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Sample records for bioanalysis young investigator

  1. Bioanalysis Young Investigator: Sadagopan Krishnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sadagopan

    2011-05-01

    Supervisor's supporting comments. I am pleased to recommend Sadagopan Krishnan for the Bioanalysis Young Investigator award. Sadagopan is a bright, creative and highly-motivated young bioanalytical chemist. His theses in our laboratory involved the development of electrochemiluminescent arrays for chemical toxicity screening utilizing cytochrome P450 metalloenzymes. He was senior author of a paper in Analytical Chemistry on this that was featured on the cover. He also investigated fundamental properties of human metabolic cytochrome P450s - research was carried out at his own initiative, and explains for the first time the role of iron spin state on enzyme electron transfer rates. He then developed thin films that mimic the natural cytochrome P450 redox cycle for the first time. He worked with several other group members to develop a superparamagnetic labeling scheme for immunosensing of proteins by surface plasmon resonance at unprecedented low levels, down to 10 fg/ml. Sadagopan has also demonstrated strong leadership skills. After his PhD, Sadagopan joined the group of Fraser Armstrong at Oxford University, UK, as a postdoctoral fellow. He is currently expanding his research horizons into the area of biofuel cells. His eventual goal is to join the faculty of a major university and build a world-class research group in bioanalytical chemistry.

  2. Investigation of the “true” extraction recovery of analytes from multiple types of tissues and its impact on tissue bioanalysis using two model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Long, E-mail: long.yuan@bms.com [Bioanalytical Sciences, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Ma, Li [Biotransformation, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Dillon, Lisa [Discovery Toxicology, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Fancher, R. Marcus; Sun, Huadong [Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Zhu, Mingshe [Biotransformation, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois [Discovery Toxicology, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Aubry, Anne-Françoise [Bioanalytical Sciences, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Ji, Qin C., E-mail: qin.ji@bms.com [Bioanalytical Sciences, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-16

    LC-MS/MS has been widely applied to the quantitative analysis of tissue samples. However, one key remaining issue is that the extraction recovery of analyte from spiked tissue calibration standard and quality control samples (QCs) may not accurately represent the “true” recovery of analyte from incurred tissue samples. This may affect the accuracy of LC-MS/MS tissue bioanalysis. Here, we investigated whether the recovery determined using tissue QCs by LC-MS/MS can accurately represent the “true” recovery from incurred tissue samples using two model compounds: BMS-986104, a S1P{sub 1} receptor modulator drug candidate, and its phosphate metabolite, BMS-986104-P. We first developed a novel acid and surfactant assisted protein precipitation method for the extraction of BMS-986104 and BMS-986104-P from rat tissues, and determined their recoveries using tissue QCs by LC-MS/MS. We then used radioactive incurred samples from rats dosed with {sup 3}H-labeled BMS-986104 to determine the absolute total radioactivity recovery in six different tissues. The recoveries determined using tissue QCs and incurred samples matched with each other very well. The results demonstrated that, in this assay, tissue QCs accurately represented the incurred tissue samples to determine the “true” recovery, and LC-MS/MS assay was accurate for tissue bioanalysis. Another aspect we investigated is how the tissue QCs should be prepared to better represent the incurred tissue samples. We compared two different QC preparation methods (analyte spiked in tissue homogenates or in intact tissues) and demonstrated that the two methods had no significant difference when a good sample preparation was in place. The developed assay showed excellent accuracy and precision, and was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of BMS-986104 and BMS-986104-P in tissues in a rat toxicology study. - Highlights: • Investigated the “true” recovery in six different tissues using incurred

  3. 6th Japan Bioanalysis Forum Symposium: challenge of regulated bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Harue

    2015-01-01

    Biomarker measurement and LC-MS analysis of large molecule pharmaceuticals (LM-MS) are becoming increasingly important in pharmaceutical development, although they are not included in the existing bioanalytical method validation guidelines in Japan. The 6th Japan Bioanalysis Forum symposium presented challenges regarding biomarkers and LM-MS, as well as the current circumstances for regulated bioanalysis, by inviting speakers from Japan, the USA, European Union and Asia-pacific. Japan Bioanalysis Forum discussion groups also presented their outcomes and openly discussed these with the attendees - over 200 dedicated individuals from industry, regulatory agencies and academia. The symposium successfully reinforced the idea that fit-for-purpose approaches are necessary, and that science should drive any judgments and actions throughout drug development.

  4. The 8th Japan Bioanalysis Forum symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumaru, Takehisa

    2017-11-01

    The 8th Japan Bioanalysis Forum symposium, the Tower Hall Funabori, Tokyo, Japan, 8-9 February 2017 The 8th Japan Bioanalysis Forum (JBF) symposium was successfully held between 8 and 9 February 2017 at the Tower Hall Funabori, Tokyo, Japan. In total, 24 speakers from Japan, USA and Europe gave presentations regarding the immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals, ICH S3A Q&A microsampling, ICH M10 bioanalytical method validation, large molecule analysis through LC-MS, auditing activities for bioanalysis and biomarker bioanalysis. Achievements regarding eight diverse themes were also shared by Japan Bioanalysis Forum discussion groups. Over 300 scientists from regulatory agencies, industry and academia actively took part in discussions during the symposium. This article provides the highlights of all the topics discussed in this symposium.

  5. Interview with Xiaoli Wang PhD winner of CACA 2016 Young Investigator Award

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Wang is currently an R&D Senior Scientist in Agilent’s HPLC instrument R&D group at Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany. Prior to this, he was an R&D manager in Agilent’s CrossLab Group in the US focusing on development of novel chromatographic columns. He has a B.S. degree in Chemistry from Peking University, Beijing China and a PhD. degree in Analytical Chemistry from the University of Minnesota in 2006. He started his industrial career in the pharmaceutical industry at AstraZeneca for four years before joining Agilent Technologies in 2010. Recently, he won the prestigious 2016 Young Investigator Award from Chinese American Chromatography Association (CACA. This interview was conducted by Roland J.W. Meesters PhD, Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Applied Bioanalysis.

  6. Optofluidic bioanalysis: fundamentals and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcelik Damla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, optofluidics has established itself as a new and dynamic research field for exciting developments at the interface of photonics, microfluidics, and the life sciences. The strong desire for developing miniaturized bioanalytic devices and instruments, in particular, has led to novel and powerful approaches to integrating optical elements and biological fluids on the same chip-scale system. Here, we review the state-of-the-art in optofluidic research with emphasis on applications in bioanalysis and a focus on waveguide-based approaches that represent the most advanced level of integration between optics and fluidics. We discuss recent work in photonically reconfigurable devices and various application areas. We show how optofluidic approaches have been pushing the performance limits in bioanalysis, e.g. in terms of sensitivity and portability, satisfying many of the key requirements for point-of-care devices. This illustrates how the requirements for bianalysis instruments are increasingly being met by the symbiotic integration of novel photonic capabilities in a miniaturized system.

  7. Outsourcing in bioanalysis: a CRO perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    Steve Lowes from Q 2 Solutions speaks to Sankeetha Nadarajah, Managing Commissioning Editor: about outsourcing strategy implementation. Steve started his industrial career at VG Biotech in the UK that became the LC-MS instrument entity of Waters Corporation. Since joining the CRO group that became Advion and then Q 2 Solutions, his career has focused on regulated bioanalysis with particular emphasis on LC-MS. He is a founding member of the Global Bioanalysis Consortium and a past-chair of the AAPS Bioanalytical Focus Group. At Q 2  Solutions, Steve leads the scientific disciplines around LC-MS bioanalysis for both small molecule and biomolecule applications including biomarker assays. Steve has over 40 peer-reviewed publications on bioanalysis and is a frequent speaker at national and international conferences.

  8. [Sample preparation and bioanalysis in mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgogne, Emmanuel; Wagner, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of compounds of clinical interest of low molecular weight (sample preparation. Sample preparation is a crucial part of chemical/biological analysis and in a sense is considered the bottleneck of the whole analytical process. The main objectives of sample preparation are the removal of potential interferences, analyte preconcentration, and converting (if needed) the analyte into a more suitable form for detection or separation. Without chromatographic separation, endogenous compounds, co-eluted products may affect a quantitative method in mass spectrometry performance. This work focuses on three distinct parts. First, quantitative bioanalysis will be defined, different matrices and sample preparation techniques currently used in bioanalysis by mass spectrometry of/for small molecules of clinical interest in biological fluids. In a second step the goals of sample preparation will be described. Finally, in a third step, sample preparation strategies will be made either directly ("dilute and shoot") or after precipitation.

  9. Overview on biotherapeutic proteins: impact on bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan J; Luo, Linlin; Desai, Dharmesh D

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the information and factors relevant to designing bioanalytical strategies in support of in vivo nonclinical and clinical studies of protein therapeutics. The summarized information includes representative types of the therapeutic proteins, their key structural characteristics, the relationship between post-translational modifications and function, issues during purification and formulation, PK of therapeutic proteins and immunogenicity. The effect of each of those on bioanalysis strategy has been pointed out. The impacts of structural variant and 'free'/'bound' forms on PK assessment have been discussed.

  10. OXIDOREDUCTASES FOR BIOANALYSIS AND FOOD CONTROLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. CAMARGO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Most well-known enzymatic methods have been employed in the bioanalysis of food, required by law in a number of countries. Food is a complex sample and hence difficult to analyze. In food analysis, there are many different types of sample, such as: clear or turbid, colorless or colored, neutral or acid, liquids, pastes and solids, that can be analyzed by enzymatic methods. The oxidase - peroxidase system may be used for specific analyses. In the reaction catalyzed by the oxidase, hydrogen is transferred from the substrate to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide is formed as an intermediate. Hydrogen peroxide then reacts with a leuco dye in the presence of the enzyme peroxidase and a color develops which is measured in the visible spectrum. This article is a review of two enzymes, peroxidase (POD and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO, pointing out their principal sources, characteristics and applications.

  11. Bioanalysis of antihistamines for clinical or forensic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katselou, Maria; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotiris

    2017-01-01

    Antihistamines are a class of drugs that inhibit the action of histamine and are used to alleviate symptoms associated with allergic reactions, but some of them can cause side effects, the most unpleasant and dangerous of which are the sedative effects that may hinder important psychological functions and impair skilled performance. These side effects could decrease safety in certain common and critical tasks, such as driving or operating machinery, leading to accidents. Antihistamines can also cause intoxications, sometimes lethal, especially when co-administered with alcohol or other sedative drugs. Thus, the development of analytical methods for their determination in biological fluids is considered to be useful for the investigation of clinical and forensic cases. These methodologies could also be used for pharmacokinetic studies. Several liquid and a few gas chromatographic methods have been developed for the determination of antihistamines in biological matrices after proper pretreatment procedures. This article reviews the published analytical methodologies that were gathered through the search in PubMed database and the recent developments on isolation or determination of antihistamines in biological materials. Current trends and future perspectives on bioanalysis of antihistamines are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Qualitative Investigation of Young Children's Music Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulston, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examined young children's music preferences through group conversations with children, interviews with parents, and non-participant observation of classroom settings in daycare and elementary classrooms. Data were analyzed inductively to generate themes, and revealed that (1) children expressed distinct preferences for an…

  13. Current advances and strategies towards fully automated sample preparation for regulated LC-MS/MS bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Naiyu; Jiang, Hao; Zeng, Jianing

    2014-09-01

    Robotic liquid handlers (RLHs) have been widely used in automated sample preparation for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) bioanalysis. Automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis offers significantly higher assay efficiency, better data quality and potential bioanalytical cost-savings. For RLHs that are used for regulated bioanalysis, there are additional requirements, including 21 CFR Part 11 compliance, software validation, system qualification, calibration verification and proper maintenance. This article reviews recent advances in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis in the last 5 years. Specifically, it covers the following aspects: regulated bioanalysis requirements, recent advances in automation hardware and software development, sample extraction workflow simplification, strategies towards fully automated sample extraction, and best practices in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis.

  14. Investigating young children's learning of mass measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea; Ferguson, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports results of a design experiment regarding young children's concepts of mass measurement. The research built on an earlier study in which a framework of "growth points" in early mathematics learning and a related, task-based, one-to-one interview to assess children's understanding of the measurement of mass were developed. Prompted by the results and recommendations from the earlier study, five lessons were developed that offered rich learning experiences regarding concepts of mass. The 119 Year 1 and 2 children participating in the study were interviewed using the same protocol before and after the teaching period. The assessment data showed that the majority of these children moved from using nonstandard units to using standard units and instruments for measuring mass. The findings from this study challenge the traditional approach of using informal units for an extended period before the introduction of standard units.

  15. World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Young Investigator Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Meg

    2004-01-01

    The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Young Investigator Workshops goals and objectives are: a) to familiarize Young Investigators with WOCE models, datasets and estimation procedures; b) to offer intensive hands-on exposure to these models ard methods; c) to build collaborations among junior scientists and more senior WOCE investigators; and finally, d) to generate ideas and projects leading to fundable WOCE synthesis projects. To achieve these goals and objectives, the Workshop will offer a mixture of tutorial lectures on numerical models and estimation procedures, advanced seminars on current WOCE synthesis activities and related projects, and the opportunity to conduct small projects which put into practice the techniques advanced in the lectures.

  16. 1st European Biomedical Engineering Conference for Young Investigators

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

     This volume presents the proceedings of the first European Biomedical Engineering Conference for Young Investigators ENCY2015. It was in Budapest, from 28th to 30th May, 2015. The papers were assembled under the motto "Understanding complex living systems” and cover the topics sensors, image processing, bioinformatics, biomechanics, and modeling.

  17. Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

  18. Recent advances in column switching sample preparation in bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Saito, Keita

    2012-04-01

    Column switching techniques, using two or more stationary phase columns, are useful for trace enrichment and online automated sample preparation. Target fractions from the first column are transferred online to a second column with different properties for further separation. Column switching techniques can be used to determine the analytes in a complex matrix by direct sample injection or by simple sample treatment. Online column switching sample preparation is usually performed in combination with HPLC or capillary electrophoresis. SPE or turbulent flow chromatography using a cartridge column and in-tube solid-phase microextraction using a capillary column have been developed for convenient column switching sample preparation. Furthermore, various micro-/nano-sample preparation devices using new polymer-coating materials have been developed to improve extraction efficiency. This review describes current developments and future trends in novel column switching sample preparation in bioanalysis, focusing on innovative column switching techniques using new extraction devices and materials.

  19. Principles of Vibrational Spectroscopic Methods and their Application to Bioanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, David S.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Volka, Karel

    2014-01-01

    blood, bone, brain tissue, and many other matrices. Although the application of FTIR directly to clinical studies and diagnosis has been very much debated, some promising results have been obtained for the in vivo monitoring of glucose, hemoglobin, urea, albumin, phosphocreatine, and nitric oxide...... excitation laser irradiance to avoid sample damage are also discussed. This chapter then reviews applications of Raman spectroscopy to bioanalysis. Areas discussed include pathology, cytopathology, single-cell analysis, in vivo and in vitro tissue characterization, chemical composition of cell components...... or nanostructures. Finally, terahertz spectroscopy has given many new possibilities for studies of low-frequency interactions between electromagnetic radiation and biomaterials. In contrast to spectroscopic techniques at shorter wavelengths, THz spectroscopy directly probes long-range dynamics in biomolecules (such...

  20. Investigating Young Consumers’ Purchasing Intention of Green Housing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The issues of energy crisis, environmental degradation, and climate change present a severe challenge to the sustainable development in China. The development of green building (GB is considered one of the most popular strategies toward a sustainable construction industry. Apart from advanced green technologies, consumers’ purchasing intention toward green housing (GH plays a crucial role in the large-scale promotion of GB. However, which determinants significantly affect consumers’ purchasing intention remain unclear, especially for the young generation in developing countries. This study attempts to investigate young consumers’ purchasing intention of GH in China. On the basis of extended theory of planned behavior (TPB, seven constructs are identified, and nine hypotheses are proposed. A total of 241 responses were collected from the questionnaire survey, and structural equation modeling was employed to test the proposed hypotheses. Governmental incentives are affirmed to be the most important determinant, followed by consumers’ attitude toward behavior and subjective norm. Perceived behavioral control is an insignificant determinant for young consumers to purchase GH. In addition, subjective knowledge has an indirect effect through attitude toward behavior. Environmental concern also confirms an indirect effect through attitude toward behavior and subjective norm toward purchasing intention, respectively. Thus, the government is implied to play a crucial role in GH promotion at this stage.

  1. New materials for sample preparation techniques in bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazario, Carlos Eduardo Domingues; Fumes, Bruno Henrique; da Silva, Meire Ribeiro; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2017-02-01

    The analysis of biological samples is a complex and difficult task owing to two basic and complementary issues: the high complexity of most biological matrices and the need to determine minute quantities of active substances and contaminants in such complex sample. To succeed in this endeavor samples are usually subject to three steps of a comprehensive analytical methodological approach: sample preparation, analytes isolation (usually utilizing a chromatographic technique) and qualitative/quantitative analysis (usually with the aid of mass spectrometric tools). Owing to the complex nature of bio-samples, and the very low concentration of the target analytes to be determined, selective sample preparation techniques is mandatory in order to overcome the difficulties imposed by these two constraints. During the last decade new chemical synthesis approaches has been developed and optimized, such as sol-gel and molecularly imprinting technologies, allowing the preparation of novel materials for sample preparation including graphene and derivatives, magnetic materials, ionic liquids, molecularly imprinted polymers, and much more. In this contribution we will review these novel techniques and materials, as well as their application to the bioanalysis niche. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Current status of antibody-drug conjugate bioanalysis

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    Jian Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-drug conjugate (ADC consists of a cytotoxic drug covalently bound to a monoclonal antibody via a linker. Because of the complexity of ADC structure unique bioanalytical strategies are needed to identify, characterize and quantify the ADC species most relevant to safety and efficacy. ADC bioanalysis need an integrated bioanalytical approach including ligand-binding assay (LBA and LC-MS based assays to provide comprehensive characterization of the exposure/response relationship. This mini-review will summarize recent publications on ADC bioanalytical strategies and will focus on the publications within last three years on the advancement of hybrid ligand-binding/LC-MS methods for ADC PK and stability evaluation and for intact ADC-DAR distribution measurement to profile ADC biotransformation and catabolism. Special attention is paid to the publications on selection of ADC analytes, assay platforms and DAR characteristics of LBA as well as on the transition of the bioanalytical testing strategy at different phases of clinical development.

  3. The effect of hematocrit on bioanalysis of DBS: Results from the EBF DBS-microsampling consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R. de; Barfield, M.; Merbel, N. van de; Schmid, B.; Siethoff, C.; Ortiz, J.; Verheij, E.; Baar, B. van; Cobb, Z.; White, S.; Timmerman, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The European Bioanalysis Forum dried blood spots (DBS)/microsampling consortium is reporting back from the experiments they performed on further documenting the potential hurdles of the DBS technology. This paper is focused on the impact of hematocrit changes on DBS analyses. Results:

  4. Thomas Young's investigations in gradient-index optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Charman, W Neil

    2011-05-01

    James Clerk Maxwell is usually recognized as being the first, in 1854, to consider using inhomogeneous media in optical systems. However, some 50 years earlier, Thomas Young, stimulated by his interest in the optics of the eye and accommodation, had already modeled some applications of gradient-index optics. These applications included using an axial gradient to provide spherical aberration-free optics and a spherical gradient to describe the optics of the atmosphere and the eye lens. We evaluated Young's contributions. We attempted to derive Young's equations for axial and spherical refractive index gradients. Raytracing was used to confirm accuracy of formula. We did not confirm Young's equation for the axial gradient to provide aberration-free optics but derived a slightly different equation. We confirmed the correctness of his equations for deviation of rays in a spherical gradient index and for the focal length of a lens with a nucleus of fixed index surrounded by a cortex of reducing index toward the edge. Young claimed that the equation for focal length applied to a lens with part of the constant index nucleus of the sphere removed, such that the loss of focal length was a quarter of the thickness removed, but this is not strictly correct. Young's theoretical work in gradient-index optics received no acknowledgment from either his contemporaries or later authors. Although his model of the eye lens is not an accurate physiological description of the human lens, with the index reducing least quickly at the edge, it represented a bold attempt to approximate the characteristics of the lens. Thomas Young's work deserves wider recognition.

  5. Back injuries in young fast bowlers - a radiological investigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To demonstrate the efficacy of various radiological diagnostic modalities in assessing lower back pain in young fast bowlers. Methods. Ten cricketers who presented to either a physiotherapist or a doctor with suspected spondylolysis underwent an X-ray, a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ...

  6. An investigation of young girls' responses to sexualized images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Byrne, Susan M; Biagioni, Nicole

    2016-12-01

    Evidence suggests that the sexualization of girls has increased and become more explicit in recent years. However, most of the research conducted to date has focused on sexualization in adults. To address this research gap, this study explored how young Australian girls respond to and describe sexualized and non-sexualized depictions of their peers. Results from 42 girls aged 6-11 years revealed that sexualization was a perceptually salient attribute, with participants readily classifying sexualized girls as a subgroup. Participants also made distinct trait attributions based on the differences between sexualized and non-sexualized girls. The results suggest that young girls respond differently to sexualized and non-sexualized depictions of their peers and are beginning to develop stereotypes based on these depictions. As such, the implementation of media literacy programs in adolescence may be too late and efforts may be required to address this issue among younger children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. How much separation for LC-MS/MS quantitative bioanalysis of drugs and metabolites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aimin; Fanaras, John C

    2018-05-01

    LC-MS/MS has been the dominant analytical technology for quantitative bioanalysis of drugs and metabolites for more than two decades. Despite this, a very fundamental question like how much separation is required for LC-MS/MS quantitative bioanalysis of drugs and metabolites has not been adequately addressed. Some think that no or only very limited separation is necessary thanks to the unparalleled selectivity offered by tandem mass spectrometry. Others think that the more separation, the better, because of the potential detrimental impact of matrix effect (ion suppression or enhancement). Still others just use a rule-of-thumb approach by keeping the adjusted retention/capacity factor always between 2 and 5. The purpose of this article is to address this fundamental question through rational thinking together with various real case examples drawn from regulated bioanalytical laboratories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Current mass spectrometry approaches and challenges for the bioanalysis of traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Xu; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-07-15

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are gaining more and more attentions all over the world. The focus of TCMs researches were gradually shifted from chemical research to the combination study of chemical and life sciences. However, obtaining precise information of TCMs process in vivo or in vitro is still a bottleneck in bioanalysis of TCMs for their chemical composition complexity. This paper reviewed the recent analytical methods especially mass spectrometry technology in the bioanalysis of TCMs, and data processing techniques in the qualitative and quantitative analyses of metabolite of TCMs. Additionally, the difficulties encountered in the analyzing biological samples in TCMs and the solutions to these problems have been mentioned. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The utility of qNMR to improve accuracy and precision of LC-MS bioanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter M. Drexler; Colleen A. McNaney; Yingzi Wang; Xiaohua Huang; Michael D. Reily

    2018-01-01

    In LC-MS bioanalysis, samples and analytes are quantified against calibration solutions and curves which are derived via serial dilution from stock solutions that are prepared from dry reference standards. The analytical errors associated with the mass and volume measurements required for this preparation of stock solutions can culminate in a variance which might affect bioanalytical data accuracy. Especially in the case of extended studies with intermittent sample analysis, the multiple prep...

  10. A Review of the Approaches Investigating the Post-16 Transition of Young Adults with Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the lives and transition from compulsory schooling of young adults with a disability, including a learning difficulty (LD), are increasing. The emerging consensus is one which points to this group of young people experiencing greater difficulties and poorer outcomes compared to the general population. How these investigations…

  11. An investigation toward the perception of young Taiwanese consumers’ fashion consumption behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    WEN, YEN-HSUAN

    2014-01-01

    Given an increasingly competitive fashion environment, several multinational corporations have shown their tendency to enter Taiwan’s fashion market. Young Taiwanese consumers seem more than willing to embrace these foreign brands. The purpose of this research is to investigate young Taiwanese consumers’ fashion apparel consumption behaviour, including their evaluations toward “country of origin” effect and to discover their preference of foreign brands; in addition, to explore the issue o...

  12. Feedback from the European Bioanalysis Forum: focus workshop on current analysis of immunogenicity: best practices and regulatory hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joanne; Cowen, Simon; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Egging, David; Emrich, Thomas; Golob, Michaela; Kramer, Daniel; McNally, Jim; Munday, James; Nelson, Robert; Pedras-Vasconcelos, João A; Piironen, Timo; Sickert, Denise; Skibeli, Venke; Fjording, Marianne Scheel; Timmerman, Philip

    2018-02-01

    European Bioanalysis Forum Workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, September 2016: At the recent European Bioanalysis Forum Focus Workshop, 'current analysis of immunogenicity: best practices and regulatory hurdles', several important challenges facing the bioanalytical community in relation to immunogenicity assays were discussed through a mixture of presentations and panel sessions. The main areas of focus were the evolving regulatory landscape, challenges of assay interferences from either drug or target, cut-point setting and whether alternative assays can be used to replace neutralizing antibody assays. This workshop report captures discussions and potential solutions and/or recommendations made by the speakers and delegates.

  13. Observational infant exploratory [14C]-paracetamol pharmacokinetic microdose/therapeutic dose study with accelerator mass spectrometry bioanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garner, C.R.; Park, K.B.; French, N.S.; Earnshaw, C.; Schipani, A.; Selby, A.M.; Byrne, L.; Siner, S.; Crawley, F.P.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Duijn, E. van; ligt, R. de; Varendi, H.; Lass, J.; Grynkiewicz, G.; Maruszak, W.; Turner, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The aims of the study were to compare [14C]-paracetamol ([14C]-PARA) paediatric pharmacokinetics (PK) after administration mixed in a therapeutic dose or an isolated microdose and to develop further and validate accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) bioanalysis in the 0-2 year old age group.

  14. Chemometric investigation of the volatile content of young South African wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Villiers, de A.; Crouch, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The content of major volatiles of 334 wines of six different cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinotage, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and vintage 2005 was used to investigate the aroma content of young South African wines. Wines were sourced from six different regions and various

  15. Two Phonetic-Training Procedures for Young Learners: Investigating Instructional Effects on Perceptual Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacabex, Esther Gómez; Gallardo del Puerto, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of two distinct computer-based phonetic training procedures administered in an English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classroom with young learners. Students' perceptual awareness of the occurrence of an English schwa in an unstressed position in content words was tested in two experimental groups, which underwent…

  16. Investigating size effects of complex nanostructures through Young-Laplace equation and finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Dingjie; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Shiwei, E-mail: shiwei.zhou@rmit.edu.au [Centre for Innovative Structures and Materials, School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Li, Qing [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2015-11-28

    Analytical studies on the size effects of a simply-shaped beam fixed at both ends have successfully explained the sudden changes of effective Young's modulus as its diameter decreases below 100 nm. Yet they are invalid for complex nanostructures ubiquitously existing in nature. In accordance with a generalized Young-Laplace equation, one of the representative size effects is transferred to non-uniformly distributed pressure against an external surface due to the imbalance of inward and outward loads. Because the magnitude of pressure depends on the principal curvatures, iterative steps have to be adopted to gradually stabilize the structure in finite element analysis. Computational results are in good agreement with both experiment data and theoretical prediction. Furthermore, the investigation on strengthened and softened Young's modulus for two complex nanostructures demonstrates that the proposed computational method provides a general and effective approach to analyze the size effects for nanostructures in arbitrary shape.

  17. DNA sequence functionalized with heterogeneous core-satellite nanoassembly for novel energy-transfer-based photoelectrochemical bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-Cheng; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2017-05-15

    This work reports the use of compositionally heterogeneous asymmetric Ag@Au core-satellite nanoassembly functionalized with DNA sequence as unique signaling nanoprobes for the realization of new energy-transfer-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay of prostate- specific antigen (PSA). Specifically, the Ag@Au asymmetric core-satellite nanoassemblies (Ag@Au ACS) were fabricated on a two-dimensional glass substrate by a modified controlled assembly technique, and then functionalized with DNA sequences containing PSA aptamers as signaling nanoprobes. Then, the sandwich complexing between the PSA, its antibodies, and the signaling nanoprobes was performed on a CdS QDs modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The single stranded DNA can server as a facile mediator that place the Ag@Au ACS in proximity of CdS QDs, stimulating the interparticle exciton-plasmon interactions between Ag@Au ACS and CdS QDs and thus quenching the excitonic states in the latter. Since the damping effect is closely related to the target concentration, a novel energy-transfer-based PEC bioanalysis could be achieved for the sensitive and specific PSA assay. The developed biosensor displayed a linear range from 1.0×10 -11 gmL -1 to 1.0×10 -7 gmL -1 and the detection limit was experimentally found to be of 0.3×10 -13 gmL -1 . This strategy used the Ag@Au ACS-DNA signaling nanoprobes and overcame the deficiency of short operating distance of the energy transfer process for feasible PEC immunoassay. More significantly, it provided a way to couple the plasmonic properties of the Ag NPs and Au NPs in a single PEC bioanalytical system. We expected this work could inspire more interests and further investigations on the advanced engineering of the core-satellite or other judiciously designed nanostructures for new PEC bioanalytical uses with novel properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The utility of qNMR to improve accuracy and precision of LC-MS bioanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter M. Drexler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In LC-MS bioanalysis, samples and analytes are quantified against calibration solutions and curves which are derived via serial dilution from stock solutions that are prepared from dry reference standards. The analytical errors associated with the mass and volume measurements required for this preparation of stock solutions can culminate in a variance which might affect bioanalytical data accuracy. Especially in the case of extended studies with intermittent sample analysis, the multiple preparation of separate stock solutions can also adversely affect bioanalytical data precision. Discussed here is an illustrative case study where a single stock solution was utilized for a longitudinal study with multiple data points by means of an orthogonal and synergistic quality control via quantitative NMR methodology resulting in improved bioanalytical data.

  19. AstraZeneca and Covance Laboratories Clinical Bioanalysis Alliance: an evolutionary outsourcing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfvidsson, Cecilia; Severin, Paul; Holmes, Victoria; Mitchell, Richard; Bailey, Christopher; Cape, Stephanie; Li, Yan; Harter, Tammy

    2017-08-01

    The AstraZeneca and Covance Laboratories Clinical Bioanalysis Alliance (CBioA) was launched in 2011 after a period of global economic recession. In this challenging environment, AstraZeneca elected to move to a full and centralized outsourcing model that could optimize the number of people supporting bioanalytical work and reduce the analytical cost. This paper describes the key aspects of CBioA, the innovative operational model implemented, and our ways of ensuring this was much more than simply a cost reduction exercise. As we have recently passed the first 5-year cycle, this paper also summarizes some of the concluding benefits, wins and lessons learned, and how we now plan to extend and develop the relationship even further moving into a new clinical laboratory partnership.

  20. A National Survey of Mentoring Practices for Young Investigators in Circulatory and Respiratory Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottillo, Salvatore; Boyle, Pierre; Jacobi Cadete, Lindsay D; Rouleau, Jean-Lucien; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Background. Improving mentorship may help decrease the shortage of young investigators (graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and new investigators) available to work as independent researchers in cardiovascular and respiratory health. Objectives. To determine (1) the mentoring practices for trainees affiliated with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Institute of Circulatory and Respiratory Health (ICRH), (2) the positive attributes of mentors, and (3) the recommendations regarding what makes good mentorship. Methods. We conducted a survey and descriptive analysis of young investigators with a CIHR Training and Salary Award from 2010 to 2013 or who submitted an abstract to the ICRH 2014 Young Investigators Forum. Clinicians were compared to nonclinicians. Results. Of 172 participants, 7.0% had no mentor. Only 43.6% had defined goals and 40.7% had defined timelines, while 54.1% had informal forms of mentorship. A significant proportion (33.1%) felt that their current mentorship did not meet their needs. Among clinicians, 22.2% would not have chosen the same mentor again versus 11.4% of nonclinicians. All participants favored mentors who provided guidance on career and work-life balance. Suggestions for improved mentoring included formal mentorship, increased networking, and quality assurance. Conclusion. There is an important need to improve mentoring in cardiovascular and respiratory health.

  1. A National Survey of Mentoring Practices for Young Investigators in Circulatory and Respiratory Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottillo, Salvatore; Boyle, Pierre; Jacobi Cadete, Lindsay D.; Rouleau, Jean-Lucien; Eisenberg, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Improving mentorship may help decrease the shortage of young investigators (graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and new investigators) available to work as independent researchers in cardiovascular and respiratory health. Objectives. To determine (1) the mentoring practices for trainees affiliated with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Institute of Circulatory and Respiratory Health (ICRH), (2) the positive attributes of mentors, and (3) the recommendations regarding what makes good mentorship. Methods. We conducted a survey and descriptive analysis of young investigators with a CIHR Training and Salary Award from 2010 to 2013 or who submitted an abstract to the ICRH 2014 Young Investigators Forum. Clinicians were compared to nonclinicians. Results. Of 172 participants, 7.0% had no mentor. Only 43.6% had defined goals and 40.7% had defined timelines, while 54.1% had informal forms of mentorship. A significant proportion (33.1%) felt that their current mentorship did not meet their needs. Among clinicians, 22.2% would not have chosen the same mentor again versus 11.4% of nonclinicians. All participants favored mentors who provided guidance on career and work-life balance. Suggestions for improved mentoring included formal mentorship, increased networking, and quality assurance. Conclusion. There is an important need to improve mentoring in cardiovascular and respiratory health. PMID:27445544

  2. Quantum dots in bioanalysis: a review of applications across various platforms for fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryayeva, Eleonora; Algar, W Russ; Medintz, Igor L

    2013-03-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are brightly luminescent nanoparticles that have found numerous applications in bioanalysis and bioimaging. In this review, we highlight recent developments in these areas in the context of specific methods for fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. Following a primer on the structure, properties, and biofunctionalization of QDs, we describe select examples of how QDs have been used in combination with steady-state or time-resolved spectroscopic techniques to develop a variety of assays, bioprobes, and biosensors that function via changes in QD photoluminescence intensity, polarization, or lifetime. Some special attention is paid to the use of Förster resonance energy transfer-type methods in bioanalysis, including those based on bioluminescence and chemiluminescence. Direct chemiluminescence, electrochemiluminescence, and charge transfer quenching are similarly discussed. We further describe the combination of QDs and flow cytometry, including traditional cellular analyses and spectrally encoded barcode-based assay technologies, before turning our attention to enhanced fluorescence techniques based on photonic crystals or plasmon coupling. Finally, we survey the use of QDs across different platforms for biological fluorescence imaging, including epifluorescence, confocal, and two-photon excitation microscopy; single particle tracking and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy; super-resolution imaging; near-field scanning optical microscopy; and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. In each of the above-mentioned platforms, QDs provide the brightness needed for highly sensitive detection, the photostability needed for tracking dynamic processes, or the multiplexing capacity needed to elucidate complex systems. There is a clear synergy between advances in QD materials and spectroscopy and imaging techniques, as both must be applied in concert to achieve their full potential.

  3. Bioanalysis of underivatized amino acids in non-invasive exhaled breath condensate samples using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczna, Lucyna; Pyszka, Magdalena; Okońska, Magdalena; Niedźwiecki, Maciej; Bączek, Tomasz

    2018-03-23

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is receiving increased attention as a novel, entirely non-invasive technique for collecting biomarker samples. This increased attention is due to the fact that EBC is simple, effort independent, rapid, can be repeated frequently, and can be performed on young children and patients suffering from a variety of diseases. By having a subject breathe tidally through a cooling system for 15-20 min, a sufficient amount of condensate is collected for analysis of biomarkers in clinical studies. However, bioanalysis of EBC involves an unavoidable sample preparation step due to the low concentration of its components. Thus, there is a need for a new and more sensitive analytical method of assessing EBC samples. While researchers have considered analyses of single and small quantities of amino acids - for example, those connected with leukemia - no one has previously attempted to simultaneously analyze a panel of 23 amino acids. Moreover, the present study is well-justified, as prior studies focusing on single amino acids and leukemia at the moment of diagnosis and during chemotherapy (33 days of treatment) are inconsistent. In the present study, amino acids were separated using an XBridge Amide column (3 mm × 100 mm, 3.5 μm). The mobile phase consisted of 10 mM of ammonium buffer in water with a pH of 3 (Phase A) and 10 mM ammonium buffer in acetonitrile (Phase B) under gradient program elution. The analytes were detected in electrospray positive ionization mode. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method exhibited limits of quantification (LOQ) in the range of 0.05-0.5 ng/mL, and good linearity, with the determination coefficient (R 2 ) falling between 0.9904 and 0.9998. The accuracy in human exhaled breath condensate samples ranged between 93.3-113.3% for the 23 studied amino acids, with intra- and inter-day coefficient of variation (CVs) of 0.13-9.92% and 0.17-10.53%, respectively. To demonstrate the liquid

  4. New Zealand policy experts’ appraisal of interventions to reduce smoking in young adults: a qualitative investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Tautolo, El Shadan; Gifford, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Reducing smoking in young adults, particularly young Māori and Pacific, is vital for reducing tobacco harm and health inequalities in New Zealand (NZ). We investigated how NZ policy experts appraised the feasibility and likely effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce smoking prevalence among 18–24 year olds. Design We used a qualitative design, conducting semistructured interviews and applying thematic analysis. Participants We interviewed 15 key informants, including politicians, senior policy analysts and leading tobacco control advocates. Participant selection was based on seniority and expertise and ensuring diverse perspectives were represented. Interventions We examined nine interventions that could either promote greater mindfulness or introduce barriers impeding smoking uptake: smoke-free outdoor dining and bars; no tobacco sales where alcohol is sold; social marketing campaigns; real life stories (testimonials); life skills training; raise purchase age to 21; tobacco-free generation; smokers’ licence; make tobacco retail premises R18. Results The policies perceived as more effective denormalised tobacco; made it less convenient to access and use; highlighted immediate disadvantages (eg, impact on fitness); aligned with young people’s values; and addressed the underlying causes of smoking (eg, stress). Participants highlighted some political barriers and noted concerns that some interventions might widen ethnic disparities. Exceptions were social marketing campaigns and extending smoke-free regulations to include outdoor areas of cafes and bars, which participants saw as politically feasible and likely to be effective. Conclusions Our findings suggest the merit of an approach that combines social marketing with regulation that makes accessing and using tobacco less convenient for young adults; however, political barriers may limit the regulatory options available in the short term. Strategies to support self-determination and

  5. Investigation of the Effects of Teaching Core Exerciseson Young Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapici, Aysegül

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of teaching core exercises on some motoric parameters in young soccer players. 32 amateur male football players from Afjet Afyonspor and Muglaspor football team; 16 experimental group (average age 13.75 ± 0.46 years; mean body height 1.65.± 0.09 cm; mean body mass 52.88 ± 8.04 kg) and 16…

  6. HRMS using a Q-Exactive series mass spectrometer for regulated quantitative bioanalysis: how, when, and why to implement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Robert M; Jones, Barry R; Mulvana, Daniel E; Lowes, Steve

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution MS (HRMS) has seen an uptake in use for discovery qual/quan workflows, however, its utilization in late discovery/development has been slow. Past reports comparing HRMS to triple quadrupole (QQQ) instrumentation to date have indicated that HRMS instruments are capable of producing data acceptable for regulated bioanalysis, however lack the sensitivity required for sub ng/ml LLOQ assays. Recent advances in HRMS instrumentation have closed the sensitivity gap with QQQ and have even provided improved selectivity and sensitivity over QQQ SRM assays. Herein, the authors will describe how, when, and why HRMS (specifically Q-Exactive series mass spectrometers) should be considered for implementation in regulated quantitative bioanalysis assays.

  7. Priorities and approaches to investigating Asian youth health: perspectives of young Asian New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Agnes; Peiris-John, Roshini; Sobrun-Maharaj, Amritha; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2015-12-01

    The proportion of young people in New Zealand identifying with Asian ethnicities has increased considerably. Despite some prevalent health concerns, Asian youth are less likely than non-Asian peers to seek help. As preparatory research towards a more nuanced approach to service delivery and public policy, this qualitative study aimed to identify young Asian New Zealanders' perspectives on best approaches to investigate health issues of priority concern to them. Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with 15 Asian youth leaders aged 18-24 years. Using an inductive approach for thematic analysis, key themes were identified and analysed. Study participants considered ethno-cultural identity, racism and challenges in integration to play significant roles influencing the health of Asian youth (especially mental health) and their access to health services. While emphasising the importance of engaging young Asians in research and service development so that their needs and aspirations are met, participants also highlighted the need for approaches that are cognisant of the cultural, contextual and intergenerational dimensions of issues involved in promoting youth participation. Research that engages Asian youth as key agents using methods that are sensitive to their cultural and sociological contexts can inform more responsive health services and public policy. This is of particular relevance in primary health care where culturally competent services can mitigate risks of unmet health needs and social isolation.

  8. New Zealand policy experts' appraisal of interventions to reduce smoking in young adults: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jude; Hoek, Janet; Tautolo, El Shadan; Gifford, Heather

    2017-12-10

    Reducing smoking in young adults, particularly young Māori and Pacific, is vital for reducing tobacco harm and health inequalities in New Zealand (NZ). We investigated how NZ policy experts appraised the feasibility and likely effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce smoking prevalence among 18-24 year olds. We used a qualitative design, conducting semistructured interviews and applying thematic analysis. We interviewed 15 key informants, including politicians, senior policy analysts and leading tobacco control advocates. Participant selection was based on seniority and expertise and ensuring diverse perspectives were represented. We examined nine interventions that could either promote greater mindfulness or introduce barriers impeding smoking uptake: smoke-free outdoor dining and bars; no tobacco sales where alcohol is sold; social marketing campaigns; real life stories (testimonials); life skills training; raise purchase age to 21; tobacco-free generation; smokers' licence; make tobacco retail premises R18. The policies perceived as more effective denormalised tobacco; made it less convenient to access and use; highlighted immediate disadvantages (eg, impact on fitness); aligned with young people's values; and addressed the underlying causes of smoking (eg, stress). Participants highlighted some political barriers and noted concerns that some interventions might widen ethnic disparities. Exceptions were social marketing campaigns and extending smoke-free regulations to include outdoor areas of cafes and bars, which participants saw as politically feasible and likely to be effective. Our findings suggest the merit of an approach that combines social marketing with regulation that makes accessing and using tobacco less convenient for young adults; however, political barriers may limit the regulatory options available in the short term. Strategies to support self-determination and address the underlying causes of smoking in young people warrant further

  9. Black-White Disparity in Young Adults' Disease Risk: An Investigation of Variation in the Vulnerability of Black Young Adults to Early and Later Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Bae, Dayoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2016-08-01

    Socioeconomic adversity in early years and young adulthood are risk factors for poor health in young adulthood. Population differences in exposure to stressful socioeconomic conditions partly explain the higher prevalence of disease among black young adults. Another plausible mechanism is that blacks are differentially vulnerable to socioeconomic adversity (differential vulnerability hypothesis), which has not been adequately investigated in previous research. The present study investigated variation in the vulnerability of black young adults leading to cardiometabolic (CM) disease risk. We used a nationally representative sample of 8,824 adolescents who participated in the Add Health study. Early and later adversity was measured using a cumulative index of social and material adversity in adolescence and young adulthood. CM disease risk was assessed using nine biomarkers. Path analysis within a structural equation modeling framework was used. The findings indicated that both early and later socioeconomic adversity act as stressors with independent additive influences on young adults' CM disease risk, consistent with the differential exposure hypothesis. Moreover, the results showed that black youth are less vulnerable to early socioeconomic adversity than whites, but they are more vulnerable to later adversity. The findings provide support for the unique and additive influences of early and later socioeconomic adversity on CM disease risk contributing to the black-white health disparity in young adulthood. The results also suggest that vulnerability to adversity varies depending on the life stage, which highlights the need for life-stage specific interventions to mitigate the existing black-white disparity in young adults' physical health. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibody-drug conjugate bioanalysis using LB-LC-MS/MS hybrid assays: strategies, methodology and correlation to ligand-binding assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Gu, Huidong; Liu, Ang; Kozhich, Alexander; Rangan, Vangipuram; Myler, Heather; Luo, Linlin; Wong, Richard; Sun, Huadong; Wang, Bonnie; Vezina, Heather E; Deshpande, Shrikant; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zheng; Olah, Timothy V; Aubry, Anne-Francoise; Arnold, Mark E; Pillutla, Renuka; DeSilva, Binodh

    2016-07-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are complex drug constructs with multiple species in the heterogeneous mixture that contribute to their efficacy and toxicity. The bioanalysis of ADCs involves multiple assays and analytical platforms. A series of ligand binding and LC-MS/MS (LB-LC-MS/MS) hybrid assays, through different combinations of anti-idiotype (anti-Id), anti-payload, or generic capture reagents, and cathepsin-B or trypsin enzyme digestion, were developed and evaluated for the analysis of conjugated-payload as well as for species traditionally measured by ligand-binding assays, total-antibody and conjugated-antibody. Hybrid assays are complementary or viable alternatives to ligand-binding assay for ADC bioanalysis and PK/PD modeling. The fit-for-purpose choice of analytes, assays and platforms and an integrated strategy from Discovery to Development for ADC PK and bioanalysis are recommended.

  11. Scientific Overview: CSCI-CITAC Annual General Meeting and Young Investigators' Forum 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Eric Y; Zhou, Tianwei Ellen; Benesch, Matthew G K; Dey, Ayan; Liu, Peter; Steadman, Patrick E; Zaslavsky, Kirill; Schneider, Raphael; Kuzyk, Alexandra

    2016-10-14

    The 2015 Annual General Meeting of The Canadian Society of Clinician Investigators (CSCI) and Clinician Investigator Trainee Association of Canada/Association des Cliniciens-Chercheurs en Formation du Canada (CITAC/ACCFC) was held in Toronto November 23-25, 2015, in conjunction with The University of Toronto Clinician Investigator Program Research Day. The theme for this year's meeting was "It takes a village" and the focus was the various support systems necessary to train a successful clinician scientist. The meeting featured an opening presentation by Dr. Vincent Dumez and workshops by Dr. Peter Nickerson, Dr. Jane Aubin, Dr. Kelly Warmington and Dr. Norman Rosenblum, and MD/PhD trainees Nardin Samuel, Kevin Wang and Kirill Zaslavsky. The keynote speakers were Dr. David Malkin (Hospital for Sick Children) who received the CSCI-RCPSC Henry Friesen Award, Dr. Brent Richards (McGill University) who received the Joe Doupe Award and Ernesto Shiffrin (Lady Davis Institute) who received the Distinguished Scientist Award. As always, the conference showcased outstanding scientific presentations from clinician investigator trainees from across the country at the Young Investigators' Forum. The research topics, which ranged from basic sciences to clinical medicine and translational work, are summarized in this review. Over 90 abstracts were presented at this year's meeting during two poster sessions, with several of the outstanding abstracts selected for oral presentations.

  12. Young's moduli of carbon materials investigated by various classical molecular dynamics schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayk, Florian; Ehrens, Julian; Heitmann, Tjark; Vorndamme, Patrick; Mrugalla, Andreas; Schnack, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    For many applications classical carbon potentials together with classical molecular dynamics are employed to calculate structures and physical properties of such carbon-based materials where quantum mechanical methods fail either due to the excessive size, irregular structure or long-time dynamics. Although such potentials, as for instance implemented in LAMMPS, yield reasonably accurate bond lengths and angles for several carbon materials such as graphene, it is not clear how accurate they are in terms of mechanical properties such as for instance Young's moduli. We performed large-scale classical molecular dynamics investigations of three carbon-based materials using the various potentials implemented in LAMMPS as well as the EDIP potential of Marks. We show how the Young's moduli vary with classical potentials and compare to experimental results. Since classical descriptions of carbon are bound to be approximations it is not astonishing that different realizations yield differing results. One should therefore carefully check for which observables a certain potential is suited. Our aim is to contribute to such a clarification.

  13. Bioanalysis works in the IAA AMS facility: Comparison of AMS analytical method with LSC method in human mass balance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, Teiji; Isono, Yoshimi; Setani, Kaoru; Sakai, Kumiko; Yamada, Ichimaro; Sato, Yoshiaki; Gunji, Shinobu; Matsui, Takao

    2007-01-01

    Institute of Accelerator Analysis Ltd. (IAA) is the first Contract Research Organization in Japan providing Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) analysis services for carbon dating and bioanalysis works. The 3 MV AMS machines are maintained by validated analysis methods using multiple control compounds. It is confirmed that these AMS systems have reliabilities and sensitivities enough for each objective. The graphitization of samples for bioanalysis is prepared by our own purification lines including the measurement of total carbon content in the sample automatically. In this paper, we present the use of AMS analysis in human mass balance and metabolism profiling studies with IAA 3 MV AMS, comparing results obtained from the same samples with liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Human samples such as plasma, urine and feces were obtained from four healthy volunteers orally administered a 14 C-labeled drug Y-700, a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor, of which radioactivity was about 3 MBq (85 μCi). For AMS measurement, these samples were diluted 100-10,000-fold with pure-water or blank samples. The results indicated that AMS method had a good correlation with LSC method (e.g. plasma: r = 0.998, urine: r = 0.997, feces: r = 0.997), and that the drug recovery in the excreta exceeded 92%. The metabolite profiles of plasma, urine and feces obtained with HPLC-AMS corresponded to radio-HPLC results measured at much higher radioactivity level. These results revealed that AMS analysis at IAA is useful to measure 14 C-concentration in bioanalysis studies at very low radioactivity level

  14. Bioanalysis works in the IAA AMS facility: Comparison of AMS analytical method with LSC method in human mass balance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaoka, Teiji [Institute of Accelerator Analysis Ltd., 129-1 Noborito-Shinmachi, Tama-Ku Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-0013 (Japan)]. E-mail: miyaoka@iaa-ams.co.jp; Isono, Yoshimi [Institute of Accelerator Analysis Ltd., 129-1 Noborito-Shinmachi, Tama-Ku Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-0013 (Japan); Setani, Kaoru [Institute of Accelerator Analysis Ltd., 129-1 Noborito-Shinmachi, Tama-Ku Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-0013 (Japan); Sakai, Kumiko [Institute of Accelerator Analysis Ltd., 129-1 Noborito-Shinmachi, Tama-Ku Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-0013 (Japan); Yamada, Ichimaro [Mitsubishi Pharma Co., 2-2-6 Nihombashi-Honcho, Chuo-Ku, Tokyo 103-8405 (Japan); Sato, Yoshiaki [Daiichi Pure Chemicals, Co., Ltd., 2117 Muramatsu, Tokai, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki 319-1132 (Japan); Gunji, Shinobu [Daiichi Pure Chemicals, Co., Ltd., 2117 Muramatsu, Tokai, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki 319-1132 (Japan); Matsui, Takao [Institute of Accelerator Analysis Ltd., 129-1 Noborito-Shinmachi, Tama-Ku Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-0013 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Institute of Accelerator Analysis Ltd. (IAA) is the first Contract Research Organization in Japan providing Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) analysis services for carbon dating and bioanalysis works. The 3 MV AMS machines are maintained by validated analysis methods using multiple control compounds. It is confirmed that these AMS systems have reliabilities and sensitivities enough for each objective. The graphitization of samples for bioanalysis is prepared by our own purification lines including the measurement of total carbon content in the sample automatically. In this paper, we present the use of AMS analysis in human mass balance and metabolism profiling studies with IAA 3 MV AMS, comparing results obtained from the same samples with liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Human samples such as plasma, urine and feces were obtained from four healthy volunteers orally administered a {sup 14}C-labeled drug Y-700, a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor, of which radioactivity was about 3 MBq (85 {mu}Ci). For AMS measurement, these samples were diluted 100-10,000-fold with pure-water or blank samples. The results indicated that AMS method had a good correlation with LSC method (e.g. plasma: r = 0.998, urine: r = 0.997, feces: r = 0.997), and that the drug recovery in the excreta exceeded 92%. The metabolite profiles of plasma, urine and feces obtained with HPLC-AMS corresponded to radio-HPLC results measured at much higher radioactivity level. These results revealed that AMS analysis at IAA is useful to measure {sup 14}C-concentration in bioanalysis studies at very low radioactivity level.

  15. Strategy and its implications of protein bioanalysis utilizing high-resolution mass spectrometric detection of intact protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qian; Ji, Qin C; Arnold, Mark E; Humphreys, W Griffith; Zhu, Mingshe

    2011-12-01

    Currently, mass spectrometry-based protein bioanalysis is primarily achieved through monitoring the representative peptide(s) resulting from analyte protein digestion. However, this approach is often incapable of differentiating the measurement of protein analyte from its post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or potential biotransformation (BTX) products. This disadvantage can be overcome by direct measurement of the intact protein analytes. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) on triple quadrupole mass spectrometers has been used for the direct measurement of intact protein. However, the fragmentation efficiency though the SRM process could be limited in many cases, especially for high molecular weight proteins. In this study, we present a new strategy of intact protein bioanalysis by high-resolution (HR) full scan mass spectrometry using human lysozyme as a model protein. An HR linear ion-trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer was used for detection. A composite of isotopic peaks from one or multiple charge states can be isolated from the background and used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The acquired data were processed by summing extracted ion chromatograms (EIC) of the 10 most intense isotopic ions of octuply protonated lysozyme. Quantitation of the plasma lysozyme was conducted by utilizing high resolving power and an EIC window fitting to the protein molecular weight. An assay with a linear dynamic range from 0.5 to 500 μg/mL was developed with good accuracy and precision. The assay was successfully employed for monitoring the level of endogenous lysozyme and a potential PTM in human plasma. The current instrumentation limitations and potential advantages of this approach for the bioanalysis of large proteins are discussed.

  16. Update on rare epithelial ovarian cancers: based on the Rare Ovarian Tumors Young Investigator Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Yon Agnes; Yanaihara, Nozomu; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric; Mikami, Yoshiki; Oda, Katsutoshi; Bookman, Michael; Ledermann, Jonathan; Shimada, Muneaki; Kiyokawa, Takako; Kim, Byoung Gie; Matsumura, Noriomi; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Kuroda, Takafumi; Nagayoshi, Yoko; Kawabata, Ayako; Iida, Yasushi; Kim, Jae Weon; Quinn, Michael; Okamoto, Aikou

    2017-07-01

    There has been significant progress in the understanding of the pathology and molecular biology of rare ovarian cancers, which has helped both diagnosis and treatment. This paper provides an update on recent advances in the knowledge and treatment of rare ovarian cancers and identifies gaps that need to be addressed by further clinical research. The topics covered include: low-grade serous, mucinous, and clear cell carcinomas of the ovary. Given the molecular heterogeneity and the histopathological rarity of these ovarian cancers, the importance of designing adequately powered trials or finding statistically innovative ways to approach the treatment of these rare tumors has been emphasized. This paper is based on the Rare Ovarian Tumors Conference for Young Investigators which was presented in Tokyo 2015 prior to the 5th Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG). Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

  17. Voluntary and Involuntary Singlehood and Young Adults’ Mental Health: an Investigation of Mediating Role of Romantic Loneliness

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczyk, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that single young adults who perceive their singlehood as voluntary would report a higher level of positive mental health (i.e., emotional, psychological and social well-being), lower levels of mental health illness (i.e., somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, severe depression) and romantic loneliness in comparison to young adults who perceive their singlehood as involuntary. This paper also investigated whether romantic loneliness mediates th...

  18. Assessment of the within- and between-lot variability of Whatman™ FTA(®) DMPK and 903(®) DBS papers and their suitability for the quantitative bioanalysis of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckwell, Jacquelynn; Denniff, Philip; Capper, Stephen; Michael, Paul; Spooner, Neil; Mallender, Philip; Johnson, Barry; Clegg, Sarah; Green, Mark; Ahmad, Sheelan; Woodford, Lynsey

    2013-11-01

    To ensure that PK data generated from DBS samples are of the highest quality, it is important that the paper substrate is uniform and does not unduly contribute to variability. This study investigated any within and between lot variations for four cellulose paper types: Whatman™ FTA(®) DMPK-A, -B and -C, and 903(®) (GE Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, UK). The substrates were tested to demonstrate manufacturing reproducibility (thickness, weight, chemical coating concentration) and its effect on the size of the DBS produced, and the quantitative data derived from the bioanalysis of human DBS samples containing six compounds of varying physicochemical properties. Within and between lot variations in paper thickness, mass and chemical coating concentration were within acceptable manufacturing limits. No variation in the spot size or bioanalytical data was observed. Bioanalytical results obtained for DBS samples containing a number of analytes spanning a range of chemical space are not affected by the lot used or by the location within a lot.

  19. Magnetic microparticles post-synthetically coated by hyaluronic acid as an enhanced carrier for microfluidic bioanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubova, Lucie [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Knotek, Petr [Joint Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Palarcik, Jiri [Institute of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Cadkova, Michaela [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Belina, Petr [Department of Inorganic Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Doubravice 41, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Vlcek, Milan [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovskeho sq. 2, 16206 Prague (Czech Republic); Korecka, Lucie [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Bilkova, Zuzana, E-mail: Zuzana.Bilkova@upce.cz [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-01

    Iron oxide based particles functionalized by bioactive molecules have been utilized extensively in biotechnology and biomedicine. Despite their already proven advantages, instability under changing reaction conditions, non-specific sorption of biomolecules on the particles' surfaces, and iron oxide leakage from the naked particles can greatly limit their application. As confirmed many times, surface treatment with an appropriate stabilizer helps to minimize these disadvantages. In this work, we describe enhanced post-synthetic surface modification of superparamagnetic microparticles varying in materials and size using hyaluronic acid (HA) in various chain lengths. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, phase analysis light scattering and laser diffraction are the methods used for characterization of HA-coated particles. The zeta potential and thickness of HA-layer of HA-coated Dynabeads M270 Amine were − 50 mV and 85 nm, respectively, and of HA-coated p(GMA-MOEAA)-NH{sub 2} were − 38 mV and 140 nm, respectively. The electrochemical analysis confirmed the zero leakage of magnetic material and no reactivity of particles with hydrogen peroxide. The rate of non-specific sorption of bovine serum albumin was reduced up to 50% of the naked ones. The coating efficiency and suitability of biopolymer-based microparticles for magnetically active microfluidic devices were confirmed. - Highlights: • Post-synthetic surface modification of magnetic microparticles by hyaluronic acid • Hyaluronic acid — polymer of unique physicochemical and biological characteristics • Panel of particle characterization methods was introduced. • HA-coated microparticles gain characteristics suited for microfluidic bioanalysis.

  20. Reconstitution of cholesterol-dependent vaginolysin into tethered phospholipid bilayers: implications for bioanalysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Budvytyte

    Full Text Available Functional reconstitution of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin vaginolysin (VLY from Gardnerella vaginalis into artificial tethered bilayer membranes (tBLMs has been accomplished. The reconstitution of VLY was followed in real-time by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Changes of the EIS parameters of the tBLMs upon exposure to VLY solutions were consistent with the formation of water-filled pores in the membranes. It was found that reconstitution of VLY is a strictly cholesterol-dependent, irreversible process. At a constant cholesterol concentration reconstitution of VLY occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, thus allowing the monitoring of VLY concentration and activity in vitro and opening possibilities for tBLM utilization in bioanalysis. EIS methodology allowed us to detect VLY down to 0.5 nM (28 ng/mL concentration. Inactivation of VLY by certain amino acid substitutions led to noticeably lesser tBLM damage. Pre-incubation of VLY with the neutralizing monoclonal antibody 9B4 inactivated the VLY membrane damage in a concentration-dependent manner, while the non-neutralizing antibody 21A5 exhibited no effect. These findings demonstrate the biological relevance of the interaction between VLY and the tBLM. The membrane-damaging interaction between VLY and tBLM was observed in the absence of the human CD59 receptor, known to strongly facilitate the hemolytic activity of VLY. Taken together, our study demonstrates the applicability of tBLMs as a bioanalytical platform for the detection of the activity of VLY and possibly other cholesterol-dependent cytolysins.

  1. Enzyme-Initiated Quinone-Chitosan Conjugation Chemistry: Toward A General in Situ Strategy for High-Throughput Photoelectrochemical Enzymatic Bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Li; Yuan, Fang; Gu, Tiantian; Dong, Yuming; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Wei-Wei

    2018-02-06

    Herein we report a general and novel strategy for high-throughput photoelectrochemical (PEC) enzymatic bioanalysis on the basis of enzyme-initiated quinone-chitosan conjugation chemistry (QCCC). Specifically, the strategy was illustrated by using a model quinones-generating oxidase of tyrosinase (Tyr) to catalytically produce 1,2-bezoquinone or its derivative, which can easily and selectively be conjugated onto the surface of the chitosan deposited PbS/NiO/FTO photocathode via the QCCC. Upon illumination, the covalently attached quinones could act as electron acceptors of PbS quantum dots (QDs), improving the photocurrent generation and thus allowing the elegant probing of Tyr activity. Enzyme cascades, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP)/Tyr and β-galactosidase (Gal)/Tyr, were further introduced into the system for the successful probing of the corresponding targets. This work features not only the first use of QCCC in PEC bioanalysis but also the separation of enzymatic reaction from the photoelectrode as well as the direct signal recording in a split-type protocol, which enables quite convenient and high-throughput detection as compared to previous formats. More importantly, by using numerous other oxidoreductases that involve quinones as reactants/products, this protocol could serve as a common basis for the development of a new class of QCCC-based PEC enzymatic bioanalysis and further extended for general enzyme-labeled PEC bioanalysis of versatile targets.

  2. Well Begun is Half Done: Investigating the Work and Career of the Young Workforce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, T.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313960577

    2013-01-01

    Young workers are faced with many unique challenges when they start their professional careers, and especially young workers with lower levels of education may need support in managing their work and career as their work is becoming ever more complex and they have been struck hardest by the recent

  3. An Investigation of Loneliness and Perceived Social Support Among Single and Partnered Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Katarzyna

    This study investigated the possible differences between single individuals and individuals in nonmarital romantic relationships in the domains of emotional (romantic and family) and social loneliness, and of perceived social support from family, friends and significant others. Based on a Polish university-student sample of 315 participants (167 women and 148 men) aged 19 to 25 years ( M  = 21.90, SD  = 2.15), single relationship status was related to greater romantic and family loneliness, and to less perceived social support from significant others and family. Women reported a lower level of social loneliness and a higher level of perceived social support in comparison to men. Relationship status interacted with gender in predicting perceived social support from significant others and friends. Finally, the duration of remaining single and significant others' support were found to be predictive of single young adults' romantic loneliness. In addition, perceived social support from family and significant others were found to moderate the relationship between the duration of remaining single and romantic loneliness. In particular, high family support and medium-high support from significant others mitigated the negative impact of being single for a long time on romantic loneliness.

  4. Vulnerability within families headed by teen and young adult mothers investigated by child welfare services in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovdestad, W; Shields, M; Williams, G; Tonmyr, L

    2015-01-01

    Young mothers' families are at increased risk of child maltreatment and other poor health and social outcomes. Chi-square analyses of pooled child welfare services data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2003; CIS-2008) were used to compare 284 teen mothers (18 years or younger) and 800 young mothers (19-21 years) and their families with 5752 families where the mother was 22 years or older. Twenty-six percent of young mothers were 18 years or younger. Most (68% of teen-mother families and 57% of families with a young adult mother) received social assistance as their main source of income compared with 36% of families with a mother aged 22 years or older. Teen and young adult mothers were more likely than those aged 22 or older to have childhood histories of out-of-home care (31% and 23% vs. 10%) and were more likely to have risk factors such as alcohol abuse (25% and 23% vs. 18%) and few social supports (46% and 41% vs. 37%). Secondary caregivers in families with young mothers also had more risk factors. Teen and young adult mother families were more likely to have their child placed out-of-home during the investigation (29% and 27% vs. 17%). All were equally likely to be victims of domestic violence and to have mental health issues. Within this sample of high-risk families, young mothers' families were more at risk than comparison families. Mothers' youth may be a useful criterion to identify families for targeted interventions.

  5. A preliminary investigation of materialism and impulsiveness as predictors of technological addictions among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James A; Pirog, Stephen F

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims The primary objective of the present research is to investigate the drivers of technological addiction in college students - heavy users of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The study places cell phone and instant messaging addiction in the broader context of consumption pathologies, investigating the influence of materialism and impulsiveness on these two technologies. Clearly, cell phones serve more than just a utilitarian purpose. Cell phones are used in public and play a vital role in the lives of young adults. The accessibility of new technologies, like cell phones, which have the advantages of portability and an ever increasing array of functions, makes their over-use increasingly likely. Methods College undergraduates (N = 191) from two U.S. universities completed a paper and pencil survey instrument during class. The questionnaire took approximately 15-20 minutes to complete and contained scales that measured materialism, impulsiveness, and mobile phone and instant messaging addiction. Results Factor analysis supported the discriminant validity of Ehrenberg, Juckes, White and Walsh's (2008) Mobile Phone and Instant Messaging Addictive Tendencies Scale. The path model indicates that both materialism and impulsiveness impact the two addictive tendencies, and that materialism's direct impact on these addictions has a noticeably larger effect on cell phone use than instant messaging. Conclusions The present study finds that materialism and impulsiveness drive both a dependence on cell phones and instant messaging. As Griffiths (2012) rightly warns, however, researchers must be aware that one's addiction may not simply be to the cell phone, but to a particular activity or function of the cell phone. The emergence of multi-function smart phones requires that research must dig beneath the technology being used to the activities that draw the user to the particular technology.

  6. Myopia Development Among Young Schoolchildren: The Myopia Investigation Study in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Der-Chong; Fang, Shao-You; Huang, Nicole; Hsu, Chih-Chien; Chen, Shing-Yi; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the annual incidence of myopia and associated factors among young schoolchildren in Taipei City. The Myopia Investigation Study in Taipei was a citywide, population-based cohort study. During the fall 2013 semester (baseline), a total of 11,590 grade 2 schoolchildren completed ocular examination and were included for further analysis. A parent-completed questionnaire was administered to collect data on risk factors for myopia development. Follow-up visits were arranged biannually over 3 years. The first-year results are reported here. Schoolchildren who were emmetropic/hyperopic at baseline and had myopia (spherical equivalent ≤ -0.5 diopters) in either eye at follow-up were identified as having incident myopia. Among 7376 baseline nonmyopic participants, 6794 (92.1%) were examined during the first-year follow-up, and 1856 (25.2%) with incident myopia were identified. The incidence density of myopia was 31.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 30.6-32.8) per 100 person-years. Cox hazard proportional regression analysis revealed that participants who were emmetropic at baseline (hazards ratio [HR]: 19.37; 95% CI: 4.84-77.57), who had two myopic parents (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.04-1.42), and who spent ≥5 hours every week on after-school tutoring programs (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02-1.22) had greater risk for incident myopia. By contrast, protective factors included suburban area of residence (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.83-1.00) and spending ≥30 minutes outdoors after school every weekday (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82-0.99). This study provides population-based data on the annual incidence of myopia among Taiwanese schoolchildren, and found that baseline refractive status, parental myopia, area of residence, time outdoors after school on weekdays, and time spent on after-school tutoring programs are associated with risk of new-onset myopia.

  7. Barriers and Enablers to Modifying Sleep Behavior in Adolescents and Young Adults: A Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jessica L; Reynolds, Amy C; Duncan, Mitch; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Ferguson, Sally A

    2017-01-09

    Many young adults obtain less than the recommended sleep duration for healthy and safe functioning. Behavior change interventions have had only moderate success in increasing sleep duration for this cohort. This may be because the way young adults think about sleep, including their willingness and ability to change sleep behavior, is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine what changes, if any, young adults are willing to make to their sleep behavior, and to identify factors that may enable or prevent these changes. Fifty-seven young adults (16-25 years; 57% female) took part in focus groups addressing (a) willingness to change, (b) desired outcomes of change, and (c) barriers to change in regards to sleep behavior. An inductive approach to data analysis was employed, involving data immersion, coding, categorization, and theme generation. Participants were willing to change sleep behavior, and had previously employed strategies including advancing bedtime and minimizing phone use, with limited success. Desired changes were improved waking function, advanced sleep onset, optimized sleep periods, and improved sleep habits. Barriers to making these changes included time demands, technology use, difficulty switching off, and unpredictable habits. Young adults want to improve sleep behavior and waking function; this is an important first step in modifying behavior. Notably, participants wanted more efficient and better quality sleep, rather than increasing sleep duration. The reported barriers to sleep, particularly using technology for social purposes, will require innovative and specialized strategies if they are to be overcome.

  8. Exposure to digital marketing enhances young adults’ interest in energy drinks: An exploratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on “digital native” young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults’ consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (aged 18–24) were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups (N = 30 each). Experimental group participants’ attitudes towards and intended purchase and consumption of energy drinks were examined via surveys and semi-structured interviews after their exposure to two popular energy drink brands’ websites and social media sites (exposure time 8 minutes). Exposure to digital marketing contents of energy drinks improved the experimental group participants’ attitudes towards and purchase and consumption intention of energy drinks. This study indicates the influential power of unhealthy online marketing on cognitively mature young adults. This study draws public health attentions to young adults, who to date have been less of a focus of researchers but are influenced by online food advertising. PMID:28152016

  9. Exposure to digital marketing enhances young adults' interest in energy drinks: An exploratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on "digital native" young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults' consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (aged 18-24) were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups (N = 30 each). Experimental group participants' attitudes towards and intended purchase and consumption of energy drinks were examined via surveys and semi-structured interviews after their exposure to two popular energy drink brands' websites and social media sites (exposure time 8 minutes). Exposure to digital marketing contents of energy drinks improved the experimental group participants' attitudes towards and purchase and consumption intention of energy drinks. This study indicates the influential power of unhealthy online marketing on cognitively mature young adults. This study draws public health attentions to young adults, who to date have been less of a focus of researchers but are influenced by online food advertising.

  10. Investigating Change in Young People's Understandings of Japan: A Study of Learning about a Distant Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Liz

    2011-01-01

    This article demonstrates how a set of complementary qualitative methods can be used to construct a detailed picture not only of the nature of young people's representations of a distant place but the processes of learning by which such representations develop over the medium term. The analysis is based on an interpretive case study of a class of…

  11. Aspirations and Young People's Constructions of Their Futures: Investigating Social Mobility and Social Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Kate; Barker, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    The United Kingdom's Coalition government has introduced an education policy that is focused on increasing the opportunities to promote and advance social mobility for all children within state education. Raising young people's aspirations through school-based initiatives is a prominent theme within recent policy texts, which are focused on…

  12. Investigating the drinking patterns of young people over the course of the evening at weekends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Labhart, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Memory deficits lead to distortion when long recall periods are used to assess alcohol consumption. We used the recently developed Internet-based cell phone-optimised assessment technique (ICAT) to describe the drinking patterns of young people over the course of Thursday, Friday and

  13. Voluntary and Involuntary Singlehood and Young Adults' Mental Health: an Investigation of Mediating Role of Romantic Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that single young adults who perceive their singlehood as voluntary would report a higher level of positive mental health (i.e., emotional, psychological and social well-being), lower levels of mental health illness (i.e., somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, severe depression) and romantic loneliness in comparison to young adults who perceive their singlehood as involuntary. This paper also investigated whether romantic loneliness mediates the relationship between voluntary and involuntary singlehood, positive mental health, and mental health illness. The study sample included 151 participants (86 females and 65 males) aged 20-26 ( M  = 22.48, SD  = 2.01) from Poland. The main findings were that voluntarily single young adults reported a lower level of romantic loneliness compared to involuntarily single young adults. The two groups differed neither in regard to positive mental health nor in regard to mental health problems. In addition, gender differences were observed solely in the domain of romantic loneliness, with women reporting greater romantic loneliness than men. The mediation analysis revealed that romantic loneliness does not mediate the relationship between voluntary and involuntary singlehood, positive mental health, and mental health illness. Voluntary and involuntary singlehood was predictive of somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, severe depression, and romantic loneliness.

  14. Radioautographic and histologic investigation of skin in young and old frogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kook Bon; You, Dong Soo

    1983-01-01

    Age differences in the skin structure have been studied in young (one year-old) and aged (five and a half year- old) frogs, Xenopus laevis. The epidermis in young frogs is made up of an average of 6.3 and 4.7 layers of epithelial cells at abdominal and dorsal surfaces, respectively. In aged frogs, the number of respective cell layers at abdominal and dorsal surfaces increases to 8.8 and 5.6. The thickness of the dermis (spongiosum) in aged frogs is decrease d 25% on the abdominal side (from 267 μm to 207 μm) but is increased by 11% on the dorsal side (from 275 μm to 305 μm). The nucleolar index and 3H-uridine incorporation, as judged by radioautography, by epithelial cells are drastically reduced in aged frogs.

  15. Motivating factors for dual-method contraceptive use among adolescents and young women: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Julie; Teal, Stephanie B; Peters, Marissa; Guiahi, Maryam

    2017-11-01

    This qualitative study explores how adolescents and young women perceive the need for and describe the use of dual method contraception. We interviewed 20 sexually active women aged 16-24 who attended an adolescent-focused Title X family-planning clinic and were using a non-barrier contraceptive method. We used a semi-structured interview guide that included domains related to sexual activity, knowledge of and use of contraceptives and condoms, and relationship factors. We coded transcripts using grounded theory techniques and used an iterative process to develop overarching themes. Dual method contraceptive users primarily discussed pregnancy prevention as their motivating factor. Many expressed anxieties over an unplanned pregnancy and reported condom use as "back-up" contraception. Risk perception for pregnancy or STI acquisition did not necessarily change as relationship trust increased, but rather, their anxiety regarding the negativity of such outcomes decreased. Dual-method contraception use decreased when participants reported that condoms were not readily available, or when they self-described immaturity. Less frequently, participants reported dual method use for sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and many substituted STI testing for condom use. Contraceptive type (short-acting vs. long-acting) did not influence reported attitudes towards dual method use. Health educators and clinicians encourage condom use in young women due to the significant morbidity associated with STI acquisition. Most participants in our study view condoms as a way to improve pregnancy prevention. Acknowledging and addressing this divergence in motivation will allow caregivers to improve strategies for communicating the importance of dual method use. Young women primarily describe pregnancy prevention as the reason for dual method use, STI protection is less salient. Consideration of this viewpoint by health educators and clinicians will allow us to communicate more

  16. Neuropsychological and socio-occupational functioning in young psychiatric outpatients: a longitudinal investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico S C Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical symptoms and neuropsychological deficits are longitudinally associated with functional outcome in chronic psychiatric cohorts. The current study extended these findings to young and early-course psychiatric outpatients, with the aim of identifying cognitive markers that predict later socio-occupational functioning. METHODS: At baseline, 183 young psychiatric outpatients were assessed. Ninety-three returned for follow-up (M = 21.6 years old; SD = 4.5 with an average re-assessment interval of 21.6 months (SD = 7.0, and primary diagnoses of major depressive disorder (n = 34, bipolar disorder (n = 29, or psychosis (n = 30. The primary outcome measure was cross-validated with various other functional measures and structural equation modelling was used to map out the interrelationships between predictors and later functional outcome. RESULTS: Good socio-occupational functioning at follow-up was associated with better quality of life, less disability, current employment and being in a romantic relationship. The final structural equation model explained 47.5% of the variability in functional outcome at follow-up, with baseline neuropsychological functioning (a composite of memory, working memory and attentional switching the best independent predictor of later functional outcome. Notably, depressive and negative symptoms were only associated with functioning cross-sectionally. Diagnosis at follow-up was not associated with functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Neuropsychological functioning was the single best predictor of later socio-occupational outcome among young psychiatric outpatients. Therefore, framing psychiatric disorders along a neuropsychological continuum is likely to be more useful in predicting functional trajectory than traditional symptom-based classification systems. The current findings also have implications for early intervention utilising cognitive remediation approaches.

  17. Theory of Mind Skills in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Investigating the Influence of Peer Coaches and Mind Reading Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary Murphy

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated Theory of Mind in young adults with autism. The young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) consisted of four students between the ages of 18 and 19 from an on-campus program for students with autism located at Marywood University in Northeastern Pennsylvania. It was hypothesized that "Mind Reading",…

  18. Neural impact of low-level alcohol use on response inhibition: An fMRI investigation in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchard, Taylor; Mioduszewski, Ola; Fall, Carley; Byron-Alhassan, Aziza; Fried, Peter; Smith, Andra M

    2017-06-30

    It is widely known that alcohol consumption adversely affects human health, particularly in the immature developing brains of adolescents and young adults, which may also have a long-lasting impact on executive functioning. The present study investigated the neural activity of 28 young adults from the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The purpose of this study was to discover the impact of regular low-level alcohol consumption on response inhibition as the participants performed a Go/No-Go task. Results indicated that, despite a lack of performance differences, young adults who use alcohol on a regular basis differ significantly from those who do not use alcohol regularly (if at all) with respect to their neural activity as the circuitry engaged in response inhibition is being challenged. Specifically, areas that showed significantly more activation in users compared to controls included the left hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, right superior parietal lobule, and the cerebellum. These results suggest that even in low amounts, regular consumption of alcohol may have a significant impact on neurophysiological functioning during response inhibition in the developing brain of youth. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Urban Sport-for-Development Initiatives and Young People in Socially Vulnerable Situations: Investigating the ‘Deficit Model’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno Nols

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Critical scholars have indicated that the assumptions underlying most sport-for-development (SFD initiatives tend to align with a ‘deficit model’ of youth: young people from disadvantaged areas are uniformly deficient and in need of development, which can be achieved through sport (Coakley, 2011; Coalter, 2013. In this article, we investigated these assumptions within six urban SFD initiatives that work with young people in socially vulnerable situations in a ‘first’ world nation, Belgium. We conducted a survey at two moments in time amongst 14- to 25-year-old participants in order to test two assumptions: i ‘participants are deficient and in need of development’; and ii ‘participation in SFD initiatives leads to positive personal development’. We operationalised ‘development’ as the commonly used outcomes of perceived self-efficacy and self-esteem. These are ‘household words’ both inside and outside SFD research, practice, and policy and carry the assumption that boosting them will by itself foster positive outcomes. The findings refute the supposition that young people from disadvantaged urban areas are uniformly in need of more perceived self-efficacy and self-esteem and show that there is no simple and predictable change in participants’ ‘development’. We suggest that, in designing and researching programs, SFD stakeholders start from an open-ended bottom-up approach which is tailored to the actual life situations of young people and their individual differences and consider more interpersonal and critical conceptualisations of ‘development’.

  20. Peer Influence on IPV by Young Adult Males: Investigating the Case for a Social Norms Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKool, Marissa; Stephenson, Rob; Winskell, Kate; Teten Tharp, Andra; Parrott, Dominic

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 32% of women report experiencing physical violence from an intimate partner and more than 8% report being raped by a significant other in their lifetime. Young people's perceptions that their peers perpetrate relationship violence have been shown to increase the odds of self-reported perpetration. Yet, limited research has been conducted on this relationship as individuals begin to age out of adolescence. The present study sought to examine the link between the perception of peer perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and self-reported IPV perpetration among a sample of predominately young adult (21-35 years) males. This study also explored the discordance between the perception of peer IPV behavior and self-reported perpetration. Data from 101 male peer dyads ( n = 202) were taken from a study on the effects of alcohol and bystander intervention in Atlanta, Georgia. Thirty-six percent ( n = 73) of men reported perpetrating physical IPV and 67% ( n = 135) reported perpetrating sexual IPV in the past 12 months. Nearly 35% ( n = 55) of the sample reported that none of their peers had perpetrated physical IPV, which contradicted their friend's self-report of physical IPV perpetration. Similarly, 68% ( n = 115) of the men perceived none of their peers to have perpetrated sexual IPV, which contradicted their friend's self-report of sexual IPV perpetration. Discordance variables were significantly associated with self-reported perpetration for both physical (χ 2 = 152.7, p social norms approach to IPV prevention, which seeks to persuade individuals that negative behaviors are less common than perceived, may not be the best approach given a significant number of men believed their friends were nonviolent when they had perpetrated violence.

  1. An investigation on facial and cranial anthropometric parameters among Isfahan Young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Sh. Assistant Professor

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Anthropometry is applied in medical professions such as maxillofacial surgery,"ngrowth and development studies, plastic surgery, bioengineering and non- medical branches such as like"nshoe- making and eye- glasses industries."nAim: The aim of the present study was to determine facial and cranial ratios among Isfahan young"nadults."nMaterials and Methods: A study was done randomly on 200 boys and 200 girls, from among Isfahan"nyoung adults, with normal face patterns. Facial and cranial ratios, according to sex, were estimated and"ncompared."nResults: The results of this study were compared with Canadian anthropometric findings by Farkas."nThere was no significant difference in cranial width between boys and girls but cranial length and all"nfacial parameters (Int ,cant, go-go, zy- zy, ch-ch, Ala-Ala, low.lip, Up.Iip, Sn.gn, Sto.gn, N.sto, Ngn"nwere greater in boys than girls. Cranial index and , , " ,Cl ratios were greater in"nn - gn zy - zy zy - zy zy - zy"n... slo-go sn-gn sto-gn slo-gn sto-gn . . ._"ngirls, however, -, -, , , were greater in boys, There was no significant"ngo-go n- gn n- gn n- sto sn - gn"ndifference about facial index between boys and girls. Comparing facial parameters between Iranian and Canadian races, low. lip, Ala-Ala and go- go were greater among Iranians, however, Int cant ,Up. lip. N.gn, ch- ch, zy-zy showed a greater size among Canadians. Sn-gn ratio was greater in Canadian girls, but there was no significant difference between Iranian and Canadian boys in this"nregard. " " s" , s° " 8° , " ~ s ° , g° " 8° , ^-- ratios were greater among Isfahanian boys and girls,"nzy-zy zy-zy zy-zy n - gn zy-zy"nhowever, J ° ~ g" , 5 ° " 8" / ° " s" ratios were greater among Canadians. Regarding 5"~g" ratio, no"nn- sto sn- gn n~ gn n- gn"nsignificant difference was observed between Canadian and Isfahanian girls."nConclusion: Considering the significant difference in the facial and cranial anthropologic

  2. Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry: An Attractive and Prospective Method for the Quantitative Bioanalysis in Drug Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Han, Jie; Sun, Shi-an; Chen, Kai; Tang, Dao-quan

    2016-01-01

    During the development, dosage optimization and safety evaluation of a drug, rapid and precise monitoring of administered drug and/or its metabolites in biological samples including blood, plasma, serum, tissues and saliva are vital. As drug biotransformation produces more hydrophilic metabolites for the enhancement of drug elimination, which is often a challenge for traditional reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) separation. Because hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) is capable of retaining polar compounds and readily compatible with mass spectrometry (MS), HILIC has been used as a complementary separation technique to RPLC for analysis of polar metabolites, especially polar drugs and their metabolites. This review covers core aspects of HILIC-MS/MS method and overall profile of its application in analysis of drug and/or its metabolites. The emphasis of this paper has been placed on the applications of HILIC-MS/MS method in quantitative bioanalysis of drugs alone or along with their metabolites in drug metabolism studies in recent years. As a fundamental and critical step of bioanalytical method, conventional sample preparation techniques of biological matrices for the HILIC-MS/MS analysis of drugs and/or their metabolites are also briefly featured.

  3. Age-related changes in error processing in young children: A school-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie K. Grammer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth in executive functioning (EF skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN and the error positivity (Pe, over this period is inconclusive. Data were recorded in a school setting from 3- to 7-year-old children (N = 96, mean age = 5 years 11 months as they performed a Go/No-Go task. Results revealed the presence of the ERN and Pe on error relative to correct trials at all age levels. Older children showed increased response inhibition as evidenced by faster, more accurate responses. Although developmental changes in the ERN were not identified, the Pe increased with age. In addition, girls made fewer mistakes and showed elevated Pe amplitudes relative to boys. Based on a representative school-based sample, findings indicate that the ERN is present in children as young as 3, and that development can be seen in the Pe between ages 3 and 7. Results varied as a function of gender, providing insight into the range of factors associated with developmental changes in the complex relations between behavioral and electrophysiological measures of error processing.

  4. Age-related changes in error processing in young children: a school-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Jennie K; Carrasco, Melisa; Gehring, William J; Morrison, Frederick J

    2014-07-01

    Growth in executive functioning (EF) skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe), over this period is inconclusive. Data were recorded in a school setting from 3- to 7-year-old children (N=96, mean age=5 years 11 months) as they performed a Go/No-Go task. Results revealed the presence of the ERN and Pe on error relative to correct trials at all age levels. Older children showed increased response inhibition as evidenced by faster, more accurate responses. Although developmental changes in the ERN were not identified, the Pe increased with age. In addition, girls made fewer mistakes and showed elevated Pe amplitudes relative to boys. Based on a representative school-based sample, findings indicate that the ERN is present in children as young as 3, and that development can be seen in the Pe between ages 3 and 7. Results varied as a function of gender, providing insight into the range of factors associated with developmental changes in the complex relations between behavioral and electrophysiological measures of error processing. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. An Investigation into the Lifestyle, Health Habits and Risk Factors of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Al-Nakeeb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This project examined the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults at Qatar University. It explored the clustering and differences in dietary habits, body mass index (BMI and physical activity (PA amongst male and female students, both Qatari and non-Qatari. Seven hundred thirty two students aged 18–25 years completed a self-reported questionnaire and an objective measure of BMI. Males and females had a high prevalence of being overweight and obesity and low levels of PA, according to well-established international standards. Three clusters were identified based on the students’ lifestyle and dietary habits. Cluster 1 (high risk factors included those who engaged the least in healthy dietary practices and consumed the most unhealthy foods, participated in less PA and had the highest BMI. Cluster 2 (moderate risk factors included those with considerably more habits falling into the moderate category, engagement in the most PA, the least TV and computer viewing time and had the lowest BMI. Cluster 3 (low risk factors included those who engaged the most with the four healthy dietary practices, the least with the four unhealthy dietary practices and participated in moderate PA per week. This project provides valuable data that could be used by policy makers to address issues concerning student’s health.

  6. First molecular investigation of Cryptosporidium spp. in young calves in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhouda, Djahida; Hakem, Ahcène; Sannella, Anna Rosa; Benhouda, Afaf; Cacciò, Simone M

    2017-01-01

    To date, no information is available on the prevalence and genetic identity of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle in Algeria. In this study, 17 dairy farms in the province of Batna, located in the northeast of the country, were visited to collect 132 fecal samples from young calves (< 8 weeks old). Samples were examined microscopically using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining method, and at least one sample per farm was submitted for molecular analysis. Amplification of a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was positive for 24 of the 61 samples (40%), and sequence analysis identified three species, namely Cryptosporidium bovis (n = 14), C. ryanae (n = 6), and C. parvum (n = 4). The C. parvum IIaA13G2R1 subtype, an uncommon zoonotic subtype, was identified in two isolates from a single farm by sequencing a fragment of the GP60 gene. This is the first report about genotyping and subtyping of Cryptosporidium in calves in Algeria. © D. Benhouda et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  7. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE DINIG-OUT BEHAVIOR OF ROMANIAN YOUNG PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂL TESCU CODRUŢA ADINA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food services are basic services of the tourism offer. Unlike the other elements of the tourism product sold to a visitor, the offer of food units target to a high extent the residents. The habit to satisfy the need of food & beverage in specialized units, concept known under the name of “dining-out”, records in Romania a lower spread in comparison with developed states. This situation is determined by the low level of incomes, the lack of the lunch break with a duration of at least one hour in the working program of many companies which could favor serving the meal in a food unit, etc, but also the concern of the restaurants to satisfy the demand for events (weddings, baptisms, etc or satisfying the needs of socialization and amusement of population during evenings. The article aims to highlight the opinions and attitudes of young consumers from Romania regarding the food service consumption, the elements which determine the decision to eat in a restaurant and the issues that might favor this action.

  8. Micronucleus Investigation in Buccal Mucosal Cells of Young Waterpipe Tobacco Smokers in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke(WTS is an unhealthy life style that may increase the risk of genotoxic responses and chronic diseases such as cancer. Micronucleus test is a successful and reliable method which is used for screening of genetotoxic responses of whole body and also for screening those people who had already exposed to genotoxic compounds. In this study, specific questionnaires were designed and used for studying the role of shisha smoking on the extent of genotoxic responses and cases were looked for MNs with this biomonitoring method. The study population was 20 young adults (12men and 8 women who born and lived in Tehran and had continuously smoked shisha more than 2 times weekly for more than 2 years . The associations between all recorded background, environmental and nutritional factors and increased incidence of Micronucleus in buccal cells of all cases were considered by statistical methods. In order to count Micronucleus levels, buccal cells were collected from buccal mucosa of these people with small-headed toothbrush and was placed the head of tooth brush into buccal cell buffer, slides were prepared and cells were stained with Schiff’s reagent and light green .Finally 1000 differentiated cells were recorded by optical microscope in each slide and the mean level of MN was determined for each volunteer . All steps were performed according to the buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt assay protocol. Increased incidence of Micronucleus was associated with the extent of shisha smoking per week (p=0.021, alcohol consumption ( p=0.021 and BMI ( p=0.027. The other effective factor in the occurrence of Micronucleus was gender/sex ( p=0.011 but nutritional factors didn’t change the level of Micronucleus in our cases. The relationship between other background and environmental factors were not significant too. It seems that long term consumption of shisha in both genders could increase the risk of genetic toxicity and occurrence of

  9. Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bie, Henrica M. A.; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Ouwendijk, Mieke; Oostrom, Kim J.; Wilke, Marko; Boersma, Maria; Veltman, Dick J.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic

  10. Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bie, H.M.A.; de Ruiter, M.B.; Ouwendijk, M.; Oostrom, K.J.; Wilke, M.; Boersma, M.; Veltman, D.J.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional

  11. Development in electrophoresis: instrumentation for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein separation and application of capillary electrophoresis in micro-bioanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Aoshuang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation begins with a general introduction of topics related to this work. The following chapters contain three scientific manuscripts, each presented in a separate chapter with accompanying tables, figures, and literature citations. The final chapter summarizes the work and provides some prospective on this work. This introduction starts with a brief treatment of the basic principles of electrophoresis separation, followed by a discussion of gel electrophoresis and particularly polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for protein separation, a summary of common capillary electrophoresis separation modes, and a brief treatment of micro-bioanalysis application of capillary electrophoresis, and ends with an overview of protein conformation and dynamics.

  12. Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bie, Henrica M A; de Ruiter, Michiel B; Ouwendijk, Mieke; Oostrom, Kim J; Wilke, Marko; Boersma, Maria; Veltman, Dick J; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). 18 children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 34 SGA born children (18 with and 16 without postnatal catch-up growth) participated in this study. All children were between 4 and 7 years old. Cognitive functioning was assessed by IQ and memory testing (Digit/Word Span and Location Learning). A newly developed fMRI picture encoding task was completed by all children in order to assess brain regions involved in memory processes. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that SGA children had IQ's within the normal range but lower than in AGA and poorer performances across measures of memory. Using fMRI, we observed memory related activity in posterior parahippocampal gyrus as well as the hippocampus proper. Additionally, activation was seen bilaterally in the prefrontal gyrus. Children born SGA showed less activation in the left parahippocampal region compared to AGA. This is the first fMRI study demonstrating different brain activation patterns in 4-7 year old children born SGA, suggesting that intrauterine growth restriction continues to affect neural functioning in children later-on.

  13. Cool? Young people investigate living in cold housing and fuel poverty. A mixed methods action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Kimberley C; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Sim, Dalice; Stanley, James; Rowan, Rebekah L; Harris Clark, Isobel K; Morrison, Lydia L A

    2017-12-01

    Living in cold housing conditions and risk of fuel poverty presents a range of physiological and psychosocial health risks. Limited research has specifically investigated the effects of fuel poverty on children and young people, and even less has been conducted with youth input into the research process. The Cool? Study used mixed methods, participatory action research carried out with youth researchers involved at all stages through questionnaire design, analysis, qualitative design, e-interviewing and dissemination of results. This article reports on results of an online survey of 656 adolescents aged 14-16 years completed at 17 schools in New Zealand. Sampling was based on selecting schools for invitation, with the probability of selection weighted proportional to school size, within strata defined by climate zone. Results from a small e-mail interview study of survey respondents who consented to follow-up are also reported. The study found that almost half of the survey respondents (47%) felt their home was sometimes cold during the winter; a further 40% felt their home was often or always cold. More than two thirds of respondents (70%) had shivered inside at least once during winter. Respondents were more likely to report key indicators of fuel poverty depending on their self-reported ethnicity, with Māori at increased risk. Living in private rental housing or state-owned housing also increased risk of fuel poverty compared to those in owner-occupied dwellings. Participants of email interviews expressed concern about the widespread problem of cold housing for youth and a desire for Government intervention. The integrated results confirm that cold housing and risk of fuel poverty are important problems for young people in New Zealand. Results contribute to the evidence-base for policy targeting of schemes such as the Government-sponsored retrofitting of insulation to households with dependent children.

  14. A Longitudinal Investigation of Syndemic Conditions Among Young Gay, Bisexual, and Other MSM: The P18 Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Bub, Kristen L; Barton, Staci; Moreira, Alvaro D; Stults, Christopher B

    2015-06-01

    The persistence of disparities in STI/HIV risk among a new generation of emerging adult gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) warrant holistic frameworks and new methodologies for investigating the behaviors related to STI/HIV in this group. In order to better understand the continued existence of these disparities in STI/HIV risk among YMSM, the present study evaluated the presence and persistence of syndemic conditions among YMSM by examining the co-occurrence of alcohol and drug use, unprotected sexual behavior, and mental health burden over time. Four waves of data, collected over the first 18 months of a 7 wave, 36-month prospective cohort study of YMSM (n=600) were used to examine the extent to which measurement models of drug use, unprotected sexual behavior, and mental health burden remained consistent across time using latent class modeling. Health challenges persisted across time as these YMSM emerged into young adulthood and the measurement models for the latent constructs of drug use and unprotected sexual behavior were essentially consistent across time whereas models for mental health burden varied over time. In addition to confirming the the robustness of our measurement models which capture a more holistic understandings of the health conditions of drug use, unprotected sex, and mental health burden, these findings underscore the ongoing health challenges YMSM face as they mature into young adulthood. These ongoing health challenges, which have been understood as forming a syndemic, persist over time, and add further evidence to support ongoing and vigilant comprehensive health programming for sexual minority men that move beyond a sole focus on HIV.

  15. Sensitive Bioanalysis Based on in-Situ Droplet Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Detection of CdS Quantum Dots Label after Enhanced Cathodic Preconcentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Qin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a protocol of CdS-labeled sandwich-type amperometric bioanalysis with high sensitivity, on the basis of simultaneous chemical-dissolution/cathodic-enrichment of the CdS quantum dot biolabel and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV detection of Cd directly on the bioelectrode. We added a microliter droplet of 0.1 M aqueous HNO3 to dissolve CdS on the bioelectrode and simultaneously achieved the potentiostatic cathodic preconcentration of Cd by starting the potentiostatic operation before HNO3 addition, which can largely increase the ASV signal. Our protocol was used for immunoanalysis and aptamer-based bioanalysis of several proteins, giving limits of detection of 4.5 fg·mL−1 for human immunoglobulin G, 3.0 fg·mL−1 for human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, 4.9 fg·mL−1 for human α-fetoprotein (AFP, and 0.9 fM for thrombin, which are better than many reported results. The simultaneous and sensitive analysis of CEA and AFP at two screen-printed carbon electrodes was also conducted by our protocol.

  16. Thematic Journeys. Young Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingher, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Some children delight in pursuing information about a particular subject. They are excited about facts and theories, and want to know about the "how" as well as the "what" and the "who." They love the challenge of making connections and seeing the ways the pieces of any puzzle or mystery are linked together. On research projects, these young…

  17. Investigating the neurobiology of music: brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation in the hippocampus of young adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Francesco; Fiore, Marco; Ricci, Enzo; Padua, Luca; Sabino, Andrea; Tonali, Pietro Attilio

    2007-09-01

    It has been shown that music might be able to improve mood state in people affected by psychiatric disorders, ameliorate cognitive deficits in people with dementia and increase motor coordination in Parkinson patients. Robust experimental evidence explaining the central effects of music, however, is missing. This study was designed to investigate the effect of music on brain neurotrophin production and behavior in the mouse. We exposed young adult mice to music with a slow rhythm (6 h/day; mild sound pressure levels, between 50 and 60 db) for 21 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, mice were tested for passive avoidance learning and then killed for analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in selected brain regions. We found that music-exposed mice showed increased BDNF, but not nerve growth factor in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we observed that music exposure significantly enhanced learning performance, as measured by the passive avoidance test. Our results demonstrate that exposure to music can modulate the activity of the hippocampus by influencing BDNF production. Our findings also suggest that music exposure might be of help in several central nervous system pathologies.

  18. Investigating the effect of traditional Persian music on ECG signals in young women using wavelet transform and neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Behzad; Abbasi, Ataollah; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2017-05-01

    In the past few decades, several studies have reported the physiological effects of listening to music. The physiological effects of different music types on different people are different. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of listening to traditional Persian music on electrocardiogram (ECG) signals in young women. Twenty-two healthy females participated in this study. ECG signals were recorded under two conditions: rest and music. For each ECG signal, 20 morphological and wavelet-based features were selected. Artificial neural network (ANN) and probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifiers were used for the classification of ECG signals during and before listening to music. Collected data were separated into two data sets: train and test. Classification accuracies of 88% and 97% were achieved in train data sets using ANN and PNN, respectively. In addition, the test data set was employed for evaluating the classifiers, and classification rates of 84% and 93% were obtained using ANN and PNN, respectively. The present study investigated the effect of music on ECG signals based on wavelet transform and morphological features. The results obtained here can provide a good understanding on the effects of music on ECG signals to researchers.

  19. From the investigations on Armillaria root rot occurrence in young Scots pine stands in Zielonka Forest District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szewczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria root rot, one of the most dangerous diseases in our forests, is caused in Poland mainly by Armillaria ostoyae, especially severe in young Scots pine stands, established after broadleaved stands or with participation of broadleaved species. In Forest District Zielonka young stands are severly affected by Armillaria root rot. Only one species, A.ostoyae, was found in the young (8-14 yrs Scots pine stands, despite the presence of other Armillaria species in the district. The pathogen's frequent occurrence may be due, inter alia, to favouring environmental factors.

  20. Measuring Cultural Socialization Attitudes and Behaviors of Mexican-Origin Mothers With Young Children: A Longitudinal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlan, Chelsea L.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Toomey, Russell B.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development and psychometric testing of the Cultural Socialization Behaviors Measure (CSBM) and the Cultural Socialization Attitudes Measure (CSAM). The CSBM assesses cultural socialization behaviors that parents use with young children, and the CSAM assesses the attitudes that parents have regarding the importance of socializing their young children about their culture. Both measures demonstrated strong reliability, validity, and cross-language equivalence (i.e., Spanish and English) among a sample of 204 Mexican-origin young mothers (Mage = 20.94 years, SD = 1.01) with 4-year-old children. In addition, the measures demonstrated longitudinal equivalence when children were 4 and 5 years of age. PMID:27990040

  1. Investigation into the Effects of Eight Weeks of Step Aerobic Dance Practice on Static Balance, Flexibility and Selected Basketball Skills in Young Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavli, Özhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of step aerobic exercises on static balance, flexibility and selected basketball skills in young basketball players. A total of 20 basketball players (average age 16.1 ± 0.7 years and average sporting age 4.1 ± 0.7 years) voluntarily joined the study. Participants were randomly…

  2. Bioanalysis of tobramycin for therapeutic drug monitoring by solid-phase extraction and capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonge, Humphrey; Kaale, Eliangiringa; Govaerts, Cindy; Desmet, Koenraad; Van Schepdael, Ann; Hoogmartens, Jos

    2004-10-25

    A method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for the analysis of tobramycin in human serum is presented. An off-line SPE employing a carboxypropyl bonded phase (CBA) cartridge was used for the extraction of tobramycin from human serum. Adsorbed tobramycin was eluted from the CBA cartridge using a mixture of NH(3) (25%, w/v)-methanol (30:70, v/v). After evaporation, the analyte was reconstituted and derivatized with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA)/3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The resulting tobramycin-OPA/MPA derivative was purified, and then identified by mass spectrometry. The tobramycin-OPA/MPA derivative was then analysed by CZE with a background electrolyte (BGE) comprising of 30 mM sodium tetraborate pH 10.0-acetonitrile (ACN) (80:20, v/v) with ultraviolet detection at 230 nm. A linear response was observed in the range of 0.3-30 microg/ml with r(2) = 0.992. The sensitivity of the method was determined by its limit of quantitation (LOQ) and limit of detection (LOD) of 0.3 microg/ml and 0.1 microg/ml, respectively. SPE recovery ranged from 68 to 79% at the trough levels to 98% at the peak levels found in serum. Furosemide has been added as internal standard (IS) to improve precision. For the therapeutic range of tobramycin in serum (2-10 microg/ml) the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was less than 11% for the entire SPE/CE process. The method demonstrated excellent selectivity as shown by the lack of interference from a total of 20 drugs investigated. The method was then used in therapeutic drug monitoring of patients receiving the drug.

  3. A preliminary investigation of a new pictorial method of measuring aggression-supportive cognition among young aggressive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Jade N; Gannon, Theresa A; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    A new pictorial assessment was developed to measure aggression-supportive cognitions among young aggressive male students. The assessment was comprised of 17 watercolor ambiguous sketches that could be interpreted in either an aggressive or a benign manner (e.g., two young people facing each other with their arms folded). The results showed that high trait aggressive male students were more likely to make hostile attributions of the pictures, providing significantly more themes of entitlement and power in the stories they generated about the pictures. Aggressive male students also endorsed significantly more aggression-supportive cognitions on a self-report measure and provided some supporting qualitative accounts of physically aggressive encounters. The results of this study are discussed and evaluated with reference to future work with young violent adolescents.

  4. Bioanalysis of eukaryotic organelles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Satori, Ch. P.; Henderson, M. M.; Krautkramer, E. A.; Košťál, Vratislav; Distefano, M. M.; Arriaga, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 4 (2013), s. 2733-2811 ISSN 0009-2665 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200311201 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : green fluorescent protein * atomic-force microscopy * capillary electrophoretic analysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 45.661, year: 2013

  5. Cool? Young people investigate living in cold housing and fuel poverty. A mixed methods action research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley C. O'Sullivan

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The integrated results confirm that cold housing and risk of fuel poverty are important problems for young people in New Zealand. Results contribute to the evidence-base for policy targeting of schemes such as the Government-sponsored retrofitting of insulation to households with dependent children.

  6. Science Learning for ALL Young Scientists: Exploring, Investigating, Learning, and Growing Together with Ramps and Pathways in Diverse Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, Shelly L.; Wright, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    Physical science activities provide multiple and varied opportunities for young children to actively observe, engage in, interact with, and interpret experiences in the physical world within diverse, inclusive settings. If all learners are to gain access to, fully participate in, and achieve maximum profit from early science opportunities,…

  7. Investigating rehabilitation needs of visually impaired young adults according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, L.M.; Rainey, J.F.M.; Kef, S.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.; van Nispen, R.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To gain qualitative insight into the rehabilitation needs of visually impaired young adults (18-25 years) and how these needs relate to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and patient characteristics. Methods Rehabilitation needs and patient

  8. Tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON® assay in young children investigated for tuberculosis in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moyo, S.; Isaacs, F.; Gelderbloem, S.; Verver, S.; Hawkridge, A. J.; Hatherill, M.; Tameris, M.; Geldenhuys, H.; Workman, L.; Pai, M.; Hussey, G.; Hanekom, W. A.; Mahomed, H.

    2011-01-01

    Although the literature on interferon-gamma release assays on tuberculosis (TB) in children has increased, data pertaining to young children remain relatively limited. To compare results from the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT) in children aged <3 years

  9. Assessing the Internal Consistency of the Self-Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA): A Nigerian Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Alfred A.

    Noting the lack of self-concept research in nonwestern cultures and the need to determine if a western measure of self-image is embedded in the same network of constructs in another culture, this study examined the appropriateness of using the Self Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA) with Nigerian students. Participating in the study…

  10. Why Chinese Consumers Prefer Housing Ownership to Renting Before Marriage: An investigation of Chinese young consumers' rent-versus-buy housing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Mingjie

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the influential factors of Chinese young consumers’ rent-versus-buy housing decisions before marriage, and thus to explain why most Chinese consumers prefer housing ownership to renting or even regard an own-occupied housing as a prerequisite of marriage. The research was based on rich literatures concerning rent-versus-buy housing decisions and consumer decision making theory. A qualitative approach was adopted to conduct the research to gain in-depth insight o...

  11. Investigating Discontinuity of Age Relations in Cognitive Functioning, General Health Status, Activity Participation, and Life Satisfaction between Young-Old and Old-Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Jopp, Daniela S; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-11-05

    Health research suggests that findings on young-old adults cannot be generalized to old-old adults and thus that old-old age seems not a simple continuation of young-old age due to qualitative changes that result in a discontinuity in old age. Specifically, it would be of conceptual and methodological importance to inform research regarding estimates around which chronological age the beginning of old-old age could be placed at a population level, and whether this is universal or domain-specific. To derive such criteria, we investigated potential discontinuity of age relations between young-old and old-old age in a large population-based sample considering measures in different domains (processing speed, verbal abilities, general health status, activity participation, and life satisfaction). For processing speed, verbal abilities, general health status, and life satisfaction we observed some very small indication that there might be a discontinuity of age relations at the end of individuals' eighties, and for activity participation already at the beginning of individuals' eighties. In conclusion, models conceptualizing aging as a gradual development might not suffice to adequately represent the differences between the stages of young-old and old-old age due to some very small indication that there might be discontinuity in late adulthood.

  12. THE MULTIPLE TRUTHS ABOUT CRYSTAL METH AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE ENTRENCHED IN AN URBAN DRUG SCENE: A LONGITUDINAL ETHNOGRAPHIC INVESTIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fast, Danya; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Small, Will

    2014-01-01

    Transitions into more harmful forms of illicit drug use among youth have been identified as important foci for research and intervention. In settings around the world, the transition to crystal methamphetamine (meth) use among youth is considered a particularly dangerous and growing problem. Epidemiological evidence suggests that, particularly among young, street-involved populations, meth use is associated with numerous sex- and drug-related “risks behaviors” and negative health outcomes. Re...

  13. Associations of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms With Marijuana and Synthetic Cannabis Use Among Young Adult U.S. Veterans: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sean; Pedersen, Eric R; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-05-01

    This study involves a pilot investigation of associations between marijuana and synthetic cannabis use with PTSD symptoms among a young adult sample of U.S. veterans. In a cross-sectional survey of a community sample of 790 young adult U.S. veterans, we assessed demographics, combat severity, marijuana and synthetic cannabis use, expectancies of marijuana use, and PTSD symptoms. Overall, 61.8% and 20.4% of our sample reported lifetime and past-month marijuana use, whereas 17.0% and 3.4% reported lifetime and past-month synthetic cannabis use. Veterans screening positive for PTSD were more likely to use marijuana and synthetic cannabis in their lifetime and in the past month. Positive PTSD screens, as well as greater expectancies that marijuana leads to relaxation and tension reduction, were associated with past-month marijuana use in logistic regression analyses. Expectancies moderated the relationship between PTSD and marijuana use, such that those with positive PTSD screens reporting higher levels of relaxation and tension-reduction expectancies were most likely to report past-month marijuana use. Our findings suggest an association of PTSD symptoms with marijuana and synthetic cannabis use among young adult U.S. veterans. Future research should further investigate the link between PTSD and marijuana use, as well as the rates and consequences of synthetic cannabis use among veterans.

  14. Investigating the FUV Emission of Young M dwarfs with FUMES: the Far Ultraviolet M-dwarf Evolution Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, John

    2016-10-01

    M dwarf stars have become attractive candidates for exoplanet searches and will be a main focus of the upcoming TESS mission, with the continued search for nearby potentially habitable worlds. However, the atmospheric characterization of these exoplanetary systems depends critically on the high energy stellar radiation environment from X-ray to NUV. Strong radiation at these energies can lead to atmospheric mass loss and is a strong driver of photochemistry in planetary atmospheres. Recently, the MUSCLES Treasury Survey (Cycles 19, 22) provided the first comprehensive assessment of the high energy radiation field around old, planet hosting M dwarfs. However, the habitability and potential for such exoplanetary atmospheres to develop life also depends on the evolution of the atmosphere and hence the evolution of the incident radiation field. The strong high energy spectrum of young M dwarfs can have devastating consequences for the potential habitability of a given system. We, thus, propose the Far Ultraviolet M-dwarf Evolution Survey (FUMES) to measure the strong FUV coronal/chromospheric emission features of young M dwarfs (12 - 650 Myr), e.g. He II, C IV, and S IV. FUMES will observe objects with a wide range of rotation rates to directly connect the emission features to the evolution of coronal heating and upper atmospheric structure, and provide observational benchmarks at young ages for models of M dwarf upper atmospheres. Building on results from MUSCLES, we will be able to estimate the whole high energy radiation field and establish the evolutionary picture of the incident radiation throughout the lifetime of exoplanetary systems around early-mid M dwarf hosts.

  15. "...they should be offering it": a qualitative study to investigate young peoples' attitudes towards chlamydia screening in GP surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Louise M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the known health and healthcare costs of untreated chlamydia infection and the efforts of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP to control chlamydia through early detection and treatment of asymptomatic infection, the rates of screening are well below the 2010-2011 target rate of 35%. General Practitioner (GP surgeries are a key venue within the NCSP however; previous studies indicate that GP surgery staff are concerned that they may offend their patients by offering a screen. This study aimed to identify the attitudes to, and preferences for, chlamydia screening in 15-24 year old men and women attending GP surgeries (the target group. Methods We undertook 36 interviews in six surgeries of differing screening rates. Our participants were 15-24 year olds attending a consultation with a staff member. Data were analysed thematically. Results GP surgeries are acceptable to young people as a venue for opportunistic chlamydia screening and furthermore they think it is the duty of GP surgery staff to offer it. They felt strongly that it is important for surgery staff to have a non-judgemental attitude and they did not want to be singled out as 'needing' a chlamydia screen. Furthermore, our sample reported a strong preference for being offered a screen by staff and providing the sample immediately at the surgery rather than taking home a testing kit. The positive attitude and subjective norms demonstrated by interviewees suggest that young peoples' behaviour would be to accept a screen if it was offered to them. Conclusion Young people attending GP surgeries have a positive attitude towards chlamydia screening and given the right environment are likely to take up the offer in this setting. The right environment involves normalising screening by offering a chlamydia screen to all 15-24 year olds at every interaction with staff, offering screening with a non-judgemental attitude and minimising barriers to screening

  16. "...they should be offering it": a qualitative study to investigate young peoples' attitudes towards chlamydia screening in GP surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Angela H; Howell-Jones, Rebecca S; Pottinger, Elizabeth; Wallace, Louise M; McNulty, Cliodna Am

    2010-10-18

    Despite the known health and healthcare costs of untreated chlamydia infection and the efforts of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) to control chlamydia through early detection and treatment of asymptomatic infection, the rates of screening are well below the 2010-2011 target rate of 35%. General Practitioner (GP) surgeries are a key venue within the NCSP however; previous studies indicate that GP surgery staff are concerned that they may offend their patients by offering a screen. This study aimed to identify the attitudes to, and preferences for, chlamydia screening in 15-24 year old men and women attending GP surgeries (the target group). We undertook 36 interviews in six surgeries of differing screening rates. Our participants were 15-24 year olds attending a consultation with a staff member. Data were analysed thematically. GP surgeries are acceptable to young people as a venue for opportunistic chlamydia screening and furthermore they think it is the duty of GP surgery staff to offer it. They felt strongly that it is important for surgery staff to have a non-judgmental attitude and they did not want to be singled out as 'needing' a chlamydia screen. Furthermore, our sample reported a strong preference for being offered a screen by staff and providing the sample immediately at the surgery rather than taking home a testing kit. The positive attitude and subjective norms demonstrated by interviewees suggest that young peoples' behaviour would be to accept a screen if it was offered to them. Young people attending GP surgeries have a positive attitude towards chlamydia screening and given the right environment are likely to take up the offer in this setting. The right environment involves normalising screening by offering a chlamydia screen to all 15-24 year olds at every interaction with staff, offering screening with a non-judgmental attitude and minimising barriers to screening such as embarrassment. The GP surgery is the ideal place to screen

  17. Automated high-capacity on-line extraction and bioanalysis of dried blood spot samples using liquid chromatography/high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Regina V; Henion, Jack; Wickremsinhe, Enaksha R

    2014-11-30

    Pharmacokinetic data to support clinical development of pharmaceuticals are routinely obtained from liquid plasma samples. The plasma samples require frozen shipment and storage and are extracted off-line from the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) systems. In contrast, the use of dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is an attractive alternative in part due to its benefits in microsampling as well as simpler sample storage and transport. However, from a practical aspect, sample extraction from DBS cards can be challenging as currently performed. The goal of this report was to integrate automated serial extraction of large numbers of DBS cards with on-line liquid chromatography/high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry (LC/HRAMS) bioanalysis. An automated system for direct DBS extraction coupled to a LC/HRAMS was employed for the quantification of midazolam (MDZ) and α-hydroxymidazolam (α-OHMDZ) in human blood. The target analytes were directly extracted from the DBS cards onto an on-line chromatographic guard column followed by HRAMS detection. No additional sample treatment was required. The automated DBS LC/HRAMS method was developed and validated, based on the measurement at the accurate mass-to-charge ratio of the target analytes to ensure specificity for the assay. The automated DBS LC/HRAMS method analyzed a DBS sample within 2 min without the need for punching or additional off-line sample treatment. The fully automated analytical method was shown to be sensitive and selective over the concentration range of 5 to 2000 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy was less than 15% (less than 20% at the LLOQ). The validated method was successfully applied to measure MDZ and α-OHMDZ in an incurred human sample after a single 7.5 mg dose of MDZ. The direct DBS LC/HRAMS method demonstrated successful implementation of automated DBS extraction and bioanalysis for MDZ and α-OHMDZ. This approach has the potential to promote workload

  18. Investigating the Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Stigma Among Young Adults With History of Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Meshan; Hilimire, Matthew R; Yang, Lawrence H; Link, Bruce G; DeVylder, Jordan E

    2016-07-01

    Self-esteem is a major contributor to risk for repeated suicide attempts. Prior research has shown that awareness of stigma is associated with reduced self-esteem among people with mental illness. No prior studies have examined the association between self-esteem and stereotype awareness among individuals with past suicide attempts. To understand the relationship between stereotype awareness and self-esteem among young adults who have and have not attempted suicide. Computerized surveys were administered to college students (N = 637). Linear regression analyses were used to test associations between self-esteem and stereotype awareness, attempt history, and their interaction. There was a significant stereotype awareness by attempt interaction (β = -.74, p = .006) in the regression analysis. The interaction was explained by a stronger negative association between stereotype awareness and self-esteem among individuals with past suicide attempts (β = -.50, p = .013) compared with those without attempts (β = -.09, p = .037). Stigma is associated with lower self-esteem within this high-functioning sample of young adults with histories of suicide attempts. Alleviating the impact of stigma at the individual (clinical) or community (public health) levels may improve self-esteem among this high-risk population, which could potentially influence subsequent suicide risk.

  19. An investigation into normative values for fine hand dexterity and its relation with pinch and grip strength among healthy young Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into normative values for fine hand dexterity and its relation with pinch and grip strength among healthy young Indian adults. Evaluation of hand function is a crucial component to assess prognosis in hand pathologies. Examinations of dexterity provide unique way of evaluating neuro-motor function of entire hand. There is scarcity of literature on reference values for fine hand dexterity among healthy young adults. To explore normative values for fine hand dexterity and its relation with pinch and grip strength. The 9-Hole Pegboard Test was administered for evaluation of fine hand dexterity among healthy young adults (n= 256 of age group 18 to 35 with the mean age of 20.53 (±2.02. The task was demonstrated and both hands were assessed. Grip and pinch strengths were measured in both hands in a consistent manner. A dynamometer was used for grip strength and a pinch meter was used to measure key (lateral and tripod pinch and tip to tip pinch strengths. Normative value for fine hand dexterity of dominant hand among males (n= 125 is 19 (± 2.18 and among females (n= 126 is 19.5 (± 2.59 and there was no significant correlation between fine hand dexterity with grip and pinch strength. Normative values generated in this study can be used for clinical reference in the evaluation of hand function to that of normal subjects of the same age and gender.

  20. Variations of the Functional Brain Network Efficiency in a Young Clinical Sample within the Autism Spectrum: A fNIRS Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with dimensional behavioral symptoms and various damages in the structural and functional brain. Previous neuroimaging studies focused on exploring the differences of brain development between individuals with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD. However, few of them have attempted to investigate the individual differences of the brain features among subjects within the Autism spectrum. Our main goal was to explore the individual differences of neurodevelopment in young children with Autism by testing for the association between the functional network efficiency and levels of autistic behaviors, as well as the association between the functional network efficiency and age. Forty-six children with Autism (ages 2.0–8.9 years old participated in the current study, with levels of autistic behaviors evaluated by their parents. The network efficiency (global and local network efficiency were obtained from the functional networks based on the oxy-, deoxy-, and total-Hemoglobin series, respectively. Results indicated that the network efficiency decreased with age in young children with Autism in the deoxy- and total-Hemoglobin-based-networks, and children with a relatively higher level of autistic behaviors showed decreased network efficiency in the oxy-hemoglobin-based network. Results suggest individual differences of brain development in young children within the Autism spectrum, providing new insights into the psychopathology of ASD.

  1. Stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional failures predict earlier relapse to smoking in young adults: A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Ty S; Tapscott, Brian E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-04-01

    Substantial evidence links greater impulsivity and stress exposure to poorer smoking cessation outcomes. Results from adolescents also indicate that stress-related change in risk taking can impede cessation attempts. We investigated the effects of stress-related change in impulsivity, risk taking, attention and nicotine withdrawal, and craving in young adult smokers on time to smoking relapse in a relapse analogue paradigm. Twenty-six young adult smokers (50% women; mean age: 20.9 ± 1.8) were exposed to a stress imagery session followed by a contingency management-based relapse analogue paradigm. Participants smoked at least 5 cigarettes daily, with a mean baseline carbon monoxide (CO) level of 13.7 (± 5.1) ppm. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests examined stress induction validity and Cox regressions of proportional hazards examined the effects of stress-related changes in nicotine withdrawal, nicotine craving, attention, impulsivity, and risk taking on time to relapse. While stress-related change in impulsivity, nicotine craving and withdrawal did not predict time to relapse (all ps > .10), greater stress-related increases in reaction time (RT) variability (p = .02) were predictive of shorter time to relapse, with trend-level findings for inattention and risk taking. Furthermore, changes in stress-related risk taking affected outcome in women more than in men, with a significant relationship between stress-related change in risk taking only in women (p = .026). Smoking cessation attempts in young adults may be adversely impacted by stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional disruption. Clinicians working with young adults attempting cessation may need to target these stress-related impairments by fostering more adaptive coping and resilience. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Adverse effects of social pressure to be thin on young women: an experimental investigation of the effects of "fat talk".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Maxfield, Jennifer; Wells, Tony

    2003-07-01

    Experiments have found that pressure to be thin from the media promotes body dissatisfaction and negative affect, but the effects of social pressure to be thin have not been examined experimentally. Thus, this study tested whether social pressure to be thin fosters body dissatisfaction and negative affect. Young women (N = 120) were randomly assigned to a condition wherein an ultra-thin confederate complained about how fat she felt and voiced intentions to lose weight or a control condition wherein she discussed a neutral topic. Exposure to social pressure to be thin resulted in increased body dissatisfaction but not negative affect. The effects were not moderated by initial thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, or social support. Results support the assertion that peer pressure to be thin promotes body dissatisfaction but suggest that this factor may not contribute to negative affect. Copyright 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Introduction to the special section: Why we should highlight the outstanding contributions of young investigators in the field of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Pamela K; Smith, Gregory T

    2017-07-01

    This introduction presents the context in which the Journal of Abnormal Psychology created a special section to highlight outstanding contributions by young investigators in the field of eating disorders. The first motivating factor relates to our field's approach to mentoring and supporting its next generation of researchers. The second motivating factor addresses a broader need to ensure that the Journal of Abnormal Psychology remains an outlet in which this and future generations share their innovative and important work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Investigation of oxidative stress parameters in different lifespan erythrocyte fractions in young untrained men after acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwozdzinski, Krzysztof; Pieniazek, Anna; Tabaczar, Sabina; Jegier, Anna; Brzeszczynska, Joanna

    2017-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? What is the influence of a single bout of exercise on the properties of erythrocyte fractions at different ages? What is the main finding and its importance? A single bout of exercise in untrained men induced oxidative stress in erythrocytes and had an influence on antioxidant defense in these cells. Old erythrocytes were more sensitive to oxidative damage than young and middle-aged cells. Higher levels of glutathione in old erythrocyte fractions did not protect them against oxidative stress. It seems that exercise may promote the removal of old erythrocytes from the circulation. The objective of this study was to establish the role of exercise-induced oxidative stress in the erythrocyte fractions [young (YF), middle-aged (MAF) and old (OF)] of young untrained men after acute exercise. Blood samples were collected before exercise, immediately after and 1 h after exercise. The maximal power generated was 292 ± 27 W, and exercise duration was 8.73 ± 0.9 min. Different optical properties and oxidative stress parameters were found in each erythrocyte fraction. Total thiols in YF and MAF after exercise and after 1 h rest were similar to values before exercise; however, in OF {32.7 ± 9.8 nmol [mg haemoglobin (Hb)] -1 } the concentration was lower in comparison to YF [55.5 ± 3.2 nmol (mg Hb) -1 ] and MAF [56.8 ± 7.7 nmol (mg Hb) -1 ] and increased 1 h later (P < 0.0002). The glutathione concentration was higher in OF [8.4 ± 0.4 nmol (mg Hb) -1 ] than in YF [4.5 ± 0.6 nmol (mg Hb) -1 ] and MAF [4.8 ± 0.5 nmol (mg Hb) -1 ; P < 0.0002] and did not change after exercise or 1 h later. In OF, the peroxide level was higher after exercise [1.2 ± 0.2 nmol (mg Hb) -1 ] and 1 h later [1.1 ± 0.2 nmol (mg Hb) -1 ], when compared with samples before exercise [0.9 ± 0.1 nmol (mg Hb) -1 ; P < 0.05]. Similar results were observed in YF and MAF. The level of thiobarbituric acid

  5. Unemotional traits predict early processing deficit for fearful expressions in young violent offenders: an investigation using continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusyte, A; Mayer, S V; Künzel, E; Hautzinger, M; Schönenberg, M

    2015-01-01

    Research evidence suggests that cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in social information processing may underlie the key aspects associated with the emergence of aggression and psychopathy. Despite extensive research in this field, it is unclear whether this deficit relates to general attentional problems or affects early stages of information processing. Therefore, the aim was to explore the link between aggression, psychopathic traits, and the early processing deficits in young antisocial violent offenders (YAVOs) and healthy controls (CTLs). Participants were presented with rapidly changing Mondrian-like images in one eye, while a neutral or emotional (happy, angry, fearful, disgusted, surprised, sad) face was slowly introduced to the other eye. Participants indicated the location in which the face had appeared on the screen, reflecting the time when they became aware of the stimulus. The relative processing advantage was obtained by subtracting mean reaction times for emotional from neutral faces. The results indicated that individuals with higher levels of unemotional traits tended to exhibit an extensive early processing disadvantage for fearful facial expressions; this relationship was only evident in the YAVO as opposed to the CTL sample. These findings indicate that an emotion processing deficit in antisocial individuals is present even at the most basic levels of processing and closely related to certain psychopathic traits. Furthermore, this early processing deficit appears to be highly specific to fearful expressions, which is consistent with predictions made by influential models of psychopathy. The clinical significance and potential implications of the results are discussed.

  6. Metacognitive beliefs as psychological predictors of social functioning: An investigation with young people at risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Measha; Parker, Sophie; French, Paul; Fowler, David; Gumley, Andrew; Morrison, Anthony P; Birchwood, Max; Jones, Peter B; Stewart, Suzanne L K; Wells, Adrian

    2017-09-14

    Poor social functioning has been found to be present in those at risk for psychosis. This study aimed to examine metacognitive beliefs as potential predictors of structured activity (measure of social functioning) in those with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS). Regression and correlation analyses were conducted. The sample included 109 young people. Age was found to be positively correlated to structured activity. Metacognitive beliefs concerning uncontrollability and danger of worry were found to negatively predict structured activity. This was after controlling for age, gender, treatment allocation, cognitive schemas, positive symptom severity, social anxiety, and depression. Metacognitive danger items were most important. Age was the only control variable found to be an independent predictor of structured activity in the regression model, despite negative bi-variate relationships with structured activity found across three cognitive schema subscales and social anxiety. This is the first study to find that higher negative metacognitive beliefs about uncontrollability and danger predict lower social functioning in an ARMS sample, and that the perception of thoughts being dangerous was of particular importance. Psychological interventions should consider targeting this metacognitive dimension to increase social functioning. Future longitudinal research is required to strengthen findings in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Are cannabis users exposed to other drug use opportunities? Investigation of high-risk drug exposure opportunities among young cannabis users in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John; McCambridge, Jim

    2005-03-01

    In a study of young cannabis users attending further education colleges across London which specifically excluded young heroin users or injecting drug users, 35% were found to have been offered heroin, 36% had been present during heroin smoking, and 12% present at injecting. Factors associated with these exposure opportunities were investigated. The proportion of friends who use drugs other than cannabis was also considered, both as an indicator of risk in its own right and as a possible mechanism for high-risk drug exposure opportunities involving heroin and/or injecting. Alcohol variables and interactional problems perceived by the study subjects to be caused by their own drug use were found to be predictive of the involvement of friends in drug use other than cannabis and of exposure to heroin and injecting drug use. Non-cannabis illicit drug use among friends was also found to be associated with offers of heroin and with having been present during injecting drug use by others. Interpretations of these data are considered and the need for more detailed study with an area of increasing public policy significance is discussed.

  8. A pilot investigation of a mobile phone application and progressive reminder system to improve adherence to daily prevention treatment in adolescents and young adults with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Rachelle R; Holbein, Christina E; Powers, Scott W; Hershey, Andrew D; Kabbouche, Marielle A; O'Brien, Hope L; Kacperski, Joanne; Shepard, Jeffrey; Hommel, Kevin A

    2018-01-01

    Background Effective management of migraine requires adherence to treatment recommendations; however, adolescents with migraine take their daily medications only 75% of the time. Low-cost adherence-focused interventions using technology may improve adherence, but have not been investigated. Methods Thirty-five adolescents and young adults (13-21 years) with migraine participated in an AB-design pilot study to assess the use of a mobile phone adherence-promotion application ("app") and progressive reminder system. Adherence was calculated using electronic monitoring during the baseline period and medication adherence intervention. Results Relative to baseline, adherence significantly improved during the first month of the intervention. Specifically, improvements existed for older participants with lower baseline adherence. Self-reported app-based adherence rates were significantly lower than electronically monitored adherence rates. Participants rated the intervention as acceptable and easy to use. Conclusions "Apps" have the potential to improve medication adherence and are a promising intervention for adolescents and young adults with low adherence. Involving parents in the intervention is also helpful. Providers should assess barriers to adherence and use of technology-based interventions, encourage parents to incorporate behavioral incentives, and provide referrals for more intensive interventions to improve long-term outcomes. Further, tracking adherence in an app may result in an underestimation of adherence. Future full-scale studies should be conducted to examine adherence promotion app interventions.

  9. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to investigate if a community based strength training programme improves work task performance in young adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Nicholas F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle strength is important for young people with Down syndrome as they make the transition to adulthood, because their workplace activities typically emphasise physical rather than cognitive skills. Muscle strength is reduced up to 50% in people with Down syndrome compared to their peers without disability. Progressive resistance training improves muscle strength and endurance in people with Down syndrome. However, there is no evidence on whether it has an effect on work task performance or physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate if a student-led community-based progressive resistance training programme can improve these outcomes in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. Methods A randomised controlled trial will compare progressive resistance training with a control group undertaking a social programme. Seventy adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome aged 14-22 years and mild to moderate intellectual disability will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group using a concealed method. The intervention group will complete a 10-week, twice a week, student-led progressive resistance training programme at a local community gymnasium. The student mentors will be undergraduate physiotherapy students. The control group will complete an arts/social programme with a student mentor once a week for 90 minutes also for 10 weeks to control for the social aspect of the intervention. Work task performance (box stacking, pail carry, muscle strength (1 repetition maximum for chest and leg press and physical activity (frequency, duration, intensity over 7-days will be assessed at baseline (Week 0, following the intervention (Week 11, and at 3 months post intervention (Week 24 by an assessor blind to group allocation. Data will be analysed using ANCOVA with baseline measures as covariates. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on the

  10. An electromyographic investigation of the pattern of overflow facilitated by manual resistive proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in young healthy individuals: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, J E; Biros, E; Bartur, G

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the pattern of overflow facilitated by the use of resistive proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). In a group of 12 young, healthy individuals, recruitment of electrical activity into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of the right lower limb (RLL) was assessed using surface electromyography (sEMG) during a random-sequence application of manually-resistive PNF to the other three limbs. Resistance exercise applied to the left lower limb (LLL) was associated with a considerable increase in sEMG activity in the RLL TA muscle compared to its baseline level (p = 0.001). Resistance exercise applied to the right or left upper limbs (RUL or LUL) respectively showed similar sEMG activity in RLL TA muscle to its baseline level. A resistance exercise would appear to be effective in producing electrical activity in the contralateral homologous muscles of non-exercised limb.

  11. A behavioural and electrophysiological investigation of the effect of bilingualism on lexical ambiguity resolution in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanna eKousaie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that bilinguals demonstrate superior cognitive control processes than monolinguals. The goal of the current investigation was to examine whether this bilingual advantage is observed in a language processing task that requires inhibition, i.e., lexical ambiguity processing. Monolingual and bilingual participants read sentences that biased the reading of a terminal homonym toward the subordinate or dominant reading (e.g., The doctor asked her to step onto the scale.. A relatedness judgement was made on target words that were related to the contextually appropriate (e.g., balance or inappropriate meaning (e.g., skin, or unrelated to either meaning (e.g., shoe while electrophysiological recording took place. The results revealed subtle processing differences between monolinguals and bilinguals that were evident in electrophysiological measures, but not in behavioural measures. These findings suggest that monolinguals rely on context to access the contextually appropriate meaning of a homonym to a greater extent than bilinguals, while bilinguals demonstrate simultaneous activation of both meanings.

  12. Social Anxiety Symptoms in Young Children: Investigating the Interplay of Theory of Mind and Expressions of Shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Nikolić, Milica; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M

    2017-07-01

    Children's early onset of social anxiety may be associated with their social understanding, and their ability to express emotions adaptively. We examined whether social anxiety in 48-month-old children (N = 110; 54 boys) was related to: a) a lower level of theory of mind (ToM); b) a lower proclivity to express shyness in a positive way (adaptive); and c) a higher tendency to express shyness in a negative way (non-adaptive). In addition, we investigated to what extent children's level of social anxiety was predicted by the interaction between ToM and expressions of shyness. Children's positive and negative expressions of shyness were observed during a performance task. ToM was measured with a validated battery, and social anxiety was assessed using both parents' reports on questionnaires. Socially anxious children had a lower level of ToM, and displayed more negative and less positive shy expressions. However, children with a lower level of ToM who expressed more positive shyness were less socially anxious. Additional results show that children who displayed shyness only in a negative manner were more socially anxious than children who expressed shyness only in a positive way and children who did not display any shyness. Moreover, children who displayed both positive and negative expressions of shyness were more socially anxious than children who displayed shyness only in a positive way. These findings highlight the importance of ToM development and socio-emotional strategies, and their interaction, on the early development of social anxiety.

  13. Applicability of bioanalysis of multiple analytes in drug discovery and development: review of select case studies including assay development considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2006-05-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development culminating in a marketing approval. Although the bioanalytical procedure(s) originally developed during the discovery stage may not necessarily be fit to support the drug development scenario, they may be suitably modified and validated, as deemed necessary. Several reviews have appeared over the years describing analytical approaches including various techniques, detection systems, automation tools that are available for an effective separation, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for quantitation of many analytes. The intention of this review is to cover various key areas where analytical method development becomes necessary during different stages of drug discovery research and development process. The key areas covered in this article with relevant case studies include: (a) simultaneous assay for parent compound and metabolites that are purported to display pharmacological activity; (b) bioanalytical procedures for determination of multiple drugs in combating a disease; (c) analytical measurement of chirality aspects in the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biotransformation investigations; (d) drug monitoring for therapeutic benefits and/or occupational hazard; (e) analysis of drugs from complex and/or less frequently used matrices; (f) analytical determination during in vitro experiments (metabolism and permeability related) and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments; (g) determination of a major metabolite as a surrogate for the parent molecule; (h) analytical approaches for universal determination of CYP450 probe substrates and metabolites; (i) analytical applicability to prodrug evaluations-simultaneous determination of prodrug, parent and metabolites; (j) quantitative determination of parent compound and/or phase II metabolite(s) via direct or indirect approaches; (k) applicability in analysis of multiple compounds in select

  14. First principles theoretical investigations of low Young's modulus beta Ti-Nb and Ti-Nb-Zr alloys compositions for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Rajamallu; Niranjan, Manish K; Dey, Suhash R

    2015-05-01

    High alloyed β-phase stabilized titanium alloys are known to provide comparable Young's modulus as that to the human bones (~30 GPa) but is marred by its high density. In the present study the low titanium alloyed compositions of binary Ti-Nb and ternary Ti-Nb-Zr alloy systems, having stable β-phase with low Young's modulus are identified using first principles density functional framework. The theoretical results suggest that the addition of Nb in Ti and Zr in Ti-Nb increases the stability of the β-phase. The β-phase in binary Ti-Nb alloys is found to be fully stabilized from 22 at.% of Nb onwards. The calculated Young's moduli of binary β-Ti-Nb alloy system are found to be lower than that of pure titanium (116 GPa). For Ti-25(at.%)Nb composition the calculated Young's modulus comes out to be ~80 GPa. In ternary Ti-Nb-Zr alloy system, the Young's modulus of Ti-25(at.%)Nb-6.25(at.%)Zr composition is calculated to be ~50 GPa. Furthermore, the directional Young's moduli of these two selected binary (Ti-25(at.%)Nb) and ternary alloy (Ti-25(at.%)Nb-6.25(at.%)Zr) compositions are found to be nearly isotropic in all crystallographic directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender-specific neuroanatomical basis of behavioral inhibition/approach systems (BIS/BAS) in a large sample of young adults: a voxel-based morphometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yadan; Qiao, Lei; Sun, Jiangzhou; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin; Shi, Huiying

    2014-11-01

    The behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the behavioral activation system (BAS) are two fundamental motivational systems which are not only responsible for affective states, behavior and personality, but also related to predispositions for various forms of psychopathology. A wide range of previous studies revealed sex differences in both BIS/BAS and affective disorders (e.g., anxiety disorder) and externalizing disorders (e.g., addictive and impulsive behaviors), and a close link might exist between them. It remains to be clarified, however, whether the relationships between neuroanatomical characteristics and BIS/BAS exhibit sex differences. To investigate, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine sex differences in the correlations between regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scale in a large sample of healthy young adults (n=353). Results showed that females displayed a negative correlation between BIS sensitivity and rGMV in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), as well as positive correlations between BAS sensitivity and rGMV in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL), whereas males showed the opposite pattern. These findings suggest that the brain regions associated with processing of negative emotions (PHG) and reward-related information (vmPFC and IPL) may contribute to sex-related differences in rGMV correlates of BIS and BAS, respectively. The present findings demonstrated the evidence of sex-linked neuroanatomical background of BIS and BAS among non-clinical subjects and might encourage future research into the gender-specific relationships between BIS/BAS and related affective disorders and externalizing disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Online Focus Group Discussion is a Valid and Feasible Mode When Investigating Sensitive Topics Among Young Persons With a Cancer Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Lena; Eriksson, Lars E; Nilsson, Jenny; Jervaeus, Anna; Lampic, Claudia

    2016-05-09

    Clinical research often lacks participants of young age. Adding to the small amount of scientific studies that focus on the population entering adulthood, there are also difficulties to recruit them. To overcome this, there is a need to develop and scientifically evaluate modes for data collection that are suitable for adolescents and young adults. With this in mind we performed 39 online focus group discussions among young survivors of childhood cancer to explore thoughts and experiences around dating, being intimate with someone, and having children. The aim of the study was to evaluate online focus group discussions as a mode for data collection on sensitive issues among young persons with a cancer experience. One hundred thirty-three young persons (16-25 years) previously diagnosed with cancer, participated in 39 synchronous online focus group discussions (response rate 134/369, 36%). The mode of administration was evaluated by analyzing participant characteristics and interactions during discussions, as well as group members' evaluations of the discussions. Persons diagnosed with central nervous tumors (n=30, 27%) participated to a lower extent than those with other cancer types (n=103, 39%; χ 2= 4.89, P=.03). The participants described various health impairments that correspond to what would be expected among cancer survivors including neuropsychiatric conditions and writing disabilities. Even though participants were interested in others' experiences, sexual issues needed more probing by the moderators than did fertility-related issues. Group evaluations revealed that participants appreciated communicating on the suggested topics and thought that it was easier to discuss sex when it was possible to be anonymous toward other group members. Online focus group discussions, with anonymous participation, are suggested to be a feasible and valid mode for collecting sensitive data among young persons with a cancer experience.

  17. An investigation into ‘two hit’ effects of BDNF deficiency and young-adult cannabinoid receptor stimulation on prepulse inhibition regulation and memory in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren eKlug

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signalling has been shown in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a BDNF deficit would modulate effects of chronic cannabis intake, a well-described risk factor for schizophrenia development. BDNF heterozygous mice (HET and wild-type controls were chronically treated during weeks 6, 7 and 8 of life with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, CP55,940 (CP. After a 2-week delay, there were no CP-induced deficits in any of the groups in short-term spatial memory in a Y-maze task or novel object recognition memory. Baseline prepulse inhibition (PPI was lower but average startle was increased in BDNF HET compared to wild-type controls. Acute CP administration before the PPI session caused a marked increase in PPI in male HET mice pre-treated with CP but not in any of the other male groups. In females, there were small increases of PPI in all groups upon acute CP administration. Acute CP administration furthermore reduced startle and this effect was greater in HET mice irrespective of chronic CP pre-treatment. Analysis of the levels of [3H]CP55,940 binding by autoradiography revealed a significant increase in the nucleus accumbens of male BDNF HET mice previously treated with CP but not in any of the other groups or in the caudate nucleus.These results show that BDNF deficiency and chronic young-adult cannabinoid receptor stimulation do not interact in this model on learning and memory later in life. In contrast, male ‘two hit’ mice, but not females, were hypersensitive to the effect of acute CP on sensorimotor gating. These effects may be related to a selective increase of [3H]CP55,940 binding in the nucleus accumbens, reflecting up-regulation of CB1 receptor density in this region. These data could be of relevance to our understanding of differential ‘two hit’ neurodevelopmental mechanisms in schizophrenia.

  18. Poor outcome and death among youth, young adults, and midlife adults with eating disorders: an investigation of risk factors by age at assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackard, Diann M; Richter, Sara; Egan, Amber; Cronemeyer, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) present across a broad age range, yet little is known about the characteristics and outcome of midlife patients compared to younger patients. Among patients seeking ED treatment who were stratified by age at initial assessment (IA), this study aimed to (1) discern sociodemographic and clinical differences, (2) determine outcome rates, and (3) identify predictors of poor outcome including death. Participants [219 females (12 years or older, 94.1% Caucasian) who completed outcome assessment and 31 known decedents] were stratified by age at IA (<18 as youth, 18-39 as young adult, and ≥40 years as midlife adult). Analyses of variance and chi-square tests identified group differences; ordered logistic regression with stepwise selection identified factors predicting outcome. Midlife adults were more significantly compromised at follow-up compared to youths and young adults, including psychological and physical quality of life, ineffectiveness, interpersonal concerns, and general psychological maladjustment. Midlife adults had the highest rates of poor outcome or death; good outcome was achieved by only 5.9% of midlife adult compared to 14.0% of young adult and 27.5% of youth patients. Older age at IA, alcohol and/or drug misuse, endocrine concerns, and absence of family ED history predicted poor outcome or death. Midlife adults seeking ED treatment have more complex medical and psychological concerns and poorer outcomes than youths and young adults; further exploration is needed to improve treatment outcome. Specialized treatment focusing on quality of life, comorbid medical concerns, interpersonal connection, and emotion regulation is encouraged. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. An investigation of the relationship between financial capability and psychological well-being in mothers of young children in poor areas in England

    OpenAIRE

    Melhuish, Edward C.; Belsky, Jay; Malin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The theme of this study is that financial difficulties lead to financial distress that may lead to poorer psychological well-being and that one particularly vulnerable group is families with young children in disadvantaged areas. It interviewed 8,000 mothers of three-year-olds in deprived areas of England. An executive summary, introduction and outline of the methods used is followed by results on the effects of financial difficulties on life satisfaction, depression, malaise, self-esteem and...

  20. The investigation of Social CRM in Transforming Young Customers’ Perceptions and attitudes towards consumption at fast food restaurant in China through comparison with Traditional CRM

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yebai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of Social Customer Relationship Management (Social CRM) approaches within fast food industry in transforming young customers’ perceptions and attitudes towards consumption at fast food restaurant through the comparison with Traditional Customer Relationship Management in convergence with Electronic Customer Relationship Management (E-CRM). Specifically, this study is analysed from the perspectives of company side and college student si...

  1. More than Just Child's Play?: An Experimental Investigation of the Impact of an Appearance-Focused Internet Game on Body Image and Career Aspirations of Young Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Halliwell, Emma; Jarman, Hannah; Gaskin, Emma

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, elements of the modern environment (such as television, Internet, toys and clothes) have been criticized for having an increasingly sexualized or appearance focus, which has been suggested to be detrimental to girls' development. The current study examined the impact of an appearance-focused Internet game on young girls' body image and career cognitions and aspirations. Eighty British girls aged 8-9 years were randomly assigned to play an appearance-focused or a non-appearance focused game for 10 minutes. Girls in the appearance-focused game condition displayed greater body dissatisfaction compared to the control condition. Type of game did not impact girls' perceived capacity to do various jobs. However, girls who played the appearance-focused game reported a greater preference for feminine careers compared to the control group. This provides preliminary evidence that appearance-focused Internet games may be detrimental to young girls' body image and aspirations. Internet games should be included in our consideration of influential messages for young girls.

  2. An Initial Investigation of Baseline Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia as a Moderator of Treatment Outcome for Young Children Born Premature with Externalizing Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Graziano, Paulo A.; Jaccard, James; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Vohr, Betty R.; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the moderating effect of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) on Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), a behavioral parent-training intervention, for young children born premature. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, 28 young children (mean age of 37.79 months), who were born < 37 weeks gestation and presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems, were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or waitlist control group. RSA, which provides an approximate marker of individual differences in cardiac vagal tone, was measured during a baseline period. Past research has generally shown that higher levels of baseline RSA correlate with various positive psychological states (e.g., empathy, sustained attention), whereas lower levels of baseline RSA correlate with less optimal psychological states (e.g., higher externalizing behavior problems). Results indicated that baseline RSA significantly interacted with treatment condition in predicting changes in child disruptive behavior. Specifically, low levels of baseline RSA were associated with greater improvements in child disruptive behavior following PCIT. While acknowledging the caveats of measuring and interpreting RSA and the need to include a sympathetic-linked cardiac measure in future research, these findings provide preliminary evidence that children with lower capacity for emotion regulation receive even greater treatment gains. Future research should also examine the moderating effect of RSA in larger samples and explore the potential mediating role of RSA on behavioral parenting interventions. PMID:22697452

  3. Young Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp.......Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp....

  4. Investigation of the effectiveness of the "Girls on the Go!" program for building self-esteem in young women: trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirlea, Loredana; Truby, Helen; Haines, Terry P

    2013-01-01

    Body Image is a major factor affecting health in a range of age groups, but has particular significance for adolescents. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of the "Girls on the Go!" program delivered outside of the school environment by health professionals to girls at risk of developing poor self-esteem on the outcomes of self-esteem, impairment induced by eating disorders, body satisfaction, self-efficacy, and dieting behaviour. A stepped wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial that was conducted in two phases on the basis of student population (Study 1 = secondary school age participants; Study 2 = primary school age participants). The waiting list for the "Girls on the Go!" program was used to generate the control periods. A total of 12 schools that requested the program were separated into study 1 or 2 on the basis of student population (Study 1 = secondary, Study 2 = primary). Schools were matched on the basis of number of students and were allocated to receiving the intervention immediately or having a waiting list period. Study 1 had one waiting list period of one school term, creating two steps in the stepped-wedge design (i.e. 3 schools were provided with "Girls on the Go!" each term over 2 terms). Study 2 had two waiting list periods of one and two school terms, creating three steps in the stepped-wedge design (i.e. 2 schools were provided with "Girls on the Go!" each term over 3 terms). Primary outcome measures were self-esteem and impairment inducted by eating disorders. There is a lack of preventative interventions currently available that address low self-esteem, low self-efficacy and body dissatisfaction in young women. This project will be the first group-based, professional-led, targeted program conducted outside the school environment amongst school age young women to be evaluated via a randomised control trial. These findings will indicate if the "Girls on the Go!" program may be successfully used and applied

  5. Developmental investigation of age at sexual debut and subsequent sexual risk behaviours: a study of high-risk young black males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard; Geter, Angelica; Ricks, JaNelle; Jones, Jamal; Salazar, Laura F

    2015-10-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify unmediated associations of early sexual debut (ESD) on the current safer sex practices of young Black men (YBM). A cross-sectional study of YBM (n=697) attending clinics treating sexually transmissible diseases (STIs) in three cities was conducted. ESD was dichotomised at the age of 13 years and under. A series of regression models were used to test the moderating effects of ESD and perceived parental monitoring (PPM). A regression model also tested the effect of years of sexual experience (YSE) on sexual risk behaviours, while controlling for ESD. Mean age of debut was 13.95 years. ESD results varied with significance for pregnancy (P<0.001), sexual partners (P<0.001), and ever having chlamydia (assessed by self report), but this final association was only found for older males (P=0.03). PPM held no moderating effect on any of the sexual risk outcomes. YSE was correlated with an increase in recent unprotected vaginal sex (AOR=1.19, 95%CI=1.10-1.27) and having a pregnant partner at the time of enrolment (AOR=1.30, 95%CI=1.17-1.43). The findings provide mixed evidence for unmediated associations of ESD among young Black males. The study strongly posits that ESD may actually be a mediating variable rather than a causal explanation for sexual risk. The findings also suggest that advancing YSE foster diminishing vigilance in safer sex practices. These outcomes should be utilised to inform intervention development.

  6. Young Love

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Pramod; Simkhada, Padam; Van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Your article on love and relationship deals with a very important issue (“Love makes the world go round,” Feb. 15, Page 1).It is now widely accepted that romantic relationships and dating are normative among adolescents and young people in Nepal. In our qualitative study of urban and rural young males and females using same sex researchers — in perhaps the first study of dating practice among Nepali youth — almost all of our respondents reported that young people in Nepal form partnerships wi...

  7. LAD Early Career Prize Talk:Laboratory astrophysics experiments investigating the effects of high energy fluxes on Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth relevant to young supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Drake, R. Paul; Park, Hye Sook; Huntington, Channing; Miles, Aaron R.; Remington, Bruce A.; Plewa, Tomek; Trantham, Matt; Shvarts, Dov; Raman, Kumar; MacLaren, Steven; Wan, Wesley; Doss, Forrest; Kline, John; Flippos, Kirk; Malamud, Guy; Handy, Timothy; Prisbey, Shon; Grosskopf, Michael; Krauland, Christine; Klein, Sallee; Harding, Eric; Wallace, Russell; Marion, Donna; Kalantar, Dan

    2017-06-01

    Energy-transport effects can alter the structure that develops as a supernova evolves into a supernova remnant. The Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability is thought to produce structure at the interface between the stellar ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM), based on simple models and hydrodynamic simulations. When a blast wave emerges from an exploding star, it drives a forward shock into the CSM and a reverse shock forms in the expanding stellar ejecta, creating a young supernova remnant (SNR). As mass accumulates in the shocked layers, the interface between these two shocks decelerates, becoming unstable to the RT instability. Simulations predict that RT produces structures at this interface, having a range of spatial scales. When the CSM is dense enough, as in the case of SN 1993J, the hot shocked matter can produce significant radiative fluxes that affect the emission from the SNR. Here we report experimental results from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to explore how large energy fluxes, which are present in supernovae such as SN 1993J, might affect this structure. The experiment used NIF to create a RT unstable interface subject to a high energy flux by the emergence of a blast wave into lower-density matter, in analogy to the SNR. We also preformed and with a low energy flux to compare the affect of the energy flux on the instability growth. We found that the RT growth was reduced in the experiments with a high energy flux. In analyzing the comparison with SN 1993J, we discovered that the energy fluxes produced by heat conduction appear to be larger than the radiative energy fluxes, and large enough to have dramatic consequences. No reported astrophysical simulations have included radiation and heat conduction self-consistently in modeling SNRs.

  8. Young Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoogd, Glenn, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers focusing on contexts and activities in which teachers can use technology to promote learning with young children: (1) "Read, Write and Click: Using Digital Camera Technology in a Language Arts and Literacy K-5 Classroom" (Judith F. Robbins and Jacqueline Bedell); (2) "Technology for the…

  9. Young-Onset Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Parkinson's? › Young Onset Parkinson's Young-Onset Parkinson's 1. Symptoms 2. How Is Young-Onset PD ... of the foot Why Is Distinguishing Young-Onset Parkinson's Important? Socially, people who are affected by PD ...

  10. An investigation of the self-related concepts and foreign language motivation of young Deaf and hard-of-hearing learners in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Csizér

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years increased attention has been given in applied linguistics to the learning processes of various groups of special needs (SN students, especially to those whose achievement is impeded by dyslexia or other learning difficulties. However, students with sensory impairment, particularly those who are Deaf or severely hard of hearing (HOH, seem to have remained on the periphery of second language acquisition (SLA research although they constitute a highly interesting group both from a linguistic as well as a cultural point of view. Since the best approach to understanding how this special minority handles foreign language learning is by first exploring their so-called individual differences, a nationwide research project was launched in Hungary to investigate students’ language learning beliefs, motivation, strategy use and motivated learning behavior. As part of that project, the present paper intends to detail how self-related concepts of hearing impaired students at eight different SN schools  an be described. In order to gain an in-depth understanding, a mixed-method research design was employed. First, a barrier-free instrument was used to measure learner variables among 105 14-19-year-old Deaf and HOH learners. Then 31 individual interviews were conducted with selected students using maximum variety sampling. The quantitative data indicate that Deaf and HOH (D/HH learners lack pronounced, well-developed and detailed future ideal L2 selves and corresponding visions to guide their learning. Another important finding is the paramount importance of language learning experience for our D/HH participants. Based on the analysis of the qualitative data, we can conclude that students’ language learning experiences are largely shaped by the choice of language used as the medium of education, the intensity and content of the English classes as well as how far students internalize extrinsic motives.

  11. Randomized trial on the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Conversano, Michele; Bona, Gianni; Gabutti, Giovanni; Anemona, Alessandra; Dull, Peter M; Ceddia, Francesca

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults.

  12. Three essays on young married women in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Fattah, Dina

    2017-01-01

    This thesis empirically studies three aspects of marriage pertaining to young women in Egypt using a young people specific Survey of Young People in Egypt 2009. \\ud \\ud The first essay investigates the determinants of the marriage valuation of young women in Egypt through the value of the jewellery received on marriage. The empirical analysis focuses on the role of circumcision, kinship marriages and the competitiveness in the marriage market in determining the marriage valuation of young wom...

  13. Nutrition for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  14. Empowering young people/ young adults to action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Birgitte Gade

    Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?......Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?...

  15. Improving safety of teenage and young adult drivers in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Statistics show that young drivers have higher motor vehicle crash rates compared to other age groups. This study investigated : characteristics, contributory causes, and factors which increase injury severity of young driver crashes in Kansas by com...

  16. Laughing with, or Laughing at the Young-Adult Romance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brenda O.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates characteristics of young adult romance novels, particularly their lack of humor. Discusses ways to use romance in the classroom. Provides a list of young adult novels that deal with romance, humor, and body image. (MM)

  17. Bioanalysis, metabolism & clinical pharmacology of antiretroviral drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine, R. ter

    2009-01-01

    The aims of all studies described in this thesis were to develop new bioanalytical and more patient friendly methods for studying the clinical pharmacology of antiretroviral drugs and to ultimately improve antiretroviral treatment.

  18. 'Less is More': defining modern bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijksman, Jessica; Timmerman, Philip; Abbott, Richard; Barroso, Begona; Kloeppel, Margarete Brudny; Companjen, Arjen; Golob, Michaela; Gordon, Ben; Herling, Christian; Knutsson, Magnus; Luedtke, Silke; Rasmussen, Birgitte Buur; Stoellner, Daniela; Vieser, Eva; Young, Graeme; van Amsterdam, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The 4th Open Symposium of the European Bioanalytical Forum entitled 'Less is More' was held on 16-18 November 2011 at the Hesperia Tower Hotel, Barcelona, Spain. More than 50 interesting presentations were delivered covering areas with interest for the small- and large-molecule community - biomarker validation; regulations, including an update on new and emerging guidelines and on Global harmonization; technology updates; incurred sample stability; microdosing; dried blood spots and microsampling; challenges of 'free' and 'total' macromolecule quantification; stability issues in ligand binding assays or anomalous results. In excess of 450 delegates from more than 170 institutes and companies (industry, regulators and academia) from all global regions participated in the open and stimulating discussions. This manuscript provides an overview of the highlights discussed at the meeting.

  19. Adult-young ratio, a major factor regulating social behaviour of young: a horse study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bourjade

    Full Text Available Adults play an important role in regulating the social behaviour of young individuals. However, a few pioneer studies suggest that, more than the mere presence of adults, their proportions in social groups affect the social development of young. Here, we hypothesized that aggression rates and social cohesion were correlated to adult-young ratios. Our biological model was naturally-formed groups of Przewalski horses, Equus f. przewalskii, varying in composition.We investigated the social interactions and spatial relationships of 12 one- and two-year-old Przewalski horses belonging to five families with adult-young ratios (AYR ranging from 0.67 to 1.33. We found striking variations of aggression rates and spatial relationships related to the adult-young ratio: the lower this ratio, the more the young were aggressive, the more young and adults segregated and the tighter the young bonded to other young.This is the first study demonstrating a correlation between adult-young ratios and aggression rates and social cohesion of young individuals in a naturalistic setting. The increase of aggression and the emergence of social segregation in groups with lower proportions of adults could reflect a related decrease of the influence of adults as regulators of the behaviour of young. This social regulation has both theoretical and practical implications for understanding the modalities of the influence of adults during ontogeny and for recommending optimal settings, as for instance, for schooling or animal group management.

  20. Group Theory, Computational Thinking, and Young Mathematicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadanidis, George; Clements, Erin; Yiu, Chris

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the artistic puzzle of designing mathematics experiences (MEs) to engage young children with ideas of group theory, using a combination of hands-on and computational thinking (CT) tools. We elaborate on: (1) group theory and why we chose it as a context for young mathematicians' experiences with symmetry and…

  1. On imitation among young and blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Campello Rodrigues

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the imitation among young and blind children. The survey was conducted as a mosaic in the time since the field considerations were taken from two areas: a professional experience with early stimulation of blind babies and a workshop with blind and low vision young between 13-18 years. By statingthe situated trace of knowledge, theresearch indicates that imitation among blind young people can be one of the ways of creating a common world among young blind and sighted people. Imitation among blind young is a multi-sensory process that requires a body experience, including both blind and people who see. The paper concludes with an indication of the unique character of imitation and at the same time, with the affirmation of its relevance to the development and inclusion process of both the child and the young blind.

  2. Young Children's Concepts of Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Douglas H.; Swaminathan, Sudha; Hannibal, Mary Anne Zeitler; Sarama, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Investigates, by conducting individual clinical interviews of 97 children ages 3 to 6, the criteria preschool children use to distinguish members of a class of shapes from other figures, emphasizing identification and descriptions of shapes and reasons for these identifications. Concludes that young children initially form schemas on the basis of…

  3. Media life of the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, Oscar; Bjur, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    This is a thorough investigation into contemporary young people and their media life. The article conceptualizes a typology of media life, drawing on a theoretical body involving the sociology of generations, life course research, media life and individualization. This empirically derived typology...

  4. Variation in risk indicators of cardiovascular disease during the menstrual cycle: an investigation of within-subject variations in glutathione peroxidase, haemostatic variables, lipids and lipoproteins in healthy young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Andersen, H R; Hansen, A B

    1996-01-01

    Variations in erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, serum concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins and in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis during the menstrual cycle were studied in healthy young women. Blood samples were drawn twice a week for 9 weeks. A group of males was used...

  5. Genetics of ischaemic stroke in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Terni

    2015-06-01

    General significance: This review focuses on the main causes of genetically-based ischemic stroke in young adults, often classified as indeterminate, investigating also the recent findings of the GWAS, in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  6. Supportive Housing in Foster Care: The Views of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Kyttälä, Minna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Finnish young people's experiences of supportive housing. Supportive housing is an after-care programme that should support the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. It is directed mainly at young people who have been taken into foster care by social workers. The sample consisted of 39 young people (23…

  7. ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  8. Analysis of support received by young people with intellectual disabilities in their transition to adulthood in Spain: an investigation based on the experiences of professionals and people with disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    María Pallisera; Judit Fullana; Montserrat Vilà; Paco Jiménez; Montse Castro; Carolina Puyalto; Mario Montero; Raquel Martin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to gather information regarding the adaptation of the range of socio educational projects and services aimed at the transition to an adult life of young persons with intellectual disabilities in Spain. The research of the study has been done in three stages. During each stage, a specific tool has been used. One to one in-depth interviews have been undertaken with 45 professionals and 20 individuals with intellectual disabilities. The Delphi method has been appli...

  9. Molecular basis of young ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersano, Anna; Borellini, Linda; Motto, Cristina; Lanfranconi, Silvia; Pezzini, Alessandro; Basilico, Paola; Micieli, Giuseppe; Padovani, Alessandro; Parati, Eugenio; Candelise, Livia

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and family studies have provided evidence on the role of genetic factors in stroke, particularly in stroke occurring at young age. However, despite its impact, young stroke continues to be understudied. This article reviews the existing literature on the most investigated monogenic disorders (CADASIL, Fabry disease, MELAS, RVCL, COL4A1, Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes) causing stroke in young and a number of candidate genes associated with stroke occurring in patients younger than 50 years. Although our study failed in identifying strong and reliable associations between specific genes and young stroke, our detailed literature revision on the field allowed us to compile a panel of genes possibly generating a susceptibility to stroke, which could be a starting point for future research. Since stroke is a potentially preventable disease, the identification of genes associated with young stroke may promote novel prevention strategies and allow the identification of therapeutic disease targets.

  10. Development of Young Coconut (Cocos nucifera Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polemer M. Cuarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop wine from young coconut water. This investigated the acceptability of the quality attributes of young coconut wine compared with commercial wine. Using a 5 - point hedonic scale, sensory evaluation test was done by the panelists (N=30 to evaluate the accep tability of the product quality attributes such as color, aroma and taste. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that young coconut wine has a pale light color, powerful aroma and sweet taste. Results also showed that panelists choose the color and tast e of the young coconut wine as its desirable attributes. Statistical analysis (p<0.05 showed significant difference in the color and aroma between young coconut wine and commercial wine but no significant difference in terms of taste.

  11. Psychological characteristics of aggressors of young couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Hernández Jiménez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women in relationships young people has become in recent years a public health problem of major social. This article, with a view to the prevention, seeks to address the psychological characteristics of the perpetrator of pair in young relations. An initial review of the personality features investigated in previous studies and their influence on violent behaviour was carried out. Following this, an empirical study on a sample of young people was performed. Methods: We conducted a study with 100 young people of Valencia. Of these, 50 are young offenders and 50 couple, young students of compulsory secondary education. Data are obtained and analyzed psychological characteristics differences between groups. Results: The study conducted shows that in general, young offenders have one hand high scores on neuroticism, impulsivity, external locus of control, psychoticism and antisocial behavior. Furthermore show low scores on self-control, empathy, selfesteem and frustration tolerance. Conclusions: The results of this paper make it abundantly clear that violence in young relationships is important enough to be considered from different sectors of society and justifies the need to develop and implement prevention programs adapted adolescents and their characteristics.

  12. R-CHOEP-14 improves overall survival in young high-risk patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma compared with R-CHOP-14. A population-based investigation from the Danish Lymphoma Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, A O; Strøm, C; Pedersen, M

    2012-01-01

    Optimal treatment of young patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains a matter of debate and requires improvement. The combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) with addition of etoposide (CHOEP) has in other patient...... groups been shown to be effective. Further improvement has been accomplished with the use of rituximab in combination with the regimens every 2 weeks (R-CHOP-14, R-CHOEP-14). The aim of the present retrospective population-based study was to compare R-CHOP-14 with R-CHOEP-14 in a cohort of high...

  13. A Portrait of Popularity: An Analysis of Characteristics of Novels from Young Adults' Choices for 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Rosemary

    1999-01-01

    Presents a "reading choice study"--a study of print materials selected and read from a collection. Analyzes literary elements of 23 Young Adult novels that young adults have chosen to read. Finds that popular Young Adult novels are primarily character driven, and agrees with most previous studies investigating literary elements of Young Adult…

  14. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  15. Analysis of support received by young people with intellectual disabilities in their transition to adulthood in Spain: an investigation based on the experiences of professionals and people with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pallisera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to gather information regarding the adaptation of the range of socio educational projects and services aimed at the transition to an adult life of young persons with intellectual disabilities in Spain. The research of the study has been done in three stages. During each stage, a specific tool has been used. One to one in-depth interviews have been undertaken with 45 professionals and 20 individuals with intellectual disabilities. The Delphi method has been applied to two panels consisting of 20 experts each. Firstly, results focus on the approach to different issues related to the devices. Secondly, the training opportunities that these individuals receive to ease the transition period is addressed. And finally, the study refers to the participation of the individuals themselves and their families in the process. The developed analysis allows us to propose strategies to improve the transition to adult life.

  16. Variation in risk indicators of cardiovascular disease during the menstrual cycle: an investigation of within-subject variations in glutathione peroxidase, haemostatic variables, lipids and lipoproteins in healthy young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Andersen, H R; Hansen, A B

    1996-01-01

    Variations in erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, serum concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins and in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis during the menstrual cycle were studied in healthy young women. Blood samples were drawn twice a week for 9 weeks. A group of males was used...... for estimation of the influence on the results of factors which were not related to the menstrual cycle. Variations during the menstrual cycle were demonstrated in several of the factors analysed. The activity of glutathione peroxidase was lowest at ovulation. The clotting activity of factor II+ VII...... the menstrual cycle. The serum concentrations of cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were significantly higher at the start of the menstrual cycle (days 3-8) than later in the cycle (days 19-24). The concentration of HDL cholesterol was lowest in the late luteal phase (days 23-28)....

  17. Thyroid functions in young diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Ismail, A.A.; Awadeen, M.R.; Abbas, E.Z.; Farag, M.S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Assessment of the thyroid-pituitary axis was performed in uncontrolled (20 cases) and controlled (22 cases) insulin-dependent young diabetics who were university students attending the university hospital. A third age-matching group (21 normal subjects) was also investigated. The plasma glucose level was determined after fasting as well as 2 hours after an oral glucose meal (50 g). Thyroxine (T 4 ), triiodeothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were assayed by RIA. The data obtained showed a lowered level of T 3 and T 4 and a raised level of TSH in uncontrolled young diabetics as compared to corresponding values for age matching normals. The group of controlled diabetics showed near normal T 3 and increased T 4 levels, but still lower than normal. TSH levels dropped significantly to the normal level. (author)

  18. Evolution for Young Victorians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Evolution was a difficult topic to tackle when writing books for the young in the wake of the controversies over Darwin's "Origin of Species." Authors who wrote about evolution for the young experimented with different ways of making the complex concepts of evolutionary theory accessible and less controversial. Many authors depicted presented…

  19. Young-Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpson, Deane

    Young-Old examines contemporary architectural and urban mutations that have emerged as a consequence of one of the key demographic transformations of our time: aging populations. Distinguishing between different phases of old age, the book identifies the group known as the “young old” as a remark...

  20. Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen-Oskam, K.H.; van Zundert, Joris J.; Koolen, Corina

    2017-01-01

    Bijdragen scheurkalender Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018. Karina van Dalen-Oskam, Belangrijk woord: Wat is het belangrijkste woord in de Nederlandse taal? In: Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018, 1 september Corina Koolen, Op naar het boekenbal: Hoe wordt je beroemd als schrijver? In:

  1. Young skateboarders their everyday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rampazzo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we focus on young people and their daily lives, bringing elements discussing leisure, family, education and work. Research conducted with a group of young skaters in a public track skating in the city of Porto Alegre - RS. In a total nine months of direct observation, each reported in Field Diaries. We seek to understand how the leisure of young people who gave the practice of skateboarding, was related to other aspects of their daily lives. After completing the work, we consider that - to remain in practice the skateboard - young people needed to reconcile the charges of their families, in addition to labels and stereotypes imposed from "outside" the universe of practitioners of this sport. We noticed also that young people go through all this in order to keep their "projects" on the skateboard.

  2. Young drivers and their young passengers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance

  3. Lifestyle of young Australian adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent disease that may affect the lifestyle adopted by young adults. This study investigated whether asthma status influences fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity level, tobacco smoking, and alcohol drinking behavior of young adults in Australia. Information of 2619 participants aged 18 to 29 years was extracted from the 2007-2008 Australian National Health Survey database. The level of physical activity and fruit consumption were found to be similar between young adults with and without asthma. Participants with asthma symptoms in the past 12 months were more likely to achieve the dietary recommendation for vegetable intake, but they tended to smoke tobacco and consume alcohol above safe levels. It may be necessary to develop prevention strategies targeting young adults with asthma that include screening for harmful use of substances. © 2012 APJPH.

  4. Diverticulitis in the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsirichareanchai, Kunut; Mankongpaisarnrung, Charoen; Sutamtewagul, Grerk; Nugent, Kenneth; Rakvit, Ariwan

    2015-01-01

    Colonic diverticulitis is relatively uncommon in young patients, especially those younger than 40 years. We compared demographic data, clinical presentation, management, and clinical course of diverticulitis in patients ≤40 years old compared with patients >40 years old. This study included all patients who presented to the emergency department with a diagnosis of diverticulitis between October 1, 2009 and September 30, 2010. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (≤40 years old) and group 2 (>40 years old). Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation and management, and short-term outcomes were compared. Ninety-four patients were included in the study (37 patients in group 1 and 57 patients in group 2). A higher percentage of obese and Hispanic men was found in group 1 (P > .05). The rate of discharge from the emergency department was significantly higher in group 1 (56.8% in group 1 vs 7.0% in group 2, P diverticulitis and that this diagnosis needs to be considered when they present to emergency rooms with abdominal symptoms. A longitudinal study is needed to determine the long-term outcomes in these patients and to investigate the pathogenesis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  6. Talking Violence, Constructing Identity : Young Men in Institutional Care

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Kjerstin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate how young men constructing identities in talk about their own use of violence. The study is based on a fieldwork at a youth detention home in Sweden. The data consists of individual interviews and video recordings of the treatment programme Aggression Replacement Training (ART). Detailed analyses have been made of conversations between the young men, between the young men and the trainers, and of the narratives generated in the individual interviews. The...

  7. Improving safety of teenage and young adult drivers in Kansas : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Statistics show that young drivers have higher motor vehicle crash rates compared to other age groups. This study investigated characteristics, contributory causes, and factors which increase injury severity of young driver crashes in Kansas by compa...

  8. Q-methodology to identify young adult renal transplant recipients at risk for nonadherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Moors-Tielen (Mirjam); A.L. van Staa (AnneLoes); S. Jedeloo (Susan); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W. Weimar (Willem)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Young adult renal transplant recipients may display patterns of behavior that affect graft survival. The present study aimed to identify young adults at risk for nonadherent behavior by investigating their attitudes about posttransplant health lifestyle. METHOD. A

  9. Psychological outcome after severe traumatic brain injury in adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doser, Karoline; Poulsen, Ingrid; Wuensch, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Young individuals surviving severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently experience a wide range of cognitive, emotional and behavioural consequences. This cross-sectional follow-up study investigated psychological outcome of young survivors in the chronic phase, and whether...

  10. Comparison between digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance angiography in investigation of nonlacunar ischemic stroke in young patients: preliminary results Comparação entre arteriografia digital e angioressonância na investigação de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico não-lacunar em pacientes jovens: resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bastos Conforto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We preliminarily investigated the relevance of performing digital subtraction angiography (DSA in addition to magnetic resonance angiography (MRA in definition of ischemic stroke etiology in young patients. METHOD: DSAs and MRAs from 17 young patients with nonlacunar ischemic stroke were blindly analyzed and their impact on stroke management was evaluated. RESULTS: Etiologies were the same considering results of either DSA or MRA in 12/17 cases. In 15/17 patients no changes would have been made in treatment, regardless of the modality of angiography considered. CONCLUSION: These preliminary results suggest that DSA may be redundant in two thirds of ischemic strokes in young patients. Further larger prospective studies are necessary to determine indications of DSA in this age group.PROPÓSITO DO ESTUDO: Investigar de forma preliminar a relevância da realização de angiografia digital (AD adicionalmente a angioressonância (AR na definição de etiologias de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI em pacientes jovens. MÉTODO: ADs e ARs de 17 pacientes jovens com AVCIs não-lacunares foram analisadas. Avaliamos o impacto destes exames no manejo clínico dos casos. RESULTADOS: Em 12/17 casos, as etiologias dos AVCIs de acordo com os resultados de AD ou de AR foram idênticas. Em 15/17 pacientes, nenhuma mudança de conduta terapêutica seria realizada, independentemente da modalidade de exame considerada. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados preliminares sugerem que os resultados da AD podem ser redundantes em relação à AR em até dois terços dos pacientes jovens com AVCI. Estudos prospectivos maiores são necessários para otimizar o estabelecimento de indicações de AD nesta faixa etária.

  11. Reintegration of young mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Worthen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Young mothers seeking reintegration after periods of time spent livingwith fighting forces and armed groups face exclusion and stigmarather than the support they and their children badly need.

  12. Young Adult Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Connie C.

    1987-01-01

    Considers the similarities between science fiction writing and young adult literature, and points out that several well-known authors, such as Robert Heinlein and Jane Yolen, write in both genres. (NKA)

  13. Young Adult Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Hazel

    1986-01-01

    Applies the idea of the theme booktalk to "Wuthering Heights," which serves as a springboard for talking about themes of family rage, confrontation, quarrel and rebellion in other works of literature with relevance to contemporary young people. (JK)

  14. Malignant melanoma in teenagers and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandijan, Nathalie A; Wei, Caimiao; Burke, Anahit; Bedikian, Agop Y

    2014-10-01

    This study compares the natural history and treatment outcomes of cutaneous melanoma in teenagers and young adults to determine if exclusion of teenagers from investigative trials is justified. This is a chart review of patients between the ages of 13 and 40 years treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center for melanoma. Data related to the natural history and treatment outcomes were collected. Statistical tools were used to compare characteristics between teenagers and young adults. Cox proportional hazard models were utilized to examine the association between age group and overall survival. Of the 476 patients, 109 were teenagers and 367 were young adults. Both groups had comparable disease stage, pathology, and rates of metastasis. Initial disease stage and pathology significantly influenced survival. Sixty-six of 452 patients with skin melanoma developed metastasis. Teenagers survived better than young adults from diagnosis of the skin primary and after development of systemic metastasis. Teenagers tolerated and benefited from interleukin-2-based systemic therapy and targeted therapies as well as the young adults. Because of the similarities in natural history and treatment outcomes between teenage and young adult patients, it is recommended that teenage patients be officially enrolled on adult melanoma therapeutic trials.

  15. Continuity and Discontinuity of Depressed Mood from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Mediating and Stabilizing Roles of Young Adults' Socioeconomic Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do young adults' socioeconomic…

  16. Young Stars with SALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Adric R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Alam, Munazza K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Astrophysics, The American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Henry, Todd J., E-mail: arr@caltech.edu [RECONS Institute, Chambersburg, PA (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All of these dwarfs are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph on the South African Large Telescope, we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, lithium 6708 Å, and potassium 7699 Å equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all of our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 pc of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, 9 members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find 14 young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star systems do not appear to be young. This appears to be evidence of a new population of nearby young stars not related to the known nearby young moving groups.

  17. Young Stars with SALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Adric R.; Alam, Munazza K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Henry, Todd J.

    2017-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All of these dwarfs are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph on the South African Large Telescope, we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, lithium 6708 Å, and potassium 7699 Å equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all of our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 pc of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, 9 members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find 14 young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star systems do not appear to be young. This appears to be evidence of a new population of nearby young stars not related to the known nearby young moving groups. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  18. Experimental Young's modulus calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Jayakumar, R.; Yu, K.

    1994-01-01

    Coil is a very important magnet component. The turn location and the coil size impact both mechanical and magnetic behavior of the magnet. The Young's modulus plays a significant role in determining the coil location and size. Therefore, Young's modulus study is essential in predicting both the analytical and practical magnet behavior. To determine the coil Young's modulus, an experiment has been conducted to measure azimuthal sizes of a half quadrant QSE101 inner coil under different loading. All measurements are made at four different positions along an 8-inch long inner coil. Each measurement is repeated three times to determine the reproducibility of the experiment. To ensure the reliability of this experiment, the same measurement is performed twice with a open-quotes dummy coil,close quotes which is made of G10 and has the same dimension and similar azimuthal Young's modulus as the inner coil. The difference between the G10 azimuthal Young's modulus calculated from the experiments and its known value from the manufacturer will be compared. Much effort has been extended in analyzing the experimental data to obtain a more reliable Young's modulus. Analysis methods include the error analysis method and the least square method

  19. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  20. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  1. What Do Young People Today Really Think about Jesus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the key findings of a recent study investigating young people's knowledge and understanding of Jesus and demonstrates how young people today appear to be experiencing the same difficulties when engaging with the figure of Jesus in the religious education classroom as they did almost 40 years ago. It concludes by suggesting…

  2. Growing up with Dyslexia: Interviews with Teenagers and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingesson, S. Gunnel

    2007-01-01

    Interviews with 75 teenagers and young adults were performed to investigate how young people with dyslexia experienced school in terms of well-being, educational achievement, self-esteem, peer relations and belief in their future. Results from earlier studies suggest that secondary emotional problems are common. The first six grades in school were…

  3. Influences on smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influences on smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults in a Nigerian university. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... Abstract. The study investigated whether parenting style, parental level of education and smoking peers have any influence on the smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults.

  4. No excess fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that many survivors of childhood cancer experience fatigue as a long-term effect of their treatment. To investigate this issue further, we assessed the level of fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. We compared the results with a group of young adults with no

  5. Age at Immigration and Educational Attainment of Young Immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were

  6. Young People Smokers’ Reactions on Peer Influence Not to Smoke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakeh, Z.; van Nijnatten, C.H.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peers exert influence not to smoke but little is yet known on how this affects young people's behavior and cognitions. Objectives: This experimental study investigates the impact of two types of peer influence not to smoke on the verbalized attitudes and responses of daily-smoking young

  7. Risk Perception in Young Women's Collective Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Emma; Anderson, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Heavy episodic drinking in young women has caused concern among many groups including public health professionals. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of young women's alcohol consumption so as to facilitate better health education targeting. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative descriptive study examines…

  8. Young People, Pornography, and Sexuality: Sources and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmyr, Gudrun; Welin, Catharina

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of and attitudes among young people toward pornography and their sources of information about sexuality. Eight hundred and seventy-six young people ages 15-25 years (555 females and 321 males) who visited a youth center in Sweden for a period of 1 year answered a questionnaire about their use of…

  9. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  10. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  11. Birth size and coronary heart disease risk score in young adulthood. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults (ARYA) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, LE; Oren, A; Bots, ML; Gorissen, WHM; Grobbee, DE; Uiterwaal, CSPM

    Data of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults (ARYA) study were used to investigate the association between birth size and the absolute risk for coronary heart disease in healthy young adults. The cohort study comprises 750 (46.9% men) subjects born between 1970 and 1973. Birth characteristics

  12. Prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries among young squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by young squash players in Malaysia. This study was conducted retrospectively by using. Standardized Nordic Questionnaire (NSQ) during SUKMA 2016 at Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. The questionnaires were distributed to the ...

  13. How the Project Approach Challenges Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Marcia V.; Lewis, Alisha L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, educators at University Primary School in Champaign, Illinois, share examples and understandings of the ways The Project Approach challenges young children to think critically about topics of importance in their world. Project investigations that provoke academic and social challenges for individuals and classroom communities of…

  14. Young Children's Trust in Overtly Misleading Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D.; Sritanyaratana, Lalida; Vanderbilt, Kimberly E.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to disregard advice from an overtly misleading informant was investigated across five studies (total "n" =212). Previous studies have documented limitations in young children's ability to reject misleading advice. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that these limitations are primarily…

  15. Young child formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Young child formulae (YCF) are milk-based drinks or plant protein-based formulae intended to partially satisfy the nutritional requirements of young children ages 1 to 3 years. Although widely available on the market, their composition is, however, not strictly regulated and health effects have...... not been systematically studied. Therefore, the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition (CoN) performed a systematic review of the literature to review the composition of YCF and consider their role in the diet of young children....... The review revealed limited data but identified that YCF have a highly variable composition, which is in some cases inappropriate with very high protein and carbohydrate content and even high amounts of added sugars. Based on the evidence, ESPGHAN CoN suggests that the nutrient composition of YCF should...

  16. Young Artists@ CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In view of 50th anniversary of CERN, about 20 young artists will be visiting CERN from 26 to 31 January to learn about the laboratory's research and the mysterious world of particle physics. The impressions they take home will be the main inspiration for the artwork they will then produce for an exhibition to be inaugurated in October 2004 as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebration. We are looking for scientists who are interested in the Art-Science synergy and who can volunteer to discuss their work at CERN to these young artists during this week (25-31/01). Please contact renilde.vanden.broeck@cern.ch if you are interested. The project is called Young Artists@ CERN and for more information look at this website: http://www.hep.ucl.ac.uk/~andy/CERNart/

  17. Young generation actions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish Young Generation was established in 1998 as a working group of the Finnish Nuclear Society to tackle the declining of the nuclear expertise. The objectives of the Young Generation are to attract more young students to the nuclear field, motivate and train young employees, enhance the transfer of knowledge between the generations, and to enable the young students and employees in nuclear field to build a personal network of contacts. This paper summarizes the results of the Finnish Young Generation program. (orig.)

  18. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European

  19. Post-stroke epilepsy in young adults: a long-term follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntz, R.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the incidence and risk of seizures after stroke in young adults. Especially in the young seizures might dramatically influence prognosis and quality of life. We therefore investigated the long-term incidence and risk of post-stroke epilepsy in young adults with a

  20. Young Children as Curators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Alice

    2018-01-01

    Literature that addresses young children's learning in galleries and museums typically concentrates on what is already offered and discusses what has proven to be effective, or not, in accommodating their needs. This article offers insight into how objects can be explored with early years children at school, to create greater understanding of…

  1. Guiding Young Composers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Don

    2011-01-01

    Composition is learned by discovering that musical ideas can be experienced in a variety of ways, and that new musical ideas can be created by reconfiguring learned materials in new contexts. The act of imagining, defining, and communicating unique musical ideas awakens in young people a dormant part of their brains, unlocking an awareness of the…

  2. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...

  3. Protocol investigating the clinical utility of an objective measure of activity and attention (QbTest) on diagnostic and treatment decision-making in children and young people with ADHD-'Assessing QbTest Utility in ADHD' (AQUA): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charlotte L; Walker, Gemma M; Valentine, Althea Z; Guo, Boliang; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine; James, Marilyn; Daley, David; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris

    2014-12-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) state that young people need to have access to the best evidence-based care to improve outcome. The current 'gold standard' ADHD diagnostic assessment combines clinical observation with subjective parent, teacher and self-reports. In routine practice, reports from multiple informants may be unavailable or contradictory, leading to diagnostic uncertainty and delay. The addition of objective tests of attention and activity may help reduce diagnostic uncertainty and delays in initiating treatment leading to improved outcomes. This trial investigates whether providing clinicians with an objective report of levels of attention, impulsivity and activity can lead to an earlier, and more accurate, clinical diagnosis and improved patient outcome. This multisite randomised controlled trial will recruit young people (aged 6-17 years old) who have been referred for an ADHD diagnostic assessment at Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) and Community Paediatric clinics across England. Routine clinical assessment will be augmented by the QbTest, incorporating a continuous performance test (CPT) and infrared motion tracking of activity. The participant will be randomised into one of two study arms: QbOpen (clinician has immediate access to a QbTest report): QbBlind (report is withheld until the study end). Primary outcomes are time to diagnosis and diagnostic accuracy. Secondary outcomes include clinician's diagnostic confidence and routine clinical outcome measures. Cost-effective analysis will be conducted, alongside a qualitative assessment of the feasibility and acceptability of incorporating QbTest in routine practice. The findings from the study will inform commissioners, clinicians and managers about the feasibility, acceptability, clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of incorporating QbTest into routine diagnostic assessment of young

  4. A concept analysis of young adults; Perception of HIV Counselling and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Patrone R. Risenga; Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate perceptions of young adults regarding HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) and the factors contributing to either negative or positive perceptions towards the programme. This article is a report of a concept analysis of young adults' perceptions of HCT that were collected during the study. Background: Perception forms the core of HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) use by young adults, because it is from these perceptions that young adults will decid...

  5. Young Child. [SITE 2001 Section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Nicola, Ed.; DeVoogd, Glenn, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on the young child from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: (1) "Young Children and Technology: Building Computer Literacy" (Michael J. Bell and Caroline M. Crawford); (2) "Integrating Technology into the Young Child Lesson Plan"…

  6. Myocardial infarction in the young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengel A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of patients under 40 years of age are being hospitalized with the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. This is partly due to the increased prevalance of risk factors for atherosclerosis in the younger age group; especially increased incidence of impaired fasting glucose, high triglyceride, low high-density lipoprotein levels and increased waist to hip ratio. However, non-atherosclerotic coronary artery disease or hypercoagulability should also be investigated or at least suspected in the younger patients. The pathophysiology of different clinical conditions and disease states which cause acute coronary syndromes in the young patients are reviewed, and the diagnostic modalities and therapatic options for these conditions are briefly discussed by searching for "premature atherosclerosis", "hypercoagulable states", "risk factors for atherosclerosis in youth", "novel risk factors for atherosclerosis", "non-atherosclerotic coronary artery diseases" in PubMed.

  7. ECNS '99 - Young scientists forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceretti, M.; Janssen, S.; McMorrow, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Young Scientists Forum is a new venture for ECNS and follows the established tradition of an active participation by young scientists in these conferences. At ECNS '99 the Young Scientists Forum brought together 30 young scientists from 13 European countries. In four working groups......, they discussed emerging scientific trends in their areas of expertise and the instrumentation required to meet the scientific challenges. The outcome was presented in the Young Scientists Panel on the final day of ECNS '99. This paper is a summary of the four working group reports prepared by the Group Conveners...

  8. The association between circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone and follicle number, androgens, and menstrual cycle characteristics in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and other reproductive parameters in young women.......To investigate the association between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and other reproductive parameters in young women....

  9. Unemployment of the Young

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Mrgole

    1997-01-01

    The article treats the social dimensions and paradox of the ideological perceptions related to the unemployment of the young. In the paper, Mrgole focuses on the presentation and analysis of rhetorical models and argumentative constructions constituting the basic set of accepted social perceptions about vocation vocational education, work and emploment. He proceeds by criticizing the fundamental premises of functionalist conceptions serving as the basis for predominant ideological models. Pos...

  10. Young physicists' forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Young Physicists' Forum was an opportunity for the younger members of the particle-physics community to gather at Snowmass 2001 and to study and debate major issues that face the field over the next twenty years. Discussions were organized around three major topics: outreach and education, the impact of globalization, and building a robust and balanced field. We report on the results of these discussions, as presented on July 17, 2001

  11. International Young Art 2001

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Programm 'ArtLink@Sotheby's International Young Art' valib ligi 100 kunstnikku osalema 2001. a. üritusel. Valitud tööd eksponeeritakse näitusel ja seejärel antakse Sotheby oksjonile Tel Avivis, Chicagos, Euroopas. Avalduste esitamise tähtaeg 9. II 2000. Info: www.artlink2000.net; e-post: debbie@artlink2000.net jm.

  12. Young men using pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Most everyday users of pornography are heterosexual men. Looking at, and masturbating to, pornography is the routine practice of large numbers of men. And most of the commercial pornographic industry caters to heterosexual men. These men – and their consumption of pornography – are the subject of a growing body of research. This chapter offers an overview of what we can learn about heterosexual boys' and young men's use of pornography, focusing particularly on quantitative studies of the exte...

  13. Prison and young convicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Linowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penalty, including imprisonment comprises one of the basic forms of reaction to crime. It differs from other possible penalties in the degree of discomfort and in the legal consequences. There are also different goals in case of criminal penalty as a legal and social consequence of a crime or misconduct. Imprisonment aims at taking different actions which consequently, should lead to the situation where the criminal does not return to committing crimes. It is so called penitentiary rehabilitation which is a multidimensional phenomenon and it should be considered from the modern society point of view. Its range includes correction of inadequate individual’s behavior and his or her adaptation of norms and values shared by the general public, as well as taking and being persistent in the process of designing oneself, own personality and consistent implementation of the self- vision in the future, organized hierarchically for the given time periods. Therefore, different means and action are taken under the implementation of imprisonment. Moreover, convicted prisoners are divided into different groups in penitentiaries. One of the groups is the group of young convicts. The goal of this article is to examine and describe the opinion of the young convicts on the penitentiary as a penal and rehabilitation institution. To perform the study, sixty young convicts were selected. In the test method, the diagnostic survey was applied. The original authoring questionnaire was used in the study. The study was performed in the Penitentiary in Radom, in December 2012.

  14. Investigating Young Children's Use of Reading Strategies: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragler, Sherry; Martin, Linda; Schreier, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    In this three-year study, the authors examined the reading strategy use of 16 primary-grade students as they read fiction and expository text. The students (9 boys and 7 girls) represented low, average, and above-average readers. Structured interviews and observational data were collected each year as they progressed from first to third grade.…

  15. Huss Receives 2013 Cryosphere Young Investigator Award: Citation: Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    I would like to thank the AGU Cryosphere focus group for this award. Gaining such an important recognition at this stage of a scientific career is indeed both a great honor and a motivation to me. I was a little child when I first stepped onto a glacier. There was an unforgettable sensation of attraction and interest that touched me—one might call it a magic moment. Back then, I would never have imagined being a glaciologist one day. But it feels right, and I am grateful to have received the opportunity of exploring this wonderful element of nature.

  16. Young Investigator Program: Modular Paradigm for Scalable Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    an auxiliary quantum controller (ancilla) that ac- quires information about the system’s output state (by an entangling operation) and performs an...illumination [31]. (c) Quantum circuit. Hadamard gates prepare and read out a super- position state of the qubit, |ϕ〉q = 1√2 (|0〉 + |1〉). Amid entangling gates...transfer can be relatively easily obtained with multiple quantum sequences, it is more challenging to initialize and readout the system in the absence of

  17. Activation of antioxidant defenses in whole saliva by psychosocial stress is more manifested in young women than in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Tsuber

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.

  18. Activation of antioxidant defenses in whole saliva by psychosocial stress is more manifested in young women than in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.

  19. E-inclusion: Digital equality - young people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsson, H; Bolic-Baric, V; Lidström, H

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations' position is that digital access is a matter involving equality between groups of people, the securing of democratic rights, and equal opportunities for all citizens. This study investigates digital equality in school and leisure between young people with and without disabilities. A cross-sectional design with group comparisons was applied. Participants were young people (10-18 years of age) with disabilities (n=389) and a reference group in about the same ages. Data were collected by a survey focusing on access to and engagement in ICT activities in school and during leisure time. The results demonstrated young people with disabilities had restricted participation in computer use in educational activities, in comparison to young people in general. During leisure time young people with disabilities had a leading position compared to the reference group with respect to internet use in a variety of activities. Beneficial environmental conditions at home (and the reverse in schools) are discussed as parts of the explanation for the differing engagement levels at home and in school, and among young people with disabilities and young people in general. Schools need to prioritise use of ICT by young people with disabilities.

  20. Snacking Habits and Caries in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, I.; Lif Holgerson, P.; Kressin, N.R.; Nunn, M.E.; Tanner, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bott...

  1. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (...

  2. to gender among young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Płaczkowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Metabolic disturbances are the most establishing risk factors for cardiovascular diseases at an elderly age. Early identification and behavioral or pharmacological treatment of metabolic abnormalities is the best way to prevent cardiovascular incidents in the future. Objectives . The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of the metabolic disturbances and metabolic syndrome among young, apparently healthy, Polish people. Material and methods . 292 apparently healthy people (71 males and 221 females aged 18–31 years participated in this study. The following variables were analyzed: height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles. The diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation (2009 were used. Results . The prevalence of metabolic disturbances was from 6.5% (19 for Diastolic Blood Pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg up to 20.2% (59 for LDL-cholesterol ≥ 3.0 mmol/L in all participants. After dividing in subgroups of male and female, the most frequently observed were LDL hypercholesterolemia 33.8% (24 and 15.8% (35, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was observed in 10.3% (30 of the total studied group, and there was a significant difference between male – 31% (22, and female – 3.6% (8. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with overweight and obesity only in males. Conclusions . The prevalence of metabolic disturbances and metabolic syndrome was found in a large proportion of the studied group, and a substantial discrepancy between males and females was observed. All types of disturbances were more often met in males. These observations could be useful when carring out different health promotion strategies for young people in Poland.

  3. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  4. Heart rate and activity profile for young female soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Álvarez, José Carlos; Gómez López, Maite; Barbero Álvarez, Verónica; Granda Vera, Juan; Castagna, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The physical and physiological demands of high-level male soccer have been studied extensively, while few studies have investigated the demands placed on females during match-play, however, there is no information available about the heart rate and activity profile of young female soccer players during match play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular (heart-rates HR) and physical demands of young female soccer players during a match. Players were observed during a fr...

  5. Darwin's young admirers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Janneke

    2006-09-01

    In 1873, Darwin replied to the second letter from a young Dutch admirer, Nicolaas Doedes, in which he had eagerly asked about Darwin's religious views. Darwin stated that he could not believe that "this grand and wondrous universe" had only arisen by chance, but also showed his doubts about the existence of God. In 1881, Darwin repeated a similar agnostic view. After the death of Darwin in 1882, Doedes incurred the wrath of Francis Darwin by publishing the confession of his father in a Dutch freethinking journal, thus revealing the sensitivity of the information Darwin shared with Doedes.

  6. Young people in adult education

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Mrgole

    1997-01-01

    The increasing number of young people participating in adult education programmes has, in the recent years, raised the question of transfer from regular education system to labour market where a large proportion of young people remain socially marginalized and isolated. Young people in adult education are a special target group; in order to plan educational programmes properly, we need to be familiar with their specific characteristics. The article, on the level of a statistical data outline ...

  7. On the Role of Educational Factors in the Development of Danish Young Learners’ EFL Proficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aus der Wieschen, Maria Vanessa

    The study investigates how the quantity and quality of exposure to English in Danish primary schools influences Young Learners’ English language learning.......The study investigates how the quantity and quality of exposure to English in Danish primary schools influences Young Learners’ English language learning....

  8. Sources of meaning an investigation of significant commitments in life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debats, D.L.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates, combining qualitative and quantitative research methods, the sources of meaning in life of young adult patients and nonpatients. In addition to the exploratory concerns, the current investigation tested the following three predictions: (a) Relationships are the most;

  9. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alódia Brasil

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to

  10. Young Migrants and Discourses on Young Migrants in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Debby; Maier, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the perspectives of young migrants in the Netherlands with the dominant discourse on "migrants" at present. The integration of young "migrants" have been studied in the European research projects TRESEGY and PROFACITY with the help of a number of ethnographic studies and a questionnaire in the Netherlands.…

  11. Emotion awareness and cognitive behavioural therapy in young people with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Collins, Cara; Mahoney-Davies, Gerwyn; Russell, Ailsa; Booth, Anne; Loades, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Young people with autism spectrum disorder experience high levels of emotional problems, including anxiety and depression. Adapted cognitive behavioural therapy is recommended for such difficulties. However, no evidence suggests whether emotion awareness is important in treatment outcome for young people on the autism spectrum. This study aimed to investigate the potential differences in emotion awareness between (1) young people on the autism spectrum and typically developing youth and (2) young people on the autism spectrum with and without experience of cognitive behavioural therapy. Three groups (aged 11-20 years) participated: (1) typically developing young people ( n = 56); (2) young people on the autism spectrum with no experience of cognitive behavioural therapy ( n = 23); and (3) young people on the autism spectrum who had attended cognitive behavioural therapy ( n = 33). All participants completed the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire-30 item version. Young people on the autism spectrum differed significantly from typically developing young people on the emotional awareness measure. Young people on the autism spectrum who had attended cognitive behavioural therapy scored significantly lower on the Differentiating Emotions subscale, and significantly higher on the Attending to Others' Emotions subscale, compared to young people on the autism spectrum who had not attended cognitive behavioural therapy. This study highlights the importance of psycho-educational components of cognitive behavioural therapy when adapting for young people on the autism spectrum.

  12. Psychological distress and intelligence in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T. W.; Antal, K.

    2016-01-01

    This study has primarily aimed to investigate first, the prevalence of psychological distress complaints among a population-representative sample of young men, second, whether psychological distress is associated with poorer performance on an intelligence test and third, whether any association...... is a purely linear function. Specifically, we have examined self-reported symptoms of psychological distress, and IQ, among 1869 young men appearing before the Danish Draft Board with a view to assessing suitability for conscription. The assessment included a 25-item questionnaire concerning a broad range...... was 0.15, but the relationship was better described by a model incorporating a negatively accelerating quadratic function and individuals above the 90th percentile on the PHS had a mean IQ of 94. This finding confirms the need to consider any general psychological distress, especially at high levels...

  13. MAJOR INJURIES MUSCULOSKELETALS IN YOUNG ATHLETES BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Simão Rodrigues Filho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of participation of youth in sports is accompanied by an increase in the number of musculoskeletal injuries, especially in contact sports. Basketball gained prominence among contact sports not only for its plastic and beauty of their games, but because it is a sport that demands much of its practitioners, and in the case of young athletes, this requirement can endanger children and adolescents are not properly monitored for health professionals sports. In this study we can see that the ankle is the most affected, followed by knee and fingers and wrists. The mechanisms of injury most frequently reported were sprains, after the bruises and fractures. Highlight for disturbances dorsolumbar, pointed out by many authors. The prevention programs and pre-competition oriented properly treated as paramount by all the authors investigated, in order to reduce the number of injuries in young athletes.

  14. Young persons with visual impairment: challenges of participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Anna-Liisa; Karhula, Maarit E

    2014-07-01

    To describe the challenges to activity and participation faced by young people with visual impairment within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). 14 young persons (aged 16-22 years) with visual impairment and their parents (n = 22) participated in the study. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to describe challenges of participation as perceived by the young persons themselves. Individual interviews with the young persons and their parents were used to investigate in more depth the challenges the young persons face with regard to participation. Young persons with visual impairment face challenges to participation most frequently with regard to mobility, domestic life, interpersonal interaction and relationships, major life areas, and leisure activities. The environment in which they live has a central role as a barrier or facilitator of participation. The challenges related to activities and participation that young persons with visual impairment face are diverse. It is important that these challenges are assessed individually and with the help of subjective measures. Serving as a broad framework for classifying the data, the ICF proved to be a useful tool, but used strictly at category level it may limit the coding of data and narrow interpretation.

  15. Fire investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  16. Event Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.

    2000-01-01

    The events in the nuclear industry are investigated from the license point of view and from the regulatory side too. It is well known the importance of the event investigation. One of the main goals of such investigation is to prevent the circumstances leading to the event and the consequences of the event. The protection of the nuclear workers against nuclear hazard, and the protection of general public against dangerous effects of an event could be achieved by systematic approach to the event investigation. Both, the nuclear safety regulatory body and the licensee shall ensure that operational significant events are investigated in a systematic and technically sound manner to gather information pertaining to the probable causes of the event. One of the results should be appropriate feedback regarding the lessons of the experience to the regulatory body, nuclear industry and general public. In the present paper a general description of systematic approach to the event investigation is presented. The systematic approach to the event investigation works best where cooperation is present among the different divisions of the nuclear facility or regulatory body. By involving management and supervisors the safety office can usually improve their efforts in the whole process. The end result shall be a program which serves to prevent events and reduce the time and efforts solving the root cause which initiated each event. Selection of the proper method for the investigation and an adequate review of the findings and conclusions lead to the higher level of the overall nuclear safety. (author)

  17. Report on the Young 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elke Zeijl; Marianne Beker; Koen Breedveld; Andries van den Broek; Jos de Haan; Lex Herweijer; Frank Huysmans; Karin Wittebrood

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage jeugd 2002. Policymakers have always devoted a lot of attention to the way in which young people spend their leisure time. More recently, they have increasingly pointed out that activities in the areas of sport, ICT or politics have a positive influence on young

  18. Injuries to the Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky, Jane C.

    A review of literature on the incidence and nature of injuries to young athletes is presented on the topics of: (1) physiological characteristics of preadolescents, adolescents, and young adults; (2) musculo-skeletal changes in the growing athlete; (3) epiphyseal injuries and their potential for resulting in temporary or permanent impairment; (4)…

  19. Young Child. [SITE 2002 Section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Nicola, Ed.; DeVoogd, Glenn, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on the young child from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "Young Children's Computer Use: Perspectives of Early Childhood Teacher Educators" (Mehmet Buldu); (2) "Using Technology To Support Preschool Teachers' Professional Development" (Julie Hirschler…

  20. Young Children's Understanding of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Keith; Theakston, Anna; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although a fair amount is known about young children's production of negation, little is known about their comprehension. Here, we focus on arguably the most complex basic form, denial, and how young children understand denial, when it is expressed in response to a question with gesture, single word, or sentence. One hundred twenty-six children in…

  1. Effective Communication with Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Patrick; Elliott, David

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government established the Office for Youth (the Office) in September 2008 in an effort to engage with the young people of Australia. The Office will work with other government agencies to help young people reach their full potential; make effective transitions to adulthood as they continue to learn, start work, make decisions that…

  2. Environmental Design for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Mary, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    The special issue of the journal, Children in Contemporary Society, contains 17 brief articles on environmental design for young handicapped and normal children. Articles have the following titles: "Introduction", "Environmental Design and Architecture", "Why Is Environmental Design Important to Young Children", "Children's Hospital National…

  3. Young people and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Young people and sexual orientation The Netherlands Institute for Social Research ¦ SCP carries out regular research on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals. In this report, the focus is on young people in the Netherlands. The report addresses two issues:

  4. Eye tracking young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J; Elison, Jed T

    2012-03-27

    The rise of accessible commercial eye-tracking systems has fueled a rapid increase in their use in psychological and psychiatric research. By providing a direct, detailed and objective measure of gaze behavior, eye-tracking has become a valuable tool for examining abnormal perceptual strategies in clinical populations and has been used to identify disorder-specific characteristics, promote early identification, and inform treatment. In particular, investigators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have benefited from integrating eye-tracking into their research paradigms. Eye-tracking has largely been used in these studies to reveal mechanisms underlying impaired task performance and abnormal brain functioning, particularly during the processing of social information. While older children and adults with ASD comprise the preponderance of research in this area, eye-tracking may be especially useful for studying young children with the disorder as it offers a non-invasive tool for assessing and quantifying early-emerging developmental abnormalities. Implementing eye-tracking with young children with ASD, however, is associated with a number of unique challenges, including issues with compliant behavior resulting from specific task demands and disorder-related psychosocial considerations. In this protocol, we detail methodological considerations for optimizing research design, data acquisition and psychometric analysis while eye-tracking young children with ASD. The provided recommendations are also designed to be more broadly applicable for eye-tracking children with other developmental disabilities. By offering guidelines for best practices in these areas based upon lessons derived from our own work, we hope to help other investigators make sound research design and analysis choices while avoiding common pitfalls that can compromise data acquisition while eye-tracking young children with ASD or other developmental difficulties.

  5. Unemployment of the Young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mrgole

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The article treats the social dimensions and paradox of the ideological perceptions related to the unemployment of the young. In the paper, Mrgole focuses on the presentation and analysis of rhetorical models and argumentative constructions constituting the basic set of accepted social perceptions about vocation vocational education, work and emploment. He proceeds by criticizing the fundamental premises of functionalist conceptions serving as the basis for predominant ideological models. Postulating linguistic conceptualisation as the basis, Mrgole derives the logic of perceiving employment. as a socially normative category, and Iilustrates the problem of juvenile unemployment in this light. The interpretation is founded on the results of the evaluation obtained by the experimental project entitled Centres for Younger Adults, in which Mrgole, as an associate of the Centre for Adult Education, has participated since 1995.

  6. Protocol and methodology of the Stroke in Young Fabry Patients (sifap1) study: a prospective multicenter European study of 5,024 young stroke patients aged 18-55 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rolfs, Arndt

    2011-01-01

    Stroke in the young has not been thoroughly investigated with most previous studies based on a small number of patients from single centers. Furthermore, recent reports indicate that Fabry disease may be a significant cause for young stroke. The primary aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of Fabry disease in young stroke patients, while the secondary aim was to describe patterns of stroke in young patients.

  7. MAGMADIM: Young Explainers Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltiel, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Physics teachers and educators constantly face the problem of inspiring their students to major in physics. On the other hand, science museums are designed to provide a pleasant environment which will stimulate and encourage a science associated experience to the general public. Typically, there is no intention to teach science as such in science museums. One may, however, use the science museum to teach and inspire certain groups of students in a much deeper sense. In fact they may actually enthusiastically learn much of the school physics curriculum at the museum. This report discusses the Magmadim program through which 10th graders are trained to be young explainers at the Weizmann Institutes Clore Garden of Science. To this end they study the physics underlying its exhibits in an after-school course. The ultimate goal is for the 'magmadim' to become the best possible explainers and be able to face all sorts of museum visitors. Along with learning how to instruct visitors, they must learn the physics behind the exhibits to give a full explanation of the exhibit and be able to answer any question that may arise. Our 5 year experience with the program shows that its self-selected participants not only study a lot of science, but also like it and learn how to explain the content to other people. This program, along with similar programs at the Bloomfield Science Museum and the Madatzim (young physics tutors) program of Ort, help in promoting the interest in science in general and physics in particular among school students. Various ways to expand the programs will also be discussed

  8. Sexting among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

    2013-03-01

    Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Using an adapted Web version of respondent-driven sampling, we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (aged 18-24 years, N = 3,447). We examined participant sexting behavior using four categories of sexting: (1) nonsexters, (2) receivers, (3) senders, and (4) two-way sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and psychological well-being. More than half (57%) of the respondents were nonsexters, 28.2% were two-way sexters, 12.6% were receivers, and 2% were senders. Male respondents were more likely to be receivers than their female counterparts. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be two-way sexters than non-sexually active ones. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in the number of sexual partners or the number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biotherapeutic bioanalysis: a multi-indication case study review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myler, Heather A; Given, Allison; Kolz, Karen; Mora, Johanna R; Hristopoulos, George

    2011-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the structure and biology of a biotherapeutic is crucial to defining a suitable strategy for pharmacokinetic characterization in proof-of-concept disease models, toxicology species as well as the healthy and disease indication patient populations. This manuscript summarizes parameters that impact bioanalytical strategy for over 50 biotherapeutics indicated for the treatment of oncology, rheumatoid arthritis, allergy, multiple sclerosis, hematology, metabolism and infectious disease. We have addressed numerous therapeutic modalities including chimeric, humanized and fully human monoclonal antibodies, replacement proteins, peptides and fusion proteins, including polyethylene glycol and Fc fusions, as well as antibody-drug conjugates. With the rapid evolution of biotherapeutics over the last 20 years and the contraction of the pharmaceutical and biotechnology labor force, efficient workflow management becomes a crucial bioanalytical component. Thus, we have also addressed new technologies that have demonstrated either increased throughput or enhanced characterization, including Meso Scale Discovery, Gyrolab and affinity MS.

  10. Synthesis, bioanalysis and pharmacology of nucleoside and nucleotide analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs are an important class of drugs in anticancer and antiviral therapy. The compounds are, however, only active after intracellular conversion to their mono-, di- and triphosphate nucleotide form. In this thesis the development of sensitive liquid chromatography coupled to tandem

  11. Legibility Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    One frequent problem in legibility investigations is that the tested typefaces vary on too many variables. In an investigation which compares typefaces that – at the same time – vary on letter width, weight, contrast and skeleton, it will be difficult to determine precisely why the findings come....... One is the master typeface; three of the remaining typefaces have one stylistic feature that differs from the master (skeleton, weight, and width); and three have two stylistic features that differ from the master (weight/skeleton, weight/contrast and weight/width). In an experimental investigation...

  12. Disciplining young children: the role of verbal instructions and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, N J; Williams, G E; Friman, P C; Christophersen, E R

    1995-08-01

    Pediatricians are often asked to advise parents who are having difficulty managing the oppositional behaviors of their toddlers and preschool-age children. A large number of articles provide advice to pediatricians and parents on effective disciplinary strategies. However, despite the fact that verbal explanations, reasoning, and instructions are commonly used by parents, few articles directly address the use of these strategies to affect children's behavior. In this paper, we review studies that explicitly investigate the ability of adults' verbal explanations or instructions to alter the behavior of young children. These studies suggest that under most circumstances, verbal explanations and instructions are not effective in changing young children's problem behaviors. We then discuss how theories in developmental and behavioral psychology help explain the limitations of using verbal reasoning and instructions to change young children's problem behaviors. Finally, we provide some recommendations for parents on the use of verbal explanations and instructions in disciplining young children.

  13. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerballe, Morten; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Hansen, Tine Kjær

    2009-01-01

    by questionnaire, skin prick test (SPT) and histamin release (HR) followed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods. FHS was divided into primary and secondary FHS. Primary FHS was defined as being independent of pollen sensitization, whereas secondary FHS was defined as reactions to pollen related......Osterballe M, Mortz CG, Hansen TK, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SA rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and severe allergic...... reactions to foods have been reported in the last decade. However, little is known on the prevalence in young adults. This study estimated the prevalence of FHS to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of young adults. We investigated a cohort of 1272 young adults 22 years of age...

  14. HOW DO YOUNG PEOPLE SELECT INFORMATION TO PLAN A TRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana ŢUGULEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to reveal the young tourists preferences in the process of planning a trip. Sources of information used, the utility of Internet/travel agencies in planning travel trip activities, preferred means of transportation and types of accommodation are investigated. As research methods, there used both qualitative and quantitative methods: focus group and survey. Internet is more used by young tourists in planning trips than travel agencies are. Internet is considered more useful in the documentation stage and when buying airline tickets. Young tourists are more influenced by friends when planning a trip. Young tourists prefer cars and planes as means of transportation for a trip and hotels and guesthouses as accommodation when traveling.

  15. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer View this video ... and Young Adults SeventyK Stupid Cancer Teens and Adolescents CureSearch Starlight Children's Foundation Teen Cancer America 13thirty ...

  16. Clinical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-30

    Unit No. 77/20 (FY77, 0) An Analysis of Ameloblastic Fibro- odontoma ....................... 27 Department of Medicine Nork Unit No, 69/338 (FY69, T...Ar, Analysis of Ameiloblastic Fibro- odontoma ,IRK UNIT NO: 77/20 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: COL George J Tsagaris, DC ASSOCIATE INVESTIGATORS: OBJECTIVES...The coals of this research study are to report upon and analyze cases of ameloblastic fibro- odontoma and to correlate these findinas with those of

  17. A CLINICAL STUDY OF STROKE IN YOUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbha Thulasi Ram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available NTRIDUCTION : Stroke is one of the important causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Incidence of stroke steadily increases with age. Experts are concerned of the emerging stroke epidemic in India. Stroke affecting the young has potentially devastating consequence son the individual and his family. Certain risk factors are unique to the young. I t needs more studies for identification and modification of risk factors. The study aims to evaluate clinical features, risk factors, etiology and mortality of stroke in young patients. METHODS : 74 young patients satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in this study. A detailed history was taken from young stroke patients, systemic examination and required investigations were done. Data was collected in standardized proforma and analysed. RESULTS: Stroke in young accounts for 7.95% of stroke cases of all age groups. The mean age of the patients was 34.66 ± 7.48 years. Among 74 patients, 47(63.51% were male and 27(36.49% were female. Seizures, decreased consciousness, speech involvement and motor deficit were observed in 33.78%, 44.59%, 22.97% and 100% of cases respectively. 82.43% patients had ischemic and 17.57% patients had hemorrhagic stroke. Among ischemic stroke, large artery atherosclerosis was 16.21%, tuberculous meningoencephalitis with vasculitis was 16.21%, lacunar stroke was 10.81%, CVT was 10.81% and cardio embolic stroke was 6.76%. Smoking (59.45%, alcoholism (58.10%, hypertension (43.24%, coronary artery disease (8.10%, diabetes mellitus (10.81%, elevated total cholesterol (25.67%, elevated low density lipo proteins (22.97%, elevated triglycerides (27.02% and low HDL (22.97% were important risk factors. Carotid doppler was abnormal in 9.45% of patients. 6.76% patients had mitral stenosis in echocardiogram. Low protein C and protein S were found in 1.35% of patients. Eight (10.81% patients died during the hospital stay. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The major risk

  18. Young people in adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mrgole

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of young people participating in adult education programmes has, in the recent years, raised the question of transfer from regular education system to labour market where a large proportion of young people remain socially marginalized and isolated. Young people in adult education are a special target group; in order to plan educational programmes properly, we need to be familiar with their specific characteristics. The article, on the level of a statistical data outline and its paradoxes, introduces the category of young people in adult education as an impact of system factors, and defines related problems in the register, which - for more thorough understanding - dictates sociologically and anthropologically directed analytical approach. The first effect of this, not solely pedagogical view, is presented in the second part of the article, where Mrgole proposes an analysis of educational needs definition and its dangerous consequences in original planning of educational programmes. The concluding part takes a wider perspective and treats the factors of early school-leaving of young people, taking into consideration direct experience in experimental educational programmes for the young. The article ends with an outline of basic elements which the planners of andragogical educational programmes intended for young people should consider in their planning to achieve effective curricula.

  19. Career drop outs of young elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Fišer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of the study was to examine the characteristics of sports career drop outs of young elite sportswomen and their adaptation to the post-sport life. The sample included 20 ex-young elite sportswomen, who had brought their successful sport careers to an end before the age of 19. We used a modified interview about sports career termination (Cecić Erpič, 1998 for the investigation of the characteristics of their sports careers. To examine the caracteristics of sport careers we used frequency analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that the participants mostly stated more than one reason for the termination of their career. The most common reasons for career termination were: lack of motivation, bad relations with trainers or co-competitors and dedication to school or education. After the end of a sports career most of the young sportswomen stayed actively in touch with sport, either as trainers, judges, or they remained engaged in sports for recreation.

  20. TRAINABILITY OF YOUNG ATHLETES AND OVERTRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Matos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise adaptations to strength, anaerobic and aerobic training have been extensively studied in adults, however, young people appear to respond differently to such exercise stimulus in comparison to adults. In addition, because overtraining in young athletes has received little attention, this important area is also discussed. Resistance training in children can be safe and effective. It has the potential to improve sport performance, enhance body composition and reduce the rate of sport incurred injury. Furthermore, with the appropriate stimulus, prepubertal and adolescent athletes can show significant increments in muscle strength (13 - 30%. Children can improve anaerobic power (3%-10% Mean Power and 4%-20% in Peak Power, although the mechanisms responsible for the improvements in children remain unclear. Children show a 'reduced' trainability of peak VO2 in comparison to adults. Nevertheless, their aerobic power is trainable, with improvements reported at approximately 5%. Moreover, improvements in other variables like exercise economy or lactate threshold may occur without significant changes in peak VO2 The limited evidence available indicates that overtraining is occurring in young athletes (30% prevalence, highlighting the importance of further research in to all the possible contributing factors - physiological, psychological and emotional - when investigating overtraining

  1. Stigmatisation of a Formerly Obese Young Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Sonia A.; Boyland, Emma J.; Halford, Jason C.G.; Harrold, Joanne A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Weight loss does not necessarily decrease the negative appraisal of a formerly overweight individual. Since past weight history tends to be disclosed in several contexts, this study aims to investigate whether negative appraisals are gender-specific and if they are modulated by the evaluators’ own BMI. Methods 202 young adults (106 male and 96 female) viewed a picture of a young attractive female (target) accompanied by one of two statements about her past weight (overweight (OW) or always kept a normal weight (NW)), and then rated her using the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS). Results Female evaluators rated the target with the OW statement more negatively than the target with the NW statement. In contrast, males exposed to the OW statement rated the target as having fewer emotional/psychological problems and being less stupid/uncreative. BMI only influenced ratings in males, where those with higher BMI ascribed more negative attributes to the target with the NW statement than the OW statement. Conclusion Information on weight history impacts upon the appraisal of peers. These effects are dependent on gender and BMI. Knowing that a young female was overweight triggered negative evaluations from females but did not appear to impact the judgment of males. PMID:24107842

  2. Stigmatisation of a Formerly Obese Young Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A. Tucci

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight loss does not necessarily decrease the negative appraisal of a formerly overweight individual. Since past weight history tends to be disclosed in several contexts, this study aims to investigate whether negative appraisals are gender-specific and if they are modulated by the evaluators' own BMI. Methods: 202 young adults (106 male and 96 female viewed a picture of a young attractive female (target accompanied by one of two statements about her past weight (overweight (OW or always kept a normal weight (NW, and then rated her using the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS. Results: Female evaluators rated the target with the OW statement more negatively than the target with the NW statement. In contrast, males exposed to the OW statement rated the target as having fewer emotional/psychological problems and being less stupid/uncreative. BMI only influenced ratings in males, where those with higher BMI ascribed more negative attributes to the target with the NW statement than the OW statement. Conclusion: Information on weight history impacts upon the appraisal of peers. These effects are dependent on gender and BMI. Knowing that a young female was overweight triggered negative evaluations from females but did not appear to impact the judgment of males.

  3. Breast cancer of young women - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodnikova, J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy of the female population, the incidence is increasing mainly statistically between 50. a 60s, 60s and 70s. Recently, however, we meet more often with the occurrence of breast cancer in women in 30 year and significantly between 30 and 40 year. Cases: The following are examples of four young women who had different symptoms who failed primary diagnosis was revalued the importance of sonography and age, did not think the possibility of the presence of cancer. Results: The patients presented were finally correctly diagnosed, treated with a relatively good prognosis. Their diagnosis, however, could be faster and smaller tumors. However, despite the fact that Slovakia has enacted preventive investigation of the breast young women from the 20 to 40th of clinically and sonographically, encountered in practice, often with cases of breast cancer diagnosed late. Conclusion: Case report we highlight the diversity of clinical symptoms and the possibility of imaging diagnostic techniques in the diagnosis of breast disease of young women. We also want to draw attention to some underestimation of clinical symptoms, while revaluation results of sonographic examinations. An important factor is the quality of the ultrasound device and effective consultation and cooperation with other diagnostic departments. (author)

  4. Young people's views regarding participation in mental health and wellbeing research through social media

    OpenAIRE

    Monks, Helen; Cardoso, Patricia; Papageorgiou, Alana; Carolan, Catherine; Costello, Leesa; Thomas, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Social media is a central component in the lives of many young people, and provides innovative potential to conduct research among this population. Ethical issues around online research have been subject to much debate, yet young people have seldom been consulted to provide a youth perspective and voice. Eight (8) focus groups involving 48 Grade 9 Western Australian secondary school students aged 13-14 years were held in 2012, to investigate how young people perceive the feasibility and accep...

  5. [Young children and books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatkine, R; Bonnafé, M; Roy, J; Camus, C; Brandao, C

    1986-01-01

    Children come into contact very early with the written language. The work of Emilia Ferreiro, a student of Piaget, has shown that from early on, well before they can read, they know that the written word has a meaning. Their successive hypotheses show an elaboration which does not occur by chance. Experience shows that babies have a specific interest for a book as an object. They recognize the value of the pictures, as much representations of their mental representations as are words, whereas these two capacities evolve in a complementary fashion. The capacity to be interested by a narrative introduces a new form of organization in the chain of representations, whether they refer to absent or imaginary objects. A good story has a special place among the narratives the child hears, which actually have the specific structures of the written language. The authors of this work report a number of examples of very young children who are put in contact with books. They see in this a new model for mental health work which can be set up by virtue of meetings outside the school rooms, the mental health services, and even of the libraries, by people of different professional skills, in order to loosen the vice of the children's daily routine, and to give the child time to dream with the books, and to draw the adults in to a salutary disorder.

  6. Severity investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de; Godart, B.

    2013-01-01

    From the confirmation inspection and its subsequent test results the presence of AAR has either been confirmed or eliminated. Assuming the first outcome, the next step is to investigate the severity of the situation, see Figure 23. One should keep in mind that it is possible that some evidence of

  7. Investigating Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Prendergast, Canice

    2000-01-01

    Agency theory has had little to say about the control of bureaucratic corruption, perhaps the greatest agency problem that exists. The author considers the role of incentive contracting in reducing corruption through the use of independent investigations-a common way to monitor corruption. In simple settings, bureaucratic corruption can be suppressed by rewarding and penalizing bureaucrats...

  8. Trainability of young athletes and overtraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Nuno; Winsley, Richard J

    2007-09-01

    Exercise adaptations to strength, anaerobic and aerobic training have been extensively studied in adults, however, young people appear to respond differently to such exercise stimulus in comparison to adults. In addition, because overtraining in young athletes has received little attention, this important area is also discussed. Resistance training in children can be safe and effective. It has the potential to improve sport performance, enhance body composition and reduce the rate of sport incurred injury. Furthermore, with the appropriate stimulus, prepubertal and adolescent athletes can show significant increments in muscle strength (13 - 30%). Children can improve anaerobic power (3%-10% Mean Power and 4%-20% in Peak Power), although the mechanisms responsible for the improvements in children remain unclear. Children show a 'reduced' trainability of peak VO2 in comparison to adults. Nevertheless, their aerobic power is trainable, with improvements reported at approximately 5%. Moreover, improvements in other variables like exercise economy or lactate threshold may occur without significant changes in peak VO2 The limited evidence available indicates that overtraining is occurring in young athletes (30% prevalence), highlighting the importance of further research in to all the possible contributing factors - physiological, psychological and emotional - when investigating overtraining. Key pointsChildren's strength, anaerobic and aerobic power is trainable, although the improvements may be smaller than seen in adults.Children can demonstrate significant gains in muscle strength with resistance training (13 - 30%).Improvements in mean power (3 - 10%) and peak power (4 - 20%) are reported in children.Aerobic fitness can improve with training in children by approximately 5%.Limited available evidence indicates an occurrence of overtraining in young athletes of around 30%.

  9. Career Advice for Young Allergy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radon, Katja; Nowak, Dennis; Vogelberg, Christian; Ruëff, Franziska

    2016-08-08

    One-third of all young persons entering the work force have a history of atopic disease. Occupationally induced allergy and asthma generally arise in the first few months on the job, while pre-existing symptoms tend to worsen. Young persons with a history of an atopic disease should receive evidence-based advice before choosing a career. We systematically searched PubMed for cohort studies investigating the new onset of asthma, rhinitis, or hand eczema among job trainees from before the start of training and onward into the first few years on the job. The search revealed 514 articles; we read their abstracts and selected 85 full-text articles for further analysis. 24 of these met the inclusion criteria. According to present evidence, atopy and a history of allergic disease (allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis) are the main risk factors for occupationally induced disease. The predictive value of a personal history of allergic diseases for the later development of an occupationally induced disease varies from 9% to 64% in the studies we analyzed. It follows that only young people with severe asthma or severe atopic eczema should be advised against choosing a job that is associated with a high risk of allergy, e.g., hairdressing or working with laboratory animals. Young people with a history of other atopic diseases should be counseled about their individual risk profile. In view of the relatively poor predictive value of pre-existing atopic disease, secondary prevention is particularly important. This includes frequent medical follow-up of the course of symptoms over the first few years on the job. If sensitization or allergic symptoms arise, it should be carefully considered whether exposure reduction will enable the apprentice to stay on the job.

  10. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training (1 item) Other Treatments (15 items) Alzheimer’s Disease (2 items) Coping with Traumatic Events (3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than ...

  11. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah’s family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  12. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than twenty ... Announcer: Our brains have been challenged by the effects of multi-tasking in many ways brought on ...

  13. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than twenty years, ... Giedd has studied the development of the adolescent brain. Decades of imaging work have led to remarkable ...

  14. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than twenty years, ... At different ages of life certain parts of the brain have much more dynamic growth than at other ...

  15. Emojis help young people communicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    'The use of technology to support communication in therapy is an exciting development, particularly the use of mobile device emojis to help young people express, and practitioners to assess, their mental distress'.

  16. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than twenty years, National ... the adolescent brain. But researchers like Dr. Giedd may be entering a new golden age of research… ...

  17. Television and the Young Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakouri, M. Embrahim

    1984-01-01

    Television viewing has negative effects and positive potential for young children. It is evident that children need to be educated in television viewing in order to understand the differences between fantasy and reality, and sponsor motives. (DF)

  18. Letters to a Young Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Anne; Becker, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Presents words of encouragement to a young poet. Includes empathetic words and motivating ideas. Presents a letter including a quote from "Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth and ideas about that quote. (SG)

  19. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Traumatic Events (3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For ... Health neuroscientist Dr. Jay Giedd has studied the development of the adolescent brain. Decades of imaging work ...

  20. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than ... Adolescents Brain Anatomy and Physiology Institute Announcements Contact the Press Office 301-443-4536 NIMHpress@nih.gov ...

  1. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than twenty ... are our children handing multi-tasking in a digital age that changes, seemingly, by the hour? Early ...

  2. Takayasu arteritis in young male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-23

    Sep 23, 2012 ... Primary aldosteronism. Cushing's syndrome. Pheochromocytoma. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism. Pregnancy-induced hypertension. Drugs and toxins: Examples-cocaine, amphetamines, alcohol. How to cite this article: Patil BS, Rajoor UG. Takayasu arteritis in young male.

  3. Sexting and investigation of materials with child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Sladič

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How widespread is the phenomenon of sexting among young people? Are young people sufficiently aware about this subject? Any difficulties encountered when investigating sexting? Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present problems in investigating sexting. Since using Internet child pornography expanded and changed the way the investigation of this crime, it is necessary to explore new ways of investigating and overcoming problems in the investigation of more attention. Method: The article is transparent and theoretical. It is based primarily on an analysis of available domestic and foreign literature and Internet sources on the issues addressed. Results: Showing sexting consequences of abuse, and also provides some preventive tips for safest use the Internet. In conclusion, the investigators also presented problems in the investigation of crimes related to sex abuse with minors. Society: The survey alert to be aware of the problem among young people. We emphasize the importance of raising awareness of young people and the importance of the application of possible abuse. Originality: The originality of the contribution is reflected in the examination of the current investigation sexting problems, faced by investigators on a daily basis. Only in this way it can eliminate problems and improve search. Limitations/Future Research: Using sexting appear high risk, but they are young without consulting the parents are not aware of. It is necessary to invest more effort into raising awareness of young people and create an environment that will encourage victims to report abuse.

  4. Cells derived from young bone marrow alleviate renal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Chun; Rossini, Michele; Ma, Li-Jun; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji; Fogo, Agnes B

    2011-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cells may modulate renal injury, but the effects may depend on the age of the stem cells. Here we investigated whether bone marrow from young mice attenuates renal aging in old mice. We radiated female 12-mo-old 129SvJ mice and reconstituted them with bone marrow cells (BMC) from either 8-wk-old (young-to-old) or 12-mo-old (old-to-old) male mice. Transfer of young BMC resulted in markedly decreased deposition of collagen IV in the mesangium and less β-galactosidase staining, an indicator of cell senescence. These changes paralleled reduced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), PDGF-B (PDGF-B), the transdifferentiation marker fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), and senescence-associated p16 and p21. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular cells derived from the transplanted BMC did not show β-galactosidase activity, but after 6 mo, there were more FSP-1-expressing bone marrow-derived cells in old-to-old mice compared with young-to-old mice. Young-to-old mice also exhibited higher expression of the anti-aging gene Klotho and less phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor β. Taken together, these data suggest that young bone marrow-derived cells can alleviate renal aging in old mice. Direct parenchymal reconstitution by stem cells, paracrine effects from adjacent cells, and circulating anti-aging molecules may mediate the aging of the kidney.

  5. Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

    2009-02-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

  6. Young Adults in General Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Mental illness is common, and usually starts early in life. However, the majority of those affected never seek mental health care. The overall aim of this thesis was to increase knowledge about help-seeking young adults with mental illness in order to improve diagnostic procedures in clinical psychiatry. A group of young adult psychiatric out-patients (n=217) were consecutively invited to participate in the study between October 2002 and September 2003. Altogether 200 (92%) agreed to particip...

  7. Young People with a Twist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bo Wagner; Madsen, Diana Højlund

    The report is based on group interviews with 33 young people with ethnic minority backgrounds. They have been asked about their educational and vocational wishes and also touch on a number of issues such as family, gender equality, discrimination and integration.......The report is based on group interviews with 33 young people with ethnic minority backgrounds. They have been asked about their educational and vocational wishes and also touch on a number of issues such as family, gender equality, discrimination and integration....

  8. Geotechnical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    assessment are discussed in Construction Site Environmental Survey and Clearance Procedures Manual (Draft), EM 1110-1-4000, Walker (1988), and Borrelli ...EM 1110-1-1804 1 January 2001 US Army Corps of Engineers ENGINEER MANUAL Geotechnical Investigations ENGINEERING AND DESIGN Report Documentation Page...for all official USACE engineer regulations, circulars, manuals , and other documents originating from HQUSACE. Publications are provided in portable

  9. Development of an Evidence-Based Sport Psychological Training Program for Young Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael

    Sport psychological training seems to be a viable way of facilitating development and performance for adult athletes, and even though sport psychological training for young athletes is less investigated, research indicates that talented athletes can benefit from sport psychological training as well....... The aim of this thesis is to review and add to the current knowledge on sport psychologicaltraining for young elite athletes, and to investigate sport psychological interventions for young elite athletes. This will aid the development of sport psychological training programs for young elite athletes.......This thesis investigates sport psychological training for young elite athletes through two approaches. First, three reviews are performed: a review of psychological skills and characteristics needed for successful talent development, a review of current talent development theories and models, and a review...

  10. What Works for Disconnected Young People: A Scan of the Evidence. MDRC Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treskon, Louisa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to conduct a scan of the current state of the evidence regarding what works in helping disconnected young people, defined as the population of young people ages 16 to 24 who are not connected to work or school. The following four main research questions were investigated: (1) What local, state, and federal policies…

  11. The Effect of Talking Story Books on Saudi Young EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsamadani, Hashem Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    The current research study investigated the effects of talking story books on Saudi young EFL learners' reading comprehension skills. A sample of Saudi-young-EFL learners were randomly selected and divided into two groups: an experimental group (40 students) and a control group (39 students). Students of both groups took a pre reading…

  12. Military fitness of young South African adults: Does it comply with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fitness of today's young people is reported to be at a very low level, and this is disconcerting considering that some are needed as military recruits but will not be accepted if they do not pass the military fitness tests. The aims of this study were to investigate the pass rate of young adults (n=41) in the standard South ...

  13. Young Managers' Drive to Thrive: A Personal Work Goal Approach to Burnout and Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvonen, Katriina; Feldt, Taru; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kinnunen, Ulla; Makikangas, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This study approaches young managers' occupational well-being through their work-related goal pursuit. The main aim was to identify content categories of personal work goals and investigate their associations with background factors, goal appraisals, burnout, and work engagement. The questionnaire data consisted of 747 young Finnish managers…

  14. Australian Qualifications Framework Lower-Level Qualifications: Pathways to Where for Young People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwick, John

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates where certificate I and II qualifications lead young people aged 15-24 years in terms of employment and further study. A prime motivation for young people undertaking these qualifications is to facilitate transition into the labour market. These qualifications are aimed at developing basic vocational skills or preparatory…

  15. Relationship between Young Children's Habitual Computer Use and Influencing Variables on Socio-Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun Ah; Chun, Hui Young; Jwa, Seung Hwa; Choi, Mi Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between young children's habitual computer use and influencing variables on socio-emotional development. The participants were 179 five-year-old children. The Internet Addiction Scale for Young Children (IASYC) was used to identify children with high and low levels of habituation to computer use. The data…

  16. In Search of an Aesthetic Pathway: Young Children's Encounters with Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ka Lee Carrie

    2017-01-01

    Aesthetic experiences have proved as a valuable tool to enhance quality childhood life and learning; yet, how young children perceive such experiences is little known. This study investigated the aesthetic experiences and responses of Hong Kong young children through drama improvisation. Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of rhizome was used to form a…

  17. Articular cartilage is more susceptible to blood induced damage at young than at old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, G.; TeKoppele, J. M.; Vianen, M. E.; van den Berg, H. M.; Lafeber, F. P.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown that cartilage is damaged upon intraarticular hemorrhage. We investigated differences in the susceptibility of cartilage from young adult and old animals to blood induced joint damage in a canine in vivo model. Right knees of 6 young adult beagles (aged 2.2 +/- 0.1 yrs) and 6 old

  18. School Belonging, School Victimization, and the Mental Health of LGBT Young Adults: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Lindquist, Lauri M.; Machek, Greg R.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the mediating role of school victimization in the relationship between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults' feelings of high school belonging and current mental health (both depression and general psychological distress) outcomes. A total of 145 LGBT young adults were recruited from college LGBT…

  19. Sex and Relationships Education in Schools: The Views and Experiences of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Neil; Powell, Eryl

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate how young people are using school-based sources of sex and relationships education (SRE) to obtain information and advice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows how anonymous self-completion questionnaires were administered to young people aged between 12 and 19 years in three secondary…

  20. Aiming and clicking in young children's use of the computer mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, A.; Reitsma, P.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the abilities of young children to aim and click with a computer mouse. Young children have not yet fully developed their motor skills and they are therefore more likely than adults to click next to targets on the computer screen. Because in educational software

  1. Electrical Impedance Imaging for Early Detection of Breast Cancer for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    preliminary and global models some of the variables expected to be related to the outcome were not, most notably these included oral contraceptives and...Detection of Breast Cancer for Young Women PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Alexander Stojadinovic...26September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrical Impedance Imaging for Early Detection of Breast Cancer for Young Women 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  2. Sweet and sour preferences in young children and adults: role of repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of repeated exposure to orangeades with added sucrose and different concentrations of citric acid, on the taste preferences of 6- to-11-year-old children and young adults. During an intervention study of 8 days, 59 children (9.2±0.9 years) and 46 young adults

  3. Turkish and Moroccan young adults in the Netherlands : The relationship between acculturation and psychological problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özbek, E.; Bongers, I.L.; Lobbestael, J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and psychological problems in Turkish and Moroccan young adults living in the Netherlands. A sample of 131 healthy young adults aged between 18 and 24 years old, with a Turkish or Moroccan background was recruited using snowball

  4. Transitions from School for Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Parental Perspectives on "Life as an Adjustment"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael D.; Beamish, Wendi

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated transition programs and outcomes for young adults with disabilities as viewed from the parent perspective. The current Australian study provided a voice for parents to report on the experiences of and outcomes for young adults following their recent transition from school into post-school life. Method: A…

  5. Coping in adolescents and young adults with chronic digestive disorders: impact on school and leisure activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, H.; Rijken, M.; Bekkers, M.J.T.M.; Berge Henegouwen, G.P. van; Dekker, J.

    2006-01-01

    Coping strategies were compared across adolescents and young adults with several chronic digestive disorders and healthy peers, and across age groups. Subsequently, the impact of coping on performance in school and leisure activities was investigated. Participants were adolescents and young adults

  6. Life Course Stage in Young Adulthood and Intergenerational Congruence in Family Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, Freek; Raaijmakers, Quinten; van Wel, Frits

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how intergenerational congruence in family-related attitudes depends on life course stage in young adulthood. Recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study were used; the present sample included 2,041 dyads of young adults and their parents. Findings are discussed in terms of the elasticity in intergenerational attitude…

  7. Children Explain the Rainbow: Using Young Children's Ideas to Guide Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siry, Christina; Kremer, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    This study examines young children's ideas about natural science phenomena and explores possibilities in starting investigations in kindergarten from their ideas. Given the possibilities inherent in how young children make sense of their experiences, we believe it is critical to take children's perspectives into consideration when designing any…

  8. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women.

  9. Non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis and patent foramen ovale in young adults with cryptogenic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffre, A; Guidolin, B; Ruidavets, J-B; Nasr, N; Larrue, V

    2017-05-01

    Up to 50% of ischaemic strokes in young adults are classified as cryptogenic despite extensive work-up. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis (NOCA) and its association with patent foramen ovale (PFO) in young adults with cryptogenic stroke (CS). Patients aged 18-54 years, consecutively treated for first-ever CS in an academic stroke service, were included. NOCA was assessed using carotid ultrasound examination and was defined as carotid plaque with young adults with CS. NOCA is negatively associated with PFO. Detecting NOCA is an important component of stroke investigation in young adults. © 2017 EAN.

  10. Selecting patients with young-onset colorectal cancer for mismatch repair gene analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, M; O'Sullivan, B; Perakath, B

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young patients with colorectal cancer are at increased risk of carrying a germline mutation in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. This study investigated the role of clinical criteria and immunohistochemistry for MMR proteins in selecting young patients for mutation testing. METHODS: A cohort...... of 56 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer aged less than 45 years were stratified into three groups based on clinical criteria: 'Amsterdam criteria', 'high risk' and 'young onset only'. Immunohistochemistry for four MMR proteins was carried out and the rate of compliance with clinical guidelines....... CONCLUSION: MMR immunohistochemistry should be considered routine in young-onset colorectal cancer....

  11. Postactivation potentiation in elite young soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titton, Adriano; Franchini, Emerson

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of 16 different combinations to cause the postactivation potentiation (PAP) in elite young soccer players. Squat exercise in 4 different intensities (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% one-repetition maximum [1RM]) was performed and its effects were evaluated in the performance of countermovement jump (CMJ), after 4 different recovery times (1, 3, 5, and 10 min). For this purpose, 25 young soccer players, underwent five experimental sessions. At the first session the control to determine 1RM in half-squat was carried out. The following four experimental sessions were comprised of four intensity combinations with four different recovery intervals in order to perform the CMJ test later, randomly determined and with 30-min interval between each combination. The conditions were compared using an analysis of variance with repeated measurements, followed by Bonferroni test, using 5% significance level (P<0.05). The different intensities investigated did not provide significant increases in CMJ height, but significant differences were noted in recovery time, where, at CMJ maximum height, 1-min interval was better than after 3 min (P<0.05), 5, and 10 min (P<0.001). On the average jump performances, 1-min interval resulted in better results (P<0.001) compared to other intervals. The 10-min recovery resulted in poorer performances compared to the other intervals (P<0.001). Our results indicate that regardless the intensity used in the half-squat exercise with elite young soccer players, the 1-min recovery time was more appropriate to promote an increase in vertical jump. PMID:28503527

  12. Assessment of somatotype in young voleyball players: Validity as criteria to select young sports talents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés de Hoyo Lora

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n3p255 The anthropometric characteristics of athletes can determine their sporting performance. For this reason, we’ve defined the somatotype of young volleyball players in order to be able to control their sports training and to ensure their appropriate athletic development. In the present investigation 154 male and female volleyball players (aged from 12 to 14 years were analyzed. Data were collected according to the ISAK protocol. The results show an endomesomorphic profile for male and female volleyball players agreeing with the predominant profile at these ages. However, after comparing these data with results obtained in other studies, we observed a certain homogeneity in the male somatotype, invalidating the current trend of using this parameter as criteria to select young sports talent. However, somatotype could be a factor to take into account with female athletes, since their profile is much more heterogeneous.

  13. ECG in preparticipation screening of young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnjevac Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the ECG in preparticipation screening of young athletes is detection of potential disorders in asymptomatic young athletes. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the freqency and type of ECG changes observed during preparticipation screening of young athletes. Method: The research included analysis of ECG tests recorded during the regular preparticipation screening of 219 young athletes, aged from 9 to 19 years, predominantly male, who were engaged in 7 different sport disciplines. Standard ECG was recorded at least 24 hours after strenuous physical activity. ECG analysis was performed according to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC recommendations for the interpretation of 12-lead ECG in the athletes, with corrections related to the inversion of T wave. Results: ECG was perfectly normal in 103 (47%, and ECG changes were noticed in 116 (53% of the athletes. In 51.6% of examined athletes, ECG changes were of the common type, reflecting adaptation of the heart to regular exercises, and only in 1,4% athletes vwere founded ECG changes that are not consistent with training. The most common (32% of the total examinees was incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB. Sinus bradycardia was present in 12,8% of the athletes, and early repolarization at 7,8%. T wave inversion without clinical significance was observed in 4,1% of athlets. Isolated increase in QRS complex voltage was observed in 3,6%, while the first degree AV block was present in 0,5% of the athletes. ECG changes unrelated to training were recorded in 1,4% of athletes. Significant T wave inversion was observed in 0,9% and pre-excitation (Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrom in 0,5% of the athletes. Conclusion: Preparticipation screening ECG test revealed ECG changes in 51,6% of young athletes. The vast majority of changes are of common, physiological type, that neither requires further investigation, nor termination of active participation in sports. In

  14. Precarious work among young Danish employees- a permanent or transitory condition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Lykke; Dyreborg, Johnny; Lipscomb, Hester

    2018-01-01

    trade captured in 66 interviews. We investigate whether precariousness is related to being young and employed in general, or if specific categories of young employees become particularly vulnerable in this social and economic transformation to adulthood. We explore how young employees describe...... their position and how they position themselves in relation to uncertainty and vulnerability at work. We conclude that precarious work is not, in fact, simply a characteristic of young employees’ work as such, but rather it is related to their position in the labor market and the type of jobs in which......There is broad agreement that precarious work is a growing problem, and that it is highly prevalent among young employees. The aim of this paper is to examine the discursive representations of precarious work among young employees aged 18-24 in the healthcare sector, the metal industry and retail...

  15. Electronic games of movement: it is sport or simulation in the perception of young people?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Salles da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic games have been one of the main ways of access of young to technology in Brazil, leading to new experiences in social practices.The objective of this study is to identify the perception of young people on the experience of electronic games of movement with sports theme. Methodology: 24 young elementary school students were investigated, divided into 3 groups. Each group participated in 10 sessions with electronic games of movement of 3 hours each. During the sessions the speeches of the young people were recorded in a field diary. Results: departing from the speeches of young people the experiment with electronic games of movement emerges as a mediated and unique experience. It is mediated because it interposes itself between subject and object and it is unique because the way is the experience itself.Conclusions: the perception of the young people indicates a conceptual enlargement in which the comprehension of sports is expanded by the experiences with technology.

  16. How caring for a parent affects the psychosocial development of the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jessica; Bayless, Sarah

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the impact of caring for a parent on the psychosocial development of the young person. A total of 20 young carers and 20 non-caregiving peers, aged 11-18 years, were compared on self-report measures of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and behavioural strengths and difficulties. Parental reports on their child's behaviour were obtained and measured. Young carers reported lower life satisfaction and self-esteem compared with non-caregiving peers, and their parents rated them as having more difficulties with peer relationships and more emotional symptoms. There was no evidence of more pro-social behaviour on the part of young carers. Caregiving has a negative effect on young people overall; improved support of and more research around young carers are required.

  17. Working Memory and Fluid Intelligence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Conway, Andrew R. A.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working memory system--short-term storage or cognitive control--drives the relationship with fluid intelligence. A sample of 119 children was followed from…

  18. The Identification and Development of Talented Young Dancers with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla, Imogen Jane; Redding, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is a general recognition of the lack of progression routes for dancers with disabilities. Alongside this, there is a lack of understanding of how best to identify and develop talent among young disabled dancers. The current study sought to address this gap in the literature by investigating criteria that might be appropriately applied when…

  19. Objective assessments of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B L K; Kreiner-Møller, E; Bisgaard, H

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic and nonallergic rhinitis are common childhood disorders. OBJECTIVE: To study nasal eosinophilia and nasal airway patency in young children with allergic and nonallergic rhinitis to assess the pathology behind such diagnoses. METHODS: We investigated 255 children at six years...

  20. Discontinuation of tube feeding in young children by hunger provocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindermann, Angelika; Kneepkens, Corneille Marie Francois; Stok, Anita; van Dijk, Elisabeth Maria; Engels, Michelle; Douwes, Adriaan Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pathological food refusal (PFR) is not rare in young children with chronic conditions requiring prolonged tube feeding. We investigated whether these children could be weaned from tube feeding with a multidisciplinary hunger provocation program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included

  1. Cues that Trigger Social Transmission of Disinhibition in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Minato, Takashi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Ikuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that observing a human model's actions, but not a robot's actions, could induce young children's perseverative behaviors and suggested that children's sociocognitive abilities can lead to perseverative errors ("social transmission of disinhibition"). This study investigated how the social transmission of disinhibition…

  2. Imagining the Political : Young Women, Participation and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Imagining the Political : Young Women, Participation and the Crafting of the Political in Egypt. IDRC's Women's ... This project will investigate issues and challenges surrounding women's participation in political decision-making, the judiciary and the public sector in Egypt. And, it will ... Institution. American University in Cairo.

  3. Ajmaline challenge in young individuals with suspected Brugada syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorgente, A.; Sarkozy, A.; Asmundis, C. de; Chierchia, G.B.; Capulzini, L.; Paparella, G.; Henkens, S.; Brugada, P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical characteristics and the results of ajmaline challenge in young individuals with suspected Brugada syndrome (BS) have not been systematically investigated. METHODS: Among a larger series of patients included in the BS database of our Department, 179 patients undergoing

  4. Monitoring load, recovery and performance in young elite soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Michel S.; Nederhof, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Schmikli, Sandor L.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    Brink, MS, Nederhof, E, Visscher, C, Schmikli, SL, and Lemmink, KAPM. Monitoring load, recovery, and performance in young elite soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 24(3): 597603, 2010-The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between training load, recovery, and monthly field test

  5. Alternative Education Engaging Indigenous Young People: Flexi Schooling in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Marnee; Heck, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article will discuss some of the findings from a qualitative research project that explored the connections between alternative education and Indigenous learners. This study investigated how flexi school leaders reported they were supporting Indigenous young people to remain engaged in education. The results of the survey provide demographic…

  6. Young Children Can Tell Strategic Lies after Committing a Transgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Evans, Angela D.; Xu, Fen; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether young children make strategic decisions about whether to lie to conceal a transgression based on the lie recipient's knowledge. In Experiment 1, 168 3- to 5-year-olds were asked not to peek at the toy in the experimenter's absence, and the majority of children peeked. Children were questioned about their…

  7. The Ability of Young Korean Children to Use Spatial Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert; Kim, Jaeyil

    2012-01-01

    The National Research Council emphasizes using tools of representation as an essential element of spatial thinking. However, it is debatable at what age the use of spatial representation for spatial thinking skills should begin. This study investigated whether young Korean children possess the potential to understand map-like representation using…

  8. Circumvention of suddenly appearing obstacles in young and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.; Kingma, I.; Van Dieën, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced ability to circumvent an obstacle, which is noticed only shortly before collision, could be a cause of falls and injury, especially in older adults. In this study, we investigated differences in strategies and their characteristics between young and older adults when circumventing a suddenly

  9. Reading to Young Children : A Head-Start in Life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4 to 5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills of these children at least up to age 10 or 11. Our

  10. Reading to young children : A head-start in life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.

    This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4–5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills (including numeracy skills) of these children at least up to age

  11. Greek Young Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities Seeking Learning Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonti, Eleni; Bampalou, Christina E.; Kouimtzi, Eleni M.; Kyritsis, Zacharias

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons why Greek young adults with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) seek learning assessments. The study sample consisted of 106 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for SLD. Data were collected through self-report records (clinical interview) of adults…

  12. The Contact Principle and Utilitarian Moral Judgments in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca

    2010-01-01

    In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years…

  13. Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…

  14. Practising Homelessness: A Typology Approach to Young People's Daily Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Myers, Paul; Milburn, Norweeta; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2004-01-01

    In a study exploring the relationship between typology and risk, we investigated the daily routines of a heterogeneous sample of young men and women from two sites who had been homeless for varying periods (N=1289). Cluster analysis yielded four groups--"Partnered", "Socially engaged", "Service connected-harm avoidant", and "Transgressive"--based…

  15. Clinical characteristics and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2014-01-01

    Data on determinants of prognosis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in young adults are scarce. Our aim was to identify clinical determinants of prognosis after ICH in adults aged 18-50. We investigated 98 consecutive patients with an ICH, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980

  16. Young Children's Difficulty Acknowledging False Belief: Realism and Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltmarsh, Rebecca; Mitchell, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Investigated what makes young children acknowledge a false belief held by another person. Showed movies in which a stereotypical item in a familiar box was replaced by one character with an atypical item. Found highly significant improvement in preschoolers' acknowledgment of second character's false belief when preschoolers saw stereotypical…

  17. The perception of natural vs. built environments by young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briavel Holcomb

    1977-01-01

    This paper questions the assumption that young children need exposure to natural environments for healthy psychological development. Preliminary investigation of the environmental perceptions of 4-year-olds suggests that the distinction between natural and man-made milieux is insignificant to preschoolers, and that they find both kinds of environments similarly...

  18. Tubercular abdominal cocoon in a young girl | Dwivedi | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preoperative diagnosis is a challenge because biochemical investigations are usually normal, and imaging findings are nonspecific. CT scan gives a more complete picture and can clinch the diagnosis. We present a case of tubercular abdominal cocoon in a 16 years old young girl diagnosed only at laparotomy.

  19. Repeating Input-Based Tasks with Young Beginner Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Natsuko

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigated task-repetition with young Japanese children. Fifteen children with no prior knowledge of English completed a communicative listening task that was designed to introduce new vocabulary. The same task was repeated nine times over five weeks. In line with Allwright's (1984) claim that "interaction…

  20. Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kevin P.; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A.; Rosell, Joan M.; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen. PMID:23171812

  1. Family Characteristics as Correlates of Self Esteem among Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the family characteristics as the correlates of self esteem among young adults. Three hypotheses were postulated to give direction to the study. The participants for the study consisted of two hundred students randomly selected from tertiary institutions in Ogun state. The instruments used for data ...

  2. Attractiveness Bias in the Evaluation of Young Pianist's Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Charlene; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the attractiveness bias that influences the judgment of a variety of characteristics and behaviors in infants, children, and adults affects the evaluation of young pianists' performances. The assumption was that both the visual and the audio components of a videotaped musical performance influence…

  3. The Development of Human Capital in Young Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickie, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides insights into the human capital development of a group of young entrepreneurs, all of whom have built growth businesses with turnovers of between 1M British Pounds and 90M British Pounds. Their development of knowledge and skills was investigated before and during the creation of their first main ventures. This is significant…

  4. Attitudes to Exercise and Diabetes in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryninks, Kirsty; Sutton, Eileen; Thomas, Elizabeth; Jago, Russell; Shield, Julian P H; Burren, Christine P

    2015-01-01

    To investigate young people's attitudes to, and understanding of, physical activity on glycaemic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Four focus groups with 11-14 and 15-16 year olds were conducted with twelve young people with Type 1 Diabetes, from within a larger study investigating physical activity and fitness. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data was performed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Four superordinate themes were identified: Benefits of Exercise, Knowledge and Understanding, Information and Training and "You can do anything". Young people felt that exercising helped them to manage their diabetes and had a beneficial psychological and physical impact on their bodies. They reported a lack of knowledge and understanding about diabetes among school staff and other young people. The overwhelming sense from young people was that although diabetes impacts upon their lives, with preparation, physical activity can take place as normal. Whilst young people had an awareness of the physical and psychological benefits of exercise in managing their diabetes, they experienced difficulties at school. Professional support and discussions with young people, giving tailored strategies for managing Type 1 Diabetes during exercise are needed. Healthcare teams should ensure that the support and educational needs of school staff are met. Providing more opportunities to empower young people to take on the responsibility for their Type 1 Diabetes care is merited. Young people felt diabetes did not stop them from participating in activities; it is simply a part of them that needs managing throughout life.

  5. Crosshole investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Pihl, J.

    1987-09-01

    The analysis of the radar and seismic data has given a consistent description of the fracture zones at the Crosshole site in agreement with geological and other geophysical observations made in the boreholes. The hydraulic investigations within the Crosshole project have yielded substantial progress in assessing the hydrogeology of fractured granitic rocks. The crosshole hydraulic testing concentrated on measuring the distribution of hydraulic properties within the extensive fractured zones identified by geophysics. A new analysis involving the 'dimension' of the flow test has been developed to analyse the results of the crosshole sinusoidal testing. The combined analysis of the geophysical and the hydraulic data set has shown that groundwater flow is concentrated within a few major features which have been identified by the geophysical methods. (orig./DG)

  6. Laboratory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handin, J.

    1980-01-01

    Our task is to design mined-repository systems that will adequately secure high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 yr and that will be mechanically stable for 50 to 100-yr periods of retrievability during which mistakes could be corrected and a valuable source of energy could be reclaimed, should national policy on the reprocessing of spent fuel ever change. The only credible path for the escape of radionuclides from the repository to the biosphere is through ground-water, and in hard rock, bulk permeability is largely governed by natural and artificial fracture systems. Catastrophic failure of an excavation in hard rock is likely to occur at the weakest links - the discontinuities in the rock mass that is perturbed first by mining and then by radiogenic heating. The laboratory can contribute precise measurements of the pertinent thermomechanical, hydrological and chemical properties and improve our understanding of the fundamental processes through careful experiments under well controlled conditions that simulate the prototype environment. Thus laboratory investigations are necessary, but they are not sufficient, for conventional sample sizes are small relative to natural defects like joints - i.e., the rock mass is not a continuum - and test durations are short compared to those that predictive modeling must take into account. Laboratory investigators can contribute substantially more useful data if they are provided facilities for testing large specimens(say one cubic meter) and for creep testing of all candidate host rocks. Even so, extrapolations of laboratory data to the field in neither space nor time are valid without the firm theoretical foundations yet to be built. Meanwhile in-situ measurements of structure-sensitive physical properties and access to direct observations of rock-mass character will be absolutely necessary

  7. Incidence of Stingers in Young Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Maki, Nobukazu; Urayama, Shingo; Nagao, Masashi; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    A stinger is a type of neurapraxia of the cervical roots or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. The incidence of and major risk factors for stingers among young rugby players remain uninvestigated. To investigate the incidence, symptoms, and intrinsic risk factors for stingers in elite rugby union teams of young players. Descriptive epidemiology study. A total of 569 male rugby players, including 358 players from 7 high school teams and 211 players from 2 university teams, were investigated using self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of stingers was 33.9% (95% CI, 30.3-37.9), and 20.9% (119/569) of players experienced at least 1 episode of a stinger during the season (34.2 [95% CI, 26.2-42.1] events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). The reinjury rate for stingers per season was 37.3% (95% CI, 30.4-44.2). Using the multivariate Poisson regression method, a history of stingers in the previous season and the grade and position of the player were found to be risk factors for stingers during the current season. The mean severity of injury was 2.9 days, with 79.3% (191/241) of the players not losing any time from playing after sustaining a stinger injury and 5.8% (14/241) of the players recovering within more than 14 days. The most frequent symptom was numbness in the unilateral upper extremity, and the most severe symptom was weakness of grasping (mean severity, 6 days). A logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of stingers in the previous season and an injury with more than 3 symptoms, especially motor weakness, were correlated with the severity of injury. Young rugby players with a history of stingers have a significantly high rate of repeat injuries. Although nearly 80% of the players experienced only minimal (0-1 day) time loss injuries, neurological deficits sometimes last beyond 1 month. A history of stingers was identified to be the strongest risk factor for

  8. Driving Cultures: Cars, Young People and Cultural Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Redshaw

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Driving Cultures research, the cultural importance of the car and the psychological approaches central to research in the field of road safety and investigations of the over–representation of young people in crashes. The aim of the article is to outline driving as a cultural practice drawing on the experiences of young people as described in focus groups in order to show how cultural research can contribute to a social concern such as traffic injury and death.

  9. Ischemic stroke in young adults: an overview of etiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Iuji Yamamoto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke affects mainly people aged over 65 years, and atherosclerosis predominates as the main etiopathogenic factor in ischemic stroke (IS. On the other hand, cardiac embolism and arterial dissection are the most frequent causes of IS in patients aged less than 45 years. However, inappropriate control of traditional vascular risk factors in young people may be causing a significant increase of atherosclerosis-related IS in this population. Furthermore, a variety of etiologies, many of them uncommon, must be investigated. In endemic regions, neurocysticercosis and Chagas' disease deserve consideration. Undetermined cause has been still reported in as many as one third of young stroke patients.

  10. Role Markers of Adulthood and Young Adults’ Ties to Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the implications of residential independence, enrollment in postsecondary education, employment, marital status, and parenthood for contact with, and closeness to, grandparents. Data come from 1,507 young adults interviewed in Wave 3 of the National Survey of Families and Households. Findings suggest that adult roles can be either negatively or positively associated with grandparent-grandchild ties, depending on specific configurations among such factors as the adult role in question, a particular dimension of intergenerational solidarity, lineage, and grandchild’s and grandparent’s gender. Young adults’ ties to parents can mediate the adverse consequences of residential independence for contact with grandparents. PMID:20725597

  11. Young people and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouda, T

    1996-01-01

    Prevention and control of the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) requires attention to the characteristics of the sexual interactions between people that determine whether or not sex can be protected. These interactions are influenced by a diversity of factors, including gender inequalities, societal norms, power, socioeconomic status, knowledge, and personality. The poor, the marginalized, the young, and many women are at a disadvantage in protecting themselves from sexual exploitation and sexually transmitted diseases. Programs that seek to instill self-confidence and sexual negotiation skills in individuals overlook the pervasive influence of cultural norms. The focus of AIDS prevention programs must shift from the empowerment of individuals to community-wide considerations of sexual health. Finally, any program that seeks to encourage young people to redefine social norms governing their sexual relationships must also reach out to the adults (from parents to community leaders) who wield power over these young people.

  12. Proactive coping and gambling disorder among young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Grüne, Bettina; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig

    2016-12-01

    Objectives Male sex, young age, and frequent gambling are considered as risk factors for gambling disorder (GD) and stress might be one of the triggers of gambling behavior among problem gamblers. Conversely, well-developed coping with stress might counteract gambling problems. The Proactive Coping Theory provides a promising approach for the further development of preventive and treatment measures. The objective of the study was to investigate different facets of proactive coping (PC) in young male gamblers. Methods Young men from Bavaria were recruited via the Munich citizens' registry (n = 2,588) and Facebook invitations (n = 105). In total, 173 out of 398 individuals were positively screened for frequent gambling and/or signs of related problems and completed the baseline questionnaire of the Munich Leisure-time Study. Factors investigated include gambling problems, PC, impulsiveness, social support, and psychological distress. Results Gambling problems were associated with lower levels of preventive coping as well as of adaptive reaction delay. The associations were also significant when controlled for impulsiveness and general psychological distress. Preventive coping moderated the association between social support and gambling problems. Discussion and conclusions Young men with gambling problems less frequently prevent the occurrence of stressors and more often react hasty when these occur. While the investigated group reported good social support, this factor was negatively associated with GD only among individuals with good preventive coping. Preventive coping poses a useful construct for selective prevention and treatment as it can be modified in professional interventions.

  13. Young & ACE: Young Unemployed People and Adult and Community Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult, Community, and Further Education Board, Melbourne (Australia).

    Pilot projects designed to increase the access of young unemployed Australians to adult and community education (ACE) were undertaken in one rural and one metropolitan adult, community and further education region with significant rates of unemployment among individuals aged 15-24 years. Two consortia were selected to conduct the pilot programs,…

  14. Mental health trajectories from childhood to young adulthood affect the educational and employment status of young adults: results from the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Ortiz, Josue Almansa; Verhulst, Frank C; Bültmann, Ute

    2015-06-01

    Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on employment outcomes of young adults. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) identify trajectories of mental health problems from childhood to young adulthood and (2) investigate the relation between these trajectories and the educational or employment status of young adults. Data were used from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9-year follow-up. Trajectories of mental health problems measured at ages 11, 13.5, 16 and 19 years were identified in 1711 young adults with latent class growth models. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of total problems, from childhood to young adulthood, were more likely to work without BEL or be in NEET at age 19, than to be at school or to work with BEL (28.0% vs 16.0%, p=0.01). The same was found for externalising problems (35.3% vs 23.2%, p=0.02). For internalising and attention problems, no statistically significant differences were found. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of mental health problems from age 11 to 19, were at risk of adverse employment outcomes. Interventions reducing mental health problems in childhood may improve the educational or employment status of young adults and their chances for successfully entering the labour market. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Cardiac condition in young chagasic women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, O; Dotto, G; Ojeda, S; Garutti, A; Bertolotto, P; Tabares, S; Gallerano, R; Sembaj, A

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Chagas disease is a complex disorder caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Most patients remain asymptomatic for several years and 30% of them progress quietly to developing cardiomyopathy. The factors that lead to chronic myocardial lesions are not fully understood. Objective: To investigate the association between clinical symptoms and single nucleotide polymorphisms in chagasic and non-chagasic women younger and older than 55 years of age. Methods and Results: we analyzed Ala-9Val and Ile58Thr polymorphisms of the SOD-Mn gene, 138ex1ins/del A of the endothelin-1 gene (ET-1) and H323H (T/C) of the endothelin receptor A gene (ETA), by PCR-RFLP using genomic DNA from leukocyte of 85 women. We also evaluated serum lipid profile, renal and liver function, chest X-rays, electrocardiograms (ECGs) and echocardiography (EchoCG). Biochemical profiling did not show differences between chagasic and non-chagasic patients. The polymorphisms analyses showed a significant association in the distribution of frequencies of the Mn-SOD Ile58Thr gene between both groups. Young chagasic patients had a significantly higher prevalence of abnormalities in X-rays, in ECGs and they showed grade II and III of NYHA functional classes. The chance of having an abnormal EchoCG was 5.87 higher in young chagasic patients (OR=5.87, 95% CI 1.47-23.4). Discussion: We concluded that the parasite affects young females by accelerating the deterioration of cardiac function, independent of other cardiovascular risk factors and the cardioprotective action of estrogens present in the premenopausal stage. PMID:23904881

  16. The limit shape problem for ensembles of Young diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, Akihito

    2016-01-01

    This book treats ensembles of Young diagrams originating from group-theoretical contexts and investigates what statistical properties are observed there in a large-scale limit. The focus is mainly on analyzing the interesting phenomenon that specific curves appear in the appropriate scaling limit for the profiles of Young diagrams. This problem is regarded as an important origin of recent vital studies on harmonic analysis of huge symmetry structures. As mathematics, an asymptotic theory of representations is developed of the symmetric groups of degree n as n goes to infinity. The framework of rigorous limit theorems (especially the law of large numbers) in probability theory is employed as well as combinatorial analysis of group characters of symmetric groups and applications of Voiculescu's free probability. The central destination here is a clear description of the asymptotic behavior of rescaled profiles of Young diagrams in the Plancherel ensemble from both static and dynamic points of view.

  17. Elevated Autism Spectrum Disorder Traits in Young Children with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elyse; Cancilliere, Mary Kathryn; Freeman, Jennifer; Wellen, Brianna; Garcia, Abbe; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Franklin, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Studies have shown a high prevalence of autistic spectrum traits in both children and adults with psychiatric disorders; however the prevalence rate has not yet been investigated in young children with OCD. The aim of the current study was to (1) determine whether ASD traits indicated by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were elevated in young children with OCD who do not have a specific ASD diagnosis and (2) determine if ASD traits were associated with OCD severity. Participants (N = 127) were children ages 5-8 years enrolled in the pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment study for young children (POTS Jr.). Results indicated that the SRS showed elevated autistic traits in the sample and was associated with OCD severity whereas the SCQ did not indicate heightened ASD symptoms. Implications of these results are discussed.

  18. Young Scientist in Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Rosa

    simulate experiments, in order to spark young people’s interest in science and in following scientific careers.

  19. Obesity is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation among fertile young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karasoy, Deniz; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but whether this risk is also prevalent in younger individuals is unknown. We therefore investigated the risk of AF in relation to body mass index (BMI) among young fertile women.......Obesity has been associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but whether this risk is also prevalent in younger individuals is unknown. We therefore investigated the risk of AF in relation to body mass index (BMI) among young fertile women....

  20. Recognizing Young Readers' Spoken Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…

  1. Injury prevalence in young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Maria dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The injuries in young athletes are becoming more frequent, due to the wade dissemination of sports and the excessive training aimed at high performance. The requirements in sports can lead to the development of pathologies and injuries that could be prevented if the young athlete's training was well oriented. We emphasize the importance of professional and competition calendar planning always seeking the recovery of the athlete. It’s also important to have knowledge of injuries, training load, the previous history of the athlete, and correction of improper movement technique.Objective: To identify the most common injuries in young athletes of different sports. Material and Methods: The study included 36 athletes, aged 12-17 years, of both sexes, the Athletics rules, futsal, swimming and volleyball. An interview that contained information about age, practice time and sport was initially applied. Then two questionnaires were applied, the first consisting of a pain distribution table by body region and the second by a pain scale and this interference in daily activities. Results:Obtained results as mean age 13.86 years. Among the participants, 66.7% reported practicing sports or other physical activities, 55.6% reported that they have suffered injury in some cases with recurrence and 50% who have had any treatment for pain.Conclusion: Based on the results we conclude the importance of knowledge about sports injury prevention strategies in young athletes as a way to ensure longevity in the sport.

  2. Disks around young stellar objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    flattened disk around the central young stellar object and planets form in these disks by processes that involve growth of dust grains and their sedimentation, collisions and coag- ulation of planetesimals, accretion of gaseous material and gravitational instabilities on various time-scales as proposed in different models.

  3. Young Women, Sports, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…

  4. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  5. Overtraining and elite young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsley, Richard; Matos, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    In comparison to adults, our knowledge of the overtraining syndrome in elite young athletes is lacking. The evidence indicates an incidence rate of ∼20-30%, with a relatively higher occurrence seen in individual sport athletes, females and those competing at the highest representative levels. The most commonly reported symptoms are similar to those observed in over trained adult athletes: increased perception of effort during exercise, frequent upper respiratory tract infections, muscle soreness, sleep disturbances, loss of appetite, mood disturbances, shortness of temper, decreased interest in training and competition, decreased self-confidence, inability to concentrate. The association between training load and overtraining is unclear, and underlines the importance of taking a holistic approach when trying to treat or prevent overtraining in the young athlete so that both training and non-training stressors are considered. Of particular relevance to the issue of overtraining in the elite young athlete are the development of a unidimensional identity, the lack of autonomy, disempowerment, perfectionist traits, conditional love, and unrealistic expectations. Overtraining syndrome is a complex phenomenon with unique and multiple antecedents for each individual; therefore, an open-minded and comprehensive perspective is needed to successfully treat/prevent this in the young athlete. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Avoid Overtraining in Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearick, Matt; Creasy, John; Buriak, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Each year many young athletes suffer injuries from overtraining. According to the existing literature, strategies do exist to help control this growing problem. This article explores the basic nature of training and overtraining, with a particular emphasis on endurance athletes. Several psychological factors are highlighted as the first clear…

  7. Disks around young stellar objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Star formation; young stellar objects; circumstellar disks; exoplanets. Abstract. By 1939, when Chandrasekhar's classic monograph on the theory of Stellar Structure was published, although the need for recent star formation was fully acknowledged, no one had yet recognized an object that could be called a star ...

  8. Imaging properties of Young holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskii, Peter V.; Polyanskaya, G. V.

    1995-11-01

    Inequality of imaging by Young holograms from complementary diffraction devices are grounded using a stationary phase principle which causes a reduced recording distributivity. A holographic method for determination of an angular dependence of the secondary wave amplitude function associated with a diffraction screen edge is proposed, and the Rubinowicz representation for a diffraction integral at the primary illuminated are is verified on this basis.

  9. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Traumatic Events (3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than twenty years, ... Health neuroscientist Dr. Jay Giedd has studied the development of the adolescent brain. Decades of imaging work have led to remarkable ...

  10. Strength Development for Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Participation in strength training is important for older children or young adolescences who wish to improve fitness or participate in sports. When designing strength training programs for our youth this age group is immature anatomically, physiologically, and psychologically. For the younger or inexperienced group the strength training activities…

  11. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  12. Fact Sheet: Vulnerable Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…

  13. Poetry in Motion: Kevin Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    Ten years ago, when Kevin Young mounted the stage at the 1994 Furious Flower conference, he was a baby-faced newcomer to the national poetry scene. Amid elders like Gwendolyn Brooks and Lucille Clifton, who had just selected his book for publication in the National Poetry Series, he bore only two identifying labels: "Harvard" and "the Dark Room…

  14. Motivating young people for education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the issue of motivation in policy and practice. The argument is that the folk high schools and the tradition of liberal education offer a learning environment where a number of psychological needs are satisfied among the young people leading to a motivation for learning whereas...

  15. Young engineers of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beyers, R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Young Engineers of South Africa Programme (YESA) also endorses the e-Education and the Science and Technology White Papers. The main focus area will be on Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education and the way that they can impact...

  16. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...

  17. Kenyan Young Generation in Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesori, R.

    2017-01-01

    KYGN Educates, informs, promotes and facilitate transfer of knowledge on peaceful, safe and secure uses of nuclear science and technology in Kenya. A network of young scientists and students with special interest in the nuclear science and allied fields. It is an affiliate of the IYNC whose membership is drawn from member states of United Nations

  18. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Suhag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients' wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy.

  19. Energy outlooks of young members of parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolonen, P.

    1999-01-01

    Pekka Tolonen Energy outlooks of young members of parliament The main theme is 'youth and nuclear energy'. This article presents opinions of young opinion leaders over energy policy and nuclear energy

  20. Simulation Frames: Young Adult Dystopian Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Tedman

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which Young Adult dystopian film Divergent (2014) successfully repurposes dystopia for a young demographic, making dystopia an aesthetically appealing space for heroic adventure. The film recombines Young Adult literary tropes with film conventions including those of science fiction. Divergent and other Young Adult dystopian films modify the potential for social critique associated with canonic dystopian fiction. The article’s critical framework includes t...

  1. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    stars heat up enough to start nuclear burning. When infant stars in RXJ 0529.4+0041 eventually reach middle-age, their sizes will most likely also be quite similar to that of the Sun. The significance of RXJ 0529.4+0041 Few systems are known for which such precise determinations of the stellar parameters have ever been possible - and this binary system represents the first case where both the components are such young stars . A detailed comparison of the derived stellar parameters with current models for the evolution of young stars shows fairly good agreement for the primary component. However, there are certain discrepancies in the case of the secondary component, showing that the current models for the early stages of lower-mass stars must still be refined. More information Part of the results described in this press release are described in more detail in a scientific article ( "RXJ 0529.4+0041: a low-mass pre-main sequence eclipsing-spectroscopic binary" by E. Covino et al.) that has been published in the European research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics (Vol. 361, p. 49). Notes [1] The team consists of Elvira Covino (Principal Investigator), Juan M. Alcalá , Rosita Paladino (all Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli, Italy), Antonio Frasca , Santo Catalano , Ettore Marilli (all Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Italy) and Michael Sterzik (ESO-Chile). [2] One solar mass corresponds to 1.99 10 30 kg, or about 330,000 times the mass of the Earth. The Sun is about 4500 million years old and its total lifetime is of the order of 12-13,000 million years. It is an interesting thought that if the Sun would have been somewhat heavier, its total lifetime might have been too short for living organisms to develop on the Earth. In fact, the biological evolution that ultimately lead to the emergence of human beings apparently lasted about 4 billion years; this corresponds to the total lifetime of a star that is only about 20 % heavier than the Sun. Note also the

  2. Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

  3. Young generation network: facing the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, R.

    1997-01-01

    The future of the nuclear industry lies with the young generation. That's why in 1995, ENS supported the creation of the Young Generation Network (YGN). The YGN aims to fulfill the needs and interests of young people working in the nuclear business by organizing special programs with interesting opportunities and activities. (author)

  4. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…

  5. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of young sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anni Tindahl; Murray, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of young (... of OSL dating, outlines the problems specific to the dating of young material, and then uses recent applications to young sediments to illustrate the greatly increased scope and potential of the method in geomorphology and the geology of recent deposits. The overall reliability of this new generation...

  6. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  7. Determinants of vitamin D status in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Rune; Hovind, Peter Hambak; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2016-01-01

    .68). For vitamin D insufficiency, the highest RR was again for men 1.31 (1.06, 1.61); obese subjects 1.57 (1.17, 2.11); and subjects who exercised 0-½ hours a week 1.51 (1.11, 2.06). CONCLUSION: In this study of young adults, vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent. Modifiable factors such as smoking......BACKGROUND: Very few studies have investigated the determinants of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in young adults (18-25 years old) using a set of variables that include lifestyle, sociodemographic, and anthropometric data. Our aim was to investigate the association between...... these variables and vitamin D status in a sample of untreated young adults. METHODS: A total of 738 young adults were enrolled in a (June cross-sectional study 2012 to May 2014) and were recruited from educational institutions in the Copenhagen area. For multivariate logistic regression subjects was categorized...

  8. Interactions between exoplanets and the winds of young stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidotto A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The topology of the magnetic field of young stars is important not only for the investigation of magnetospheric accretion, but also responsible in shaping the large-scale structure of stellar winds, which are crucial for regulating the rotation evolution of stars. Because winds of young stars are believed to have enhanced mass-loss rates compared to those of cool, main-sequence stars, the interaction of winds with newborn exoplanets might affect the early evolution of planetary systems. This interaction can also give rise to observational signatures which could be used as a way to detect young planets, while simultaneously probing for the presence of their still elusive magnetic fields. Here, we investigate the interaction between winds of young stars and hypothetical planets. For that, we model the stellar winds by means of 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Although these models adopt simplified topologies of the stellar magnetic field (dipolar fields that are misaligned with the rotation axis of the star, we show that asymmetric field topologies can lead to an enhancement of the stellar wind power, resulting not only in an enhancement of angular momentum losses, but also intensifying and rotationally modulating the wind interactions with exoplanets.

  9. Lebanese Young Citizens’ Attitudes toward Peace and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrazad Kari Jabbour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon is a small democratic country with a population of less than four million and a range of diversity; there are at least 18 different religious sects and 19 different political parties. The diversity among ethnic, religious and/or political groups has created conflicts that severely impact the Lebanese economy, environment, politics and most importance our young citizens. The aim of this investigation is to capture students’ awareness and attitudes toward the accountability and mechanisms of peace and democracy. Data for the study was obtained from extensive literature reviews and questionnaire surveys of 70 high school students. The investigation was conducted in the fall of the year 2013. The results of the study showed that most Lebanese young citizen view peace and democracy process associated with the end of violence and conflict behaviors; very small percent of respondents believe that bringing peace and democracy process should be answered by the people or by themselves. Results also indicate a lack of a sense of security among young citizen. This raises the urgent need to put into practice an effective peace education program that inspires and motivates young citizens to be involved in the peace and the democracy building process.

  10. New morbidity of the young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present phase of epidemiological transition, the most frequent causes of youth morbidity are disorders in reproductive health, mental disorders and injuries which are not life threatening. This, so-called new youth morbidity, is most often caused by their risky behavior, which in the field of sexuality often leads to unplanned pregnancies and abortions, as well as sexually transmitted infections. Misuse of tobacco, alcohol and narcotics, which is most commonly started in adolescence, has an unfavorable short-term and long-term influence on the psycho-physical health of the young. All research, in the world and in our country, indicate gradual yet constant growth of sexual activity of the youth and the age decrease of its starting point, especially when girls are in question. Due to insufficient maturity and inadequate knowledge and consciousness on the necessity of protecting reproductive health, sexual behavior of young people can often be characterized as insufficiently responsible and not supplemented with the usage of adequate protective measures. The result is frequently abortion, which terminates 90% of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies in this age. This creates health and psychosocial risks, as well as giving birth in adolescence which is contrary to the modern health concepts that giving birth should not be performed too early, while the young are still developing. A significant increase in the frequency of sexually transmitted diseases is also present, to which the youth are especially susceptible due to the specific development period in which they are in. A serious medical and sociopathological problem of contemporary society represents the greater and greater misuse of psychoactive substances among the young people, with a tendency of decreasing the average age they are consumed for the first time, as well as the use of drugs and alcohol. With the increase of the anti-smoking campaign and restrictive measures in highly

  11. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea H.; Becker, Eni S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18–25 years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results Women with specific phobia had a twofold increase in odds of developing any anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, and any somatoform disorder during 17 months, compared to women without specific phobia. Except for depression, these associations persisted after adjustment for all comorbid mental disorders. Conclusions Specific phobia thus appears to be a risk factor for a variety of problems. The result further underpins the necessity for early intervention for specific phobia to prevent later mental health problems. PMID:19888542

  12. Suicide clusters among young Kenyan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Puffer, Eve S; Keiser, Philip H; Gitari, Stanley

    2017-11-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of global mortality. Suicide clusters have recently been identified among peer networks in high-income countries. This study investigates dynamics of suicide clustering within social networks of young Kenya men ( n = 532; 18-34 years). We found a strong, statistically significant association between reported number of friends who previously attempted suicide and present suicide ideation (odds ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval (1.42, 2.54); p self-esteem (23% of total effect). Meaning in life further mediated the association between collective self-esteem and suicide ideation. Survivors of peer suicide should be evaluated for suicide risk.

  13. A confidence in itself, as mortgage of successful competition activity of the young chess-players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoroshavina A.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of the study the basic aspects of self-confidence of young players. The study involved 54 young chess players. Of these, 34 students Kherson CYSS Chess. 20 players from different regions of Ukraine. Age investigated from 10 to 15 years. The dependence of the confidence of participation in competitions for young players on the level of anxiety, motivational set, strong-willed self-control. In the result of performance of young chess players in the competition is directly proportional to the strength of motivation to succeed installation. Most athletes have been observed high levels of self-willed. Self-control depends on the experience of participation of young players in the competition, as well as facilities manager.

  14. Effects of television exposure on developmental skills among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Chen, Yung-Jung; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yang, Hei-Mei

    2015-02-01

    Literature addressing the effects of television exposure on developmental skills of young children less than 36 months of age is scarce. This study explored how much time young children spend viewing television and investigated its effects on cognitive, language, and motor developmental skills. Data were collected from the Pediatric Clinics at University Medical Center in Southern Taiwan. The participants comprised 75 children who were frequently exposed to television and 75 children who were not or infrequently exposed to television between 15 and 35 months old. The age and sex were matched in the two groups. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-second edition and Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-second edition were used to identify developmental skills. Independent t-tests, χ(2) tests, and logistic regression models were conducted. Among 75 children who were frequently exposed to television, young children watched a daily average of 67.4 min of television before age 2, which was excessive according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Viewing television increased the risk of delayed cognitive, language, and motor development in children who were frequently exposed to television. Cognitive, language, and motor delays in young children were significantly associated with how much time they spent viewing television. The type of care providers was critical in determining the television-viewing time of children. We recommend that pediatric practitioners explain the impacts of television exposure to parents and caregivers to ensure cognitive, language, and motor development in young children. Advocacy efforts must address the fact that allowing young children to spend excessive time viewing television can be developmentally detrimental. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Guiding young adults at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Karen Egedal Andreasen, Palle Rasmussen and Christian Ydesen question in their article, how to guide youth in danger of being marginalised or excluded from society in general and the labour market in particular. They analyse the guidance dimension in the youth in development project as described...... in the project and by the youths participating in the project. The project was designed to facilitate and support transition to an adult life by giving participants social support, feedback, experiences, room for reflection and feeling of acceptance and inclusion. In Denmark all social work with young people...... at risk involves guidance to “the right path”, since individual guidance seems to be the key asset in mobilizing young person’s needs and experiences. The article indicates important elements in the guidance of youth at risk, such as psychological intervention and personal support, support from...

  16. The Young and the Stressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppink, Eric W.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Lust, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    among college students, are limited. This study examined potential associations between perceived stress, academic achievement, physical/mental health, and impulse control disorders in young adults. A total of 1805 students completed an online survey and were included in the analysis. Responders were...... grouped by their overall score on the Perceived Stress Scale into mild, moderate, or severe. Severe perceived stress was associated with worse academic achievement and worse physical health, as well as higher rates of psychiatric and impulsive disorders. These findings may suggest associations between......High levels of stress are common among young adults, particularly those enrolled in college. These degrees of stress have shown numerous deleterious effects across both academic and health variables. Findings regarding the role of stress in the presentation of impulse control disorders, particular...

  17. A young woman's atomic future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outa, S.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry has traditionally been a masculine playground, created and heretofore also controlled by men. However, the recent changes in social thinking have created a more heterogeneous group of young nuclear engineers. The experience and knowledge of the pioneers need to be dealt out and shared, in order to build an engineer population capable of responding to the future challenges. These challenges include the tightened safety requirements, modernization and decommissioning of present nuclear plants, waste management, and the intensified debate over environmental issues. The construction of new power plant units will also be a task which requires co-operation across generations. The question of weather or not women can find their places in the nuclear industry is irrelevant - the present share of female students and young engineers speaks for itself. It is not only the female population which has learned to follow its interests, but also the modern male has accepted the positive change. (author)

  18. Being Young and Getting Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Cecilie; Petersen, Gitte Stentebjerg; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Cancer is the leading cause of nonaccidental deaths among adolescents and young adults (AYAs). In Denmark, there are substantial gaps in knowledge concerning how AYAs with cancer perceive their diagnostic and therapeutic trajectory and report health-related outcomes. The aim of this study......) “Time before treatment,” (2) “Being told about your illness,” (3) “Being a young patient,” (4) “Your treatment,” (5) “Receiving help living with and after Cancer,” and (6) “How are you feeling today?.” One hundred one items were specifically developed for this study, while 50 were standardized validated...... is to describe the development of a questionnaire targeting AYAs with cancer aiming to evaluate treatment and survivorship from the perspective of the patients. Methods: Identification of themes and development of items included in the questionnaire were based on a synthesis of literature and qualitative...

  19. Young women's use of medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dana Lee; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2009-01-01

    , a unifying concept involving growing autonomy in medicine use emerged. This concept consisted of three parts: the great influence of family norms when autonomy was limited, growing autonomy under changing influences and assertion of autonomy and positioning of own behaviour relative to the norm. This study...... taking practices and ideas about appropriate medicine use within their family and peer group. Young women possessed a keen awareness of medicine-related norms, although medicine use was a topic only rarely discussed with others. At the interface of these themes pertaining to family and peer norms...... of the influential role that perceived norms in peer and family contexts can play in young women's use of medicine....

  20. The International Young Physicists’ Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesch, M.; Eller, F.; Kanitz, C.; Landgraf, J.; Raab, A.; Selbach, S.

    2017-05-01

    The International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT), is a competition for teams of secondary school students, often referred to as the Physics World Cup. This year the 29th IYPT took place in Russia with a new record of 29 competing teams from around the world. In this article the main principle, regulations, and course of the tournament is presented, as well as a report of the IYPT 2016.

  1. Water Loss from Young Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Güdel, Manuel; Johnstone, Colin P.; Lammer, Helmut; Luger, Rodrigo; Odert, Petra

    2018-04-01

    Good progress has been made in the past few years to better understand the XUV evolution trend of Sun-like stars, the capture and dissipation of hydrogen dominant envelopes of planetary embryos and protoplanets, and water loss from young planets around M dwarfs. This chapter reviews these recent developments. Observations of exoplanets and theoretical works in the near future will significantly advance our understanding of one of the fundamental physical processes shaping the evolution of solar system terrestrial planets.

  2. Working with young black people.

    OpenAIRE

    Sallah, Momodou; Howson, Carlton

    2007-01-01

    This is an important collection, integrating research with messages for practitioners in an area where there has as yet been insufficient material published. This book also formed the focal point for a major international conference in the Summer of 2006. As well as jointly editing the publication, the author contributed a chapter to it. Bringing together this work's different dimensions and perspectives, this book seeks to challenge both the accepted status quo of Black young people s neg...

  3. EPS Young Physicist Prize - CORRECTION

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The original text for the article 'Prizes aplenty in Krakow' in Bulletin 30-31 assigned the award of the EPS HEPP Young Physicist Prize to Maurizio Pierini. In fact he shared the prize with Niki Saoulidou of Fermilab, who was rewarded for her contribution to neutrino physics, as the article now correctly indicates. We apologise for not having named Niki Saoulidou in the original article.

  4. Young children as Internet users

    OpenAIRE

    Daramola, O. (Oladipo)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the current available research concerning the real usage of the internet among the young children, most researchers particularly emphases on the risk and opportunities regarding the active use of the internet. Limited experimental research emphases on the role-based and impact of the parent guidelines in the context. In the current studies, internet parenting methods are well-defined and operationalized to study...

  5. Young women and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J

    1991-07-01

    Young women who have sex with men are vulnerable to infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), because of both the potential presence of infectious organisms and young women's lack of appropriate and effective personal skills in asserting their relationship needs, and their needs for protection against infection. The increasing incidence of STDs, including HIV, in young women would reduce if the women could be enabled to develop techniques, such as the communication, negotiation, and assertiveness skills needed to manage their sexual health within a heterosexual relationship. One obstacle to bringing about substantive changes in heterosexual behavior is that STDs are not fully acknowledged as a public health issue by non-gay people. However, an overwhelming body of evidence from sources around the world shows that STDs are mainly infections of heterosexual people aged 15-30 years, and that the concept of a risk group is unsound for educational purposes. Risk behavior is what matters. Other obstacles include the belief among many that heterosexual behavior is natural, and that sex must be penetrative; serial monogamy; lack of frank communication between sex partners; the absence of a heterosexual community; and current economic and political circumstances.

  6. Psychosocial and Health Behavior Outcomes of Young Adults with Asthma or Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Bauer, Katherine W; Eisenberg, Marla E; Denny, Kara; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-04-30

    Previous research has shown a relationship between childhood/adolescent chronic conditions and negative health behaviors, psychological outcomes, and social outcomes. Less is known about whether these negative outcomes are experienced by young adults with chronic health conditions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young adults' BMI, health behaviors, and psychological and social outcomes differ depending on whether they have diabetes, asthma, or neither of these chronic conditions. Data were drawn from the third wave of Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Young Adults, a population-based study of 2287 young adults (mean age = 25.3; range 19.8 - 31.2). General linear models were used to test differences in BMI, health behaviors (e.g., fast food intake) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g. depressive symptoms) by young adults' chronic disease status. Young adults with diabetes had higher BMIs, engaged in less physical activity and more unhealthy weight control behaviors and binge eating, had lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction, and experienced more depressive symptoms and appearance-based teasing compared to young adults with asthma or no chronic conditions, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and, when relevant, for BMI. There were no significant differences between young adults with asthma and young adults with no chronic condition on all of the psychosocial and health behavior outcomes. Young adults with diabetes reported higher prevalence of negative health behaviors and psychosocial outcomes. Providers may find it useful to assess for negative health behaviors and psychosocial variables with young adults with diabetes in order to improve treatment and quality of life for these individuals.

  7. Cross-cultural investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Y; Case, R; Bleiker, C; Henderson, B

    1996-01-01

    In Piaget's system, the development of children's cognitive structures is seen as progressing through a universal sequence from sensorimotor, to concrete, to formal logical thought. The data that have been obtained on his measures are problematic in their support for this view, however, because they indicate that adults in traditional societies often fail his formal tasks. Piaget's (1972) interpretation of such findings was that they indicated a problem with his measures, not his theory - if appropriate measures were available, he believed that formal logical operations would be found in all cultures and social groups. Our own interpretation differs. While we acknowledge that adults in all cultures are capable of thinking in a fashion that is more sophisticated, subtle, and complex than that of young children, we see the highest forms of thought as being dependent on the mastery of systems that are cultural creations and not universal human attainments - and we see Piaget's system of formal operations as being just one example of the sort of system that can be created by a culture and passed on from one generation to the next. In a previous investigation, Fiati (1992) studied children who were growing up in isolated, agricultural villages in the Volta region of West Africa. In these communities, life was still a traditional one, and children's experiences with time, money, and mathematical computation were considerably different from those of children who were attending schools in the nearby towns. Under these conditions, Fiati found that village children's skill in using numbers or in thinking about quantitative variables did not develop to a very high level as compared to that of their peers in the towns or as compared to their own thinking about social issues. In the terms used in the present Monograph, it appeared as though children's central conceptual structures for number - in contrast to their central conceptual structures for narrative - did not advance

  8. Body piercings and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Eric; Rodgers, Rachel; Simon, Naomi M; Jehel, Louis; Metcalf, Christina A; Birmes, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Body piercing, which is prevalent in young adults, has been suggested to be associated with features usually related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) such as high-risk behaviours and psychopathological symptoms and might be motivated by a wish to deal with prior traumatic experiences. However, to date, no research has investigated the relationship between this practice and PTSD symptoms. The present research aims to investigate the possible relationship between body piercing and PTSD symptoms in French-speaking young adults. According to our results, having two or more body piercings was associated with a twofold increased risk for scoring above the cut-off score for PTSD on the PTSD checklist. Our findings suggest that two or more body piercings might serve as an identifiable marker for PTSD symptoms and may have important implications for clinical screening. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A qualitative study of children, young people and 'sexting' : English

    OpenAIRE

    Ringrose, J.; Gill, R.; Livingstong, S.; Harvey, L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this small scale qualitative research was to respond to and enhance our understandings of the complex nature of sexting and the role of mobile technologies within peer teen networks. It was designed as a pilot study – to investigate a phenomenon whose nature, scale and dimensions were unknown. Thus the research itself also was small in scale and exploratory in nature and also culturally and geographically specific. We conducted focus group interviews with 35 young people years ...

  10. Class Origin and Young Adults' Re-Enrollment

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Marita; Weiss, Felix

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines re-enrollment decisions taken by adults who have previously participated in the labor market in the US. We investigate the influence of social origin on re-enrollment and test hypotheses based on the "status reproduction" argument. We find that young adults from the lower classes re-enroll less often than those from the upper classes and that these differences can be attributed to a large extend to different ability or performance. Beyond the effects of social origin...

  11. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. Methods A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well a...

  12. The Effect of Increasing Welfare Mothers' Education on Their Young Children's Academic Problems and School Readiness. JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Katherine A.; McGroder, Sharon M.

    This study investigated the effect of welfare mothers' educational attainment on their young children's academic outcomes and school readiness. Data came from the National Evaluation of Welfare to Work Strategies Child Outcomes Study. Welfare recipients with young children residing in three cities were randomly assigned to participate in either an…

  13. Sexual Health Information Seeking Online: A Mixed-Methods Study among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Bigelow, Louisa; DeHaan, Samantha; Mustanski, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    The current study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the positive and negative aspects of Internet use for sexual health information among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young people. A diverse community sample of 32 LGBT young people (aged 16-24 years) completed qualitative interviews focusing on how, where, and when…

  14. Effects of Computer Course on Computer Self-Efficacy, Computer Attitudes and Achievements of Young Individuals in Siirt, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Halil Coskun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of computer courses on young individuals' computer self-efficacy, attitudes and achievement. The study group of this research included 60 unemployed young individuals (18-25 ages) in total; 30 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group. An experimental research model with pretest…

  15. The Effect of Karate Practice on Self-Esteem in Young Adults with Visual Impairment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Samir; Ravenscroft, John; Sproule, John

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has not examined the potential relationship between physical activity interventions and psychological domains of young adults with visual impairment (VI). This study aimed to investigate whether karate practice improves the self-esteem of young adults with VI. A secondary aim of this study was to explore the exercise and…

  16. Textbook Religion and Lived Religion: A Comparison of the Christian Faith as Expressed in Textbooks and by Young Church Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestøl, Jon Magne

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on perspectives from sociocultural theory, this article investigates how Christian denominations are represented in Norwegian textbooks of religious education and by young believers. The main finding is that textbooks and young adherents present religion in substantially different ways. While textbooks relate religion to global and…

  17. Ageism and Risk-Taking in Young Adults: Evidence for a Link between Death Anxiety and Ageism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, Lauren E.; Kennison, Shelia M.; Bradley, Kristopher I.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between ageism and risk-taking in young adults. They hypothesized that young adults may attempt to distance themselves from their future older selves and from an awareness of their mortality by seeking out experiences that make them feel strong, energetic, and invulnerable (i.e., experiences involving…

  18. "If You Look, You Have to Leave": Young Children Regulating Research Interviews about Experiences of Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evang, Are; Øverlien, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the competence of young children staying with their mothers in refuges for abused women as participants in qualitative interviews. Discourse of the verbal and non-verbal actions of seven young children (4-7 years old) was analysed using a theory originally developed to describe infant-mother interaction as…

  19. Predictive Role of Grit and Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction on Subjective Well-Being for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbag, Müge; Ümmet, Durmus

    2017-01-01

    In this research, it is aimed to investigate the predictive role of grit as a personality trait and basic psychological needs satisfaction on subjective well-being among young adults. Participants of this research are 348 voluntary young adults who are final year undergraduate students in the government universities of Istanbul city, Turkey, as…

  20. Calcium excretion, apparent calcium absorption and calcium balance in young and elderly subjects: Influence of protein intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannemans, D.L.E.; Schaafsma, G.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary protein on urinary Ca excretion, apparent Ca absorption and Ca balance in young and elderly subjects. Young adults (n 29) and elderly persons (n 26) consumed diets containing 12% (diet A) and 21% (diet B) of total energy as protein

  1. Young adults' use of emotional food memories to build resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Essen, Elisabeth; Mårtensson, Fredrika

    2017-05-01

    The overall aim of this study is to specifically investigate how young adults make use of emotional-relational food memories related to "significant others" during childhood when trying to build resilience and solve developmental tasks in this period of life. A theoretical sample of three semi-structured interviews drawn from a larger sample of 30 interviews with young adults in Sweden formed the basis for analysis, guided by the steps of a phenomenologically oriented critical narrative analysis. The results illustrate three different overall directions in how the relationship to food can evolve throughout life among young adults: a relationship dominated by 1) positive emotional food memories associated with the use of food as a secure base and 2) negative emotional food memories associated with either a) being emotionally preoccupied with food or b) dismissing food. The results suggest that internalised memories related to food associated with positive emotions can be used to build resilience, by helping young people to adapt and better manage developmental stress. Internalised food memories related to negative emotions can cause vulnerability, but also become the object of a person's reconstruction. The implications and potential risks of using food practice for developing resilience and a healthy lifestyle are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prothrombotic Gene Polymorphisms in Young Patients with Cerebrovascular Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuyaþ Hekimler Öztürk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cerebrovascular diseases are complex multifactorial disorders showing an increased incidence with increasing age and affected by genetic and environmental factors. Although risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases include age, sex, lineage, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia; in young cerebrovascular patients below age 45, genetic factors may also contribute to the etiology. In this retrospective study, prothrombotic gene polymorphisms which are thought to be related with formation of disease in young adults with cerebrovascular accident (CVA were investigated. Material and Method: In the current study, Methylenetetrahydropholate Reductase (MTHFR C677T and A129C; Prothrombin (Factor II G20210A; Factor V Leiden G1691A prothrombotic gene polymorphisms were evaluated for 43 young patients under the age of 45 with cerebrovascular accident history. Result: For 43 young patients with cerebrovascular incident history, the frequency of following polymorphisms were determined as follows; MTHFR C677T polymorphism heterozygous frequency is 46.1%, homozygous frequency is 9.3%; MTHFR A1298C polymorphism heterozygous frequency is 39.47%, homozygous frequency is 26.31%; Prothrombin polymorphism heterozygous and homozygous frequency is 2.3%; FactorV Leiden polymorphism heterozygous frequency is 9.3%. Discussion: After evaluation the experimental results, we believe that MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms might be risk factors in CVAs. It was observed that cigarette usage, hypertension and existence of family story in addition to these polymorphisms increase the available risk.

  3. Self-Assessment among Young Learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arni Sukmiarni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of self-assessment among young learners becomes a challenging issue to include in English classroom assessment. The common belief that children cannot self-assess accurately as adults do seems to yield that the inclusion of self-assessment in TEYL is still not prevalent yet. Self-assessment is an assessment involving the ability in assessing one’s own performance in learning. This is strongly related to one’s metacognition development. The tendency of earlier research investigating metacognitive capacities of young children concludes that mecognition in children is a late developing skill (Lai, 2011. In fact, more recent empirical studies conclude that young children have capability of simple metacognition thought (Lai, 2011. Hence, the inclusion of self-assessment in TEYL can be implemented as an assessment supporting other assessment conducted in classroom. Self-assessment is beneficial in improving students’s own awareness of their learning progress. In Indonesian context, English as a foreign language, has been taught in elementary school since 1994 and generally formative and summative assessments as classroom assessments are employed to assess student’s progress in learning. Self-assessment is an assessment that needs to be considered to include in classroom assessment. This paper discusses self-assessment among young learners, in this context elementary school students studying English.

  4. SELF-ASSESSMENT AMONG YOUNG LEARNERS OF ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arni Sukmiarni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of self-assessment among young learners becomes a challenging issue to include in English classroom assessment. The common belief that children cannot self-assess accurately as adults do seems to yield that the inclusion of self-assessment in TEYL is still not prevalent yet. Self-assessment is an assessment involving the ability in assessing one’s own performance in learning. This is strongly related to one’s metacognition development. The tendency of earlier research investigating metacognitive capacities of young children concludes that mecognition in children is a late developing skill (Lai, 2011. In fact, more recent empirical studies conclude that young children have capability of simple metacognition thought (Lai, 2011. Hence, the inclusion of self-assessment in TEYL can be implemented as an assessment supporting other assessment conducted in classroom. Self-assessment is beneficial in improving students’s own awareness of their learning progress. In Indonesian context, English as a foreign language, has been taught in elementary school since 1994 and generally formative and summative assessments as classroom assessments are employed to assess student’s progress in learning. Self-assessment is an assessment that needs to be considered to include in classroom assessment. This paper discusses self-assessment among young learners, in this context elementary school students studying English.

  5. Warm gas towards young stellar objects in Corona Australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Johan; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; D. Green, Joel

    2014-01-01

    by an intermediate-mass young star. We study the effects on the warm gas and dust in a group of low-mass young stellar objects from the irradiation by the young luminous Herbig Be star R CrA. Herschel/PACS far-infrared datacubes of two low-mass star-forming regions in the R CrA dark cloud are presented....... The distribution of CO, OH, H2O, [C II], [O I], and continuum emission is investigated. We have developed a deconvolution algorithm which we use to deconvolve the maps, separating the point-source emission from the extended emission. We also construct rotational diagrams of the molecular species. By deconvolution...... Be star R CrA. Our results show that a nearby luminous star does not increase the molecular excitation temperatures in the warm gas around a young stellar object (YSO). However, the emission from photodissociation products of H2O, such as OH and O, is enhanced in the warm gas associated...

  6. Young tertiary students and help-seeking for health advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Lesley; Dutton, Jane

    2011-11-01

    Help-seeking is an active process used by people of all ages to obtain assistance to solve problems. This research sought to investigate a component of help-seeking related to health concerns. A health related help-seeking model, was adapted to frame questions for an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Seventy-five students aged between 16 and 24 years responded and data were analysed using content and descriptive statistical techniques. Findings indicated that young people perceived the need to seek advice when unwell, needing support or information, are resourceful, and were motivated to seek help from a variety of sources. Parents and whānau formed one usual source of advice, but young people reported one of the best sources of advice as General Practice nurses and doctors. Barriers to seeking advice included distrusting sources, and concerns about confidentiality. Unsurprisingly, many respondents used the Internet for health information, although some mistrusted that information. Nurses need to be aware of the sources of health advice and support that young people choose to use. Motivations for selecting services, providers, or sources clearly replicated what young people hold as important--sources with which they feel comfortable, have a relationship, trust, and which they perceived as maintaining confidentiality.

  7. The incidence of dyslexia among young offenders in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Al Malki, Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    This paper investigates the incidence of dyslexia among young offenders in Kuwait. A total of 91 children/young adults from 8 juvenile delinquent welfare centres across Kuwait were interviewed and tested. A measure of non-verbal reasoning ability was used to exclude those with low general ability. The remaining 53 participants were tested on their ability to identify alliteration and rhyme, retain and manipulate sequences of digit and letter names, decode novel letter strings and identify words within letter chains. Participants' reading accuracy, rate of reading, reading comprehension and ability to spell correctly dictated text were also assessed. These measures were used to determine those with indicators of dyslexia. The results indicated that the percentage of individuals presenting evidence of dyslexia was much larger (greater than 20%) in this population of young offenders than would be expected based on the national average (around 6%) of dyslexics in Kuwait derived from a nationwide study (A survey study of dyslexia in Kuwait, Kuwait Dyslexia Association: Kuwait City; 2002). These findings replicate previous evidence for an increased frequency of dyslexia among young offenders. The implications of such findings are discussed in terms of dyslexia awareness, socio-cultural factors, education and intervention, particularly in Kuwait juvenile delinquent welfare centres.

  8. Periodontal health status and smoking among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vered, Yuval; Livny, Alon; Zini, Avi; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D

    2008-09-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the periodontal status and present smoking habits among a representative sample of young adult Israelis and to investigate possible associations. A representative sample of young adult Israelis was examined and interviewed on the day of release from compulsory military service. Collected data included demographic background (gender, education level, family size and father's country of origin) and current smoking habits. Clinical examination included the recording of periodontal health status according to the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Seven thousand and fifty-six young adults were examined. Sixteen per cent were classified as CPI 0, 78% as CPI 1-2 and 6% as CPI 3-4. In total, 36% of the sample reported a current smoking habit. Periodontal status was significantly improved among non-smokers, females and children of fathers born in Israel or Western countries. Only 7% of the participants demonstrated signs of periodontitis and most young adults did not smoke; a dose-response association was revealed between present smoking habits and periodontal disease.

  9. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  10. Young and older adults’ gender stereotype in multitasking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups. With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype’s existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129 and older (n = 112 German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups. When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype’s components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  11. Flavored e-cigarette use: Characterizing youth, young adult, and adult users

    OpenAIRE

    Harrell, M.B.; Weaver, S.R.; Loukas, A.; Creamer, M.; Marti, C.N.; Jackson, C.D.; Heath, J.W.; Nayak, P.; Perry, C.L.; Pechacek, T.F.; Eriksen, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12?17?years old), young adults (18?29?years old), and older adults (30?+ years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n?=?3907) and young adult college students (n?=?5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n?=?6051) nationwide were administered in 2014?2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation...

  12. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo

    2011-01-01

    understood and there is a paucity of data objectivizing this association in young children. The aim of this thesis was to describe pathology in the upper and lower airways in young children from the COPSAC birth cohort with investigator-diagnosed allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal congestion is a key...... nasal eosinophilia albeit less than children with allergic rhinitis. These findings suggest different pathology in allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis which may have important clinical implications for early pharmacological treatment of rhinitis in young children. In paper II, we utilized the nasal...

  13. ‘Interrupted Interviews’: listening to young people with autism in transition to college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Shepherd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the methodological approaches used in a research project that investigated the lived experiences of young people with autism as they made the transition from special schools to mainstream colleges of Further Education. A combination of visual methods using iPad applications and walking interviews were explored in an attempt to develop ways of engaging young people with autism in research and to privilege their voice in their own transition. The strengths and challenges of these methods are examined here and illustrated through the experience and responses of one young person in the study and his engagement with the research.

  14. Young people’s use of new media through communities of practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Nurzali

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores how young people use new media in and out of school, in the Malaysian context, through communities of practice (COPs). A case study approach was used to investigate young people’s digital practices in and out of school. This includes the relationships that are established between the contexts of in and out of school, and the identity formation that young people experience as they use new media in their everyday lives. In an attempt to unravel the complexity surrounding yo...

  15. "Hedge Your Bets": Technology's Role in Young Gay Men's Relationship Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, Raymond M; Milhausen, Robin R; Lachowsky, Nathan J

    2017-01-01

    Technology is playing an increasingly pervasive role among young gay men in the process of meeting potential romantic or sexual partners. We investigated challenges posed by technology related to young gay men's relationships. Focus groups (n = 9) of young gay men aged 18-24 (n = 43) were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was used to identify two major themes regarding challenges to relationship development and maintenance. Subthemes include unrealistic expectations of relationships, inauthentic self-presentation online, sexual primacy over romance, increased opportunities for infidelity, and jealousy. The implications of this study for sexual education and sexual health promotion are discussed.

  16. Relationship between Obesity and Cognitive Function in Young Women: The Food, Mood and Mind Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Rebecca L.; O’Dwyer, Nicholas J.; Donges, Cheyne E.; Parker, Helen M.; Cheng, Hoi Lun; Steinbeck, Katharine S.; Cox, Eka P.; Franklin, Janet L.; Garg, Manohar L.; Rooney, Kieron B.; O’Connor, Helen T.

    2017-01-01

    Limited research addresses links between obesity and cognitive function in young adults. Objective. To investigate the relationship between obesity and cognitive function in young women. Methods. This cross-sectional study recruited healthy, young (18–35 y) women of normal (NW: BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg·m−2) or obese (OB: BMI ≥ 30.0 kg·m−2) weight. Participants completed a validated, computer-based cognitive testing battery evaluating impulsivity, attention, information processing, memory, and execu...

  17. Increase of the indicators of physical development and level of physical preparedness of young weightlifters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovinov Iu.A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of indexes of physical development is resulted, level of physical preparedness of young weightlifters which conduct preparation to championship of Ukraine on heavy athletics. 36 young weightlifters took participation in research. Age of sportsmen - 14 years. The indexes of physical development and level of physical preparedness of young weightlifters are investigational. The analysis of increase of general and special physical preparedness of young weightlifters is carried out by their comparison at the end of setup time. The indexes of physical development and physical preparedness of sportsmen are investigational on the index of Erismana and the analysis of indexes of durability of build is carried out. It is appraised, that the index of active mass of body of sportsmen is increased at the end of setup time - on 7,7 %.

  18. Searching for Young Stars in Cepheus C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sam; Rebull, Luisa; Rutherford, Thomas; Stalnaker, Olivia; Taylor, John; Efsits, Gabriel; Harl, Linda; Keil, Shayna; Learman, Duncan; Leonard, Liam; Russell, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    We used archival Herschel Space Observatory data to search for young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Cepheus C region of the molecular cloud Cepheus OB3. Previous work by Gutermuth et al. (2009) identified 114 YSO candidates in this region based on Spitzer/IRAC data. Work by Orr et al. (2016) refined a list of approximately 300 young star candidates to 245 likely YSOs. Our initial search focused on longer infrared wavelength data – Herschel (70, 160, 250, 350, 500 μm) archival data and SCUBA (450, 850 μm) data from the literature (DiFrancesco et al. 2008). Through image inspection and catalog matching, we assembled a list of 54 candidate YSOs detected at wavelengths longer than 22 μm. For each source, we constructed a spectral energy distribution (SED) by aggregating available shorter wavelength data from the literature and assembling photometry from released PACS catalogs, preliminary SPIRE catalogs, and our own photometric measurements. We also created color-color and color-magnitude diagrams to see how these sources compared to each other, other populations of YSOs, and objects in extragalactic regions. Each source was then classified based on its SED shape and its locations on color-color and color-magnitude diagrams. From the initial list of 54 candidates, we suspect all are likely YSOs, some of which are very embedded; ~40% are likely SED Class I or 0. Approximately 20% of the 54 sources have not been previously identified. By beginning the investigation of YSOs in this region, we are adding to the body of YSO knowledge which can be used to understand the process of star formation. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program.

  19. Snacking habits and caries in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, I; Holgerson, P Lif; Kressin, N R; Nunn, M E; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Reduction in young male suicide in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Cameron; Stockton, Diane; Henderson, Rob

    2008-02-29

    Rates of suicide and undetermined death increased rapidly in Scotland in the 1980's and 1990's. The largest increases were in men, with a marked increase in rates in younger age groups. This was associated with an increase in hanging as a method of suicide. National suicide prevention work has identified young men as a priority group. Routinely collected national information suggested a decrease in suicide rates in younger men at the beginning of the 21st century. This study tested whether this was a significant change in trend, and whether it was associated with any change in hanging rates in young men. Joinpoint regression was used to estimate annual percentage changes in age-specific rates of suicide and undetermined intent death, and to identify times when the trends changed significantly. Rates of deaths by method in 15 - 29 year old males and females were also examined to assess whether there had been any significant changes in method use in this age group. There was a 42% reduction in rates in 15 - 29 year old men, from 42.5/100,000 in 2000 to 24.5/100,000 in 2004. A joinpoint analysis confirmed that this was a significant change. There was also a significant change in trend in hanging in men in this age group, with a reduction in rates after 2000. No other male age group showed a significant change in trend over the period 1980 - 2004. There was a smaller reduction in suicide rates in women in the 15 - 29 year old age group, with a reduction in hanging from 2002. There has been a reduction in suicide rates in men aged 15 - 29 years, and this is associated with a significant reduction in deaths by hanging in this age group. It is not clear whether this is related to a change in method preference, or an overall reduction in suicidal behaviour, and review of self-harm data will be required to investigate this further.

  1. Here's an idea: ask the users! Young people's views on navigation, design and content of a health information website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Linda S; Noble, Genevieve

    2007-12-01

    Use of the internet to provide health information to young people is a relatively recent development. Few studies have explored young people's views on how they use internet health websites. This study investigated the navigation, design and content preferences of young people using the Children First for Health (CFfH) website. Young people from five secondary schools completed an internet site navigation exercise, website evaluation questionnaire and participated in informal discussions. Of the participants, 45 percent visited the website section aimed at older adolescents within their first two clicks, regardless of their age. There were conflicting preferences for design and strong preference for gender-specific information on topics such as appearance, relationships, fitness and sexual health. The findings indicate the importance of gaining young people's views to ensure that health information websites meet the needs of their intended audience. Cooperation from schools can facilitate the process of gaining young people's views on internet website navigation, design and content.

  2. Impact of socioeconomic status on the use of inhaled corticosteroids in young adult asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Søndergaard, Jens; Hallas, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based longitudinal study was to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and anti-asthmatic treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) among young Danish adult asthmatics, and to investigate whether these associations were consistent over...... use in young adult asthmatics. To encourage ICS use, special attention should be paid to asthmatics with low educational level and low income. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for this socioeconomic inequality....

  3. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; J?rchel, Amrei C.; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22....

  4. The Role of Personality Traits in Young Adult Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Tamlin S.; Thompson, Laura M.; Knight, Rachel L.; Flett, Jayde A. M.; Richardson, Aimee C.; Brookie, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    This project investigated how individual differences in the big-five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) predicted plant-food consumption in young adults. A total of 1073 participants from two samples of young adults aged 17–25 reported their daily servings of fruits, vegetables, and two unhealthy foods for comparison purposes using an Internet daily diary for 21 or 13 days (micro-longitudinal, correlational design). Par...

  5. Tablet-Based eBooks for Young Children: What Does the Research Say?

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, SM; Yau, JC; Warschauer, M

    2016-01-01

    Young children's use of electronic books (eBooks) is increasing as handheld touch screen devices, such as tablets, become increasingly available. Although older children's reading on tablets has been more broadly investigated, less is known about the impacts of digital reading for infant, toddlers, and preschoolers. This review compares the educational affordances of reading on tablets versus print books for young children's learning.A qualitative synthesis of research on tablet-based eReadin...

  6. The Effect of Brain-Based Teaching on Young EFL Learners' Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghyanous, Parastoo Alizadeh

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of brain-based teaching on the self-efficacy of young EFL learners. The initial participants of the study were 90 learners within the age range of 13-16 who were selected based on convenience sampling. Theses 90 young EFL learners were given a Flyers test the scores of which were used to choose 60…

  7. Nutritional supplement use by elite young UK athletes: fallacies of advice regarding efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Petr?czi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P; Pearce, Gemma; Bailey, Richard; Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective was to study nutritional supplement use among young elite UK athletes to establish whether a rationale versus practice incongruence exists, and to investigate the sources of information. Survey data were analysed for association between supplements used and motives for using such substances among young athletes along with the sources of advice and literature precedents on supplement effects. Methods Participants were elite UK male and female athletes, within ...

  8. Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to left lateral position in non-obese young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, M; Pump, B; Gabrielsen, A

    2001-01-01

    through peripheral vasodilatation induced by cardiopulmonary low-pressure receptor stimulation. Twelve non-obese young males were investigated. The location of the mid-aorta between the aortic valves was used as the hydrostatic reference point for the arterial pressure measurements. It was determined...... is located one third of the antero-posterior chest diameter below the sternum in SUP and 2.5 cm below the midsternal level in LAT in non-obese young males....

  9. Evaluation of an emotion training programme for young children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Beth Therese

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to evaluate the efficacy of an emotion training intervention for young children with autism. Further aims were to investigate the relationship between emotion recognition ability, autism symptom severity and social skills in young children with autism. The first chapter of this thesis provides a review of the literature on emotion recognition skills of children with autism. It has been suggested that difficulties in recognising and responding to emotions may un...

  10. Father Involvement, Nurturant Fathering, and the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Daughters

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Camille C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between father involvement, nurturant fathering, and the psychological well-being among young adult women. A total of 99 young adult, female, university students completed retrospective measures of nurturant fathering, father involvement, and measures of current psychological well-being (measured in terms of self-esteem, life satisfaction, and psychological distress). Results indicated that retrospective perceptions of both fat...

  11. ARE YOUNG ARAB WOMEN EATING A HEALTHY DIET? A QUALITATIVE DIETARY STUDY AMONG COLLEGE HOSTEL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rasheed, Parveen; Al-Kunji, Aisha A.; Al-Saffar, Basma M.; Al-Abdul Karim, Hanan M.; Al-Thawadi, Maysoon I.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Two recent studies conducted on young College Arab Women showed a trend towards over nutrition. It is well known that good eating habits adopted early in life not only improve health and control obesity in the youthful years but also promote healthy eating behaviours in later life. Objective: To investigate the dietary habits of young college women and identify specific areas for nutrition education. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire containing 20 items related to qualita...

  12. Risk factors, aetiology and outcome of ischaemic stroke in young adults: the Swiss Young Stroke Study (SYSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara; Mono, Marie-Luise; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Michel, Patrik; Odier, Celine; Sztajzel, Roman; Lyrer, Philippe; Engelter, Stefan T; Bonati, Leo; Gensicke, Henrik; Traenka, Christopher; Tettenborn, Barbara; Weder, Bruno; Fischer, Urs; Galimanis, Aekaterini; Jung, Simon; Luedi, Rudolf; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Weck, Anja; Cereda, Carlo W; Baumgartner, Ralf; Bassetti, Claudio L; Mattle, Heinrich P; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Arnold, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    Ischaemic stroke (IS) in young adults has been increasingly recognized as a serious health condition. Stroke aetiology is different in young adults than in the older population. This study aimed to investigate aetiology and risk factors, and to search for predictors of outcome and recurrence in young IS patients. We conducted a prospective multicentre study of consecutive IS patients aged 16-55 years. Baseline demographic data, risk factors, stroke aetiology including systematic genetic screening for Fabry disease and severity were assessed and related to functional neurological outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS), case fatality, employment status, place of residence, and recurrent cerebrovascular events at 3 months. In 624 IS patients (60% men), median age was 46 (IQR 39-51) years and median NIHSS on admission 3 (IQR 1-8). Modifiable vascular risk factors were found in 73%. Stroke aetiology was mostly cardioembolism (32%) and of other defined origin (24%), including cervicocerebral artery dissection (17%). Fabry disease was diagnosed in 2 patients (0.3%). Aetiology remained unknown in 20%. Outcome at 3 months was favourable (mRS 0-1) in 61% and fatal in 2.9%. Stroke severity (p young adults with IS had modifiable vascular risk factors, emphasizing the importance of prevention strategies. Outcome was unfavourable in more than a third of patients and was associated with initial stroke severity and diabetes mellitus. Previous cerebrovascular events predicted recurrent ones.

  13. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  14. Measuring young children's language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, I; Schaerlaekens, A

    2000-01-01

    This article deals with the new challenges put on language diagnosis, and the growing need for good diagnostic instruments for young children. Particularly for Dutch, the original English Reynell Developmental Language Scales were adapted not only to the Dutch idiom, but some general ameliorations and changes in the original scales resulted in a new instrument named the RTOS. The new instrument was standardized on a large population, and psychometrically evaluated. In communicating the experiences with such a language/cultural/psychometric adaptation, we hope that other language-minority groups will be encouraged to undertake similar adaptations.

  15. Disconnected Young Adults in Germany: Initial Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Friedhelm Pfeiffer; Ruben R. Seiberlich

    2011-01-01

    Disconnectedness among young adults can have several dimensions. From a socio-economic viewpoint, failure in school, unemployment and the lack of a partner are among the most important ones. In our sample of respondents to the SOEP Youth Questionnaire, approximately 13% of young people had been socio-economically disconnected at least once between the ages of 17 and 19. The percentage of disconnected young adults also rose from 2001 to 2008. We found evidence that an adverse family background...

  16. ROMANIAN YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS FEATURES: AN EMPIRICAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceptureanu Sebastian Ion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies linking entrepreneurship and economic development. For specialists and public decision makers, developing entrepreneurship seems to be an easy policy action, even though actions and results are rather debatable. Unfortunately the relevant literature is not so generous concerning youth entrepreneurship. Youth is one of the most vulnerable groups in society, especially in the current economic and demographic situation in European Union and worldwide. At the same time, youth is the period when most people engage in their first job, are gaining financial independence and are assuming new responsibilities and roles shaping their identity. With respect to this, starting their own business is a natural choice for many young people. When considering entrepreneurial potential of young Romanians, there is almost not any data available. This paper aims to disseminate the results of a survey focused on young entrepreneurs, designed to fill the gap in the literature about Romanian young entrepreneurs’ features. The empirical study was divided in five parts: A. Personality of young entrepreneurs, highlighting the main features of behaviour and personality of young entrepreneurs. B. Professional background, focusing on young entrepreneurs’ background and how it influences their interest and performance improvement. C. Risk and crisis acceptance, highlighting the ability of young entrepreneurs to deal with critical situations. D. Business and business environment, focusing on internal and environmental aspects of the business. E. Social - cultural attitude, highlighting the attitude of society (incentives and disincentives to entrepreneurial initiatives of young people. This are excerpts of results from the first part, regarding personality of Romanian young entrepreneurs, concerning issues like level of independence, capacity for innovation, self-confidence, decision making process, level of persistence flexibility of young

  17. Seeking place: young people, homelessness and violence

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Lucinda May

    2017-01-01

    This thesis draws upon in-depth qualitative interviews with 33 young people in Melbourne, Australia, to examine the impact of homelessness, violence and policing on their sense of self, place and belonging. Specifically, this research highlights the pervasive presence of violence and policing in homeless young people’s lives, and argues that these experiences exclude young people from public and private spaces that are important to them, undermine their sense of belonging as citizens, and vio...

  18. Digital Differentiation in Young People’s Internet Use—Eliminating or Reproducing Disability Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Söderström

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian authorities’ policy aims at securing an information society for all, emphasizing the importance of accessible and usable Information and Communication Technology (ICT for everyone. While the body of research on young people’s use of ICT is quite comprehensive, research addressing digital differentiation in young people with disabilities’ use of ICT is still in its early days. This article investigates how young people with disabilities’ use, or non-use, of assistive ICT creates digital differentiations. The investigation elaborates on how the anticipations and stereotypes of disability establish an authoritative definition of assistive ICT, and the consequence this creates for the use of the Web by young people with disabilities. The object of the article is to provide enhanced insight into the field of technology and disability by illuminating how assistive ICT sometimes eliminates and sometimes reproduces stereotypes and digital differentiations. The investigation draws on a qualitative interview study with 23 young Norwegians with disabilities, aged 15–20 years. I draw on a theoretical perspective to analyze the findings of the study, which employs the concept of identity multiplicity. The article’s closing discussion expands on technology’s significance in young people’s negotiations of impairment and of perceptions of disability

  19. Socialization and Instrumental Competence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1970-01-01

    Discusses relationships between parental authority patterns by which children are influenced and the development of socially responsible and independent behavior in young children (especially girls). (NH)

  20. Controlling young people through treatment and punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2015-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how both treatment and punishment is part of controlling young people involved in crime in the Danish welfare state. Lately there has been an increase in the use of confinement in young offenders institutions and thus a turn towards stricter punishments for crime. However......, treatment aiming at rehabilitation is still an integrated part of the system and the organization of the young offenders institutions. For the young people subjected to control both treatment and punishment are regarded as effective means of risk-control but there are also limitations and unintended results...

  1. Longitudinal ultrasonic velocity as a predictor of Young`s modulus in porous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panakkal, J.P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Thane (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1997-12-01

    The relationship between Young`s modulus and longitudinal ultrasonic velocity is discussed by using examples from various types of ceramics: nuclear, structural, powder metal, clay and super-conducting. A semi-empirical model is suggested based on the existing theories (elasticity, powder metallurgy, scattering, and connected grain) of ultrasound wave propagation in porous materials. The linear relationship between Young`s modulus and ultrasonic velocity over a change of Young`s modulus by 50 percent is demonstrated in porous materials and generalized to suggest the use of ultrasonic velocity as a predictor of Young`s modulus in porous materials. The values extrapolated from this relationship for nonporous materials are in good agreement with the experimental values. The behavior is also compared with that predicted from the various models.

  2. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397

  3. Motor Proficiency in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Venetsanou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine motor proficiency in young children, focusing on potential gender differences. For that purpose, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP-LF was administered to 540 children (272 boys, 4½ to 6 years old. First, the 2 (sex × 4 (age groups ANOVA computed on children’s total BOTMP-LF scores showed that age had a statistically significant effect, whereas gender did not. Second, the one-way MANCOVA applied on subtest scores, with age as covariate, revealed statistical significant gender differences; however, η2 values were found to be small or moderate. Finally, the MANCOVA applied on items where significant gender differences have been reported showed a significant effect of gender. Nonetheless, η2 values exceeded the limit of practical significance only on two items (“standing on preferred leg on floor”, “throwing a ball at a target with preferred hand” that are associated with gender-stereotyped activities. It can be concluded that (a besides statistical significance, effect sizes should be examined for the results of a study to be adequately interpreted; (b young boys’ and girls’ motor proficiency is similar rather than different. Gender differences in specific skills should be used for movement programs to be individualized.

  4. Sex education and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Young people comprise up to 60% of Belize's total population of more than 200,000. Many of them have dropped out of school and simply loiter on the streets with little or nothing to do. The only nongovernmental organization in Belize providing family planning and sexual and reproductive health care services, the Belize Family Life Association (BFLA) is well aware of the many problems facing youth, such as AIDS, teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, poverty, and gangs. In an effort to improve conditions for youth and to address their problems, the BFLA established a successful teen center in the Mesopotamia Area and the Belizean Youths with an Aim for Prosperity (BYAP), a project designed to foster and support entrepreneurship among a group comprised mainly of out-of-school at-risk youths. Population Concern is helping to fund reproductive health projects for youth in South Africa with the goal of reducing the prevalence of unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and unsafe abortion through reproductive health services and education. Young people are helping design the project by explaining their perceived needs to the project team. In Trinidad and Tobago, controversy followed the Family Planning Association of Trinidad and Tobago's (FPATT) recent launch of its annual Family Life Education Training program for teachers, while 2 recent hurricanes, unemployment, and illicit drug sales and use are some of the problems facing the Dominica Planned Parenthood Federation and Dominica's youth.

  5. Biomarker-based prognostic stratification of young adult glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Qi; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Hong; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Yin, Zi; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Chan, Danny Tat-Ming; Poon, Wai Sang; Wu, Jinsong; Zhou, Liangfu; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Mao, Ying; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2016-01-26

    While the predominant elderly and the pediatric glioblastomas have been extensively investigated, young adult glioblastomas were understudied. In this study, we sought to stratify young adult glioblastomas by BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations and examine the clinical relevance of the biomarkers. In 107 glioblastomas aged from 17 to 35 years, mutually exclusive BRAF-V600E (15%), H3F3A-K27M (15.9%), H3F3A-G34R/V (2.8%) and IDH1-R132H (16.8%) mutations were identified in over half of the cases. EGFR amplification and TERTp mutation were only detected in 3.7% and 8.4% in young adult glioblastomas, respectively. BRAF-V600E identified a clinically favorable subset of glioblastomas with younger age, frequent CDKN2A homozygous deletion, and was more amendable to surgical resection. H3F3A-K27M mutated glioblastomas were tightly associated with midline locations and showed dismal prognosis. IDH1-R132H was associated with older age and favorable outcome. Interestingly, tumors with positive PDGFRA immunohistochemical expression exhibited poorer prognosis and identified an aggressive subset of tumors among K27M mutated glioblastomas. Combining BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations allowed stratification of young adult glioblastomas into four prognostic subgroups. In summary, our study demonstrates the clinical values of stratifying young adult glioblastomas with BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations, which has important implications in refining prognostic classification of glioblastomas.

  6. Surgical Consideration for Adolescents and Young Adults With Cervical Chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nanzhe; Yang, Xinghai; Yang, Jian; Meng, Tong; Yang, Cheng; Yan, Wangjun; Xiao, Jianru

    2017-05-15

    Retrospective study. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes between adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients and old adult patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically and present the surgical consideration for adolescents and young adults with cervical chordoma. With predominance in senior patients, chordoma is distinctively rare in AYAs. Because of the rarity of AYA chordoma, individual case report represents most of the literature on this disease entity on mobile spine and lack of long-term follow up, which leads to the paucity of clinical evidence for treatment planning and prognosis prediction. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the prognosis of AYA patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically. We collected the clinical data of these patients and their older counterparts, and further compared the prognosis of the patients in different age groups. To estimate survival curves, Kaplan-Meier method was used, and significance was assessed using a log-rank test. Forty consecutive patients with chordoma of the cervical spine treated in our institution were included in the study. Two groups were identified according to age. Group 1 comprised children and adolescents (age ≤ 25 yrs; n = 9) and Group 2 comprised adults (age > 25 years; n = 31). In comparison, Group 1 was featured by significantly higher rate of recurrence and shorter overall survival, although no difference found in the surgical modality between two groups. There is a dismal prognosis in young patients with chordoma, and thus support the notion that as radical a total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) of the lesions as possible may benefit the overall survival of these young patients. Although the ensuing neurological deficits may be devastating, it will be worth sacrificing if the life expectancy of these young patients is prolonged. 4.

  7. 7th Young Researcher Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Young Researcher Meeting, Torino 2016 F Agostini, C Antolini, A Avella, G Cattani, R Cuccaro, A Cultrera, M Di Stefano, G Fragione, L Lolli, M Migliaccio, L Pagnanini, E Pessana, F Piacentini, D Pietrobon, E Pusceddu, R Romeo, M Serra, E Simonetto, F Stellato Preface The Young Researcher Meeting (www.yrmr.it) has been established as a forum for students, postdoctoral fellows and young researchers determined to play a proactive role in the scientific progress. Since 2009 we run itinerant yearly meetings to discuss the most recent developments and achievements in Physics, as we are firmly convinced that sharing expertise and experience is the foundation of the research activity. One of the main purposes of the conference is actually to create an international network of young researchers, both experimentalists and theoreticians, and fruitful collaborations across the different branches of Physics. The format we chose is an informal meeting primarily aimed at students and researchers at the beginning of their scientific career, who are encouraged to present their work in brief presentations able to provide genuine engagement of the audience and cross-pollination of ideas. The 7 th edition of the Young Researcher Meeting was held at the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM) in Turin, the Italian National Metrology Institute responsible for the national standards of the International System of Units. The conference took place from Monday 24 th to Wednesday 26 th October 2016. This edition gathered 120 participants belonging to universities and research centres from all over the world. The plenary talk sessions covered several areas of pure and applied Physics, and they were complemented by an extremely rich and interactive poster session, which was also extended to the coffee breaks. The programme included a “poster and wine” session on the first evening, a guided tour at the Turin Astrophysical Observatory and a very enjoyable and friendly conference

  8. Epidemiological and imaging features of intracranial aneurysms in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Huan-yu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, the epidemiological report and study about the intracranial aneurysms in young adults are very rare, especially in China. This paper aims to investigate the epidemiological and imaging features of intracranial aneurysms in young adults with the age of 16-29 years old. Methods Clinical data of 2119 patients with intracranial aneurysms admitted from January 2010 to October 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Intracranial aneurysms in young adults (16-29 years old accounted for 1.93% of all intracranial aneurysms (41/2119 treated in the same period, and the gender ratio (male : female was 2.15 : 1. A total of 42 intracranial aneurysms were found in 41 patients, including 35 located in the anterior circulation and 7 in the posterior circulation, of which 13 aneurysms (30.95% in the anterior communicating artery, 6 aneurysms (14.29% each in the middle cerebral artery and the distal of anterior cerebral artery, and 2 aneurysms (4.76% in the posterior communicating artery. There were almost 34 aneurysms (80.95% located in bifurcation of Willis circle and proximal aorta and 8 aneurysms (19.05% in the branches of artery. The diameter of aneurysms were ≤5 mm in 19 aneurysms (45.24%, 6-10mm in 13 (30.95%, 11-24 mm in 3 (7.14% and ≥25mm in 7 (16.67%. Conclusion Young men are much more susceptible to intracranial aneurysms than young women, but the incidence in women increases as they grow old. The anterior communicating artery is the predilection site of intracranial aneurysms in young adults (16-29 years old, and the occurence of giant aneurysms and the aneurysms in the posterior circulation and the distal of anterior cerebral artery is common. The epidemiological and imaging features and gender ratio of intracranial aneurysms in young adults (16-29 years old are similar to those in children and adolesents, but much different from adult patients.

  9. From Fiction to Fact to Potential Action: Generating Prosocial Attitudes and Behaviors Using Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Alice

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the impact reading Young Adult Literature (YAL) has on students' empathetic responses as well as their capacity to take action regarding a social justice issue chosen by the student. Drawing on data from a 10th grade honors classroom at a Title 1 school in the Southwest, this ethnographic case study investigates how…

  10. Socialisation into Organised Sports of Young Adolescents with a Lower Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…

  11. Survivors of septic shock caused by Neisseria meningitidis in childhood : Psychosocial outcomes in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, Lindy C.; Buysse, Corinne M.; Joosten, Koen F.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Hazelzet, Jan A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate long-term psychosocial outcomes in young adults who survived septic shock caused by Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcal septic shock) during childhood. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: The psychological investigation took place in the department of Child and

  12. Survivors of septic shock caused by Neisseria meningitidis in childhood: psychosocial outcomes in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, Lindy C.; Buysse, Corinne M.; Joosten, Koen F.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Hazelzet, Jan A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate long-term psychosocial outcomes in young adults who survived septic shock caused by Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcal septic shock) during childhood. A cross-sectional study. The psychological investigation took place in the department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the

  13. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more

  14. Factors associated with six-year weight change in young and middle-aged adults in the Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikkonen, Jari E; Mikkilä, Vera; Juonala, Markus; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma S A; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Telama, Risto; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-04-01

    To examine factors associated with weight change and obesity risk in young and middle-aged adults. The Young Finns Study with its 923 women and 792 men aged 24-39 years at baseline were followed for six years. Variables associated with the weight change were investigated with regression models. The average weight change was 0.45 kg/year in women and 0.58 kg/year in men. In women, weight change was steady across all ages. In men, weight changes were more pronounced in younger age groups. In women (weight gain > 2 kg, n = 490), medication for anxiety, low occupational status, high baseline BMI (body mass index), high intake of sweet beverages, high childhood BMI, high salt (NaCl and/or KCl) use, low number of children, low childhood family income, high stature and low level of dependence (a temperament subscale) were associated with increased weight gain (in the order of importance). In men (weight gain > 2 kg, n = 455), high stature, high intake of french fries, low intake of sweet cookies, young age, recent divorce, low intake of cereals, high intake of milk, depressive symptoms, rural childhood origin, high baseline BMI and unemployment were associated with more pronounced weight gain. Sedentarity (screen-time) was associated with weight gain only in young men. Physical activity and genetic risk for high BMI (score of 31 known variants) were not consistently associated with weight change. Socio-economic factors, temperamental and physical characteristics, and some dietary factors are related with weight change in young/middle-aged adults. The weight change occurring in adulthood is also determined by childhood factors, such as high BMI and low family income.

  15. Alterations in sodium-potassium regulation in mononuclear leucocytes from young borderline hypertensive and offspring of hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Pedersen, K E; Klitgaard, N A

    1988-01-01

    Membrane ion transports were investigated in lymphocytes from young normotensive and borderline hypertensive offspring with and without heredity for hypertension. Borderline hypertension per se was associated with an enhancement of sodium-potassium pump activity. Heredity per se was associated...

  16. Homotypic versus heterotypic continuity of anxiety symptoms in young adolescents : Evidence for distinctions between DSM-IV subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, Robert F.; Dieleman, Gwen; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    Objective: to investigate homotypic and heterotypic longitudinal patterns of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoPh), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in young adolescents from the Dutch general population.

  17. From Stars to Superplanets: The Low-Mass Initial Mass Function in the Young Cluster IC 348

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Najita, Joan R; Tiede, Glenn P; Carr, John S

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the low-mass population of the young cluster IC 348 down to the deuterium-burning limit, a fiducial boundary between brown dwarf and planetary mass objects, using a new and innovative...

  18. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed.

  19. Self-esteem Among Young Bisexual Women in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buer, Liliana; Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-esteem, perception of social acceptance and feeling of loneliness in a sample of young bisexual, lesbian and heterosexual women, including assessing self-esteem longitudinally across 13 years. The analyses were based on self......-completed questionnaires from the longitudinal study “Young in Norway” (13 years follow-up, 1992-2005). N=1,598 female participants at baseline and follow-up (45 bisexual women, 21 lesbian women, 1,532 heterosexual women), age 25-32 years at follow-up. At baseline, there were no differences in self-esteem, but at follow......-up bisexual women reported lower self-esteem, lower levels of perceived acceptance, and higher levels of loneliness. For bisexual women, self-esteem did not increase from adolescence to adulthood. At follow-up, loneliness had a stronger connection with self-esteem among bisexual women compared to lesbian...

  20. Simplified equation for Young's modulus of CNT reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, RameshBabu; Gifty Honeyta A, Maria

    2017-12-01

    This research investigation focuses on finite element modeling of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced concrete matrix for three grades of concrete namely M40, M60 and M120. Representative volume element (RVE) was adopted and one-eighth model depicting the CNT reinforced concrete matrix was simulated using FEA software ANSYS17.2. Adopting random orientation of CNTs, with nine fibre volume fractions from 0.1% to 0.9%, finite element modeling simulations replicated exactly the CNT reinforced concrete matrix. Upon evaluations of the model, the longitudinal and transverse Young's modulus of elasticity of the CNT reinforced concrete was arrived. The graphical plots between various fibre volume fractions and the concrete grade revealed simplified equation for estimating the young's modulus. It also exploited the fact that the concrete grade does not have significant impact in CNT reinforced concrete matrix.