seston were analyzed during 15 months in a eutrophic reservoir. Effective time to immobilize 50% of the exposed individuals (ET 50 ) was adopted as the endpoint. Paralysis of swimming movements was observed between ∼0.5-3 h of exposure to lake water containing toxic cyanobacteria, followed by an almost complete recovery of the swimming activity within 24 h after being placed in control water. The same effects were observed in bioassays with a saxitoxin-producer strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii isolated from the reservoir. Regression analysis showed significant relationships between ET 50 vs. cell density, biomass and saxitoxins content, suggesting that the paralysis of Daphnia in lake water samples was caused by saxitoxins found in C. raciborskii. Daphnia bioassay was found to be a sensitive method for detecting fast-acting neurotoxins in natural samples, with important advantages over mouse bioassays. - A new Daphnia bioassay, as an alternative to the mouse bioassay, is able to detect effects of fast-acting, potent neurotoxins in raw water.

  9. Political Unrest and Educational Electronic Resource Usage in a Conflict Zone, Kashmir (Indian Administered Kashmir): Log Analysis as Politico Analytical Tool=Hindistan Tarafından Yönetilen Keşmir Anlaşmazlık Bölgesi’nde Siyasi Karışıklık ve Eğitimle İlgili Elektronik Kaynakların Kullanımı: Siyasi Analiz Aracı Olarak Log Analizleri

    OpenAIRE

    Sumeer Gul; Samrin Nabi; Samina Mushtaq; Tariq Ahmad Shah; Suhail Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Electronic resource usage has proved as one of the best decision making tools in the library setups. Electronic resource usage in relation to the political disturbance can act as one of the tools to highlight the impact of political disturbance on educational setups in general and the electronic resource usage in particular. The study takes a serious look in the electronic resource usage in Kashmir and the impact of unrest on it. The paper highlights a relational platform between educat...

  10. 78 FR 29132 - Environmental Management Resources, Inc.; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... May 22, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mario Steadman, Information Technology and Resources... waters, spiked water (toxicity bioassays), leachates, sediments, and tissues. 2. Develop logistical plans... entitled to confidential treatment. The information has been submitted to EPA under sections 3, 4, 6, and 7...

  11. Assessing arsenic bioavailability through the use of bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, E.; Nadimpalli, M.; Hull, M.; Schreiber, M. E.; Vikesland, P.

    2009-12-01

    Various methods have been used to characterize the bioavailability of a contaminant, including chemical extractions from soils, toxicity tests, bioaccumulation measurements, estimation from soil properties, in vitro/in vivo tests, and microbial biossays. Unfortunately, these tests are all unique (i.e. they measure bioavailability through different mechanisms) and it is difficult to compare measurements collected using one method to those collected from another. Additionally, there are fundamental aspects of bioavailability research that require further study. In particular, changes in bioavailability over time are not well understood, as well as what the geochemical controls are on changes in bioavailability. In addition, there are no studies aimed at the integration of bioavailability measurements and potential geochemical controls. This research project seeks to find a standard set of assays and sensors that can be used to assess arsenic bioavailability at any field site, as well as to use these tools and techniques to better understand changes in, and controls on, arsenic bioavailability. The bioassays to be utilized in this research are a bioluminescent E. coli assay and a Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) assay. Preliminary experiments to determine the suitability of the E. coli and C. fluminea assays have been completed. The E. coli assay can be utilized to analyze As(III) and As(V) with a linear standard curve between 5 and 200 ppb for As(III) and 100 ppb and 5 ppm for As(V); no bioluminescent response above background was elicited in the presence of Roxarsone, an organoarsenical. The C. fluminea assay is capable of bioaccumulating As(III), As(V), Roxarsone, and MSMA, with As(III) being the most readily accumulated, followed by As(V), Roxarsone and MSMA, respectively. Additional research will include assessing bioavailability of various arsenic species adsorbed to natural colloidal materials (i.e. clays, iron oxides, NOM) to the E. coli and C. fluminea assays

  12. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  13. Developing Enhanced Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability Models: Integrating External Bio-Assay Data in QSAR Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Kim, Marlene T.; Sedykh, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Experimental Blood–Brain Barrier (BBB) permeability models for drug molecules are expensive and time-consuming. As alternative methods, several traditional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models have been developed previously. In this study, we aimed to improve the predictivity of traditional QSAR BBB permeability models by employing relevant public bio-assay data in the modeling process. Methods We compiled a BBB permeability database consisting of 439 unique compounds from various resources. The database was split into a modeling set of 341 compounds and a validation set of 98 compounds. Consensus QSAR modeling workflow was employed on the modeling set to develop various QSAR models. A five-fold cross-validation approach was used to validate the developed models, and the resulting models were used to predict the external validation set compounds. Furthermore, we used previously published membrane transporter models to generate relevant transporter profiles for target compounds. The transporter profiles were used as additional biological descriptors to develop hybrid QSAR BBB models. Results The consensus QSAR models have R2=0.638 for fivefold cross-validation and R2=0.504 for external validation. The consensus model developed by pooling chemical and transporter descriptors showed better predictivity (R2=0.646 for five-fold cross-validation and R2=0.526 for external validation). Moreover, several external bio-assays that correlate with BBB permeability were identified using our automatic profiling tool. Conclusions The BBB permeability models developed in this study can be useful for early evaluation of new compounds (e.g., new drug candidates). The combination of chemical and biological descriptors shows a promising direction to improve the current traditional QSAR models. PMID:25862462

  14. Development by flow cytometry of bioassays based on chlorella for environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrescu C-M,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In ecotoxicological assessments, bioassays (ecotoxicity tests or biotests are one of the main tools, defined as methods which use living cells, tissues, organism or communities to assess exposure-related effects of chemicals. The increasing complexity of environmental degradation requires an increase in the capacity of scientific approach in monitoring and notification as early as possible risks. Our own objective concerns the detection of aquatic environment pollution in Romania and particularly in the Danube basin. For assessing aquatic environment pollution degree or for assessing cytotoxicity or ecotoxicity of pollutants (heavy metals, nanoparticles, pesticides, etc. we developed news experimental bioassays based on the use of viability and apoptosis biomarkers of Chlorella cells by flow cytometry. Our proposed bioassays could be rapid and very sensitive tests for in laboratory aquatic risk assessment and biomonitoring.

  15. Experimental and computational characterization of biological liquid crystals: a review of single-molecule bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Kilho; Yang, Jaemoon; Park, Jinsung; Yoon, Gwonchan; Soo Sohn, Young; Park, Shinsuk; Yoon, Dae Sung; Na, Sungsoo; Kwon, Taeyun

    2009-09-10

    Quantitative understanding of the mechanical behavior of biological liquid crystals such as proteins is essential for gaining insight into their biological functions, since some proteins perform notable mechanical functions. Recently, single-molecule experiments have allowed not only the quantitative characterization of the mechanical behavior of proteins such as protein unfolding mechanics, but also the exploration of the free energy landscape for protein folding. In this work, we have reviewed the current state-of-art in single-molecule bioassays that enable quantitative studies on protein unfolding mechanics and/or various molecular interactions. Specifically, single-molecule pulling experiments based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been overviewed. In addition, the computational simulations on single-molecule pulling experiments have been reviewed. We have also reviewed the AFM cantilever-based bioassay that provides insight into various molecular interactions. Our review highlights the AFM-based single-molecule bioassay for quantitative characterization of biological liquid crystals such as proteins.

  16. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  17. Genotoxicity of soil from farmland irrigated with wastewater using three plant bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, G L; Rodriguez, D M

    1999-05-19

    Three well known plant bioassays, the Allium root chromosome aberration (AL-RAA) assay, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay, and the Tradescantia stamen hair (Trad-SHM) mutation assay were validated in 1991 by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) under the auspices of the World Health Organization, and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). These plant bioassays have proven to be efficient tests for chemical screening and especially for in situ monitoring for genotoxicity of environmental pollutants. As a result of this validation study, standard protocols of these three plant bioassays were used by some of the 11 participating countries in the IPCS to carry on genotoxicity tests on air, water and soil as a follow up activity. In the city of Queretaro, Mexico, wastewater coming from both industrial and domestic sources and without any treatment is used to irrigate the farm crops, polluting the soil. Potentially the pollutants could reach the food chain. For the above reason, soil irrigated with wastewater was sampled and monitored for the presence of genotoxic agents using the above three bioassays. Extracts from soil samples were made using distilled water and organic solvents by shaking the sample for about 12 h under a relatively low temperature (15-20 degrees C). Plant cuttings of Tradescantia or the roots of Allium were treated by submerging them in the extracts. Three replicates of each sample were analyzed in each of the three bioassays. Extracts using DMSO, ethanol and distilled water tested positive in the three bioassays and there were no differences for the genotoxicity of the extracts with the different solvents. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Marya

    1999-12-01

    A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

  19. Review of Bioassays for Monitoring Fate and Transport ofEstrogenic Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CGCampbell@lbl.gov

    2004-01-30

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are recognizedcontaminants threatening water quality. Despite efforts in sourceidentification, few strategies exist for characterization or treatment ofthis environmental pollution. Given that there are numerous EDCs that cannegatively affect humans and wildlife, general screening techniques likebioassays and biosensors provide an essential rapid and intensiveanalysis capacity. Commonly applied bioassays include the ELISA and YESassays, but promising technologies include ER-CALUXa, ELRA, Endotecta,RIANA, and IR-bioamplification. Two biosensors, Endotecta and RIANA, arefield portable using non-cellular biological detection strategies.Environmental management of EDCs in water requires integration ofbiosensors and bioassays for monitoring and assessment.

  20. High-throughput mosquito and fly bioassay system for natural and artificial substrates treated with residual insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert L; Wynn, W Wayne; Britch, Seth C; Allan, Sandra A; Walker, Todd W; Geden, Christopher J; Hogsette, Jerome A; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2013-03-01

    A high-throughput bioassay system to evaluate the efficacy of residual pesticides against mosquitoes and muscid flies with minimal insect handling was developed. The system consisted of 4 components made of readily available materials: 1) a CO2 anaesthetizing chamber, 2) a specialized aspirator, 3) a cylindrical flat-bottomed glass bioassay chamber assembly, and 4) a customized rack.

  1. Screening for the presence of lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish samples using the neuro-2a bioassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodero Baeza, Marcia; Bovee, Toine F.H.; Wang, S.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Klijnstra, Mirjam D.; Portier, Liza; Hendriksen, Peter J.M.; Gerssen, Arjen

    2018-01-01

    The neuro-2a bioassay is considered as one of the most promising cell-based in vitro bioassays for the broad screening of seafood products for the presence of marine biotoxins. The neuro-2a assay has been shown to detect a wide array of toxins like paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs), ciguatoxins,

  2. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications- ...

  3. Olfactoryresponse of the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to methyl salicylate in laboratory bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The response of Typhlodromus pyri, a key predator of grapevine rust mite (Calepitrimerus vitis), to MeSA was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer in laboratory bioassays. Six doses ranging from 200 to 0.002 µg of diluted MeSA were tested. Significantly higher proportions of T. pyri preferred MeSA at ...

  4. Sensitivity and Specificity of Bioassay of Estrogenicity on Mammary Gland and Uterus of Female Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škarda, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2002), s. 407-412 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/99/0843; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : Bioassay * Estrogenicity * Mammary gland Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2002

  5. BIOASSAY STUDIES OF METAL(II) COMPLEXES OF 2,2'-(ETHANE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    diyldiimino)diacetic acid (EDDA) were prepared and characterized. Coordination complexes of the EDDA ... corresponding amines with alkyl halide to bear diammines of the same class with different substituents. ... Bioassay studies of metal(II) complexes of 2,2'-(ethane-1,2-diyldiimino)diacetic acid. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop.

  6. Androgen Bioassay for the Detection of Nonlabeled Androgenic Compounds in Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Elliot R; McGrath, Kristine C Y; Li, XiaoHong; Heather, Alison K

    2018-01-01

    Both athletes and the general population use nutritional supplements. Athletes often turn to supplements hoping that consuming the supplement will help them be more competitive and healthy, while the general population hopes to improve body image or vitality. While many supplements contain ingredients that may have useful properties, there are supplements that are contaminated with compounds that are banned for use in sport or have been deliberately adulterated to fortify a supplement with an ingredient that will produce the advertised effect. In the present study, we have used yeast cell and mammalian cell androgen bioassays to characterize the androgenic bioactivity of 112 sports supplements available from the Australian market, either over the counter or via the Internet. All 112 products did not declare an androgen on the label as an included ingredient. Our findings show that six out of 112 supplements had strong androgenic bioactivity in the yeast cell bioassay, indicating products spiked or contaminated with androgens. The mammalian cell bioassay confirmed the strong androgenic bioactivity of five out of six positive supplements. Supplement 6 was metabolized to weaker androgenic bioactivity in the mammalian cells. Further to this, Supplement 6 was positive in a yeast cell progestin bioassay. Together, these findings highlight that nutritional supplements, taken without medical supervision, could expose or predispose users to the adverse consequences of androgen abuse. The findings reinforce the need to increase awareness of the dangers of nutritional supplements and highlight the challenges that clinicians face in the fast-growing market of nutritional supplements.

  7. New in vitro reporter gene bioassays for screening of hormonal active compounds in the environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Kateřina; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2010), s. 839-847 ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/0408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : endocrine disruptors * in vitro bioassays * reporter gene assays Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.280, year: 2010

  8. Rapid Bioassessment and In Situ Bioassay: Cost Effective Tools for Environmental Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.

    2002-08-23

    Environmental impact can be difficult to assess, especially at the ecosystem level. Any impact assessment methodology that can give cost effective and timely results is highly desirable. Rapid bioassessment (RBA) is cost effective and produces timely results. Several types of RBA have been used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to assess stream conditions, including the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) based on fish community characteristics, and various techniques using aquatic macroinvertebrate species diversity and abundance. In an attempt to broaden the applicability of the RBA concept, we have also begun to develop RBA techniques for seep-fed wetlands and terrestrial habitats. These techniques will focus on vertebrate and macroinvertebrate assemblages for seep-fed wetlands and arthropod assemblages for terrestrial habitats. In situ bioassay is another technique that could be used for rapid and economical assessment of the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. We propose the development of two methods of in situ bioassay that can address bioavailability of constituents of concern. The use of caged bioassay organisms can be applied to terrestrial systems such as capped or existing waste sites using the common house cricket. Another proposed bioassay could use a resident species, such as the imported red fire ant, which is found in disturbed habitats and open areas such as waste sites. Combining in situ techniques with RBA methodologies has the potential to provide a comprehensive assessment of chemical and physical impacts to a wide range of ecosystem types.

  9. Experience with NQA-1 quality assurance standards applied to in vitro bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.

    1991-10-01

    On June 1, 1990, the large (about 4000 samples per year) excreta bioassay program at the Hanford Site ceased abruptly when the contract with the bioassay laboratory was terminated. An intense, high-priority effort was begun to replace the services on an interim basis until a new contract could be procured. Despite the urgency to get the excreta bioassay program going again, the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program was constrained to use only labs that could meet stringent quality assurance (QA) requirements, even during the interim period. The QA requirements were based on NQA-1 with selected additions from the Environmental Protection Agency's QAMS 005/80 (EPA 1983) and the American Society for Testing and Materials' C 1009-83 (ASTM 1984). This constraint was driven both by legal reasons and by the Hanford Site contractors and workers not wanting the quality of the data to be sacrificed. Finding labs that could (1) handle the large throughput, (2) meet the technical requirements, and (3) pass the QA audit proved more difficult than first anticipated. This presentation focuses on the QA requirements that the labs had to meet and how those very broad requirements were applied specifically to excreta bioassay. 5 refs

  10. Simple, Inexpensive, and Rapid Way to Produce Bacillus subtilis Spores for the Guthrie Bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Martha L.; Clark, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Esculin agar has been found to be a simple, inexpensive, rapid, and reliable means to promote production of spores of inhibitor-sensitive clones of Bacillus subtilis strains ATCC 6051 and 6633 for use in the Guthrie bioassay screening tests for genetic metabolic disorders. Images PMID:6790564

  11. A fluorescence-based bioassay for antibacterials and its application in screening natural product extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, Katharina; Heinke, Ramona; Schöne, Pia; Kuipers, Oscar P; Arnold, Norbert; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2015-01-01

    The reliable assessment of the biological activity of a minor component embedded in a complex matrix of several hundred compounds is a difficult but common task in the search for natural product-based antibiotics, for example, by bioassay-guided fractionation. To quantify the antibiotic properties,

  12. Bioassays for Evaluating Water Quality: Screening for total bioactivity to assess water safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassays are a potential solution for assessing complex samples since they screen for total bioactivity for a given pathway or mode of action (MOA), such as estrogen receptor activation, in the samples. Overall, they can account for the three challenges listed above, and can sim...

  13. Toxicological profiling of sediments with in vitro mechanisms-based bioassays for endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, C.J.; Cenijn, P.H.; Hamers, T.; Lamoree, M.H.; Legler, J.; Murk, A.J.; Brouwer, A.

    2004-01-01

    In vitro bioassays are valuable tools for screening environmental samples for the presence of bioactive (e.g., endocrine-disrupting) compounds. They can be used to direct chemical analysis of active compounds in toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) approaches. In the present study, five in

  14. Toxicological profiling of sediments using in vitro bioassays, with emphasis on endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, C.J.; Cenijn, P.H.; Hamers, T.; Lamoree, M.H.; Legler, J.; Murk, A.J.; Brouwer, A.

    2004-01-01

    In vitro bioassays are valuable tools for screening environmental samples for the presence of bioactive (e.g., endocrine-disrupting) compounds. They can be used to direct chemical analysis of active compounds in toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) approaches. In the present study, five in

  15. Rapid diagnosis of imazapic & imazapyr resistance by using bioassays in Clearfield Production System, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajrai F. S., M.; Ismail B., S.; Mardiana-Jansar, Khairiatul

    2015-09-01

    The resistance of weedy rice biotypes toward OnDuty™WG has been reported in Clearfield® MR 220 CL1 and MR 220 CL2 types of paddy. The purpose of this study was to adopt a rapid method to evaluate the resistance of bioassay species towards imazapic + imazapyr in different stages of plant development (seeds and seedlings). A series of OnDuty™WG concentrations from 0 to 300 g ai ha-1 were studied on the growth of rice cultivar MR263 (a susceptible species) as the bioassay species. The experiments were done in three replications with Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD). From this study, the concentration of herbicide required to reduce coleoptiles length, root length and fresh weight in seed bioassay by 50% were 0.63, 0.33 and 3.60 g ai ha-1 respectively. Meanwhile, for seedling stage bioassay, the concentration of herbicide required to reduce coleoptiles length, root length and fresh weight by 50% were 0.03, 1.23 and 0.99 g ai ha-1 respectively. It is important to note that all growth parameters were concentration dependent and a total growth inhibition occurred in all parameters at high doses. It was proven that MR263 rice cultivar was not resistance towards imazapic + imazapyr and further experiments on other rice cultivars are recommended so that the most suitable cultivars will be selected in rice cultivation.

  16. Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Area Waters: A Bioassay Procedure for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A graphical method for determining the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for a body of water is described. In this bioassay, students collect a sample of water from a designated site, transport it to the laboratory, and evaluate the amount of oxygen consumed by naturally occurring bacteria during a 5-day incubation period. An accuracy check,…

  17. Determining UV Inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts by Using Cell Culture and a Mouse Bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of UV exposure on Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has not been completely defined for use in water disinfection. This study evaluated UV irradiated oocysts by three assays: a SCID mouse bioassay, an in vitro T. gondii oocyst plaque assay (TOP-assay), and a quantitative reve...

  18. Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakley, N.; Norton, D.; Stinson, M.; Boyer, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAX level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher

  19. A Paradigm for Developing Sediment Toxicity Bioassays for the Regulatory Evaluation of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    dredging program and has direct application to the develop- meat of sediment toxicity bioassays. Federal statutes (MPRSA and CWA) require "no...assessing interspecific differences in xenobiotic metab- olism for major contaminants. Cost and logistics. By this point, the technical community should

  20. Development of a bioassay system for human growth hormone determination with close correlation to immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaiti, M; Tanahashi, Y; Mohri, Z; Fujieda, K

    2012-09-01

    Serum growth hormone (GH) level is measured largely through immunoassays in clinical practice. However, a few cases with bioinactive and immunoreactive GH have also been reported. We describe here a new bioassay system for GH determination using the BaF/GM cell line, which proliferates in a dose-dependent manner on hGH addition; cell proliferation was blocked by anti-hGH antibody. This bioassay had the lowest detection limit (∼0.02 ng/ml) reported thus far and the highest specificity for GH. The bioassay results were compared with those of an immunoradiometric assay across 163 patient samples in various endocrine states. A close correlation (the ratio of bioactivity/immunoreactivity was 1.04 ± 0.33, mean ± SD) was observed between bioactivity and immunoreactivity in these samples. The newly developed system is a specific, sensitive, easy, and fast bioassay system for GH determination; we consider it useful for evaluating GH bioactivity in various endocrine states. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  2. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Yu Bon [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Xing, Guan Hua [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); China National Environmental Monitoring Center, 100012, Beijing (China); Wu, Sheng Chun [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Murphy, Margaret B. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 430072, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs.

  3. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B.; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs

  4. Responses of lone star tick (acari: ixodidae) nymphs to the repellent deet applied in acetone and ethanol solutions in vitro bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavioral bioassays remain a standard tool in the discovery, development, and registration of repellents. Although tick repellent bioassays tend to be rather uncomplicated, several factors can influence their outcomes. Typically repellent bioassays use a solvent, such as acetone or ethanol, to disp...

  5. Innovative Resources for Education and Public Information: Electronic Services, Data and Information from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Other NASA Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Carol A.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which supports the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope, is actively investigating and supporting innovative and experimental methods for improving science and math education content. The educational resources on the World Wide Web are derived from the latest data, scientific results, and advances…

  6. How Students Learn: Ways of Thinking about "Good Learning" in HE. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, one of a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. The topic of this first issues paper is a conceptual framework that can help members of a project (information resource)…

  7. Toxicity bioassays for water from black-odor rivers in Wenzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFu, He; RuiRui, Chen; EnHui, Zhu; Na, Chen; Bo, Yang; HuaHong, Shi; MinSheng, Huang

    2015-02-01

    Following urbanization, a large number of urban rivers were contaminated and turned to black-odor rivers. The traditional approach for detecting water quality is based on chemical or physical analysis. However, biological toxicity of black-odor water has been less addressed. As two typical black-odor rivers, Jiushanwai River (JS) and Shanxia River (SX) are tributaries of Wen-Rui Tang River in Wenzhou (south of China). The eco-safety of the urban rivers was evaluated by bioassay for water toxicity in this study. Ten and 5 sampling sites were respectively set along JS and SX. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2010 to October 2011. The general physical and chemical parameters of river water were monitored. In order to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of black-odor water, the following bioassays were used: (1) Fish acute toxicity test (Danio rerio, comprehensive toxicity), (2) luminescent bacteria bioassay (Qinghaiensis vibrio, toxicity to bacteria), and (3) tropical claw embryo assay (Xenopus tropicalis, embryo toxicity). Biotoxicity of black-odor rivers water was demonstrated by D. rerio, Q. vibrio, and X. tropicalis embryos. Toxicological effects of black-odor water were respectively shown by mortality of zebrafish, and by the relative inhibitory light rate of luminescent bacteria. However, luminescent bacteria were more sensitive to inspect biotoxicity than zebrafish. In X. tropicalis embryos test, toxicological effects of black-odor water were mostly shown by embryos' survival rate and teratogenic rate. Bioassay results showed that toxicity of SX water was higher than that of JS water, especially in summer. Statistical analysis of luminescent bacteria toxicity test showed that biotoxicity of SX and JS was high in summer, but low in winter and spring. The seasonal changes of water toxicity of the black-odor river were positively correlative with changes of water temperature (p water. Typical black-odor river water displays different

  8. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  9. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  10. Application of electronic learning tools for training of specialists in the field of information technologies for enterprises of mineral resources sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Катунцов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty, the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan.

  11. Genotoxicity of SPL (spent pot lining) as measured by Tradescantia bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Vieira, L F; Davide, L C; Gedraite, L S; Campos, J M S; Azevedo, H

    2011-10-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a solid waste product generated in the process of aluminum production. Tradescantia micronuclei (Trad-MN) and stamen hair mutation (Trad-SHM) bioassays are very useful tests to assess genotoxicity of environmental pollutants. In the present study, we intended to investigate the genotoxicity of this waste with Tradescantia bioassays using leachates of SPL simulating the natural leachability of SPL in soil. The formation of micronuclei (MN) was found to be concentration dependent. MN frequency enhanced significantly with SPL treatment. In addition, SPL also appeared to increase the percentage of dyads and triads. Trad-SHM assay showed that SPL increases pink mutation events as SPL concentration increases. These results demonstrated that SPL is a cytogenotoxic agent that affects different genetic end-points (induction of micronuclei and point mutations) even at low concentration (2% and 3%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-scale magnetic nanoparticle based optomagnetic bioassay for sensitive DNA and bacteria detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Bo; Zardán Gómez De La Torre, Teresa; Donolato, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Benefiting from their rapid readout, highly flexible devices and low-cost portable systems, optomagnetic biosensors have drawn increased attention in recent years as bioassay technologies for small molecules, biomarkers, DNA, and bacteria. Herein, an optomagnetic bioassay strategy suitable...... for point-of-care diagnostics, utilizing functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (100 nm) with Brownian relaxation behavior is optimized in order to obtain higher detection sensitivity for DNA molecules and bacteria. Presence of target DNA sequences or bacteria changes the dynamic behavior of the magnetic...... nanoparticles (binding to the target) and thus the optomagnetic response of the sample, which is measured by an optomagnetic setup including a 405 nm laser and a photodetector. The limit of detection is mainly set by the lowest measurable concentration of magnetic nanoparticles. Herein, as new results compared...

  13. SERMs and SARMs: detection of their activities with yeast based bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovee, Toine F H; Thevis, Mario; Hamers, Astrid R M; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Nielen, Michel W F; Schoonen, Willem G E J

    2010-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are compounds that activate their cognate receptor in particular target tissues without affecting other organs. Many of these compounds will find their use in therapeutic treatments. However, they also will have a high potential for misuse in veterinary practice and the sporting world. Here we demonstrate that yeast estrogen and androgen bioassays can be used to detect SERMs and SARMs, and are also useful screening tools to investigate their mode of action. Six steroidal 11beta-substituents of E2 (SERMs) and some arylpropionamide- and quinoline-based SARMs were tested. In addition, 7 compounds previously tested on AR agonism and determined as inactive in the yeast androgen bioassay, while QSAR modelling revealed strong binding to the human androgen receptor, are now shown to act as AR antagonists. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On-chip genotoxic bioassay based on bioluminescence reporter system using three-dimensional microfluidic network

    OpenAIRE

    Maehana, Koji; Tani, Hirofumi; Kamidate, Tamio

    2006-01-01

    Microchip-based genotoxic bioassay using sensing Escherichia coli strains has been performed. In this method, the assay was conducted in three-dimensional microfluidic network constructed by a silicon perforated microwell array chip and two poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) multi-microchannel chips. The sensing strains having firefly luciferase reporter gene under transcriptional control of umuD as an SOS promoter were put into the channels on one of the PDMS chips and immobilized in the silicon ...

  15. Mouse bioassay to assess oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic compounds: Hydroxytamoxifen, Diethylstilbestrol and Genistein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Köhlerová, Eva; Škarda, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2004), s. 209-217 ISSN 0931-184X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/0406; GA AV ČR IBS5045302; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : bioassay * anti-oestrogens * oestrogenicity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 0.471, year: 2004

  16. Bioassay using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian Light Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: A 96-hour bioassay was conducted using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian light crude oil sample on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 mls of water soluble fractions (WSF) of the oil were added to 1000 litres of de-chlorinated tap water to form 0, 25, 50 , 75 and 100 parts per million ...

  17. Effects of Wind Speed on Aerosol Spray Penetration in Adult Mosquito Bioassay Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    powers a direct-drive air compressor that pro- duces the air blast that creates the pesticide droplet spectrum at the dual venture style, stainless steel...each replication, the straws were carefully placed in individually labeled plastic bags and stored out of the light to prevent any photodegradation ...M, Coughlin J. 2006. The effect of pesticide residue on caged mosquito bioassays. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22:469–472. Boobar LR, Dobson SE, Perich MJ

  18. Estimation of uranium in bioassay samples of occupational workers by laser fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suja, A.; Prabhu, S.P.; Sawant, P.D.; Sarkar, P.K.; Tiwari, A.K.; Sharma, R.

    2010-01-01

    A newly established uranium processing facility has been commissioned at BARC, Trombay. Monitoring of occupational workers at regulars intervals is essential to assess intake of uranium by the workers in this facility. The design and engineering safety features of the plant are such that there is very low probability of uranium getting air borne during normal operations. However, the leakages from the system during routine maintenance of the plant may result in intake of uranium by workers. As per the new biokinetic model for uranium, 63% of uranium entering the blood stream gets directly excreted in urine. Therefore, bioassay monitoring (urinalysis) was recommended for these workers. A group of 21 workers was selected for bioassay monitoring to assess the existing urinary excretion levels of uranium before the commencement of actual work. For this purpose, sample collection kit along with an instruction slip was provided to the workers. Bioassay samples received were wet ashed with conc. nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to break down the metabolized complexes of uranium and it was co-precipitated with calcium phosphate. Separation of uranium from the matrix was done using ion exchange technique and final activity quantification in these samples was done using laser fluorimeter (Quantalase, Model No. NFL/02). Calibration of the laser fluorimeter is done using 10 ppb uranium standard (WHO, France Ref. No. 180000). Verification of the system performance is done by measuring concentration of uranium in the standards (1 ppb to 100 ppb). Standard addition method was followed for estimation of uranium concentration in the samples. Uranyl ions present in the sample get excited by pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm, and on de-excitation emit fluorescence light (540 nm) intensity which is measured by the PMT. To estimate the uranium in the bioassay samples, a known aliquot of the sample was mixed with 5% sodium pyrophosphate and fluorescence intensity was measured

  19. Recombinant Streptomyces clavuligerus strain including cas2 gene production and analysis its antibiotic overproduction by bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hojati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptomyces clavuligerus is one of the most important strain that produce clavulanic acid that wildly used in combination of strong but sensitive to β-lactamase antibiotics in clinics. The cas2 is one of the important genes in the biosynthesis pathway of clavulanic acid. Materials and Methods: The recombinant construct pMTcas2 which contain cas2 gene is obtained from Isfahan University. Recombinant plasmid extracts from streptomyces lividans and confirm by enzyme digestion. The streptomyces clavuligerus protoplast was prepared and transformation was done by using polyethylene glycol. Transformation was confirmed by plasmid extraction and PCR using cas2 specific primers. Finally, bioassay method was used to survey the effect of extra copy of cas2 on clavulanic acid production. Result: Plasmid extraction was initially carried out and the structure of plasmid was confirmed by digestion. The typical white colony was seen on protoplast recovery culture containing thiostrepton antibiotic and gray spores were detected after one week. Plasmid extraction was done from transformed strain and transformation was confirmed by PCR. The results of the bioassay show that amplification of the cas2 gene in multicopy plasmids resulted in a 4.1 fold increase in clavulanic acid production. Conclusion: The bioassay was done and the diameters of zone of inhibition in control and sample were compared. The results of the bioassay show that amplification of the cas2 gene in multicopy plasmids resulted in a 4.1 fold increase in clavulanic acid production. Overproduction of clavulanic acid decreases the cost of its dependent drug production.

  20. Bioassay method for toxicity studies of insecticide formulations to Tuta absoluta (meyrick, 1917)

    OpenAIRE

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho; Morais, Elisangela Gomes Fidelis de; Silva, Nilson Rodrigues; Silva, Geverson Aelton Rezende da; Lopes, Mayara Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Chemical control is the main method for controlling the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Reported techniques for the evaluation of insecticide toxicity to the tomato leafminer are not in agreement with field conditions and do not allow us to verify whether doses used in the field are efficient for control. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a bioassay methodology to study the toxicity of insecticide formulations to T. absoluta that repre...

  1. Bioassay method for toxicity studies of insecticide formulations to tuta absoluta (meyrick, 1917).

    OpenAIRE

    GALDINO, T. V. da S.; PICANÇO, M. C.; MORAIS, E. G. F. de; SILVA, N. R.; SILVA, G. A. R da; LOPES, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical control is the main method for controlling the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Reported techniques for the evaluation of insecticide toxicity to the tomato leafminer are not in agreement with field conditions and do not allow us to verify whether doses used in the field are efficient for control. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a bioassay methodology to study the toxicity of insecticide formulations to T. absoluta that repre...

  2. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  3. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  4. Assessing the genotoxicity of urban air pollutants using two in situ plant bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarini, M.; Fatigoni, C.; Dominici, L.; Maestri, S.; Ederli, L.; Pasqualini, S.; Monarca, S.; Moretti, M.

    2009-01-01

    Genotoxicity of urban air has been analysed almost exclusively in airborne particulates. We monitored the genotoxic effects of airborne pollutants in the urban air of Perugia (Central Italy). Two plant bioindicators with different genetic endpoints were used: micronuclei in meiotic pollen mother cells using Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and DNA damage in nuclei of Nicotiana tabacum leaves using comet assay (Nicotiana-comet). Buds of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 and young N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants were exposed for 24 h at three sites with different pollution levels. One control site (indoor control) was also used. The two bioassays showed different sensitivities toward urban pollutants: Trad-MCN assay was the most sensitive, but DNA damage in N. tabacum showed a better correlation with the pollutant concentrations. In situ biomonitoring of airborne genotoxins using higher plants combined with chemical analysis is thus recommended for characterizing genotoxicity of urban air. - Plant bioassays used to explore in situ the correlation between air pollution and genotoxicity.

  5. Comparison of the sensitivity of seven marine and freshwater bioassays as regards antidepressant toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Laetitia; Di Poi, Carole; Farcy, Emilie; Ballandonne, Céline; Benchouala, Amira; Bojic, Clément; Cossu-Leguille, Carole; Costil, Katherine; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre

    2014-11-01

    The hazards linked to pharmaceutical residues like antidepressants are currently a major concern of ecotoxicology because they may have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms. Our study assesses the ecotoxicity of three antidepressants (fluoxetine, sertraline and clomipramine) using a battery of marine and freshwater species representing different trophic levels, and compares the bioassay sensitivity levels. We selected the following bioassays: the algal growth inhibition test (Skeletonema marinoi and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), the microcrustacean immobilization test (Artemia salina and Daphnia magna), development and adult survival tests on Hydra attenuata, embryotoxicity and metamorphosis tests on Crassostrea gigas, and in vitro assays on primary cultures of Haliotis tuberculata hemocytes. The results showed high inter-species variability in EC50-values ranging from 43 to 15,600 µg/L for fluoxetine, from 67 to 4,400 µg/L for sertraline, and from 4.70 µg/L to more than 100,000 µg/L for clomipramine. Algae (S. marinoi and P. subcapitata) and the embryo-larval stages of the oyster C. gigas were the most sensitive taxa. This raises an issue due to their ecological and/or economic importance. The marine crustacean A. salina was the least sensitive species. This difference in sensitivity between bioassays highlights the importance of using a test battery.

  6. Noninvasive quantitation of human liver steatosis using magnetic resonance and bioassay methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Assignies, Gaspard; Ruel, Martin; Khiat, Abdesslem; Lepanto, Luigi; Kauffmann, Claude; Tang, An [Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Departement de Radiologie, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Chagnon, Miguel [Universite de Montreal (UDEM), Departement de Mathematiques et de Statistique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gaboury, Louis [Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Departement d' Anatomo-Pathologie, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Boulanger, Yvan [Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Departement de Radiologie, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Hopital Saint-Luc du CHUM, Departement de Radiologie, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose was to evaluate the ability of three magnetic resonance (MR) techniques to detect liver steatosis and to determine which noninvasive technique (MR, bioassays) or combination of techniques is optimal for the quantification of hepatic fat using histopathology as a reference. Twenty patients with histopathologically proven steatosis and 24 control subjects underwent single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (MRS; 3 voxels), dual-echo in phase/out of phase MR imaging (DEI) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) examinations of the liver. Blood or urine bioassays were also performed for steatosis patients. Both MRS and DEI data allowed to detect steatosis with a high sensitivity (0.95 for MRS; 1 for DEI) and specificity (1 for MRS; 0.875 for DEI) but not DWI. Strong correlations were found between fat fraction (FF) measured by MRS, DEI and histopathology segmentation as well as with low density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol concentrations. A Bland-Altman analysis showed a good agreement between the FF measured by MRS and DEI. Partial correlation analyses failed to improve the correlation with segmentation FF when MRS or DEI data were combined with bioassay results. Therefore, FF from MRS or DEI appear to be the best parameters to both detect steatosis and accurately quantify fat liver noninvasively. (orig.)

  7. Building bio-assays with magnetic particles on a digital microfluidic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Tadej; Pérez-Ruiz, Elena; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2015-09-25

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) has emerged as a promising liquid handling technology for a variety of applications, demonstrating great potential both in terms of miniaturization and automation. DMF is based on the manipulation of discrete, independently controllable liquid droplets, which makes it highly reconfigurable and reprogrammable. One of its most exclusive advantages, compared to microchannel-based microfluidics, is its ability to precisely handle solid nano- and microsized objects, such as magnetic particles. Magnetic particles have become very popular in the last decade, since their high surface-to-volume ratio and the possibility to magnetically separate them from the matrix make them perfect suitable as a solid support for bio-assay development. The potential of magnetic particles in DMF-based bio-assays has been demonstrated for various applications. In this review we discuss the latest developments of magnetic particle-based DMF bio-assays with the aim to present, identify and analyze the trends in the field. We also discuss the state-of-the art of device integration, current status of commercialization and issues that still need to be addressed. With this paper we intend to stimulate researchers to exploit and unveil the potential of these exciting tools, which will shape the future of modern biochemistry, microbiology and biomedical diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The interpretation of disease phenotypes to identify TSE strains following murine bioassay: characterisation of classical scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Katy E; Vickery, Christopher M; Lockey, Richard; Holder, Thomas; Thorne, Leigh; Terry, Linda A; Denyer, Margaret; Webb, Paul; Simmons, Marion M; Spiropoulos, John

    2012-11-01

    Mouse bioassay can be readily employed for strain typing of naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy cases. Classical scrapie strains have been characterised historically based on the established methodology of assessing incubation period of disease and the distribution of disease-specific vacuolation across the brain following strain stabilisation in a given mouse line. More recent research has shown that additional methods could be used to characterise strains and thereby expand the definition of strain "phenotype". Here we present the phenotypic characteristics of classical scrapie strains isolated from 24 UK ovine field cases through the wild-type mouse bioassay. PrPSc immunohistochemistry (IHC), paraffin embedded tissue blots (PET-blot) and Western blotting approaches were used to determine the neuroanatomical distribution and molecular profile of PrPSc associated with each strain, in conjunction with traditional methodologies. Results revealed three strains isolated through each mouse line, including a previously unidentified strain. Moreover IHC and PET-blot methodologies were effective in characterising the strain-associated types and neuroanatomical locations of PrPSc. The use of Western blotting as a parameter to define classical scrapie strains was limited. These data provide a comprehensive description of classical scrapie strain phenotypes on isolation through the mouse bioassay that can provide a reference for further scrapie strain identification.

  9. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, H.J. de [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands); Centre for Ecosystem Studies, Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: marieke.delange@wur.nl; Griethuysen, C. van; Koelmans, A.A. [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics. - Change in AVS is a good proxy for sediment disturbance and combined with SEM it can be used as a suitable predictor for biotic effects of sediment contamination.

  10. Experimental and Computational Characterization of Biological Liquid Crystals: A Review of Single-Molecule Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungsoo Na

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative understanding of the mechanical behavior of biological liquid crystals such as proteins is essential for gaining insight into their biological functions, since some proteins perform notable mechanical functions. Recently, single-molecule experiments have allowed not only the quantitative characterization of the mechanical behavior of proteins such as protein unfolding mechanics, but also the exploration of the free energy landscape for protein folding. In this work, we have reviewed the current state-of-art in single-molecule bioassays that enable quantitative studies on protein unfolding mechanics and/or various molecular interactions. Specifically, single-molecule pulling experiments based on atomic force microscopy (AFM have been overviewed. In addition, the computational simulations on single-molecule pulling experiments have been reviewed. We have also reviewed the AFM cantilever-based bioassay that provides insight into various molecular interactions. Our review highlights the AFM-based single-molecule bioassay for quantitative characterization of biological liquid crystals such as proteins.

  11. Laboratory bioassays of vegetable oils as kairomonal phagostimulants for grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchininsky, Alexandre V; Schell, Scott P; Lockwood, Jeffrey A

    2007-10-01

    Vegetable oils have kairomonal attractant properties to grasshoppers primarily due to the presence of linoleic and linolenic fatty acids. These fatty acids are dietary essentials for grasshoppers and, once volatilized, can be detected by the insects' olfactory receptors. A laboratory bioassay method has been developed to identify vegetable oils that have fatty acid profiles similar to grasshoppers and that induce grasshopper attraction and feeding. Such oils could be useful kairomonal adjuvants and/or carriers for acridicide formulations. Three sets of laboratory bioassays demonstrated that the addition of a standard aliquot of different vegetable oils resulted in varying degrees of grasshopper feeding on otherwise neutral substrates. Addition of olive oil stimulated the greatest feeding in all three sets of assays, regardless of the age of the tested insects. Furthermore, addition of canola or flax oils markedly enhanced grasshopper feeding. These three oils--i.e., olive, canola, and flax oil--proved to be the best performing grasshopper stimulants. A second group of oils included rapeseed-flax mix and rapeseed oils; however, their performance was not as consistent as oils in the first group--especially with regard to nymphal feeding. A third group of oils consisted of soybean, corn, peanut, and sunflower oil. Theoretical expectations regarding these oils varied wildly, suggesting that the results of a single bioassay should be cautiously interpreted as being negative.

  12. A typical case study involving bioassay measurements at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackett, E.M.; Babineau, G.; Hwang, H.S.; Laurenzo, E.; McCurdy, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    As a principal bioassay testing laboratory for multiple nuclear power facilities, the Yankee Atomic Environmental Laboratory had the opportunity to evaluate the correlation between the temporal variation in in vitro and in vivo measurements and various models presented in ICRP Publications 2 and 30. Two contractors were involved in an incident which resulted in the intake of a number of radionuclides. Initial bioassay measurements, in the form of whole body counts, were conducted immediately after decontamination efforts. At this time it was requested that Yankee staff members take the necessary steps to perform a dose assessment. Extensive measurements, both in vivo and in vitro, were conducted on the individuals for several weeks following the incident. The three most prevalent gamma emitting nuclides (Cr-51, Co-58 and Co-60) found in fecal samples were also the nuclides detected in the highest quantities in the in vivo measurements. Nine gamma emitting nuclides found in Contractor A's fecal sample were not detected by in vivo measurements. The results suggest that the airborne radioactivity intake consisted of primarily nontransportable particles which were swallowed or translocated directly from the lungs to the gastrointestinal system. Results of the bioassay measurements are presented and comparison of the various analyses discussed

  13. DSSTOX NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM BIOASSAY ON-LINE DATABASE STRUCTURE-INDEX LOCATOR FILE: SDF FILE AND DOCUMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    NTPBSI: National Toxicology Program Bioassay On-line Database Structure-Index Locator File. Database contains the results collected on approxiately 300 toxicity studies from shorter duration test and from genetic toxicity studies, both in vitro and in vivo tests.

  14. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  15. A rapid and high-throughput quantum dots bioassay for monitoring of perfluorooctane sulfonate in environmental water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jiong; Wan Yanjian; Li Yuanyuan; Zhang Qiongfang; Xu Shunqing [Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430030 (China); Zhu Huijun [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Kempston, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Shu Baihua, E-mail: shubaihua@hotmail.com [Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430030 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Currently HPLC/MS is the state of the art tool for environmental/drinking water perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) monitoring. PFOS can bind to peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}), which forms heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and binds to PPAR response elements. In this bioassay free PFOS in water samples competes with immobilized PFOS in ELISA plates for a given amount of PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha}. It can be determined indirectly by immobilizing PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha}-PFOS complex to another plate coated with PPAR{alpha} antibody and subsequent measuring the level of PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha} by using biotin-modified PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha} probes-quantum dots-streptavidin detection system. The rapid and high-throughput bioassay demonstrated a detection limit of 2.5 ng L{sup -1} with linear range between 2.5 ng L{sup -1} and 75 ng L{sup -1}. Detection results of environmental water samples were highly consistent between the bioassay and HPLC/MS. - We developed a rapid and high-throughput bioassay for monitoring of PFOS in environmental water samples. - Highlights: > We developed a rapid and high-throughput bioassay for monitoring of PFOS in water. > We detected the PFOS concentration of water samples by two methods. > The bioassay is effective for evaluating PFOS contamination level.

  16. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  17. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  18. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  19. Miniature-dispenser-based bioassay to evaluate the compatibility of powder formulations used in an entomovectoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Veerle; Put, Kurt; Vandeven, Jessica; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-06-01

    Entomovectoring as a plant protection strategy demands the design of an appropriate bioassay to assess the risks of potential side effects of the powder formulations in the dispenser towards the vectoring insect. This study reports on the development of a laboratory miniature-dispenser-based bioassay. This bioassay system was used to investigate the compatibility of five model products, Prestop-Mix, Signum, kaolin, wheat flour and cellulose, with the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L. The laboratory one-way miniature-dispenser bioassay showed that the fungicides and the carrier/diluent kaolin caused a worker mortality of > 70% after 5 weeks of exposure, while worker loss with wheat flour and cellulose was no higher than in the blank control (i.e. empty miniature dispenser) (dispenser bioassay comprised separated passageways and demonstrated that only kaolin was toxic (89 ± 11%). These results were also confirmed in a flight-cage experiment. In addition, a negative effect was observed against reproduction/colony development when nests were exposed to kaolin (P dispenser and flight-cage bioassays. In the context of entomovectoring technology, the developed laboratory two-way miniature-dispenser bioassay gives a reliable prediction of the hazards associated with powder products. Additionally, the present data indicate the possibility of using cellulose and kaolin as respective negative and positive control carriers/diluents in future risk assessment experiments. Overall, the results show that, apart from kaolin, the tested fungicides and carriers/diluents are safe to be used with B. terrestris. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Transferring mixtures of chemicals from sediment to a bioassay using silicone-based passive sampling and dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustajärvi, Lukas; Eriksson-Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Gorokhova, Elena; Jahnke, Annika; Sobek, Anna

    2017-11-15

    Environmental mixtures of chemicals consist of a countless number of compounds with unknown identity and quantity. Yet, chemical regulation is mainly built around the assessment of single chemicals. Existing frameworks for assessing the toxicity of mixtures require that both the chemical composition and quantity are known. Quantitative analyses of the chemical composition of environmental mixtures are however extremely challenging and resource-demanding. Bioassays may therefore serve as a useful approach for investigating the combined toxicity of environmental mixtures of chemicals in a cost-efficient and holistic manner. In this study, an unknown environmental mixture of bioavailable semi-hydrophobic to hydrophobic chemicals was sampled from a contaminated sediment in a coastal Baltic Sea area using silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as an equilibrium passive sampler. The chemical mixture was transferred to a PDMS-based passive dosing system, and its applicability was demonstrated using green algae Tetraselmis suecica in a cell viability assay. The proportion of dead cells increased significantly with increasing exposure level and in a dose-response manner. At an ambient concentration, the proportion of dead cells in the population was nearly doubled compared to the control; however, the difference was non-significant due to high inter-replicate variability and a low number of replicates. The validation of the test system regarding equilibrium sampling, loading efficiency into the passive dosing polymer, stability of the mixture composition, and low algal mortality in control treatments demonstrates that combining equilibrium passive sampling and passive dosing is a promising tool for investigating the toxicity of bioavailable semi-hydrophobic and hydrophobic chemicals in complex environmental mixtures.

  1. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Fast and accurate semantic annotation of bioassays exploiting a hybrid of machine learning and user confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Clark

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics and computer aided drug design rely on the curation of a large number of protocols for biological assays that measure the ability of potential drugs to achieve a therapeutic effect. These assay protocols are generally published by scientists in the form of plain text, which needs to be more precisely annotated in order to be useful to software methods. We have developed a pragmatic approach to describing assays according to the semantic definitions of the BioAssay Ontology (BAO project, using a hybrid of machine learning based on natural language processing, and a simplified user interface designed to help scientists curate their data with minimum effort. We have carried out this work based on the premise that pure machine learning is insufficiently accurate, and that expecting scientists to find the time to annotate their protocols manually is unrealistic. By combining these approaches, we have created an effective prototype for which annotation of bioassay text within the domain of the training set can be accomplished very quickly. Well-trained annotations require single-click user approval, while annotations from outside the training set domain can be identified using the search feature of a well-designed user interface, and subsequently used to improve the underlying models. By drastically reducing the time required for scientists to annotate their assays, we can realistically advocate for semantic annotation to become a standard part of the publication process. Once even a small proportion of the public body of bioassay data is marked up, bioinformatics researchers can begin to construct sophisticated and useful searching and analysis algorithms that will provide a diverse and powerful set of tools for drug discovery researchers.

  3. Bioassay of circulating luteinizing hormone in the rhesus monkey: comparison with radioimmunoassay during physiological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufau, M.L.; Hodgen, G.D.; Goodman, A.L.; Catt, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    The concentration of biologically active LH in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum was measured by a highly sensitive bioassay based upon testosterone production by dispersed rat interstitial cells. The sensitivity of the in vitro bioassay was equal to or higher than that of radioimmunoassay, with detection limits of 0.1 mIU of human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) or 10 ng of a Rhesus pituitary gonadotropin preparation (LER-1909-2). Parallel dose-response curves were obtained for hMG and Rhesus monkey pituitary gonadotropin. The method permits bioassay of LH in 20--100 μl of serum from adult male monkeys, and from female monkeys during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Bioactive LH concentrations could be assayed in 0.25 to 5 μl of serum from mid-cycle, postmenopausal, and castrated female monkeys. Serum LH was undetectable in two hypophysectomized adult female monkeys and six intact immature animals, and was 13 +- 6 (SD) mIU/ml in adult male monkeys. In adult females, follicular phase LH levels ranged from 17 to 169 mIU/ml, with a mean of 76 +- 52 mIU/ml. The midcycle LH peak was 1738 +- 742 mIU/ml and the luteal phase values ranged from 6-47 mIU/ml, with a mean of 35 +- 5 mIU/ml. Serum LH concentrations ranged from 100 to 900 mIU/ml in two menopausal females, and from 590--1480 mIU/ml in castrated females. Treatment of castrated female monkeys with estrogen plus progesterone produced an initial two-fold rise in sepum LH within 3 days, followed by a gradual decline to one-fourth to one-tenth of the initial levels after 10 days of treatment. Serum LH was suppressed to undetectable levels during the third week, and remained so for the duration of the 60-day treatment period

  4. Guidance document for prepermit bioassay testing of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.L.; Harrison, F.L.

    1990-11-01

    In response to the mandate of Public Law 92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972, as amended, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a program to promulgate regulations and criteria to control the ocean disposal of radioactive wastes. The EPA seeks to understand the mechanisms for biological response of marine organisms to the low levels of radioactivity that may arise from the release of these wastes as a result of ocean-disposal practices. Such information will play an important role in determining the adequacy of environmental assessments provided to the EPA in support of any disposal permit application. Although the EPA requires packaging of low-level radioactive waste to prevent release during radiodecay of the materials, some release of radioactive material into the deep-sea environment may occur when a package deteriorates. Therefore, methods for evaluating the impact on biota are being evaluated. Mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated at the expected low environmental levels that might occur if radioactive materials were released from the low-level waste packages. Therefore, traditional bioassay systems are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects on biota in the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) has had an ongoing program to examine sublethal responses to radiation at the cellular level, using cytogenetic end points. This technical guidance report represents prepermit bioassay procedures that potentially may be applicable to the assessment of effects from a mixture of radionuclides that could be released from a point source at the ocean bottom. Methodologies along with rationale and a discussion of uncertainty are presented for the sediment benthic bioassay protocols identified in this report.

  5. A novel method for standardized application of fungal spore coatings for mosquito exposure bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenhorst, Marit; Knols, Bart G J

    2010-01-20

    Interest in the use of fungal entomopathogens against malaria vectors is growing. Fungal spores infect insects via the cuticle and can be applied directly on the insect to evaluate infectivity. For flying insects such as mosquitoes, however, application of fungal suspensions on resting surfaces is more realistic and representative of field settings. For this type of exposure, it is essential to apply specific amounts of fungal spores homogeneously over a surface for testing the effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Contemporary methods such as spraying or brushing spore suspensions onto substrates do not produce the uniformity and consistency that standardized laboratory assays require. Two novel fungus application methods using equipment developed in the paint industry are presented and compared. Wired, stainless steel K-bars were tested and optimized for coating fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates. Different solvents and substrates were evaluated. Two types of coating techniques were compared, i.e. manual and automated coating. A standardized bioassay set-up was designed for testing coated spores against malaria mosquitoes. K-bar coating provided consistent applications of spore layers onto paper substrates. Viscous Ondina oil formulations were not suitable and significantly reduced spore infectivity. Evaporative Shellsol T solvent dried quickly and resulted in high spore infectivity to mosquitoes. Smooth proofing papers were the most effective substrate and showed higher infectivity than cardboard substrates. Manually and mechanically applied spore coatings showed similar and reproducible effects on mosquito survival. The standardized mosquito exposure bioassay was effective and consistent in measuring effects of fungal dose and exposure time. K-bar coating is a simple and consistent method for applying fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates and can produce coating layers with accurate effective spore concentrations. The mosquito bioassay

  6. A novel method for standardized application of fungal spore coatings for mosquito exposure bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in the use of fungal entomopathogens against malaria vectors is growing. Fungal spores infect insects via the cuticle and can be applied directly on the insect to evaluate infectivity. For flying insects such as mosquitoes, however, application of fungal suspensions on resting surfaces is more realistic and representative of field settings. For this type of exposure, it is essential to apply specific amounts of fungal spores homogeneously over a surface for testing the effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Contemporary methods such as spraying or brushing spore suspensions onto substrates do not produce the uniformity and consistency that standardized laboratory assays require. Two novel fungus application methods using equipment developed in the paint industry are presented and compared. Methods Wired, stainless steel K-bars were tested and optimized for coating fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates. Different solvents and substrates were evaluated. Two types of coating techniques were compared, i.e. manual and automated coating. A standardized bioassay set-up was designed for testing coated spores against malaria mosquitoes. Results K-bar coating provided consistent applications of spore layers onto paper substrates. Viscous Ondina oil formulations were not suitable and significantly reduced spore infectivity. Evaporative Shellsol T solvent dried quickly and resulted in high spore infectivity to mosquitoes. Smooth proofing papers were the most effective substrate and showed higher infectivity than cardboard substrates. Manually and mechanically applied spore coatings showed similar and reproducible effects on mosquito survival. The standardized mosquito exposure bioassay was effective and consistent in measuring effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Conclusions K-bar coating is a simple and consistent method for applying fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates and can produce coating layers

  7. Using a macroalgal δ15N bioassay to detect cruise ship waste water effluent inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldy, James

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Green macroalgae exposed to nutrient solutions exhibited changes in tissue 15 N signatures. → Macroalgae exhibited no fractionation with NO 3 and slight fractionation with NH 4 . → Algae exposed to cruise ship waste water had increased tissue δ 15 N indicating a heavy N source. → Field bioassays exhibited decreased δ 15 N indicating isotopically light riverine δ 15 N-NO 3 was likely the dominant N source. → Algal bioassays could not detect a δ 15 N cruise ship waste water signal in this system. - Abstract: Green macroalgae bioassays were used to determine if the δ 15 N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in a small harbor. Opportunistic green macroalgae (Ulva spp.) were collected, cultured under nutrient depleted conditions and characterized with regard to N content and δ 15 N. Samples of algae were used in controlled incubations to evaluate the direction of isotope shift from exposure to CSWWE. Algae samples exposed to CSWWE exhibited an increase of 1-2.5 per mille in δ 15 N values indicating that the CSWWE had an enriched isotope signature. In contrast, algae samples exposed to field conditions exhibited a significant decrease in the observed δ 15 N indicating that a light N source was used. Isotopically light, riverine nitrogen derived from N 2 -fixing trees in the watershed may be a N source utilized by algae. These experiments indicate that the δ 15 N CSWWE signature was not detectable under the CSWWE loading conditions of this experiment.

  8. Guidance document for prepermit bioassay testing of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.L.; Harrison, F.L.

    1990-11-01

    In response to the mandate of Public Law 92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972, as amended, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a program to promulgate regulations and criteria to control the ocean disposal of radioactive wastes. The EPA seeks to understand the mechanisms for biological response of marine organisms to the low levels of radioactivity that may arise from the release of these wastes as a result of ocean-disposal practices. Such information will play an important role in determining the adequacy of environmental assessments provided to the EPA in support of any disposal permit application. Although the EPA requires packaging of low-level radioactive waste to prevent release during radiodecay of the materials, some release of radioactive material into the deep-sea environment may occur when a package deteriorates. Therefore, methods for evaluating the impact on biota are being evaluated. Mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated at the expected low environmental levels that might occur if radioactive materials were released from the low-level waste packages. Therefore, traditional bioassay systems are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects on biota in the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) has had an ongoing program to examine sublethal responses to radiation at the cellular level, using cytogenetic end points. This technical guidance report represents prepermit bioassay procedures that potentially may be applicable to the assessment of effects from a mixture of radionuclides that could be released from a point source at the ocean bottom. Methodologies along with rationale and a discussion of uncertainty are presented for the sediment benthic bioassay protocols identified in this report

  9. Evaluation of internal exposure of nuclear medicine staff through in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, E.A.; Araujo, F.; Sousa, W.O.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rebelo, A.M.O.; Corbo, R. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, HU-UFRJ, Av. Brigadeiro Trompowsky, s/n, ILHA do Fundao, CEP 21945-560, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    The manipulation of a wide variety of unsealed sources in Nuclear Medicine results in a significant risk of internal exposure of the workers. {sup 131}I should be highlighted among the most frequently used radionuclides because of its large application for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. The increasing use of radionuclides for medical purposes creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Currently in Brazil, there are {approx}300 nuclear medicine centres in operation but individual monitoring is still restricted to the control of external exposure. This work presents the development of in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques aimed to quantify incorporation of radionuclides used in Nuclear Medicine. It is also presented the results of a preliminary survey of internal exposure of a group of workers involved in the preparation of therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I. Workers were monitored with a gamma camera available in the Nuclear Medicine Service of the University Hospital of Rio de Janeiro and at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Whole-Body Counter (IRDWBC). The in vivo detection systems were calibrated with a neck-thyroid phantom developed in IRD. Urine samples from radiopharmacy workers were collected after preparation and administration of therapeutic doses (10-250 mCi) of {sup 131}I and measured with a HPGe detection system available in the Bioassay Laboratory of IRD. The results show that the bioassay methods developed in this work present enough sensitivity for routine monitoring of nuclear medicine workers. All workers monitored in this survey presented positive results for {sup 131}I in urine samples and two workers presented detectable activities in thyroid when measured at the IRD-WBC. The highest committed effective dose per preparation was estimated to be 17 {mu}Sv. (authors)

  10. Bioassay requirements for 125I and 131I in medical, teaching and research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The more widespread use of radioactive isotopes of iodine (collectively referred to as radioiodines) as a research tool, coupled with their diagnostic and therapeutic uses in nuclear medicine, has resulted in an increased number of personnel who are exposed to these radioisotopes and who therefore should be monitored for internal radioiodine contamination. This document describes the minimum acceptable features of a bioassay programme which the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) requires to be available in institutions holding a prescribed substance licence authorising the use of significant quantities of 125 I or 131 I or both. A licensee may submit details of his own proposed bioassay programme to the AECB for approval. If such a programme fails to be approved, the programme described below shall be adhered to. This document does not deal with individuals who are likely to maintain a significant chronic thyroid burden of radioiodine. It is assumed that the radioiodine taken into the body is in a soluble, inorganic form (I 2 , iodide or iodate) or in an organic form (e.g. methyl iodide) which is metabolised in the body with a resultant release of iodide. Radioiodinated organic compounds which are not catabolised to iodide in the body to any significant degree are not the subject of this document, since the metabolism of the radioiodine will be dictated by the metabolism of the compound. This means that individuals whose only exposure to radioiodine is in the form of prepared radioiodinated compounds such as antigens and antibodies (e.g. individuals using radio immuno assay kits in which the antigen or antibody is supplied as radioiodinated material) are not required to participate in this bioassay programme for radioiodine

  11. GHSI emergency radionuclide bioassay laboratory network - summary of the second exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Quayle, Debora; Sadi, Baki; Bartizel, Christine; Battisti, Paolo; Boettger, Axel; Bouvier, Celine; Paquet, Francois; CapoteCuellar, Antonio; Carr, Zhanat; Hammond, Derek; Hartmann, Martina; Heikkinen, Tarja; Jones, Robert L.; Kim, Eunjoo; Koga, Roberto; Kukhta, Boris; Mitchell, Lorna; Morhard, Ryan; Rulik, Petr; Sergei, Aleksanin; Sierra, Inmaculada; Oliveira Sousa, Wandersonde; Szabo, Gyula

    2017-01-01

    The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) established a laboratory network within the GHSI community to develop collective surge capacity for radionuclide bioassay in response to a radiological or nuclear emergency as a means of enhancing response capability, health outcomes and community resilience. GHSI partners conducted an exercise in collaboration with the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network and the IAEA Response and Assistance Network, to test the participating laboratories (18) for their capabilities in in vitro assay of biological samples, using a urine sample spiked with multiple high-risk radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 106 Ru, 137 Cs, and 239 Pu). Laboratories were required to submit their reports within 72 h following receipt of the sample, using a pre-formatted template, on the procedures, methods and techniques used to identify and quantify the radionuclides in the sample, as well as the bioassay results with a 95% confidence interval. All of the participating laboratories identified and measured all or some of the radionuclides in the sample. However, gaps were identified in both the procedures used to assay multiple radionuclides in one sample, as well as in the methods or techniques used to assay specific radionuclides in urine. Two-third of the participating laboratories had difficulties in determining all the radionuclides in the sample. Results from this exercise indicate that challenges remain with respect to ensuring that results are delivered in a timely, consistent and reliable manner to support medical interventions. Laboratories within the networks are encouraged to work together to develop and maintain collective capabilities and capacity for emergency bioassay, which is an important component of radiation emergency response. (authors)

  12. A Bayesian approach to the analysis of quantal bioassay studies using nonparametric mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczyk, Kassandra; Kottas, Athanasios

    2014-03-01

    We develop a Bayesian nonparametric mixture modeling framework for quantal bioassay settings. The approach is built upon modeling dose-dependent response distributions. We adopt a structured nonparametric prior mixture model, which induces a monotonicity restriction for the dose-response curve. Particular emphasis is placed on the key risk assessment goal of calibration for the dose level that corresponds to a specified response. The proposed methodology yields flexible inference for the dose-response relationship as well as for other inferential objectives, as illustrated with two data sets from the literature. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  13. Toxicity of Single and Mixed Contaminants in Seawater Measured with Acute Toxicity Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Fernandez-Alba

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of organic pollutants commonly detected in seawater have been evaluated by acute toxicity bioassays. Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and Selenastrum capricornotum were selected to test toxic effects of individual compounds and mixtures of these compounds, obtaining EC50 values in the range of 0.001 to 28.9 mg/l. In the case of mixtures, synergistic toxic responses were seen for a clear majority of the cases (>60%. Mixtures containing methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE exhibit accelerated processes that result in a change in concentration required to produce a toxic effect; for example, in the case of mixtures containing MTBE and Diuron and Dichlofluanid.

  14. Sensitive bioassay for detection of PPAR{alpha} potentially hazardous ligands with gold nanoparticle probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Wei; Wan, Yan-Jian [Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430030 (China); Wang, Xianliang [Division of Environmental Pollution and Human Health, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Wen-Jie; Wang, Chun-Xiang [Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430030 (China); Xu, Shun-qing, E-mail: shunqing@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430030 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We develop a sensitive and high throughput method to screen PPAR{alpha} ligands. {yields} This method is based on the ligand-receptor interaction on microplate. {yields} The sensitivity is increased through sliver enhancement on captured gold nanoparticle probes. {yields} There is a significant correlation between the bioassay and LC-MS for water spiked samples. - Abstract: There are so many kinds of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) ligands with hazardous effect for human health in the environment, such as certain herbicides, plasticizers and drugs. Among these agonists, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) are mostly investigated due to their persistence and accumulation in environment and their potential toxicity via PPAR{alpha}. This investigation aims at developing a bioassay method to detect PPAR{alpha} ligands based on the ligand-receptor interaction on microplate. PPAR{alpha}, which formed heterodimers with retinoid X receptor-{alpha} (RXR{alpha}), were activated by PPAR{alpha} ligands to form ligands-PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha} complexes. Then the complexes were transferred into a microplate and captured via monoclonal anti-PPAR{alpha} antibody. The PPAR{alpha} responsive elements (PPRE) modified-gold nanoparticle probes were captured by the ligand-PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha} complexes immobilized on the microplate, and then could be quantified through measuring the optical density after silver enhancement. The results showed that PFOS was quantified with a linear range from 100 pM to 1 {mu}M and the detection limit was 10 pM. In addition to PFOS, PFOA and MEHP were also quantified within a proper range through the proposed bioassay. This bioassay was compared with that of liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for water spiked samples with a significant correlation (r = 0.9893). This study provides a high-throughput detection

  15. Gamma radiation and ems treatment of black cumin cultivars for mutational bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, P.K.; Bhowmik, G.

    1997-01-01

    Ten different types of chlorophyll mutations were induced in two cultivars of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) after gamma irradiation and EMS treatment. Mutation frequency was proportional to dose for gamma rays, but not for EMS. Higher doses of gamma rays and lower concentration/duration of EMS were most efficient. Difference in the response of both cultivars due to mutagenic treatment indicate variation in the genetic architecture of the two cultivars. Origin and use of black cumin cultivars for mutagen bioassays studies are discussed

  16. Integration of Microfractionation, qNMR and Zebrafish Screening for the In Vivo Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Quantitative Bioactivity Analysis of Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bohni, Nadine; Cordero-Maldonado, Mar?a Lorena; Maes, Jan; Siverio-Mota, Dany; Marcourt, Laurence; Munck, Sebastian; Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R.; Moshi, Mainen J.; Esguerra, Camila V.; de Witte, Peter A. M.; Crawford, Alexander D.; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are an attractive source of chemical diversity for small-molecule drug discovery. Several challenges nevertheless persist with respect to NP discovery, including the time and effort required for bioassay-guided isolation of bioactive NPs, and the limited biomedical relevance to date of in vitro bioassays used in this context. With regard to bioassays, zebrafish have recently emerged as an effective model system for chemical biology, allowing in vivo high-content screens...

  17. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  18. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives "early warning" to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1-4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonsteroidal mycotoxin alternariol is a full androgen agonist in the yeast reporter androgen bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypuła-Trębas, Sylwia; Minta, Maria; Radko, Lidia; Jedziniak, Piotr; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    Alternariol (AOH) is a toxic metabolite of phytopathogenic fungi of the Alternaria spp. and important contaminant of agricultural commodities. According to the recent studies, AOH has a potential to modulate the endocrine system of humans and animals. In the view of these reports, our study addressed the effects of AOH on human estrogen receptor (hERα) and androgen receptor (hAR) signaling with the use of the yeast estrogen and androgen reporter bioassays. Our results show that, apart from a weak estrogenic response, AOH induces full androgenic response of the bioassay with the EC50 of 269.4μM. The androgenic potency of AOH relative to testosterone (T) is 0.046%. Moreover, in the presence of T, AOH at 5μM acts as a weak antiandrogen, whereas at higher concentrations AOH sum up with the androgenic activity of T in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting additive effect. To our knowledge it is the first report of the androgenic potency of natural, nonsteroidal substance and may have the impact on the direction of the further studies. Further research is warranted to clarify the role of AOH in disruption of AR signaling in humans and animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chip-based bioassay using bacterial sensor strains immobilized in three-dimensional microfluidic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Hirofumi; Maehana, Koji; Kamidate, Tamio

    2004-11-15

    A whole-cell bioassay has been performed using Escherichia coli sensor strains immobilized in a chip assembly, in which a silicon substrate is placed between two poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates. Microchannels fabricated on the two separate PDMS layers are connected via perforated microwells on the silicon chip, and thus, a three-dimensional microfluidic network is constructed in the assembly. Bioluminescent sensor strains mixed with agarose are injected into the channels on one of the two PDMS layers and are immobilized in the microwells by gelation. Induction of the firefly luciferase gene expression in the sensor strains can be easily carried out by filling the channels on the other layer with sample solutions containing mutagen. Bioluminescence emissions from each well are detected after injection of luciferin/ATP mixtures into the channels. In this assay format using two multichannel layers and one microwell array chip, the interactions between various types of samples and strains can be monitored at each well on one assembly in a combinatorial fashion. Using several genotypes of the sensor strains or concentrations of mitomycin C in this format, the dependence of bioluminescence on these factors was obtained simultaneously in the single screening procedure. The present method could be a promising on-chip format for high-throughput whole-cell bioassays.

  1. On-chip bioassay using immobilized sensing bacteria in three-dimensional microfluidic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Hirofumi; Maehana, Koji; Kamidate, Tamio

    2007-01-01

    An on-chip whole-cell bioassay has been carried out using Escherichia coli tester strains for genotoxicity. In this assay format, the mutagen-responsive bioluminescence (BL) strains are immobilized in a chip assembly in which a silicon chip is placed between two poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) chips. In the chip assembly, microchannels fabricated on the two separate PDMS layers are connected via perforated microwells on the Si chip, and thus a three-dimensional microfluidic network is constructed. The strains mixed with agarose are loaded from the channels on one of the two PDMS layers into the wells on Si chip, followed by gelation. Induction of the expression of firefly luciferase in the tester strains and BL reaction are successively carried out by filling the channels on another PDMS layer with samples containing inducer (genotoxic substance) and then adenosine triphosphate/luciferin mixture, respectively. BL emission from each of the wells can be monitored by using a charge-coupled device camera to obtain an overall picture of the chip. The on-chip format based on a three-dimensional microfluidic network provides a combinatorial bioassay for multiple samples with multiple tester strains in a simple chip assembly. Thus, the presented method could be applied not only to various microbial sensing applications but also to other (bio)chemical analyses.

  2. In vitro bioassays reveal that additives are significant contributors to the toxicity of commercial household pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Merwe, Jason P; Neale, Peta A; Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2018-03-28

    Pesticides commonly used around households can contain additives of unknown concentrations and toxicity. Given the likelihood of these chemicals washing into urban waterways, it is important to understand the effects that these additives may have on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of commercially available household pesticides to that of the active ingredient(s) alone. The toxicity of five household pesticides (three herbicides and two insecticides) was investigated using a bacterial cytotoxicity bioassay and an algal photosynthesis bioassay. The commercial products were up to an order of magnitude more toxic than the active ingredient(s) alone. In addition, two commercial products with the same listed active ingredients in the same ratio had a 600× difference in potency. These results clearly demonstrate that additives in commercial formulations are significant contributors to the toxicity of household pesticides. The toxicity of pesticides in aquatic systems is therefore likely underestimated by conventional chemical monitoring and risk assessment when only the active ingredients are considered. Regulators and customers should require more clarity from pesticide manufacturers about the nature and concentrations of not only the active ingredients, but also additives used in commercial formulations. In addition, monitoring programmes and chemical risk assessments schemes should develop a structured approach to assessing the toxic effects of commercial formulations, including additives, rather than simply those of the listed active ingredients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Bioassay-Guided Isolated Compounds from Morinda officinalis Inhibit Alzheimer’s Disease Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kyoung Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the side effects of synthetic drugs, the therapeutic potential of natural products for Alzheimer’s disease (AD has gained interest. Morinda officinalis has demonstrated inhibitory effects on geriatric diseases, such as bone loss and osteoporosis. However, although AD is a geriatric disease, M. officinalis has not been evaluated in an AD bioassay. Therefore, M. officinalis extracts and fractions were tested for AD-related activity, including inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, and advanced glycation end-product (AGE formation. A bioassay-guided approach led to isolation of 10 active compounds, eight anthraquinones (1–8, one coumarin (9, and one phytosterol (10, from n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of M. officinalis. The five anthraquinones (4–8 were stronger inhibitors of AChE than were other compounds. Compounds 3 and 9 were good inhibitors of BChE, and compounds 3 and 8 were good inhibitors of BACE1. Compounds 1–5 and 7–9 were more active than the positive control in inhibiting AGE formation. In addition, we first suggested a structure-activity relationship by which anthraquinones inhibit AChE and BACE1. Our findings demonstrate the preventive and therapeutic efficacy of M. officinalis for AD and its potential use as a natural alternative medicine.

  4. Applicability of the CALUX bioassay for screening of dioxin levels in human milk samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laier, P.; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Larsen, John Christian

    2003-01-01

    lower REP in CALUX. The total dioxin-like activity was determined in 16 Danish human milk samples and was in the range 20.5-55.8 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. These values were compared with TEQs obtained from GC/MS analysis (range 14.8-43.6 pg TEQ-g(-1) fat) that overall were a little lower than CALUX TEQs...... and applied for monitoring levels of dioxins in human milk samples. Combination effects of dioxin-like compounds were evaluated by testing potential mechanisms of interaction between seven of the major dioxin-like compounds in human milk using the isobole method. Results showed that the compounds acted....... The results obtained with the bioassay when testing milk extracts fractionated into dioxins/furans, non-ortho PCB and mono/di-ortho PCB fractions indicated that the correlation between the bioassay and the chemical analyses depends primarily on the A receptor activity observed in the mono/di-ortho PCB...

  5. Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay on clastogenicity of wastewater and in situ monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, E F; Rabago, V M; Lecona, S U; Perez, A B; Ma, T H

    1992-11-01

    The Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay was used to determine the clastogenicity of wastewater samples collected from the Arena canal which contains effluent from the industrial district Benito Juarez of the city of Queretaro, Mexico. Fifteen wastewater samples which were collected, in most cases, at bi-weekly intervals beginning in September 1986 through February 1988, after a 3-fold dilution were used to treat Tradescantia plant cuttings. The clastogenicity expressed in terms of micronucleus frequencies of treated groups (30 h of treatment without recovery time) was significantly (0.01) higher than that of the tapwater control groups. The Trad-MCN bioassay was also used for in situ monitoring of air pollutants for the clastogenicity at 3 sites near the industrial and residential areas (Flores Magon, Conalep and Bellas Artes) of the city of Queretaro. Fourteen monitoring trips were made to each of the 3 sites at monthly intervals beginning in May 1988 through June 1990. Seasonal variation of micronucleus frequencies was exhibited with the peak clastogenicities shown in May and June 1988, June 1989 and April 1990 at the three sites. Micronucleus frequencies of all the exposed groups at the Conalep site, a predominantly industrial area, were markedly higher than that of the laboratory control groups throughout the 2-year period.

  6. Bioassay-directed identification of toxicants in sediments of Liaohe River, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Xu, Jian; Guo, Changsheng; Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Contaminants accumulated in sediments may directly harm benthic organisms, however, the specific contaminants responsible for adverse effects have been poorly described. In this study, a bioassay-directed analysis combined with toxicity tests and chemistry analysis was conducted to determine the compounds eliciting the greatest toxicological effect in the sediments in Liaohe River, northeast China. A total of 24 sediment samples were examined to determine their acute toxicity to midge Chironomus tentans (C. tentans). Of these samples, 15 exhibited significant toxicity, with a mortality of 23%-93% (p organochlorine pesticides, 6 organophosphate pesticides, 8 pyrethroids, and 5 heavy metals were analyzed. On the basis of toxic unit (TU) analysis results, pyrethroids may contribute to the toxicity of 9 of the 15 toxic samples with concentrations of >1 TU. The significant correlation between the TUs of pyrethroids and the mortality of C. tentans (r 2  = 0.74, p < 0.01) confirmed the major role of pyrethroids in toxicity. The selected sediment samples responding to piperonyl butoxide and low temperature with the increased toxicity exhibited the characteristics of pyrethroids. The bioassay-based screening framework provided strong evidence that pyrethroids were the primary cause of sediment toxicity in Liaohe River. Further studies should therefore be conducted to regulate this important class of pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Establishing principal soil quality parameters influencing earthworms in urban soils using bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankard, Peter K. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pkh@ceh.ac.uk; Bundy, Jacob G. [University of Cambridge, Department of Biochemistry, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom); Spurgeon, David J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Weeks, Jason M. [WRc-NSF Ltd, Henley Road, Medmenham, Marlow, Buckinghamshire SL7 2HD (United Kingdom); Wright, Julian [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Weinberg, Claire [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Svendsen, Claus [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    Potential contamination at ex-industrial sites means that, prior to change of use, it will be necessary to quantify the extent of risks to potential receptors. To assess ecological hazards, it is often suggested to use biological assessment to augment chemical analyses. Here we investigate the potential of a commonly recommended bioassay, the earthworm reproduction test, to assess the status of urban contaminated soils. Sample points at all study sites had contaminant concentrations above the Dutch soil criteria Target Values. In some cases, the relevant Intervention Values were exceeded. Earthworm survival at most points was high, but reproduction differed significantly in soil from separate patches on the same site. When the interrelationships between soil parameters and reproduction were studied, it was not possible to create a good model of site soil toxicity based on single or even multiple chemical measurements of the soils. We thus conclude that chemical analysis alone is not sufficient to characterize soil quality and confirms the value of biological assays for risk assessment of potentially contaminated soils. - Bioassays must be applied for the risk assessment complexly-polluted sites to complement chemical analysis of soils.

  8. Bioavailability of iron from spinach using an in vitro/human Caco-2 cell bioassay model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutzke, Corinne J.; Glahn, Raymond P.; Rutzke, Michael A.; Welch, Ross M.; Langhans, Robert W.; Albright, Louis D.; Combs, Gerald F Jr; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) cv Whitney was tested for iron bioavailabilty using an in vitro human intestinal cell culture ferritin bioassay technique previously developed. Spinach was cultured in a growth chamber for 33 days, harvested, and freeze-dried. Total iron in the samples was an average of 71 micrograms/g dry weight. Spinach was digested in vitro (pepsin and 0.1 M HCl followed by pancreatin and 0.1 M NaHCO3) with and without the addition of supplemental ascorbic acid. Caco-2 cell cultures were used to determine iron bioavailability from the spinach mixtures. Production of the iron-binding protein ferritin in the Caco-2 cells showed the supplemental ascorbic acid doubled bioavailability of iron from spinach. The data show fresh spinach is a poor source of iron, and emphasize the importance of evaluation of whole meals rather than single food items. The data support the usefulness of the in vitro/Caco-2 cell ferritin bioassay model for prescreening of space flight diets for bioavailable iron.

  9. Soil-less bioassays for early screening for resistance to imazapyr in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Tatiana; Breccia, Gabriela; Nestares, Graciela; Mayor, María Laura; Zorzoli, Roxana; Picardi, Liliana

    2009-09-01

    Rapid and efficient diagnostic tests for early screening of herbicide resistance are convenient alternatives to field screening methods. There is a need for a quick, reliable and cost-effective method for rapid diagnosis of imidazolinone resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Two seed germination bioassays were developed. Seeds from three sunflower inbred lines differing in resistance to imidazolinones were germinated either on solid culture medium or placed in plastic pots filled with commercial perlite. After 8 days incubation under controlled conditions, both assays successfully distinguished susceptible genotype from the resistant and intermediate ones. The susceptible genotype showed arrested root growth at all herbicide treatments (root length resistant genotype developed a complete root system even when exposed to the highest dose of herbicide. However, no definite differences were observed for the intermediate and resistant genotypes with respect to root growth under the different herbicide treatments. The simple and rapid screening assays described in the present study were useful in discriminating imidazolinone resistance at the seedling stage. Therefore, these bioassays could be potential tools for early screening of imidazolinone resistance genes from large sunflower populations. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Estimation of cytotoxic potency by brine shrimp lethality bioassay application of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To learn a scientific and systematic knowledge of anticancer, antimicrobial and pharmacological activities of natural products and estimate cytotoxic potency by using ethanol and chloroform extracts of root, leaf and stem of Clerodendrum infortunatum (Verbenaceae due to its random use in customary and traditional medicine to cure common ailments such as intestinal disorder, diarrhea, tuberculosis and respiratory problems etc. Methods: The in vitro application was carried out with the bench-top bioassay method by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: All of the crude extracts were found to be lethal and effective. The LC50 value of ethyl alcohol fraction of root was 20.845 mg/L compared to the standard drug tetracycline of 14.675 mg/L to brine shrimp nauplii, indicating that the extracts were biologically active. Conclusions: The cytotoxic study of LC50 value showed that a good correlation with the antibiotic tetracycline. From the comparative correlation error bars and percentage, we understood that ethyl alcohol fraction of root extract was very effective. This study serves as a basis for further research to lead compounds to be isolated so that it may be as a template for the implications of these results for bioactivity and drug discovery potential of herbal products.

  11. Bioassay standardization for the detection of allelopathic compounds and environmental toxicants using lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Salomão Simões

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess different experimental conditions to determine a protocol for bioassays based on seed germination and early seedling growth using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids as indicator species. This protocol aims to provide support for the standardization of assays of various chemicals such as allelochemicals and environmental toxicants. The following tests were performed: time of germination, temperature, light, solution volume and Petri dish size. For each test (except for time of germination, the influence of the conditions investigated was determined by the endpoints germination percentage, germination speed index, root length, seedling fresh weight and total dry weight. The results showed that variations in the methods altered the results. It is recommended that bioassays using L. sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids be carried out for a minimum period of four days for assessments of both germination and initial growth and that the experimental conditions include a temperature of 20°C, 90-mm Petri dishes or larger, 0.1 mL cypsela solution, and continuous light or 12-hour photoperiod.

  12. [Quality evaluation of rhubarb dispensing granules based on multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng; Zhang, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Ding-Kun; Wu, Shan-Na; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-07-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the quality of Chinese formula granules by combined use of multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay. The rhubarb dispensing granules were used as the model drug for demonstrative study. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was adopted for simultaneously quantitative determination of the 10 anthraquinone derivatives (such as aloe emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside) in rhubarb dispensing granules; purgative biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on compound diphenoxylate tablets-induced mouse constipation model; blood activating biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on in vitro rat antiplatelet aggregation model; SPSS 22.0 statistical software was used for correlation analysis between 10 anthraquinone derivatives and purgative biopotency, blood activating biopotency. The results of multi-components simultaneous quantitative analysisshowed that there was a great difference in chemical characterizationand certain differences inpurgative biopotency and blood activating biopotency among 10 batches of rhubarb dispensing granules. The correlation analysis showed that the intensity of purgative biopotency was significantly correlated with the content of conjugated anthraquinone glycosides (Pquantitative analysis and bioassay can achieve objective quantification and more comprehensive reflection on overall quality difference among different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. In vitro and in vivo protocols of antimicrobial bioassay of medicinal herbal extracts: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial susceptibility testing against pathogenic microorganisms is the most significant task of clinical microbiology laboratory. The present study was therefore designed to review the in vitro and in vivo protocols of antimicrobial bioassays of various medicinal herbal extracts against a diversity of pathogenic microorganisms. Plants have a broad variety of antimicrobial agents which are extensively used as herbal drugs against different microbes. The review covers the antimicrobial techniques and antimicrobial bioassays of medicinal herbal extracts against different bacterial and fungal strains from 2000 onward. Plants have diverse concentrations of bioactive constituents such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. These phytochemicals are used against an extensive range of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium pervum, Bordetella pertusis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, viruses (simian-virus, retrovirus and fungi (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium solani. A variety of antibiotics (tetracycline, terramycin, ampicillin has also been isolated from different medicinal plants. This review was therefore intended to explore the techniques used for antimicrobial activities of herbal medicinal extracts.

  14. Applicability of the CALUX bioassay for screening of dioxin levels in human milk samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laier, P.; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Larsen, John Christian

    2003-01-01

    and applied for monitoring levels of dioxins in human milk samples. Combination effects of dioxin-like compounds were evaluated by testing potential mechanisms of interaction between seven of the major dioxin-like compounds in human milk using the isobole method. Results showed that the compounds acted...... lower REP in CALUX. The total dioxin-like activity was determined in 16 Danish human milk samples and was in the range 20.5-55.8 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. These values were compared with TEQs obtained from GC/MS analysis (range 14.8-43.6 pg TEQ-g(-1) fat) that overall were a little lower than CALUX TEQs....... The results obtained with the bioassay when testing milk extracts fractionated into dioxins/furans, non-ortho PCB and mono/di-ortho PCB fractions indicated that the correlation between the bioassay and the chemical analyses depends primarily on the A receptor activity observed in the mono/di-ortho PCB...

  15. Estimation of uranium in bioassay samples of occupational workers by laser fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suja, A.; Prabhu, S.P.; Sawant, P.D.; Sarkar, P.K.; Tiwari, A.K.; Sharma, R.

    2012-01-01

    A newly established uranium processing facility has been commissioned at BARC, Trombay. Monitoring of occupational workers is essential to assess intake of uranium in this facility. A group of 21 workers was selected for bioassay monitoring to assess the existing urinary excretion levels of uranium before the commencement of actual work. Bioassay samples collected from these workers were analyzed by ion-exchange technique followed by laser fluorimetry. Standard addition method was followed for estimation of uranium concentration in the samples. The minimum detectable activity by this technique is about 0.2 ng. The range of uranium observed in these samples varies from 19 to 132 ng/L. Few of these samples were also analyzed by fission track analysis technique and the results were found to be comparable to those obtained by laser fluorimetry. The urinary excretion rate observed for the individual can be regarded as a 'personal baseline' and will be treated as the existing level of uranium in urine for these workers at the facility. (author)

  16. Relative proportions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons differ between accumulation bioassays and chemical methods to predict bioavailability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L., E-mail: j.l.gomezeyles@reading.ac.u [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Department of Soil Science, Reading RG6 6DW, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E. [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Department of Soil Science, Reading RG6 6DW, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Chemical methods to predict the bioavailable fraction of organic contaminants are usually validated in the literature by comparison with established bioassays. A soil spiked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was aged over six months and subjected to butanol, cyclodextrin and tenax extractions as well as an exhaustive extraction to determine total PAH concentrations at several time points. Earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and rye grass root (Lolium multiflorum) accumulation bioassays were conducted in parallel. Butanol extractions gave the best relationship with earthworm accumulation (r{sup 2} <= 0.54, p <= 0.01); cyclodextrin, butanol and acetone-hexane extractions all gave good predictions of accumulation in rye grass roots (r{sup 2} <= 0.86, p <= 0.01). However, the profile of the PAHs extracted by the different chemical methods was significantly different (p < 0.01) to that accumulated in the organisms. Biota accumulated a higher proportion of the heavier 4-ringed PAHs. It is concluded that bioaccumulation is a complex process that cannot be predicted by measuring the bioavailable fraction alone. - The ability of chemical methods to predict PAH accumulation in Eisenia fetida and Lolium multiflorum was hindered by the varied metabolic fate of the different PAHs within the organisms.

  17. DOSEXPRT: A bioassay dosimetry code for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1992-04-01

    The bioassay code DOSEXPRT was developed for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to provide compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480, Chapter 11. DOSEXPRT computes the intake of a radionuclide in any year (considering both acute and chronic intakes) from in vivo measurements of the retained activity and/or measurements of the activity in excreta. The committed effective and organ doses for the intake are computed as well as the effective and organ doses expected to be received in each calendar year out to 50 years beyond the year of intake. The bioassay records used as input for DOSEXPRT are extracted from the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Occupational Health Information System (OHIS). DOSEXPRT implements a set of algorithms with parameters governing the translocation, retention, and excretion of the nuclide contained in data files specific to the nuclide. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent for the intakes in the year. Annual organ and effective doses are computed using additional dose-rate files that contain data on the dose rate at various times following a unit intake. If measurements are presented for more than one assay for a given nuclide, DOSEXPRT estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. DOSEXPRT is accessed off the OHIS MENU No. 4 and designed to be run as a batch processor, but can also be run interactively for testing purposes.

  18. DOSEXPRT: A bioassay dosimetry code for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1992-04-01

    The bioassay code DOSEXPRT was developed for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to provide compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480, Chapter 11. DOSEXPRT computes the intake of a radionuclide in any year (considering both acute and chronic intakes) from in vivo measurements of the retained activity and/or measurements of the activity in excreta. The committed effective and organ doses for the intake are computed as well as the effective and organ doses expected to be received in each calendar year out to 50 years beyond the year of intake. The bioassay records used as input for DOSEXPRT are extracted from the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Occupational Health Information System (OHIS). DOSEXPRT implements a set of algorithms with parameters governing the translocation, retention, and excretion of the nuclide contained in data files specific to the nuclide. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent for the intakes in the year. Annual organ and effective doses are computed using additional dose-rate files that contain data on the dose rate at various times following a unit intake. If measurements are presented for more than one assay for a given nuclide, DOSEXPRT estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. DOSEXPRT is accessed off the OHIS MENU No. 4 and designed to be run as a batch processor, but can also be run interactively for testing purposes.

  19. Bioassay of Lake Onego bottom sediments toxicity based on their chemical composition and deepwater macrozoobenthos state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinkina Nataliya Michailovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioassay of the toxicity of bottom sediments sampled in different areas of Lake Onega was carried out by crustaceans biotesting (Ceriodaphnia affinis Lillijeborg. It was shown that in the most areas of Lake Onega there are non-toxic bottom sediments. Toxic bottom sediments were found in Kondopogskaya Bay, intensively polluted with pulp-and-paper mill wastewaters. For the first time in the deep central part of Lake Onega the area was revealed where the toxic bottom sediments contain a high content of iron, manganese and other trace elements typical for the central areas of the lake. The mapping of the bottom of Lake Onega was accomplished, and three zones were identified based on the analysis of the data concerning the chemical composition of bottom sediments, bioassay toxicity data and the results of the deepwater macrozoobenthos assessment. For each zone the parameters of the main groups of benthos (Amphipoda, Oligochaeta, Chironomidae were defined. The first zone is located in the area of intensive anthropogenic influence (Kondopogskaya Bay, Petrozavodskaya Bay, Povenets Bay, Kizhi Skerries. The second zone is located mostly in the deep part of Petrozavodskaya Bay, where the most intensive development of amphipods is observed. The third area is identified for the first time: it is located in the central deep part of Lake Onega, where the communities of macrozoobenthos are limited by a natural toxic factor.

  20. Use of a germination bioassay to test compost maturity in Tekelan Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Zaman, Badrus; Purwono

    2018-02-01

    Livestock waste from cattle farms in Tekelan village, Getasan Subdistrict, Semarang Regency can be grouped into three types, namely solid waste, slurry and waste water. Solid waste (cow dung) was processed into compost, while slurry and waste water were used to make liquid fertilizer. This compost was used as a component of planting media in horticultural crops and potted plants production. We evaluated the toxicity (phytochemical and ecotoxicological) test of compost by using germination index (GI). Vigna radiata seeds are sown on filter paper dampened with compost extract for different times. GI was calculated by relative germination (G) and relative radical length (L). The germination index (GI) = G / G0 x L / L0 x 100, where G0 and L0 are values obtained by distilled water as a control. The results showed that germination bioassay and radical length using aquades and groundwater in Tekelan village did not affect the radical length of Vigna radiata . Technically, groundwater in Tekelan village can be used as a germination bioassay control. The cow dung compost substrate appears to have a major influence on compost toxicity. Mature compost was produced on day 14 with a GI of 104.03.

  1. Screening the Toxicity of Selected Personal Care Products Using Embryo Bioassays: 4-MBC, Propylparaben and Triclocarban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Torres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several emerging pollutants, including Personal Care Products (PCPs, have been detected in aquatic ecosystems, in the ng/L or µg/L range. Available toxicological data is limited, and, for certain PCPs, evidence indicates a potential risk for the environment. Hence, there is an urgent need to gather ecotoxicological data on PCPs as a proxy to improve risk assessment. Here, the toxicity of three different PCPs (4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor (4-MBC, propylparaben and triclocarban was tested using embryo bioassays with Danio rerio (zebrafish and Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin. The No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC for triclocarban was 0.256 µg/L for sea urchin and 100 µg/L for zebrafish, whereas NOEC for 4-MBC was 0.32 µg/L for sea urchin and 50 µg/L for zebrafish. Both PCPs impacted embryo development at environmentally relevant concentrations. In comparison with triclocarban and 4-MBC, propylparaben was less toxic for both sea urchin (NOEC = 160 µg/L and zebrafish (NOEC = 1000 µg/L. Overall, this study further demonstrates the sensitivity of embryo bioassays as a high-throughput approach for testing the toxicity of emerging pollutants.

  2. A bioassay for the detection of benzimidazoles reveals their presence in a range of environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence S Crofts

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobamides are a family of enzyme cofactors that include vitamin B12 (cobalamin and are produced solely by prokaryotes. Structural variability in the lower axial ligand has been observed in cobamides produced by diverse organisms. Of the three classes of lower ligands, the benzimidazoles are uniquely found in cobamides, whereas the purine and phenolic bases have additional biological functions. Many organisms acquire cobamides by salvaging and remodeling cobamides or their precursors from the environment. These processes require free benzimidazoles for incorporation as lower ligands, though the presence of benzimidazoles in the environment has not been previously investigated. Here, we report a new purification method and bioassay to measure the total free benzimidazole content of samples from microbial communities and laboratory media components. The bioassay relies on the calcofluor-bright phenotype of a bluB mutant of the model cobalamin-producing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. The concentrations of individual benzimidazoles in these samples were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Several benzimidazoles were detected in subpicomolar to subnanomolar concentrations in host-associated and environmental samples. In addition, benzimidazoles were found to be common contaminants of laboratory media components. These results suggest that benzimidazoles present in the environment and in laboratory media have the potential to influence microbial metabolic activities.

  3. Bioassay and characterization of soil microorganisms involved in the biodegradation of the fungicide, metalaxyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive bioassay was developed to detect low concentrations of metalaxyl in soils. The quantitative estimation of metalaxyl in soils was based on a significant positive relationship between the radial growth of Phytophthora boehmeriae and the log concentration of the fungicide in the agar. The isolate of P. boehmeriae was chosen for its sensitivity to metalaxyl as manifested in a linear growth response on cornmeal agar over a range of 2 to 30 ng/ml. The sensitivity and quantitative nature of the bioassay was confirmed by comparison with data obtained by using 14 C-metalaxyl. Metabolism of metalaxyl was detected in three of five avocado soils that had repeated applications of the fungicide over 2-5 yr. The average disappearance of metalaxyl was 28 days, and in the most active soils was 14 days. The composition and level of the microbial populations of soils, either active or inactive in the breakdown of metalaxyl, did not differ. Fungal and bacterial microflora recovered from these two soils by use of either selective media or filtration techniques were capable of metabolizing metalaxyl over a 45-day period

  4. Bioassay-guided purification and identification of PPARalpha/gamma agonists from Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yu-Cheng; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Huang, Chien-Fu; Lien, Tzu-Wen; Chen, Xin; Su, Ih-Jen; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang; Hsu, John Tsu-An

    2008-05-01

    This study isolated agonists of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) from the green algae Chlorella sorokiniana, using a bioassay-guided purification strategy. PPARs are widely recognized as the molecular drug targets for many diseases including hyperglycemia, diabetes, obesity and cancer. Two independent bioassays were developed. The first is the scintillation proximity assay, a ligand binding assay. The other is the cell-based transcriptional activation assay which uses the Dual-Luciferase reporter system as the reporter gene under the control of the PPAR response element. Using these two assays, a PPARgamma-active fraction, CE 3-3, was obtained from C. sorokiniana extracts, which was also able to activate PPARalphamediated gene expression. To elucidate the active ingredients in the CE 3-3 fraction, GC-MS analysis was employed. The results showed that the CE 3-3 fraction consisted of at least ten fatty acids (FAs). The bioactivities of several of the individual FAs were evaluated for their PPARgamma activity and the results showed that linolenic acid and linoleic acid were the most potent FAs tested. Our studies indicate that Chlorella sorokiniana could have potential health benefits through the dual activation of PPARalpha/gamma via its unique FA constituents.

  5. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a thymol-deprived hydrophilic thyme extract and its antispasmodic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbertz, Jonas; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Studt, Lena; Hensel, Andreas; Verspohl, Eugen J

    2012-06-14

    Extracts from Thymus vulgaris L. and Thymus zygis L. are traditionally used for bronchitis, catarrhs of the respiratory tract and supportive treatment of pertussis. A potential spasmolytic effect is thought to be due to the presence of the monoterpenoid phenols thymol and carvacrol in the extract. Based on previous data the present investigation aimed to clarify if thymol-deprived thyme extracts (as been in use within German drug market) have antispasmodic activity. Additionally compounds responsible for this effect had to be identified. Thyme fluid extract was subsequently fractionated by FCPC, LPLC, and HPLC and compounds isolated were identified by spectroscopic methods. Bioassay testing was done by quantification of antispasmodic activity in the preconstricted rat smooth muscle trachea model against papaverin as positive control. Thymol-deprived spissum extract (SE) had good antispasmodic activity (-37%, related to the maximum contraction). Bioassay-guided fractionation indicated that rosmarinic acid and apigenin do not contribute to this effect. Luteolin contributed significantly to the antispasmodic activity (-9%). Thyme extracts have antispasmodic activity, which is at least due to synergistic effects of phenolic volatile oil compounds and the flavone luteolin. Specifications of thyme-containing preparations should refer to this flavone in addition to focusing on the volatile phenols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of a germination bioassay to test compost maturity in Tekelan Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktiawan Wiharyanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock waste from cattle farms in Tekelan village, Getasan Subdistrict, Semarang Regency can be grouped into three types, namely solid waste, slurry and waste water. Solid waste (cow dung was processed into compost, while slurry and waste water were used to make liquid fertilizer. This compost was used as a component of planting media in horticultural crops and potted plants production. We evaluated the toxicity (phytochemical and ecotoxicological test of compost by using germination index (GI. Vigna radiata seeds are sown on filter paper dampened with compost extract for different times. GI was calculated by relative germination (G and relative radical length (L. The germination index (GI = G / G0 x L / L0 x 100, where G0 and L0 are values obtained by distilled water as a control. The results showed that germination bioassay and radical length using aquades and groundwater in Tekelan village did not affect the radical length of Vigna radiata . Technically, groundwater in Tekelan village can be used as a germination bioassay control. The cow dung compost substrate appears to have a major influence on compost toxicity. Mature compost was produced on day 14 with a GI of 104.03.

  7. Assessing the potential risk of oil-field produced waters using a battery of bioassays/biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Ma, Mei; Cui, Qing; Wang, Zijian

    2008-06-01

    A battery of in vitro bioassays was conducted to assess the potential risks of organic extracts from oilfield produced wastewaters and from the receiving waters. In SOS/umu bioassay for the genotoxicity, our results showed that direct and indirect genotoxic substances were observed and metabolic activation greatly enhanced the genotoxic effects. In Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase bioassay, levels of AhR-agonists, expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalences, varied from 13.3 to 16.7 pg L(-1). We conclude that oilfield produced wastewater contains substantial quantity of indirect genotoxic substances exclusive of AhR agonists. Both genotoxic and AhR agonistic chemicals could not be effectively removed by the treatment processes.

  8. Combining ability in maize for fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer resistance based on a laboratory bioassay for larval growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W P; Buckley, P M; Davis, F M

    1995-02-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, are major insect pests of maize, Zea mays L., in the southern USA. Both insects feed extensively on leaves of plants in the whorl stage of growth. A diallel cross of seven inbred lines with different levels of susceptibility to leaf feeding damage in the field was evaluated in a laboratory bioassay for fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer larval growth. Diets were prepared from lyophilized leaf tissue of field-grown plants of the inbred lines and their 21 F1 hybrids. One inbred line, Tx601, exhibited heavy leaf damage in field tests but showed moderate resistance in the laboratory bioassay. Both general and specific combining ability were highly significant sources of variation in the inheritance of fall armyworm and south-western corn borer larval growth in the laboratory bioassay. Tx601 showed excellent general combining ability for reduced larval growth of both species.

  9. Intemational collaborative study on the preparation of 1st international standard for rhTSH for bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ying; Shen Hongzheng; Yu Ting; Xu Ligen

    2007-01-01

    The history of the international collaborative studies on the preparation of standards of TSH for bioassay and immunoassay was reviewed. The result of collaborative study on the 1st international standard for thyroid-stimulating hormone, recombinant, human, for bioassay was reported in detail in this article. Based on the results of this collaborative study, it is proposed that the candidate standard be established as the international standard for rhTSH for bioassay, and be assigned an activity of 9.5 IU per ampoule. The national standard preparation of TSH for immunoassay was also reassayed, revealing the potency to be 0.557 mIU/ampoule, i.e. 92. 8% of the labelled value of 0.600mIU/ampoule, a reasonable consistency. (authors)

  10. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  11. Coupling of In Vitro Bioassays with Planar Chromatography in Effect-Directed Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stefan C; Egetenmeyer, Nicole; Schulz, Wolfgang

    Modern analytical test methods increasingly detect anthropogenic organic substances and their transformation products in water samples and in the environment. The presence of these compounds might pose a risk to the aquatic environment. To determine a possible (eco)toxicological risk, aquatic samples are tested using various bioassays, including sub-organismic assays such as the luminescent bacteria inhibition test, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition test, and the umu-test. The effect-directed analysis (EDA) combines physicochemical separation methods with biological (in vitro) tests. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has proved to be particularly well suited for the separation of organic compounds and the subsequent analysis of effects by the application of the biotests directly on the surface of the HPTLC plate. The advantage of using HPTLC in comparison to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for EDA is that the solvent which is used as a mobile phase during chromatography is completely evaporated after the separation and therefore can no longer influence the applied bioassays.A prioritization during the complex identification process can be achieved when observed effects are associated with the separated zones in HPTLC. This increases the probability of identifying the substance responsible for an adverse effect from the multitude of organic trace substances in environmental samples. Furthermore, by comparing the pattern of biological effects of a separated sample, it is possible to track and assess changes in biological activity over time, over space, or in the course of a process, even without identifying the substance. HPTLC has already been coupled with various bioassays.Because HPTLC is a very flexible system, various detection techniques can be used and combined. In addition to the UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence measurements, TLC can also be coupled with a mass spectrometer (MS) for compound identification. In addition

  12. Use of viral promoters in mammalian cell-based bioassays: How reliable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill-Sharma Manjit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cell-based bioassays have been suggested for screening of hormones and drug bioactivities. They are a plausible alternative to animal based methods. The technique used is called receptor/reporter system. Receptor/reporter system was initially developed as a research technique to understand gene function. Often reporter constructs containing viral promoters were used because they could be expressed with very 'high' magnitude in a variety of cell types in the laboratory. On the other hand mammalian genes are expressed in a cell/tissue specific manner, which makes them (i.e. cells/tissues specialized for specific function in vivo. Therefore, if the receptor/reporter system is to be used as a cell-based screen for testing of hormones and drugs for human therapy then the choice of cell line as well as the promoter in the reporter module is of prime importance so as to get a realistic measure of the bioactivities of 'test' compounds. We evaluated two conventionally used viral promoters and a natural mammalian promoter, regulated by steroid hormone progesterone, in a cell-based receptor/reporter system. The promoters were spliced into vectors expressing enzyme CAT (chloramphenicol acetyl transferase, which served as a reporter of their magnitudes and consistencies in controlling gene expressions. They were introduced into breast cell lines T47D and MCF-7, which served as a cell-based source of progesterone receptors. The yardstick of their reliability was highest magnitude as well as consistency in CAT expression on induction by sequential doses of progesterone. All the promoters responded to induction by progesterone doses ranging from 10-12 to 10-6 molar by expressing CAT enzyme, albeit with varying magnitudes and consistencies. The natural mammalian promoter showed the most coherence in magnitude as well as dose dependent expression profile in both the cell lines. Our study casts doubts on use of viral promoters in a cell-based bioassay for

  13. In vivo genotoxicity of furan in F344 rats at cancer bioassay doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Wei, E-mail: Wei.Ding@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Petibone, Dayton M. [Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Latendresse, John R. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Pearce, Mason G. [Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Muskhelishvili, Levan; White, Gene A. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Chang, Ching-Wei [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Mittelstaedt, Roberta A.; Shaddock, Joseph G.; McDaniel, Lea P. [Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Doerge, Daniel R. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Morris, Suzanne M.; Bishop, Michelle E.; Manjanatha, Mugimane G.; Aidoo, Anane; Heflich, Robert H. [Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Furan, a potent rodent liver carcinogen, is found in many cooked food items and thus represents a human cancer risk. Mechanisms for furan carcinogenicity were investigated in male F344 rats using the in vivo Comet and micronucleus assays, combined with analysis of histopathological and gene expression changes. In addition, formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease III (EndoIII)-sensitive DNA damage was monitored as a measure of oxidative DNA damage. Rats were treated by gavage on four consecutive days with 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg bw furan, doses that were tumorigenic in 2-year cancer bioassays, and with two higher doses, 12 and 16 mg/kg. Rats were killed 3 h after the last dose, a time established as producing maximum levels of DNA damage in livers of furan-treated rats. Liver Comet assays indicated that both DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines and pyrimidines increased in a near-linear dose-responsive fashion, with statistically significant increases detected at cancer bioassay doses. No DNA damage was detected in bone marrow, a non-target tissue for cancer, and peripheral blood micronucleus assays were negative. Histopathological evaluation of liver from furan-exposed animals produced evidence of inflammation, single-cell necrosis, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. In addition, genes related to apoptosis, cell-cycle checkpoints, and DNA-repair were expressed at a slightly lower level in the furan-treated livers. Although a mixed mode of action involving direct DNA binding cannot be ruled out, the data suggest that furan induces cancer in rat livers mainly through a secondary genotoxic mechanism involving oxidative stress, accompanied by inflammation, cell proliferation, and toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Furan is a potent rodent liver carcinogen and represents a human cancer risk. ► Furan induces DNA damage in rat liver at cancer bioassay doses. ► Furan induces oxidative stress, inflammation and cell proliferation in rat liver. ► Expression of

  14. Human sperm bioassay has potential in evaluating the quality of cumulus-oocyte complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, A M; Rizk, B; Huff, C; Helvacioglu, A; Thorneycroft, I H

    1996-01-01

    Human sperm bioassay is routinely used as a quality control check for the culture media. This is one of the three bioassays chosen by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) for interlaboratory proficiency testing to assess the standards of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and andrology laboratories. This study utilized sperm bioassay to assess the quality of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved in IVF procedures COCs, harvested from the female partner of IVF couples, undergoing identical ovarian stimulation protocols, were individually inseminated with the sperm of the corresponding male partner. Sperm motility in sperm-COC cocultures were compared. Cocultures were established by inseminating the 103 COCs, retrieved from 18 IVF couples with 1 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(5) sperm of the corresponding male partners of the couples. In all 18 cases, the sperm were prepared identically using the Percoll wash method. The cocultures were maintained for 48 h but the oocytes were removed immediately after the fertilization check (approximately 16 h). The motility of sperm in the cocultures and in the insemination stocks were noted and 17 of 18 sperm stocks used for insemination had similar high preinsemination motility (90.2 +/- 5.0%). At 48 h the sperm motility had significantly decreased in the cocultures compared to the insemination stocks; 52.7 +/- 19.9% versus 67.2 +/- 10.4%. There was no difference in the motility among the small, medium, and large COCs (56.4 +/- 24.6%, 52.5 +/- 17.9%, and 50.8 +/- 20.9%, respectively). In 45% of IVF cases, the motility in cocultures varied widely, falling below as well as above that of their corresponding insemination stocks. Furthermore, the sperm motility varied among the cocultures in both pregnant and nonpregnant patients but the extent of variation appears to be greater in the latter. The inter-COC coculture sperm motility variation most likely is due to the differences in the quality of cumulus-oocyte complexes.

  15. Contaminated sediments and bioassay responses of three macroinvertebrates, the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Haas, de E.M.; Maas, H.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Bioassays are widely used to estimate ecological risks of contaminated sediments. We compared the results of three whole sediment bioassays, using the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus, and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo. We used sediments from sixteen locations in

  16. Response of the braconid parasitoid Cotesia (= Apanteles) glomerata to volatile infochemicals: effects of bioassay set-up, parasitoid age and experience and barometric flux.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinberg, S.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Wanningen, R.

    1992-01-01

    Upon initiating a research project on the role of volatile infochemicals in the tritrophic system Cotesia (= Apanteles) glomerata (L.)-Pieris brassicae (L.)-cabbage, a bioassay was developed to investigate the response of C. glomerata. The bioassay should be effective in terms of high responsiveness

  17. Cohort profile of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register: current status and recent enhancement of an Electronic Mental Health Record-derived data resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Gayan; Broadbent, Matthew; Callard, Felicity; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Downs, Johnny; Dutta, Rina; Fernandes, Andrea; Hayes, Richard D; Henderson, Max; Jackson, Richard; Jewell, Amelia; Kadra, Giouliana; Little, Ryan; Pritchard, Megan; Shetty, Hitesh; Tulloch, Alex; Stewart, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register and its Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) application were developed in 2008, generating a research repository of real-time, anonymised, structured and open-text data derived from the electronic health record system used by SLaM, a large mental healthcare provider in southeast London. In this paper, we update this register's descriptive data, and describe the substantial expansion and extension of the data resource since its original development. Descriptive data were generated from the SLaM BRC Case Register on 31 December 2014. Currently, there are over 250,000 patient records accessed through CRIS. Since 2008, the most significant developments in the SLaM BRC Case Register have been the introduction of natural language processing to extract structured data from open-text fields, linkages to external sources of data, and the addition of a parallel relational database (Structured Query Language) output. Natural language processing applications to date have brought in new and hitherto inaccessible data on cognitive function, education, social care receipt, smoking, diagnostic statements and pharmacotherapy. In addition, through external data linkages, large volumes of supplementary information have been accessed on mortality, hospital attendances and cancer registrations. Coupled with robust data security and governance structures, electronic health records provide potentially transformative information on mental disorders and outcomes in routine clinical care. The SLaM BRC Case Register continues to grow as a database, with approximately 20,000 new cases added each year, in addition to extension of follow-up for existing cases. Data linkages and natural language processing present important opportunities to enhance this type of research resource further, achieving both volume and depth of data. However, research projects still

  18. Toxicity Appraisal of Untreated Dyeing Industry Wastewater Based on Chemical Characterization and Short Term Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Altaf, Imran

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing wastewaters only on a chemical basis may be insufficient owing to their complex nature. The purpose of this study was to assess toxicity of textile dyeing wastewater based on analytical techniques and short term toxicity based bioassays. In this study, screening of the fractionated wastewater through GC-MS showed the presence of phenols, phthalic acid derivatives and chlorpyrifos. Metal analysis revealed that chromium, arsenic and mercury were present in amounts higher than the wastewater discharge limits. Textile dyeing wastewater was found to be highly mutagenic in the Ames test. DNA damage in sheep lymphocytes decreased linearly with an increase in the dilution of wastewater. MTT assay showed that 8.3 percent v/v wastewater decreased cell survival percentage to 50 %. It can be concluded from this study that short term toxicity tests such as Ames test, in vitro comet assay, and cytotoxicity assays may serve as useful indicators of wastewater pollution along with their organic and inorganic chemical characterizations.

  19. Guide to the bioassay of uranium at uranium mine-mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    As a result of occupational exposure, uranium may be taken into the body by inhalation, ingestion or absorption through skin wounds. The organs at risk are the lung, kidney, and bones. Analysis of urine samples for uranium is recommended on a regular monthly basis, before and after a rest period, and it is suggested that a worker be removed from a working area if a level above 300 μg/l is found before a rest period, or 150 μg/l after a rest period. Background information on the development of a bioassay program is given, and a recommended program for uranium mine and mill facilities is included. (L.L.)

  20. Evaluation of oxidation techniques for preparing bioassay and environmental samples for liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.H.

    1979-10-01

    In environmental and biological monitoring for carbon-14 and tritium, the presence of color and chemical quenching agents in the samples can degrade the efficiency of liquid scintillation counting. A series of experiments was performed to evaluate the usefulness, under routine conditions, of first oxidizing the samples to improve the counting by removing the color and quenching agents. The scintillation counter was calibrated for the effects of quenching agents on its counting efficiency. Oxidizing apparatus was tested for its ability to accurately recover the 14 C and 3 H in the samples. Scintillation counting efficiences were compared for a variety of oxidized and unoxidized environmental and bioassay samples. The overall conclusion was that, for routine counting, oxidation of such samples is advantageous when they are highly quenched or in solid form

  1. Enumeration of Antibacterial Activity of Few Medicinal Plants by Bioassay Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Uma Reddy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of some common locally available plants, in order to estimate the biological potential of these herbs. The alcoholic extract of Tagetes erecta L (Asteraceae, Argemone mexicana L (Papavaraceae, Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae and Tylophora indica (Burm.f. Merr. (Asclepiadaceae were evaluated for antibacterial activity using broth dilution bioassay method. It is clear from the results that, the extracts of these plants acts as a good source of antibiotics against various bacterial pathogens tested and exhibited broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. These plant extracts were shown to be moderate to maximum inhibitory effect against different bacterial forms such as Salmonella typhii, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, where as, mild to moderate activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. The results of these studies revealed most valuable information and also support the continued sustainable use of these plants in traditional systems of medicine.

  2. An algorithm for robust non-linear analysis of radioimmunoassays and other bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normolle, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    The four-parameter logistic function is an appropriate model for many types of bioassays that have continuous response variables, such as radioimmunoassays. By modelling the variance of replicates in an assay, one can modify the usual parameter estimation techniques (for example, Gauss-Newton or Marquardt-Levenberg) to produce parameter estimates for the standard curve that are robust against outlying observations. This article describes the computation of robust (M-) estimates for the parameters of the four-parameter logistic function. It describes techniques for modelling the variance structure of the replicates, modifications to the usual iterative algorithms for parameter estimation in non-linear models, and a formula for inverse confidence intervals. To demonstrate the algorithm, the article presents examples where the robustly estimated four-parameter logistic model is compared with the logit-log and four-parameter logistic models with least-squares estimates. (author)

  3. Symposium on Short-Term Genetic Bioassays in the Evaluation of Complex Environmental Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Sandhu, Shahbeg; Lewtas, Joellen; Claxton, Larry; Strauss, Gary; Nesnow, Stephen

    1985-01-01

    With this proceedings of the fourth symposium on complex mixtures, we continue to revise and extend our knowledge of genetic methods for the evaluation of chemical mixtures in the environment. The early chapters of this volume are devoted to new bioassay techniques that are directly applicable to the monitoring of environments contaminated with genotoxic chemicals. Microbiological methods have been further refined to meet the special needs of atmospheric monitoring so that very small samples may now be efficiently tested. New in situ methods utilizing green plants actually avoid many of the usual difficulties of sample collection and preparation and offer special advantages in monitoring wastewater, sludges, and hazardous wastes. Insects also are being employed very effectively in the evaluation of gaseous air pollutants in controlled laboratory investigations. Increased emphasis has been placed on a comprehensive assessment of the potential of complex mixtures t9 cause various kinds of genetic damage. New as...

  4. Robust Discrimination between Single Gold Nanoparticles and Their Dimers in Aqueous Solution for Ultrasensitive Homogeneous Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kobayashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a robust method to distinguish isolated single gold nanoparticles (AuNP monomers and their dimers under Brownian motion, a key for ultrasensitive homogeneous bioassays, including AuNP sandwich assays. To detect dimers and distinguish them from a larger number of monomers in aqueous solution, single-particle polarization microscopy was performed. For the accurate detection of individual particles, the optical anisotropy and rotational diffusion time are measured because a dimer is much more anisotropic than the nearly spherical monomer and the rotational diffusion time of a dimer is four times that of a monomer. By employing an autocorrelation analysis, we defined a measure of distinguishing that simultaneously enables high detection probability and low error probability. The detection platform offers homogeneous DNA hybridization assays and immunoassays at the subpicomolar level.

  5. Antimutagenicity of hops (Humulus lupulus L.): bioassay-directed fractionation and isolation of xanthohumol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kac, Javor; Plazar, Janja; Mlinaric, Ales; Zegura, Bojana; Lah, Tamara T; Filipic, Metka

    2008-03-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation with a Salmonella/microsomal assay against the food borne mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was used to identify antimutagenic components of hops. Hops pellets extracted with diethylether showed antimutagenic activity against mutations induced by IQ. Fractionation of the diethylether extract (DE) by column chromatography, followed by semi-preparative HPLC yielded two fractions (E4b and E4d) with strong antimutagenic activity against IQ induced mutations. Separation of fraction E4b resulted in inactive fractions, while fraction E4d has been identified to be xanthohumol. In mammalian test system with human hepatoma HepG2 cells fraction E4d at 10mug/ml completely prevented formation of IQ induced DNA damage. These results indicate that xanthohumol is a very promising potential protective agent against genotoxicity of food borne carcinogens, which warrants further investigation.

  6. Stability of the intra- and extracellular toxins of Prymnesium parvum using a microalgal bioassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blossom, Hannah Eva; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Rasmussen, Silas Anselm

    2014-01-01

    Prymnesium parvum produces a variety of toxic compounds, which affect other algae, grazers and organisms at higher trophic levels. Here we provide the method for development of a sensitive algal bioassay using a microalgal target, Teleaulax acuta, to measure strain variability in P. parvum toxicity......, as well as the temporal stability of both the intracellular and the extracellular lytic compounds of P. parvum. We show high strain variation in toxicities after 3h incubation with LC50s ranging from 24 to 223×103cellsml−1. Most importantly we prove the necessity of testing physico-chemical properties...... of how to handle and store the toxins from P. parvum so as to maintain biologically relevant toxicity....

  7. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Cytotoxic Isocryptoporic Acids from Cryptoporus volvatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work constitutes a contribution to the phytochemical investigation of Cryptoporus volvatus aiming to search for effective cytotoxic constituents against tumor cell lines in vivo. Bioassay-guided separation of the ethylacetate extract of C. volvatus afforded four new isocryptoporic acid (ICA derivatives, ICA-B trimethyl ester (1, ICA-E (2, ICA-E pentamethyl ester (3, and ICA-G (4, together with nine known cryptoporic acids. These isocryptoporic acids are isomers of the cryptoporic acids with drimenol instead of albicanol as the terpenoid fragment; their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences (UV, IR, HRMS, and NMR and comparison with literature values. All isolates show certain cytotoxic activities against five tumor cell lines. Among them, compound 4 showed an comparable activity to that of the positive control cis-platin, while other compounds exhibited weak cytotoxic activities.

  8. The Canadian National Calibration Reference Center for Bioassay and in-vivo Monitoring: A program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.; Zamora, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian National Calibration Reference Center for Bioassay and in-vivo Monitoring is part of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of Health. The Reference Center operates a variety of different intercomparison programs that are designed to confirm that workplace monitoring results are accurate and provide the necessary external verification required by the Canadian regulators. The programs administered by the Reference Center currently include urinalysis intercomparisons for tritium, natural uranium, and 14 C, and in-vivo programs for whole-body, thorax, and thyroid monitoring. The benefits of the intercomparison programs to the participants are discussed by example. Future programs that are planned include dual spiked urine sample which contain both tritium and 14 C and the in-vivo measurement of 99m Tc. 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Estimation of 244Cm intake by bioassay measurements following a contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thein, M.; Bogard, J.S.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    An employee was contaminated with radioactive material consisting primarily of 244 Cm and 246 Cm as a consequence of handling a curium nitrate solution at a reprocessing facility. In vivo gamma analysis and in vitro (urine and fecal) analysis were initiated soon after the incident. Further in vivo measurements were performed regularly through hour 528, and in vitro bioassay measurements were obtained through day 74. A sample of the curium solution from the workplace was obtained to confirm that the nitrate was the chemical form and to identify the curium isotopes present. The mass ratio of 244 Cm: 246 Cm was determined to be 91:7. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) was administered on hours 33 and 71. Observed excretion rates were consistent with available information for curium in the literature. In this paper, the results of the in vivo and in vitro measurements are presented and intake estimates for the incident are developed using various excretion rate functions. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Analysis, separation, and bioassay of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from comfrey (Symphytum officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couet, C E; Crews, C; Hanley, A B

    1996-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been linked to liver and lung cancers and a range of other deleterious effects. As with many natural toxicants, major problems arise in determining the effects of the different members of the class and the importance of various forms of ingestion. In this study we have investigated the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey (Symphytum officinale), determined the levels in different parts of the plant and in herbal remedies, separated the alkaloids into two main groups--the principal parent alkaloids and the corresponding N-oxides--and, finally, carried out a simple bioassay based upon the mutagenic capability of the separated compounds in a human cell line. We conclude that the part of the plant ingested is important in terms of alkaloid challenge and that the effect of two of the major groups of alkaloids individually is different from that of alkaloids in the whole plant extract.

  11. A novel bioassay for the activity determination of therapeutic human brain natriuretic peptide (BNP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP is an important peptide-based therapeutic drug indicated for the treatment of acute heart failure. Accurate determination of the potency of therapeutic rhBNP is crucial for the safety and efficacy of the drug. The current bioassay involves use of rabbit aortic strips, with experiments being complicated and time-consuming and markedly variable in results. Animal-less methods with better precision and accuracy should be explored. We have therefore developed an alternative cell-based assay, which relies on the ability of BNP to induce cGMP production in HEK293 cells expressing BNP receptor guanylyl cyclase-A. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An alternative assay based on the measurement of BNP-induced cGMP production was developed. Specifically, the bioassay employs cells engineered to express BNP receptor guanylyl cyclase-A (GCA. Upon rhBNP stimulation, the levels of the second messager cGMP in these cells drastically increased and subsequently secreted into culture supernatants. The quantity of cGMP, which corresponds to the rhBNP activity, was determined using a competitive ELISA developed by us. Compared with the traditional assay, the novel cell-based assay demonstrated better reproducibility and precision. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The optimized cell-based assay is much simpler, more rapid and precise compared with the traditional assay using animal tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a novel and viable alternative assay for rhBNP potency analysis.

  12. A miniature bioassay for testing the acute phytotoxicity of photosystem II herbicides on seagrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Photosystem II (PSII herbicides have been detected in nearshore tropical waters such as those of the Great Barrier Reef and may add to the pressure posed by runoff containing sediments and nutrients to threatened seagrass habitats. There is a growing number of studies into the potential effects of herbicides on seagrass, generally using large experimental setups with potted plants. Here we describe the successful development of an acute 12-well plate phytotoxicity assay for the PSII herbicide Diuron using isolated Halophila ovalis leaves. Fluorescence images demonstrated Diuron affected the entire leaf surface evenly and responses were not influenced by isolating leaves from the plant. The optimum exposure duration was 24 h, by which time the inhibition of effective quantum yield of PSII (∆F/F(m' was highest and no deterioration of photosystems was evident in control leaves. The inhibition of ∆F/F(m' by Diuron in isolated H. ovalis leaves was identical to both potted and hydroponically grown plants (with leaves remaining attached to rhizomes, indicating similar reductions in photosynthetic activity in these acute well-plate assays. The sensitivity of the assay was not influenced by irradiance (range tested 40 to 400 μmol photons m(-2 s(-1. High irradiance, however, caused photo-oxidative stress in H. ovalis and this generally impacted in an additive or sub-additive way with Diuron to damage PSII. The bioassay using isolated leaves is more rapid, uses far less biological material and does not rely on specialised aquarium facilities in comparison with assays using potted plants. The development and validation of this sensitive bioassay will be useful to reliably screen and monitor the phytotoxicity of existing and emerging PSII herbicides and contribute to risk assessments and water quality guideline development in the future.

  13. A Miniature Bioassay for Testing the Acute Phytotoxicity of Photosystem II Herbicides on Seagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam D.; Collier, Catherine J.; Flores, Florita; Mercurio, Phil; O’Brien, Jake; Ralph, Peter J.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) herbicides have been detected in nearshore tropical waters such as those of the Great Barrier Reef and may add to the pressure posed by runoff containing sediments and nutrients to threatened seagrass habitats. There is a growing number of studies into the potential effects of herbicides on seagrass, generally using large experimental setups with potted plants. Here we describe the successful development of an acute 12-well plate phytotoxicity assay for the PSII herbicide Diuron using isolated Halophila ovalis leaves. Fluorescence images demonstrated Diuron affected the entire leaf surface evenly and responses were not influenced by isolating leaves from the plant. The optimum exposure duration was 24 h, by which time the inhibition of effective quantum yield of PSII (∆F/Fm’) was highest and no deterioration of photosystems was evident in control leaves. The inhibition of ∆F/Fm’ by Diuron in isolated H. ovalis leaves was identical to both potted and hydroponically grown plants (with leaves remaining attached to rhizomes), indicating similar reductions in photosynthetic activity in these acute well-plate assays. The sensitivity of the assay was not influenced by irradiance (range tested 40 to 400 μmol photons m-2 s-1). High irradiance, however, caused photo-oxidative stress in H. ovalis and this generally impacted in an additive or sub-additive way with Diuron to damage PSII. The bioassay using isolated leaves is more rapid, uses far less biological material and does not rely on specialised aquarium facilities in comparison with assays using potted plants. The development and validation of this sensitive bioassay will be useful to reliably screen and monitor the phytotoxicity of existing and emerging PSII herbicides and contribute to risk assessments and water quality guideline development in the future. PMID:25674791

  14. Bioassay-guided supercritical fluid extraction of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibiting substances in Plantago major L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenholm, A; Göransson, U; Bohlin, L

    2013-02-01

    Selective extraction of plant materials is advantageous for obtaining extracts enriched with desired constituents, thereby reducing the need for subsequent chromatography purification. Such compounds include three cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory substances in Plantago major L. targeted in this investigation: α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) (18:3 ω-3) and the triterpenic acids ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. To investigate the scope for tuning the selectivity of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using bioassay guidance, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane as solvent as a reference technique, to optimise yields of these substances. Extraction parameters were varied to optimise extracts' COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratios. The crude extracts were purified initially using a solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up procedure and the target compounds were identified with GC-MS, LC-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS² using GC-FID for quantification. α-LNA was preferentially extracted in dynamic mode using unmodified carbon dioxide at 40°C and 172 bar, at a 0.04% (w/w) yield with a COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratio of 1.5. Ursolic and oleanolic acids were dynamically extracted at 0.25% and 0.06% yields, respectively, with no traces of (α-LNA) and a COX-2/COX-1-inhibitory effect ratio of 1.1 using 10% (v/v) ethanol as polar modifier at 75°C and 483 bar. The Soxhlet extracts had ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and αLNA yields up to 1.36%, 0.34% and 0.15%, respectively, with a COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratio of 1.2. The target substances can be extracted selectively by bioassay guided optimisation of SFE conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Influence of light in acute toxicity bioassays of imidacloprid and zinc pyrithione to zooplankton crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Kouichi

    2006-06-30

    The acute toxicity of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, and zinc pyrithione (Zpt), a biocide used in anti-dandruff shampoos and protective antifouling paints, to three species of ostracods and two waterfleas, including Daphnia magna, was determined and compared under light and dark conditions. Under normal laboratory conditions, UV light had no significant influence on the outcome of toxicity bioassays, although in the case of imidacloprid both EC(50) and LC(50) calculated values were twice as high under the light as in the dark. No influence of UV light was observed on bioassays conducted with Zpt, in spite of the fast aqueous photolysis exhibited by this compound. Imidacloprid 48-h LC(50) for cladocerans (65-133mg/L) were two orders of magnitude higher than for ostracods (301-715microg/L); values of EC(50) for cladocerans and ostracods were 2-6mg/L and 3-16microg/L, respectively. Toxicity of Zpt to both ostracod and cladoceran species appears to be similar, with 48-h LC(50) in the range 137-524 and 75-197microg/L for ostracods and cladocerans, respectively, and similar values for EC(50)s. The mortality endpoint (LC(50)), however, is not a reliable predictor of the effects of imidacloprid under field situations (e.g. rice paddies), because the paralysis effect induced by this insecticide takes place at much lower concentrations than those required to cause the death of the animals: regardless of the taxa, differences as large as 100- or 600-fold were observed between the EC(50) and LC(50) for the same exposures. As a consequence, immobilization tests and EC(50) values are recommended for this class of compounds, while caution should be exercised in environmental risk assessments of this and possibly other related neonicotinoid insecticides with similar activity.

  16. Developing a quick and inexpensive in vitro (non-animal) bioassay for mascara irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, H; Montagnes, D J S

    2014-04-01

    Mascara is a mild irritant that causes a range of medical problems. Animal models to predict ocular irritation have, however, been questioned at a number of levels, and there is a continued need to develop in vitro testing methods. We assess changes in an easily quantifiable attribute, ciliated protozoan growth rate, as a sensitive, sublethal measure. Specifically, we test six, randomly chosen, commercial mascara products against a control (as treatments) and reveal through ANOVA (n = 6, α = 0.05) significant differences in the specific growth rate to treatments (for both protozoa). We provide evidence that two easily cultured protozoa (Paramecium caudatum, Blepharisma japonicum) should be considered as models to assess ocular irritancy (and possibly cosmetics in general) and establish the groundwork for such studies to be applied at a more commercial level. We do this by developing a bioassay for mascara toxicity and indicate the low cost (after equipment is purchased, on the order of $100s) and the ease of performing such tests (able to be conducted by undergraduate students), as a consideration for their future commercial application. We first examined dose dependence of responses, revealing that there was a need to conduct preliminary work to determine appropriate levels for sublethal responses. We then show that some products resulted in mortality at high concentrations, others decreased growth rate by >50% (compared with the control), whereas others had no significant effect, compared with the control. We have provided a novel, quick and inexpensive means to assess mascara; the next step is to validate these ciliate bioassays by comparison with animal testing and epidemiological studies, which is beyond the scope of this fundamental 'proof-of-concept' study. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Effects of Direct and Indirect Exposure of Insecticides to Garden Symphylan (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) in Laboratory Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V

    2015-12-01

    The garden symphylan, Scutigerella immaculata Newport, is a serious soil pest whose root feeding affects yield and survival of several high valued crops in the California's central coast. Because organophosphate insecticides, widely used for S. immaculata control, are rigorously regulated and little is known about the efficacy of alternate insecticides, laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine insecticide efficacy through repellency and lethality. To determine indirect repellency (noncontact) of insecticides, choice assays were conducted where five S. immaculata were introduced into the arena to choose between insecticide-treated and untreated wells whereas, in direct repellency (contact) assays, three insecticide-treated 1-cm-diameter discs were pasted into the arena and the number of visits, time spent per visitation, and number of long-duration (>10 s) stays of five S. immaculata were quantified. To determine efficacy through direct mortality, number of S. immaculata died after 72 h were determined by introducing 10 S. immaculata to insecticide-treated soil assays. In indirect exposure bioassays, seven (clothianidin, oxamyl, zeta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, ethoprop, azadirachtin, and a combination of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid) out of 14 insecticides tested elicited repellency to S. immaculata. Of six insecticides tested in the direct exposure assays, only tolfenpyrad elicited contact repellency. In soil assays, after 72 h of introduction, bifenthrin, oxamyl, clothianidin, zeta-cypermethrin, and tolfenpyrad caused 100, 95, 80, 44, and 44% S. immaculata mortality, respectively, which was significantly greater than distilled water and four other insecticides. The implications of these results on S. immaculata management in the California's central coast are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: roel.smolders@ua.ac.be; Bervoets, L. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  19. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  20. A fish-feeding laboratory bioassay to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Micah J; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-11

    Marine chemical ecology is a young discipline, having emerged from the collaboration of natural products chemists and marine ecologists in the 1980s with the goal of examining the ecological functions of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. The result has been a progression of protocols that have increasingly refined the ecological relevance of the experimental approach. Here we present the most up-to-date version of a fish-feeding laboratory bioassay that enables investigators to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. Organic metabolites of all polarities are exhaustively extracted from the tissue of the target organism and reconstituted at natural concentrations in a nutritionally appropriate food matrix. Experimental food pellets are presented to a generalist predator in laboratory feeding assays to assess the antipredatory activity of the extract. The procedure described herein uses the bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum, to test the palatability of Caribbean marine invertebrates; however, the design may be readily adapted to other systems. Results obtained using this laboratory assay are an important prelude to field experiments that rely on the feeding responses of a full complement of potential predators. Additionally, this bioassay can be used to direct the isolation of feeding-deterrent metabolites through bioassay-guided fractionation. This feeding bioassay has advanced our understanding of the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine invertebrates on Caribbean coral reefs and may inform investigations in diverse fields of inquiry, including pharmacology, biotechnology, and evolutionary ecology.

  1. Elemol and Amyris Oil Repel the Ticks Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in Laboratory Bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil from Amyris balsamifera (Rutaceae) and elemol, a principal constituent of the essential oil of Osage orange, Maclura pomifera (Moraceae) were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo laboratory bioassays for repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes sc...

  2. Evaluation of the toxic effects of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper using a battery of four bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Lee, Pyeong-Koo [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Geologic Environment Div.; Kong, In Chul [Yeungnam Univ., Kyungbuk (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-09-15

    The sensitivities of four different kinds of bioassays to the toxicities of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper were compared. The different bioassays exhibited different sensitivities, i.e., they responded to different levels of toxicity of each of the different metals. However, with the exception of the {alpha}-glucosidase enzyme activity, arsenite was the most toxic compound towards all the tested organisms, exhibiting the highest toxic effect on the seeds of Lactuca, with an EC{sub 50} value of 0.63 mg/L. The sensitivities of Lactuca and Raphanus were greater than the sensitivities of two other kinds of seeds tested. Therefore, these were the seeds appropriate for use in a seed germination assay. A high revertant mutagenic ratio (5:1) of Salmonella typhimurium was observed with an arsenite concentration of 0.1 {mu}g/plate, indicative of a high possibility of mutagenicity. These different results suggested that a battery of bioassays, rather than one bioassay alone, is needed as a more accurate and better tool for the bioassessment of environmental pollutants. (orig.)

  3. A Greenhouse Bioassay for the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense x ‘Grand Naine’ (Musa, AAA, Cavendish Subgroup) Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Paiva, L.V.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Several disease resistance screening protocols for Fusarium wilt of banana (causal agent Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense - Foc) under greenhouse conditions have been reported. Here, we report a standardised rapid and reliable greenhouse bioassay for this pathosystem. This is indispensable for

  4. Sample preparation method for the ER-CALUX bioassay screening of (xeno-)estrogenic activity in sediment extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, C.J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Kapiteijn, W.; Bakker, J.F.; Brouwer, A.; Lamoree, M.H.; Legler, J.; Klamer, H.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The application of bioassays to assess the occurrence of estrogenic compounds in the environment is increasing in both a scientific and statutory context. The availability of appropriate validated methods for sample pre-treatment and analysis is crucial for the successful implementation of

  5. Bioactivity-Based Molecular Networking for the Discovery of Drug Leads in Natural Product Bioassay-Guided Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothias, Louis-Félix; Nothias-Esposito, Mélissa; da Silva, Ricardo; Wang, Mingxun; Protsyuk, Ivan; Zhang, Zheng; Sarvepalli, Abi; Leyssen, Pieter; Touboul, David; Costa, Jean; Paolini, Julien; Alexandrov, Theodore; Litaudon, Marc; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2018-03-02

    It is a common problem in natural product therapeutic lead discovery programs that despite good bioassay results in the initial extract, the active compound(s) may not be isolated during subsequent bioassay-guided purification. Herein, we present the concept of bioactive molecular networking to find candidate active molecules directly from fractionated bioactive extracts. By employing tandem mass spectrometry, it is possible to accelerate the dereplication of molecules using molecular networking prior to subsequent isolation of the compounds, and it is also possible to expose potentially bioactive molecules using bioactivity score prediction. Indeed, bioactivity score prediction can be calculated with the relative abundance of a molecule in fractions and the bioactivity level of each fraction. For that reason, we have developed a bioinformatic workflow able to map bioactivity score in molecular networks and applied it for discovery of antiviral compounds from a previously investigated extract of Euphorbia dendroides where the bioactive candidate molecules were not discovered following a classical bioassay-guided fractionation procedure. It can be expected that this approach will be implemented as a systematic strategy, not only in current and future bioactive lead discovery from natural extract collections but also for the reinvestigation of the untapped reservoir of bioactive analogues in previous bioassay-guided fractionation efforts.

  6. Comparison of competitive ligand-binding assay and bioassay formats for the measurement of neutralizing antibodies to protein therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finco, Deborah; Baltrukonis, Daniel; Clements-Egan, Adrienne; Delaria, Kathy; Gunn, George R; Lowe, John; Maia, Mauricio; Wong, Teresa

    2011-01-25

    Administration of biological therapeutic proteins can lead to unwanted immunogenicity in recipients of these products. The assessment and characterization of such immune reactions can be helpful to better understand their clinical relevance and how they relate to patient safety and therefore, have become an integral part of a product development program for biological therapeutics. Testing for anti-drug antibodies (ADA) to biological/biotechnology-derived therapeutic proteins generally follows a tiered approach. Samples are initially screened for binding antibodies; presumptive positives are then confirmed in a confirmatory assay; subsequently, confirmed-positive samples may be further characterized by titration and with a neutralizing antibody (NAb) assay. Regulatory guidances on immunogenicity state that assessing the neutralizing capacity of antibodies should preferably be done using functional bioassays, while recognizing that competitive ligand-binding (CLB) assays may be substituted when neutralizing bioassays are inadequate or not feasible. This manuscript describes case studies from four companies in which CLB assays and functional bioassays were compared for their ability to detect neutralizing ADA against a variety of biotechnology-derived therapeutic proteins. Our findings indicate that CLB assays are comparable to bioassays for the detection of NAbs, in some cases offering better detection sensitivity, lower variability, and less matrix interference. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioassay-guided isolation of apigenin with GABA-benzodiazepine activity from Tanacetum parthenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna Katharina; Krydsfeldt, Katrine; Rasmussen, Hasse Bonde

    2009-01-01

    was fractionated by VLC on silica and preparative C18 HPLC. Each step was monitored with the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine bioassay. The fractionation led to the isolation of apigenin, which may be responsible for CNS-effects of T. parthenium extracts. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  8. Interpretation of bioassays in the study of interactions between soil organisms and plants: involvement of nutrient factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troelstra, S.R.; Wagenaar, R.; Smant, W.; Peters, B.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Increased plant growth in sterilized soil is usually ascribed to the elimination of (often unidentified) soil-borne pathogens. Plant-soil bioassays are reported here for three dune soils and two plant species (Ammophila arenaria and Carer arenaria). Dynamics of plant growth, availability and uptake

  9. Sensitivity and specificity of the bioassay of estrogenicity in mammary gland and seminal vesicles of male mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škarda, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2002), s. 267-276 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/99/0843; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Keywords : bioassay * estrogenicity * mammary gland Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2002

  10. Assessment of N and P in organic fertilizer using the missing element technique and a microbial bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, E.; Ramirez, C.

    2002-01-01

    Assessment of N and P in organic fertilizers using the missing element technique and a microbial bioassay.Through a greenhouse bioassay, using sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) as a test plant, and a microbial assay the availability of N and P in 6 substrates was determined, namely: soil alone and in combination with several organic amendments 10% W/W of chicken manure (CM), compost (C), bocashi (B), vermicompost (V) and coffe hulls (Br). In the microbial assay a complete randomized design with 6 replicates was used; the microbial biomass (BM) was determined 2 days after the glucose amendment of each treatment. In both bioassays a 2 X 2 factorial (N and P fertilization) was establish and the following combinations resulted: +N, +P, +P+N and -P-N (control). For the greenhouse experiment, a complete randomized design with 4 replicates was used. Above-ground plant material of sorghum was harvested 34 days after showing to determine plant dry weight (PS) and content of N and P. Both assays showed a response to the soil amendment with N and P. Soil treatments with CM, C and B showed the highest values of PS and BM. Soil treatment with CM amended with N, P or both did not showed a response in PS or BM, in C and B there was a response to N addition but not to P. In treatments with V and Br, the lowest values for PS and BM were obtained, and there was a growth response to N and P. Both bioassays were able to pinpoint N and P defficiencies in the soil as well in some of the mixtures of soil with organic amendments. A high correlation was encountered between the greenhouse assay and the microbial bioassay (r= 0.86, P=0.0001). Therefore, the microbial bioassay can be a cheaper alternative to the plant bioassay not only to evaluate the nutritional quality of compost but also to identify nutrient deficiencies in soils as well as in substrates amended with organic fertilizers. (Author) [es

  11. Investigation of independence in inter-animal tumor-type occurrences within the NTP rodent-bioassay database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Seilkop, S. [Analytical Sciences, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Statistically significant elevation in tumor incidence at multiple histologically distinct sites is occasionally observed among rodent bioassays of chemically induced carcinogenesis. If such data are to be relied on (as they have, e.g., by the US EPA) for quantitative cancer potency assessment, their proper analysis requires a knowledge of the extent to which multiple tumor-type occurrences are independent or uncorrelated within individual bioassay animals. Although difficult to assess in a statistically rigorous fashion, a few significant associations among tumor-type occurrences in rodent bioassays have been reported. However, no comprehensive studies of animal-specific tumor-type occurrences at death or sacrifice have been conducted using the extensive set of available NTP rodent-bioassay data, on which most cancer-potency assessment for environmental chemicals is currently based. This report presents the results of such an analysis conducted on behalf of the National Research Council`s Committee on Risk Assessment for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Tumor-type associations among individual animals were examined for {approximately}2500 to 3000 control and {approximately}200 to 600 treated animals using pathology data from 62 B6C3F1 mouse studies and 61 F/344N rat studies obtained from a readily available subset of the NTP carcinogenesis bioassay database. No evidence was found for any large correlation in either the onset probability or the prevalence-at-death or sacrifice of any tumor-type pair investigated in control and treated rats and niece, although a few of the small correlations present were statistically significant. Tumor-type occurrences were in most cases nearly independent, and departures from independence, where they did occur, were small. This finding is qualified in that tumor-type onset correlations were measured only indirectly, given the limited nature of the data analyzed.

  12. Integrating bioassays and analytical chemistry as an improved approach to support safety assessment of food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrand, Julien; Marin-Kuan, Maricel; Bezencon, Claudine; Frank, Nancy; Guérin, Violaine; Koster, Sander; Latado, Hélia; Mollergues, Julie; Patin, Amaury; Piguet, Dominique; Serrant, Patrick; Varela, Jesus; Schilter, Benoît

    2017-10-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) contain chemicals which can migrate into food and result in human exposure. Although it is mandatory to ensure that migration does not endanger human health, there is still no consensus on how to pragmatically assess the safety of FCM since traditional approaches would require extensive toxicological and analytical testing which are expensive and time consuming. Recently, the combination of bioassays, analytical chemistry and risk assessment has been promoted as a new paradigm to identify toxicologically relevant molecules and address safety issues. However, there has been debate on the actual value of bioassays in that framework. In the present work, a FCM anticipated to release the endocrine active chemical 4-nonyphenol (4NP) was used as a model. In a migration study, the leaching of 4NP was confirmed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. This was correlated with an increase in both estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities as measured with bioassays. A standard risk assessment indicated that according to the food intake scenario applied, the level of 4NP measured was lower, close or slightly above the acceptable daily intake. Altogether these results show that bioassays could reveal the presence of an endocrine active chemical in a real-case FCM migration study. The levels reported were relevant for safety assessment. In addition, this work also highlighted that bioactivity measured in migrate does not necessarily represent a safety issue. In conclusion, together with analytics, bioassays contribute to identify toxicologically relevant molecules leaching from FCM and enable improved safety assessment.

  13. Model for Presenting Resources in Scholar's Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary; Newby, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Presenting electronic resources to users through a federated search engine introduces unique opportunities and challenges to libraries. This article reports on the decision-making tools and processes used for selecting collections of electronic resources by a project team at the University of Arizona (UA) Libraries for the Association of Research…

  14. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  15. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  16. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  17. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    to the source, supply rate, sediment type and seabed topography. Indian Ocean is second largest and least explored for nonrenewable resources. Compared to deep-sea, relatively better knowledge is available for the near shore deposits. A concise account...

  18. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  19. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  20. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  1. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  2. Internet and Electronic Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    centers to form consortia and share electronic information sources. Although traditional resource sharing arrangements encouraged competition rather... electronic information sources are a challenge for electronic information managers. Libraries and information centers are no longer “the only game in town...

  3. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase, use and disposal of electronics.The EEBC estimates the environmental and economic benefits of: Purchasing Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)-registered products; Enabling power management features on computers and monitors above default percentages; Extending the life of equipment beyond baseline values; Reusing computers, monitors and cell phones; and Recycling computers, monitors, cell phones and loads of mixed electronic products.The EEBC may be downloaded as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.See https://www.federalelectronicschallenge.net/resources/bencalc.htm for more details.

  4. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is an urgent demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that the power capacity has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of energy should be as efficient as possible and incentives to save...... energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...

  5. Assessment of mobility and bioavailability of contaminants in MSW incineration ash with aquatic and terrestrial bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribé, V; Nehrenheim, E; Odlare, M

    2014-10-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste treatment method which can be sustainable in terms of waste volume reduction as well as a source of renewable energy. In the process fly and bottom ash is generated as a waste material. The ash residue may vary greatly in composition depending on the type of waste incinerated and it can contain elevated levels of harmful contaminants such as heavy metals. In this study, the ecotoxicity of a weathered, untreated incineration bottom ash was characterized as defined by the H14 criterion of the EU Waste Framework Directive by means of an elemental analysis, leaching tests followed by a chemical analysis and a combination of aquatic and solid-phase bioassays. The experiments were conducted to assess the mobility and bioavailability of ash contaminants. A combination of aquatic and terrestrial bioassays was used to determine potentially adverse acute effects of exposure to the solid ash and aqueous ash leachates. The results from the study showed that the bottom ash from a municipal waste incineration plant in mid-Sweden contained levels of metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn, which exceeded the Swedish EPA limit values for inert wastes. The chemical analysis of the ash leachates showed high concentrations of particularly Cr. The leachate concentration of Cr exceeded the limit value for L/S 10 leaching for inert wastes. Filtration of leachates prior to analysis may have underestimated the leachability of complex-forming metals such as Cu and Pb. The germination test of solid ash and ash leachates using T. repens showed a higher inhibition of seedling emergence of seeds exposed to the solid ash than the seeds exposed to ash leachates. This indicated a relatively low mobility of toxicants from the solid ash into the leachates, although some metals exceeded the L/S 10 leaching limit values for inert wastes. The Microtox® toxicity test showed only a very low toxic response to the ash leachate exposure, while the D. magna

  6. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    OpenAIRE

    Huang-Yu Liu; Jung-Huei Shu

    2008-01-01

    電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public...

  7. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal K. Panda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO2 through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed (Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich and cationic Zn2+ from Zn(CH3COO2 were tested in a dose range of 0–100 mg·L−1 for their potency (i to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O2•−, H2O2 and •OH, cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; and (iii to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn2+ alone.

  8. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Kamal K; Golari, Dambaru; Venugopal, A; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomei, Ganngam; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Sahu, Hrushi K; Panda, Brahma B

    2017-05-18

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH₃COO)₂) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed ( Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn 2+ from Zn(CH₃COO)₂ were tested in a dose range of 0-100 mg·L -1 for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O₂ •- , H₂O₂ and • OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn 2+ alone.

  9. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed to ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics on ...

  10. Resource Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  11. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  12. Comparative study on toxicity evaluation of anaerobically treated parboiled rice manufacturing wastewater through fish bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Dipti Ramesh; Singh, Ekta; Satyanarayan, Shanta

    2016-01-01

    Short term aquatic bioassay has been developed into a useful tool in water quality management. These tests give information on comparative toxicity of several compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of raw and anaerobically treated effluents of the parboiled rice manufacturing industry. The acute toxicity test was carried out by using the fish Lebistes reticulatus under laboratory conditions. LC50 values for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours ranged between 4.6 and 7.0% for the raw parboiled rice manufacturing wastewater. Two anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactors and two different media matrices, i.e. UV stabilized Biopac media and Fugino spirals, were used for the treatment of parboiled rice mill wastewater. Effluents from these two reactors depicted LC50 values in the range of 68-88% and 62-78% for Biopac and Fugino spiral packed reactors, respectively. From the results, it is evident that anaerobically treated effluents from Biopac packed reactor is marginally better than Fugino spiral packed reactor. Results subjected to statistical evaluation depicted regression coefficient of more than 0.9 indicating good correlation between the mortality and effluent concentration.

  13. Engineered bakers yeast as a sensitive bioassay indicator organism for the trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolmaali, Shamsozoha; Mitterbauer, Rudolf; Spadiut, Oliver; Peruci, Michaela; Weindorfer, Hanna; Lucyshyn, Doris; Ellersdorfer, Günther; Lemmens, Marc; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Adam, Gerhard

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae towards trichothecene toxins, in particular to deoxynivalenol (DON), in order to improve the utility of this yeast as a bioassay indicator organism. We report the construction of a strain with inactivated genes (PDR5, PDR10, PDR15) encoding ABC transporter proteins with specificity for the trichothecene deoxynivalenol, with inactivated AYT1 (encoding a trichothecene-3-O-acetyltransferase), and inactivated UBI4 and UBP6 genes. Inactivation of the stress inducible polyubiquitin gene UBI4 or the ubiquitin protease UBP6 increased DON sensitivity, the inactivation of both genes had a synergistic effect. The resulting pdr5 pdr10 pdr15 ayt1 ubp6 ubi4 mutant strain showed 50% growth inhibition at a DON concentration of 5 mg/l under optimal conditions. The development of a simple two step assay for microbial DON degradation in 96 well microtiter format and its testing with the DON detoxifying bacterium BBSH 797 is reported.

  14. Bioassay data and a retention-excretion model for systemic plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    The estimation of systemic burdens from urinalyses has been the most common and useful method of quantifying occupational exposures to plutonium. Problems arise in using this technique, however, because of inadequate modeling of human retention, translocation, and excretion of this element. Present methods for estimating the systemic burden from urinalyses were derived to a large extent from patterns observed in the first few months after exposure, but there is now evidence that these same patterns do not persist over long periods. In this report we collect and discuss data needed for the interpretation of bioassay results for Pu. These data are used to develop a model that describes the movement, retention, and excretion of systemic Pu in the human body in terms of explicitly identified anatomical compartments. This model may be used in conjunction with existing models and/or case-specific information concerning the translocation of Pu from the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract or from wounds to the bloodstream. Attention is restricted to the behavior of Pu after it has gained access to the bloodstream. There remain significant uncertainties concerning some aspects of the movement of Pu, particularly its translocation from the liver. An attempt has been made to construct the model in such a way as to elucidate those areas needing further attention. 98 references, 18 figures, 16 tables.

  15. Measuring effects of music, noise, and healing energy using a seed germination bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creath, Katherine; Schwartz, Gary E

    2004-02-01

    To measure biologic effects of music, noise, and healing energy without human preferences or placebo effects using seed germination as an objective biomarker. A series of five experiments were performed utilizing okra and zucchini seeds germinated in acoustically shielded, thermally insulated, dark, humid growth chambers. Conditions compared were an untreated control, musical sound, pink noise, and healing energy. Healing energy was administered for 15-20 minutes every 12 hours with the intention that the treated seeds would germinate faster than the untreated seeds. The objective marker was the number of seeds sprouted out of groups of 25 seeds counted at 12-hour intervals over a 72-hour growing period. Temperature and relative humidity were monitored every 15 minutes inside the seed germination containers. A total of 14 trials were run testing a total of 4600 seeds. Musical sound had a highly statistically significant effect on the number of seeds sprouted compared to the untreated control over all five experiments for the main condition (p type, position in room, specific petri dish, and person doing the scoring. Musical sound had a significant effect compared to noise and an untreated control as a function of time (p musical sound. This study suggests that sound vibrations (music and noise) as well as biofields (bioelectromagnetic and healing intention) both directly affect living biologic systems, and that a seed germination bioassay has the sensitivity to enable detection of effects caused by various applied energetic conditions.

  16. Rat lymphoma cell bioassay for prolactin: observations on its use and comparison with radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, D.M.; Sensui, N.; Haisenleder, D.H.; Gala, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    The rat Nb 2 node lymphoma cell bioassay (BA) for prolactin (PRL) was validated for use in our laboratories. During the course of this validation we observed that rat prolactin (NIAMDD-RP-1) stimulated cell division by as much as 16.5 fold over the range of 0.04 to 40.0 ng/ml at the end of 72 hours of incubation. We also observed a dose related increase in the size of the lymphoma cells. Prolactin concentrations in rat plasma, serum, anterior pituitary (AP) homogenates and milk were measured by both radioimmunoassay (RIA) and BA. In individual BA's there was parallelism between samples and standard; but when several dilutions of the same plasma and pituitary homogenates were assayed repeatedly, higher PRL levels were consistently observed for the more concentrated samples. At low or moderate levels of plasma PRL there was excellent agreement between RIA and BA; however, at high levels plasma PRL bioactivity exceeded radioimmunoactivity by a small, but significant, amount. A comparison of pituitary PRL concentrations measured by RIA and BA were in good agreement when homogenization was done at pH 10.6. However, when homogenization was done at pH 7.6, slightly but significantly more PRL was extracted when assayed by BA than when assayed by RIA

  17. Bioassay-directed fractionation of a blood coagulation factor Xa inhibitor, betulinic acid from Lycopus lucidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yin-Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disorders, including acute coronary syndrome, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, peripheral arterial occlusion, ischemic stroke, deep-vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics can reduce the risks of these clinical events. Especially, the blood coagulation factor Xa (FXa inhibitor is a proven anticoagulant. Promoting blood circulation, using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, for the treatment of these diseases has been safely used for thousands of years in clinical practice. Therefore, highly safe and effective anticoagulant ingredients, including FXa inhibitors, could be found in TCM for activating the blood circulation. One FXa inhibitor, a pentacyclic triterpene (compound 1, betulinic acid characterized by IR, MS and NMR analyses, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Lycopus lucidus by bioassay-directed fractionation. Compound 1 exhibited an inhibitory effect on FXa with IC50 25.05 μmol/L and reduced the thrombus weight in an animal model at 25-100 mg/kg. These results indicate that betulinic acid could be the potential for anticoagulant therapy.

  18. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Maryam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L. used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus.

  19. Electrochemical detection of miRNA-222 by use of a magnetic bead-based bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettazzi, Francesca; Hamid-Asl, Ezat; Esposito, Carla Lucia; Quintavalle, Cristina; Formisano, Nello; Laschi, Serena; Catuogno, Silvia; Iaboni, Margherita; Marrazza, Giovanna; Mascini, Marco; Cerchia, Laura; De Franciscis, Vittorio; Condorelli, Gerolama; Palchetti, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are naturally occurring small RNAs (approximately 22 nucleotides in length) that have critical functions in a variety of biological processes, including tumorigenesis. They are an important target for detection technology for future medical diagnostics. In this paper we report an electrochemical method for miRNA detection based on paramagnetic beads and enzyme amplification. In particular, miR 222 was chosen as model sequence, because of its involvement in brain, lung, and liver cancers. The proposed bioassay is based on biotinylated DNA capture probes immobilized on streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads. Total RNA was extracted from the cell sample, enriched for small RNA, biotinylated, and then hybridized with the capture probe on the beads. The beads were then incubated with streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase and exposed to the appropriate enzymatic substrate. The product of the enzymatic reaction was electrochemically monitored. The assay was finally tested with a compact microfluidic device which enables multiplexed analysis of eight different samples with a detection limit of 7 pmol L(-1) and RSD = 15 %. RNA samples from non-small-cell lung cancer and glioblastoma cell lines were also analyzed.

  20. Submicron polymer particles containing fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals CdSe/ZnS for bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalova, Alla N; Sizova, Svetlana V; Zdobnova, Tatiana A; Zarifullina, Margarita M; Artemyev, Michail V; Baranov, Alexander V; Oleinikov, Vladimir A; Zubov, Vitaly P; Deyev, Sergey M

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to design a panel of uniform particulate biochemical reagents and to test them in specific bioassays. These reagents are polymer particles of different sizes doped with semiconductor nanocrystals and conjugated with either full-size antibodies or recombinant mini-antibodies (4D5 scFv fragment) designed by genetic engineering approaches. A panel of highly fluorescent polymer particles (150-800 nm) were formed by embedding CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals (quantum dots) into preformed polyacrolein and poly(acrolein-co-styrene) particles. Morphology, content and fluorescence characteristics of the prepared materials were studied by laser correlation spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, optical and fluorescent microscopy and fluorimetry. The obtained fluorescent particles sensitized by anti-Yersinia pestis antibodies were used for rapid agglutination glass test suitable for screening analysis of Y. pestis antigen and for microtiter particle agglutination, which, owing to its speed and simplicity, is very beneficial for diagnostic detection of Y. pestis antigen. Recombinant 4D5 scFv antibodies designed and conjugated with polymer particles containing quantum dots provide multipoint highly specific binding with cancer marker HER2/neu on the surface of SKOV-3 cell.

  1. A rapid bioassay method for the determination of 90Sr in human urine sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, B. B.; Li, C.; Jodayree, S.; Lai, E. P. C.; Kochermin, V.; Kramer, G. H.

    2010-01-01

    A rapid bioassay method has been developed for the determination of 90 Sr in human urine samples. The method is based on on-cartridge decolorisation of urine sample, separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr on an anion exchange resin column and by determination of 90 Sr using a liquid scintillation analyser (LSA). Separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr was achieved through selective complexation of yttrium with phosphate and subsequent retention of the anionic yttrium phosphate species on anion exchange resin. A total recovery of 97 ± 2% was obtained for strontium with three washes. The minimum detectable activity for the method was 0.2 Bq or 40 Bq l -1 . Measurement accuracy (relative bias, B r ) and repeatability (relative precision, S B ) of the method for the determination of 90 Sr were found to be -1 and 4.7%, respectively. Excellent linearity (r 2 > 0.999) was established over an activity range from 3.25 x 102 to 3.25 x 104 Bq l -1 . The method was also found to be very robust (S B 90 Sr is involved. (authors)

  2. In vitro bioassays to screen for endocrine active pharmaceuticals in surface and waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Petra Y; Kienle, Cornelia; Carere, Mario; Homazava, Nadzeya; Kase, Robert

    2015-03-15

    In the context of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) it is fully recognized that pharmaceuticals can represent a relevant issue for the achievement of the good chemical and ecological status of European surface water bodies. The recent European Directive on the review of priority substances in surface water bodies has included three pharmaceuticals of widespread use (diclofenac, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2)) in the European monitoring list, the so-called watch list. Endocrine active pharmaceuticals such as EE2 and E2 (also occurring as natural hormone) can cause adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems at very low levels. However, monitoring of these pharmaceuticals within the watch list mechanism of the WFD and national monitoring programs can be difficult because of detection problems of most routine analytical methods. With proposed annual average Environmental Quality Standards (AA-EQS) of 0.035 ng/L and 0.4 ng/L, respectively, the estrogenic pharmaceutical EE2 and the natural hormone E2 are among those substances. Sensitive in vitro bioassays could reduce the current detection problems by measuring the estrogenic activity of environmental samples. In a short review article the application of this approach to screen and assess the risks of endocrine active pharmaceuticals with a focus on estrogenic pharmaceuticals in environmental waters is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of coriander spice as a functional food by using in vitro bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Dissanayake, Amila A; Kevseroğlu, Kudret; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2015-01-15

    Coriander leaves and seeds are widely used as a condiment and spice. The use of roasted coriander seeds in food and beverage is very common. In this study, we investigated raw and roasted coriander seeds for their functional food quality using antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and human tumour cell proliferation inhibitory assays. The hexane and methanolic extracts of raw and roasted coriander seeds showed identical chromatographic and bioassay profiles. Chromatographic purification of the roasted seed extracts afforded tripetroselinin as the predominant component. Other isolates were petroselinic acid, 1,3-dipetroselinin, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and linalool. Hexane and methanolic extracts of both raw and roasted seeds and pure isolates from them showed comparable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities to the positive controls used in the assays, and inhibited the growth of human tumour cells AGS (gastric carcinoma), DU-145 and LNCaP (prostate carcinoma), HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and NCI-H460 (lung carcinoma) by 4-34%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a cell-based bioassay for phospholipase A2-triggered liposomal drug release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arouri, Ahmad; Trojnar, Jakub; Schmidt, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    models, the pattern of sPLA2-assisted drug release is unknown due to the lack of a suitable bio-relevant model. We report here on the development of a novel bioluminescence living-cell-based luciferase assay for the monitoring of sPLA2-triggered release of luciferin from liposomes. To this end, we...... engineered breast cancer cells to produce both luciferase and sPLA2 enzymes, where the latter is secreted to the extracellular medium. We report on setting up a robust and reproducible bioassay for testing sPLA2-sensitive, luciferin remote-loaded liposomal formulations, using 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3......-phosphatidylcholine/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol (DSPC/DSPG) 7:3 and DSPC/DSPG/cholesterol 4:3:3 as initial test systems. Upon their addition to the cells, the liposomes were degraded almost instantaneously by sPLA2 releasing the encapsulated luciferin, which provided readout from the luciferase...

  5. Towards the development of an embryotoxicity bioassay with terrestrial snails: Screening approach for cadmium and pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druart, Coline; Scheifler, Renaud [Department of Chrono-Environment, University of Franche-Comte, UMR UFC/CNRS 6249 usc INRA, Place Leclerc, F-25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Vaufleury, Annette de, E-mail: annette.devaufleury@univ-fcomte.fr [Department of Chrono-Environment, University of Franche-Comte, UMR UFC/CNRS 6249 usc INRA, Place Leclerc, F-25030 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2010-12-15

    Currently no bioassays are available to assess the embryotoxicity of chemicals with terrestrial soil invertebrates. We therefore presented a new method for embryotoxicity testing with snail eggs: a relevant biological material that incubates in soil and that can be exposed to contaminants from leachates and soil solution. The effects of aqueous solutions of two herbicide formulations, Reglone (active ingredient (a.i.), diquat) and Roundup or its a.i., glyphosate, of a surfactant (Agral 90, a.i., nonylphenol polyethoxylates) and of cadmium (Cd) were studied. Endpoints were the hatching success and observations of embryo abnormalities after exposure. Roundup was found to be more toxic than its a.i. alone (EC50{sub a.i.} = 18 mg/l and about 1300 mg/l, respectively). Reglone (EC50{sub a.i.} = 0.72 mg/l) and Agral (EC50{sub a.i.} {approx} 50 mg/l) were also tested together, revealing that Reglone accounted for more than 99% of the mixture's toxicity. An antagonistic interaction between the two substances was found. For Cd (EC50 = 3.9 mg/l), a significant transfer from exposure medium to eggs was emphasized, particularly affecting the albumen. Abnormalities of embryogenesis in non-hatched embryos depended on the substance and the concentration considered.

  6. Development of a bioassay system for investigating insulin resistance factors of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, D.B.; Singh, R.; Martin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    To determine if late-term pregnant serum and/or placenta could induce insulin resistance in normal adipose cells, the authors have developed an insulin sensitive bioassay system. Cells isolated from epididymal fat pads of 250-275 g Sprague Dawley rats are preincubated for 3 hours at 37 0 in media 199 and serum or placental extract. The cells are washed free of serum and tested for metabolic activity in a 2 hour incubation which measures the conversion of U- 14 C-glucose to 14 CO 2 and to 14 C-triglyceride fatty acids under basal and insulin stimulated conditions. Maximal insulin responsiveness (350-450% basal for CO 2 and 1400-1700% basal for fatty acids) is achieved using Worthington Type II collagenase and a 45-60 minute digestion period for cell isolations and Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 0.5 mM glucose, 2% Armour bovine serum albumin (CRG-7), 1000 μU/ml insulin and 110,000 to 120,000 cells in the 2 hour incubations. Using this bioasssay system the authors have found that insulin responsiveness, in terms of glucose conversion to fatty acids, is unchanged when cells are preincubated with 5% control pig serum but reduced following preincubation with late pregnant (110 day) pig serum. In future experiments the authors hope to further characterize the factor(s) in pregnant serum responsible for inducing this metabolic effect

  7. Isolation of active constituents from cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem.) leaves through bioassay-guided procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Kırmızıbekmez, Hasan; Küçükboyacı, Nurgün; Gören, Ahmet C; Yesilada, Erdem

    2012-01-31

    The fresh leaves of Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. (Rosaceae) are externally used against pain and feverish symptoms in Turkish folk medicine. Effects of the extracts, fractions and isolated compounds from the leaves of L. officinalis were investigated using in vivo models of inflammation and pain in mice. The crude ethanolic extract from the leaves of plant was sequentially fractionated into five subextracts; explicitly, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and remaining water extracts. Further studies were carried out on the most active EtOAc subextract was further subjected to fractionation through column chromatography. For the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability models, and for the antinociceptive activity p-benzoquinone-induced writhing test in mice were employed. Ethanolic extract of the leaves was shown to possess significant inhibitory activity in the assay methods without inducing any gastric damage. Through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedures three phenolic compounds, 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2-hydroxyphenyl-acetic acid (1), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and (+)-catechin (3) were isolated from the active fraction and their structures were elucidated by spectral techniques (1D and 2D NMR, ESIMS). The experimental data verified that Laurocerasus officinalis leaves displayed remarkable anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioassay data and a retention-excretion model for systemic plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    The estimation of systemic burdens from urinalyses has been the most common and useful method of quantifying occupational exposures to plutonium. Problems arise in using this technique, however, because of inadequate modeling of human retention, translocation, and excretion of this element. Present methods for estimating the systemic burden from urinalyses were derived to a large extent from patterns observed in the first few months after exposure, but there is now evidence that these same patterns do not persist over long periods. In this report we collect and discuss data needed for the interpretation of bioassay results for Pu. These data are used to develop a model that describes the movement, retention, and excretion of systemic Pu in the human body in terms of explicitly identified anatomical compartments. This model may be used in conjunction with existing models and/or case-specific information concerning the translocation of Pu from the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract or from wounds to the bloodstream. Attention is restricted to the behavior of Pu after it has gained access to the bloodstream. There remain significant uncertainties concerning some aspects of the movement of Pu, particularly its translocation from the liver. An attempt has been made to construct the model in such a way as to elucidate those areas needing further attention. 98 references, 18 figures, 16 tables

  9. Application of the luciferase recombinant cell culture bioassay system for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziccardi, Michael H; Gardner, Ian A; Denison, Michael S

    2002-10-01

    An aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based luciferase cell culture bioassay developed to detect 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other halogenated aromatics was modified and optimized to detect and quantitate polycyclic aromatics (PAHs). Twenty-four PAHs were analyzed, and subsequent EC50 and EC20 concentrations (based on the median and 20% TCDD maximal response, respectively) and appropriate induction equivalency factors (calculated by comparison to the response obtained with TCDD) were determined from dose-response experiments. Six compounds were shown to be active in the system, with benzo[k]fluoranthene > benz[a,h]anthracene indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene > benzo[a]pyrene > benzo[b]fluoranthene > chrysene. A complex mixture of 16 PAHs was also analyzed using this system, and overall induction equivalency (or 1-EQ) of the mixture was shown to be very similar to that predicted from the sum of the activity estimated for each individual PAH. Overall, our results strongly support the use of this system for the detection and relative quantitation of Ah receptor-active PAHs.

  10. Multi-modal particle manipulator to enhance bead-based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynne-Jones, P.; Boltryk, R. J.; Hill, M.; Zhang, F.; Dong, L.; Wilkinson, J. S.; Brown, T.; Melvin, T.; Harris, N. R.

    2010-01-01

    By sequentially pushing micro-beads towards and away from a sensing surface, we show that ultrasonic radiation forces can be used to enhance the interaction between a functionalized glass surface and polystyrene micro-beads, and distinguish those that bind to the surface, ultimately by using an integrated optical waveguide implanted in the reflector to facilitate optical detection. The movement towards and immobilization of streptavidin coated beads onto a biotin functionalized waveguide surface is achieved by using a quarter-wavelength mode pushing beads onto the surface, while the removal of non-specifically bound beads uses a second quarter-wavelength mode which exhibits a kinetic energy maxima at the boundary between the carrier layer and fluid, drawing beads towards this surface. This has been achieved using a multi-modal acoustic device which exhibits both these quarter-wavelength resonances. Both 1-D acoustic modeling and finite element analysis has been used to design this device and investigate the spatial uniformity of the field. We demonstrate experimentally that 90% of specifically bound beads remain attached after applying ultrasound, with 80% of non-specifically bound control beads being successfully removed acoustically. This approach overcomes problems associated with lengthy sedimentation processes used for bead-based bioassays and surface (electrostatic) forces, which delay or prevent immobilization. We explain the potential of this technique in the development of DNA and protein assays in terms of detection speed and multiplexing.

  11. Assessment of toxic potential of Cerrado fruit seeds using Artemia salina bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raíza Cavalcante Fonseca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemia salina bioassay was used to assess toxicity of seeds and kernels of Brazilian fruits from cerrado (central high plains region and other inner regions of the country. Water extracts of the kernels were filtered and added to Artemia cultures containing ten individuals per mL. Dose - response curves were constructed, and LD50 values were calculated. Pure potassium cyanide standard was used to draw a calibration curve for comparison to detect the presence of cyanide in the samples tested. Extracts of the seeds of araticum, mangaba, cagaita, jatobá, and tucumã were found toxic to Artemia salina, and some of the dose - response curves were very similar in shape to those obtained with pure potassium cyanide standards, while the samples of baru, cajá-manga, siriguela, trauma, and veludo showed no toxicity at all. The Guignard test, specific for cyanide detection, showed negative results in all toxic samples, suggesting the presence of other toxic compounds rather than cyanide. The comparison of araticum dose - response curve with those of other annonaceous fruits suggests the presence acetogenins as the main toxic compounds in the seeds. These results could be useful to prevent poisoning by industrial derivatives of the fruits studied.

  12. Evaluation and QSAR modeling on multiple endpoints of estrogen activity based on different bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanxiang; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2008-02-01

    There is a great need for an effective means of rapidly assessing endocrine-disrupting activity, especially estrogen-simulating activity, due to the large number of chemicals that have serious adverse effects on the environment. Many approaches using a variety of biological screening assays are used to identify endocrine disrupting chemicals. The present investigation analyzes the consistency and peculiarity of information from different experimental assays collected from a literature survey, by studying the correlation of the different endpoints. In addition, the activity values of more widely used selected bioassays have been combined by principle components analysis (PCA) to build one cumulative endpoint, the estrogen activity index (EAI), for priority setting to identify chemicals most likely possessing estrogen activity for early entry into screening. This index was then modeled using only a few theoretical molecular descriptors. The constructed MLR-QSAR model has been statistically validated for its predictive power, and can be proposed as a preliminary evaluative method to screen/prioritize estrogens according to their integrated estrogen activity, just starting from molecular structure.

  13. The use of insects as a bioassay for Penaeus merguiensis densovirus (PmergDNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fauce, Kathy A; Owens, Leigh

    2008-05-01

    The lack of available cell lines has hampered the study of viral diseases in crustaceans. This is particularly important for aquaculture which has been plagued by viral diseases since its rapid expansion to meet with the growing demand for seafood products. This study was designed to find an alternative bioassay to cell lines by investigating the use of insects as potential animal models for Penaeus merguiensis densovirus (PmergDNV). Acheta domesticus (house cricket) and Tenebrio molitor (mealworms) were challenged with approximately 1x10(6) virions of PmergDNV by inoculation. PmergDNV was detected in 20% of Tenebrio molitor and 86.6% of Acheta domesticus challenged with PmergDNV. During a subsequent time course experiment, there was a non significant increase in PmergDNV titres (10(4-5) virions), reaching a maximum peak at day 5 (10(6) copies). A threshold of PmergDNV DNA level equal to or greater than 10(3) virions was necessary for mortality in Acheta domesticus. As the inoculum increased from 10(3) DNA copies to 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), mortality increased from 20% to 60%, 80% and 100%, respectively. This is the first evidence that insects may be directly used to study viruses from crustaceans and concludes Acheta domesticus may be used as a potential model to study Penaeus merguiensis densovirus.

  14. Spinal cord neuronotrophic factors (SCNTFs): I. Bioassay of schwannoma and other conditioned media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, F M; Manthorpe, M; Varon, S

    1982-02-01

    We present a procedure for the dissociation and growth in serum-free defined culture medium of 4-day chick embryo lumbar spinal cord (LC4) neurons. LC4 neurons will not survive for even 24 h without the addition of trophic supplements (putative spinal cord neuronotrophic factors, SCNTFs). Serum-free medium conditioned over chick embryo heart and skeletal muscle, mouse Schwann and rat RN22 Schwannoma cell cultures were found to contain SCNTF activity which could be quantitated using a convenient neuronal survival bioassay. RN22 conditioned medium also contains polyornithine-binding neurite promoting factors (PNPFs) which can be physically separated from SCNTF. When SCNTF and PNPF were presented to LC4 neurons individually or in combination (i) SCNTF, but not PNPF, supported neuronal survival whereas (ii) PNPF, but not SCNTF, induced neurite production. When LC4 neurons were grown in SCNTF alone, nearly all of them exhibited a flattened, circular, 'fried-egg' morphology. The subsequent addition of PNPF caused these cells to extend long neurites with characteristic terminal growth-cone-like structures.

  15. Methods to improve routine bioassay monitoring for freshly separated, poorly transported plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihl, D.E.; Lynch, T.P.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several human cases involving inhalation of plutonium oxide at Hanford have shown clearance half-times from the lung that are much longer than the 500-day half-time recommended for class Y plutonium in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP). The more tenaciously retained material is referred to as super class Y plutonium. The ability to detect super class Y plutonium by current routine bioassay measurements is shown to be poor. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff involved in the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program investigated four methods to se if improvements in routine monitoring of workers for fresh super class Y plutonium are feasible. The methods were lung counting, urine sampling, fecal sampling, and use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) to enhance urinary excretion. Use of DTPA was determined to be not feasible. Routine fecal sampling was found to be feasible but not recommended. Recommendations were made to improve the detection level for routine annual urinalysis and routine annual lung counting. 12 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Application of bioassay technique to determine onduty herbicide resistance in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, F. A. A.; Ismail, B. S.; Bajrai, F. S. M.

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the resistance of OnDuty herbicide in paddy soil with different concentrations by using a broadleaf plant, Brassica juncea. The herbicide was used in the Clearfield® Production System that was adopted in Malaysia to overcome problems mainly caused by weedy rice. Evaluation of herbicide half-life was based on bioassay technique with different concentrations, i.e 0% (control), 50% (half dose), 100% (recommended dose) and 200% (double dose). The study was done in three replicates and followed the Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD). Results showed that there was a correlation between the amount of herbicide doses and degradation period. The highest half-life value was shown by root inhibition in the double dose concentration of 33 days half-life, followed by the recommended dose with 23 days half-life. Meanwhile, the half dose treatment indicated a half-life value of 17 days for root and 11 days for shoot. Therefore, application of herbicides should follow the recommended dose as the degradation period will not be too long, hence providing maximum effectiveness of the herbicide to overcome weed infestation problems.

  17. Application of bioassays to evaluate a copper contaminated soil before and after a pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanying; Zhou Dongmei; Cang Long; Sun Tianran

    2009-01-01

    Remediation programmes are considered to be complete when human risk-based criteria are met. However, these targets are often unsatisfied with the ecological parameters that may be important with regard to future soil use. Five soil subsamples, collecting along a pilot-scale soil column after electrokinetic treatment, were studied, from which about 42.0%-93.3% soil Cu had been successfully removed. A series of biological assays including soil microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, soil urease activity, earthworm assays, and seed assays were used to evaluate their ecological risks. The results showed that the bioassay data from the treatment variants did not supposedly reflecting the decreased soil Cu concentrations after the electrokinetic treatment, but were highly correlated with some soil physicochemical characteristics. It suggests that bioassays are necessary to assess the ecotoxicity of soil after electrokinetic treatment. - There has been a motivation towards using biological indicators for risk assessment of contaminated soil after electrokinetic remediation

  18. Bioassay measurements of individuals living near the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State, Fall 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.

    1986-05-01

    The purpose of the bioassay measurements was to provide individuals, living within a specific area near the Hanford Site, information on the current levels of radionuclides in their bodies. The measurements included whole body counter (in vivo) examinations and urine sample analyses for detecting the presence of major radionuclides related to current and historical operations at Hanford. Notifications of the special measurements were sent by letter to 515 residences in north Franklin County. Eighty-nine individuals from 52 of the 515 residences requested and received whole body counts. Of these, 32 also provided urine samples. The measurements gave no evidence of unusual levels of radioactivity in any individual. The ability of bioassay measurements to detect the presence of radioactivity in an individual following an exposure is dependent on the quality of the measurement and the nature of the exposure. This report includes a discussion of the capability, under various circumstances, of the measurements that were provided

  19. Biomimetic engineering of a generic cell-on-membrane architecture by microfluidic engraving for on-chip bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Wook; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Park, Seung Chul; Chung, Jin-Ho; Lee, Byoungho; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2012-05-22

    We develop a biomimetic cell-on-membrane architecture in close-volume format which allows the interfacial biocompatibility and the reagent delivery capability for on-chip bioassays. The key concept lies in the microfluidic engraving of lipid membranes together with biological cells on a supported substrate with topographic patterns. The simultaneous engraving process of a different class of fluids is promoted by the front propagation of an air-water interface inside a flow-cell. This highly parallel, microfluidic cell-on-membrane approach opens a door to the natural biocompatibility in mimicking cellular stimuli-response behavior essential for diverse on-chip bioassays that can be precisely controlled in the spatial and temporal manner.

  20. Assessment of a cricket, Acheta domesticus, bioassay for Chequa Iflavirus and bunya-like virus from redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuna, Kitikarn; Elliman, Jennifer; Owens, Leigh

    2017-11-01

    Chequa iflavirus and a bunya-like virus infect redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) and they may cause mortality reaching 20-40% after about three weeks after a stress event. To complete River's postulates for viruses, virus-free animals are needed. Due to a lack of chequa iflavirus and bunya-like virus-free crayfish (testing shows>85% infection rate) coupled with the facts that iflavirus and bunyaviruses are found in insects and that crickets had been successful alternate hosts for crustacean viruses before, Acheta domesticus was trialled asa bioassay animal. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in mortality rates between uninfected control crickets and infected crickets. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for both viruses failed to find any trace of the RNA viruses in fed or inoculated crickets after 30days. The search for an alternative bioassay host will have to be widened. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  2. Novel meroterpenoids from Cystoseira mediterranea: use of the crown-gall bioassay as a primary screen for lipophilic antineoplastic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadli, M; Aracil, J M; Jeanty, G; Banaigs, B; Francisco, C

    1991-01-01

    Using a slight modification of the crown-gall potato disc bioassay, we were able to apply this test for two previously described antineoplastic lipophilic metabolites, didemnin B and mediterraneol A [1], and to use it as a guide for chromatographic separations of meroterpenoids from Cystoseira mediterranea. An active compound, mediterraneone [3], was isolated, and its structure was found to be a novel norsesquiterpenoid by chemical and spectral methods.

  3. A Greenhouse Bioassay for the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense x ‘Grand Naine’ (Musa, AAA, Cavendish Subgroup) Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Paiva, L.V.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Several disease resistance screening protocols for Fusarium wilt of banana (causal agent Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense - Foc) under greenhouse conditions have been reported. Here, we report a standardised rapid and reliable greenhouse bioassay for this pathosystem. This is indispensable for banana phenotyping, particularly since the occurrence of tropical race 4 (TR4), which is a significant threat for the global Cavendish-based banana export industry. Using a double-pot system, hardened ...

  4. Chemical Exacerbation of Light-induced Retinal Degeneration in F344/N Rats in National Toxicology Program Rodent Bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Haruhiro; Hoenerhoff, Mark J.; Peddada, Shyamal D.; Sills, Robert C.; Pandiri, Arun R.

    2016-01-01

    Retinal degeneration due to chronic ambient light exposure is a common spontaneous age-related finding in albino rats, but it can also be related to exposures associated with environmental chemicals and drugs. Typically, light induced retinal degeneration has a central/hemispherical localization where as chemical induced retinal degeneration has a diffuse localization. This study was conducted to identify National Toxicology Program (NTP) rodent bioassays with treatment-related retinal degene...

  5. Assessing estrogenic chemicals in anchovy and mussel samples from Karachi, Pakistan with the yeast estrogen screen bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Sarah; Khan, M Z; Shieh, Ben H H; Doerr, Barbara; Ali, Sara; Law, Francis C P

    2012-11-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are introduced into the aquatic environment through industrial and municipal effluents along with urban and agricultural runoffs. Exposure of aquatic organisms to EDCs may lead to hormonal disruption and adverse health effects. The goals of our study were: to collect anchovy and mussel samples from the coastal region of Karachi, to use the yeast estrogen screen (YES) bioassay in estimating xeno-estrogen content in these samples, and to investigate if the bioassay could be used to quantify known amounts of 17β-estradiol (E2) injected into cod and salmon fillets. Results of the studies showed that mussel estrogenic activity in Karachi decreased in the order of Buleji point 1 (8.91 ± 4.77, mean ± SD) > Paradise point 1 (1.72 ± 0.81) > Paradise point 2 (0.61 ± 0.84) ng E2 equivalents/g wet wt (p anchovy estrogenic activity at Korangi/Phitti Creek was much higher than at Manora. Together, these results confirmed previous reports that both Buleji point 1 and Korangi/Phitti Creek were the most contaminated areas of Karachi. The YES bioassay was only a semi-quantitative method in determining the contents of xeno-estrogens in aquatic organisms; it consistently overestimated the amounts of E2 injected into cod and salmon fillets due to additive and/or non-additive interactions between E2 and endogenous estrogens. Nevertheless, the YES bioassay was able to identify the contaminated sites in the coastal region of Karachi.

  6. Scanning electron-microscopic and X-ray-microanalytic observation of diesel-emission particles associated with mutagenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, K.; Yoshitsugu, K.; Tokiwa, H.; Fukuoka Environmental Research Center

    1983-01-01

    The particles formed by diesel combustion, which may contain various mutagenic chemicals like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), are analyzed in their morphology by scanning electron microscopy; their sulfur content is detected by X-ray microanalysis, and mutagenicity is tested with a Salmonella typhimurium bioassay. The authors find a close correlation between sulfur content and mutagenicity of PAH. (Auth.)

  7. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... organizations are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  9. Monitoring resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the field by performing bioassays with each Cry toxin separately

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Tetreau

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti is increasingly used worldwide for mosquito control and is the only larvicide used in the French Rhône-Alpes region since decades. The artificial selection of mosquitoes with field-persistent Bti collected in breeding sites from this region led to a moderate level of resistance to Bti, but to relatively high levels of resistance to individual Bti Cry toxins. Based on this observation, we developed a bioassay procedure using each Bti Cry toxin separately to detect cryptic Bti-resistance evolving in field mosquito populations. Although no resistance to Bti was detected in none of the three mosquito species tested (Aedes rusticus, Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans, an increased tolerance to Cry4Aa (3.5-fold and Cry11Aa toxins (8-fold was found in one Ae. sticticus population compared to other populations of the same species, suggesting that resistance to Bti may be arising in this population. This study confirms previous works showing a lack of Bti resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with this bioinsecticide. It also provides a first panorama of their susceptibility status to individual Bti Cry toxins. In combination with bioassays with Bti, bioassays with separate Cry toxins allow a more sensitive monitoring of Bti-resistance in the field.

  10. Laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry: effects of test conditions on the determination of herbicide and field sample toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A M; van der Geest, Harm G; Booij, Petra; de Zwart, Dick; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, is a frequently used technique in algal bioassays to assess toxicity of single compounds or complex field samples. Several test conditions can influence the test results, and because a standardized test protocol is currently lacking, linking the results of different studies is difficult. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to gain insight into the effects of test conditions of laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry on the outcome of toxicity tests. To this purpose, we described the results from several pilot studies on test development in which information is provided on the effects of the main test factors during the pretest phase, the test preparation, the exposure period, and the actual measurement. The experiments were focused on individual herbicides and complex field samples and included the effects of culturing conditions, cell density, solvent concentration, exposure time, and the presence of actinic light. Several of these test conditions were found to influence the outcome of the toxicity test, and the presented information provides important background information for the interpretation of toxicity results and describes which test conditions should be taken into account when using an algal bioassay with PAM fluorometry. Finally, the application of PAM fluorometry in algal toxicity testing is discussed. © 2014 SETAC.

  11. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

  12. Factors affecting laboratory bioassays with diatomaceous earth on stored wheat: effect of insect density, grain quantity, and cracked kernel containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Mpakou, Flora D; Mpassoukou, Argyro E

    2007-10-01

    Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of insect density (10, 30, 60, and 100 adults), wheat quantity (10, 30, 60, and 100 g), and cracked kernel containment (5, 15, 30, and 50%) on the efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE). Three beetle species, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, as well as two DE formulations, Insecto and SilicoSec, and one DE enhanced with pyrethrum, PyriSec (all commercially available) were tested. In the first two series of bioassays, the three DE formulations were applied at three dose rates, 500, 1000 and 1,500 ppm. In the third series, the dose rates used were 500 and 1,000 ppm. Dead adults were counted 14 d later. For insect density, wheat quantity, and cracked kernel containment, significant differences were noted in mortality levels of the tested species among the three DE formulations and among doses. No significant differences were noted in the mortality levels among the four adult densities of any of the insects tested. The increase of wheat quantity used in the bioassays increased significantly adult mortality of T. confusum. The increase of cracked wheat containment decreased significantly adult mortality of S. oryzae.

  13. Comparing the impacts of sediment-bound bifenthrin on aquatic macroinvertebrates in laboratory bioassays and field microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Rhianna L; Hoak, Molly N; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Long, Sara M

    2016-11-01

    We conducted two laboratory bioassays and two field microcosm exposures with bifenthrin (a synthetic pyrethroid) in order to evaluate the capacity of single-species laboratory bioassays to predict lethal and sublethal impacts on aquatic invertebrates in microcosms. For the laboratory species, Chironomus tepperi, larval survival was reduced by 24% at 53.66µg/g OC, while adult emergence was reduced at concentrations of 33.33µg/g OC and higher, with a 61% decrease at 77.78µg/g OC and no emergence at 126.67µg/g OC. The abundance of several other microcosm taxa was reduced in the microcosms at a similar concentration range (33.33µg/g OC and above), however there was no impact on the abundance of the congeneric species, Chironomus oppositus. The differences in impacts between test systems were potentially due to both differing species sensitivity and the interaction of ambient temperature with bifenthrin toxicity. Bifenthrin also was associated with early emergence of Chironomus sp. in both test systems, at concentrations of 10µg/g OC and higher (laboratory) and 43.90µg/g OC (microcosm), and with a significant decrease in the proportion of C. oppositus males in a microcosm. These findings indicate that while laboratory bioassays accurately predict many impacts in the field, there are some limitations to the predictive capacity of these tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of estrogen receptor endocrine disruptor potency of commonly used organochlorine pesticides using the LUMI-CELL ER bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J.D.; Chu, A.C.; Clark, G.C. [Xenobiotic Detection Systems, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Chu, M.D. [Alta Analytical Perspectives, Wilmington, NC (United States); Denison, M.S. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In order to detect the endocrine disrupting potency of organochlorine pesticides and other compounds, BG-1 (human ovarian carcinoma) cells containing a stably transfected estrogenresponsive luciferase reporter gene plasmid (BG1Luc4E2), was used. This cell line, termed the LUMI-CELL trademark ER estrogenic cell bioassay system, responds in a time-, dose dependent- and chemical-specific manner with the induction of luciferase gene expression in response to exposure to estrogen (but not other steroid hormones) and estrogenic chemicals in a high-throughput screening (HTPS) format6. Here we describe studies in which the LUMI-CELL trademark ER estrogenic cell bioassay system was used for high throughput screening (HTPS) analysis of the estrogenic disrupting potency of several commonly used pesticides and organochlorines: p,p'DDT; p,p'-DDE; DDD; {alpha}a-chlordane; {psi}-chlordane; Kepone; Methoxychlor; Vinclozolin; Fenarimol; 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid; and Dieldrin. Our results demonstrate the utility of XDS's LUMI-CELL trademark ER bioassay HTPS system for screening chemicals for estrogenic activity.

  15. Assessing soil ecotoxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether using earthworm bioassay; closed soil microcosm test for volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2005-01-01

    An earthworm bioassay was conducted to assess ecotoxicity in methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-amended soils. Ecotoxicity of MTBE to earthworms was evaluated by a paper contact method, natural field soil test, and an OECD artificial soil test. All tests were conducted in closed systems to prevent volatilization of MTBE out of test units. Test earthworm species were Perionyx excavatus and Eisenia andrei. Mortality and abnormal morphology of earthworms exposed to different concentrations of MTBE were examined. MTBE was toxic to both earthworm species and the severity of response increased with increasing MTBE concentrations. Perionyx excavatus was more sensitive to MTBE than Eisenia andrei in filter papers and two different types of soils. MTBE toxicity was more severe in OECD artificial soils than in field soils, possibly due to the burrowing behavior of earthworms into artificial soils. The present study demonstrated that ecotoxicity of volatile organic compounds such as MTBE can be assessed using an earthworm bioassay in closed soil microcosm with short-term exposure duration. - Earthworm bioassay can be a good protocol to assess soil ecotoxicity of volatile organic compounds such as MTBE

  16. In situ bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae to biomonitor metal pollution in rivers and to evaluate the efficiency of restoration measures in mine areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mafalda S; Lopes, Ricardo J; Malcato, João; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2008-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the ability of an in situ bioassay with Chironomus riparius larvae, using larval development and growth as endpoints, to biomonitor water quality and to assess the biological recovery of metal contaminated freshwater ecosystems of mine areas that are subject of restoration measures. The bioassay was carried out in streams located near an abandoned goldmine in North Portugal, throughout an environmental rehabilitation of the mine (2002-2004). During this period, a decrease in the inhibition of larval growth in the metal contaminated stream was observed. The bioassay was also performed in streams located near an active tungsten mine in Central Portugal. Larval growth and development were highly inhibited in the stream that receives acid drainage from the tungsten mine and treated water from the AMD treatment station. The results indicate that the bioassay can be used to evaluate the efficiency of environmental restoration measures in mining areas.

  17. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  18. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  19. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence

  20. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  1. Use of a chemically induced-colon carcinogenesis-prone Apc-mutant rat in a chemotherapeutic bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimi, Kazuto; Hashimoto, Takao; Niwa, Yusuke; Hata, Kazuya; Serikawa, Tadao; Tanaka, Takuji; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic bioassay for colorectal cancer (CRC) with a rat model bearing chemically-induced CRCs plays an important role in the development of new anti-tumor drugs and regimens. Although several protocols to induce CRCs have been developed, the incidence and number of CRCs are not much enough for the efficient bioassay. Recently, we established the very efficient system to induce CRCs with a chemically induced-colon carcinogenesis-prone Apc-mutant rat, Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) rat. Here, we applied the KAD rat to the chemotherapeutic bioassay for CRC and showed the utility of the KAD rat. The KAD rat has been developed by the ENU mutagenesis and carries a homozygous nonsense mutation in the Apc gene (S2523X). Male KAD rats were given a single subcutaneous injection of AOM (20 mg/kg body weight) at 5 weeks of age. Starting at 1 week after the AOM injection, they were given 2% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. Tumor-bearing KAD rats were divided into experimental and control groups on the basis of the number of tumors observed by endoscopy at week 8. The 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was administrated intravenously a dose of 50 or 75 mg/kg weekly at week 9, 10, and 11. After one-week interval, the 5-FU was given again at week 13, 14, and 15. At week 16, animals were sacrificed and tumor number and volume were measured macroscopically and microscopically. In total 48 tumors were observed in 27 KAD rats with a 100% incidence at week 8. The maximum tolerated dose for the KAD rat was 50 mg/kg of 5-FU. Macroscopically, the number or volume of tumors in the 5-FU treated rats was not significantly different from the control. Microscopically, the number of adenocarcinoma in the 5-FU treated rats was not significantly different (p < 0.02) from that of the control. However, the volume of adenocarcinomas was significantly lower than in the control. Anticancer effect of the 5-FU could be obtained only after the 16 weeks of experimental period. The use of the AOM/DSS-treated tumor

  2. Bioassays and in silico methods in the identification of human DNA topoisomerase IIa inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, Kaja; Janezic, Matej; Perdih, Andrej

    2018-03-06

    The family of DNA topoisomerases comprises a group of enzymes that catalyse the induction of topological changes to DNA. These enzymes play a role in the cell replication machinery and are, therefore, important targets for anticancer drugs - with human DNA topoisomerase IIα being one of the most prominent. Active compounds targeting this enzyme are classified into two groups with diverse mechanisms of action: DNA poisons act by stabilizing a covalent cleavage complex between DNA and the topoisomerase enzyme, transforming it into a cellular toxin, while the second diverse group of catalytic inhibitors, provides novel inhibition avenues for tackling this enzyme due to frequent occurrence of side effects observed during the DNA poison therapy. Based on a comprehensive literature search we present an overview of available bioassays and in silico methods in the identification of human DNA topoisomerase IIα inhibitors. A comprehensive outline of the available methods and approaches that explore in detail the in vitro mechanistic and functional aspects of the topoisomerase IIα inhibition of both topo IIα inhibitor groups is presented. The utilized in vitro cell-based assays and in vivo studies to further explore the validated topo IIα inhibitors in subsequent preclinical stages of the drug discovery are discussed. The potential of in silico methods in topoisomerase IIα inhibitor discovery is outlined. A list of practical guidelines was compiled to aid new as well experienced researchers in how to optimally approach the design of targeted inhibitors and validation in the preclinical drug development stages. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Evaluation of artificially-weathered standard fuel oil toxicity by marine invertebrate embryogenesis bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Juan; Saco-Álvarez, Liliana; Nieto, Óscar; Bayona, Josep María; Albaigés, Joan; Beiras, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    wWeathering of petroleum spilled in the marine environment may not only change its physical and chemical properties but also its effects on the marine ecosystem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) obtained from a standard fuel oil following an environmentally realistic simulated weathering process for a period of 80 d. Experimental flasks with 40 g L(-1) of fuel oil were incubated at 18°C with a 14 h light:10 h dark photoperiod and a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity of 70 μE m(-2) s(-1). Samples were taken at four weathering periods: 24 h, 7, 21 and 80 d. WAF toxicity was tested using the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) embryo-larval bioassays and the aromatic hydrocarbons levels (AH) in the WAF were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In contrast with the classic assumption of toxicity decrease with oil weathering, the present study shows a progressive increase in WAF toxicity with weathering, being the EC(50) after 80d eightfold lower than the EC(50) at day 1, whereas AH concentration slightly decreased. In the long term, inoculation of WAF with bacteria from a hydrocarbon chronically-polluted harbor slightly reduced toxicity. The differences in toxicity between fresh and weathered fuels could not be explained on the basis of the total AH content and the formation of oxidized derivatives is suggested to explain this toxicity increase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Classification and analysis of a large collection of in vivo bioassay descriptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zwierzyna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Testing potential drug treatments in animal disease models is a decisive step of all preclinical drug discovery programs. Yet, despite the importance of such experiments for translational medicine, there have been relatively few efforts to comprehensively and consistently analyze the data produced by in vivo bioassays. This is partly due to their complexity and lack of accepted reporting standards-publicly available animal screening data are only accessible in unstructured free-text format, which hinders computational analysis. In this study, we use text mining to extract information from the descriptions of over 100,000 drug screening-related assays in rats and mice. We retrieve our dataset from ChEMBL-an open-source literature-based database focused on preclinical drug discovery. We show that in vivo assay descriptions can be effectively mined for relevant information, including experimental factors that might influence the outcome and reproducibility of animal research: genetic strains, experimental treatments, and phenotypic readouts used in the experiments. We further systematize extracted information using unsupervised language model (Word2Vec, which learns semantic similarities between terms and phrases, allowing identification of related animal models and classification of entire assay descriptions. In addition, we show that random forest models trained on features generated by Word2Vec can predict the class of drugs tested in different in vivo assays with high accuracy. Finally, we combine information mined from text with curated annotations stored in ChEMBL to investigate the patterns of usage of different animal models across a range of experiments, drug classes, and disease areas.

  5. Practical issues in discriminating between environmental and occupational sources in a uranium urinalysis bioassay program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, M.P.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Fairrow, N.L.

    1994-11-01

    Workers at two Department of Energy facilities, the Pantex Plant in Texas and the Hanford Site in Washington, are potentially exposed to class Y depleted or natural uranium. Since trace amounts of uranium are naturally present in urine excretion, site bioassay programs must be able to discern occupational exposure from naturally occurring uranium exposure. In 1985 Hanford established a 0.2-μg/d environmental screening level for elemental uranium in urine; the protocol was based on log-normal probability analysis of unexposed workers. A second study of background uranium levels commenced in 1990, and experiences in the field indicated that there seemed to be an excessive number of urine samples with uranium above the screening level and that the environmental screening level should be reviewed. Due to unforeseen problems, that second study was terminated before the complete data could be obtained. Natural uranium in rock (by weight, 99.27% 288 U, 0.72% 235 U, and 0.006% 234 U) has approximately equal activity concentrations of 238 U and 234 U. Earlier studies, summarized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 51 FR 32068, have indicated that 234 U (via 234 Th) has a greater environmental mobility than 238 U and may well have a higher concentration in ground water. By assuming that the 238 U-to 234 U ratio in the urine of nonoccupationally exposed persons should reflect the ratio of environmental levels, significant occupational exposure to depleted uranium would shift that ratio in favor of 238 U, allowing use of the ratio as a co-indicator of occupational exposure in addition to the isotope-specific screening levels. This approach has been adopted by Pantex. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is studying the feasibility of applying this method to the natural and recycled uranium mixtures encountered at Hanford. The Hanford data included in this report represent work-in-progress

  6. Getting ready for the manned mission to Mars: bioassays for space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Hellweg, Christine E.; Arenz, Andrea; Meier, Matthias M.; Horneck, Gerda

    2004-06-01

    Harmful environmental factors - namely ionizing radiation - will continue to influence future manned space missions. The Cellular Biodiagnostic group at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) develops cellular monitoring systems, which include bacterial and mammalian cell systems capable of recognizing DNA damage as a consequence of the presence of genotoxic conditions. Such bioassay or biosensor systems will complement the physical detector systems used in space, insofar as they yield intrinsically biologically weighted measures of cellular responses. Furthermore, synergistic mutagenic and cancerogenic impacts of the radiation environment together with other potentially genotoxic constituents of the space habitat can be quantified using such systems, whose signals are especially relevant for the molecular damage to the DNA or the chromosomes. The experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP) has been selected by NASA to be performed on the International Space Station. It will supply basic information on the cellular response to radiation applied in microgravity. One of the biological end-points under investigation will be survival reflected by radiation-dependent reduction of constitutive expression of the enhanced variant of green fluorescent protein (EGFP), originally isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria. A second end-point will be gene activation by space flight conditions in mammalian cells, based on fluorescent promoter reporter systems using the destabilized EGFP variant (d2EGFP). The promoter element to be investigated will reflect the activity of the NF-kappaB stress response pathway as an anti-apoptotic radiation response. DNA damage will be measured by fluorescent analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU). The systems have worked properly for terrestrial applications during the first experiments. Experiments using accelerated particles produced at the French heavy ion accelerator GANIL have given insights into cellular mechanisms

  7. Application of a canine 238Pu dosimetry model to human bioassay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, Jr., A. W. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1991-08-01

    Associated with the use of 2238Pu in thermoelectric power sources for space probes and power supplies for cardiac devices is the potential for human exposure to 238Pu, primarily by inhalation. In the event of human internal exposure, a means is needed for assessing the level of intake and calculating radiation doses. Several bioassay/dosimetry models have been developed for 239Pu. However, results from studies with laboratory animals have indicated that the biokinetics, and therefore the descriptive models, of 238Pu are significantly different from those for 239Pu. A canine model accounting for these differences has been applied in this work to urinary excretion data from seven humans occupationally exposed to low levels of an insoluble 238Pu compound. The modified model provides a good description of the urinary excretion kinetics observed in the exposed humans. The modified model was also used to provide estimates of the initial intakes of 238Pu for the seven individuals; these estimates ranged from 4.5 nCi (170 Bq) to 87 nCi (3200 Bq). Autopsy data on the amount and distribution of 238Pu retained in the organs may be used in the future to validate or refute both these estimates and the assumptions used to formulate the human model. Modification of the human model to simulate an injection exposure to 239Pu gave patterns of retention in the organs and urinary excretion comparable to those seen previously in humans; further modification of the model using fecal data (unavailable for the subjects of this study) is indicated.

  8. Allelopathy in a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica: protoplast co-culture bioassay and rotenone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Aya; Mori, Daisuke; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2015-05-01

    To investigate allelopathic activity of a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica, the 'Protoplasts Co-culture Method' for bioassay of allelopathy was developed using suspension culture. A suspension culture was induced from immature seed and sub-cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 10 μM each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). The protoplasts were isolated using the separate wells method with 2% each of Cellulase RS, Driselase 20 and Macerozyme R10 in 0.4 M mannitol solution. Protoplast cultures of D. indica revealed that high concentrations of cytokinins, BA and thidiazuron, were effective for cell divisions. The co-cultures of D. indica protoplasts with recipient lettuce protoplasts using 96 multi-well culture plates were performed in MS basal medium containing 0.4 M mannitol solution and 1 μM 2,4-D and 0.1 μM BA. The protoplast density of D. indica used in co-culturing varied from 6 x 10(3) - 10(5) / mL. Very strong inhibitory allelopathic effects of D. indica protoplasts on lettuce protoplast growth were found. A similar strong inhibitory allelopathic activity of dried young leaves on lettuce seedling growth was also observed by using the sandwich method. Rotenone, which is a component of Derris root, dissolved in DMSO, was highly inhibitory on the growth of lettuce protoplasts in culture and this could be one of the causes of the strong allelopathic activity of D. indica.

  9. Chip-Scale Bioassays Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: Fundamentals and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye-Young [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This work explores the development and application of chip-scale bioassays based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for high throughput and high sensitivity analysis of biomolecules. The size effect of gold nanoparticles on the intensity of SERS is first presented. A sandwich immunoassay was performed using Raman-labeled immunogold nanoparticles with various sizes. The SERS responses were correlated to particle densities, which were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The response of individual particles was also investigated using Raman-microscope and an array of gold islands on a silicon substrate. The location and the size of individual particles were mapped using AFM. The next study describes a low-level detection of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and simulants of biological warfare agents in a sandwich immunoassay format using SERS labels, which have been termed Extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs). A new ERL scheme based on a mixed monolayer is also introduced. The mixed monolayer ERLs were created by covering the gold nanoparticles with a mixture of two thiolates, one thiolate for covalently binding antibody to the particle and the other thiolate for producing a strong Raman signal. An assay platform based on mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold is then presented. The mixed SAMs were prepared from dithiobis(succinimidyl undecanoate) (DSU) to covalently bind antibodies on gold substrate and oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated thiol to prevent nonspecific adsorption of antibodies. After the mixed SAMs surfaces, formed from various mole fraction of DSU were incubated with antibodies, AFM was used to image individual antibodies on the surface. The final study presents a collaborative work on the single molecule adsorption of YOYO-I labeled {lambda}-DNA at compositionally patterned SAMs using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The role of solution pH, {lambda}-DNA concentration, and domain size was investigated. This work also revealed

  10. Using Bioassays and Species Sensitivity Distributions to Assess Herbicide Toxicity towards Benthic Diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larras, Floriane; Bouchez, Agnès; Rimet, Frédéric; Montuelle, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Although benthic diatoms are widely used in ecological studies of aquatic systems, there is still a dearth of data concerning species sensitivities towards several contaminants. Within the same community, different species may respond differently depending on their physiological and ecological characteristics. This lack of knowledge makes specific appropriate risk assessment impossible. To find out whether species sensitivity distribution (SSD) could be used to estimate the risk of herbicide toxicity for diatoms, we need to know whether their sensitivity depends on their physiological and ecological characteristics. We carried out single-species bioassays on 11 diatom species exposed to 8 herbicides. Dose-responses relationships were used to extrapolate the Effective Concentration 5 (EC5) and the Effective Concentration 50 (EC50) for each exposure. These data were used to fit a SSD curve for each herbicide, and to determine the Hazardous concentration 5 (HC5) and 50 (HC50). Our results revealed a high level of variability of the sensitivity in the set of species tested. For photosystem-II inhibitor (PSII) herbicides, diatoms species displayed a typical grouping of sensitivity levels consistent with their trophic mode and their ecological guild. N-heterotroph and “motile” guild species were more tolerant of PSII inhibitors, while N-autotroph and “low profile” guild species were more sensitive. Comprehensive SSD curves were obtained for 5 herbicides, but not for sulfonylurea herbicides or for dimetachlor, which had toxicity levels that were below the range of concentration tested. The SSD curves provided the following ranking of toxicity: diuron> terbutryn> isoproturon> atrazine> metolachlor. The HC that affected 5% of the species revealed that, even at the usual environmental concentrations of herbicides, diatom assemblages could be affected, especially by isoproturon, terbutryn, and diuron. PMID:22952981

  11. Induction of Au-methotrexate conjugates by sugar molecules: production, assembly mechanism, and bioassay studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Yuan; Zhao, Xiu-Fen; Ju, Xiao-Han; Liu, Ping; Li, Jing; Tang, Ya-Wen; Li, Shu-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong; Song, Fu-Gui

    2018-03-01

    Au-methotrexate (Au-MTX) conjugates induced by sugar molecules were produced by a simple, one-pot, hydrothermal growth method. Herein, the Au(III)-MTX complexes were used as the precursors to form Au-MTX conjugates. Addition of different types of sugar molecules with abundant hydroxyl groups resulted in the formation of Au-MTX conjugates featuring distinct characteristics that could be explained by the diverse capping mechanisms of sugar molecules. That is, the instant-capping mechanism of glucose favored the generation of peanut-like Au-MTX conjugates with high colloidal stability while the post-capping mechanism of dextran and sucrose resulted in the production of Au-MTX conjugates featuring excellent near-infrared (NIR) optical properties with a long-wavelength plasmon resonance near 630-760 nm. Moreover, in vitro bioassays showed that cancer cell viabilities upon incubation with free MTX, Au-MTX conjugates doped with glucose, dextran and sucrose for 48 h were 74.6%, 55.0%, 62.0%, and 63.1%, respectively. Glucose-doped Au-MTX conjugates exhibited a higher anticancer activity than those doped with dextran and sucrose, therefore potentially presenting a promising treatment platform for anticancer therapy. Based on the present study, this work may provide the first example of using biocompatible sugars as regulating agents to effectively guide the shape and assembly behavior of Au-MTX conjugates. Potentially, the synergistic strategy of drug molecules and sugar molecules may offer the possibility to create more gold-based nanocarriers with new shapes and beneficial features for advanced anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioassay-directed chemical analysis and detection of mutagenicity in ambient air of the coke oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiás, L; Kůsová, J; Gajdos, O; Vidová, P; Gajdosová, D; Havránková, J; Fried, M; Binková, B; Topinka, J

    1999-09-30

    In the present study, we summarize the results of studies on the mutagenic potential of the main fractions and subfractions of extractable organic material (EOM) in the ambient air at the workplaces of the coke oven. The objective of our experiments was to apply the Bioassay-Directed Chemical Analysis (with the use of the Ames test) for the identification of the differences in the mutagenicity of these fractions, in relationship to the complex mixture of EOM in occupational air. From the evaluation of results, it is possible to deduce the following conclusions: (1) The comparison of the mutagenicity in the main fractions (basic, acidic, neutral) demonstrates the existence of differences in mutagenic potential. Of the total mutagenicity, 20.4% is in the basic fraction, 25.4% in the acidic fraction and 54.2% in the neutral fraction. (2) In general, 90.1% of the mutagenicity found in the basic, acidic and neutral fractions together was associated with the requirement of metabolic activation in vitro (+S9). In the case of the neutral fraction, it was 51.8%. (3) These results also suggest that frameshift mutations are the major component (53.8%) of the total mutagenicity of the main fractions. (4) With regards to the mutagenicity of organic compounds in the neutral fraction it appeared that genotoxicants of its subfractions (slightly and moderately polar and aromatic) play the main role. Carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and genotoxic nitrocompounds play an important role as determinants of the mutagenic potential of complex mixtures of harmful compounds in ambient air. This is confirmed first by the results of short-term bacterial tests.

  13. Chemically induced immunotoxicity in a medium-term multiorgan bioassay for carcinogenesis with Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinardi-Barbisan, Ana Lucia Tozzi; Kaneno, Ramon; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Viana de Camargo, Joao Lauro; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan

    2004-01-01

    A variety of chemicals can adversely affect the immune system and influence tumor development. The modifying potential of chemical carcinogens on the lymphoid organs and cytokine production of rats submitted to a medium-term initiation-promotion bioassay for carcinogenesis was investigated. Male Wistar rats were sequentially initiated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), N-butyl-N-(4hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN), dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine (DHPN), and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) during 4 weeks. Two initiated groups received phenobarbital (PB) or 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) for 25 weeks and two noninitiated groups received only PB or 2-AAF. A nontreated group was used as control. Lymphohematopoietic organs, liver, kidneys, lung, intestines, and Zymbal's gland were removed for histological analysis. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-10, and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) levels were determined by ELISA in spleen cell culture supernatants. At the fourth week, exposure to the initiating carcinogens resulted in cell depletion of the thymus, spleen and bone marrow, and impairment of IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ production. However, at the 30th week, no important alterations were observed both in lymphoid organs and cytokine production in the different groups. The results indicate that the initiating carcinogens used in the present protocol exert toxic effects on the lymphoid organs and affect the production of cytokines at the initiation step of carcinogenesis. This early and reversible depression of the immune surveillance may contribute to the survival of initiated cells facilitating the development of future neoplasia

  14. Analysis of streptokinase by validated liquid chromatography methods and correlation with an in vitro bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Clóvis Dervil Appratto; Perobelli, Rafaela Ferreira; Xavier, Bruna; Maldaner, Fernanda Pavani Stamm; da Silva, Francielle Santos; Dalmora, Sérgio Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Reversed-phase and size-exclusion liquid chromatography methods were validated for the assessment of streptokinase. The reversed-phase method was carried out on a Jupiter C 4 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm id) maintained at 25°C. The mobile phase consisted of 50 mM sodium sulfate solution pH 7.0 and methanol (90:10, v/v), run isocratically at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The size-exclusion method was carried out on a Protein KW 802.5 column (300 mm × 8.0 mm id), at 25°C. The mobile phase consisted of 40 mM sodium acetate solution pH 7.0, run isocratically at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Retention times were 19.3 min, and 14.1 min, and calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 0.25-250 μg/mL (25.75-25 750 IU/mL) (r 2 = 0.9997) and 5-80 μg/mL (515-8240 IU/mL) (r 2 = 0.9996), respectively, for reversed-phase and size exclusion, with detection at 220 and 204 nm. Chromatographic methods were employed in conjunction with the in vitro bioassay for the content/potency assessment of Streptokinase, contributing to improve the quality control and ensure the efficacy of the biotherapeutic. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The sensitivity of an hydroponic lettuce root elongation bioassay to metals, phenol and wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihae; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Depuydt, Stephen; Oh, Jung-Woo; Jo, Youn-Min; Kim, Kyungtae; Brown, Murray T; Han, Taejun

    2016-04-01

    The root elongation bioassay is one of the most straightforward test methods used for environmental monitoring in terms of simplicity, rapidity and economy since it merely requires filter paper, distilled water and Petri dishes. However, filter paper as a support material is known to be problematic as it can reduce the sensitivity of the test. The newly developed hydroponic method reported here differs from the conventional root elongation method (US EPA filter paper method) in that no support material is used and the exposure time is shorter (48 h in this test versus 120 h in the US EPA test). For metals, the hydroponic test method was 3.3 (for Hg) to 57 (for Cu) times more sensitive than the US EPA method with the rank orders of sensitivity, estimated from EC50 values, being Cu≥Cd>Ni≥Zn≥Hg for the former and Hg≥Cu≥Ni≥Cd≥Zn for the latter methods. For phenol, the results did not differ significantly; EC50 values were 124 mg L(-1) and 108-180 mg L(-1) for the hydroponic and filter paper methods, respectively. Lettuce was less sensitive than daphnids to wastewaters, but the root elongation response appears to be wastewater-specific and is especially sensitive for detecting the presence of fluorine. The new hydroponic test thus provides many practical advantages, especially in terms of cost and time-effectiveness requiring only a well plate, a small volume of distilled water and short exposure period; furthermore, no specialist expertise is required. The method is simpler than the conventional EPA technique in not using filter paper which can influence the sensitivity of the test. Additionally, plant seeds have a long shelf-life and require little or no maintenance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. U.S. bioassay Intercomparison Studies Program at Oak Ridge National Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.F.; Bores, N.; Melton, K.K.; Rankin, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    The Intercomparison Studies Program (ISP) for in-vitro bioassay at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been in place since May 1991. The ISP was originally created to fill a need in the Radiobioassay area at ORNL, specifically in the areas of Quality Control, Quality Assurance, and Performance Testing. In the beginning, this consisted of two or three laboratories working in a pilot intercomparison program. Once it was determined that this could work effectively, the program began to seek additional members to broaden the scope of the effort. The program became formalized with a quarterly report in January 1992. The ISP currently provides cross-check blind/double-blind samples spiked with known amounts of radioactivity to various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, universities, and private industry organizations throughout the US. These samples can be packaged according to ORNL procedures (ORNL sample bottles, ORNL chain-of-custody forms, tamper seals etc.), for a single blind sample or according to the needs of a particular facility if the double-blind sample mode is to be maintained. In 1998, the customer base was broadened to include European facilities. In January 1993, the whole-body count program was added. This involves each participating facility receiving a block phantom from the ISP and determining a geometry factor using a known standard. At quarterly intervals, each participant receives an unknown sample for analysis. The sample is counted and the data is collected for publication in an annual report. In October 1994, the fecal program was added. This involves spiking an artificial matrix with known amounts of radioactivity. Laboratories receive unknown samples on a quarterly basis. The sample is counted and the data is collected and published in a quarterly report. The ISP maintains archive samples which can be analyzed in the QC laboratory at the request of any participants if a conflict or discrepancy in a sample analysis/result occurs

  17. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  18. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  19. Contact Bioassays with Phenoxybenzyl and Tetrafluorobenzyl Pyrethroids against Target-Site and Metabolic Resistant Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Horstmann

    Full Text Available Mosquito strains that exhibit increased tolerance to the chemical class of compounds with a sodium channel modulator mode of action (pyrethroids and pyrethrins are typically described as "pyrethroid resistant". Resistance to pyrethroids is an increasingly important challenge in the control of mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria or dengue, because one of the main interventions (the distribution of large numbers of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets currently relies entirely on long-lasting pyrethroids. Increasing tolerance of target insects against this class of insecticides lowers their impact in vector control. The current study suggests that the level of metabolic resistance depends on the structure of the molecule and that structurally different compounds may still be effective because detoxifying enzymes are unable to bind to these uncommon structures.Treated surface contact bioassays were performed on susceptible Aedes aegypti, East African knockdown resistance (kdr Anopheles gambiae (strain RSP-H and metabolically resistant Anopheles funestus (strain FUMOZ-R with different pyrethroids, such as cypermethrin, ß-cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and transfluthrin (alone and in combination with the synergist piperonyl butoxide. The nonfluorinated form of transfluthrin was also assessed as a single agent and in combination with piperonyl butoxide.Although the dosages for pyrethroids containing a phenoxybenzyl moiety have exhibited differences in terms of effectiveness among the three tested mosquito species, the structurally different transfluthrin with a polyfluorobenzyl moiety remained active in mosquitoes with upregulated P450 levels. In trials with transfluthrin mixed with piperonyl butoxide, the added synergist exhibited no efficacy-enhancing effect.The results of this study suggest that transfluthrin has the potential to control P450-mediated metabolically resistant mosquitoes because the structural formula of

  20. Contact Bioassays with Phenoxybenzyl and Tetrafluorobenzyl Pyrethroids against Target-Site and Metabolic Resistant Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Sebastian; Sonneck, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito strains that exhibit increased tolerance to the chemical class of compounds with a sodium channel modulator mode of action (pyrethroids and pyrethrins) are typically described as "pyrethroid resistant". Resistance to pyrethroids is an increasingly important challenge in the control of mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria or dengue, because one of the main interventions (the distribution of large numbers of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets) currently relies entirely on long-lasting pyrethroids. Increasing tolerance of target insects against this class of insecticides lowers their impact in vector control. The current study suggests that the level of metabolic resistance depends on the structure of the molecule and that structurally different compounds may still be effective because detoxifying enzymes are unable to bind to these uncommon structures. Treated surface contact bioassays were performed on susceptible Aedes aegypti, East African knockdown resistance (kdr) Anopheles gambiae (strain RSP-H) and metabolically resistant Anopheles funestus (strain FUMOZ-R) with different pyrethroids, such as cypermethrin, ß-cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and transfluthrin (alone and in combination with the synergist piperonyl butoxide). The nonfluorinated form of transfluthrin was also assessed as a single agent and in combination with piperonyl butoxide. Although the dosages for pyrethroids containing a phenoxybenzyl moiety have exhibited differences in terms of effectiveness among the three tested mosquito species, the structurally different transfluthrin with a polyfluorobenzyl moiety remained active in mosquitoes with upregulated P450 levels. In trials with transfluthrin mixed with piperonyl butoxide, the added synergist exhibited no efficacy-enhancing effect. The results of this study suggest that transfluthrin has the potential to control P450-mediated metabolically resistant mosquitoes because the structural formula of transfluthrin differs